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Sample records for total reflux operation

  1. Optimum pressure for total-reflux operated thermal diffusion column for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Ichiro; Makino, Hitoshi; Kanagawa, Akira

    1990-01-01

    A formula for prediction of the optimum operating pressure P opt of the thermal diffusion columns at total reflux is derived based on the approximate formulae for the column constants which can be evaluated analytically. The formula is expressed explicitly in terms of (1) physical properties of gases to be separated, (2) ratio of radii between hot wire and cold wall of the column, and (3) the ratio of the temperature difference to the cold wall temperature. The result is compared with experimental data; (1) binary monatomic gas systems, (2) multicomponent monatomic gas systems, (3) isotopically substituted polyatomic systems, (4) systems of low atomic or molecular weight, and (5) mixtures of unlike gases; mainly obtained by Rutherford and coworkers. Although the formula is based on the rather rough approximation for the column constants, the optimum pressures predicted by the present formula are in successfully good agreement with the experimental data even for the systems of low atomic or molecular weight and that of mixtures of unlike gases. (author)

  2. Influence of the duodenogastric reflux on the mucous membrane of the operated stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopanski, Z.; Micherdzinski, J.; Cienciala, A.; Zastepa, P.; Brandys, J.; Witkowska, B.; Czajecki, K.

    1993-01-01

    Control test including gastroscopy with biopsy of the mucous membranes as well as the radioisotopic evaluation of the duodenogastric reflux were conducted on 101 patients after non-resectional operations of the stomach carried out because of an ulcerous disease. The significantly frequent occurrence was confirmed of atrophic gastritis alterations and dysplasia in cases of prevailing reflux. It was proved that the gastroenterostomy as well as the vagotomy with pyloroplasty were operations particularly leading to the rejection into the stomach of the duodenal content. The high selective vagotomy proved to be the operation least including to reflux. The observations made were fully reflected in the histological picture of the operated stomach. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs

  3. Surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease: total or partial fundoplication? Systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Rodrigo F Ramos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Although the high incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in the population, there is much controversy in this topic, especially in the surgical treatment. The decision to use of a total or partial fundoplication in the treatment of GERD is still a challenge to many surgeons because the few evidence found in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To bring more clear evidence in the comparison between total and partial fundoplication. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of the literature and metaanalysis with randomized controlled trials accessed from MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Controlled Trials Database was done. The outcomes remarked were: dysphagia, inability to belch, bloating, recurrence of acid reflux, heartburn and esophagitis. For data analysis the odds ratio was used with corresponding 95% confidence interval. Statistical heterogeneity in the results of the metaanalysis was assessed by calculating a test of heterogeneity. The software Review Manager 5 (Cochrane Collaboration was utilized for the data gathered and the statistical analysis. Sensitive analysis was applied using only trials that included follow-up over 2 years. RESULTS: Ten trials were included with 1003 patients: 502 to total fundoplication group and 501 to partial fundoplication group. The outcomes dysphagia and inability to belch had statistical significant difference (P = 0.00001 in favor of partial fundoplication. There was not statistical difference in outcomes related with treatment failure. There were no heterogeneity in the outcomes dysphagia and recurrence of the acid reflux. CONCLUSION: The partial fundoplication has lower incidence of obstructive side effects.

  4. Is total abolishment of great saphenous reflux in the invasive treatment of superficial chronic venous insufficiency always necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, T P; Nunes, T A; Ribeiro, A L; Castro-Silva, M

    2009-02-01

    Chronic venous insufficiency ranges from mild telangiectasias to skin ulceration with poor prognosis regarding healing and quality of life. Varicose veins are the most frequent clinical presentation, affecting 75% of such patients and 71% are due to primary reflux of great saphenous vein, which is the most compromised vein in chronic venous insufficiency. However, about 75% of these veins are not dilated. The standard treatment has been stripping of the saphenous vein, because it has 85% of good results at long term. However, saphenous vein is the main arterial substitute and should be spared whenever possible. The development of non-invasive diagnostic methods showed that hemodynamic worsening correlates with clinical severity and that the majority of patients did not have a dilated saphenous vein. Thus, several selective operations proposed to spare the saphenous vein have reported good results. Minimally invasive techniques (eco-guided foam, radiofrequency and laser) have also emerged aiming to obliterate the vein and abolishing reflux and have also reported good results, but they do not spare the vessel. Measurement of saphenous diameter has been shown to correlate with clinical and hemodynamic worsening, thus allowing planning the invasive treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. Dilated diameters (>7.2 mm) correlate with severe disease and poor prognosis, being an indication for total abolishment of saphenous vein reflux. All other presentations must be individualized, sparing saphenous vein whenever possible and and a standardized approach is not indicated for all patients.

  5. [Congenital bladder diverticula and vesicoureteral reflux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garat, José María; Angerri, Oriol; Caffaratti, Jorge; Moscatiello, Pietro

    2008-03-01

    To analyze our series of primary congenital diverticula (PCD) and their association with vesicoureteral reflux. We have taken care of 23 children with PCD. Eleven of them had big diverticula (> 2 cm) and twelve small. In the first group, 4 children had vesicoureteral reflux and 5 in the second group. In group A, ureteral reimplantation was performed at the time of diverticulum excision. Nor diverticula neither refluxes were operated in group B. We analyze separately results in both groups. Group A: Patients were operated including diverticulum excision. There were not recurrences except in one case with Ehler-Danlos Syndrome. No reimplanted ureter showed postoperative reflux. Nevertheless, one case with multiple bladder diverticula without reflux presented reflux after the excision of several diverticula without reimplantation. Group B: Small diverticula did not undergo surgery Spontaneous outcome of reflux was similar to that of the general population without diverticula. Bladder diverticula are frequently associated with vesicoureteral reflux. The presence of reflux is not an absolute condition for surgical or endoscopic treatment. When diverticula are big in size (Group A) the indication for surgery comes from recurrent infection or voiding disorders, not from reflux. If they undergo surgery, ureteral reimplantation is performed in the case they had reflux or for technical reasons like bladder wall weakness. When diverticula are small (Group B) the presence of reflux does not condition treatment, being the rate of spontaneous resolution similar to the general population.

  6. Endoscopic and laparoscopic treatment of gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David I; Immanuel, Arul

    2010-04-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux is extremely common in Western countries. For selected patients, there is an established role for the surgical treatment of reflux, and possibly an emerging role for endoscopic antireflux procedures. Randomized trials have compared medical versus surgical management, laparoscopic versus open surgery and partial versus total fundoplications. However, the evidence base for endoscopic procedures is limited to some small sham-controlled studies, and cohort studies with short-term follow-up. Laparoscopic fundoplication has been shown to be an effective antireflux operation. It facilitates quicker convalescence and is associated with fewer complications, but has a similar longer term outcome compared with open antireflux surgery. In most randomized trials, antireflux surgery achieves at least as good control of reflux as medical therapy, and these studies support a wider application of surgery for the treatment of moderate-to-severe reflux. Laparoscopic partial fundoplication is an effective surgical procedure with fewer side effects, and it may achieve high rates of patient satisfaction at late follow-up. Many of the early endoscopic antireflux procedures have failed to achieve effective reflux control, and they have been withdrawn from the market. Newer procedures have the potential to fashion a surgical fundoplication. However, at present there is insufficient evidence to establish the safety and efficacy of endoscopic procedures for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux, and no endoscopic procedure has achieved equivalent reflux control to that achieved by surgical fundoplication.

  7. Clinical characteristics and psychosocial impact of different reflux time in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiann-Hwa; Wen, Shu-Hui; Hsu, Ching-Sheng; Yi, Chih-Hsun; Liu, Tso-Tsai; Chen, Chien-Lin; Wang, Chia-Chi

    2017-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is an emerging disease, and can impair quality of life and sleep. This study aimed to investigate whether GERD patients with different timings of reflux symptoms have different clinical characteristics. This study prospectively enrolled individuals who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy during a health checkup. Each participant completed all questionnaires including Reflux Disease Questionnaire, Nighttime GERD questionnaire, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Combined reflux was defined as the timing of reflux symptoms occurring at both daytime and nighttime. A total of 2604 participants were enrolled. Of them, 651 symptomatic GERD patients, according to the Reflux Disease Questionnaire score, were recruited for final analysis. Of them, 224 (34.4%) had erosive esophagitis on endoscopy. According to the timing of reflux symptoms, 184 (28.3%) were assigned to the daytime reflux group, 71 (10.9%) to the nighttime reflux group, and 396 (60.8%) to the combined reflux group. In post hoc analysis, the combined reflux group had a significantly higher Reflux Disease Questionnaire score than the daytime reflux group (p reflux groups had higher body mass index and longer duration (> 12 years) of education than the daytime reflux group (p reflux of have more troublesome symptoms than those with daytime reflux. GERD patients with different timings of reflux symptoms have different clinical characteristics in terms of body mass index and duration of education, but not in terms of esophageal inflammation, quality of sleep, and psychosocial status. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Laparoscopic Nissen (total) versus anterior 180° fundoplication for gastro-esophageal reflux disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xing; Wu, Ji-Min; Hu, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Feng; Wang, Zhong-Gao; Zhang, Chao; Yan, Chao; Chen, Mei-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) has been the gold standard for the surgical management of Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Laparoscopic anterior 180° fundoplication (180° LAF) is reported to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications while obtaining similar control of reflux. The present meta-analysis was conducted to confirm the value of the 2 techniques. Methods: PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Springerlink, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure Platform databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing LNF and 180° LAF. Data regarding the benefits and adverse results of 2 techniques were extracted and compared using a meta-analysis. Results: Six eligible RCTs comparing LNF (n = 266) and 180° LAF (n = 265) were identified. There were no significant differences between LNF and 180° LAF with regard to operating time, perioperative complications, length of hospital stay, patient satisfaction, willingness to undergo surgery again, quality of life, postoperative heartburn, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use, postoperative DeMeester scores, postoperative lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, postoperative gas-bloating, unable to belch, diarrhea, or overall reoperation. LNF was associated with a higher prevalence of postoperative dysphagia compared with 180° LAF, while 180° LAF was followed by more reoperation for recurrent reflux symptoms. Conclusion: LNF and 180° LAF are equally effective in controlling reflux symptoms and obtain a comparable prevalence of patient satisfaction. 180° LAF can reduce the incidence of postoperative dysphagia while this is offset by a higher risk of reoperation for recurrent symptoms. The risk of recurrent symptoms should need to be balanced against the risk of dysphagia when surgeons choose surgical procedures for each individual with GERD. PMID:28906412

  9. Influence of the duodenogastric reflux on the mucous membrane of the operated stomach; Wplyw refluksu dwunasticzo-zoladkowego na blone sluzowa operowanego zoladka

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    Kopanski, Z.; Micherdzinski, J.; Cienciala, A.; Zastepa, P.; Brandys, J.; Witkowska, B.; Czajecki, K. [Szpital Wojskowy, Cracow (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    Control test including gastroscopy with biopsy of the mucous membranes as well as the radioisotopic evaluation of the duodenogastric reflux were conducted on 101 patients after non-resectional operations of the stomach carried out because of an ulcerous disease. The significantly frequent occurrence was confirmed of atrophic gastritis alterations and dysplasia in cases of prevailing reflux. It was proved that the gastroenterostomy as well as the vagotomy with pyloroplasty were operations particularly leading to the rejection into the stomach of the duodenal content. The high selective vagotomy proved to be the operation least including to reflux. The observations made were fully reflected in the histological picture of the operated stomach. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs.

  10. [Association between acid reflux and esophageal dysmotility in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhi-hui; Feng, Li; Wen, Mao-yao; Liu, Jian-rong; Yang, Li

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the association between esophageal motility and acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A total of 94 patients with typical reflux symptoms such as heartburn, regurgitation and chest pain, whose score (Sc) of reflux diagnostic questionnaire (RDQ) was greater than or equal to 12 were enrolled in the study. Each participant was evaluated by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, high resolution manometry (HRM) of esophagus and 24 h esophageal pH monitoring. The participants were divided into groups of reflux esophagitis (RE) and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) on the basis of endoscopy findings. The 24 h esophageal pH monitoring categorized participants into physiologic reflux (pH) and pathologic reflux (pH+). The characteristics of esophageal motility and acid reflux were compared between the two groups of participants. Lower but non-significant differences (P > 0.05) were found in pressure of lower esophageal sphincter (LESP), length of lower esophageal sphincter (LESL), esophageal contraction amplitude (CA), distal contractile integral (DCI) and effective peristalsis proportion (EPP) in the participants in the RE group compared with those in the NERD group. Participants in the RE group had significantly higher prevalence of reduced LESP (63.0% vs. 31.7%, P 0.05). RE is closely associated with acid reflux and hiatus hernia. Esophageal dysmotility is more likely to appear in patients with pH+. The interaction of acid reflux and esophageal dysmotility may play a role in GERD.

  11. How reflux causes symptoms: reflux perception in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenborg, Pim W.; Bredenoord, Albert J.

    2013-01-01

    In gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms arise due to reflux of gastric content into the oesophagus. However, the relation between magnitude and onset of reflux and symptom generation in GERD patients is far from simple; gastroesophageal reflux occurs several times a day in everyone and

  12. Role of Acid and Weakly Acidic Reflux in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Off Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hea Jung; Moon, Sung Jin; Kim, Jin Su; Lim, Chul Hyun; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung-Gye

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Available data about reflux patterns and symptom determinants in the gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) subtypes off proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy are lacking. We aimed to evaluate reflux patterns and determinants of symptom perception in patients with GERD off PPI therapy by impedance-pH monitoring. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the impedance-pH data in patients diagnosed as GERD based on results of impedance-pH monitoring, endoscopy and/or typical symptoms. The characteristics of acid and weakly acidic reflux were evaluated. Symptomatic and asymptomatic reflux were compared according to GERD subtypes and individual symptoms. Results Forty-two patients (22 males, mean age 46 years) were diagnosed as GERD (17 erosive reflux disease, 9 pH(+) non-erosive reflux disease [NERD], 9 hypersensitive esophagus and 7 symptomatic NERD). A total of 1,725 reflux episodes were detected (855 acid [50%], 857 weakly acidic [50%] and 13 weakly alkaline reflux [reflux was more frequently symptomatic and bolus clearance was longer compared with weakly acidic reflux. In terms of globus, weakly acidic reflux was more symptomatic. Symptomatic reflux was more frequently acid and mixed reflux; these associations were more pronounced in erosive reflux disease and symptomatic NERD. The perception of regurgitation was related to acid reflux, while that of globus was more related to weakly acidic reflux. Conclusions In patients not taking PPI, acid reflux was more frequently symptomatic and had longer bolus clearance. Symptomatic reflux was more frequently acid and mixed type; however, weakly acidic reflux was associated more with globus. These data suggest a role for impedance-pH data in the evaluation of globus. PMID:22837877

  13. Role of Acid and weakly acidic reflux in gastroesophageal reflux disease off proton pump inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hea Jung; Cho, Yu Kyung; Moon, Sung Jin; Kim, Jin Su; Lim, Chul Hyun; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung-Gye

    2012-07-01

    Available data about reflux patterns and symptom determinants in the gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) subtypes off proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy are lacking. We aimed to evaluate reflux patterns and determinants of symptom perception in patients with GERD off PPI therapy by impedance-pH monitoring. We retrospectively reviewed the impedance-pH data in patients diagnosed as GERD based on results of impedance-pH monitoring, endoscopy and/or typical symptoms. The characteristics of acid and weakly acidic reflux were evaluated. Symptomatic and asymptomatic reflux were compared according to GERD subtypes and individual symptoms. Forty-two patients (22 males, mean age 46 years) were diagnosed as GERD (17 erosive reflux disease, 9 pH(+) non-erosive reflux disease [NERD], 9 hypersensitive esophagus and 7 symptomatic NERD). A total of 1,725 reflux episodes were detected (855 acid [50%], 857 weakly acidic [50%] and 13 weakly alkaline reflux [Acid reflux was more frequently symptomatic and bolus clearance was longer compared with weakly acidic reflux. In terms of globus, weakly acidic reflux was more symptomatic. Symptomatic reflux was more frequently acid and mixed reflux; these associations were more pronounced in erosive reflux disease and symptomatic NERD. The perception of regurgitation was related to acid reflux, while that of globus was more related to weakly acidic reflux. In patients not taking PPI, acid reflux was more frequently symptomatic and had longer bolus clearance. Symptomatic reflux was more frequently acid and mixed type; however, weakly acidic reflux was associated more with globus. These data suggest a role for impedance-pH data in the evaluation of globus.

  14. Gastric Reflux on Routine Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary Scintigraphy

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    Lee, Kang Wook; Lee, Heon Young [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    Reflux of bile and digestive enzymes from the small bowel and duodenum into stomach has been observed in patients with various gastroduodenal diseases. Tc-99m iminodiacetic acid derivatives hepatobiliary scan has been used as a noninvasive method to detect duodenogastric reflux. Sometimes, gastric reflux can be observed incidentally on routine Tc-99m DISA hepatobiliary scintigraphy. To evaluate the clinical meaning of gastric reflux on routine Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary scan, we analyzed 36 patients showed gastric reflux incidentally on the routine Tc-99m-DISIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy from December 1991 to June 1995 in Chungnam National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1) The gastric reflux was observed in 2.3% of 1,553 cases of routine Tc-99m DISIDA Hepatobiliary scintigraphy for 43 months. 2) Nineteen percent of patients with gastric reflux had the past medical history of operations on stomach or biliary system. And that history was more prevalent in patients with reflux than those without reflux, significantly (p<0.01). 3) On fiberoptic gastroduodenpscopic examination, 87% of the patients with gastric reflux had the gastroduodenal diseases such as gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, duodenal cancer and ampullary diverticulosis. We thought that the gastric reflux can be observed considerably in patients without any operation history on stomach or duodenum, although the operation history is more prevalent in patients with gastric reflux than those without reflux, significantly and most of patients with gastric reflux on routine Tc-99m DISIDA scan has various gastroduodenal diseases.

  15. Gastric Reflux on Routine Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary Scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Wook; Lee, Heon Young

    1995-01-01

    Reflux of bile and digestive enzymes from the small bowel and duodenum into stomach has been observed in patients with various gastroduodenal diseases. Tc-99m iminodiacetic acid derivatives hepatobiliary scan has been used as a noninvasive method to detect duodenogastric reflux. Sometimes, gastric reflux can be observed incidentally on routine Tc-99m DISA hepatobiliary scintigraphy. To evaluate the clinical meaning of gastric reflux on routine Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary scan, we analyzed 36 patients showed gastric reflux incidentally on the routine Tc-99m-DISIDA hepatobiliary scintigraphy from December 1991 to June 1995 in Chungnam National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1) The gastric reflux was observed in 2.3% of 1,553 cases of routine Tc-99m DISIDA Hepatobiliary scintigraphy for 43 months. 2) Nineteen percent of patients with gastric reflux had the past medical history of operations on stomach or biliary system. And that history was more prevalent in patients with reflux than those without reflux, significantly (p<0.01). 3) On fiberoptic gastroduodenpscopic examination, 87% of the patients with gastric reflux had the gastroduodenal diseases such as gastritis, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, duodenal cancer and ampullary diverticulosis. We thought that the gastric reflux can be observed considerably in patients without any operation history on stomach or duodenum, although the operation history is more prevalent in patients with gastric reflux than those without reflux, significantly and most of patients with gastric reflux on routine Tc-99m DISIDA scan has various gastroduodenal diseases.

  16. [The Additional Role of Symptom-Reflux Association Analysis of Diagnosis of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Using Bravo Capsule pH Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoungwon; Park, Moo In; Park, Seun Ja; Moon, Won; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2017-10-25

    Since the development of ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring test to diagnose gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), several parameters have been introduced. The aim of this study was to assess whether using the symptom index (SI), symptom sensitivity index (SSI), and symptom association probability (SAP), in addition to the DeMeester score (DS), would be useful for interpreting the Bravo pH monitoring test. A retrospective study, which included 68 patients with reflux symptoms refractory to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy who underwent a Bravo capsule pH test between October 2006 and May 2015, was carried out. Acid reflux parameters and symptom reflux association parameters were analyzed. The median percent time of total pHvariation in percent time of total pHpH test, diagnosis of GERD, including reflux hypersensitivity, can be improved by performing an analysis of the symptom-reflux association and of the day-to-day variation.

  17. The effect of dietary carbohydrate on gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Keng-Liang; Kuo, Chung-Mou; Yao, Chih-Chien; Tai, Wei-Chen; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Lim, Chee-Sang; Chiu, Yi-Chun

    2018-01-12

    Acid changes in gastroesophageal reflux with vary component in the food have less been studied, especially carbohydrate. We plan to clarify the effect of different carbohydrate density on low esophageal acid and reflux symptoms of patients with gastroesophgeal reflux disease. Twelve patients (52 ± 12 years old; five female) with gastroesophageal reflux disease were recruited for the prospective crossover study. Each patient was invited for panendoscope, manometry and 24 h pH monitor. The two formulated liquid meal, test meal A: 500 ml liquid meal (containing 84.8 g carbohydrate) and B: same volume liquid meal (but 178.8 g carbohydrate) were randomized supplied as lunch or dinner. Reflux symptoms were recorded. There are significant statistic differences in more Johnson-DeMeester score (p = 0.019), total reflux time (%) (p = 0.028), number of reflux periods (p = 0.026) and longest reflux (p = 0.015) after high carbohydrate diet than low carbohydrate. Total reflux time and number of long reflux periods more than 5 min are significant more after high carbohydrate diet. More acid reflux symptoms are found after high carbohydrate diet. High carbohydrate diet could induce more acid reflux in low esophagus and more reflux symptoms in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Do laryngoscopic findings reflect the characteristics of reflux in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y C; Kwon, O E; Park, J M; Eun, Y G

    2018-02-01

    To analyse the association between 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (24-h MII-pH) parameters and each item of the reflux finding score (RFS) to determine whether the laryngoscopic findings of the RFS could reflect the characteristics of reflux in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). Prospective cohort study. Tertiary care referral medical centre. Patients complaining of LPR symptoms were evaluated via a 24-hour MII-pH. Among them, 99 patients whose LPR was confirmed via 24-hour MII-pH were enrolled in this study. Correlations between RFS ratings and 24-hour MII-pH parameters were evaluated and compared between patients with or without each laryngoscopic finding used in the RFS. Subglottic oedema had a statistically significant positive correlation with number of non-acid LPR and non-acid full column reflux events. Ventricular obliteration and posterior commissure hypertrophy showed a significant correlation with non-acid exposure time and total reflux exposure time. We also found a significant correlation between granuloma/granulation score and number of acid LPR events. The numbers of non-acid LPR and full column reflux events in patients with subglottic oedema were significantly higher than those without subglottic oedema. Among the laryngoscopic findings used in the RFS, subglottic oedema is specific for non-acid reflux episodes, and granuloma/granulation is specific for acid reflux episodes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Laparoscopic limited Heller myotomy without anti-reflux procedure does not induce significant long-term gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita Macías Valadez, L C; Pescarus, R; Hsieh, T; Wasserman, L; Apriasz, I; Hong, D; Gmora, S; Cadeddu, M; Anvari, M

    2015-06-01

    Laparoscopic Heller myotomy with partial fundoplication is the gold standard treatment for achalasia. Laparoscopic limited Heller myotomy (LLHM) with no anti-reflux procedure is another possible option. A review of prospectively collected data was performed on patients who underwent LLHM from January 1998 to December 2012. Evaluation included gastroscopy, esophageal manometry, 24-h pH-metry, and the Short Form(36) Health Survey(SF-36) questionnaire at baseline and 6 months, as well as the global symptom score at baseline, 6 months, and 5 years post-surgery. Comparison between outcomes was performed with a paired t student's test. 126 patients underwent LLHM. Of these, 60 patients had complete pre and post-operative motility studies. 57 % were female, patient mean age was 45.7 years, with a mean follow-up of 10.53 months. Mean operative time was 56.1 min, and the average length of stay was 1.7 days. At 6 months, a significant decrease in the lower esophageal sphincter resting pressure (29.1 vs. 7.1 mmHg; p < 0.001) and nadir (16.4 vs. 4.3 mmHg; p < 0.001) was observed. Normal esophageal acid exposure (total pH < 4 %) was observed in 68.3 % patients. Nevertheless, of the remaining 31.7 % with abnormal pH-metry, only 21.6 % were clinically symptomatic and all were properly controlled with medical treatment without requiring anti-reflux surgery. Significant improvement in all pre-operative symptoms was observed at 6 months and maintained over 5 years. Dysphagia score was reduced from 9.8 pre-operatively to 2.6 at 5 years (p < 0.001), heartburn score from 3.82 to 2 (p < 0.01), and regurgitation score from 7.5 to 0.8 (p < 0.001). Only one patient (0.8 %) presented with recurrent dysphagia requiring reoperation. LLHM without anti-reflux procedure is an effective long-term treatment for achalasia and does not cause symptomatic GERD in three quarters of patients. The remaining patients are well controlled on anti-reflux medications. It is believed that similar clinical

  20. Patterns of reflux in gastroesophageal reflux disease in pediatric population of New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sarath Kumar; Cohen, Ralph Clinton; Karpelowsky, Jonathan Saul

    2017-02-01

    This study is to determine the association of ambulatory pH monitoring (24hr pH) with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux and its other investigations. The clinical and epidemiological profiles of subjects referred for reflux disorders are also studied. Symptoms or group of symptoms, profiles and prior investigations of 1259 consecutive pediatric subjects (with 1332 24hr pH studies performed) referred for evaluation of reflux disorders between 1988 and 2012 were retrospectively studied. Chi-square or fisher exact test was used for hypothesis testing, student t-test for the comparison of means and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test for comparing medians of continuous variables. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), defined as reflux causing major symptoms and complications, was diagnosed in 57.5% subjects of the total sample. Forty-three percent were girls and 56.7% were boys. The most common age group was between 4 months and 2 years (51.2%). Vomiting (64.4%) and irritability (74%) were the most common symptoms with the neurological conditions (23.2%) being the most frequent underlying condition. The parameters used in 24hr pH were significantly higher in those diagnosed with GERD (P reflux disorders. 24hr pH is reliable and should be considered routine in reflux disorders, as it identifies patients with pathologic reflux and avoids a needless surgery. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  1. Motor disorders of the oesophagus in gastro-oesophageal reflux.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahony, M J; Migliavacca, M; Spitz, L; Milla, P J

    1988-01-01

    Mechanisms of gastro-oesophageal reflux were studied by oesophageal manometry and pH monitoring in 33 children: nine controls, 15 with gastro-oesophageal reflux alone, and nine with reflux oesophagitis. A total of 122 episodes of reflux were analysed in detail: 82 (67%) were synchronous with swallowing and 40 (33%) asynchronous. Infants with trivial symptoms had gastro-oesophageal reflux synchronous with swallowing, whereas those with serious symptoms had slower acid clearance and asynchronou...

  2. Association Between Nocturnal Acid Reflux and Sleep Disturbance in Patients With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jui-Sheng; Lei, Wei-Yi; Yi, Chih-Hsun; Liu, Tso-Tsai; Chen, Chien-Lin

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether there is a direct association between subjective sleep quality and esophageal acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. We enrolled patients with classic reflux symptoms for endoscopy and ambulatory pH monitoring. The severity of esophageal mucosal injury was assessed by upper endoscopy. Distal esophageal acid exposure was determined by ambulatory 24-hour pH monitoring. Sleep disturbance was assessed by using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. In total, 103 patients (53 patients without sleep dysfunction and 50 patients with sleep dysfunction) were studied. Erosive esophagitis was found more in patients with sleep disturbance than in those without sleep disturbance (45% versus 31%, P = 0.04). Abnormal esophageal pH was found more in patients with dysfunction (22%) than in patients without sleep dysfunction (5.7%, P = 0.03). Recumbent acid contact time (%) was greater in patients with sleep disturbance than in those without sleep disturbance (3.7 ± 2.4 versus 1.9 ± 0.9, P = 0.04). Sleep quality score positively correlated with acid contact time (r = 0.32, P = 0.02), prolonged reflux events (r = 0.45, P = 0.008) and longer reflux event (r = 0.28, P = 0.03) during recumbent period. Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease along with sleep dysfunction are characterized with greater nocturnal acid reflux and more erosive esophagitis. Our study suggests that increased nocturnal acid reflux may play a role in inducing sleep disturbance in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Motor disorders of the oesophagus in gastro-oesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, M J; Migliavacca, M; Spitz, L; Milla, P J

    1988-01-01

    Mechanisms of gastro-oesophageal reflux were studied by oesophageal manometry and pH monitoring in 33 children: nine controls, 15 with gastro-oesophageal reflux alone, and nine with reflux oesophagitis. A total of 122 episodes of reflux were analysed in detail: 82 (67%) were synchronous with swallowing and 40 (33%) asynchronous. Infants with trivial symptoms had gastro-oesophageal reflux synchronous with swallowing, whereas those with serious symptoms had slower acid clearance and asynchronous reflux. There were significant differences in lower oesophageal sphincter pressure and amplitude of oesophageal contractions between controls and patients with both gastro-oesophageal reflux and reflux oesophagitis. In reflux oesophagitis there was a decrease in lower oesophageal sphincter pressure and the contractions had a bizarre waveform suggesting a neuropathic process. PMID:3202640

  4. Evaluation of Current Operations for the Prevention of Gastroesophageal Reflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeester, Tom R.; Johnson, Lawrence F.; Kent, Alfred H.

    1974-01-01

    A prospective randomized study was done on 45 patients to evaluate the effectiveness of the Hill, Nissen or Belsey anti-reflux procedure. All patients had symptoms of GE reflux unresponsive to medical therapy, a + standard acid reflux test (SART), and esophagitis (38/45) or + Burnstein test (7/45). Esophageal symptomatic, radiographic, manometric and pH (SART and 24-hr monitoring) evaluation was done pre- and 154 days (ave.) postsurgery. All procedures improved the symptoms of pyrosis. The best improvement was seen after the Nissen repair. All procedures increased the distal esophageal sphincter (DES) pressures over preoperative levels. The Nissen and Belsey increased it more than the Hill. Sphincter length and dynamics remained unchanged. The Nissen procedure placed more of the manometric sphincter below the respiratory inversion point in the positive pressure environment of the abdomen. The esophageal length was increased by the Nissen and Hill repairs. This was thought to account for the high incidence of temporary postsurgery dysphagia following the Nissen and Hill repairs and the lower incidence following the Belsey repair. Reflux was most effectively prevented by the Nissen repair, as shown by the SART and the 24-hr esophageal pH monitoring, a sensitive measurement of frequency and duration of reflux. The average length of hospital stay was 20 days for Belsey and 12 days for both Nissen and Hill procedure. Postsurgery complications were more common following the thoracic than the abdominal approach. Ability to vomit postrepair was greatest with the Hill and least with the Belsey and Nissen repair. All procedures temporarily increased amount of flatus. It is concluded that the Nissen repair best controls reflux and its symptoms by providing the greatest increase in DES pressure and placing more of the sphincter in the positive abdominal environment. This is accomplished with the lowest morbidity but at the expense of temporary postoperative dysphagia and a 50

  5. Acid Secretion and Its Relationship to Esophageal Reflux Symptom in Patients with Subtotal Gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Jin; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Park, Jae Myung; Song, Kyo Young; Yoo, Han Mo

    2018-03-01

    Esophageal reflux symptom has been reported as common in patients with subtotal gastrectomy. Management of postoperative esophageal reflux symptom is not satisfactory. The aim of this study is to investigate prevalence of esophageal reflux symptom after subtotal gastrectomy and assess factors affecting esophageal reflux symptom in subtotal gastrectomy patients. We prospectively enrolled 100 consecutive patients with subtotal gastrectomy who were regularly followed up by endoscopic examination. Acid secretory capacity was assessed by measuring messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of H + /K + -adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in biopsy specimens. In total, 47 % of patients had typical esophageal reflux symptom, where heartburn or regurgitation was experienced at least weekly. Age, sex, body mass index, and type of reconstruction did not differ between esophageal reflux and non-esophageal-reflux groups. The esophageal reflux group had longer duration from time of operation until study (median 5.0 versus 3.6 years; P = 0.017). Hill grade for gastroesophageal (GE) flap valve was higher in the esophageal reflux group than in the non-esophageal-reflux group (P = 0.027). H + /K + -ATPase mRNA expression was higher in the esophageal reflux group than in the non-esophageal-reflux group [3967.6 (± 7583.7) versus 896.2 (± 1456.0); P = 0.006]. Multivariate analysis revealed that postoperative duration, H + /K + -ATPase mRNA expression level, and GE flap valve disruption were significantly associated with esophageal reflux symptom development. Esophageal reflux symptom is common in patients after subtotal gastrectomy, possibly because of anti-reflux-barrier impairment and preservation of acid secretory capacity following surgery. Optimal acid suppression may be helpful in managing postoperative esophageal reflux symptom.

  6. Scintimetric objectification of the pathological gastro-oesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl, R.

    1981-01-01

    In this investigation, the author initially made animal experiments to find out: - if and how the gastro-oesophageal reflux in a cardiac insufficiency caused by cardiomyotomy could be proven quantitatively by scintiscanning as often as wanted and how the course of the arising oesophagitis correlated with the findings of the scintiscanning. For the clinical examinations, he referred to patients complaining the reflux difficulties or patients who had had a Balanced Operation because of a reflux disease. The main concern was to clarify the special characteristics and the reliability of reflux scintiscanning and to compare them to conventional methods of radiological and endoscopic reflux diagnostics. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Esôfago de barrett após gastrectomia total com reconstrução em Y de roux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deomir Germano Bassi

    Full Text Available Reflux esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus after total gastrectomy is related to reconstructive procedure of intestinal continuity. The Roux-en-Y operation with length of limb of 40 cm occasionally is not enough to prevent biliary reflux to distal esophagus. Barrett's esophagus is thought to develop as a consequence of biliary reflux and has a malignant potential. Symptoms of retroesternal burning and dysphagia that does not improve with conservative management has to be treated by an operative procedure. To prevent biliary reflux to distal esophagus after total gastrectomy the lenght of limb of Roux-en-Y should be at lest 60 cm.

  8. Investigating the relationship between persistent reflux flow on the first postoperative day and recurrent varicocele in varicocelectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cil, Ahmet Said; Bozkurt, Murat; Kara Bozkurt, Duygu; Gok, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of persistent reflux flow on the first postoperative day using color Doppler sonography (CDS) in patients who had undergone sub-inguinal varicocelectomy, and to research the relationship between persistent reflux flow and recurrent varicocele. A total of 54 patients were included in the study. Ages of the patients were between 21 and 38 years (mean 27.3 ± 7.6). All patients were evaluated four times with CDS: preoperatively, first postoperative day, 3 months postoperative, and finally 6 months after the operation. Preoperative venous diameters were measured between 3 and 5.5 mm; mean vein diameters were 3.8 ± 0.7 mm for the left side and 3.4 ± 0.4 mm for the right side. Mean duration of reflux was 3.5 ± 0.3 seconds on the left side and 2.9 ± 0.7 seconds on the right side. First postoperative day persistent Valsalva-induced reflux flow was seen in 10 patients (18%). Mean venous diameter was measured 1.8 ± 0.9 mm. Three months after the operation, Valsalva-induced reflux flow was seen in two patients (3%) in whom reflux was not seen on the first postoperative day. After 6 months, venous diameters larger than 2 mm at rest and the occurrence of reflux during the Valsalva maneuver were considered to be a recurrence. Six months after the operation, 12 patients had recurrent varicocele. Detecting persistent reflux with CDS on the first postoperative day was found to be 85% sensitive and 100% specific for showing recurrence. Valsalva-induced persistent reflux flow investigated with CDS on the first postoperative day can be used to show success of the surgery and is also an indicator of recurrence in varicocelectomy patients.

  9. Longterm outcome of Macroplatique injection for treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elrahmany A. Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined our experience with one year follow-up of 20 cases of vesicoureteric reflux in children after treatment with Macroplastique ® injection. Patient and Methods: A total of 20 children (31 ureters with primary grades II to V vesicoureteral reflux were treated with subureteral Macroplastique ® injection from 2010 to 2011 and followed for an average of 12 months (range 3 to 24. Vesicoureteral reflux was grade II in 3, III in 7, IV in 9 and V in 12 ureters. Each child underwent pre-operative voiding cystourethrography, abdominopelvic ultrasound, urine analysis/culture, S. creatinine and CBC. Dimercapto-succinic acid scan (DMSA scan and magnetic resonance urography (MRU were done in some patients. Voiding cystourethrography at 3 months was done to rule out persistent reflux. Results: Overall, reflux was corrected in 11 (35.5% ureters and 9 (45% children after a single injection. With repeat injection, reflux was corrected in 16 (51.6% ureters and 11 (55% children, reflux improved/downgrade in 4 (12.9% ureters and 2 (10% children. Correction by grade was 100%, 100%, 9.7%, 9.7% for grades II to V, respectively. There were no surgical complications. None of the cured patients had recurrent reflux during follow-up. There were 9 (45% children who required open ureteral re-implantation for failed injection. Conclusion: Sub-ureteral Macroplastique ® injection therapy could be a primary treatment for low grade VUR (grade III or less in children because it is simple, safe, effective, less invasive, decreased.

  10. Oesophagitis, signs of reflux, and gastric acid secretion in patients with symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, K.E.; Ask, P.; Boeryd, B.; Fransson, S.G.; Tibbling, L.

    1986-01-01

    In a study comprising 100 patients referred to a surgical clinic with symptons suggestive of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, the value of different diagnostic procedures was investigated. Positive acid perfusion and 24-h pH tests were the commonest findings. Forty-nine per cent showed normal oesophageal mucosa or diffuse oesophagitis at endoscopy. The severity of heartburn and regurgitation did not differ between patients with normal oesophageal mucosa and oesophagitis of various severities. The severity of macroscopic oesophagitis was significantly corelated to the total reflux time, the presence of reflux or a hiatal hernia at radiology, an open cardia or reflux at endoscopy, pressure transmission or reflux, and low lower oesophageal sphincter pressure at manometry. Gastric hypersecretion was found in 66% of the patients. Gastric acid secretion was not correlated to the severity of oesophagitis or to the findings at 24-h pH test. In patients with severe oesophagitis the sensivity for radiologic, manometric and endoscopic signs of incompetence of the gastro-oesophageal junction was 94%.

  11. Oesophagitis, signs of reflux, and gastric acid secretion in patients with symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, K.E.; Ask, P.; Boeryd, B.; Fransson, S.G.; Tibbling, L.

    1986-01-01

    In a study comprising 100 patients referred to a surgical clinic with symptons suggestive of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, the value of different diagnostic procedures was investigated. Positive acid perfusion and 24-h pH tests were the commonest findings. Forty-nine per cent showed normal oesophageal mucosa or diffuse oesophagitis at endoscopy. The severity of heartburn and regurgitation did not differ between patients with normal oesophageal mucosa and oesophagitis of various severities. The severity of macroscopic oesophagitis was significantly corelated to the total reflux time, the presence of reflux or a hiatal hernia at radiology, an open cardia or reflux at endoscopy, pressure transmission or reflux, and low lower oesophageal sphincter pressure at manometry. Gastric hypersecretion was found in 66% of the patients. Gastric acid secretion was not correlated to the severity of oesophagitis or to the findings at 24-h pH test. In patients with severe oesophagitis the sensivity for radiologic, manometric and endoscopic signs of incompetence of the gastro-oesophageal junction was 94%

  12. Reflux in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    What are reflux (GER) and GERD? The esophagus is the tube that carries food from your mouth to your stomach. If your child has reflux, his or ... into the esophagus. Another name for reflux is gastroesophageal reflux (GER). GERD stands for gastroesophageal reflux disease. It ...

  13. Reflux in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    What are reflux (GER) and GERD? The esophagus is the tube that carries food from your mouth to your stomach. If your baby has reflux, his or ... into the esophagus. Another name for reflux is gastroesophageal reflux (GER). GERD stands for gastroesophageal reflux disease. It ...

  14. Different risk factors between reflux symptoms and mucosal injury in gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chung-Hsien; Hsieh, Tsung-Cheng; Hsiao, Tsung-Hsien; Wang, Pin-Chao; Tseng, Tai-Chung; Lin, Hans Hsienhong; Wang, Chia-Chi

    2015-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is diagnosed based on typical symptoms in clinical practice. It can be divided into two groups using endoscopy: erosive and nonerosive reflux disease (NERD). This study aims to determine the risk factors of reflux symptoms and mucosal injury. This was a two-step case-control study derived from a cohort of 998 individuals having the data of reflux disease questionnaire (RDQ) and endoscopic findings. Those with minor reflux symptoms were excluded. The first step compared symptomatic GERD patients with healthy controls. The 2(nd) step compared patients with erosive esophagitis with healthy controls. In this study, the prevalence of symptomatic GERD and erosive esophagitis were 163 (16.3%) and 166 (16.6%), respectively. A total of 507 asymptomatic individuals without mucosal injury of the esophagus on endoscopy were selected as healthy controls. Compared with healthy controls, multivariate analyses showed that symptomatic GERD patients had a higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia [odds ratio (OR), 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-2.96] and obesity (OR, 1.85; 95% CI 1.08-3.02). By contrast, male sex (OR, 2.24; 95% CI 1.42-3.52), positive Campylo-like organism (CLO) test (OR, 0.56; 95% CI 0.37-0.84), and hiatus hernia (OR, 14.36; 95% CI 3.05-67.6) were associated with erosive esophagitis. In conclusion, obesity and hypertriglyceridemia were associated with reflux symptoms. By contrast, male sex, negative infection of Helicobacter pylori, and hiatus hernia were associated with mucosal injury. Our results suggested that risk factors of reflux symptoms or mucosal injury might be different in GERD patients. The underlying mechanism awaits further studies to clarify. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  15. Different risk factors between reflux symptoms and mucosal injury in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsien Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is diagnosed based on typical symptoms in clinical practice. It can be divided into two groups using endoscopy: erosive and nonerosive reflux disease (NERD. This study aims to determine the risk factors of reflux symptoms and mucosal injury. This was a two-step case-control study derived from a cohort of 998 individuals having the data of reflux disease questionnaire (RDQ and endoscopic findings. Those with minor reflux symptoms were excluded. The first step compared symptomatic GERD patients with healthy controls. The 2nd step compared patients with erosive esophagitis with healthy controls. In this study, the prevalence of symptomatic GERD and erosive esophagitis were 163 (16.3% and 166 (16.6%, respectively. A total of 507 asymptomatic individuals without mucosal injury of the esophagus on endoscopy were selected as healthy controls. Compared with healthy controls, multivariate analyses showed that symptomatic GERD patients had a higher prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia [odds ratio (OR, 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.13–2.96] and obesity (OR, 1.85; 95% CI 1.08–3.02. By contrast, male sex (OR, 2.24; 95% CI 1.42–3.52, positive Campylo-like organism (CLO test (OR, 0.56; 95% CI 0.37–0.84, and hiatus hernia (OR, 14.36; 95% CI 3.05–67.6 were associated with erosive esophagitis. In conclusion, obesity and hypertriglyceridemia were associated with reflux symptoms. By contrast, male sex, negative infection of Helicobacter pylori, and hiatus hernia were associated with mucosal injury. Our results suggested that risk factors of reflux symptoms or mucosal injury might be different in GERD patients. The underlying mechanism awaits further studies to clarify.

  16. Gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptic esophagitis; Reflux esophagitis; GERD; Heartburn - chronic; Dyspepsia - GERD ... into the esophagus. This is called reflux or gastroesophageal reflux. Reflux may cause symptoms. Harsh stomach acids can ...

  17. Lung disease severity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is more strongly associated with impedance measures of bolus reflux than pH parameters of acid reflux alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavini, S; Borges, L F; Finn, R T; Lo, W-K; Goldberg, H J; Burakoff, R; Feldman, N; Chan, W W

    2017-05-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Pathogenesis may be related to chronic micro-aspiration. We aimed to assess objective measures of GER on multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH study (MII-pH) and their relationship with pulmonary function testing (PFT) results, and to compare the performance of pH/acid reflux parameters vs corresponding MII/bolus parameters in predicting pulmonary dysfunction in IPF. This was a retrospective cohort study of IPF patients undergoing prelung transplant evaluation with MII-pH off acid suppression, and having received PFT within 3 months. Patients with prior fundoplication were excluded. Severe pulmonary dysfunction was defined using diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) ≤40%. Six pH/acid reflux parameters with corresponding MII/bolus reflux measures were specified a priori. Multivariate analyses were applied using forward stepwise logistic regression. Predictive value of each parameter for severe pulmonary dysfunction was calculated by area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic-curve or c-statistic. Forty-five subjects (67% M, age 59, 15 mild-moderate vs 30 severe) met criteria for inclusion. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were similar between pulmonary dysfunction groups. Abnormal total reflux episodes and prolonged bolus clearance time were significantly associated with pulmonary dysfunction severity on univariate and multivariate analyses. No pH parameters were significant. The c-statistic of each pH parameter was lower than its MII counterpart in predicting pulmonary dysfunction. MII/bolus reflux, but not pH/acid reflux, was associated with pulmonary dysfunction in prelung transplant patients with IPF. MII-pH may be more valuable than pH testing alone in characterizing GER in IPF. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Surgical techniques for treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Édder de Mello Cardoso Lima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux is one of the most frequently gastrointestinal tract diseases currently found, having a great impact on the patient's quality of life. Purpose: to analyze the main surgical techniques used in the treatment of this pathology, their indications, advantages and disadvantages. Methods: this is a literature review. Thirteen articles published between 1998 and 2013 in the Lilacs, Bireme e Scielo databases, addressing different surgical techniques for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux were selected. Results: Five hundred and thirty-eight total fundoplications and 466 partial fundoplications were performed. Conclusion: The findings of this review show that total fundoplication is the most commonly used technique in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  19. Acid reflux episodes sensitize the esophagus to perception of weakly acidic and mixed reflux in non-erosive reflux disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerenziani, S; Ribolsi, M; Guarino, M P L; Balestrieri, P; Altomare, A; Rescio, M P; Cicala, M

    2014-01-01

    Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) patients are more sensitive than erosive esophagitis patients to weakly acidic reflux and to the presence of gas in the refluxate. Intra-esophageal acid perfusion sensitizes esophageal receptors to mechanical and chemical stimuli. To establish whether acid sensitization plays a role in the perception of weakly acidic and mixed reflux episodes, 29 NERD patients, responders and 14 non-responders to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), underwent pH-impedance monitoring. Non-responders repeated the study while on PPIs. To assess the effect of acid exposure on symptom perception, the time period with pH below 4 was measured in 15- and 30-minute time-windows preceding the onset of each reflux episode. Considering weakly acidic and mixed refluxes, both in responder and non-responder patients (off PPIs), the symptomatic refluxes were preceded by a significantly higher cumulative acid exposure than the asymptomatic refluxes. In all patients, following acid reflux, the percentage of symptomatic weakly acidic reflux episodes was significantly higher than that of asymptomatic refluxes. Non-responder patients, off-treatment, were characterized by a lower proportion of weakly acidic reflux and mixed reflux episodes. In the non-responder patients on PPI, only mixed and weakly symptomatic reflux episodes were preceded by a higher cumulative acid exposure. In NERD patients, spontaneous acid reflux enhances subsequent reflux perception, regardless of acidity or liquid/mixed composition of episodes; in non-responder patients on PPIs, only the perception of mixed and weakly acidic reflux episodes seems to be mediated by a preceding acid exposure. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Gastroesophageal reflux disease burden in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavari, Alireza; Moradi, Ghobad; Elahi, Elham; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar

    2015-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is one of the most common disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. The prevalence of this disease ranges from 5% to 20% in Asia, Europe, and North America. The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Iran. Burden of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Iran was estimated for one year from 21 March 2006 to 20 March 2007. The definition was adjusted with ICD-code of K21. Incident-based disability-adjusted life year (DALY) was used as the unit of analysis to quantify disease burden. A simplified disease model and DisMod II software were used for modeling. The annual incidence for total population of males and females in Iran was estimated 17.72 and 28.06 per 1000, respectively. The average duration of gastroesophageal reflux disease as a chronic condition was estimated around 10 years in both sexes. Total DALYs for an average of 59 symptomatic days per year was estimated 153,554.3 (60,330.8 for males and 93,223.5 for females).   The results of this study showed that reflux imposes high burden and high financial costs on the Iranian population. The burden of this disease in Iran is more similar to that of European countries rather than Asian countries. It is recommended to consider the disease as a public health problem and make decisions and public health plans to reduce the burden and financial costs of the disease in Iran.

  1. Mechanisms of Reflux Perception in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, Albert J.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with reflux symptoms often do not have excessive esophageal acid exposure, and patients with severe gastroesophageal reflux often do not have reflux symptoms. Understanding why different types of reflux induce symptoms in different patients is vital for addressing therapeutic gaps in the

  2. The efficacy of the upright position on gastro-esophageal reflux and reflux-related respiratory symptoms in infants with chronic respiratory symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo Jin; Yang, Hyeon Jong; Min, Taek Ki; Jeon, You Hoon; Lee, Hae Won; Lee, Jun Sung; Pyun, Bok Yang

    2012-01-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER), particularly non-acid reflux, is common in infants and is a known cause of chronic respiratory symptoms in infancy. Recent guidelines recommended empirical acid suppression therapy and the head-up position in patients with suspected GER. However, the efficacy of the upright position in relieving GER and reflux-related respiratory symptoms in infants is unclear. We conducted this study to investigate the efficacy of the upright position on GER and reflux-related respiratory symptoms in infants with chronic respiratory symptoms. Thirty-two infants (21 male; median age, 5 months; range, 0 to 19 months) with unexplained chronic respiratory symptoms underwent multi-channel intraluminal esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. We retrospectively compared the frequencies of GER and reflux-related symptoms according to body position. A mean of 3.30 episodes of reflux per hour was detected. Overall, refluxes were more frequent during the postprandial period than the emptying period (3.77 vs. 2.79 episodes/hour, respectively; P=0.01). Although there was no significant difference in the total refluxes per hour between the upright and recumbent positions (6.12 vs. 3.77 episodes, P=0.10), reflux-related respiratory symptoms per reflux were significantly fewer in infants kept in an upright position than in a recumbent position during the postprandial period (3.07% vs. 14.75%, P=0.016). Non-acid reflux was the predominant type of reflux in infants, regardless of body position or meal time. The upright position may reduce reflux-related respiratory symptoms, rather than reflux frequency. Thus, it may be a useful non-pharmacological treatment for infantile GER disease resistant to acid suppressants.

  3. Role of non-acid reflux in patients with non-erosive reflux disease

    OpenAIRE

    Karamanolis, Georgios P.; Tutuian, Radu

    2013-01-01

    Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) is the most common presentation of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Although acid reflux is the most important cause of symptom generation in NERD patients, non-acid reflux is also associated with reflux symptoms. The temporal relation between symptoms and reflux episodes is of importance in evaluating the results of combined pH-impedance monitoring in NERD patients. Mucosal hypersensitivity and mechanical stimulation due to great volume of non-acid reflux ar...

  4. There is no correlation between signs of reflux laryngitis and reflux oesophagitis in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenik, K; Kajzrlikova, I M; Vitek, P; Urban, O; Hanousek, M; Kominek, P

    2017-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine if there is correlation between signs of reflux laryngitis (RL) and reflux oesophagitis (RE) in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) symptoms. Laryngeal photography obtained from patients during oesophagogastroduodenoscopy were examined by two otolaryngologists experienced in the field of extra-oesophageal reflux regarding the presence and severity of RL. The presence of RE was evaluated by gastroenterologist. Smokers, heavy drinkers and patients with bronchial asthma were excluded from the statistical analysis. A total of 681 patients were analysed. RL was diagnosed in 367 (53.9%) cases, of whom 182 patients had mild, 118 moderate and 67 severe (Reflux Finding Score > 7) RL. RE was diagnosed in 103 (28.1%) patients with RL and in 80 (25.7%) patients without RL. Neither the difference between the overall group of patients with RL and those without (OR 1.141, 95% CI 0.811-1.605, p = 0.448), nor the differences between the respective subgroups of patients with mild, moderate and severe RL and those without RL were statistically significant. The OR and 95% CI for mild, moderate and severe RL were 1.042, 95% CI 0.712-1.526, p = 0.834, 1.182, 95% CI 0.764-1.831, p = 0.453 and 1.0, 95% CI 0.566-1.766, p = 0.999 respectively. It can be concluded that there is no correlation between RL and RE in patients with GORD symptoms. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  5. Sleeve gastrectomy and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a complex relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahawar, Kamal K; Jennings, Neil; Balupuri, Shlok; Small, Peter K

    2013-07-01

    Sleeve gastrectomy is rapidly becoming popular as a standalone bariatric operation. At the same time, there are valid concerns regarding its long-term durability and postoperative gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Though gastric bypass remains the gold standard bariatric operation, it is not suitable for all patients. Sleeve gastrectomy is sometimes the only viable option. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease, liver cirrhosis, significant intra-abdominal adhesions involving small bowel and those reluctant to undergo gastric bypass could fall in this category. It is widely recognised that some patients report worsening of their gastro-oesophageal reflux disease after sleeve gastrectomy. Still, others develop de novo reflux. This review examines if it is possible to identify these patients prior to surgery and thus prevent postoperative gastro-oesophageal reflux disease after sleeve gastrectomy.

  6. Enterogastric reflux and gastric clearance of refluxate in normal subjects and in patients with and without bile vomiting following peptic ulcer surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, C.; Hulks, G.; Cuschieri, A.

    1986-01-01

    A noninvasive scintigraphic technique was used to estimate enterogastric reflux and subsequent gastric evacuation of refluxate in 35 normal, healthy subjects and 55 patients previously treated by vagotomy or partial gastrectomy. Reflux was provoked by a milk drink and quantitated by counting 99Tcm-EHIDA activity within the gastric area during gamma camera imaging. Seven normal subjects (20%) showed reflux of 5-18% of initial activity (mean: 10%), with peak values occurring at 5-30 minutes (mean: 14 minutes) following the milk. Gastric evacuation of activity in these subjects was monoexponential (r = 0.993, T1/2 = 24.1 minutes). Reflux occurred more frequently than normal in patients with truncal vagotomy and drainage (22/28 patients) and partial gastrectomy (20/21 patients). All of 16 patients with Billroth II anastomoses exhibited reflux, which was excessive compared with refluxing normal subjects (mean: 25%; p less than 0.01) and occurred later into the study (mean: 34 minutes; p less than 0.01). Ten of 11 asymptomatic patients showed reflux of similar amounts of activity (mean: 21%) compared with 16 patients who complained of bile vomiting (mean: 22%). However, asymptomatic patients exhibited gastric evacuation of refluxate at a rate similar to that of refluxing normal subjects, while bile vomiters showed significant gastric retention of refluxate at 25-30 minutes following peak gastric activity (p less than 0.05). This result confirms that post-operative bile vomiting is essentially a problem of gastric emptying

  7. Mechanisms of acid reflux and how refluxed Acid extends proximally in patients with non-erosive reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Hirohito; Iwakiri, Katsuhiko; Kawami, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Yuriko; Sakamoto, Choitsu

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms that cause acid reflux in patients with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), including those that determine how acid extends proximally, are not yet clear. Concurrent esophageal manometry and pH monitoring were performed for 3 h after a meal in 13 patients with NERD, 12 with mild reflux esophagitis (RE), and 13 healthy subjects (HS). Transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation (TLESR) was the major mechanism of acid reflux in all three groups. LES pressure did not differ between the groups. At 2 cm above the LES, there were no differences between the three groups in the number of TLESR-related acid reflux episodes, rate of TLESRs and rate of acid reflux during TLESR. However, at 7 cm above the LES, the rate of acid reflux during TLESRs was significantly higher in patients with NERD (mean ± SEM 42.3 ± 4.8) than in those with mild RE (28.0 ± 3.8) and HS (10.8 ± 2.5). TLESRs are the sole motor events underlying acid reflux episodes in patients with NERD. Acid extends proximally more readily in patients with NERD than in HS and those with mild RE.

  8. Gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmud, L.S.; Vitti, R.A.; Fisher, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with detection and quantification of gastroesophageal reflux. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) generally refers to a symptom complex consisting of heartburn, regurgitation, and chest pain, the latter of which is often confused with pain of cardiac origin. Gastroesophageal reflux occurs when gastric or duodenal contents enter the esophagus. This phenomenon of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux has been attributed to a variety of anatomic abnormalities, including loss of the acute cardioesophageal Angle of Hiss, widening of the diaphragmatic hiatus, loss of a normal gastric rosette formed by apposition of the gastric mucosal folds, disruption of the phrenoesophageal ligament, and conversion of the distal paraesophageal pressure from an intra-abdominal to an intrathoracic level. Lower esophageal sphincter (LES) dysfunction has been suggested as a major determinant of gastroesophageal competence. Quantitative scintigraphic studies of gastroesophageal reflux suggest that the LES pressure is the important determinant of gastroesophageal reflux, although some investigators have failed to confirm this role of the LES in gastroesophageal competence

  9. Laparoscopic Nissen (total) versus anterior 180° fundoplication for gastro-esophageal reflux disease: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xing; Wu, Ji-Min; Hu, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Feng; Wang, Zhong-Gao; Zhang, Chao; Yan, Chao; Chen, Mei-Ping

    2017-09-01

    Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) has been the gold standard for the surgical management of Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Laparoscopic anterior 180° fundoplication (180° LAF) is reported to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications while obtaining similar control of reflux. The present meta-analysis was conducted to confirm the value of the 2 techniques. PubMed, Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Springerlink, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure Platform databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing LNF and 180° LAF. Data regarding the benefits and adverse results of 2 techniques were extracted and compared using a meta-analysis. Six eligible RCTs comparing LNF (n = 266) and 180° LAF (n = 265) were identified. There were no significant differences between LNF and 180° LAF with regard to operating time, perioperative complications, length of hospital stay, patient satisfaction, willingness to undergo surgery again, quality of life, postoperative heartburn, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use, postoperative DeMeester scores, postoperative lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, postoperative gas-bloating, unable to belch, diarrhea, or overall reoperation. LNF was associated with a higher prevalence of postoperative dysphagia compared with 180° LAF, while 180° LAF was followed by more reoperation for recurrent reflux symptoms. LNF and 180° LAF are equally effective in controlling reflux symptoms and obtain a comparable prevalence of patient satisfaction. 180° LAF can reduce the incidence of postoperative dysphagia while this is offset by a higher risk of reoperation for recurrent symptoms. The risk of recurrent symptoms should need to be balanced against the risk of dysphagia when surgeons choose surgical procedures for each individual with GERD.

  10. Evaluating outcomes of endoscopic full-thickness plication for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with impedance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Renteln, Daniel; Schmidt, Arthur; Riecken, Bettina; Caca, Karel

    2010-05-01

    Endoscopic full-thickness plication allows transmural suturing at the gastroesophageal junction to recreate the antireflux barrier. Multichannel intraluminal impedance monitoring (MII) can be used to detect nonacid or weakly acidic reflux, acidic swallows, and esophageal clearance time. This study used MII to evaluate the outcome of endoscopic full-thickness plication. In this study, 12 subsequent patients requiring maintenance proton pump inhibitor therapy underwent endoscopic full-thickness plication for treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. With patients off medication, MII was performed before and 6-months after endoscopic full-thickness plication. The total median number of reflux episodes was significantly reduced from 105 to 64 (p = 0.016). The median number of acid reflux episodes decreased from 73 to 43 (p = 0.016). Nonacid reflux episodes decreased from 23 to 21 (p = 0.306). The median bolus clearance time was 12 s before treatment and 11 s at 6 months (p = 0.798). The median acid exposure time was reduced from 6.8% to 3.4% (p = 0.008), and the DeMeester scores were reduced from 19 to 12 (p = 0.008). Endoscopic full-thickness plication significantly reduced total reflux episodes, acid reflux episodes, and total reflux exposure time. The DeMeester scores and total acid exposure time for the distal esophagus were significantly improved. No significant changes in nonacid reflux episodes and median bolus clearance time were encountered.

  11. Salivary Pepsin Lacks Sensitivity as a Diagnostic Tool to Evaluate Extraesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy, Fei; Amirault, Janine; Mitchell, Paul D; Rosen, Rachel

    2016-10-01

    To determine the sensitivity of salivary pepsin compared with multichannel intraluminal impedance with pH testing (pH-MII), endoscopy, and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) questionnaires. We prospectively recruited 50 children from Boston Children's Hospital who were undergoing pH-MII to evaluate for GERD. The patients completed 24-hour pH-MII testing, completed symptom and quality of life questionnaires, and provided a saliva specimen that was analyzed using the PepTest lateral flow test. A subset of patients also underwent bronchoscopy and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed to determine the sensitivity of salivary pepsin compared with each reference standard. Twenty-one of the 50 patients (42%) were salivary pepsin-positive, with a median salivary pepsin concentration of 10 ng/mL (IQR, 10-55 ng/mL). There was no significant difference in the distributions of acid, nonacid, total reflux episodes, full column reflux, or any other reflux variable in patients who were pepsin-positive compared with those who were pepsin-negative (P > .50). There was no significant correlation between the number of reflux episodes and pepsin concentration (P > .10). There was no positive relationship between salivary pepsin positivity, any extraesophageal symptoms or quality of life scores, or inflammation on bronchoscopy or esophagogastroduodenoscopy (P > .30). Salivary pepsin measurement has a low sensitivity for predicting pathological gastroesophageal reflux in children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intestinal metaplasia in patients with duodenogastric reflux and high total bile acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinol Jimenez, Felipe; Paniagua Estevez, Manuel; Perez Sanchez, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    The cytotoxic and cancerous action of bile acids on gastric mucosa is a very interesting subject within the gastroduodenal diseases due to they are able to alter the membrane, the cellular metabolism, to give rise to a inflammatory process, to increase the proliferation, the cell apoptosis and the DNA damage, that according to its intensity and persistence, favor the appearance of failures and mutations in cell replication. With the discovery and characterization of Helicobacter pylori it is considered that according to its intensity and the time of persistence in gastric mucosa provokes damages with failures and cellular mutations. In this sense, a prospective and descriptive study was conducted in the Institute of Gastroenterology in patients presenting with duodenogastric and high total bile acids to know the association between the intestinal metaplasia and the presence or not of Helicobacter pylori. Metaplasia was present in the 48.7 % of the 39 study patients, that there was a statistically significant association (p< 0.05) in Helicobacter pylori distribution in patients with and without intestinal metaplasia; that patients with duodenogastric reflux, despite of a histological lesion also had a greater frequency of negative results as regards the presence of Helicobacter pylori. In samples with histological diagnosis of severe and atrophic chronic gastritis, 75 %, respectively, had Helicobacter pylori and in consequence, there was a significant association between presence or not of microorganism and the chronic gastritis intensity. Intestinal metaplasia location was higher in antral region (84.3 %) and also with a higher ratio of microorganism positivity. In patients with duodenogastric reflux, presence of Helicobacter pylori don't seems to be associated with intense degrees of intestinal metaplasia, although the microorganism is present in all categories, but when there is not Helicobacter pylori, intestinal metaplasia to tend to develop in its less severe

  13. Surgery for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in the Morbidly Obese Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Meredith C; Farrell, Timothy M

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has mirrored the increase in obesity, and GERD is now recognized as an obesity-related comorbidity. There is growing evidence that obesity, specifically central obesity, is associated with the complications of chronic reflux, including erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma. While fundoplication is effective in creating a competent gastroesophageal junction and controlling reflux in most patients, it is less effective in morbidly obese patients. In these patients a bariatric operation has the ability to correct both the obesity and the abnormal reflux. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the preferred procedure.

  14. The prognosis of posterior urethral valves, associated to vesicoureteral reflux in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masca, Aurelia; Indrei, L L; Brânzaniuc, Klara

    2011-01-01

    Posterior urethral valves represent a congenital barrier at the level of the posterior urethra, which opposes miction. They are located near the prostatic urethra, originating at the verumontanum level, affecting male patients. The ureters are inconstantly dilated; vesicoureteral reflux is met in 2/3 of the cases. The reflux can be secondary to the sub-bladder barrier, but it can also be considered primitive, determined by the intra bladder ectopy of the ureter. The presence of the reflux is interpreted as a severe associated factor. Semiology is rather unusual, positive diagnosis is based on early discovery or antenatally of the impairment, by fetal echography starting from the 28th week of pregnancy, postnatal echography followed by miction cystography, retrograde urethrography and creatinine dosage complete the diagnosis. The treatment is surgical: endoscopic ablation of the valves (in the absence of renal failure), percutaneous pyelostomy, high lateral ureterostomy, and in severe cases vesicostomy and renal transplant. Prognosis depends on how early the impairment is detected, on the degree of pulmonary hypoplasia, on the presence of the vesicoureteral reflux and the possibility of recovering renal function; 1/3 of the newborns develop in time Chronic Renal Failure which requires renal transplant. The studied group comprised male children diagnosed with vesicoureteral reflux their ages ranking between 0 -18 years, admitted to the Pediatric Clinic, Tg. Mures during the last 10 years and children diagnosed and operated with posterior urethra valves at the Surgical Clinic of the "M. S. Curie" Hospital, Bucharest during the last 20 years. Our results show that out of the total number of studied children 25 presented posterior urethra valves and 9 children presented vesicoureteral reflux. We can conclude that the presence of the vesicoureteral reflux is an unfavorable prognosis regarding the degree of renal failure.

  15. Reflux oesophagitis and Helicobacter pylori infection in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liston, R.; Pitt, M. A.; Banerjee, A. K.

    1996-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric malignancies. Little attention has been paid to the possibility that it may also have a role in the pathogenesis of reflux oesophagitis. This is especially true in elderly patients who have life-long infection and provide an ideal group to study the mucosal changes associated with the organism. The aim of this study was to determine if H pylori is associated with reflux oesophagitis in elderly patients. Consecutive gastroscopy patients were recruited. Multiple biopsies were taken from oesophagus, stomach, antrum and duodenum for histology and rapid urease tests. Patients also had IgG ELISA antibodies and 13C-urea breath tests performed. Patients with macroscopic or microscopic evidence of reflux oesophagitis were compared to patients with macroscopically normal upper gastrointestinal tracts and no microscopic evidence of reflux. A total of 114 patients were recruited, average age 78.9 years (+/- 5.4). There were 37 refluxers and 33 non-refluxers. We found no evidence for an association between the presence of H pylori and reflux oesophagitis in elderly patients. The high prevalence of H pylori in patients with reflux oesophagitis can be explained by the presence of incidental gastritis. PMID:8733530

  16. Milk /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-EHIDA test for enterogastric bile reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, C.R.; Wisbey, M.L.; Cuschieri, A. (Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (UK))

    1982-02-01

    The study and clinical assessment of enterogastric bile reflux has been restricted for want of a simple non-invasive test for its detection and quantification. This paper describes such a test in which biliary excretion scintigraphy has been combined with a milk meal provocation. Two of 10 healthy volunteers studied showed probable reflux of approximately 5 per cent of total initial abdominal field activity. Among 73 patients studied, 37 patients showed definite reflux of up to 47 per cent. Reflux occurred in 19 of 22 post-gastric surgery patients and in 7 of 22 patients with peptic ulcer disease, gastritis or gastro-oesophageal reflux. None of 7 patients with 'non-specific' abdominal pain showed any reflux, but 11 of 22 patients with gallstone disease or previous cholecystectomy showed reflux of up to 35 per cent, including 9 of 11 patients with loss of gallbladder reservoir function.

  17. Clinical study of anti-reflux surgery for pediatric patients with primary vesico-ureteral reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamae, Koichi; Kitani, Kosuke; Miyamoto, Kenji; Nakakuma, Kensuke; Hamada, Yasuyuki; Nagano, Koji; Kawano, Tomoyasu; Nakamura, Toshiro

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed the characteristics of 25 pediatric patients (41 ureters) with primary vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR) who underwent anti-reflux surgery. The patients comprised 14 males and 11 females. The median age at diagnosis and at operation was 5 years 3 months and 6 years 5 months, respectively. VUR grade comprised grade I, 4 cases, grade II, 3 cases, grade III, 11 cases, grade IV, 11 cases and grade V, 12 cases. We utilized the Cohen method as the anti-reflux surgery technique. VUR recurrence was detected in 1 case (2.9%) during follow-up. Moreover, there were no cases with progressive renal dysfunction or breakthrough infection. The rate of kidney with renal scar on scintigraphy before the operation was 48.9%, and the rate of kidney with renal dysfunction before the operation was 60.0%. As a result of Fisher's exact probability test, the risk factors of breakthrough infection (BTI) were high grade VUR and renal scar on scintigraphy. Based on our clinical results, our future strategy for the management of pediatric patients with primary VUR is proposed as follows. In all patients younger than 1 year old, antibacterial prophylaxis should be applied. For patients younger than 6 years old, the initial treatment should be antibacterial prophylaxis, but for patients with VUR of grade III or more, in cases of breakthrough infection or in cases with progressive renal dysfunction, surgical treatment should be considered. For patients older than 6 years with VUR of grade III or more, surgical treatment is strongly recommended. (author)

  18. Esophageal intraluminal baseline impedance is associated with severity of acid reflux and epithelial structural abnormalities in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Chanjuan; Duan, Liping; Wang, Kun; Xu, Zhijie; Ge, Ying; Yang, Changqing; Han, Yajing

    2013-05-01

    The esophageal intraluminal baseline impedance may be used to evaluate the status of mucosa integrity. Esophageal acid exposure decreases the baseline impedance. We aimed to compare baseline impedance in patients with various reflux events and with different acid-related parameters, and investigate the relationships between epithelial histopathologic abnormalities and baseline impedance. A total of 229 GERD patients and 34 controls underwent 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring (MII-pH monitoring), gastroendoscopy, and completed a GERD questionnaire (GerdQ). We quantified epithelial intercellular spaces (ICSs) and expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins by histologic techniques. Mean baseline values in reflux esophagitis (RE) (1752 ± 1018 Ω) and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) (2640 ± 1143 Ω) were significantly lower than in controls (3360 ± 1258 Ω; p acid reflux group (2510 ± 1239 Ω) and mixed acid/weakly acidic reflux group (2393 ± 1009 Ω) were much lower than in controls (3360 ± 1258 Ω; p = 0.020 and p acid exposure time (AET) (r = -0.41, p acid reflux events and with longer AET have low baseline impedance. Baseline values are correlated with esophageal mucosal histopathologic changes such as dilated ICS and TJ alteration.

  19. The Role of Sleep in the Modulation of Gastroesophageal Reflux and Symptoms in NICU Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Aslam; Malkar, Manish; Splaingard, Mark; Khuhro, Abdul; Jadcherla, Sudarshan

    2015-09-01

    Newborns sleep about 80% of the time. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is prevalent in about 10% of neonatal intensive care unit infants. Concurrent polysomnography and pH-impedance studies clarify the relationship of gastroesophageal reflux with sleep. To characterize spatiotemporal and chemical characteristics of impedance-positive gastroesophageal reflux and define symptom associations in sleep and wake states in symptomatic neonates. We hypothesized that frequency of impedance-positive gastroesophageal reflux events and their association with cardiorespiratory symptoms is greater during sleep. Eighteen neonates underwent concurrent polysomnography with a pH-impedance study. Impedance-positive gastroesophageal reflux events (weakly acidic or acidic) were categorized between sleep versus wake states: Symptom Index = number of symptoms with gastroesophageal reflux/total symptoms*100; Symptom Sensitivity Index = number of gastroesophageal reflux with symptoms/total gastroesophageal reflux*100; Symptom Association Probability = [(1 - probability of observed association between reflux and symptoms)*100]). We analyzed 317 gastroesophageal reflux events during 116 hours of polysomnography. During wake versus sleep, respectively, the median (interquartile range) frequency of impedance-positive gastroesophageal reflux was 4.9 (3.1-5.8) versus 1.4 (0.7-1.7) events/hour (P sleep is lower; however, spatiotemporal and chemical characteristics of gastroesophageal reflux and symptom-generation mechanisms are distinct. For cardiorespiratory symptoms during sleep, a lower Symptom Index entails evaluation for etiologies other than gastroesophageal reflux disease, a higher Symptom Sensitivity Index implies heightened esophageal sensitivity, and similar Symptom Association Probability indicates other mechanistic possibilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Charumathi Raghu; Triadafilopoulos, George

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when the reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus causes troublesome symptoms, esophageal injury, and/or complications. Use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) remains the standard therapy for GERD and is effective in most patients. Those whose symptoms are refractory to PPIs should be evaluated further and other treatment options should be considered, according to individual patient characteristics. Response to PPIs could be total (no symptoms), partial (residual breakthrough symptoms), or absent (no change in symptoms). Patients experiencing complete response do not usually need further management. Patients with partial response can be treated surgically or by using emerging endoscopic therapies. Patients who exhibit no response to PPI need further evaluation to rule out other causes. PMID:25274499

  1. Characteristics of symptomatic reflux episodes in Japanese proton pump inhibitor-refractory non-erosive reflux disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kenichiro; Koike, Tomoyuki; Iijima, Katsunori; Saito, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Hiroki; Hatta, Waku; Ara, Nobuyuki; Uno, Kaname; Asano, Naoki; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms in non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) patients. METHODS: Thirty-five NERD patients with persistent symptoms, despite taking rabeprazole 10 mg twice daily for at least 8 wk, were included in this study. All patients underwent 24 h combined impedance - pH on rabeprazole. The symptom index (SI) was considered to be positive if ≥ 50%, and proximal reflux episodes were determined when reflux reached 15 cm above the proximal margin of the lower esophageal sphincter. RESULTS: In 14 (40%) SI-positive patients, with liquid weakly acid reflux, the occurrence rate of reflux symptoms was significantly more frequent in proximal reflux episodes (46.7%) than in distal ones (5.7%) (P acid reflux, there were no significant differences in the occurrence rate of reflux symptoms between proximal reflux episodes (38.5%) and distal ones (20.5%) (NS). With mixed liquid-gas weakly acid reflux, the occurrence rate of reflux symptoms in proximal reflux episodes was significantly more frequent (31.0%) than in distal reflux ones (3.3%) (P acid reflux, there were no significant differences in the occurrence rate of reflux symptoms between proximal reflux episodes (29.4%) and distal ones (14.3%) (NS). CONCLUSION: The proximal extent of weakly acidic liquid and mixed liquid-gas reflux is a major factor associated with reflux perception in SI-positive patients on proton pump inhibitor therapy. PMID:26715820

  2. Mosapride for gastroesophageal reflux disease in neurologically impaired patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Makoto; Kanamori, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yujiro; Kodaka, Tetsuro; Sugiyama, Masahiko; Terawaki, Kan; Suzuki, Kan; Iwanaka, Tadashi

    2017-03-01

    The prokinetic agent cisapride is effective for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in infants and children, but is no longer used for this purpose because of safety concerns. Therefore, other pharmacological agents need to be investigated for efficacy in GERD treatment. In this study, we examined the effectiveness and safety of mosapride for the treatment of neurologically impaired children and adolescents with GERD. Mosapride (0.3 mg/kg/day) was administered to 11 neurologically impaired patients with GERD (five male; median age, 12.3 years). Esophageal acid exposure was measured using esophageal pH monitoring before and at >5 days after the start of mosapride treatment. The pressure and length of the lower esophageal sphincter were compared before and after mosapride treatment. In the 11 patients, median reflux index (percentage of the total monitoring period during which recorded pH was reflux (range, 0.5-2.1 min/reflux) before and 0.7 min/reflux (range, 0.4-1.2 min/reflux) after treatment with mosapride (P = 0.02). The median number of reflux episodes before (219) and after (122) drug treatment did not differ significantly. The decreased reflux index in neurologically impaired patients with GERD is due to mosapride, therefore mosapride may be a candidate for GERD treatment. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Comparison between the Reflux Finding Score and the Reflux Symptom Index in the Practice of Otorhinolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Heloisa Sobreira; Pinto, José Antonio; Zavanela, Adma Roberta; Cavallini, André Freitas; Freitas, Gabriel Santos; Garcia, Fabiola Esteves

    2016-07-01

    The Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease has a prevalence of ∼12% of the urban population in Brazil. Koufman proposed the term to designate Laryngeal Pharyngeal Reflux (LPR) symptoms, signs or tissue damage resulting from aggression of the gastrointestinal contents in the upper aerodigestive tract. Belafsky et al proposed a score that points to inflammatory laryngeal signs through videolaryngoscopic findings, the Reflux Finding Score (RFS). Moreover, in 2002, they published the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI). The objective of this study is to provide a comparison between the Reflux Finding Score and the Reflux Symptom Index in the practice of Otorhinolaryngology. Our study involved a total of 135 patients who visited the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) clinic Núcleo de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço de São Paulo between April 2014 and May 2015 with suspected LPR. We excluded nine patients and the study group was 126 patients. All patients were ranked by their RSI and RFS scores. The study group consisted of 126 patients (88 women and 38 men). Their main complaints were cough (40.4%), globus (21.4%), dysphonia (19.8%), throat clearing (15.8%), postnasal drip (3.17%), snoring (1.5%), dysphagia (1.5%), cacosmia (0.7%), and regurgitation (1.5%). The RSI ranges from 13 to 42 with a mean of 20.7 (SD = 6.67). The RFS ranged from 3 to 19 with a mean of 9.53 (SD = 2.64). The RSI and RFS can easily be included in ENT routines as objective parameters, with low cost and high practicality. Based on the clinical index, the specialist can evaluate the need for further tests.

  4. Malacoplakia associated with vesicoureteral reflux and selective immunoglobulin A deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherington, R; Branan, W J; Wray, B B; Best, G K

    1984-11-01

    A case of malacoplakia involving the lower urinary tract of a young black boy, with associated bilateral vesicoureteral reflux, hydronephrosis and selective immunoglobulin A deficiency is reported. Reflux was caused by the malacoplakia. Reflux and hydronephrosis persisted despite elimination of bacterial infection and malacoplakia by drug therapy. These abnormalities were corrected by a conventional antireflux operation. Malacoplakia appears to be related to immunologic incompetence and diminished levels of intracellular cyclic 3',5' guanine monophosphate. Cholinergic agonists reverse or prevent the pathological changes of malacoplakia.

  5. Discounting the duration of bolus exposure in impedance testing underestimates acid reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikneswaran, Namasivayam; Murray, Joseph A

    2016-06-08

    Combined impedance-pH testing (MII) allows for detection of reflux episodes regardless of pH. However impedance-based diagnosis of reflux may not routinely account for duration of the reflux episode. We hypothesize that impedance testing may be less sensitive than pH-testing in detecting acid reflux off therapy as a result of discounting duration of exposure. Baseline characteristics and reflux parameters of MII studies performed off-anti-secretory medications were analyzed. Studies on acid suppressive medication and those with recording times less than 20 h or low baseline impedance were excluded. A total of 73 consecutive MII studies were analyzed of which 31 MII studies had elevated acid exposure while 16 were abnormal by impedance criteria. MII testing off-therapy was more likely to be abnormal by pH criteria (percent time pH reflux):[42 vs 22 % (p =0.02)]. Acid exposure (percent time pH acid reflux episodes [42 vs 34 % (p acid clearance time (pH-detected) was significantly longer than median bolus clearance time (impedance-detected) in the total [98.7 s vs 12.6 s (p acid clearance time (pH-detected) and the median bolus clearance time (impedance-detected) was significantly higher in the recumbent position compared to the upright position [11. vs 5.3 (p = 0.01)]. Ambulatory impedance testing underestimates acid reflux compared to esophageal acid exposure by discounting the prolonged period of mucosal contact with each acid reflux episode, particularly in the recumbent position.

  6. Reflux perception and the esophageal mucosal barrier in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenborg, P.W.

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Heartburn, regurgitation and chest pain are the key symptoms. Patients with reflux symptoms often have more than average reflux of acidic contents in the esophagus. However, frequently there is

  7. Nasogastric intubation causes gastroesophageal reflux in patients undergoing elective laparotomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Manning, B J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The routine use of nasogastric tubes in patients undergoing elective abdominal operation is associated with an increased incidence of postoperative fever, atelectasis, and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that nasogastric tubes have no significant effect on the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux or on lower esophageal sphincter pressure in healthy volunteers. We hypothesized that nasogastric intubation in patients undergoing laparotomy reduces lower esophageal sphincter pressure and promotes gastroesophageal reflux in the perioperative period. METHODS: A prospective randomized case-control study was undertaken in which 15 consenting patients, admitted electively for bowel surgery, were randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 underwent nasogastric intubation after induction of anesthesia, and Group 2 did not. All patients had manometry and pH probes placed with the aid of endoscopic vision at the lower esophageal sphincter and distal esophagus, respectively. Nasogastric tubes, where present, were left on free drainage, and sphincter pressures and pH were recorded continuously during a 24-hour period. Data were analyzed with 1-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: The mean number of reflux episodes (defined as pH < 4) in the nasogastric tube group was 137 compared with a median of 8 episodes in the group managed without nasogastric tubes (P =.006). The median duration of the longest episode of reflux was 132 minutes in Group 1 and 1 minute in Group 2 (P =.001). A mean of 13.3 episodes of reflux lasted longer than 5 minutes in Group 1, with pH less than 4 for 37.4% of the 24 hours. This was in contrast to Group 2 where a mean of 0.13 episodes lasted longer than 5 minutes (P =.001) and pH less than 4 for 0.2% of total time (P =.001). The mean lower esophageal sphincter pressures were lower in Group 1. CONCLUSIONS. These findings demonstrate that patients undergoing elective laparotomy with routine nasogastric tube placement have significant gastroesophageal

  8. Bile Reflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the upper part of your small intestine (duodenum). Bile reflux into the stomach Bile and food mix ... properly, and bile washes back into the stomach. Bile reflux into the esophagus Bile and stomach acid ...

  9. COMBINED 24-HOURS ESOPHAGEAL PH MONITORING AND MULTICHANNEL INTRALUMINAL IMPEDANCE FOR COMPARISON OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX IN CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL VERSUS ATYPICAL SYMPTOMS OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Taghavi, Seyed Alireza; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Nasri, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    - Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the most common esophageal disorder in pediatrics. - The aim of this study was to compare reflux parameters of typical and atypical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease using 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring and multichannel intraluminal impedance in pediatric population. - In this prospective study, 43 patients aged less than 18 year with suspected gastroesophageal reflux disease were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups based on the main presenting symptoms (typical versus atypical). Twenty four-hour pH monitoring and multichannel intraluminal impedance were performed in all the patients for comparing these two group regarding association of symptoms and reflux. Number of refluxes, pH related reflux, total reflux time, reflux more than 5 minutes, longest time of the reflux, lowest pH at reflux, reflux index were recorded and compared. Data comparison was done using SPSS. - The mean age of the patients was 5.7±3.4 years and 65.1% were male. Out of 43 patients 24 cases had typical symptoms and 19 had atypical symptoms. The mean reflux events detected by multichannel intraluminal impedance was more than mean reflux events detected by pH monitoring (308.4±115.8 vs 69.7±66.6) with P value of 0.037, which is statistically significant. The mean symptom index and symptom association probability were 35.01% ± 20.78% and 86.42% ± 25.79%, respectively in multichannel intraluminal impedance versus 12.73% ± 12.48% and 45.16% ± 42.29% in pH monitoring (P value reflux was 46.26±47.16 and 30.9±22.09 for atypical and typical symptoms respectively. The mean symptom index was 18.12% ± 13.101% and 8.30% ± 10.301% in atypical and typical symptoms respectively (P=0.034). Bolus clearance was longer in atypical symptoms compared typical symptoms(Preflux was found in children with atypical symptoms of reflux. Longer duration of bolus clearance was found in group with atypical symptoms of reflux.

  10. Supraesophageal Reflux: Correlation of Position and Occurrence of Acid Reflux-Effect of Head-of-Bed Elevation on Supine Reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David R; Simon, Ronald A

    2015-01-01

    Supraesophageal reflux of gastric contents can contribute to perennial nasopharyngitis, cough, and asthma. However, effective treatment strategies for supraesophageal reflux disease (SERD) remain inadequately defined. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence and timing of SERD and to investigate the efficacy of head-of-bed elevation in its treatment. A retrospective chart review of patients seen at Scripps Clinic Division of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology was performed who had undergone overnight nasopharyngeal pH monitoring with a commercially available nasopharyngeal pH-monitoring device, Dx-pH Measurement System from Restech, San Diego, Calif. Subjects with reflux were classified based on the position of reflux as either supine only, upright only, or both supine and upright. In a subset of subjects with supine-only reflux, pH monitoring was compared before and after elevating the head of bed 6 inches. Adequate nasopharyngeal pH-monitoring data were obtained for 235 patients. Reflux was detected in 113 (48%) patients. The pattern of reflux observed was 62 (55%) supine only, 4 (4%) upright only, and 47 (42%) upright and supine. Sequential overnight nasopharyngeal pH monitoring before and after head-of-bed elevation was obtained in 13 individuals with supine-only reflux. Ten subjects demonstrated significant improvement, 8 of whom demonstrated complete resolution of supine reflux with 6 inches of head-of-bed elevation. This study provides new evidence that SERD frequently occurs in the supine position and that 6 inches of head-of-bed elevation is effective in reducing supine SERD. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Asia-Pacific consensus on the management of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: an update focusing on refractory reflux disease and Barrett's oesophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fock, Kwong Ming; Talley, Nicholas; Goh, Khean Lee; Sugano, Kentaro; Katelaris, Peter; Holtmann, Gerald; Pandolfino, John E; Sharma, Prateek; Ang, Tiing Leong; Hongo, Michio; Wu, Justin; Chen, Minhu; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Law, Ngai Moh; Sheu, Bor-Shyang; Zhang, Jun; Ho, Khek Yu; Sollano, Jose; Rani, Abdul Aziz; Kositchaiwat, Chomsri; Bhatia, Shobna

    2016-09-01

    Since the publication of the Asia-Pacific consensus on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in 2008, there has been further scientific advancement in this field. This updated consensus focuses on proton pump inhibitor-refractory reflux disease and Barrett's oesophagus. A steering committee identified three areas to address: (1) burden of disease and diagnosis of reflux disease; (2) proton pump inhibitor-refractory reflux disease; (3) Barrett's oesophagus. Three working groups formulated draft statements with supporting evidence. Discussions were done via email before a final face-to-face discussion. We used a Delphi consensus process, with a 70% agreement threshold, using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria to categorise the quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. A total of 32 statements were proposed and 31 were accepted by consensus. A rise in the prevalence rates of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in Asia was noted, with the majority being non-erosive reflux disease. Overweight and obesity contributed to the rise. Proton pump inhibitor-refractory reflux disease was recognised to be common. A distinction was made between refractory symptoms and refractory reflux disease, with clarification of the roles of endoscopy and functional testing summarised in two algorithms. The definition of Barrett's oesophagus was revised such that a minimum length of 1 cm was required and the presence of intestinal metaplasia no longer necessary. We recommended the use of standardised endoscopic reporting and advocated endoscopic therapy for confirmed dysplasia and early cancer. These guidelines standardise the management of patients with refractory gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's oesophagus in the Asia-Pacific region. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Children with Interstitial Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziekiewicz, M A; Karolewska-Bochenek, K; Dembiński, Ł; Gawronska, A; Krenke, K; Lange, J; Banasiuk, M; Kuchar, E; Kulus, M; Albrecht, P; Banaszkiewicz, A

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is common in adult patients with interstitial lung disease. However, no data currently exist regarding the prevalence and characteristics of the disease in pediatric patients with interstitial lung disease. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and characterize its features in children with interstitial lung disease. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was established based on 24 h pH-impedance monitoring (MII-pH). Gastroesophageal reflux episodes (GERs) were classified according to widely recognized criteria as acid, weakly acid, weakly alkaline, or proximal. Eighteen consecutive patients (15 boys, aged 0.2-11.6 years) were enrolled in the study. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed in a half (9/18) of children. A thousand GERs were detected by MII-pH (median 53.5; IQR 39.0-75.5). Of these, 585 (58.5 %) episodes were acidic, 407 (40.7 %) were weakly acidic, and eight (0.8 %) were weakly alkaline. There were 637 (63.7 %) proximal GERs. The patients in whom gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed had a significantly higher number of proximal and total GERs. We conclude that the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with interstitial lung disease is high; thus, the disease should be considered regardless of presenting clinical symptoms. A high frequency of non-acid and proximal GERs makes the MII-pH method a preferable choice for the detection of reflux episodes in this patient population.

  13. Detection of gastro-oesophageal reflux in the neonatal unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossor, Thomas; Lingam, Ingran; Douiri, Abdel; Bhat, Ravindra; Greenough, Anne

    2018-03-13

    To determine whether a pH probe or multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII) more frequently detected gastro-oesophageal reflux and test the hypothesis that acid reflux was associated with lower baseline impedance. A prospective study of infants in whom reflux was suspected and evaluated using combined pH and multichannel impedance. Studies were considered abnormal if the acid index was >10% or there were >79MII reflux events in 24 hours. The acid index was the percentage of total study time with a pHacid clearance time (ACT) the time from the pH falling below four to rising above four. Forty-two infants [median gestational age 31 (range 23-42) weeks] were assessed. Only nine infants (21%) had abnormal studies, seven detected by pH monitoring, one by MII monitoring and one by both techniques (p = 0.04). After correcting for gestational age and post-natal age, baseline impedance remained negatively correlated with the acid index (r = -0.34, p = 0.038) and the maximum ACT (r = -0.44, p = 0.006). Clinical suspicion of reflux was frequently incorrect, and reflux was more frequently detected by a pH probe. The inverse relationship of acid reflux to baseline impedance suggests that mucosal disruption may result from acid reflux in this population. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Symptom perception in gastroesophageal reflux disease is dependent on spatiotemporal reflux characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weusten, B. L.; Akkermans, L. M.; vanBerge-Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The mechanisms responsible for the development of symptoms in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are poorly understood. The aims of this study were to identify differences in spatiotemporal reflux characteristics (proximal extent and duration of reflux episodes, ascending

  15. A prospective cross-sectional study of laparoscopic subtotal Lind fundoplication for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease--a durable and effective anti-reflux procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapey, I M; Agrawal, S; Peacock, A; Super, P

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic partial fundoplication for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is reported to have fewer side effects when compared to Nissen fundoplication, but doubts remain over its long term durability in controlling reflux. The aim of this study was to assess outcome of symptoms for all patients presenting with GORD undergoing routine laparoscopic subtotal Lind fundoplication. All patients undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication between August, 1999 and November, 2007 performed by a single surgeon were included in the study. The anti-reflux procedure studied was laparoscopic Lind (300°) fundoplication with crural repair in all cases. Patients completed pre and post-operative questionnaires containing validated scoring systems for heartburn, gas bloat, dysphagia and overall patient satisfaction. Over the 100-month period, 320 consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic subtotal Lind fundoplication. Of these, 256 (80%) replied to the questionnaire at a mean of 31 months (range 3-96 months) following surgery. 91.4% of respondents had an improvement in heartburn symptom score with a significant reduction in score from 7.74 preoperatively to 1.25 postoperatively (preflux control (heartburn and regurgitation) from 3.49 preoperatively to 1.48 after surgery (preflux symptoms with half of these reporting their recurrence within two years following surgery. Because of this all were tested with post-operative pH testing, yet only one had a 24-h pH time outside the normal range. Overall patient satisfaction was high with a visual analogue score of 9 and 88% of the patients claimed they would have the operation again. Laparoscopic Lind fundoplication demonstrates excellent reflux control when performed routinely for all patients presenting with GORD. This technique is both durable and efficacious in controlling reflux symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Adam, Eve and the reflux enigma: age and sex differences across the gastro-oesophageal reflux spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, Christine; Bardhan, Karna D

    2017-06-01

    We present demographic differences across the gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) spectrum in a UK District General Hospital. Data were prospectively collected over 37 years. At endoscopy patients were categorized as: erosive oesophagitis (EO), Barrett's oesophagus (BO) or nonerosive reflux disease (NER). Analysis 1: comparison of EO, BO and NER 1977-2001 when the database for GORD without BO closed. Analysis 2: demographic differences in oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) in total BO population diagnosed 1977-2011. GORD 1977-2001 (n=11 944): sex, male predominance in EO and BO but not NER; male : female ratios, 1.81, 1.65, 0.87, respectively (P<0.0001); mean age at presentation, EO 54 years, BO 62 years, NER 50 years; women were older than men by 10, 7 and 6 years, respectively.BO 1977-2011: prevalent OAC, 87/1468 (6%); male : female ratio, 4.1 (P<0.0001); incident OAC, 54/1381 (3.9%); male : female ratio, 3.5 (P<0.0001). Among all BO, more men developed OAC (3 vs. 0.9%). Within each sex, proportion of OAC higher among men (4.9 vs. 2.3%); at OAC diagnosis women were slightly but not significantly older (69.9 vs. 72.3 years, P=0.322). Two views may explain our findings. First, women have either milder reflux, or reduced mucosal sensitivity hence reflux remains silent for longer. Alternatively, women genuinely develop reflux later, that is, are more protected and for longer from developing GORD and its complications. Early evidence is emerging that female sex hormones may indeed have a protective role in GORD during the reproductive period. We suggest reflux and its consequences may be an example of 'protection' conferred on Eve.

  17. Regional oesophageal sensitivity to acid and weakly acidic reflux in patients with non-erosive reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerenziani, S; Ribolsi, M; Sifrim, D; Blondeau, K; Cicala, M

    2009-03-01

    The mechanisms underlying symptoms in non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) remain to be elucidated. Non-erosive reflux disease patients appear to be more sensitive to intraluminal stimula than erosive patients, the proximal oesophagus being the most sensitive. In order to assess regional oesophageal changes in reflux acidity and sensitivity to reflux, according either to the acidity or the composition of the refluxate, combined multiple pH and multiple pH-impedance (pH-MII) was performed in 16 NERD patients. According to multiple pH-metry, 29% and 12% of reflux events reached the middle and proximal oesophagus respectively, and 35% and 19% according to conventional pH-MII (P acid reflux became weakly acidic at the proximal oesophagus. In all patients, the frequency of symptomatic refluxes, both acid and weakly acidic, was significantly higher at the proximal, compared with distal oesophagus (25 +/- 8%vs 11 +/- 2% for acid reflux and 27 +/- 8%vs 8 +/- 2% for weakly acidic reflux; P reflux. As approximately 30% of acid reflux becomes weakly acidic along the oesophageal body, to better characterize proximal reflux, in clinical practice, combined proximal pH-impedance monitoring should be used. In NERD patients, the proximal oesophagus seems to be more sensitive to both acid and weakly acidic reflux.

  18. Total diet, individual meals, and their association with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehranghiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: To identify the association of total diet and individual meals with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. Methods: This age- and sex-matched case-control study was carried out among 217 subjects (106 cases and 111 controls. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and a GERD checklist and a 3-day food record. Results: Cases consumed more fat (median: 26.3 [3.2-71.5] g vs. 21.8 [4.3-58.1] g; P=0.04and more energy percent form carbohydrates (median: 72.5 [0-100] vs. 69.0 [0-100]; P=0.02at lunch, and less energy (median: 129.5 kcal [0-617.6] vs. 170.5 kcal [0-615.7]; P=0.01 and protein (2.4 [0-19.4] g vs. 3.1 [0-21.8] g; P=0.01 at evening snack, compared to controls.The volume of food was significantly different between the two group only at lunch (median:516 [161-1292] g vs. 468 [198-1060] g; P=0.02. The percentage of energy from total dietary protein showed a significant association with GERD after adjusting for confounders (odds ratio[OR]=0.89; 95% CI: 0.81-0.98. Regarding the individual meals, amount of fat consumed at lunch (OR=1.02; 95% CI: 1.00-1.05, and amount of protein intake at evening snack (OR=0.92;95% CI: 0.85-1.00 were significantly associated with GERD. Meanwhile, caloric density and meal frequency did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusion: Amount of fat consumed at lunch is positively associated with GERD, whereas the percentage of energy from total protein and amount of protein intake at evening snack are more likely to be inversely associated with GERD.

  19. Radiologic quantitation of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Correlation between height of food stimulated gastro-oesophageal reflux and level of histologic changes in reflux oesophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, T.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Jacobsen, N.O.; Thommesen, P.

    In a prospective study, 26 patients with symptoms of reflux oesophagitis underwent a barium examination for gastro-oesophageal reflux after food stimulation, and endoscopy with biopsy from different levels of the oesophagus. Radiologic grading of the gastro-oesophageal reflux depending on the height of the reflux into the oesophagus was performed, and this was correlated to the microscopic appearance at different levels in the oesophagus. Complete agreement between the radiologic grading and the histology was found in 69 per cent of the cases, and when gastro-oesophageal reflux was demonstrated the agreement was 75 per cent. Accordingly, the results showed a good accordance between the two variants, indicating that the height of the reflux during the food stimulated test may be truly indicative of the reflux height under non-test conditions.

  20. Reflux and GERD (in Children)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition Nurses Print Share Reflux GERD Reflux occurs during or after a meal when ... tube connecting the mouth to the stomach). Reflux & GERD The Difference Between Reflux and GERD in Kids ...

  1. Food and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdea-Blaga, Teodora; Negrutiu, Dana E; Palage, Mariana; Dumitrascu, Dan L

    2017-05-15

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a chronic condition with a high prevalence in western countries. Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation episodes and a decreased lower esophageal sphincter pressure are the main mechanisms involved. Currently used drugs are efficient on reflux symptoms, but only as long as they are administered, because they do not modify the reflux barrier. Certain nutrients or foods are generally considered to increase the frequency of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, therefore physicians recommend changes in diet and some patients avoid bothering foods. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding food and gastroesophageal reflux. For example, fat intake increases the perception of reflux symptoms. Regular coffee and chocolate induce gastroesophageal reflux and increase the lower esophageal exposure to acid. Spicy foods might induce heartburn, but the exact mechanism is not known. Beer and wine induce gastroesophageal reflux, mainly in the first hour after intake. For other foods, like fried food or carbonated beverages data on gastroesophageal reflux is scarce. Similarly, there is few data about the type of diet and gastroesophageal reflux. Mediterranean diet and a very low carbohydrate diet protect against reflux. Regarding diet-related practices, consistent data showed that a "short-meal-to-sleep interval" favors reflux episodes, therefore some authors recommend that dinner should be at least four hours before bedtime. All these recommendations should consider patient's weight, because several meta-analysis showed a positive association between increased body mass index and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Acid and non-acid reflux in patients refractory to proton pump inhibitor therapy: is gastroparesis a factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Anna; Sayed, Bisma A; Talley, Nicholas J; Moshiree, Baharak

    2013-10-07

    To determine whether an increased number and duration of non-acid reflux events as measured using the multichannel intraluminal impedance pH (MII-pH) is linked to gastroparesis (GP). A case control study was conducted in which 42 patients undergoing clinical evaluation for continued symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (both typical and atypical symptoms) despite acid suppression therapy. MII-pH technology was used over 24 h to detect reflux episodes and record patients' symptoms. Parameters evaluated in patients with documented GP and controls without GP by scintigraphy included total, upright, and supine number of acid and non-acid reflux episodes (pH 4, respectively), the duration of acid and non-acid reflux in a 24-h period, and the number of reflux episodes lasting longer than 5 min. No statistical difference was seen between the patients with GP and controls with respect to the total number or duration of acid reflux events, total number and duration of non-acid reflux events or the duration of longest reflux episodes. The number of non-acid reflux episodes with a pH > 7 was higher in subjects with GP than in controls. In addition, acid reflux episodes were more prolonged (lasting longer than 5 min) in the GP patients than in controls; however, these values did not reach statistical significance. Thirty-five patients had recorded symptoms during the 24 h study and of the 35 subjects, only 9% (n = 3) had a positive symptom association probability (SAP) for acid/non-acid reflux and 91% had a negative SAP. The evaluation of patients with a documented history of GP did not show an association between GP and more frequent episodes of non-acid reflux based on MII-pH testing.

  3. Mechanisms of acid, weakly acidic and gas reflux after anti-reflux surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, A. J.; Draaisma, W. A.; Weusten, B. L. A. M.; Gooszen, H. G.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whereas it is well documented that fundoplication reduces acid reflux, the effects of the procedure on non-acid and gas reflux and the mechanisms through which this is achieved have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: In 14 patients, reflux was measured with impedance-pH monitoring

  4. Reflux and GERD in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastroenterology and Nutrition Nurses Print Share Reflux and GERD : Reflux and GERD in Infants Reflux and GERD in Infants It’s not uncommon for a baby ... happy, healthy childhood. Quick Facts about Reflux and GERD in Infants The majority of infants do not ...

  5. Radiologic diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, S.G.; Soekjer, H.; Johansson, K.E.; Tibbling, L.

    In 149 patients, a standardized radiologic method for the detection of gastro-oesophageal reflux was applied and compared with the results obtained at endoscopy and by a manometric reflux test. Radiologic reflux was recorded in 53 patients, of whom 25 had reflux without abdominal compression and 51 with compression. At least one of the other two types of examination disclosed pathologic conditions in all but 2 of 53 patients. Oesophagitis was significantly more severe among the patients with reflux observed at radiography. The presence of hiatal incompetence with reflux only to the hiatal hernia but not to the oesophagus was not a strong indicator of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Hiatal hernia was present in a significantly larger number of the patients with reflux at radiography than in those without reflux. Increased width of the hiatus gave stronger evidence for reflux disease than in patients with a normal hiatus. Thus, the width of the hiatus also had a bearing on the diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

  6. Benzole still reflux system - Dawes Lane Coke Ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardwick, J.

    2005-07-01

    The paper describes a project carried out at Dawes Lane coking plant (in Scunthorpe, UK) to access current performance of the batch reflux system with respect to the operation of personnel and to recommend a solution to eliminate naphthalene blockage and problems previously caused by the use of hot debenzolised oil (DBO) as make-up. A successful solution was found and implemented. The benzole product now being produced is within specification and regularly achieves the composition produced by the previous hot reflux system (83% benzole, 7% naphthalene) with an addition reduction in wash oil usage of 20%. Problems of naphthalene blockages in reflux pipework have been cured. The expenses on the project were small. The paper was presented at a COMA meeting at Monckton Coke Ovens on 19 May 2005. 6 figs.

  7. Reproducibility of gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy and the standard acid reflux test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, B.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Myrvold, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Patients with symptoms compatible with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease and asymptomatic controls were evaluated three times for GER by gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy (GES) at intervals ranging from 6 h to 15 days and after various periods of fasting. Similarly, in patients and controls, pH monitoring at the distal esophagus was conducted three times by applying the standard reflux test (SART) at intervals ranging from 4 h to 3 days after different fasting periods. In 18 of 19 patients and 14 of 15 controls the results of SART were indentical on all three occations. A similar agreement was found for GES in 23 of 25 patients and 20 of 21 controls. The reproducibility of the induced type of reflux after ingestion of acidified organic juce was significantly better than that of the spontaneous types or the induced type of reflux after ingestion of saline. It is concluded that the reproducibility of GES and SART is similatly good

  8. Reproducibility of gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy and the standard acid reflux test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, B.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Myrvold, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Patients with symptoms compatible with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease and asymptomatic controls were evaluated three times for GER by gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy (GES) at intervals ranging from 6 h to 15 days and after various periods of fasting. Similarly, in patients and controls, pH monitoring at the distal esophagus was conducted three times by applying the standard reflux test (SART) at intervals ranging from 4 h to 3 days after different fasting periods. In 18 of 19 patients and 14 of 15 controls the results of SART were indentical on all three occations. A similar agreement was found for GES in 23 of 25 patients and 20 of 21 controls. The reproducibility of the induced type of reflux after ingestion of acidified organic juce was significantly better than that of the spontaneous types or the induced type of reflux after ingestion of saline. It is concluded that the reproducibility of GES and SART is similatly good.

  9. Influence of exercise testing in gastroesophageal reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Filho, Antonio Moreira; Moraes-Filho, Joaquim Prado Pinto; Nasi, Ary; Eisig, Jaime Natan; Rodrigues, Tomas Navarro; Barbutti, Ricardo Correa; Campos, Josemberg Marins; Chinzon, Decio

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a worldwide prevalent condition that exhibits a large variety of signs and symptoms of esophageal or extra-esophageal nature and can be related to the esophagic adenocarcinoma. In the last few years, greater importance has been given to the influence of physical exercises on it. Some recent investigations, though showing conflicting results, point to an exacerbation of gastroesophageal reflux during physical exercises. To evaluate the influence of physical activities in patients presenting with erosive and non erosive disease by ergometric stress testing and influence of the lower esophageal sphincter tonus and body mass index during this situation. Twenty-nine patients with erosive disease (group I) and 10 patients with non-erosive disease (group II) were prospectively evaluated. All the patients were submitted to clinical evaluation, followed by upper digestive endoscopy, manometry and 24 h esophageal pH monitoring. An ergometric testing was performed 1 h before removing the esophageal pH probe. During the ergometric stress testing, the following variables were analyzed: test efficacy, maximum oxygen uptake, acid reflux duration, gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, influence of the lower esophageal sphincter tonus and influence of body mass index in the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux during these physical stress. Maximum oxigen consumption or VO 2 max, showed significant correlation when it was 70% or higher only in the erosive disease group, evaluating the patients with or without acid reflux during the ergometric testing (p=0,032). The other considered variables didn't show significant correlations between gastroesophageal reflux and physical activity (p>0,05). 1) Highly intensive physical activity can predispose the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux episodes in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients with erosive disease; 2) light or short sessions of physical activity have no influence on reflux, regardless of body

  10. Vesicoureteral reflux and reflux nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, H.S.

    1985-01-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is mainly a primary phenomenon due to incompetence of the ureterovesical junction, mostly affecting a pediatric population. During micturition cystourethrography (MCU) reflux into the kidney - intrarenal reflux (IRR) - is occasionally seen. In areas with IRR the kidney surface may subsequently be depressed and the papillae retracted (reflux nephropathy (RN)). VUR may lead to hypertension and/or end-stage renal failure. Most commonly, VUR is discovered during evaluation for urinary tract infection, but it may also be present in patients with hypertension, toxemia of pregnancy, chronic renal failure and proteinuria, and it may be found in siblings of patients with VUR. For the time being VUR is demonstrated at radiographic MCU, whereas RN is diagnosed by demonstration of focal scars and of abnormal parenchymal thickness at urography. In children with VUR and no abnormalities of calyces or parenchymal defects standardized measurement of the parenchymal thickness at three sites may identify kidneys which are likely to develop focal scars. Quantitation of focal scarring should be performed in connection with a measure of the overall kidney size. The occurrence of IRR is dependent of the papillary morphology, intrapelvic pressure and urine flow. There may be an important relationship between renal ischemia and IRR in producing a 'vicious circle of deleterious effects' which, combined with parenchymal extravasation, may lead to RN. Treatment of VUR includes medical and surgical management. Since renal scarring may occur in infancy, prevention should focus on infants and young children. Infants and young children with severe VUR may have normal urograms. Therefore a MCU should also be performed, preferably with the recommended standardized technique. (orig.)

  11. New bulking agent for the treatment of vesicoureteral reflux: Polymethylmethacrylate/dextranomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Woon Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to report preliminary results of endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children with a single injection of a new bulking agent, cross-linked dextran and polymethylmethacrylate mixture. Materials and Methods: We performed a single-center, single surgeon, prospective, off-label study using polymethylmethacrylate/dextranomer to treat vesicoureteral reflux. All patients underwent endoscopic injection, followed by renal ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram at 3 months postoperatively to identify de novo or worsening hydronephrosis and vesicoureteral reflux correction (to Grade 0 or I. Results: Eighteen patients underwent injection of polymethylmethacrylate/dextranomer at our institution between April 2013 and December 2013. Ten were males and eight were females, with a median age of 58 months (range, 6 months to 5 years. Vesicoureteral reflux was unilateral in three patients and bilateral in 15, for a total of 33 renal refluxing units. Vesicoureteral reflux was Grade I in one renal refluxing unit, Grade II in 12, Grade III in 16, and Grade IV in four. Mean injected volume was 0.86 mL. Reflux was corrected in 23 renal refluxing units (69.7% according to the 3-month voiding cystourethrogram. Complications included urinary retention in one patient. Mild pyelectasis was noted in one patient at 3 months, which spontaneously resolved 3 months later. Conclusions: Our short-term data show that polymethylmethacrylate/dextranomer injection can be used to treat vesicoureteral reflux with comparable efficacy to other substances currently used and a low rate of complications. Long-term follow-up is required to confirm the usefulness of this material in treating vesicoureteral reflux.

  12. Reflux esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a cross-sectional study of gastroesophageal reflux disease patients by age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Filho Rowilson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the intensity of acid reflux and severity of esophageal tissue damage in a cross-sectional study of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. Seventy-eight patients with were selected in accordance with the strict 24-hour ambulatory esophageal pHmetry (24h-pHM criteria and distributed into three age groups: Group A: 14 - 24 years of age. Group B: 25 - 54; and Group C: 55 - 64. The 24h-pHM was carried out in accordance with DeMeester standardization, and the Savary-Miller classification for the diagnosis of reflux esophagitis was used. The groups were similar in 24h-pHM parameters (p > 0.05, having above normal values. For the study group as a whole, there was no correlation between age group and intensity of acid reflux, and there was no correlation between intensity of acid reflux and severity of esophageal tissue damage. However, when the same patients were sub-grouped in accordance with the depth of their epithelial injury and then distributed into age groups, there was a significant difference in esophagitis without epithelial discontinuity. Younger patients had less epithelial damage than older patients. Additionally, although there was a significant progression from the least severe to the moderate stages of epithelial damage among the age groups, there was no apparent difference among the age groups in the distribution between the moderate stages and most severe stages. The findings support the conclusion that the protective response of individuals to acid reflux varies widely. Continued aggression by acid reflux appears to lead to the exhaustion of individual mechanisms of epithelial protection in some patients, but not others, regardless of age or duration of the disease. Therefore, the diagnosis and follow-up of GERD should include both measurements of the quantity of refluxed acid and an assessment of the damage to the esophageal epithelium.

  13. Comparison of Esophageal Function Tests in Chinese Patients with Functional Heartburn and Reflux Hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the differences in the results of esophageal function tests for functional heartburn (FH and reflux hypersensitivity (RH. Methods. Patients with FH and RH and healthy volunteers (HVs from the Department of Gastroenterology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital and Beijing Chao-Yang hospital, who underwent high-resolution manometry and impedance (HRIM, and 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH recording (MII/pH between 2014 and 2016, were enrolled in this study. Results. 36 HV, 147 FH patients, and 91 RH patients were enrolled. The postreflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave index (PSPW index and mean nocturnal baseline impedance (MNBI values were significantly lower in RH than in FH and HV. The ineffective esophageal motility (IEM, fragmented peristalsis rates, total bolus exposure, proximal total reflux events, and distal total reflux events were significantly greater in RH than in FH and HV. Conclusions. Compared to HV and FH patients, RH patients exhibited greater IEM and fragmented peristalsis rates, a greater total bolus exposure, more proximal total and distal total reflux events, and reduced chemical clearance and mucosal integrity. By using the above described parameters, HRIM and MII/pH assays could be used to correctly classify RH and FH and hence allow physicians to provide adequate relief from associated symptoms.

  14. Liquid-containing Refluxes and Acid Refluxes May Be Less Frequent in the Japanese Population Than in Other Populations: Normal Values of 24-hour Esophageal Impedance and pH Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Osamu; Kohata, Yukie; Kawami, Noriyuki; Iida, Hiroshi; Kawada, Akiyo; Hosaka, Hiroko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Iwakiri, Katsuhiko; Inamori, Masahiko; Kusano, Motoyasu; Hongo, Micho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Twenty-four-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring allows detection of all types of reflux episodes and is considered the best technique for identifying gastroesophageal refluxes. However, normative data for the Japanese population are lacking. This multicenter study aimed to establish the normal range of 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH data both in the distal and the proximal esophagus in Japanese subjects. Methods Forty-two healthy volunteers (25 men and 17 women) with a mean ± standard deviation age of 33.3 ± 12.4 years (range: 22–72 years) underwent a combined 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. According to the physical and pH properties, distal or proximal esophageal reflux events were categorized. Results Median 45 reflux events occurred in 24 hours, and the 95th percentile was 85 events. Unlike previous reports, liquid-containing reflux events are median 25/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 62/24 hours. Acidic reflux events were median 11/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 39/24 hours. Non-acidic gas reflux events were median 15/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 39/24 hours. Proximal reflux events accounted for 80% of the total reflux events and were mainly non-acidic gas refluxes. About 19% of liquid and mixed refluxes reached the proximal esophagus. Conclusions Unlike previous studies, liquid-containing and acidic reflux events may be less frequent in the Japanese population. Non-acidic gas reflux events may be frequent and a cause of frequent proximal reflux events. This study provides important normative data for 24-hour impedance and pH monitoring in both the distal and the proximal esophagus in the Japanese population. PMID:27247103

  15. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Alkaline Reflux: the Mechanisms of the Development and Therapeutic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Zviahintseva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD — a pathology, which occupies a leading place among all acid-related diseases. The main mechanism of GERD is a violation of the motor-evacuation function of the stomach — slowing gastric emptying and duodenogastric reflux. Slow gastric emptying contributes to more frequent reflux, and the presence of duodenal contents in refluxate — alkaline reflux — is aggressive for the esophageal mucosa (EM. This is due to the presence of bile acids, lysolecithin and pancreatic enzymes in the esophageal refluxate. A long existing contact of aggressive factors in the stomach and the esophagus leads to the development of inflammatory and destructive lesions of the mucous membrane of these organs. According to many researchers, bile acids play a key role in the pathogenesis of the damaging effects on the EM. Drug correction of GERD with alkaline reflux includes, along with the administration of proton pump inhibitors, prokinetics (itopride hydrochloride and ursodeoxycholic acid preparations.

  16. Correlation of Gastroesophageal reflux disease Assessment Symptom Questionnaire to impedance-pH measurements in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachuapthunyachart, Sittichoke; Jarasvaraparn, Chaowapong; Gremse, David A

    2017-01-01

    Esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring has become one of the preferred tests to correlate observed reflux-like behaviors with esophageal reflux events. The Gastroesophageal reflux disease Assessment Symptom Questionnaire is a validated tool used to distinguish infants with gastroesophageal reflux disease from healthy children. The aim of this study was to determine whether the Gastroesophageal reflux disease Assessment Symptom Questionnaire composite symptom scores and individual symptom scores correlate with outcomes in esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring. A total of 26 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease-associated symptoms, aged 0-2 years, for whom both esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring and Gastroesophageal reflux disease Assessment Symptom Questionnaire survey results were available were included in the study. Gastroesophageal reflux disease Assessment Symptom Questionnaire score data were collected from a 7-day recall of parent's responses about the frequency and severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms, which determined the individual symptom scores. The composite symptom scores is the sum of all individual symptom scores. Multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH study results were compared to Gastroesophageal reflux disease Assessment Symptom Questionnaire data using Pearson correlation. Among 26 patients, a total number of 2817 (1700 acid and 1117 non-acid) reflux episodes and 845 clinical reflux behaviors were recorded. There were significant correlations between the reflux index and the individual symptom scores for coughing/gagging/choking (r 2 = 0.2842, p = 0.005), the impedance score and individual symptom scores for coughing/gagging/choking (r 2 = 0.2482, p = 0.009), the reflux symptom index for acid reflux-related coughing/gagging/choking and the individual symptom scores for coughing/gagging/choking (r 2 = 0.1900, p = 0.026), the impedance score and

  17. [Update on gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Pueyo, Jordi

    2014-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a highly frequent disorder classically characterized by the presence of heartburn and/or acid regurgitation that improves with drug therapy that reduces acid content in the stomach. However, especially in patients with non-erosive disease, response to proton pump inhibitors is unsatisfactory in approximately 1 out of 3 patients, and consequently, in these patients, it is important to establish a definitive diagnosis and an alternative therapeutic strategy. In the last few years, advances have been made in knowledge of the physiopathology of reflux, such as identification of the role of the acid pocket in producing reflux, technological advances that allow differentiation among acid reflux, non-acid reflux and slightly acid reflux, and advances in the treatment of reflux with drugs that attempt to act on the barrier function of the esophagogastric junction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  18. [Impact of reflux on the kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, P; Louis, D; Basset, T

    1984-03-01

    Description of the reflux nephropathy. Pyelonephritis lesions are undoubtedly linked to the vesico-ureteric reflux. The role of the intra-renal reflux ( Hodson ) and the Big Bang Theory ( Ransley ) are discussed as the data from animal experiments. The role of the sterile reflux and of the segmental hypoplasia is relatively less important. The actual management of vesico-ureteric reflux treatment is questioned.

  19. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Aerodigestive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Asim; Ryan, Matthew J

    2018-03-01

    This relationship between gastroesophageal reflux and airway disorders is complex, possibly bidirectional, and not clearly defined. The tools used to investigate gastroesophageal reflux are mostly informative about involvement of gastroesophageal reflux within the gastrointestinal tract, although they are often utilized to study the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux and airway issues with are suspected to occur in relation to reflux. These modalities often lack specificity for reflux-related airway disorders. Co-incidence of gastroesophageal reflux and airway disorders does not necessarily infer causality. While much of our focus has been on managing acidity, controlling refluxate is an area that has not been traditionally aggressively pursued. Our management approach is based on some of the evidence presented, but also often from a lack of adequate study to provide further guidance. Copyright © 2018 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gastroesophageal reflux - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100181.htm Gastroesophageal reflux - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... junction of the esophagus and the stomach prevents reflux of food and acid from the stomach into the esophagus. Review Date ...

  1. Recent trends in the surgical management of primary vesicoureteral reflux in the era of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Katherine W; Corbett, Sean T; Lendvay, Thomas S; Caldamone, Anthony A

    2014-05-01

    Since its inception as a technology in the United States, endoscopic correction of vesicoureteral reflux has become a popular treatment option in children with vesicoureteral reflux with reported wide use. We determined whether the increasing trend in use in the United States after the introduction of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid has been sustained. We abstracted data on pediatric patients treated with ureteral reimplantation or dextranomer/hyaluronic acid intervention for vesicoureteral reflux from 2004 to 2011 from the PHIS (Pediatric Health Information System) database. Patients with coding data indicating diagnoses other than primary vesicoureteral reflux and hospitals reporting less than 80% of ambulatory surgery cases by CPT code were excluded from study. We identified 14,430 patients (17,826 procedures), of whom 49% underwent reimplantation and 51% underwent dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection. Of the patients 83% were female with a median age at surgery of 4.7 years (IQR 2.5-7.2). Linear regression showed a significant downward trend in the average total number of antireflux operations per institution during the study period. This was attributable to a decrease in the average rate of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid interventions because the average reimplantation rate remained stable during this time. At freestanding pediatric hospitals enrolled in the PHIS database there is a trend toward decreasing intervention for primary vesicoureteral reflux, which appears to be due to decreased use of injection therapy. This may reflect a philosophical change in reflux management by injection therapy. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissas, John; Braghetto, Italo; Molina, Juan Carlos; Silecchia, Gianfranco; Iossa, Angelo; Iannelli, Antonio; Foletto, Mirto

    2015-12-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and/or hiatus hernia (HH) are one of the most common disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Despite the positive effect of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) regarding weight loss and improvement in obesity co-morbidities, there are concerns about the development of de novo gastroesophageal reflux disease or worsening the existing GERD after this bariatric operation. Furthermore, controversy exists on the consequences of SG in lower esophageal sphincter function and about the ideal procedure when a hiatus hernia is preoperatively diagnosed or discovered during the laparoscopic SG. This review systematically investigates the incidence, the pathophysiology of GERD and/or HH in morbidly obese individuals before and after SG, and the treatment options for concomitant HH repair during laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

  3. Efficacy of omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate treatment in gastroesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera-de-la-Tijera, Fátima

    2018-03-14

    Proton pump inhibitors are the most effective medical therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease, but their onset of action may be slow. To assess the available literature regarding the efficacy of omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate in gastroesophageal reflux patients. A systematic review was conducted. A systematic literature search starting from 2000. Reviewed manuscripts concerning the effectiveness of omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate treatment in gastroesophageal reflux disease were reviewed and the data were extracted. Data were subsequently analyzed with descriptive statistics. This review included information of four studies. Two trials compared the efficacy of omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate versus omeprazole. One study compared the efficacy of once-daily morning or nighttime dosing. And another study compared omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate/alginate versus omeprazole. In total, there was no difference between omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate and omeprazole. However, there is a trend towards more sustained response and a greater proportion of patients with sustained total relief by 30 minutes with omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate. Omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate therapy is not more effective than omeprazole in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, data obtained suggest that it can have a more sustained response and sustained total relief.

  4. Acid Rather Than Nonacid Reflux Burden Is a Predictor of Tooth Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Meenakshi; Hertzberg, Anne; Nurko, Samuel; Needleman, Howard; Rosen, Rachel

    2016-02-01

    The relation between tooth erosion (TE) and gastroesophageal reflux in children has not been clearly established, and there are no studies to determine the relation with refluxate height, nonacid reflux, and erosions. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between TE and acid and nonacid gastroesophageal refluxes measured using combined pH and multichannel intraluminal impedance (pH-MII). We conducted a prospective cohort study of children presenting for pH-MII testing. Once informed consent was obtained, patients completed questionnaires about their reflux symptoms and diet, and then underwent pH-MII catheter placement and a dental examination. The Keels-Coffield erosion index was used to score the extent and severity of TE. Reflux parameters of patients with and without TE were compared using Student t test and correlations were performed using Spearman correlations. A total of 27 patients participated in the study, all of whom were on acid suppression at the time of pH-MII testing. Of the 27 patients, 10 (37%) had TE. There were significant positive correlations between acid reflux episodes (r = 0.44, P = 0.02), the percentage of time that acid reflux was present in the distal esophagus (r = 0.44, P = 0.02), and reflux index (r = 0.54, P = 0.004) with the number of TE in a given patient. The percentage of time that acid reflux was present in the proximal esophagus was positively correlated with the number of teeth erosions per patient with borderline significance (r = 0.38, P = 0.05). There was a positive correlation between acid reflux parameters and TE. Acid, rather than nonacid reflux, seems to have a significant role in the pathogenesis of TE.

  5. Gastro-oesophageal reflux and cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulqawi, Rayid; Houghton, Lesley A; Smith, Jaclyn A

    2013-05-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux, either singly or in association with postnasal drip and/or asthma is considered to be a cause of chronic cough. The amount and nature of gastro-oesophageal reflux however is often normal with acid suppression having very little, if any therapeutic effect in these patients. This review examines the challenges posed when exploring the reflux-cough link, and discusses the merits and limitations of the proposed mechanisms of reflux leading to cough.

  6. Treatment of Post-Stent Gastroesophageal Reflux by Anti-Reflux Z-Stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Roger Philip; Kew, Jacqueline; Byrne, Peter D.

    2000-01-01

    Severe symptoms of heartburn and retrosternal pain consistent with gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) developed in a patient following placement of a conventional self-expanding 16-24-mm-diameter x 12-cm-long esophageal stent across the gastroesophageal junction to treat an obstructing esophageal carcinoma. A second 18-mm-diameter x 10-cm-long esophageal stent with anti-reflux valve was deployed coaxially and reduced symptomatic GER immediately. Improvement was sustained at 4-month follow-up. An anti-reflux stent can be successfully used to treat significant symptomatic GER after conventional stenting

  7. A study of dysphagia symptoms and esophageal body function in children undergoing anti-reflux surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Omari, T.; Connor, F.; McCall, L.; Ferris, L.; Ellison, S.; Hanson, B.; Abu-Assi, R.; Khurana, S.; Moore, D.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The role of high-resolution esophageal impedance manometry (HRIM) for establishing risk for dysphagia after anti-reflux surgery is unclear. We conducted a prospective study of children with primary gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease, for whom symptoms of dysphagia were determined pre-operatively and then post-operatively and we examined for features that may predict post-operative dysphagia. Methods: Thirteen children (aged 6.8–15.5 years) undergoing work-up prior to 360 o Niss...

  8. Efficacy of Vonoprazan for Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms in Patients with Proton Pump Inhibitor-resistant Non-erosive Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niikura, Ryota; Yamada, Atsuo; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Hayakawa, Yoku; Takahashi, Akihiro; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2018-03-30

    Objective Clinically, patients with proton pomp inhibitor (PPI)-resistant gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) are very challenging to treat. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of symptom relief and adverse events among PPI-resistant GERD patients that changed their therapy from a PPI to vonoprazan. Methods Patients with severe gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (total GERD-Q score ≥8) without endoscopic findings of mucosal breaks who changed their medication from a PPI to vonoprazan during a 12-week period from 2015 to 2016 at 2 hospitals were selected. The primary outcome was the self-reported relief of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. The odds ratio (OR) for the improvement of symptoms was calculated based on an exact binomial distribution using a matched-pair analysis. The secondary outcome was the GERD-Q score and adverse events. Results Twenty-six patients (6 men) with a mean age of 67.5 years were analyzed. After the therapy was changed from a PPI to vonoprazan, 18 patients (69.2%) reported an improvement, 6 (23.1%) reported no change, and 2 (7.7%) reported an exacerbation of symptoms. A change in therapy was significantly associated with improved self-reported symptoms (OR 9.0, pgastroesophageal reflux symptoms. Vonoprazan is one of the most promising treatment options for patients with PPI-resistant GERD.

  9. Radiologic quantitation of gastro-oesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, T.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Jacobsen, N.O.; Thommesen, P.; Kommunehospitalet, Aarhus; Kommunehospitalet, Aarhus

    1987-01-01

    In a prospective study, 26 patients with symptoms of reflux oesophagitis underwent a barium examination for gastro-oesophageal reflux after food stimulation, and endoscopy with biopsy from different levels of the oesophagus. Radiologic grading of the gastro-oesophageal reflux depending on the height of the reflux into the oesophagus was performed, and this was correlated to the microscopic appearance at different levels in the oesophagus. Complete agreement between the radiologic grading and the histology was found in 69 per cent of the cases, and when gastro-oesophageal reflux was demonstrated the agreement was 75 per cent. Accordingly, the results showed a good accordance between the two variants, indicating that the height of the reflux during the food stimulated test may be truly indicative of the reflux height under non-test conditions. (orig.)

  10. Radiologic studies on gastroesophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Gi; Kim, Kun Sang; Park, Soo Soung [College of Medicine, Chung Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    Gastroesophageal reflux is generally recognized as the preponderant factor in the causation of the most cases of esophagitis and the accompanying symptom of pyrosis. In has been known that free gastroesophageal reflux is infrequent phenomenon but we observed gastroesophageal reflux during U. G. I. examination in 111 cases among 152 patients (73.3%) who had various gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastroesophageal reflux was most frequently induced in supine LAO position. The next frequent positions are erect position, RAO and supine position.

  11. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is associated with increased impedance measures of reflux compared to non-fibrotic disease among pre-lung transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavini, S; Finn, R T; Lo, W-K; Goldberg, H J; Burakoff, R; Feldman, N; Chan, W W

    2015-09-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), although the mechanism remains unclear. Gastroesophageal reflux/microaspiration may lead to lung fibrosis, while increased pulmonary workload may also worsen GER. Comparing the GER profile of IPF patients to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with similar lung function may help delineate the role of GER in IPF pathogenesis. This was a retrospective cohort study of IPF and COPD patients undergoing pre-lung transplant multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH study (MII-pH) off acid suppression at a tertiary center in 2008-2014. Patients with prior fundoplication were excluded. Baseline demographics, pulmonary function test, and MII-pH results were recorded. Univariate analyses were performed using Fisher's exact (binary variables) and Student's t (continuous variables) tests. Logistic regression was performed to adjust for potential confounders. A total of 90 subjects (54 IPF, 36 COPD) met inclusion criteria. Compared to COPD, IPF patients had increased total reflux episodes (65.9 vs 46.1, p = 0.02), proximal reflux episodes (30.3 vs 20.3, p = 0.04), and prevalence of abnormal total reflux episodes (38.9% vs 16.7%, p = 0.02). On multivariate analyses, abnormal total reflux episodes (OR: 4.9, p = 0.05) and bolus reflux exposure time (OR: 4, p = 0.04) remained significantly associated with IPF. Abnormal reflux was significantly more prevalent among IPF patients after controlling for lung disease severity. Gastroesophageal reflux/microaspiration likely plays a role in fibrosis in IPF. A significant portion of IPF patients had increased non-acid reflux. Therapies aiming to prevent reflux of gastric contents may be more beneficial than antisecretory medications alone in these patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Design of Batch Distillation Columns Using Short-Cut Method at Constant Reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asteria Narvaez-Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A short-cut method for batch distillation columns working at constant reflux was applied to solve a problem of four components that needed to be separated and purified to a mole fraction of 0.97 or better. Distillation columns with 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 theoretical stages were used; reflux ratio was varied between 2 and 20. Three quality indexes were used and compared: Luyben’s capacity factor, total annual cost, and annual profit. The best combinations of theoretical stages and reflux ratio were obtained for each method. It was found that the best combinations always required reflux ratios close to the minimum. Overall, annual profit was the best quality index, while the best combination was a distillation column with 30 stages, and reflux ratio’s of 2.0 for separation of benzene (i, 5.0 for the separation of toluene (ii, and 20 for the separation of ethylbenzene (iii and purification of o-xylene (iv.

  13. Air swallowing, belching, and reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, Albert J.; Weusten, Bas L. A. M.; Timmer, Robin; Smout, André J. P. M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Belching and gastroesophageal reflux share a common physiological mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether air swallowing leads to both belching and reflux. METHODS: Esophageal impedance, pH, and pressure were measured during two 20-min recording periods in 12 controls

  14. Diagnosis and Anti-Reflux Therapy for GERD with Respiratory Symptoms: A Study Using Multichannel Intraluminal Impedance-pH Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Jimin; Hu, Zhiwei; Yan, Chao; Gao, Xiang; Liang, Weitao; Liu, Diangang; Li, Fei; Wang, Zhonggao

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Respiratory symptoms are often associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Although the role of multichannel intraluminal impedance–pH (MII-pH) monitoring in GERD is clear, little is known regarding the characteristics of patients with respiratory symptoms based on MII-pH monitoring and anti-reflux therapy. We evaluated a cohort of GERD patients to identify the MII-pH parameters of GERD-related respiratory symptoms and to assess the anti-reflux therapy outcomes. Methods We undertook a prospective study of patients who were referred for GERD evaluation from January 2011 to January 2012. One hundred ninety-five patients underwent MII-pH monitoring and esophageal manometry, and one hundred sixty-five patients underwent invasive anti-reflux therapy that included laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (LTF) and the Stretta procedure. The patient characteristics and MII-pH parameters were analyzed, and the symptom scores were assessed at baseline and at 1- and 3-year follow-up evaluations. Results Of the 195 patients, 96 (49.2%) exhibited respiratory symptoms and significantly more reflux episodes (70.7±29.3) than patients without respiratory symptoms (64.7±24.4, p = 0.044) based on the MII-pH monitoring results. Moreover, the group of patients with respiratory symptoms exhibited more proximal reflux episodes (35.2±21.3) than the non-respiratory symptomatic group (28.3±17.9, p = 0.013). One hundred twenty-five patients following the Stretta procedure (n = 60, 31 with respiratory symptoms) or LTF (n = 65, 35 with respiratory symptoms) completed the designated 3-year follow-up period and were included in the final analysis. The symptom scores after anti-reflux therapy all decreased relative to the corresponding baseline values (p0.05). However, LTF significantly reduced the recurrence (re-operation) rate compared with the Stretta procedure (0 vs. 19.4%, p = 0.006). Conclusions MII-pH monitoring effectively detected respiratory

  15. Diagnosis and Anti-Reflux Therapy for GERD with Respiratory Symptoms: A Study Using Multichannel Intraluminal Impedance-pH Monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    Full Text Available Respiratory symptoms are often associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. Although the role of multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (MII-pH monitoring in GERD is clear, little is known regarding the characteristics of patients with respiratory symptoms based on MII-pH monitoring and anti-reflux therapy. We evaluated a cohort of GERD patients to identify the MII-pH parameters of GERD-related respiratory symptoms and to assess the anti-reflux therapy outcomes.We undertook a prospective study of patients who were referred for GERD evaluation from January 2011 to January 2012. One hundred ninety-five patients underwent MII-pH monitoring and esophageal manometry, and one hundred sixty-five patients underwent invasive anti-reflux therapy that included laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (LTF and the Stretta procedure. The patient characteristics and MII-pH parameters were analyzed, and the symptom scores were assessed at baseline and at 1- and 3-year follow-up evaluations.Of the 195 patients, 96 (49.2% exhibited respiratory symptoms and significantly more reflux episodes (70.7±29.3 than patients without respiratory symptoms (64.7±24.4, p = 0.044 based on the MII-pH monitoring results. Moreover, the group of patients with respiratory symptoms exhibited more proximal reflux episodes (35.2±21.3 than the non-respiratory symptomatic group (28.3±17.9, p = 0.013. One hundred twenty-five patients following the Stretta procedure (n = 60, 31 with respiratory symptoms or LTF (n = 65, 35 with respiratory symptoms completed the designated 3-year follow-up period and were included in the final analysis. The symptom scores after anti-reflux therapy all decreased relative to the corresponding baseline values (p0.05. However, LTF significantly reduced the recurrence (re-operation rate compared with the Stretta procedure (0 vs. 19.4%, p = 0.006.MII-pH monitoring effectively detected respiratory-related predictive parameters, including total

  16. Scintigraphy, radiology and pH-manometry in patients after anti-reflux surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisci, R.; Lococo, A.; Coloni, G.F.; De Vincentis, N.; Lenti, R.; Pona, C.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the scintigraphic assessment of esophageal transit times in the diagnosis of the esophageal motor disorders after anti-reflux surgery for gastro-esophageal reflux. In particular, we studied 12 patients with scintigraphy, radiology and manometry. The patients were previously operated on with anti-reflux surgery. Two of them, after Nissen fundoplication, reported dysphagia. The esophagogram and the pH-manometric test did not demonstrate any esophageal motor abnormality. The study of the transit times with a dense bolus showed that both the esophageal transit time (ETT) and the regional emptying time (RET) were more prolonged than in nirmals, even though they were remarkebly better than in patients affected by gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) and not operated. On the basis of these results the Authors also estimate that a dysphagia is likely to be present for ETT greater then 30 sec. and RET greater then 20 sec. It must be specified, however, that while the diagnostic specificity of the ETT was 67%, for the RET it was 100%. This study confirms, therefore, the higher capability of scintigraphy for identifying esophageal motor disorders compared to radiology and pH-manometry

  17. Comparison of Endoscopic Findings with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Questionnaires (GerdQ) and Reflux Disease Questionnaire (RDQ) for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Gontar Alamsyah; Halim, Sahat; Sitepu, Ricky Rivalino

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: There are many questionnaires that have been developed to diagnose gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), i.e. reflux disease questionnaire (RDQ), and the recently developed, gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaires (GerdQ). In this study, we tried to compare GerdQ and RDQ in terms of sensitivity and specificity to diagnose GERD and its relationship with endoscopic findings. Method: This study was a cross sectional analytical study. Subsequently, all the subj...

  18. Detection of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, T.; Ravnsbaek, J.; Toettrup, A.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Thommesen, P.; Aarhus Kommunehospital

    1986-01-01

    In a prospective study a barium examination combined with food stimulation was compared with the acid reflux test in 30 consecutive patients with symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Both methods were further compared with endoscopy and histology. Gastro-oesophageal reflux could be demonstrated by the radiologic examination in 22 patients and by the acid reflux test in 23 patients. By combining the two methods gastro-oesophageal reflux could be demonstrated in 27 patients. Comparing the two methods with symptoms, endoscopy, and histology they seemed to be of equal value. Accordingly, a food-stimulated barium examination is recommended as the first method for demonstrating gastro-oesophageal reflux because it is simple and well-tolerated by the patient. (orig.)

  19. Scintigraphic diagnosis of the gastro-esophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfluecke, F.; Krueger, M.; Reinke, R.; Groth, P. (Rostock Univ. (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1982-09-01

    Patients with peptic esophagitis or typical complaints with respect to reflux without esophagitis and control persons (n = 68) were comparatively examined for gastroesophageal reflux by means of scintigraphy (after administration of test solutions labelled with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA or after intravenous application of /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate) and by means of continuous intraesophageal p/sub H/ measurement. The scintigraphic test of the reflux was successful for very few patients only with reflux disease and a reflux detectable by measuring the p/sub H/. The application of pentagastrin failed in improving the scintigraphic detection of the reflux. The cause of the unsuccessful scintigraphic evidence for the majority of the reflux patients seems to be the relatively small reflux volume.

  20. Scintigraphic diagnosis of the gastro-esophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfluecke, F.; Krueger, M.; Reinke, R.; Groth, P.

    1982-01-01

    Patients with peptic esophagitis or typical complaints with respect to reflux without esophagitis and control persons (n = 68) were comparatively examined for gastroesophageal reflux by means of scintigraphy (after administration of test solutions labelled with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA or after intravenous application of /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate) and by means of continuous intraesophageal p/sub H/ measurement. The scintigraphic test of the reflux was successful for very few patients only with reflux disease and a reflux detectable by measuring the p/sub H/. The application of pentagastrin failed in improving the scintigraphic detection of the reflux. The cause of the unsuccessful scintigraphic evidence for the majority of the reflux patients seems to be the relatively small reflux volume

  1. Does surgery correct esophageal motor dysfunction in gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.O.; Pope, C.E.; Gannan, R.M.; Allen, F.D.; Velasco, N.; Hill, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    The high incidence of dysphagia in patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (GER) but no evidence of peptic stricture suggests esophageal motor dysfunction. Conventional methods for detecting dysfunction (radiologic and manometric examinations) often fail to detect abnormality in these patients. Radionuclide transit (RT), a new method for detecting esophageal motor dysfunction, was used to prospectively assess function in 29 patients with symptomatic GER uncomplicated by stricture before and three months after antireflux surgery (HILL). The preoperative incidence of dysphagia and esophageal dysfunction was 73% and 52%, respectively. During operation (Hill repair), intraoperative measurement of the lower esophageal sphincter pressure was performed and the LESP raised to levels between 45 and 55 mmHg. The preoperative lower esophageal sphincter pressure was raised from a mean of 8.6 mmHg, to mean of 18.5 mmHg after operation. No patient has free reflux after operation. Postoperative studies on 20 patients demonstrated persistence of all preoperative esophageal dysfunction despite loss of dysphagia. RT has demonstrated a disorder of esophageal motor function in 52% of patients with symptomatic GER that may be responsible for impaired esophageal clearance. This abnormality is not contraindication to surgery. The results indicate that construction of an effective barrier to reflex corrects symptoms of reflux, even in the presence of impaired esophageal transit. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test for assessment of esophageal function

  2. Does surgery correct esophageal motor dysfunction in gastroesophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, C.O.; Pope, C.E.; Gannan, R.M.; Allen, F.D.; Velasco, N.; Hill, L.D.

    1981-09-01

    The high incidence of dysphagia in patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (GER) but no evidence of peptic stricture suggests esophageal motor dysfunction. Conventional methods for detecting dysfunction (radiologic and manometric examinations) often fail to detect abnormality in these patients. Radionuclide transit (RT), a new method for detecting esophageal motor dysfunction, was used to prospectively assess function in 29 patients with symptomatic GER uncomplicated by stricture before and three months after antireflux surgery (HILL). The preoperative incidence of dysphagia and esophageal dysfunction was 73% and 52%, respectively. During operation (Hill repair), intraoperative measurement of the lower esophageal sphincter pressure was performed and the LESP raised to levels between 45 and 55 mmHg. The preoperative lower esophageal sphincter pressure was raised from a mean of 8.6 mmHg, to mean of 18.5 mmHg after operation. No patient has free reflux after operation. Postoperative studies on 20 patients demonstrated persistence of all preoperative esophageal dysfunction despite loss of dysphagia. RT has demonstrated a disorder of esophageal motor function in 52% of patients with symptomatic GER that may be responsible for impaired esophageal clearance. This abnormality is not contraindication to surgery. The results indicate that construction of an effective barrier to reflex corrects symptoms of reflux, even in the presence of impaired esophageal transit. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test for assessment of esophageal function.

  3. The effect of baclofen on gastro-oesophageal reflux, lower oesophageal sphincter function and reflux symptoms in patients with reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herwaarden, M. A.; Samsom, M.; Rydholm, H.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Baclofen decreases gastro-oesophageal reflux episodes in healthy subjects by reducing the incidence of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations. AIM: To investigate the effect of baclofen on reflux symptoms, oesophageal pH and lower oesophageal sphincter manometry in patients

  4. Experimental and theoretical study of reflux condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakke, Knut

    1997-12-31

    This thesis studies the separation of gas mixtures in a reflux condenser. also called a dephlegmator. Reflux condensation is separation of a gas mixture, in reflux flow with condensing liquid, under continuous heat removal. A numerical model of a dephlegmator for binary mixtures was developed. The model may readily be extended to multi-component mixtures, as the solution method is based on a matrix solver. Separation of a binary mixture in a reflux condenser test rig is demonstrated. The test facility contains a single-tube test section that was designed and built as part of the project. Test mixtures of propane and n-butane were used, and a total of 15 experiments are reported. Limited degree of separation was achieved due to limited heat transfer area and narrow boiling point range of the test mixture. The numerical model reproduces the experimental data within reasonable accuracy. Deviation between calculated and measured properties is less than 6% of the measured temperature and less than 5% of the measured flow rate. The model is based on mechanistic models of physical processes and is not calibrated or tuned to fit the experimental data. The numerical model is applied to a number of separation processes. These case studies show that the required heat transfer area increases rapidly with increments in top product composition (light component). Flooding limits the amount of reflux liquid. The dephlegmator is suitable for separation of feed mixtures that are rich in light components. The gliding temperature in the dephlegmation process enables utilization of top product as refrigerant, with subsequent energy saving as a result. 61 refs., 50 figs., 34 tabs.

  5. Extraoesophageal symptoms and signs of gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Tepeš

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is very common in developed world, with the prevalence of disease is between 6 and 20%. Pathologic reflux can provoke not only typical symptoms (heartburn and regurgitation but also atypical symptoms and diseases of extraoesophageal organs (pulmonary, ENT, mouth. High prevalence of GERD in patients with unexplained chest pain, asthma, chronic cough, chronic laryngitis, hoarsness and dental erosions is not a proof of causality. GERD can cause these diseases with reflux of acid and pepsin into pharynx, larynx, lungs and mouth (reflux theory or through vasovagal mechanisms (reflex theory. Conclusions Good therapeutic success with medical or operative treatment in early methodologically not well conducted studies has not been completely proven in double-blind placebo controlled studies. GERD is an ethyological reason for these extraoesophageal symptoms and diseases in an approximately one third of patients. With diagnostic modalities that we have now, we cannot clearly define in which patient is GERD is an ethyologic factor or a contributer, before we start the treatment. In patients suspected of having GERD, there is therapeutic option of a trial with high dose of proton pump inhibitor for 3 to 6 months. In other patients with low clinical suspicion of GERD, 24-hour pH testing should be done first.

  6. The diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease cannot be made with barium esophagograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, C M G; Smout, A J P M; Bredenoord, A J

    2015-02-01

    For over 50 years, barium studies have been used to diagnose gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), but the value of this test is controversial. Our study aimed to determine if barium esophagograms can be used to diagnose GERD. Barium esophagograms and pH-impedance measurement were performed in 20 subjects with reflux symptoms. pH-impedance measurements were used as gold standard for the diagnosis of GERD. Gastro-esophageal reflux measured with the barium study was defined as a positive outcome. 50% of patients presented gastro-esophageal reflux on the barium esophagogram. No significant differences were observed in acid exposure time between subjects with (median: 7.4%; interquartile range, IQR: 8.4%) or without reflux at barium esophagography (median: 5.95%; IQR: 13.05%; p > 0.05). Nor did we find differences in median proximal extent of reflux measured with impedance monitoring between patients with a positive (median: 6.7%; IQR: 1.95%) and negative barium study (median: 7.1%; IQR: 0.68%; p > 0.05). Patients with reflux on barium esophagogram did not have a positive symptom association probability more often than those who did not have reflux at barium esophagography. Lastly, there were no differences in numbers of acid, weakly acidic or total reflux episodes between those with positive or negative barium esophagogram (p > 0.05). No correlations were found between the maximum proximal extent of gastro-esophageal reflux during esophagography and pH-impedance parameters. Presence or absence of gastro-esophageal reflux during barium esophagography does not correlate with incidence or extent of reflux observed during 24-h pH-impedance monitoring and is not of value for the diagnosis of GERD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Predicting the Risk of Breakthrough Urinary Tract Infections: Primary Vesicoureteral Reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidas, Guy; Billimek, John; Nam, Alexander; Soltani, Tandis; Kelly, Maryellen S; Selby, Blake; Dorgalli, Crystal; Wehbi, Elias; McAleer, Irene; McLorie, Gordon; Greenfield, Sheldon; Kaplan, Sherrie H; Khoury, Antoine E

    2015-11-01

    We constructed a risk prediction instrument stratifying patients with primary vesicoureteral reflux into groups according to their 2-year probability of breakthrough urinary tract infection. Demographic and clinical information was retrospectively collected in children diagnosed with primary vesicoureteral reflux and followed for 2 years. Bivariate and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with breakthrough urinary tract infection. The final regression model was used to compute an estimation of the 2-year probability of breakthrough urinary tract infection for each subject. Accuracy of the binary classifier for breakthrough urinary tract infection was evaluated using receiver operator curve analysis. Three distinct risk groups were identified. The model was then validated in a prospective cohort. A total of 252 bivariate analyses showed that high grade (IV or V) vesicoureteral reflux (OR 9.4, 95% CI 3.8-23.5, p urinary tract infection (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.1-24.7, p = 0.034) and female gender (OR 2.6, 95% CI 0.097-7.11, p urinary tract infection. Subgroup analysis revealed bladder and bowel dysfunction was a significant risk factor more pronounced in low grade (I to III) vesicoureteral reflux (OR 2.8, p = 0.018). The estimation model was applied for prospective validation, which demonstrated predicted vs actual 2-year breakthrough urinary tract infection rates of 19% vs 21%. Stratifying the patients into 3 risk groups based on parameters in the risk model showed 2-year risk for breakthrough urinary tract infection was 8.6%, 26.0% and 62.5% in the low, intermediate and high risk groups, respectively. This proposed risk stratification and probability model allows prediction of 2-year risk of patient breakthrough urinary tract infection to better inform parents of possible outcomes and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. Sexual activity does not predispose to reflux episodes in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Serhat; Valytova, Elen; Yildirim, Esra; Vardar, Rukiye

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of sexual activity on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is an under-recognized concern of patients, and one rarely assessed by physicians. Objective The objective of this article is to determine the influence of sexual activity on the intraesophageal acid exposure and acid reflux events in GERD patients. Methods Twenty-one patients with the diagnosis of GERD were prospectively enrolled. Intraesophageal pH monitoring was recorded for 48 hours with a Bravo capsule. All patients were instructed to have sexual intercourse or abstain in a random order two hours after the same refluxogenic dinner within two consecutive nights. Patients were requested to have sex in the standard “missionary position” and women were warned to avoid abdominal compression. The patients completed a diary reporting the time of the sexual intercourse and GERD symptoms. The percentage of reflux time and acid reflux events were compared in two ways: within 30 and 60 minutes prior to and after sexual intercourse on the day of sexual intercourse and in the same time frame of the day without sexual intercourse. Results Fifteen of 21 GERD patients were analyzed. The percentage of reflux time and number of acid reflux events did not show a significant difference within the 30- and 60-minute periods prior to and after sexual intercourse on the day of sexual intercourse and on the day without sexual intercourse, as well. Conclusion Sexual activity does not predispose to increased intraesophageal acid exposure and acid reflux events. Larger studies are needed to confirm our findings in patients who define reflux symptoms during sexual intercourse. PMID:25452843

  9. Achalasia following gastro-oesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, H L; Mayberry, J F; Atkinson, M

    1986-01-01

    Five patients initially presenting with symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux, proven by radiology or pH monitoring, subsequently developed achalasia, confirmed by radiology and manometry, after an interval of 2-10 years. During this period dysphagia, present as a mild and intermittent symptom accompanying the initial reflux in 3 of the 5, became severe and resulted in oesophageal stasis of food in all. Three of the 5 had a demonstrable hiatal hernia. In none was reflux a troublesome symptom after Rider-Moeller dilatation or cardiomyotomy undertaken for the achalasia. Gastro-oesophageal reflux does not protect against the subsequent development of achalasia. It is suggested that the autonomic damage eventually leading to achalasia may in its initial phases cause gastro-oesophageal reflux. Images Figure 1. A Figure 1. B Figure 2. PMID:3950898

  10. Pathophysiology and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohof, W. O. A.; Hirsch, D. P.; Boeckxstaens, G. E. E.

    2009-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux is a physiological phenomenon but becomes pathological if troublesome symptoms and/or complications occur. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has different phenotypes ranging from non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), through reflux esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus, and

  11. Gastroesophageal reflux disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kault, B.; Halvorsen, T.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Myrvold, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Radionucleotide scintigraphy and esophagoscopy with biopsy were carried out in 101 patients with symptoms strongly suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. GER was visualized by scintigraphy in 86.1% of the patients. Endoscopic and histologic esophagitis were found in 68.1% and 58.4% of the patients, respectively, whereas both examinations taken together showed evidence of esophagitis in 82%. Histologic evidence of esophagitis was found in nearly all patients with severe endoscopic changes, and in 43.7% of the patients with no endoscopic abnormality. Scintigraphic reflux was demonstrated more frequently (p<0.05) in the patients with severe endoscopic esophagitis (97.5%) than in those with no or only mild endoscopic changes (78.6%). Scintigraphic reflux was found in 91.5% and 78.5% of the patients with and without histologic evidence of esophagitis (p=0.07). 15 of the 18 patients (83.3%) without endoscopic and histologic abnormalities in the esophagus had scintigraphic evidence of reflux. The present study strongly supports the clinical significance of scintigraphy in GER disease and confirms that esophageal biopsy specimens increase the sensitivity of endoscopic evaluation

  12. Gastroesophageal reflux and pharyngeal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.; Lindgren, S.; Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus

    1986-01-01

    Pharyngeal function and gastroesophageal reflux were compared in 84 dysphagic patients examined clinically and radiologically. Cricopharyngeal muscle incoordination, assessed cineradiographically, was revealed in 5 of 41 patients (12%) without and 17 of 43 patients (40%) with gastroesophageal reflux assessed clinically (p<0.05). Thus, there was a postive correlation between dysfunction of the cricopharyngeal muscle and gastroesophageal reflux. There was no correlation with other types of pharyngeal dysfunction. Our results support the assumption of a positive relationship between gastroesophageal reflux and pharyngeal function in terms of cricopharyngeal dysfunction. The pathogenesis of this relation was, however, not revealed. (orig.)

  13. Gastroesophageal reflux and pharyngeal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekberg, O.; Lindgren, S.

    Pharyngeal function and gastroesophageal reflux were compared in 84 dysphagic patients examined clinically and radiologically. Cricopharyngeal muscle incoordination, assessed cineradiographically, was revealed in 5 of 41 patients (12%) without and 17 of 43 patients (40%) with gastroesophageal reflux assessed clinically (p<0.05). Thus, there was a postive correlation between dysfunction of the cricopharyngeal muscle and gastroesophageal reflux. There was no correlation with other types of pharyngeal dysfunction. Our results support the assumption of a positive relationship between gastroesophageal reflux and pharyngeal function in terms of cricopharyngeal dysfunction. The pathogenesis of this relation was, however, not revealed.

  14. Prevalence and demographic determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in the Turkish general population: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Zeynel

    2012-08-01

    We aimed to establish the prevalence and demographic determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease in the Turkish general population using the Turkish version of the gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaire. A total of 8143 volunteers (mean age: 38.5 (13.3) years; 52.3% males) were included in this cross-sectional questionnaire study conducted via face-to-face administration of the questionnaire forms including items on sociodemographic features, past history of gastric disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, the influence of reflux symptoms on patients' lives, physician visits, diagnostic tests, and reflux medications. A past history of gastric symptoms was reported in half of the population. More female participants (p<0.001) had a past history of gastric symptoms that yielded a previous diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease in 19.1% of the population. The likelihood of gastroesophageal reflux disease was low in the majority (75.3%) of the subjects evaluated. Gastroesophageal reflux disease with an inconveniencing or disrupting impact on the patient's life was present in 17.9% and 6.8% of the population. Total gastroesophageal reflux disease-questionnaire scores and reflux prevalence were higher in older age groups (p<0.001). Females were more likely to have gastroesophageal reflux disease prevalence based on reflux symptoms. The impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease on sleep and psychological/emotional well-being was more pronounced in older and female patients, whereas the impact on eating/drinking behaviors and physical-social activities was more marked among females independent of their age (p<0.001). Reflux prevalence was higher in subjects from East Anatolia, Central Anatolia, Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions of Turkey (p<0.001 for each). Prevalence and demographic determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease are compatible with the profile of the disease in the other Western populations, with a predilection for females and

  15. Pepsin and bile acids in saliva in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux - a prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereg-Bahar, M; Jerin, A; Jansa, R; Stabuc, B; Hocevar-Boltezar, I

    2015-06-01

    Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) and biliary duodenogastric reflux can cause damage to the laryngeal mucosa and voice disorders. The aim of this study was to find out whether levels of pepsin and bile acids in the saliva can serve as diagnostic markers of LPR. A prospective comparative study. Twenty-eight patients with LPR proven via high-resolution manometry and combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and 24-h pH monitoring and 48 healthy controls without symptoms of LPR were included in the study. In the patients with LPR symptoms, oesophagogastroscopy with oesophageal biopsy was performed. The levels of total pepsin, active pepsin, bile acids and the pH of the saliva were determined in all participants and compared between the groups. Reflux symptom index (RSI) and reflux finding score (RFS) were also obtained and compared. The groups differed significantly in RSI (P = 0.00), RFS (P = 0.00), the levels of bile acids (P = 0.005) and total pepsin in saliva (P = 0.023). The levels of total pepsin and bile acids were about three times higher in the patients with LPR than in the healthy controls. There was a significant correlation between the RSI and RFS score and the level of total pepsin and bile acids in the saliva. Histopathological examination of the oesophageal biopsy taken 5 cm above the lower oesophageal sphincter confirmed reflux in almost 93% of patients with symptoms. The study results show that the levels of total pepsin and bile acids in saliva are significantly higher in patients with LPR than in the controls, thus suggesting this as a useful tool in the diagnosis of LPR and particularly biliary LPR. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Factors Affecting the Prevalence of Gastro-oesophageal Reflux in Childhood Corrosive Oesophageal Strictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar H. İskit

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastro-oesophageal reflux may accompany the corrosive oesophageal damage caused by the ingestion of corrosive substances and affect its treatment. The factors that affect the development of reflux in these cases and their effects on treatment still remain unclear. Aims: Our aim is to investigate the prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children with corrosive oesophageal strictures, the risk factors affecting this prevalence and the effects of gastro-oesophageal reflux on treatment. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: We enrolled 52 patients with oesophageal stricture due to corrosive substance ingestion who were referred to our clinic between 2003 and 2010. Groups, which were determined according to the presence of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER, were compared with each other in terms of clinical findings, results of examination methods, characteristics of the stricture and success of the treatment. Results: The total number of patients in our study was 52; 30 of them were male and 22 of them were female. The mean age of our study population was 4.2±2.88 years. Thirty-three patients had gastro-oesophageal reflux (63.5%. Patients who had strictures caused by the ingestion of alkali substances were 1.6-times more likely to have reflux. There were no differences between patients with or without reflux in terms of number and localisation of strictures. Mean distance of stricture was longer in patients with reflux (3.7±1.8 cm than in patients without (2.2±1.0 cm (p0.05. Conclusion: Corrosive oesophageal stricture was usually accompanied by gastro-oesophageal reflux and the length of stricture is an important risk factor. Negative effects of reflux over dilatation treatment have not yet been demonstrated in the short-term. Nevertheless, this frequent rate of reflux may eventually increase the risk of oesophagitis and Barrett’s oesophagus; therefore, we suggest that these effects should be prospectively evaluated in a

  17. Anti-reflux surgery - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stomach). Problems with these muscles can lead to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This surgery can also be done during a ... Anti-reflux surgery is usually done to treat GERD in children only after medicines have not worked ...

  18. Laryngopharyngeal reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Šereg-Bahar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 4–10 % of patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GER some atypical symptoms are found (cough, hoarseness, globus pharyngeus, dyspnea which are characteristic for laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR. The signs of LPR can be detected in more than 50 % of dysphonic patients. In the diagnostics of LPR, a meticulous history and a videoendoscopy of the larynx and pharynx are the most important procedures. The diagnosis of LPR can be confirmed by the 24-hour double probe pH monitoring and the treatment test with proton pump inhibitors. The best diagnostic results can be obtained with a combination of several diagnostic procedures.Conclusions: An otorhinolaryngologist can start a treatment test with proton pump inhibitors in a patient in whom a laryngopharyngeal reflux is suspected on the basis of history and laryngopharyngeal endoscopy. A successful treatment requires at least 12 weeks regimen with high doses 20 mg twice a day. In the case of alarm signs and unsuccessful treatment a gastroenterologic intervention is necessary.

  19. Vesicoureteral Reflux in Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Nina M; Minnee, Robert C; Bemelman, Frederike J; Idu, Mirza M

    2017-06-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is frequently found after transplantation, but its impact on graft function, urine tract infection, and graft loss remains uncertain. Therefore our objective was to evaluate the effects of VUR on the outcome of renal transplantation. We included 1008 adult renal transplant recipients of whom a 1-week posttransplant voiding cystourethrogram was available. Study end points included occurrence of bacteriuria, renal function, and graft survival. In total, 106 (10.5%) of 1008 graft recipients had a diagnosis of VUR on voiding cystography. The incidence of bacteriuria was comparable in the reflux and nonreflux group (17% vs 17.4%, P = .91). There was no significant difference in renal function at 3 months and 1 year in patients with and without VUR. One- and 5-year graft survival in patients with VUR was 85.8% and 82.1% compared to 87.3% and 83.0% in patients without VUR ( P = .68 and P = .80). Posttransplant VUR has no correlations with early bacteriuria, renal function, and graft survival.

  20. Clinical and pH-metric characteristics of gastro-oesophageal reflux secondary to cows' milk protein allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavataio, F; Iacono, G; Montalto, G; Soresi, M; Tumminello, M; Carroccio, A

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: The primary aim was to assess whether there were differences in symptoms, laboratory data, and oesophageal pH-metry between infants with primary gastro-oesophageal reflux and those with reflux secondary to cows' milk protein allergy (CMPA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: 96 infants (mean(SD) age 7.8(2.0) months) with either primary gastro-oesophageal reflux, reflux with CMPA, CMPA only, or none of these (controls) were studied. Symptoms, immunochemical data, and oesophageal pH were compared between the four groups and the effect of a cows' milk protein-free diet on the severity of symptoms was also assessed. RESULTS: 14 out of 47(30%) infants with gastro-oesophageal reflux had CMPA. These infants had similar symptoms to those with primary gastro-oesophageal reflux but higher concentrations of total IgE and circulating eosinophils (p gastro-oesophageal reflux secondary to CMPA and in 24 of 25 infants with CMPA only. No infants with primary gastro-oesophageal reflux and none of the controls had this pattern. A cows' milk protein-free diet was associated with a significant improvement in symptoms only in infants with gastro-oesophageal reflux with CMPA. CONCLUSION: A characteristic oesophageal pH pattern is useful in distinguishing infants with gastro-oesophageal reflux associated with CMPA. PMID:8813871

  1. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy in patients with gastroesophageal reflux: comparison with manometry and with acid reflux test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvard, G.; Baptiste, J.C.; Peres, J.C.; Segol, P.; Fernandez, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Gastroesophageal scintiscanning offers several advantages: it is more physiological and more convenient than acid reflux test, does not require nasogastric intubation or installation of hydrochloric acid into the stomach; its diagnostic value is satisfactory (very good specificity and sensitivity); it can be easily repeated and permits a semi-quantitative evaluation of the reflux and a discrimination between physiological and pathological gastroesophageal reflux [fr

  2. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy in patients with gastroesophageal reflux: comparison with manometry and with acid reflux test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvard, G.; Baptiste, J.C.; Peres, J.C.; Segol, P.; Fernandez, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Gastroesophageal scintiscanning offers several advantages: it is more physiological and more convenient than acid reflux test, does not require nasogastric intubation or installation of hydrochloric acid into the stomach; its diagnostic value is satisfactory (very good specificity and sensitivity); it can be easily repeated and permits a semi-quantitative evaluation of the reflux and a discrimination between physiological and pathological gastroesophageal reflux.

  3. Nocturnal Gastroesophageal Reflux Revisited by Impedance-pH Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeau, Kathleen; Mertens, Veerle; Tack, Jan; Sifrim, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Impedance-pH monitoring allows detailed characterization of gastroesophageal reflux and esophageal activity associated with reflux. We assessed the characteristics of nocturnal reflux and esophageal activity preceding and following reflux. Methods Impedance-pH tracings from 11 healthy subjects and 76 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease off acid-suppressive therapy were analyzed. Characteristics of nocturnal supine reflux, time distribution and esophageal activity seen on impedance at 2 minute intervals preceding and following reflux were described. Results Patients had more nocturnal reflux events than healthy subjects (8 [4-12] vs 2 [1-5], P = 0.002), with lower proportion of weakly acidic reflux (57% [35-78] vs 80% [60-100], P = 0.044). Nocturnal reflux was mainly liquid (80%) and reached the proximal esophagus more often in patients (6% vs 0%, P = 0.047). Acid reflux predominated in the first 2 hours (66%) and weakly acidic reflux in the last 3 hours (70%) of the night. Most nocturnal reflux was preceded by aboral flows and cleared by short lasting volume clearance. In patients, prolonged chemical clearance was associated with less esophageal activity. Conclusions Nocturnal weakly acidic reflux is as common as acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, and predominates later in the night. Impedance-pH can predict prolonged chemical clearance after nocturnal acid reflux. PMID:21602991

  4. Pathophysiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2003-01-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), defined as symptoms or mucosal damage caused by reflux of gastric contents into the esophageal body, is a multifactorial disorder. Malfunctioning of the anti-reflux barrier at the esophagogastric junction, consisting of the right diaphragmatic crus and the

  5. Postprandial gastro-oesophageal reflux demonstrated by radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, P.R.; Mohr Madsen, K.; Naeser, A.; Thommesen, P. (Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1991-05-01

    An investigation to detect food-stimulated gastro-oesophageal (GE) reflux was carried out in 54 consecutive fasting patients, 35 of whom experienced reflux while 19 did not. All patients then received a standard meal (566 kcal), and the investigation was repeated 1 h afterward. Of the 35 with GE reflux in the fasting state, 33 also had GE reflux in the postprandial state, and 17 of the 19 patients with no GE reflux while fasting also had none in the postprandial state. It is concluded that the radiological method can identify most patients in whom food-stimulated GE reflux could be of clinical significance. (orig.).

  6. Effects of omeprazole or anti-reflux surgery on lower oesophageal sphincter characteristics and oesophageal acid exposure over 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emken, Birgitte-Elise G; Lundell, Lars R; Wallin, Lene; Myrvold, Helge E; Engström, Cecilia; Montgomery, Madeleine; Malm, Anders R; Lind, Tore; Hatlebakk, Jan G

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effect of anti-reflux surgery (ARS) versus proton pump inhibitor therapy on lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) function and oesophageal acid exposure in patients with chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) over a decade of follow-up. In this randomised, prospective, multicentre study we compared LOS pressure profiles, as well as oesophageal exposure to acid, at baseline and at 1 and 10 years after randomisation to either open ARS (n = 137) or long-term treatment with omeprazole (OME) 20-60 mg daily (n = 108). Median LOS resting pressure and abdominal length increased significantly and remained elevated in patients operated on with ARS, as opposed to those on OME. The proportion of total time (%) with oesophageal pH acid exposure was normalised in both groups, with no significant differences, and bilirubin exposure was within normal limits. After 10 years, patients with or without Barrett's oesophagus did not differ in acid reflux control between the two treatment options. Open ARS and OME were both effective in normalising acid reflux into the oesophagus even when studied over a period of 10 years. Anatomically and functionally the LOS was repaired durably by surgery, with increased resting pressure and abdominal length.

  7. Factors Affecting the Prevalence of Gastro-oesophageal Reflux in Childhood Corrosive Oesophageal Strictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskit, Serdar H; Ozçelik, Zerrin; Alkan, Murat; Türker, Selcan; Zorludemir, Unal

    2014-06-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux may accompany the corrosive oesophageal damage caused by the ingestion of corrosive substances and affect its treatment. The factors that affect the development of reflux in these cases and their effects on treatment still remain unclear. Our aim is to investigate the prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children with corrosive oesophageal strictures, the risk factors affecting this prevalence and the effects of gastro-oesophageal reflux on treatment. Case-control study. We enrolled 52 patients with oesophageal stricture due to corrosive substance ingestion who were referred to our clinic between 2003 and 2010. Groups, which were determined according to the presence of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER), were compared with each other in terms of clinical findings, results of examination methods, characteristics of the stricture and success of the treatment. The total number of patients in our study was 52; 30 of them were male and 22 of them were female. The mean age of our study population was 4.2±2.88 years. Thirty-three patients had gastrooesophageal reflux (63.5%). Patients who had strictures caused by the ingestion of alkali substances were 1.6-times more likely to have reflux. There were no differences between patients with or without reflux in terms of number and localisation of strictures. Mean distance of stricture was longer in patients with reflux (3.7±1.8 cm) than in patients without (2.2±1.0 cm) (preflux. Patients with long stricture were 1.9-times more likely to have reflux. Dilatation treatment was successful in 69.6% of patients with reflux and in 78.9% of patients without. The mean treatment period was 8.41±6.1 months in patients with reflux and 8.21±8.4 months in the other group. There was no significant difference between groups in terms of frequency of dilatation and dilator diameters (p>0.05). Corrosive oesophageal stricture was usually accompanied by gastro-oesophageal reflux and the length of stricture is an

  8. Esophageal abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Marc S; Carucci, Laura R

    2018-06-01

    Fluoroscopic esophagography is a widely available, safe, and inexpensive test for detecting gastroesophageal reflux disease. In this article, we review the technique for performing a high-quality esophagram, including upright, double-contrast views of the esophagus and cardia with high-density barium; prone, single-contrast views of the esophagus with low-density barium; and evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux. We then discuss the radiographic findings associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease, including esophageal dysmotility, reflux esophagitis, peptic strictures, and Barrett's esophagus. Finally, we consider the differential diagnosis for the various radiographic findings associated with this condition. When carefully performed and interpreted, the esophagram is a useful test for evaluating gastroesophageal reflux disease and its complications.

  9. The influence of the speed of food intake on multichannel impedance in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Serhat; Bayrakci, Berna; Erdogan, Askin; Yildirim, Esra; Vardar, Rukiye

    2013-10-01

    There is a general belief that gastro-oesophageal reflux increases after meals and especially following a rapid intake. To evaluate the impact of rapid vs. slow food intake on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) patients. Forty-six GORD patients with heartburn and / or acid regurgitation once a week or more often common were included in this study. Participants were asked to eat the same standard meal within either 5 or 30 minutes under observation in a random order on 2 consecutive days. A total of 28 hours of recording were obtained by intraoesophageal impedance pH and number of liquid and mixed reflux episodes within 3 hours of the slow- and fast-eating postprandial periods were calculated. While all patients defined GORD symptoms, 10 (21.7%) had pathological 24-h intraoesophageal impedance measurement, 15 (32.6%) had pathological DeMeester and 21.7% had erosive oesophagitis. No difference has been shown according to the eating speed when all reflux episodes were taken together (754 vs. 733). Speed of food intake also did not have an impact on patients with normal vs. pathological 24-h intraoesophageal impedance or erosive vs. non-erosive. During the first postprandial hour, approximately half of the reflux events were non-acid, compared to 34.2% during the second hour and 26.8% during the third hour (p reflux episodes was significantly higher than non-acid reflux especially during the second and third hours and in total for 3 hours. This first study addressing the effect of eating speed on reflux episodes in GORD patients did not support the general belief that reflux increases following fast eating. Acid and non-acid reflux were similar at the first postprandial hour, then acid reflux episodes were predominantly higher, which implicate the importance of acid pockets.

  10. Systematic review: role of acid, weakly acidic and weakly alkaline reflux in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, G. E.; Smout, A.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of weakly acidic and weakly alkaline reflux in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is gaining recognition. To quantify the proportions of reflux episodes that are acidic (pH <4), weakly acidic (pH 4-7) and weakly alkaline (pH >7) in adult patients with GERD, and to evaluate their

  11. The Clinical Value of Deflation Cough in Chronic Coughers With Reflux Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavorini, Federico; Chellini, Elisa; Bigazzi, Francesca; Surrenti, Elisabetta; Fontana, Giovanni A

    2016-06-01

    Patients with deflation cough (DC), the cough-like expulsive effort(s) evoked by maximal lung emptying during a slow vital capacity maneuver, also present symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. DC can be inhibited by prior intake of antacids. We wished to assess DC prevalence and association between DC and chemical characteristics of refluxate in patients with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. A total of 157 consecutive outpatients underwent DC assessment and 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance pH (MII-pH) monitoring; 93/157 also had chronic cough. Patients performed two to four slow vital capacity maneuvers and DC was detected aurally. Subsequently, they underwent 24-h MII-pH monitoring, the outcomes of which were defined as abnormal when acid or non-acid reflux events were > 73. DC occurred in 46/157 patients, 18 of whom had abnormal MII-pH outcomes; 28 of the remaining 111 patients without DC also had abnormal MII-pH findings. Thus, in the patients as a group, there was no association between DC and MII-pH outcomes. DC occurred in 40/93 of the chronic coughers; 15 of whom had acid reflux. All but 2 of the 53 patients without DC had normal MII-pH outcomes (P < .001), and the negative predictive value of DC for excluding acid reflux was 96.2%. At follow-up, 65% of coughers showed significant improvement after treatment. The overall prevalence of DC was 29%, increasing to 43% in chronic coughers in whom the absence of DC virtually excludes acid reflux. Therefore, DC assessment may represent a useful screening test for excluding acid reflux in chronic coughers with reflux symptoms. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Qualitative evaluation of the enterogastric reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Garcia, A.; Ortega Bevia, J.M.; Garcia Fernandez, S.; Bonet Padilla, R.; Jimenez Garcia, E.; Rodrigues de Quesada, B. (Hospital Universitario da Faculdade de Medicina, Sevilla (Spain)); Szego, T. (Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina)

    Using Tc/sup 99/ - labeled HIDA, enterogastric reflux was studied in 24 subjects - six asymptomatic individuals and 18 previously submitted to gastric surgery for ulcers, through truncular vagotomy + pyloroplasty, gastrectomy with either BI or BII reconstruction. In the control group there was no evidence of reflux. In the subject group, seven of the 18 patients showed clearly enterogastric reflux. It is concluded that method is readily performed, without morbidity in these series, with a clear picture of the enterogastric reflux.

  13. Qualitative evaluation of the enterogastric reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez Garcia, A.; Ortega Bevia, J.M.; Garcia Fernandez, S.; Bonet Padilla, R.; Jimenez Garcia, E.; Rodrigues de Quesada, B.; Szego, T.

    1982-01-01

    Using Tc 99 - labeled HIDA, enterogastric reflux was studied in 24 subjects - six asymptomatic individuals and 18 previously submitted to gastric surgery for ulcers, through truncular vagotomy + pyloroplasty, gastrectomy with either BI or BII reconstruction. In the control group there was no evidence of reflux. In the subject group, seven of the 18 patients showed clearly enterogastric reflux. It is concluded that method is readily performed, without morbility in these series, with a clear picture of the enterogastric reflux. (Author) [pt

  14. Residence of liquids in the infra-junctional portion of the proximal stomach in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri C.L.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease may have disturbances of gastric motility, which could play a role in the pathophysiology of the disease. Recent studies have suggested that the gastric region just below the gastroesophageal junction may have a distinct physiological behavior. We determined whether patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease have abnormal residence of food in the infra-junctional portion of the stomach after ingesting a liquid nutrient meal. Fasted adult patients with reflux disease (N = 11 and healthy volunteers (N = 10 ingested a liquid meal (320 ml; 437 kcal labeled with 99m technetium-phytate and their total gastric emptying half-time and regional emptying from the stomach infra-junctional region were determined. In 8 patients, episodes of postprandial acidic reflux to the esophagus were measured for 2 h using pH monitoring. There were no differences between reflux patients and controls regarding total gastric emptying time (median: 68 min; range: 39-123 min vs 65 min and 60-99 min, respectively; P > 0.50. Food residence in the infra-junctional area was similar for patients and controls: 23% (range: 20-30 vs 27% (range: 19-30%; P = 0.28 and emptying from this area paralleled total gastric emptying (Rs = 0.79; P = 0.04. There was no correlation between residence of food in the infra-junctional area and episodes of gastroesophageal reflux (Rs = 0.06; P = 0.88. We conclude that it is unlikely that regional motor disturbances involving the infra-junctional region of the stomach play a relevant role in the pathogenesis of acidic gastroesophageal reflux.

  15. Gastroesophageal reflux after esophageal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Osamu; Yokoi, Hideki; Maebeya, Shinji

    1989-01-01

    By means of esophageal transit scintigram using 99m Tc-DTPA, 15 patients (13 esophageal carcinomas and 2 cardia carcinomas) were studied, in whom esophagogastric anastomosis was done according to the posterior invagination anastomosis technique we had devised. In all 8 patients with anastomosis at cervical region, gastroesophageal reflux was not seen on both scintigrams before and after meals, and the average pressure gradient of high pressure zone at anastomosis was 39.8 cmH 2 O. In 2 of 7 patients with intrathoracic anastomosis, the scintigram before meals showed severe reflux. and the endoscopic findings showed diffuse and moderate erosion in the esophageal mucosa. The average pressure gradient across the anastomosis was 6.5 cmH 2 O. In these 2 patients, the new fornix with a sharp angle of His was not formed. In the remaining 5 patients with intrathoracic anastomosis, reflux was not seen on the scintigram before meals. However, in 2 of them, the scintigram after meal and endoscopic examination revealed mild reflux and mild esophagitis respectively. Furthermore in one patient very mild reflux was observed only on the scintigram after meals but the endoscopic findings showed the normal esophageal mucosa. In these 5 patients, the average pressure gradient across the anastomosis was 17.0 cmH 2 O, which was significantly higher (p<0.01) than that in 2 patients with severe reflux and was significantly lower (p<0.01) than the mean value of high pressure zone in 8 patients with cervical anastomosis. In conclusion, it is presumed that the formation of a large fornix enough to store food and a sharp angle of His are important factors in maintaining an anti-reflux mechanism. The esophageal transit scintigram was proved to be an excellent technique in detecting and evaluating quantitatively gastroesophageal reflux. (author)

  16. Long-term follow-up of reflux nephropathy in adults with vesicoureteral reflux - radiological and pathoanatomical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, J.; Thysell, H.; Tencer, J.; Forsberg, L.; Hellstroem, M.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To study the long-term development of urographic renal morphology in adults with vesicoureteral reflux, to investigate the relationship between renal damage and reflux grade, and to analyse the association between the long-term urographic outcome and the occurrence of acute pyelonephritis and reflux during follow-up. The purpose was also to try to distinguish between acquired and developmental renal damage, based on analyses of renal histological specimens and urographic features, and to analyse associated congenital urogenital abnormalities and family history of reflux, reflux nephropathy, urological malformation or death from end-stage renal disease. Material and Methods: Renal damage was identified in 100 (83 women) of 115 adults, selected because of documented reflux. Eighty-seven patients had two urographies done (median interval 14.3 years). The extent and progression of renal damage were assessed and features of developmental renal damage were determined. Histological renal specimens were available in 23 patients with renal damage. Results and Conclusions: The extent of renal damage correlated positively with the severity of reflux. No renal damage developed during the follow-up in 45 previously undamaged kidneys and progression of renal damage was rare (4 of 120 previously damaged kidneys), despite persisting reflux in half of the cases and episodes of acute pyelonephritis during follow-up. Thus, repeated renal imaging is rarely justified in adults with reflux nephropathy. Histological examination showed 'chronic pyelonephritis' in all 23 cases and co-existing renal dysplasia in 1 case. The detailed urographic analysis did not reveal support for developmental renal damage. High frequencies of associated congenital urogenital abnormalities and of a positive family history were found. Thus, congenital and/or hereditary factors cannot be discarded as background factors for the development of renal damage

  17. Acid reflux management: ENT perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ijaz; Batch, A J G

    2004-01-01

    Otolaryngological manifestations of acid reflux include a wide range of pharyngeal and laryngeal symptoms; and the constellation of symptoms has been called laryngopharyngeal reflux. This is a prospective study in a cohort of patients with various throat symptoms suggestive of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) who underwent flexible oesophago-gastroscopy, as a principal investigation. The aims were to look at the most reliable symptom(s) and sign(s), the diagnostic role of flexible oesophago-gastroscopy and the treatment response in these patients. The endoscopy score of 0 to 3 was based on endoscopic findings and the treatment response was measured from 0 to 100 per cent improvement of symptoms, as described by the patients. There were a total of 303 patients, 174 females and 129 males with ages ranging from 19 to 88 years. Seventy-five per cent had had symptoms for more than a year. Fifteen per cent were smokers. Globus, voice change, sore throat, dysphagia and cough were the predominant symptoms. Most patients, however, presented with a complex of various other secondary symptoms. The endoscopic findings were abnormal in 98 per cent of patients. Apart from the finding of non-specific hyperaemia, usually of the posterior larynx (13 per cent), lesions of the larynx and vocal folds were surprisingly uncommon. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) were prescribed in 90 per cent of patients. A total of 233 (76.8 per cent) responded to treatment. The improvement of symptoms ranged from 25 per cent in 36 (23 per cent), 50 per cent in 60 (20 per cent), 75 per cent in 59 (19 per cent) and 100 per cent in 78 (26 per cent) patients. Accumulative analysis of variance showed a significant difference between treatment responders and non-responders (p <0.04). In a logistic regression model patients with globus, voice change and gastric prolapse were more likely to respond to treatment (p <0.04). It can be concluded that voice change, sore throat, globus and cough choking are the most

  18. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, Albert J.; Pandolfino, John E.; Smout, André J. P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is one of the most common disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Over past decades, considerable shifts in thinking about the disease have taken place. At a time when radiology was the only diagnostic test available, reflux disease was regarded as synonymous with

  19. Preoperative endoscopy may reduce the need for revisional surgery for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhok, B M; Carr, W R J; McCormack, C; Boyle, M; Jennings, N; Schroeder, N; Balupuri, S; Small, P K

    2016-08-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a safe and effective bariatric operation, but postoperative reflux symptoms can sometimes necessitate revisional surgery. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the preferred operation in morbidly obese patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. In 2011, we introduced preoperative endoscopy to assess for hiatus hernia or evidence of oesophagitis in conjunction with an assessment of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms for all patients undergoing bariatric surgery with a view to avoid sleeve gastrectomy for these patients. A prospectively maintained database was used to identify patients who underwent sleeve gastrectomy before and after we changed the unit policy. The need for revisional surgery in patients with troublesome gastro-oesophageal reflux disease was examined. Prior to 2011, 130 patients underwent sleeve gastrectomy, and 11 (8.5%) of them required conversion to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for symptomatic reflux disease. Following the policy change, 284 patients underwent sleeve gastrectomy, and to date, only five (1.8%) have required revisional surgery (p = 0.001). Baseline demographics were comparable between the groups, and average follow-up period was 47 and 33 months, respectively, for each group. Preoperative endoscopy and a detailed clinical history regarding gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms may improve patient selection for sleeve gastrectomy. Avoiding sleeve gastrectomy in patients with reflux disease and/or hiatus hernia may reduce the incidence of revisional surgery. © 2016 World Obesity.

  20. A Case of Frequent Arousal Following Nocturnal Dyspnea Caused by Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Wui Yoon

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is a common disorder that is associated with many esophageal syndromes and complications. Most cases of reflux event occur during the day, but reflux during sleep can cause not only esophageal problems, but also sleep problems, such as arousal and poor sleep quality. We report the case of a 17-year-old man who had been referred to us with frequent arousal following sudden dyspnea. On polysomnography, no respiratory disturbances and periodic limb movements were found during the sleep study, but frequent events of arousal were reported (arousal index: 12.3/h. On a 24-hr esophageal pH monitoring test, his DeMeester score was 176.43 and the total reflux time was 1120.9 min (76.9%, indicating the presence of significant acid reflux. After treatment with a proton-pump inhibitor, the arousals following nocturnal dyspnea and fatigue in the morning disappeared in the patient. GERD should be considered as a cause of spontaneous arousal or awakening not accompanying respiratory disturbances.

  1. Quantitative measurement of duodeno-gastral reflux with 99mTc-HIDA in the framework of stomach secretion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauke, U.

    1982-01-01

    99m Tc HIDA was put into use first under standardized conditions in the framework of routinely carried out stomach secretion analyses in order to study the importance of bile reflux in stomach disorders. With this procedure a simple possibility is given in the area of stomach secretion analysis to test if there is a bile reflux to the stomach. Patients with fresh duodenal ulcers had significantly higher reflux rates than those with chronic Ulcus duodeni. After selective proximal vagotomy with submucal pyloro plastic the reflux rates sank in comparison to those before the operation. The color of the aspirate and the reflux values, measured by the here presented procedure, are directly correlated. (TRV) [de

  2. Evaluation of a Self-Management Program for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenhong; Sun, Changxian; Lin, Zheng; Lin, Lin; Wang, Meifeng; Zhang, Hongjie; Song, Yulei

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a chronic disease with a high incidence worldwide. The various symptoms have substantial impact on the quality of life of affected individuals. A long-term self-management program can increase the ability of patients to make behavioral changes, and health outcomes can improve as a consequence. This study's aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a self-management program for gastroesophageal reflux disease. A total of 115 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease were allocated to the experimental group and the control group. The former received self-management intervention along with conventional drug therapy, whereas the latter received standard outpatient care and conventional drug therapy. After the clinical trial, the control group also received the same self-management intervention. The levels of self-management behaviors, self-efficacy, gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms, and psychological condition were compared. Those in the experimental group demonstrated significantly higher self-efficacy for managing their illness, showed positive changes in self-management behaviors, and had comparatively better remission of symptoms and improvement in psychological distress. The program helped patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease self-manage their illness as possible.

  3. Reproducibility of radionuclide gastroesophageal reflux studies using quantitative parameters and potential role of quantitative assessment in follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, S.; Khursheed, K.; Nasir, W.; Saeed, M.A.; Fatmi, S.; Jafri, S.; Asghar, S.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide gastroesophageal reflux studies have been widely used in the assessment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in infants and children. Various qualitative and quantitative parameters have been used for the interpretation of reflux studies but there is little consensus on the use of these parameters in routine gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphic studies. Aim of this study was to evaluate the methodological issues underlying the qualitative and quantitative assessment of gastroesophageal reflux and to determine the potential power of the reflux index calculation in follow-up assessment of the reflux positive patients. Methods: Total 147 patients suffering from recurrent lower respiratory tract infection, asthma and having strong clinical suspicion of GER were recruited in the study. Dynamic scintigraphic study was acquired for 30 minutes after oral administration of 99mTc phytate. Each study was analyzed three times by two nuclear medicine physicians. Clinical symptoms were graded according to predefined criteria and there correlation with severity reflux was done. Time activity curves were generated by drawing ROIs from esophagus. Reflux index was calculated by the standard formula and cut off value of 4% was used for RI calculation. Reflux indices were used for follow-up assessments in reflux positive patients. Kappa statistics and chi square test were used to evaluate the agreement and concordance between qualitative and quantitative parameters. Results: Tlae over all incidence of reflux in total study population was 63.94 %( 94 patients). The kappa value for both qualitative and quantitative parameters showed good agreement for intra and inter-observer reproducibility (kappa value > 0.75). Concordance between visual analysis and time activity curves was not observed. Reflux index and visuat interpretation shows concordance in the interpretation. The severity of clinical symptoms was directly related to the severity of the reflux observed in the

  4. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmud, L.S.; Fisher, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    When patients have symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease, their symptoms usually respond to conventional therapeutic measures. In some patients, however, the symptoms may persist despite the application of standard treatment regimens. It is in these instances that the clinician may employ extensive diagnostic tests to determine the cause of the patient's complaints. Because the introduction of gastroesophageal scintigraphy, a number of other techniques were employed to evaluate gastroesophageal reflux. These include barium esophagography, barium cineesophagography; endoscopy; esophageal mucosal biopsy; esophageal manometry; the acid-clearance test; and acid-reflux testing. Each of the nonscintigraphic techniques has a limitation either in its sensitivity or in the requirement for endogastric intubation. In addition, with the exception of the scintigraphic method, none of the tests permits quantitation of reflux

  5. Acid suppressants for managing gastro-oesophageal reflux and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in infants: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jane C; Schneuer, Francisco J; Harrison, Christopher; Trevena, Lyndal; Hiscock, Harriet; Elshaug, Adam G; Nassar, Natasha

    2018-02-22

    To evaluate the diagnosis and management of reflux and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) in infants aged reflux and GORD and their management including prescribing of acid-suppressant medicines (proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine receptor antagonists (H2RAs)) and counselling, advice or education. Of all infants' visits, 512 (2.7%) included a diagnosis of reflux (n=413, 2.2%) or GORD (n=99, 0.5%). From 2006 to 2016, diagnostic rates decreased for reflux and increased for GORD. Prescribing of acid suppressants occurred in 43.6% visits for reflux and 48.5% visits for GORD, similar to rates of counselling, advice or education (reflux: 38.5%, GORD: 43.4% of visits). Prescribing of PPIs increased (statistically significant only for visits for reflux), while prescribing of H2RAs decreased. Overprescribing of acid suppressants to infants may be occurring. In infants, acid-suppressant medicines are no better than placebo and may have significant negative side effects; however, guidelines are inconsistent. Clear, concise and consistent guidance is needed. GPs and parents need to understand what is normal and limitations of medical therapy. We need a greater understanding of the influences on GP prescribing practices, of parents' knowledge and attitudes and of the pressures on parents of infants with these conditions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Mitochondrial dysfunction in children with reflux esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ziganshina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate cellular energy metabolism in children with pathological gastroesophageal reflux, by determining the levels of free and bound carnitine in dry blood spot specimens and lactate and pyruvate in plasma.Characterization of children and methods. A total of 49 patients from the Diagnostic Department, Republican Children’s Clinical Hospital, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Tatarstan, were examined. A study group included 29 patients diagnosed as having reflux esophagitis. A control group consisted of 20 somatically healthy children without signs of gastrointestinal tract diseases. The investigators determined the levels of lactate and pyruvate in plasma by the Umbreit method and those of free and bound carnitine in the dried blood spot specimens by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.Results. There were significant changes in the lactate-to-pyruvate ratio in children with reflux esophagitis accompanied by motility disorders. The values of free carnitine were higher than normal in 41% of the study group representatives. The mean values of lactate, pyruvate, and carnitines were within the acceptable range in the examined groups with significantly high values in the children with pathological gastroesophageal reflux.Conclusion. Gastrointestinal tract motility disorders are an indication for the detection of  energy-deficient diathesis in children and the early correction with energy-rich medications that will potentially affect the rate of recurrences and the severity of clinical manifestations of the disease. 

  7. Vesicoureteral reflux: A historical perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K.N. DeCotiis

    2016-12-28

    Dec 28, 2016 ... Abstract. The management of vesicoureteral reflux is a mainstay of pediatric urology. ... exponential relationship between number of urinary tract infections, .... dysfunction as an independent predictor of low reflux resolution.

  8. Persistent reflux symptoms cause anxiety, depression, and mental health and sleep disorders in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yoshihide; Kamiya, Takeshi; Senoo, Kyouji; Tsuchida, Kenji; Hirano, Atsuyuki; Kojima, Hisayo; Yamashita, Hiroaki; Yamakawa, Yoshihiro; Nishigaki, Nobuhiro; Ozeki, Tomonori; Endo, Masatsugu; Nakanishi, Kazuhisa; Sando, Motoki; Inagaki, Yusuke; Shikano, Michiko; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Kubota, Eiji; Tanida, Satoshi; Kataoka, Hiromi; Katsumi, Kohei; Joh, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    Some patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease experience persistent reflux symptoms despite proton pump inhibitor therapy. These symptoms reduce their health-related quality of life. Our aims were to evaluate the relationship between proton pump inhibitor efficacy and health-related quality of life and to evaluate predictive factors affecting treatment response in Japanese patients. Using the gastroesophageal reflux disease questionnaire, 145 gastroesophageal reflux disease patients undergoing proton pump inhibitor therapy were evaluated and classified as responders or partial-responders. Their health-related quality of life was then evaluated using the 8-item Short Form Health Survey, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaires. Sixty-nine patients (47.6%) were partial responders. These patients had significantly lower scores than responders in 5/8 subscales and in the mental health component summary of the 8-item Short Form Health Survey. Partial responders had significantly higher Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores, including anxiety and depression scores, than those of responders. Non-erosive reflux disease and double proton pump inhibitor doses were predictive factors of partial responders. Persistent reflux symptoms, despite proton pump inhibitor therapy, caused mental health disorders, sleep disorders, and psychological distress in Japanese gastroesophageal reflux disease patients.

  9. Gastroesophageal reflux disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Douglas C

    2016-08-01

    Despite the frequency with which antireflux procedures are performed, decisions about gastroesophageal reflux disease treatment remain challenging. Several factors contribute to the difficulties in managing gastroesophageal reflux. First, the distinction between physiologic and pathologic gastroesophageal reflux (gastroesophageal reflux disease-GERD) is not always clear. Second, measures of the extent of gastroesophageal reflux often poorly correlate to symptoms or other complications attributed to reflux in infants and children. A third challenge is that the outcome of antireflux procedures, predominately fundoplications, are relatively poorly characterized. All of these factors contribute to difficulty in knowing when to recommend antireflux surgery. One of the manifestations of the uncertainties surrounding GERD is the high degree of variability in the utilization of pediatric antireflux procedures throughout the United States. Pediatric surgeons are frequently consulted for GERD and fundoplication, uncertainties notwithstanding. Although retrospective series and anecdotal observations support fundoplication in some patients, there are many important questions for which sufficient high-quality data to provide a clear answer is lacking. In spite of this, surgeons need to provide guidance to patients and families while awaiting the development of improved evidence to aid in these recommendations. The purpose of this article is to define what is known and what is uncertain, with an emphasis on the most recent evidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intravoxel incoherent motion magnetic resonance imaging to predict vesicoureteral reflux in children with urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Woo; Lee, Chang Hee; Park, Yang Shin; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min [Korea University College of Medicine, Departments of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, 80 Guro-dong, Guro-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Kee Hwan [Korea University College of Medicine, Departments of Pediatrics, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Je, Bo-Kyung [Korea University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kiefer, Berthold [Oncology Application Development, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    To compare the diffusion parameters of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) between the ''reflux'' and the ''non-reflux'' kidneys, and to evaluate the feasibility of using IVIM DWI to predict vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children with a urinary tract infection (UTI). Eighty-three kidneys from 57 pediatric patients with a UTI were classified into ''reflux'' and ''non-reflux'' groups according to voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) results. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), true diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), and perfusion fraction (PF) were measured and compared in the renal pelvis of both groups. Four indices (D*/ADC, PF/ADC, D*/D, and PF/D) were calculated and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed. VURs were detected on VCUG in 21 kidneys. PF and D* were significantly higher in the ''reflux'' group than in the ''non-reflux'' group. The indices were all significantly higher. The PF/D index showed the best diagnostic performance in predicting VUR in children with UTI (A{sub z} = 0.864). PF and D* were significantly higher in the ''reflux'' kidney than in the ''non-reflux'' kidney. Our new index (PF/D) could prove useful for predicting VUR. (orig.)

  11. Intravoxel incoherent motion magnetic resonance imaging to predict vesicoureteral reflux in children with urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Woo; Lee, Chang Hee; Park, Yang Shin; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min; Yoo, Kee Hwan; Je, Bo-Kyung; Kiefer, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    To compare the diffusion parameters of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) between the ''reflux'' and the ''non-reflux'' kidneys, and to evaluate the feasibility of using IVIM DWI to predict vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children with a urinary tract infection (UTI). Eighty-three kidneys from 57 pediatric patients with a UTI were classified into ''reflux'' and ''non-reflux'' groups according to voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) results. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), true diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), and perfusion fraction (PF) were measured and compared in the renal pelvis of both groups. Four indices (D*/ADC, PF/ADC, D*/D, and PF/D) were calculated and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed. VURs were detected on VCUG in 21 kidneys. PF and D* were significantly higher in the ''reflux'' group than in the ''non-reflux'' group. The indices were all significantly higher. The PF/D index showed the best diagnostic performance in predicting VUR in children with UTI (A z = 0.864). PF and D* were significantly higher in the ''reflux'' kidney than in the ''non-reflux'' kidney. Our new index (PF/D) could prove useful for predicting VUR. (orig.)

  12. Infant Reflux: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and children, endoscopy is usually done under general anesthesia. Treatment Infant reflux usually clears up by itself. ... Has evidence of an inflamed esophagus Has chronic asthma and reflux Surgery Rarely, the lower esophageal sphincter ...

  13. Gastroesophageal reflux in children: radionuclide gastroesophagography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumhagen, J.D.; Rudd, T.G.; Christie, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sixty-five symptomatic infants and children underwent radionuclide gastroesophagography, acid reflux testing, and barium esophagography with water-siphon testing to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the scintigraphic technique in detecting gastroesophageal reflux. After ingesting /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid in fruit juice, patients rested beneath the gamma camera for 30 to 60 min while esophageal activity was monitored continuously. By using the acid reflux test as a standard of comparison, the senstivity of radionuclide gastroesophagography was 75%. Because of its physiologic nature, low radiation exposure, and convenience, radionuclide gastroesophagography warrants further evaluation as a screening test for gastroesophageal reflux

  14. Gastro-oesophageal reflux monitoring: review and consensus report on detection and definitions of acid, non-acid, and gas reflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifrim, D; Castell, D; Dent, J; Kahrilas, P J

    2004-01-01

    To date, most concepts on the frequency of gastro-oesophageal reflux episodes and the efficiency of the antireflux barrier have been based on inferences derived from measurement of oesophageal pH. The development of intraluminal impedance monitoring has highlighted the fact that pH monitoring does not detect all gastro-oesophageal reflux events when little or no acid is present in the refluxate, even if special pH tracing analysis criteria are used. In November 2002, a workshop took place at which 11 specialists in the field of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease discussed and criticised all currently available techniques for measurement of reflux. Here, a summary of their conclusions and recommendations of how to achieve the best results from the various techniques now available for reflux measurement is presented. PMID:15194656

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo, Raul; Francis, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disease with a prevalence as high as 10%-20% in the western world. The disease can manifest in various symptoms which can be grouped into typical, atypical and extra-esophageal symptoms. Those with the highest specificity for GERD are acid regurgitation and heartburn. In the absence of alarm symptoms, these symptoms can allow one to make a presumptive diagnosis and initiate empiric therapy. In certain situations, further diagnostic testing is needed to confirm the diagnosis as well as to assess for complications or alternate causes for the symptoms. GERD complications include erosive esophagitis, peptic stricture, Barrett’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma and pulmonary disease. Management of GERD may involve lifestyle modification, medical therapy and surgical therapy. Lifestyle modifications including weight loss and/or head of bed elevation have been shown to improve esophageal pH and/or GERD symptoms. Medical therapy involves acid suppression which can be achieved with antacids, histamine-receptor antagonists or proton-pump inhibitors. Whereas most patients can be effectively managed with medical therapy, others may go on to require anti-reflux surgery after undergoing a proper pre-operative evaluation. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current approach to the diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:25133039

  16. Heartburn, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and non-erosive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heartburn, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and non-erosive reflux disease. Haley Smith. Abstract. Reflux is a normal process that occurs in healthy infants, children and adults. Most episodes are short-lived and do not cause bothersome symptoms of complications. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) develops ...

  17. Clinical curative effect of electroacupuncture combined with zhizhukuanzhong capsules for treating gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaoxian; Guo, Like; Guo, Xiaofeng; Guo, Xiaohe; Li, Guangyan

    2012-09-01

    To study the clinical curative effect, safety and mechanism of action of electroacupuncture combined with Zhizhukuanzhong capsules (ZZKZC) in treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A total of 480 patients with confirmed GERD were randomly divided into four groups: the electroacupuncture group, the ZZKZC group, the combined therapy group, and the control group, with 120 cases in each group. Each case in the electroacupuncture group was treated with electroacupuncture on Zusanli (ST 36), Zhongwan (CV 12), Neiguan (PC 6),Taichong (LR 3) and Gongsun (SP 4) once daily for 6 weeks. Each case in the ZZKZC group was treated with oral administration of 1.29 g ZZKZC three times daily. The combined therapy group had electroacupuncture and ZZKZC. The control group was given oral administration of 5 mg mosapride three times and 20 mg pantoprazole twice daily. The 24-hour intraesophageal total number of reflux episodes with pH or = 0.14), the number of long-term (> or = 5 min) reflux episodes, the percentage of upright time, the percentage of supine time, the percentage of total time of pH or = 0.14), endoscopic grading score, symptom score, quality of life score, and adverse reactions were observed before treatment, at the end of treatment and 54 weeks after treatment in the four groups. The 24-hour intraesophageal pH and bile reflux, endoscopic grading score and symptom score were all significantly decreased at the end of treatment in every group, while the scores of 8 dimensions of quality of life were all increased compared with those before treatment (Pelectroacupuncture group 54 weeks after treatment compared with the end of treatment (P>0.05); however, these indices all significantly deteriorated in the ZZKZC and control groups (P>0.05). The short and long-term total efficacy rates in the combined therapy group showed significant superiority to those in the other groups (PElectroacupuncture and ZZKZC play an important role in inhibiting intraesophageal acid and

  18. Reflux episodes and esophageal impedance levels in patients with typical and atypical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bi Xing; Jiang, Liu Qin; Lin, Lin; Wang, Ying; Wang, Meifeng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To determine the relationship between baseline impedance levels and gastroesophageal reflux, we retrospectively enrolled 110 patients (54 men and 56 female; mean age, 51 ± 14 years) with suspected gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) who underwent 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring. Patients were stratified according to symptom (typical or atypical) and reflux types (acid reflux, nonacid reflux [NAR], or no abnormal reflux). Mean nocturnal baseline impedance (MNBI) were measured 3 cm (distal esophagus) and 17 cm (proximal esophagus) above the lower esophageal sphincter. Median distal esophageal MNBI was lower in the acid reflux group (1244 Ω; 647–1969 Ω) than in the NAR (2586 Ω; 1368–3666 Ω) or no abnormal reflux groups (3082 Ω; 2495–4472 Ω; all P < .05). Distal MNBI were negatively correlated with DeMeester score and acid exposure time. Atypical symptoms were more frequently associated with NAR than typical symptoms (P < .01). Among patients with positive symptom-association probability (SAP) for NAR, median proximal MNBI tended to be lower in patients with typical symptoms (median, 3013 Ω; IQR, 2535–3410 Ω) than in those with atypical symptoms (median, 3386 Ω; IQR, 3044–3730 Ω, P = .05). Thus, atypical GERD symptoms were more likely to be associated with NAR. The mucosal integrity of the proximal esophagus might be relatively impaired in GERD patients with typical symptoms for NAR. PMID:28906377

  19. Laparoscopic surgery for gastro-esophageal acid reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijven, Marlies P; Gisbertz, Suzanne S; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I

    2014-02-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease is a troublesome disease for many patients, severely affecting their quality of life. Choice of treatment depends on a combination of patient characteristics and preferences, esophageal motility and damage of reflux, symptom severity and symptom correlation to acid reflux and physician preferences. Success of treatment depends on tailoring treatment modalities to the individual patient and adequate selection of treatment choice. PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) were searched for systematic reviews with an abstract, publication date within the last five years, in humans only, on key terms (laparosc* OR laparoscopy*) AND (fundoplication OR reflux* OR GORD OR GERD OR nissen OR toupet) NOT (achal* OR pediat*). Last search was performed on July 23nd and in total 54 articles were evaluated as relevant from this search. The laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication is the therapy of choice for normal-weight GERD patients qualifying for laparoscopic surgery. No better pharmaceutical, endoluminal or surgical alternatives are present to date. No firm conclusion can be stated on its cost-effectiveness. Results have to be awaited comparing the laparoscopic 180-degree anterior fundoplication with the Toupet fundoplication to be a possible better surgical alternative. Division of the short gastric vessels is not to be recommended, nor is the use of a bougie or a mesh in the vast majority of GERD patients undergoing surgery. The use of a robot is not recommended. Anti-reflux surgery is to be considered expert surgery, but there is no clear consensus what is to be called an 'expert surgeon'. As for setting, ambulatory settings seem promising although high-level evidence is lacking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Work productivity and activity impairment in gastroesophageal reflux disease in Korean full-time employees: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Woon Geon; Kim, Heung Up; Kim, Sang Gyun; Kim, Gwang Ha; Shim, Ki-Nam; Kim, Jeong Wook; Kim, Jin Il; Kim, Jae Gyu; Kim, Jae J; Yim, Da-Hae; Park, Sue K; Park, Soo-Heon

    2012-04-01

    The costs of gastroesophageal reflux disease have not been assessed in Asia, even though the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease is gradually increasing. We evaluated work presenteeism and absenteeism as indirect costs of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Korea. This was a cross-sectional and multicentre study using patient-reported outcome instruments. A total of 1009 full-time employees who visited the gastrointestinal department for any reason (281 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease and 728 controls) were included. Main outcomes were presenteeism and absenteeism measured as work productivity loss and monetary cost per week. Absenteeism and presenteeism were significantly higher in the gastroesophageal reflux disease than the control group (1.49% vs. 0.46%, P=0.0010; 34.13% vs. 9.23%, Pgastroesophageal reflux disease than the control group (33.09% vs. 9.02%; Pgastroesophageal reflux disease group compared with the control group. Assuming average hourly wages of $14.12, the weekly burden of gastroesophageal reflux disease reached $165.07 per person. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was associated with substantial work productivity loss, mainly due to presenteeism rather than absenteeism, in Korean full-time employees. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of bromoprid on pathological gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leisner, B.; Brueckner, W.L.; Luderschmidt, C.

    1982-01-01

    In 20 out of 28 patients with pathological reflux, decreased reflux intensity was found in the functional scintiscan after i.v. injection of 10 mg Bromoprid. This way, reflux cases in which successful therapy with so-called motility-influencing substances is highly probable can be identified already during primary diagnosis. In two thirds of all patients with affected oesophagus and pathological reflux accompanying sclerodermatitis, the lower oesophagal sphincter still responded to Bromoprid. (orig.) [de

  2. Influence of bromoprid on pathological gastroesophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leisner, B.; Brueckner, W.L.; Luderschmidt, C.

    1982-10-28

    In 20 out of 28 patients with pathological reflux, decreased reflux intensity was found in the functional scintiscan after i.v. injection of 10 mg Bromoprid. This way, reflux cases in which successful therapy with so-called motility-influencing substances is highly probable can be identified already during primary diagnosis. In two thirds of all patients with affected oesophagus and pathological reflux accompanying sclerodermatitis, the lower oesophagal sphincter still responded to Bromoprid.

  3. Relation between reflux of bile acids into the stomach and gastric mucosal atrophy, intestinal metaplasia in biopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Tsukui, Taku

    2012-05-01

    During endoscopic examinations we collected fluid in the stomach that included reflux fluid from the duodenum, and assessed the effect of quantitatively determined bile acids on glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia using biopsy specimens. A total of 294 outpatients were enrolled in this study. Total bile acid concentration was measured by an enzyme immunoassay. Glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia scores were graded according to the Updated Sydney System. An effect of refluxed bile acids on atrophy and intestinal metaplasia was shown in the high-concentration reflux group in comparison with the control group. However, when the odds ratios (ORs) were calculated according to whether Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was present, no significant associations were shown between reflux bile acids and atrophy in either the H. pylori-positive cases or -negative cases. The same was true for intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-positive cases, whereas intestinal metaplasia was more pronounced in the high-concentration reflux group in the H. pylori-negative cases (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.1-5.6). We could not clarify the effect of the reflux of bile acids into the stomach in the progression of atrophy. High-concentration bile acids had an effect on the progression of intestinal metaplasia in the H. pylori-negative cases.

  4. Impact of obesity treatment on gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abraham; Kim, Aram; Sanossian, Cassandra; Francois, Fritz

    2016-01-28

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a frequently encountered disorder. Obesity is an important risk factor for GERD, and there are several pathophysiologic mechanisms linking the two conditions. For obese patients with GERD, much of the treatment effort is focused on weight loss and its consistent benefit to symptoms, while there is a relative lack of evidence regarding outcomes after novel or even standard medical therapy is offered to this population. Physicians are hesitant to recommend operative anti-reflux therapy to obese patients due to the potentially higher risks and decreased efficacy, and these patients instead are often considered for bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgical approaches are broadening, and each technique has emerging evidence regarding its effect on both the risk and outcome of GERD. Furthermore, combined anti-reflux and bariatric options are now being offered to obese patients with GERD. However, currently Roux-en-Y gastric bypass remains the most effective surgical treatment option in this population, due to its consistent benefits in both weight loss and GERD itself. This article aims to review the impact of both conservative and aggressive approaches of obesity treatment on GERD.

  5. Dental approach to erosive tooth wear in gastroesophageal reflux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Objective: To summarize the diagnostic protocol and treatment of dental erosion due to GERD. Methods: A Medline ..... reflux in children with cerebral palsy and its relationship to erosion of ... phate (ACP) on root surface hypersensitivity. Operative ... Lussi A. Dental erosion clinical diagnosis and case.

  6. Esophageal motility abnormalities in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinucci, Irene; de Bortoli, Nicola; Giacchino, Maria; Bodini, Giorgia; Marabotto, Elisa; Marchi, Santino; Savarino, Vincenzo; Savarino, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities are among the main factors implicated in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The recent introduction in clinical and research practice of novel esophageal testing has markedly improved our understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease, allowing a better management of patients with this disorder. In this context, the present article intends to provide an overview of the current literature about esophageal motility dysfunctions in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal manometry, by recording intraluminal pressure, represents the gold standard to diagnose esophageal motility abnormalities. In particular, using novel techniques, such as high resolution manometry with or without concurrent intraluminal impedance monitoring, transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxations, hypotensive LES, ineffective esophageal peristalsis and bolus transit abnormalities have been better defined and strongly implicated in gastroesophageal reflux disease development. Overall, recent findings suggest that esophageal motility abnormalities are increasingly prevalent with increasing severity of reflux disease, from non-erosive reflux disease to erosive reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus. Characterizing esophageal dysmotility among different subgroups of patients with reflux disease may represent a fundamental approach to properly diagnose these patients and, thus, to set up the best therapeutic management. Currently, surgery represents the only reliable way to restore the esophagogastric junction integrity and to reduce transient LES relaxations that are considered to be the predominant mechanism by which gastric contents can enter the esophagus. On that ground, more in depth future studies assessing the pathogenetic role of dysmotility in patients with reflux disease are warranted. PMID:24868489

  7. Usefulness of gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy using the knee-chest position for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Yasushi; Imai, Yukinori; Ota, Shinichi; Fujiwara, Kenji; Miyamae, Tatsuya

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) scintigraphy using the knee-chest (KC) position for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The study subjects were 37 patients with GERD and 8 healthy volunteers (control group). Endoscopically observed esophageal mucosal breaks were evaluated with the Los Angeles classification. For GER scintigraphy, the subjects ingested liquid yogurt labeled with 99m Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid ( 99m Tc-DTPA) and water. Imaging was performed in the supine and KC position, and GER was graded as 1-4 according to the extent of GER assessed by scintigraphy. GER scintigraphy revealed no reflux in the control group (specificity: 100%). In the supine position, gastroesophageal reflux was observed in 49% of the patients with GERD, compared to 76% in the KC position. 21 of 23 (91%) patients with erosive esophagitis were shown to have GER with scintigraphy. GER scintigraphy revealed severe reflux (grade 3 or 4) (83%, 10/12) in the patients who had severe mucosal breaks (the Los Angels classification grade C or D). GER scintigraphy detected grade 1 or 2 reflux in 7 of the 14 patients who were endoscopically negative. There was a correlation between the endoscopically determined severity of mucosa and the reflux grade which was determined with GER scintigraphy. GER scintigraphy can detect gastroesophageal reflux with a high sensitivity in the KC position and might be a useful method in the screening and assessment of the severity of this disease. This method would be useful for the diagnosis of GERD in endoscopically negative patients. (author)

  8. Respiratory repercussions of gastroesophageal reflux and Cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemeteau, C.; Saudubray, F. (Hopital des Enfants, 33 - Bordeaux (France)); Guillet, J. (Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France))

    1985-04-01

    Asthma and recurrent bronchopneumopathies in children are often associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Cine-esogastroscintigraphy is proposed for demonstrating reflux and establishing its direct or indirect responsibility in respiratory disease. 133 patients aged 5 months to 16 years were studied. Reflux was found in 65.5% of cases, either severe (44.4% of cases) or minor (21.1%). Episodes of reflux produced respiratory manifestations in 7% of patients. Inhalation of refluxed material was proved in 3% by demonstration of pulmonary contamination. Sensitivity of cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy is comparable to that of esophageal pH measurement for detection of reflux. It does not require positioning of a probe in the esophageal lumen. It provides quantitative parameters on esophageal transit, reflux and gastric voiding, and demonstrates pulmonary contamination. It is easy to perform and can be readily included in an outpatient clinic workup. Its sensitivity and reliability make it a useful tool for evaluation of therapeutic efficiency. The interlocking of various physiopathologic factors contributes to the polymorphism of respiratory manifestations of reflux.

  9. Respiratory repercussions of gastroesophageal reflux and cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemeteau, C.; Saudubray, F. (Hopital des Enfants, 33 - Bordeaux (France)); Guillet, J. (Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France))

    1984-10-01

    Asthma and recurrent bronchopneumopathies in children are often associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy is proposed for demonstrating reflux and establishing its direct or indirect responsibility in respiratory disease. 133 patients aged 5 months to 16 years were studied. Reflux was found in 65.5% of cases, either severe (44.4% of cases) or minor (21.1%). Episodes of reflux produced respiratory manifestations in 7% of patients. Inhalation of refluxed material was proved in 3% by demonstration of pulmonary contamination. Sensitivity of cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy is comparable to that of esophageal pH measurement for detection of reflux. It does not require positioning of a probe in the esophageal lumen. It provides quantitative parameters on esophageal transit, reflux and gastric voiding, and demonstrates pulmonary contamination. It is easy to perform and can be readily included in an outpatient clinic workup. Its sensitivity and reliability make it a useful tool for evaluation of therapeutic efficiency. The interlocking of various physiopathologic factors contributes to the polymorphism of respiratory manifestations of reflux.

  10. Respiratory repercussions of gastroesophageal reflux and cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemeteau, C.; Saudubray, F.; Guillet, J.

    1984-01-01

    Asthma and recurrent bronchopneumopathies in children are often associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Cine-esogastroscintigraphy is proposed for demonstrating reflux and establishing its direct or indirect responsibility in respiratory disease. 133 patients aged 5 months to 16 years were studied. Reflux was found in 65.5% of cases, either severe (44.4% of cases) or minor (21.1%). Episodes of reflux produced respiratory manifestations in 7% of patients. Inhalation of refluxed material was proved in 3% by demonstration of pulmonary contamination. Sensitivity of cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy is comparable to that of esophageal pH measurement for detection of reflux. It does not require positioning of a probe in the esophageal lumen. It provides quantitative parameters on esophageal transit, reflux and gastric voiding, and demonstrates pulmonary contamination. It is easy to perform and can be readily included in an outpatient clinic workup. Its sensitivity and reliability make it a useful tool for evaluation of therapeutic efficiency. The interlocking of various physiopathologic factors contributes to the polymorphism of respiratory manifestations of reflux [fr

  11. Respiratory repercussions of gastroesophageal reflux and cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemeteau, C.; Saudubray, F.; Guillet, J.

    1985-01-01

    Asthma and recurrent bronchopneumopathies in children are often associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Cine-esogastroscintigraphy is proposed for demonstrating reflux and establishing its direct or indirect responsibility in respiratory disease. 133 patients aged 5 months to 16 years were studied. Reflux was found in 65.5% of cases, either severe (44.4% of cases) or minor (21.1%). Episodes of reflux produced respiratory manifestations in 7% of patients. Inhalation of refluxed material was proved in 3% by demonstration of pulmonary contamination. Sensitivity of cine-esophagogastroscintigraphy is comparable to that of esophageal pH measurement for detection of reflux. It does not require positioning of a probe in the esophageal lumen. It provides quantitative parameters on esophageal transit, reflux and gastric voiding, and demonstrates pulmonary contamination. It is easy to perform and can be readily included in an outpatient clinic workup. Its sensitivity and reliability make it a useful tool for evaluation of therapeutic efficiency. The interlocking of various physiopathologic factors contributes to the polymorphism of respiratory manifestations of reflux [fr

  12. Gastroesophageal Reflux Management with the LINX® System for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Following Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desart, Kenneth; Rossidis, Georgios; Michel, Michael; Lux, Tamara; Ben-David, Kfir

    2015-10-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has gained significant popularity in the USA, and consequently resulted in patients experiencing new-onset gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) following this bariatric procedure. Patients with GERD refractory to medical therapy present a more challenging situation limiting the surgical options to further treat the de novo GERD symptoms since the gastric fundus to perform a fundoplication is no longer an option. The aim of this study is to determine if the LINX® magnetic sphincter augmentation system is a safe and effective option for patients with new gastroesophageal reflux disease following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. This study was conducted at the University Medical Center. This is a retrospective review of seven consecutive patients who had a laparoscopic LINX® magnetic sphincter device placement for patients with refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy between July 2014 and April 2015. All patients were noted to have self-reported greatly improved gastroesophageal reflux symptoms 2-4 weeks after their procedure. They were all noted to have statistically significant improved severity and frequency of their reflux, regurgitation, epigastric pain, sensation of fullness, dysphagia, and cough symptoms in their postoperative GERD symptoms compared with their preoperative evaluation. This is the first reported pilot case series, illustrating that the LINX® device is a safe and effective option in patients with de novo refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease after a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy despite appropriate weight loss.

  13. Lower pH values of weakly acidic refluxes as determinants of heartburn perception in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients with normal esophageal acid exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bortoli, N; Martinucci, I; Savarino, E; Franchi, R; Bertani, L; Russo, S; Ceccarelli, L; Costa, F; Bellini, M; Blandizzi, C; Savarino, V; Marchi, S

    2016-01-01

    Multichannel impedance pH monitoring has shown that weakly acidic refluxes are able to generate heartburn. However, data on the role of different pH values, ranging between 4 and 7, in the generation of them are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether different pH values of weakly acidic refluxes play a differential role in provoking reflux symptoms in endoscopy-negative patients with physiological esophageal acid exposure time and positive symptom index and symptom association probability for weakly acidic refluxes. One hundred and forty-three consecutive patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease, nonresponders to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), were allowed a washout from PPIs before undergoing: upper endoscopy, esophageal manometry, and multichannel impedance pH monitoring. In patients with both symptom index and symptom association probability positive for weakly acidic reflux, each weakly acidic reflux was evaluated considering exact pH value, extension, physical characteristics, and correlation with heartburn. Forty-five patients with normal acid exposure time and positive symptom association probability for weakly acidic reflux were identified. The number of refluxes not heartburn related was higher than those heartburn related. In all distal and proximal liquid refluxes, as well as in distal mixed refluxes, the mean pH value of reflux events associated with heartburn was significantly lower than that not associated. This condition was not confirmed for proximal mixed refluxes. Overall, a low pH of weakly acidic reflux represents a determinant factor in provoking heartburn. This observation contributes to better understand the pathophysiology of symptoms generated by weakly acidic refluxes, paving the way toward the search for different therapeutic approaches to this peculiar condition of esophageal hypersensitivity. © 2014 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  14. Pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease in premature infants using a radionuclide method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Michiomi

    2001-01-01

    The cases of 36 very low birthweight infants (premature group) and 52 mature infants with birth weights as low as 1500 g (mature group) with gastro-esephageal reflux disease (GERD) were reviewed. These infants received 24 hour pH monitoring, reflux scintigraphy, gastric emptying, and antrum motility measurement. The results of 24-hour pH monitoring of the premature group are not different from these of the mature group. Time required for reflux scintigraphy of the premature group is higher than that of the mature group. Emptying time of premature group is slower than that of the mature group. Dietary management in premature infants with GERD is important. Using a nasoduodenal feeding tube is quite effective. Radionuclide method, in addition to 24-hour pH monitoring, should be used to evaluate total gastroesophageal function. (author)

  15. Pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease in premature infants using a radionuclide method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Michiomi [Tokyo Metropolitan Hospital of Ohkubo (Japan)

    2001-12-01

    The cases of 36 very low birthweight infants (premature group) and 52 mature infants with birth weights as low as 1500 g (mature group) with gastro-esephageal reflux disease (GERD) were reviewed. These infants received 24 hour pH monitoring, reflux scintigraphy, gastric emptying, and antrum motility measurement. The results of 24-hour pH monitoring of the premature group are not different from these of the mature group. Time required for reflux scintigraphy of the premature group is higher than that of the mature group. Emptying time of premature group is slower than that of the mature group. Dietary management in premature infants with GERD is important. Using a nasoduodenal feeding tube is quite effective. Radionuclide method, in addition to 24-hour pH monitoring, should be used to evaluate total gastroesophageal function. (author)

  16. Acid suppression increases rates of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal injury in the presence of duodenal reflux.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: The contribution of gastric acid to the toxicity of alkaline duodenal refluxate on the esophageal mucosa is unclear. This study compared the effect of duodenal refluxate when acid was present, decreased by proton pump inhibitors (PPI), or absent. METHODS: We randomized 136 Sprague-Dawley rats into 4 groups: group 1 (n = 33) were controls; group 2 (n = 34) underwent esophagoduodenostomy promoting "combined reflux"; group 3 (n = 34) underwent esophagoduodenostomy and PPI treatment to decrease acid reflux; and group 4, the \\'gastrectomy\\' group (n = 35) underwent esophagoduodenostomy and total gastrectomy to eliminate acid in the refluxate. Esophaguses were examined for inflammatory, Barrett\\'s, and other histologic changes, and expression of proliferative markers Ki-67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). RESULTS: In all reflux groups, the incidence of Barrett\\'s mucosa was greater when acid was suppressed (group C, 62%; group D, 71%) than when not suppressed (group B, 27%; P = 0.004 and P < .001). Erosions were more frequent in the PPI and gastrectomy groups than in the combined reflux group. Edema (wet weight) and ulceration was more frequent in the gastrectomy than in the combined reflux group. Acute inflammatory changes were infrequent in the PPI group (8%) compared with the combined reflux (94%) or gastrectomy (100%) groups, but chronic inflammation persisted in 100% of the PPI group. EGFR levels were greater in the PPI compared with the combined reflux group (P = .04). Ki-67, PCNA, and combined marker scores were greater in the gastrectomy compared with the combined reflux group (P = .006, P = .14, and P < .001). CONCLUSION: Gastric acid suppression in the presence of duodenal refluxate caused increased rates of inflammatory changes, intestinal metaplasia, and molecular proliferative activity. PPIs suppressed acute inflammatory changes only, whereas chronic inflammatory changes persisted.

  17. Role of Acid and Weakly Acidic Reflux in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Off Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Hea Jung; Cho, Yu Kyung; Moon, Sung Jin; Kim, Jin Su; Lim, Chul Hyun; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung-Gye

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Available data about reflux patterns and symptom determinants in the gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) subtypes off proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy are lacking. We aimed to evaluate reflux patterns and determinants of symptom perception in patients with GERD off PPI therapy by impedance-pH monitoring. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the impedance-pH data in patients diagnosed as GERD based on results of impedance-pH monitoring, endoscopy and/or typical symptoms. T...

  18. Systematic review: relationships between sleep and gastro-oesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, J; Holloway, R H; Eastwood, P R

    2013-10-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) adversely impacts on sleep, but the mechanism remains unclear. To review the literature concerning gastro-oesophageal reflux during the sleep period, with particular reference to the sleep/awake state at reflux onset. Studies identified by systematic literature searches were assessed. Overall patterns of reflux during the sleep period show consistently that oesophageal acid clearance is slower, and reflux frequency and oesophageal acid exposure are higher in patients with GERD than in healthy individuals. Of the 17 mechanistic studies identified by the searches, 15 reported that a minority of reflux episodes occurred during stable sleep, but the prevailing sleep state at the onset of reflux in these studies remains unclear owing to insufficient temporal resolution of recording or analysis methods. Two studies, in healthy individuals and patients with GERD, analysed sleep and pH with adequate resolution for temporal alignment of sleep state and the onset of reflux: all 232 sleep period reflux episodes evaluated occurred during arousals from sleep lasting less than 15 s or during longer duration awakenings. Six mechanistic studies found that transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations were the most common mechanism of sleep period reflux. Contrary to the prevailing view, subjective impairment of sleep in GERD is unlikely to be due to the occurrence of reflux during stable sleep, but could result from slow clearance of acid reflux that occurs during arousals or awakenings from sleep. Definitive studies are needed on the sleep/awake state at reflux onset across the full GERD spectrum. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Olinichenko, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the research is to study the features of gastroesophageal reflux disease, combined with the metabolic syndrome. Materials and methods. The study involved 490 patients (250 have got gastroesophageal reflux disease, combined with the metabolic syndrome and 240 have got gastroesophageal reflux disease without the metabolic syndrome). The patients besides general clinical examination were carried out video-fibro-gastro-duodeno-skopy, pH-monitoring in the esophagus, anthropometry, deter...

  20. Scintigraphic scoring system for grading severity of gastro-esophageal reflux on 99mTc sulfur colloid gastro-esophageal reflux scintigraphy: A prospective study of 39 cases with pre and post treatment assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Ameya D; Nair, Gopinathan; Aggarwal, Rajiv; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Shinto, Ajit; Zade, Anand

    2013-04-01

    The study aimed at developing a scoring system for scintigraphic grading of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER), on gastro-esophageal reflux scintigraphy (GERS) and comparison of clinical and scintigraphic scores, pre- and post-treatment. A total of 39 cases with clinically symptomatic GER underwent 99mTc sulfur colloid GERS; scores were assigned based on the clinical and scintigraphic parameters. Post domperidone GERS was performed after completion of treatment. Follow up GERS was performed and clinical and scintigraphic parameters were compared with baseline parameters. Paired t-test on pre and post domperidone treatment clinical scores showed that the decline in post-treatment scores was highly significant, with P value reflux and also for following children post-treatment.

  1. Gastroesophageal and biliary reflux. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bares, Roland; Buell, Udalrich

    1991-01-01

    After a brief recapitulation of reflux pathogenesis, this review presents the state of the art of nuclear medicine techniques to diagnose gastroesophageal or duodenogastric reflux, as well as a summary of clinical results and considerations about indication. (author).53 refs.; 5 figs.; 8 tabs

  2. [Gastric and duodenal secretory and motor-evacuatory activity in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease associated with different types of reflux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhulay, G S; Sekareva, E V

    2016-01-01

    To estimate esophageal and gastric pH values on an empty stomach and after stimulation of gastric secretion and gastric and duodenal motor-evacuatory activity in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) associated with pathological refluxes, such as gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and duodenogastroesophageal reflux (DGER). The observational cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate and compare the parameters of intraesophageal and intragastric pH metry and peripheral electrogastroenterography in 103 GERD patients with endoscopically positive distal reflux esophagitis in GER and DGER. The patients with GERD developed pathological esophageal refluxes (both GER and DGER) in various degrees of impaired gastric production, from anacidity to hyperacidity. The patients with predominant DGER were found to have gastric hyperacidity and normal acidity slightly less frequently than those with predominant GER. The patients with GERD developing in the presence of predominant GER had moderate gastric stasis with discoordinated antroduodenal propulsion resulting from hypomotor dyskinesia of the stomach and duodenum. When DGER was predominant in the patients with GERD, the signs of gastric stasis and duodenal hyperkinesia were concurrent with discoordinated antroduodenal and duodenojejunal propulsion. The specific features of the esophagogastroduodenal secretory and motor evacuatory disorders found create conditions for the pathological refluxes into the esophagus, which differ in the composition of refluxate.

  3. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and vocal disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Coelho de Arruda Henry

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a chronic disease in which gastroduodenal contents reflux into the esophagus. The clinical picture of gastroesophageal reflux disease is usually composed by heartburn and regurgitation (typical manifestations. Atypical manifestations (vocal disturbances and asthma may also be complaint. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the clinical, endoscopic, manometric and pHmetric aspects of patients suffering from gastroesophageal reflux disease associated with vocal disturbances. METHODS: Fifty patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease were studied, including 25 with vocal disturbances (group 1 - G1 and 25 without these symptoms (group 2 - G2. All patients were submitted to endoscopy, manometry and esophageal pHmetry (2 probes. The group 1 patients were submitted to videolaryngoscopy. RESULTS: Endoscopic findings: non-erosive reflux disease was observed in 95% of G1 patients and 88% of G2. Videolaryngoscopy: vocal fold congestion, asymmetry, nodules and polyps were observed in G1 patients. Manometric findings: pressure in the lower esophageal sphincter (mm Hg: 11.6 ± 5.2 in G1 and 14.0 ± 6.2 in G2 (P = 0.14; pressure in the upper esophageal sphincter (mm Hg: 58.4 ± 15.9 in G1 and 69.5 ± 30.7 in the controls. pHmetric findings: De Meester index: 34.0 ± 20.9 in G1 and 15.4 ± 9.4 in G2 (P<0.001; number of reflux episodes in distal probe: 43.0 ± 20.4 in G1 and 26.4 ± 17.2 in G2 (P = 0.003; percentage of time with esophageal pH value lower than 4 units (distal sensor: 9.0% ± 6.4% in G1 and 3.4% ± 2.1% in G2 (P<0.001; number of reflux episodes in proximal probe: 7.5 ± 10.9 in G1 and 5.3 ± 5.7 in G2 (P = 0.38; percentage of time with esophageal pH values lower than 4 units (Proximal probe: 1.2 ± 2.7 in G1 and 0.5 ± 0.7 in G2 (P = 0.21. CONCLUSIONS: 1 The clinical, endoscopic, and manometric findings observed in patients with vocal disturbance do not differ from those without these symptoms; 2 gastroesophageal

  4. Effect of coffee on gastro-oesophageal reflux in patients with reflux disease and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekema, P. J.; Samsom, M.; Smout, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) report that coffee aggravates their symptoms and doctors tend to discourage its use in GORD. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of coffee ingestion on gastro-oesophageal acid reflux. DESIGN: A randomized, controlled, crossover

  5. Optimization of the reflux ratio for a stage distillation column based on an improved particle swarm algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun

    2010-01-01

    A mathematical model relating operation profits with reflux ratio of a stage distillation column was established. In order to optimize the reflux ratio by solving the nonlinear objective function, an improved particle swarm algorithm was developed and has been proved to be able to enhance...... the searching ability of basic particle swarm algorithm significantly. An example of utilizing the improved algorithm to solve the mathematical model was demonstrated; the result showed that it is efficient and convenient to optimize the reflux ratio for a distillation column by using the mathematical model...

  6. Impacts of endoscopic gastroesophageal flap valve grading on pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Chi Chang

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal flap valve (GEFV endoscopic grading is reported to be associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in adults; however its role in pediatric groups remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the significance of GEFV grading and the associations to multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring (MII-pH in children with GERD.A total of 48 children with GERD symptoms who received esophagogastroduodenoscopy and MII-pH monitoring were enrolled. The degree of GEFV was graded from I to IV according to the Hill classification, and classified into two groups: normal GEFV (Hill grades I and II, and abnormal GEFV (Hill grades III and VI. Endoscopic findings and MII-pH monitoring were analyzed among the groups.Thirty-six patients had normal GEFV while 12 had abnormal GEFV. The presence of erosive esophagitis was significantly more common in the patients with abnormal GEFV (p = 0.037, OR 9.84, 95% CI 1.15-84.42. Pathological acidic gastroesophageal reflux (GER determined by MII-pH was more prevalent in the patients with loosened GEFV geometry (p = 0.01, OR 7.0, 95% CI 1.67-27.38. There were significant positive correlations between GEFV Hill grading I to IV and the severity of erosive esophagitis (r = 0.49, p<0.001, percentage of supine acid reflux (r = 0.37, p = 0.009, percentage of total acid reflux (r = 0.3284, p = 0.023, and DeMeester score (r = 0.36, p = 0.01 detected by pH monitoring. In the impedance study, GEFV Hill grading also positively correlated to median number of acid reflux events (r = 0.3015, p = 0.037.GEFV dysfunction highly associated with acid GER and severe erosive esophagitis. An abnormal GEFV is a sign of acid GER in children.

  7. Nocturnal weakly acidic reflux promotes aspiration of bile acids in lung transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeau, Kathleen; Mertens, Veerle; Vanaudenaerde, Bart A; Verleden, Geert M; Van Raemdonck, Dirk E; Sifrim, Daniel; Dupont, Lieven J

    2009-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and aspiration of bile acids have been implicated as non-alloimmune risk factors for the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) after lung transplantation. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between GER and gastric aspiration of bile acids and to establish which reflux characteristics may promote aspiration of bile acids into the lungs and may feature as a potential diagnostic tool in identifying lung transplantation (LTx) patients at risk for aspiration. Twenty-four stable LTx recipients were studied 1 year after transplantation. All patients underwent 24-hour ambulatory impedance-pH recording for the detection of acid (pH acidic (pH 4 to 7) reflux. On the same day, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected and then analyzed for the presence of bile acids (Bioquant enzymatic assay). Increased GER was detected in 13 patients, of whom 9 had increased acid reflux and 4 had exclusively increased weakly acidic reflux. Sixteen patients had detectable bile acids in the BALF (0.6 [0.4 to 1.5] micromol/liter). The 24-hour esophageal volume exposure was significantly increased in patients with bile acids compared to patients without bile acids in the BALF. Acid exposure and the number of reflux events (total, acid and weakly acidic) were unrelated to the presence of bile acids in the BALF. However, both nocturnal volume exposure and the number of nocturnal weakly acidic reflux events were significantly higher in patients with bile acids in the BALF. Weakly acidic reflux events, especially during the night, are associated with the aspiration of bile acids in LTx recipients and may therefore feature as a potential risk factor for the development of BOS.

  8. Comparative evaluation of intragastric bile acids and hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the diagnosis of duodenogastric reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Teng-Fei; Yadav, Praveen K; Wu, Rui-Jin; Yu, Wei-Hua; Liu, Chang-Qin; Lin, Hui; Liu, Zhan-Ju

    2013-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of a combination of intragastric bile acids and hepatobiliary scintigraphy in the detection of duodenogastric reflux (DGR). The study contained 99 patients with DGR and 70 healthy volunteers who made up the control group. The diagnosis was based on the combination of several objective arguments: a long history of gastric symptoms (i.e., nausea, epigastric pain, and/or bilious vomiting) poorly responsive to medical treatment, gastroesophageal reflux symptoms unresponsive to proton-pump inhibitors, gastritis on upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and/or at histology, presence of a bilious gastric lake at > 1 upper GI endoscopy, pathologic 24-h intragastric bile monitoring with the Bilitec device. Gastric juice was aspirated in the GI endoscopy and total bile acid (TBA), total bilirubin (TBIL) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) were tested in the clinical laboratory. Continuous data of gastric juice were compared between each group using the independent-samples Mann-Whitney U-test and their relationship was analysed by Spearman's rank correlation test and Fisher's linear discriminant analysis. Histopathology of DGR patients and 23 patients with chronic atrophic gastritis was compared by clinical pathologists. Using the Independent-samples Mann-Whitney U-test, DGR index (DGRi) was calculated in 28 patients of DGR group and 19 persons of control group who were subjected to hepatobiliary scintigraphy. Receiver operating characteristic curve was made to determine the sensitivity and specificity of these two methods in the diagnosis of DGR. The group of patients with DGR showed a statistically higher prevalence of epigastric pain in comparison with control group. There was no significant difference between the histology of gastric mucosa with atrophic gastritis and duodenogastric reflux. The bile acid levels of DGR patients were significantly higher than the control values (Z: TBA: -8.916, DBIL: -3.914, TBIL: -6.197, all P Reflux: Y = 0.012TBA + 0

  9. [Gastro-oesophageal reflux in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Trudy; Kamphuis, Mascha; Kivit-Schwengle, Lilly

    2014-01-01

    A more prominent role for the youth healthcare physician: Youth Healthcare physicians reflect on the Dutch Paediatric Association (NVK) guideline entitled 'Gastro-oesophageal reflux (disease) in children aged 0-18 years'. This guideline states that medicinal treatment is given to these children too often. Dutch Youth Healthcare physicians see a large number of children with gastro-oesophageal reflux, with or without additional symptoms. The most common symptoms (crying and diminished weight gain) might be present even in the absence of reflux. Parents should be given advice and support when they are worried about reflux, crying or low weight gain. A lower weight gain curve on the growth chart is normal in breastfed children, and crying might be due to factors such as lack of routine or stimulus reduction. Overfeeding might also be the cause. Parents should be supported and followed up, with or without treatment, as necessary. Youth Healthcare professionals could perform this task.

  10. Retrograde cystography US. A new ultrasound technique for the diagnosis and staging of vesicoureteral reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, R.; Arena, C.; Pennisi, F.; Di Benedetto, V.; Politi, G.; Di Benedetto, A.

    1999-01-01

    The authors investigated the accuracy of a new US (ultrasound) investigation technique, called retrograde cystography US, in the early diagnosis and staging of vesicoureteral reflux. 5 patients, aged 3 months to 10 years, suffering from hydronephrosis and/or pyelonephritis, were examined using retrograde cystography US followed by conventional retrograde cystography. Retrograde cystography US consists in the transcatheter introduction of a contrast agent into the bladder and a subsequent color Doppler examination to show or exclude the presence of reflux. Superpubic scanning of bladder, ureters and pyelocaliceal cavity was performed after echo contrast agent introduction to assess the reflux grade. US was performed with an Esaote AU 590 asynchronous scanner with a 3.5 MHz convex probe. The total agreement of conventional and US findings seems to confirm the importance of the US method for the diagnosis and staging of vesicoureteral reflux [it

  11. Feasibility of closed Fe(II)/Fe(III) system for product-reflux in Nitrox process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, M.; Ishida, T.

    1981-01-01

    A concept of closed reflux system for stable isotope fractionation by chemical exchange method has been introduced. In a closed system a chemical agent used to convert one chemical species of an isotopic exchange reaction into the other at the product end is regenerated on site by means of an electrochemical or thermal process. It offers a convenience of eliminating the needs for transporting chemicals to and from the site and an advantage of allowing leniency in the degree of completeness of the reflux reaction. Feasibility of use of Fe(II) salt solutions in a closed reflux system for the Nitrox process for 15 N fractionation has been studied. Two of such systems, FeSO 4 in H 2 SO 4 and Fe(ClO 4 ) 2 in HClO 4 , are adopted for packed column operation. For both systems, the rate of reduction of nitric acid increases with increasing acid concentration, the solubility of the salts decreases with the increasing acid concentration, and the reflux reaction can be made to go to completion. Evaluation of such a closed reflux system will have to include that of performance of regenerative process

  12. An alginate-antacid formulation localizes to the acid pocket to reduce acid reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohof, Wout O; Bennink, Roel J; Smout, Andre J P M; Thomas, Edward; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2013-12-01

    Alginate rafts (polysaccharide polymers that precipitate into a low-density viscous gel when they contact gastric acid) have been reported to form at the acid pocket, an unbuffered pool of acid that floats on top of ingested food and causes postprandial acid reflux. We studied the location of an alginate formulation in relation to the acid pocket and the corresponding effects on reflux parameters and acid pocket positioning in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We randomly assigned patients with symptomatic GERD and large hiatal hernias to groups who were given either (111)In-labeled alginate-antacid (n = 8, Gaviscon Double Action Liquid) or antacid (n = 8, Antagel) after a standard meal. The relative positions of labeled alginate and acid pocket were analyzed for 2 hours by using scintigraphy; reflux episodes were detected by using high-resolution manometry and pH-impedance monitoring. The alginate-antacid label localized to the acid pocket. The number of acid reflux episodes was significantly reduced in patients receiving alginate-antacid (3.5; range, 0-6.5; P = .03) compared with those receiving antacid (15; range, 5-20), whereas time to acid reflux was significantly increased in patients receiving alginate-antacid (63 minutes; range, 23-92) vs those receiving antacid (14 minutes; range, 9-23; P = .01). The acid pocket was located below the diaphragm in 71% of patients given alginate-antacid vs 21% of those given antacid (P = .08). There was an inverse correlation between a subdiaphragm position of the acid pocket and acid reflux (r = -0.76, P acid pocket and displaces it below the diaphragm to reduce postprandial acid reflux. These findings indicate the importance of the acid pocket in GERD pathogenesis and establish alginate-antacid as an appropriate therapy for postprandial acid reflux. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of acid-suppressive therapy before anti-reflux surgery in 2922 patients: a nationwide register-based study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lødrup, A; Pottegård, A; Hallas, J; Bytzer, P

    2015-07-01

    Guidelines recommend that patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are adequately treated with acid-suppressive therapy before undergoing anti-reflux surgery. Little is known of the use of acid-suppressive drugs before anti-reflux surgery. To determine the use of proton pump inhibitors and H2 -receptor antagonists in the year before anti-reflux surgery. A nationwide retrospective study of all patients aged ≥18 undergoing first-time anti-reflux surgery in Denmark during 2000-2012 using data from three different sources: the Danish National Register of Patients, the Danish National Prescription Register, and the Danish Person Register. The study population thus included 2922 patients (median age: 48 years, 55.7% male). The annual proportion of patients redeeming ≥180 DDD of acid-suppressive therapy increased from 17.0% 5 years before anti-reflux surgery to 64.9% 1 year before. The probability for inadequate dosing 1 year before surgery (reflux surgery, as a high proportion of patients receive inadequate dosing of acid-suppressive therapy prior to the operation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Detection of Vesico-Ureteric Reflux Using Voiding Hippuran Ureterograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J. B.; Palser, R. [Section of Nuclear Medicine, Manitoba Cancer Treatment and Research Foundation, Winnipeg General Hospital, Winnipeg (Canada); Macpherson, R. I. [Children' s Hospital of Winnipeg, Winnipeg (Canada)

    1971-02-15

    Initial results of a technique for the demonstration of vesico-ureteric reflux in children are described. Hippuran-{sup 131}I (15 {mu}Ci) (ortho-iodohippurate) is injected intravenously. A standard renogram is obtained. Additional collimation is added to the recording probes and they are positioned to record the radioactivity from the mid-ureteric region. Recordings of normal and abnormal peristaltic activity during per-ora hydration of the patient are thus obtained. When the child is willing to void, he is placed upright on a bed pan, the probes positioned to record over the lower ureteric region and recordings are made while the child voids. All data are recorded on a 512-channel analyser operated in the multi-scaler node. Data are punched out on paper tape and, after an 11 point computer smoothing program, are displayed graphically. These recordings show different patterns in normal children and those with vesico-ureteric reflux. There are several advantages to this technique over the standard radiological and other radionuclide voiding cystoureterograms. The results are compared with contrast voiding cystourethrograms in both normal children and those with vesico-ureteric reflux. (author)

  15. Scintigraphic estimation of the duodeno-gastric reflux in the unclerous disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopanski, Z.; Cienciala, A.; Micherdzinski, J.; Brandys, J.; Zastepa, P.; Witkowska, B.

    1993-01-01

    The analysis includes 58 patients with an ulcer in the duodenum, 40 patients with an ulcer in the stomach, and 13 persons making up the control group. In all patients submitted to the ratio-isotopic estimation of the duodeno-gastric reflux as well as to the chromatographic determination of the concentration of bile acids and lysolecithin in the gastric juice, an almost identically frequent occurrence of the reflux of the duodeno gastric contents into the ulcer of the stomach and of the duodenum was confirmed. It was shown that half of the ulcers of the stomach originate without the participation of the duodeno gastric reflux. It was also established that the average total concentrations of bile acids and lysolecithin are very high in the gastric juice, and in some even statistically significant cases, in the ulcer of the stomach in comparison with the remaining analysed groups of patients. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs

  16. Enterogastric reflux detection with technetium-99m IDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, A.; Pavia, J.; Loomena, F.; Abello, R.; Herranz, R.; Setoain, J.

    1985-01-01

    A Tc-99m IDA scan was performed in a patient with severe alkaline esophagitis subsequent to a Billroth I gastroenterostomy. The scan showed enterogastric reflux simultaneously with gastroesophageal reflux of bile. The study was recorded in a computer and the reflux quantitated

  17. Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Children & Teens Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants Definition & ...

  18. Effects of lesogaberan on reflux and lower esophageal sphincter function in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Beaumont, Hanneke; Mertens, Veerle; Denison, Hans; Ruth, Magnus; Adler, John; Silberg, Debra G.; Sifrim, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) are a major mechanism behind reflux. This study assessed the effects of lesogaberan (AZD3355), a novel gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor agonist, on reflux and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) function when used as

  19. Multicenter assessment of venous reflux by duplex ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Fedor; Comerota, Anthony; Eklof, Bo; Kistner, Robert L; Labropoulos, Nicos; Lohr, Joann; Marston, William; Meissner, Mark; Moneta, Gregory; Neglén, Peter; Neuhardt, Diana; Padberg, Frank; Welsh, Harold J

    2012-02-01

    This prospective multicenter investigation was conducted to define the repeatability of duplex-based identification of venous reflux and the relative effect of key parameters on the reproducibility of the test. Repeatability was studied by having the same technologist perform duplicate tests, at the same time of the day, using the same reflux-provoking maneuver and with the patient in the same position. Reproducibility was examined by having two different technologists perform the test at the same time of the day, using the same reflux-provoking maneuver and with the patient in the same position. Facilitated reproducibility was studied by having two different technologists examine the same patients immediately after an educational intervention. Limits of agreement between two duplex scans were studied by changing three elements of the test: time of the day (morning vs afternoon), patient's position (standing vs supine), and reflux initiation (manual vs automatic compression-decompression). The study enrolled 17 healthy volunteers and 57 patients with primary chronic venous disease. Repeatability of reflux time measurements in deep veins did not significantly differ with the time of day, the patient's position, or the reflux-provoking maneuver. Reflux measurements in the superficial veins were more repeatable (P ultrasound detection of venous reflux. Reports should include information on the time of the test, the patient's position, and the provoking maneuver used. Adopting a uniform cut point of 0.5 second for pathologic reflux can significantly improve the reliability of reflux detection. Implementation of a standard protocol should elevate the minimal standard for agreement between repeated tests from the current 70% to at least 80% and with more rigid standardization, to 90%. Copyright © 2012 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [The proteomic profiling of blood serum of children with gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkotashvili, L V; Kolesov, S A; Jukova, E A; Vidmanova, T A; Kankova, N Yu; Bashurova, I A; Sidorova, A M; Kulakova, E V

    2015-03-01

    The mass-spectra of proteome of blood serum from healthy children and children with gastroesophageal reflux disease were received. The technology platform including direct proteome mass-spectrometer profiling after pre-fractional rectification using magnetic particles MB WCX was applied. The significant differences in mass-spectra were established manifesting in detection of more mass-spectrometer peaks and higher indicators of their intensity and area in group of healthy children. The study detected 39 particular peptides and low-molecular proteins predominantly intrinsic to healthy or ill children. It was established that two peptides with molecular mass 925 and 909 Da. are registered only in healthy patients and have no traces in group ofpatients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. The peptide 1564 Da is detected only in blood of children with gastroesophageal reflux disease and totally is absent in healthy children. The research data permitted to reveal specific patterns (signatures) of low-molecular proteins and peptides specific for blood serum of healthy children and patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. The results testify the availability of singularities in metabolism of low-molecular proteins and can be used as a basis for development of minimally invasive mass-spectrometer system for its diagnostic.

  1. Vesicoureteral refluxed volume and renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, V.; Capkun, V.; Eterovic, D.; Stanicic, A.; Saraga, M.

    1994-01-01

    The therapeutical approach to vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) depends on assessment of the renal involvement. The effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and parenchymal mean transit time of radiotracer (pMTT) of the affected kidney are sensitive functional parameters. We investigated the association of these functional indices with the volume of refluxed urine. In 64 children (mean age 6.4 yrs) the presence of VUR was confirmed with direct radionuclide cystography in 80 ureters (48 unilateral and 32 bilateral) and the maximal volume of refluxed urine (MVRU) was determined for each uretero-renal unit. All patients also underwent dynamic renal scintigraphy with I-131-hippuran, providing the values of pMTT and relative renal hippuran clearances of the respective kidneys by deconvolution analysis. In 37 of the affected kidneys ERPF was also determined by combining the latter results with total ERPF, determined by plasma clearance of hippuran. Using the borderline value of MVRU of 4 ml, the group with higher MVRU exhibited significantly lower ERPF of the affected kidney (194±93 vs. 270±77 ml/min/1.73 m2, p=.002) and significantly higher proportion of pMTT's over 3.5 min (31/33 vs. 17/47, p=.003). The negative linear correlation between MVRU and ERPF was found (r=-.45, p=.006). We conclude that quantitative radionuclide cystography, aside from diagnosis and follow-up of VUR, may also provide insight in the function of the affected kidney and thus contribute in designing the therapeutical approach. (author)

  2. Slight Hydronephrosis in Newborns and Breast-fed Infants: Can the Presence of Vesicoureteral Reflux Be Predicted?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrocal, T.; Pablo, T. de; Gutierrez, J.; Prieto, C.; Hoyo, M. L. del

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the value of slight-to moderate echo graphically detected hydronephrosis in newborns and breast-fed infants that might serve as indicator for Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), and to evaluate the necessity of performing micturating cystourethrougraphy (MCUG) in these patients. There were reviewed MCUG of 237 patients (174 boys and 63 girls between the ages of 0 and 18 months) with slight echo graphically detected hydronephrosis in order to evaluate the presence of primary VUR. Patients with secondary reflux or those that presented anomalies which made impossible an exact reflux gradind were excluded. However, normal kidneys with reflux which were contralateral to hydronephrotic kidneys were included in the study. For a statistical analysis of the data, each kidney was considered separately, thereby forming a total of 474 kidneys. Slight hydronephrosis was diagnosed when the renal pelvis anteroposterior diameter was observed to measure between 0.5 and 1.5 cm. The International Grading System was used to grade reflux during MCUG. Of the 474 kidneys evaluated, 306 showed slight hydromephrosis in the echography. Only 98 of these presented reflux (32%) (14 grade 1.50 grade II, 32 grade III and 2 grade IV). The echography was normal (i. e. hydronephrosis not present) in 52 kidneys with reflux (31%) which were contralateral to hydronephrotic kidneys, although 38 of these had reflux of grade II or higher. The echography showed slight hydronephrosis in 208 kidneys that did not have reflux during MCUG (68%). There were no significant differences in the incidence of VUR among normal or hydronephrotic kidneys. There is a poor correlation between slight hydronephrosis and presence or grade of reflux in newborns and breast-fed infants. The latter should not, therefore, be considered an indication for MCUC. (Author) 33 refs

  3. Acid and nonacid gastroesophageal reflux after single anastomosis gastric bypass. An objective assessment using 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH metry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulami, Georgia; Triantafyllou, Stamatina; Albanopoulos, Konstantinos; Natoudi, Maria; Zografos, Georgios; Theodorou, Dimitrios

    2018-04-01

    Single anastomosis gastric bypass (SaGB) was introduced in 2001 as an alternative to "loop" gastric bypass. It was considered as a procedure that would eliminate alkaline reflux and associated esophagitis. Existing evidence about the postoperative incidence of gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) after SaGB is based on studies using symptom questionnaires. The aim of our study was to evaluate GERD 12 months after SaGB by using 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance pH metry (24-h MIIpH). Surgical department of a university hospital METHODS: Morbidly obese candidates for SaGB underwent 24-hour MIIpH prior and 12 months after their bariatric procedure. There were 11 patients included in this prospective study. Results of 24-hour MIIpH revealed that DeMeester score (40.48 versus 24.16, P = .339) had an increasing trend 12 months after SaGB. Acid reflux episodes decreased, whereas nonacid reflux episodes increased postoperatively, both in proximal and distal esophagus. Total median bolus clearance time and acid clearance time increased. De novo GERD developed in 2 patients (28.6%) and worsening of already existing GERD developed in all patients with preoperative evidence of GERD. The use of symptom questionnaires to assess postoperative GERD after SaGB may not accurately depict the real image. Twenty-four-hour MIIpH in 12 months after SaGB revealed an increase of total number of nonacid reflux episodes and a decrease of total number of acid reflux episodes, with longer duration of each acid reflux episode. Close postoperative follow-up with reflux testing and possibly endoscopy could eliminate the risk of complicated GERD. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of acid suppression therapy on gastroesophageal reflux and cough in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilduff, Claire E; Counter, Melanie J; Thomas, Gareth A; Harrison, Nicholas K; Hope-Gill, Benjamin D

    2014-01-01

    Chronic cough affects more than 70 percent of patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis and causes significant morbidity. Gastroesophageal reflux is the cause of some cases of chronic cough; and also has a postulated role in the aetiology of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. A high prevalence of acid; and more recently non-acid, reflux has been observed in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis cohorts. Therefore, gastroesophageal reflux may be implicated in the pathogenesis of cough in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Eighteen subjects with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis underwent 24-hour oesophageal impedance and cough count monitoring after the careful exclusion of causes of chronic cough other than gastroesophageal reflux. All 18 were then treated with high dose acid suppression therapies. Fourteen subjects underwent repeat 24-hour oesophageal impedance and cough count monitoring after eight weeks. Total reflux and acid reflux frequencies were within the normal range in the majority of this cohort. The frequencies of non-acid and proximal reflux events were above the normal range. Following high dose acid suppression therapy there was a significant decrease in the number of acid reflux events (p = 0.02), but an increase in the number of non-acid reflux events (p = 0.01). There was no change in cough frequency (p = 0.70). This study confirms that non-acid reflux is prevalent; and that proximal oesophageal reflux occurs in the majority, of subjects with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. It is the first study to investigate the effect of acid suppression therapy on gastroesophageal reflux and cough in patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. The observation that cough frequency does not improve despite verifiable reductions in oesophageal acid exposure challenges the role of acid reflux in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis associated cough. The finding that non-acid reflux is increased following the use of acid suppression therapies cautions against the widespread use

  5. Gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with chronic otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Fatih; Doğan, Mansur; Karataş, Duran; Yüce, Salim; Şentürk, Mehmet; Külahli, Ismail

    2013-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate a possible relation between gastroesophageal reflux disease and middle ear effusion in children. Children who came to ear, nose, and throat (ENT) department with the symptoms of hearing loss or aural fullness and diagnosed as OME by examination and tympanometry were included into the study. Children were reviewed gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms including the following: (a) airway symptoms: stridor, frequent cough, recurrent croup, wheezing, nasal congestion, obstructive apnea, hoarseness, and throat clearing; (b) feeding symptoms: frequent emesis, dysphagia, choking: gagging, sore throat, halitosis, food refusal, regurgitation, pyrosis, irritability, failure to thrive, and anemia. Diagnosis is made with at least one positive test of radionuclide gastroesophageal scintigraphy or 24 h pH probe in the patients with reflux. ENT findings were also examined between gastroesophageal reflux disease positive and gastroesophageal reflux disease negative groups. Approximately 39 (54.9%) of 71 children had at least 1 positive test for gastroesophageal reflux disease. Between the gastroesophageal reflux disease-positive and gastroesophageal reflux disease-negative groups, symptoms of reflux were not significantly different. Two pooled variables were created: airway complex (stridor, frequent cough, throat clearing), and feeding complex (irritability, pyrosis, failure to thrive). Percentage of positive symptom complexes were no statistically different between gastroesophageal reflux disease-positive and gastroesophageal reflux disease-negative groups (>0.05). Ear, nose, and throat disorders (including rhinitis/sinusitis, adenoid hypertrophy, tonsillitis/pharyngitis, and laryngitis) were more frequent in gastroesophageal reflux disease-positive group. Tonsillitis/pharyngitis was significantly different between the gastroesophageal reflux disease positive and gastroesophageal reflux disease-negative groups. Upper respiratory tract infections were seen

  6. Gastro-oesophageal reflux. Part 1: smoking and alcohol reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Talalwah, Narmeen; Woodward, Sue

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is defined as an abnormal reflux of the stomach contents into the oesophagus, which provokes symptoms and impairs the quality of life. GORD has a high prevalence and incurs costs to the healthcare system. This is the first paper in a series of three exploring the conservative, medical and surgical treatment of GORD. This first paper presents a review of the effect of smoking and alcohol on reflux symptoms and the impact of smoking and alcohol reduction on symptoms of GORD. A search for English language studies on adults was conducted using three databases, MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). Eleven relevant studies were included in the review. The effect of alcohol on the stimulation of reflux has been debated over the years in different studies. Some studies state that alcohol consumption induces reflux and moderate amounts exacerbate nocturnal gastro-oesophageal heartburn reflux. However, other studies have found no association between alcohol consumption and reflux. Most reflux occurs during smoking because nicotine causes the lower oesophageal sphincter to relax, which increases the risk of reflux. Similarly, the number of cigarettes smoked is associated with the risk of reflux. Nurses need to be aware of the effect of smoking and alcohol on reflux to provide evidence-based advice to empower patients to change their lifestyle, which results in increased therapeutic compliance and a better clinical status. There is no evidence that reducing alcohol consumption decreases symptoms and only limited evidence on the effectiveness of smoking cessation. Further research into the effectiveness of these lifestyle modifications is therefore required.

  7. Gastro-esophageal reflux time parameters and esophagitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baulieu, F.; Baulieu, J.; Maurage, C.; Casset, D.; Itti, R.

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the correlation between the reflux timing and the presence of esophagitis, an inconstant but serious complication of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER). The hypothesis was that reflux occurring late after meal can be incriminated more than early reflux in esophagitis genesis. 32 children with GER (mean age = 10.5 months, 2 to 30 months) had esophagoscopy and scintigraphy in the same week. The children were classified in two groups according to esophagoscopy: group 1 (n = 18) no esophagitis, group 2 (n = 14) esophaqgitis. The scintigraphy involved the ingestion of 0.5 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid milk mixture, followed by esophageal and gastric activity recording (one image per minute for 1 hour). The reflux was assessed from contrast enhanced images and esophageal time activity curves. Reflux intensity was quantitated by reflux index (Re). Mean reflux time was calculated as the mean esophageal activity peaks time (t-bar). Finally a composite parameter was calculated as the mean reflux time weighted by the relative intensity of each reflux peak (t-barw). Re was not found to be different between the two groups. t-bar was significantly higher in group 2: t-bar = 29.6 +- 3.0 mn (mean +- SD) than in group 1: t-bar = 24.5 +- 6.8 mn; rho <0.02. The difference between the two groups was enhanced by intensity weighting: group 1: t-barw = 16.6 +- 6.3 mn, group 2: t-barw = 33.5 +- 7.1 mn rho <0.001. t-barw value was not correlated to esophagitis grade. These results suggest that late reflux is more likely responsible of esophagitis

  8. Infant apnea and gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, H.; Lallemand, P.

    1992-01-01

    The value of a combination of ultrasound studies and barium swallow examination in the analysis of temporal relationships between apnea and reflux is demonstrated. The two techniques allow acute apneic spells induced by gastrosophageal reflux to be documented and underlying specific digestive tract disorders demonstrated. The high incidence of digestive tract disorders in this area has been identified. (orig.)

  9. Vomiting and gastro-oesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, J Y; Nanayakkhara, C S; Simpson, H

    1988-01-01

    During radionuclide scans in 82 infants and children gastro-oesophageal reflux extending to the upper oesophageal/laryngeal level was detected in 636 one minute frames. Only 61 (9.6%) of these frames were associated with vomiting, defined as the appearance of milk at the mouth. Thus the absence of vomiting does not preclude appreciable gastro-oesophageal reflux. PMID:3415303

  10. Infant apnea and gastroesophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, H.; Lallemand, P. (AMH, 51 - Reims (France). Service d' Imagerie Pediatrique)

    1992-04-01

    The value of a combination of ultrasound studies and barium swallow examination in the analysis of temporal relationships between apnea and reflux is demonstrated. The two techniques allow acute apneic spells induced by gastrosophageal reflux to be documented and underlying specific digestive tract disorders demonstrated. The high incidence of digestive tract disorders in this area has been identified. (orig.).

  11. Gastroesophageal Reflux and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fahim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The histological counterpart of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is usual interstitial pneumonia, in which areas of fibrosis of various ages are interspersed with normal lung. This pattern could be explained by repeated episodes of lung injury followed by abnormal wound healing responses. The cause of the initiating alveolar epithelial injury is unknown, but postulated mechanisms include immunological, microbial, or chemical injury, including aspirated gastric refluxate. Reflux is promoted by low basal pressure in the lower oesophageal sphincter and frequent relaxations, potentiated by hiatus hernia or oesophageal dysmotility. In susceptible individuals, repeated microaspiration of gastric refluxate may contribute to the pathogenesis of IPF. Microaspiration of nonacid or gaseous refluxate is poorly detected by current tests for gastroesophageal reflux which were developed for investigating oesophageal symptoms. Further studies using pharyngeal pH probes, high-resolution impedance manometry, and measurement of pepsin in the lung should clarify the impact of reflux and microaspiration in the pathogenesis of IPF.

  12. The relationship between the numbers of reflux episodes with anatomic changes of the esophagus in children under one year with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HamidrezaTalari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux is the most common gastrointestinal disorder in the neonatal period, and the main reason for it is the lack of development in the first months of an infant's digestive system and it gets improved with the aging of baby and development of the digestive system. Some studies have shown that there is a relationship between characteristics of anatomic and esophageal reflux. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the characteristics and frequency of reflux in infants under one year old with gastroesophageal reflux disease. This study is a cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2015 in the hospital of martyr Beheshti. In this study, a group of 120 children with reflux in three age groups less than one month, 1-6 months and 6-12 months were choses and the relationship between reflux episodes with esophagus anatomic characteristics, including distal esophagus distention, Hiss angle, internal angle and length of esophagus were examined. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software and the relationship between the characteristics was compared with the number of reflux in three groups. According to the results, the frequency of reflux and extent of distention of the distal esophageal, Hiss angle, Internal Gastro esophageal angle and length of the esophagus, there was a statistically significant correlation (P <0.001. The correlation between reflux episodes and four parameters, are respectively, 0/95, 0/97, 0/71 and -0/79/. Also there was a direct relation between the frequency of reflux and extent of distention of the distal esophageal, Hiss angle, Internal Gastro esophageal angle and an inverse relation with length of the esophagus. The correlation between the frequency of reflux and esophageal characteristics in separation between all three age groups showed a statistically significant relationship exists between anatomical esophageal characteristics and reflux frequency. Based on the results of this study it

  13. Pediatric Vesicoureteral Reflux Guidelines Panel Summary Report: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Screening Siblings of Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux and Neonates/Infants With Prenatal Hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Steven J; Peters, Craig A; Arant, Billy S; Copp, Hillary L; Elder, Jack S; Hudson, R Guy; Khoury, Antoine E; Lorenzo, Armando J; Pohl, Hans G; Shapiro, Ellen; Snodgrass, Warren T; Diaz, Mireya

    2010-09-01

    The American Urological Association established the Vesicoureteral Reflux Guideline Update Committee in July 2005 to update the management of primary vesicoureteral reflux in children guideline. The Panel defined the task into 5 topics pertaining to specific vesicoureteral reflux management issues, which correspond to the management of 3 distinct index patients and the screening of 2 distinct index patients. This report summarizes the existing evidence pertaining to screening of siblings and offspring of index patients with vesicoureteral reflux and infants with prenatal hydronephrosis. From this evidence clinical practice guidelines are developed to manage the clinical scenarios insofar as the data permit. The Panel searched the MEDLINE(R) database from 1994 to 2008 for all relevant articles dealing with the 5 chosen guideline topics. The database was reviewed and each abstract segregated into a specific topic area. Exclusions were case reports, basic science, secondary reflux, review articles and not relevant. The extracted article to be accepted should have assessed a cohort of children, clearly stating the number of children undergoing screening for vesicoureteral reflux. Vesicoureteral reflux should have been diagnosed with a cystogram and renal outcomes assessed by nuclear scintigraphy. The screening articles were extracted into data tables developed to evaluate epidemiological factors, patient and renal outcomes, and results of treatment. The reporting of meta-analysis of observational studies elaborated by the MOOSE group was followed. The extracted data were analyzed and formulated into evidence-based recommendations regarding the screening of siblings and offspring in index cases with vesicoureteral reflux and infants with prenatal hydronephrosis. In screened populations the prevalence of vesicoureteral reflux is 27.4% in siblings and 35.7% in offspring. Prevalence decreases at a rate of 1 screened person every 3 months of age. The prevalence is the same

  14. Investigation of pepsin in tears of children with laryngopharyngeal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannella, Giannicola; Di Nardo, Giovanni; Plateroti, Rocco; Rossi, Paolo; Plateroti, Andrea Maria; Mariani, Paola; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    Numerous investigations postulated that laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is implicated in the pathogenesis of various upper airway inflammatory diseases as sinusitis or dacryostenosis. The presence of pepsin in tears might be confirmed the presuntive hypothesis of the arrival in the nasolacrimal ducts and precorneal tears film through the laryngopharyngeal reflux of either gastric acid or stomach secretions (pepsin) with inflammatory potentialities. The aim of this preliminary study was to identify the presence or absence of pepsin in the tears collected from children with a high suspicion of LPR who underwent 24-h pH (MII-pH) monitoring to confirm the disease. This study enrolled 20 patients suffering from symptoms of laryngopharyngeal reflux that underwent 24-h multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII)-pH monitoring to confirm the disease. The findings of the study group were compared with those of a control group of patients with negative pH monitoring. The quantitative analysis of human pepsin concentration in the tear samples was performed by ELISA method in both groups. Four children (20%) of the study group showed pepsin in the tears. All of the subjects belonging to the control group were negative for its presence. No difference differences in the total number of reflux episodes and the number of weakly basic reflux in the pepsin positive patients vs. pepsin negative children were present. 20% of the children with diagnosed LPR showed pepsin in the tears. Our specific investigation might provide information regarding sinusitis or dacryostenosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Effect analysis on Deanxit combined with Shuganjieyu capsule in the treatment of refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X Y; Guo, C Y; Zhang, X; Zhong, Y Q; Tian, C

    2017-11-28

    Objective: To investigate the curative effect of Deanxit combined with Shuganjieyu capsule on the treatment of refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease. Methods: A total of 125 patients with refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease who had failed in standard lansolazole capsule treatment in the Department of Gastroenterology, First People's Hospital of Neijiang were selected. According to the symptom scores and mood scores of gastroesophageal reflux disease, patients were randomly and double-blindly divided into five groups. Group A(Lansoprazole Capsules + Mosapride Citrate + Deanxit), B(Lansoprazole Capsules + Mosapride Citrate + Shuganjieyu capsule), C(Lansoprazole Capsules + Mosapride Citrate+ Deanxit + Shuganjieyu capsule) and D(Deanxit) groups are study groups, the other was control group (Lansoprazole Capsules + Mosapride Citrate). The scores of symptoms and mood were compared after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of treatment. Results: The clinical symptoms score, HAMA and HAMD scores were significantly lower in the all study groups in comparison to the control group after 4 weeks and 8 weeks therapy. The clinical symptoms score, HAMA and HAMD scores in group C were significantly lower than those in group A and B ( P 0.05). The HAMA and HAMD scores of group D were significantly higher than those of group A, B, C and control group, and the differences were statistically significant ( P gastroesophageal reflux disease, which can effectively improve the total treatment efficiency, reduce the symptom scores and mood scores of gastroesophageal reflux disease patients.

  16. Reflux revisited: advancing the role of pepsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Karna Dev; Strugala, Vicki; Dettmar, Peter W

    2012-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is mediated principally by acid. Today, we recognise reflux reaches beyond the esophagus, where pepsin, not acid, causes damage. Extraesophageal reflux occurs both as liquid and probably aerosol, the latter with a further reach. Pepsin is stable up to pH 7 and regains activity after reacidification. The enzyme adheres to laryngeal cells, depletes its defences, and causes further damage internally after its endocytosis. Extraesophageal reflux can today be detected by recognising pharyngeal acidification using a miniaturised pH probe and by the identification of pepsin in saliva and in exhaled breath condensate by a rapid, sensitive, and specific immunoassay. Proton pump inhibitors do not help the majority with extraesophageal reflux but specifically formulated alginates, which sieve pepsin, give benefit. These new insights may lead to the development of novel drugs that dramatically reduce pepsinogen secretion, block the effects of adherent pepsin, and give corresponding clinical benefit."For now we see through a glass, darkly."-First epistle, Chapter 13, Corinthians.

  17. Reflux Revisited: Advancing the Role of Pepsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karna Dev Bardhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux disease is mediated principally by acid. Today, we recognise reflux reaches beyond the esophagus, where pepsin, not acid, causes damage. Extraesophageal reflux occurs both as liquid and probably aerosol, the latter with a further reach. Pepsin is stable up to pH 7 and regains activity after reacidification. The enzyme adheres to laryngeal cells, depletes its defences, and causes further damage internally after its endocytosis. Extraesophageal reflux can today be detected by recognising pharyngeal acidification using a miniaturised pH probe and by the identification of pepsin in saliva and in exhaled breath condensate by a rapid, sensitive, and specific immunoassay. Proton pump inhibitors do not help the majority with extraesophageal reflux but specifically formulated alginates, which sieve pepsin, give benefit. These new insights may lead to the development of novel drugs that dramatically reduce pepsinogen secretion, block the effects of adherent pepsin, and give corresponding clinical benefit.

  18. The usefulness of esophagography as a screening test for laryngopharyngeal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Chung, Phil Sang

    2006-01-01

    There are many articles about the role of barium esophagography for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, there are only rare articles reporting on laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of performing esophagography with the water-siphon test as an initial screening test for patients with suspected laryngopharyngeal reflux. From October 2002 to December 2004, barium esophagography with the water-siphon test was performed for 707 patients who had the typical symptoms and telescopic findings of laryngopharyngeal reflux. The results of the 707 esophagograms (the group with laryngopharyngeal reflux) were compared with those of 122 patients who were confirmed as having gastroesophageal reflux upon performing pH-metry (the group with gastroesophageal reflux) and the 324 patients without laryngopharyngeal reflux symptoms (the control group). The results of the water-siphon test were classified into normal, mild, moderate and severe degrees of gastroesophageal reflux. On the water-siphon test for the laryngopharyneal reflux group patients, 71 patients had normal (10.0%), 207 had mild (29.2%), 201 had moderate (28.4%) and 228 had severe (32.2%) degrees of reflux. The positive rates of the water-siphon test were 90.0%, 89.3% and 54.6% for the groups with laryngopharyngeal reflux, gastroesophageal reflux and the control group, respectively. A statistically significant difference was observed between the group with laryngopharyngeal reflux and the control group, and between the group with gastroesophageal reflux and the control group, respectively (ρ < 0.05). Esophagography with the water-siphon test is useful as an initial screening test for laryngopharyngeal reflux disease

  19. The usefulness of esophagography as a screening test for laryngopharyngeal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Chung, Phil Sang [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    There are many articles about the role of barium esophagography for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, there are only rare articles reporting on laryngopharyngeal reflux disease. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of performing esophagography with the water-siphon test as an initial screening test for patients with suspected laryngopharyngeal reflux. From October 2002 to December 2004, barium esophagography with the water-siphon test was performed for 707 patients who had the typical symptoms and telescopic findings of laryngopharyngeal reflux. The results of the 707 esophagograms (the group with laryngopharyngeal reflux) were compared with those of 122 patients who were confirmed as having gastroesophageal reflux upon performing pH-metry (the group with gastroesophageal reflux) and the 324 patients without laryngopharyngeal reflux symptoms (the control group). The results of the water-siphon test were classified into normal, mild, moderate and severe degrees of gastroesophageal reflux. On the water-siphon test for the laryngopharyneal reflux group patients, 71 patients had normal (10.0%), 207 had mild (29.2%), 201 had moderate (28.4%) and 228 had severe (32.2%) degrees of reflux. The positive rates of the water-siphon test were 90.0%, 89.3% and 54.6% for the groups with laryngopharyngeal reflux, gastroesophageal reflux and the control group, respectively. A statistically significant difference was observed between the group with laryngopharyngeal reflux and the control group, and between the group with gastroesophageal reflux and the control group, respectively ({rho} < 0.05). Esophagography with the water-siphon test is useful as an initial screening test for laryngopharyngeal reflux disease.

  20. Reflux parameters as modified by laparoscopic fundoplication in 40 patients with heartburn/regurgitation persisting despite PPI therapy: a study using impedance-pH monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazzoni, Marzio; Conigliaro, Rita; Melotti, Gianluigi

    2011-04-01

    Patients with typical reflux symptoms (heartburn/regurgitation) persisting despite proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy are not uncommon. Impedance-pH monitoring detects gastroesophageal reflux at all pH levels and may establish if ongoing symptoms on PPI therapy are associated with acid/nonacid reflux. Laparoscopic fundoplication is a therapeutic option in such patients but reflux parameters on PPI therapy and after intervention and their relationship with symptom persistence/remission have been scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to assess reflux parameters and their relationship with symptoms before and after laparoscopic fundoplication, on and off PPI therapy, respectively, in patients with PPI-unresponsive heartburn/regurgitation and with a positive symptom-reflux association and/or abnormal reflux parameters detected on PPI therapy. Impedance-pH monitoring was performed on high-dose PPI therapy and 3 months after laparoscopic fundoplication, off PPI therapy, in 40 patients with PPI-unresponsive heartburn/regurgitation. Symptoms were scored by a validated questionnaire. Esophageal acid exposure time as well as the number of total and proximal reflux events and of acid and weakly acidic refluxes decreased significantly after surgery: normal values were found in 100, 77, 95, 92 and 65% of cases, respectively. Weakly alkaline refluxes increased significantly postoperatively but neither before nor after intervention were associated with symptoms. All patients reported total/subtotal remission of heartburn/regurgitation 3 months after surgery. Laparoscopic fundoplication improves acid and weakly acidic reflux parameters when compared with PPI therapy. This improvement justifies the very high post-surgical symptom remission rate that we observed. Prolonged follow-up is warranted but our findings strongly support the surgical option in PPI failures.

  1. The comparative analyses of different diagnostic approaches in detection of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ristic

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the different diagnostic approaches in detection of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children presented with symptoms suggesting gastroesophageal reflux disease.The study design was cross sectional. The study retrospectively included all children who underwent combined multiple intraluminal impedance and pH (pH-MII monitoring due to gastrointestinal and/or extraesophageal symptoms suggesting gastroesophageal reflux disease at University Children's Hospital in Belgrade, from July 2012 to July 2016.A total of 218 (117 boys/101 girls, mean age 6.7 years (range 0.06-18.0 years, met the inclusion criteria. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was found in 128 of 218 children (57.4% by pH-MII and in 76 (34.1% children by pH metry alone. Using pH-MII monitoring as gold standard, sensitivity of pH-metry was lowest in infants (22.9%, with tendency to increase in older age groups (reaching 76.4% in children ≥ 9 years. The sensitivity of pH-metry alone in children with extraesophageal symptoms was 38.1%, while the sensitivity of pH-metry in children with gastrointestinal symptoms was 63.8%. Reflux esophagitis was identified in 31 (26.1% of 119 children who underwent endoscopy. Logistic regression analysis showed that best predictors of endoscopic reflux esophagitis are the longest acid episode (OR = 1.52, p<0.05 and DeMeester reflux composite score (OR = 3.31, p<0.05. The significant cutoff values included DeMeester reflux composite score ≥ 29 (AUC 0.786, CI 0.695-0.877, p<0.01 and duration of longest acid reflux ≥ 18 minutes (AUC 0.784, CI 0.692-0.875, p<0.01.The results of our study suggested that compared with pH-metry alone, pH-MII had significantly higher detection rate of gastroesophageal reflux disease, especially in infants. Our findings also showed that pH-MII parameters correlated significantly with the endoscopically confirmed erosive esophagitis.

  2. Vesical-ureteral reflux in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desvignes, V.; Palcoux, J.B.; Cochat, P.

    1995-01-01

    The vesical-ureteral reflux is the most frequent uropathy in children. The diagnosis is made by uretero-cystography, often after pyelonephritis, sometimes after ante-natal diagnosis from echographic abnormalities. Spontaneous recovery is possible in 50 to 80% of cases. This is especially true in grade 1, 2 and 3, however complications may occur. They are more frequent in the case of reflux nephropathy with a resulting risk of hypertension and chronic renal failure. The therapeutic choice is between the conservative management with urinary antiseptics ad the surgical treatment with ureters re-implantation or endoscopic treatment. The therapeutic indications take into account vesical-ureteral reflux grades, the child's age, the associated diseases and the child's and parents' compliance. (authors). 22 refs., 2 figs

  3. Prospective study of polydimethylsiloxane vs dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection for treatment of vesicoureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Katherine; Bolduc, Stéphane

    2014-12-01

    Endoscopic injection of a bulking agent is becoming a first-line treatment for low grade vesicoureteral reflux. We prospectively compared the efficacy of 2 such products commercially available in Canada. A total of 275 patients with documented grade I to V vesicoureteral reflux were prospectively enrolled in a comparative study between April 2005 and February 2011 to be randomly treated endoscopically with either polydimethylsiloxane (Macroplastique®) or dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Deflux®). Of the ureters 202 were treated with polydimethylsiloxane and 197 with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer. Patients were followed with voiding cystourethrography at 3 months and renal ultrasonography at 3 months and at 1 year. Median followup was 4.3 years. The primary outcome was surgical success (resolution vs nonresolution), and secondary outcomes included occurrence of adverse events. Vesicoureteral reflux was fully corrected in 182 of 202 ureters (90%) treated with polydimethylsiloxane, compared to 159 of 197 (81%) treated with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (p reflux. Endoscopic injection of polydimethylsiloxane resulted in a better success rate than dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer. The rate of resolution obtained with the latter is lower than those previously published due to the inclusion of high grade reflux. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Esophageal transit scintigraphy and structured questionnaire in patients with systemic sclerosis with endoscopically proven reflux esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Inaki, Anri; Hiramatsu, Takashi; Hasegawa, Minoru; Fujimoto, Manabu; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Kinuya, Seigo

    2009-01-01

    Esophageal complications are common in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The relationship between gastroesophageal reflux (GER) symptoms and dysmotility was examined in endoscopically confirmed patients suspected of having reflux esophagitis. A total of 32 patients with limited and diffuse type SSc (lSSc, dSSc) were examined based on a structured questionnaire score (QS) of GER symptoms, retention fraction of esophageal scintigraphy at 90 s (R 90 ) and gastric emptying time. The QS was significantly higher in the reflux esophagitis group than in the non-esophagitis group (5.4±3.5, 1.4±2.9, P=0.003). When the non-esophagitis group was further divided into lSSc and dSSc groups, R 90 was higher in the reflux esophagitis group (31±18%) and the non-esophagitis group with dSSc (34±32%) than in the non-esophagitis group with lSSc (8±3%, P=0.02). Both high R 90 ≥15% and QS≥4 indicated reflux esophagitis. Conversely, both normal R 90 and QS indicated no reflux esophagitis. A combination of esophageal scintigraphy and structured questionnaire demonstrated different aspects of esophageal dysfunction, namely dysmotility and GER. Patients with high QS and dysmotility may be indicated for further evaluation including endoscopic examination and medical treatment.(author)

  5. Control of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations and reflux by the GABAB agonist baclofen in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q; Lehmann, A; Rigda, R; Dent, J; Holloway, R H

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLOSRs) are the major cause of gastro-oesophageal reflux in normal subjects and in most patients with reflux disease. The gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor type B agonist, baclofen, is a potent inhibitor of TLOSRs in normal subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of baclofen on TLOSRs and postprandial gastro-oesophageal reflux in patients with reflux disease. Methods: In 20 patients with reflux disease, oesophageal motility and pH were measured, with patients in the sitting position, for three hours after a 3000 kJ mixed nutrient meal. On separate days at least one week apart, 40 mg oral baclofen or placebo was given 90 minutes before the meal. Results: Baclofen reduced the rate of TLOSRs by 40% from 15 (13.8–18.3) to 9 (5.8–13.3) per three hours (preflux episodes by 43% from 7.0 (4.0–12.0) to 4.0 (1.5–9) per three hours (median (interquartile range); preflux disease, the GABAB agonist baclofen significantly inhibits gastro-oesophageal reflux episodes by inhibition of TLOSRs. These findings suggest that GABAB agonists may be useful as therapeutic agents for the management of reflux disease. PMID:11772961

  6. Gastro-oesophageal reflux in children--what's the worry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Katie; Ho, Shaun S C

    2012-05-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common and benign in children, especially during infancy. Distinguishing between gastrooesophageal reflux, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and other illnesses presenting as chronic vomiting can be difficult. The general practitioner has a key role to play in identifying if a child requires referral for further investigation. This article outlines the main differential diagnoses to be considered in children presenting with chronic vomiting and/ or regurgitation. We also discuss key management decisions regarding gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in children and when to refer to a specialist for further investigation. Chronic vomiting and regurgitation frequently occurs in infancy and is most commonly due to simple, benign gastrooesophageal reflux, which is usually self limiting without requirement for further investigation. In contrast, gastrooesophageal reflux disease requires considered management and may be a presenting symptom of food allergy requiring more intensive therapy than simple acid suppression. Regular review by the general practitioner to ascertain warning signs will ensure that other serious illnesses are not overlooked and that appropriate investigation and specialist referral are made.

  7. Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux with polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer and dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akif Turk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer and polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer in endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux disease in adult patients with and without chronic renal failure. Materials and Methods Thirty two patients (12 female, 20 male with a total of 50 renal units were treated for vesicoureteral reflux. There were 26 (81% chronic renal failure patients. The success of treatment was evaluated by voiding cystouretrography at 3rd and 12th months after subureteric injection. The persistence of reflux was considered as failure. Patients were divided into two groups according to injected material. Age, sex, grade of reflux and treatment results were recorded and evaluated. Results Reflux was scored as grade 1 in seven (14%, grade 2 in 16 (32%, grade 3 in 21 (42% and grade 4 in six (12% renal units. There was not patient with grade 5 reflux. Fourteen renal units (28% were treated with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (group 1 and 36 renal units (72% were treated with polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer (group 2. The overall treatment success was achieved at 40 renal units (80%. The treatment was successful at 11 renal units (79% in group 1 and 29 renal units (81% in group 2 (p = 0.71. There was not statistically significant difference between two groups with patients with chronic renal failure in terms of treatment success (p = 1.00. Conclusions The effectiveness of two bulking agents was similar in treatment of vesicoureteral reflux disease in adult patients and patients with chronic renal failure.

  8. Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux with polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer and dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Akif; Selimoglu, Ahmet; Demir, Kadir; Celik, Osman; Saglam, Erkin; Tarhan, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer and polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer in endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux disease in adult patients with and without chronic renal failure. Thirty two patients (12 female, 20 male) with a total of 50 renal units were treated for vesicoureteral reflux. There were 26 (81%) chronic renal failure patients. The success of treatment was evaluated by voiding cystouretrography at 3rd and 12th months after subureteric injection. The persistence of reflux was considered as failure. Patients were divided into two groups according to injected material. Age, sex, grade of reflux and treatment results were recorded and evaluated. Reflux was scored as grade 1 in seven (14%), grade 2 in 16 (32%), grade 3 in 21 (42%) and grade 4 in six (12%) renal units. There was not patient with grade 5 reflux. Fourteen renal units (28%) were treated with dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (group 1) and 36 renal units (72%) were treated with polyacrylate polyalcohol copolymer (group 2). The overall treatment success was achieved at 40 renal units (80%). The treatment was successful at 11 renal units (79%) in group 1 and 29 renal units (81%) in group 2 (p = 0.71). There was not statistically significant difference between two groups with patients with chronic renal failure in terms of treatment success (p = 1.00). The effectiveness of two bulking agents was similar in treatment of vesicoureteral reflux disease in adult patients and patients with chronic renal failure.

  9. Grading of vesicoureteral reflux by radionuclide cystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fretzayas, A.; Karpathios, T.; Dimitriou, P.; Nicolaidou, P.; Matsaniotis, N.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-six children with urinary tract infection aged 6 months to 14 years (mean age 4 1/2 years) were studied sequentially using direct radionuclide (RNC) and conventional voiding cystourethrography (VCU). Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was detected equally well by both methods. Twenty-seven refluxing ureters were found by RNC, 23 by VCU and 22 by both methods. Radiologic grade of reflux may be determined approximately with the isotope technique from the volume of regurgitating urine und duration of reflux, at a much decreased radiation exposure. Residual urine was also measured by RNC and found to be higher in children with VUR. RNC is a reliable method for detecting and grading VUR and should effectively replace VCU as the follow-up examination of choice. (orig.)

  10. Association of Visceral Fat Area, Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption with Reflux Esophagitis and Barrett's Esophagus in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntaro Matsuzaki

    Full Text Available Central obesity has been suggested as a risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of visceral fat area and other lifestyle factors with reflux esophagitis or Barrett's esophagus in Japanese population.Individuals who received thorough medical examinations including the measurement of visceral fat area by abdominal computed tomography were enrolled. Factors associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis, the severity of reflux esophagitis, or the presence of Barrett's esophagus were determined using multivariable logistic regression models.A total of 2608 individuals were eligible for the analyses. Visceral fat area was associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis both in men (odds ratio, 1.21 per 50 cm2; 95% confident interval, 1.01 to 1.46 and women (odds ratio, 2.31 per 50 cm2; 95% confident interval, 1.57 to 3.40. Current smoking and serum levels of triglyceride were also associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis in men. However, significant association between visceral fat area and the severity of reflux esophagitis or the presence of Barrett's esophagus was not shown. In men, excessive alcohol consumption on a drinking day, but not the frequency of alcohol drinking, was associated with both the severity of reflux esophagitis (odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confident interval, 1.03 to 4.41 and the presence of Barrett's esophagus (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confident interval, 1.14 to 2.56.Visceral fat area was independently associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis, but not with the presence of Barrett's esophagus. On the other hand, quantity of alcohol consumption could play a role in the development of severe reflux esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus in Japanese population.

  11. Childhood vesicoureteral reflux studies: registries and repositories sources and nosology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, Russell W; Patters, Andrea B

    2013-12-01

    Despite several recent studies, the advisability of antimicrobial prophylaxis and certain imaging studies for urinary tract infections (UTIs) remains controversial. The role of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) on the severity and re-infection rates for UTIs is also difficult to assess. Registries and repositories of data and biomaterials from clinical studies in children with VUR are valuable. Disease registries are collections of secondary data related to patients with a specific diagnosis, condition or procedure. Registries differ from indices in that they contain more extensive data. A research repository is an entity that receives, stores, processes and/or disseminates specimens (or other materials) as needed. It encompasses the physical location as well as the full range of activities associated with its operation. It may also be referred to as a biorepository. This report provides information about some current registries and repositories that include data and samples from children with VUR. It also describes the heterogeneous nature of the subjects, as some registries and repositories include only data or samples from patients with primary reflux while others also include those from patients with syndromic or secondary reflux. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. All rights reserved.

  12. Gastro-oesophageal reflux and belching revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, Albert Jan

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis recent studies into the pathophysiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and belching are described. The thesis is divided into four parts. Part I describes studies in which the technique of impedance monitoring is validated. With impedance monitoring reflux of liquid and gas can

  13. [Underlying Mechanisms and Management of Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in South Korea has increased over the past 10 years. Patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD) shows better response to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) than those with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). NERD is a heterogeneous condition, showing pathological gastroesophageal reflux or esophageal hypersensitivity to reflux contents. NERD patients with pathological gastroesophageal reflux or hypersensitivity to acid may respond to PPIs. However, many patients with esophageal hypersensitivity to nonacid or functional heartburn do not respond to PPIs. Therefore, careful history and investigations are required when managing patients with refractory GERD who show poor response to conventional dose PPIs. Combined pH-impedance studies and a PPI diagnostic trial are recommended to reveal underlying mechanisms of refractory symptoms. For those with ongoing reflux-related symptoms, split dose administration, change to long-acting PPIs or PPIs less influenced by CYP2C19 genotypes, increasing dose of PPIs, and the addition of alginate preparations, prokinetics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or tricyclic antidepressants can be considered. Pain modulators, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or tricyclic antidepressants are more likely to be effective for those with reflux-unrelated symptoms. Surgery or endoscopic per oral fundoplication may be effective in selected patients.

  14. Parenchymal reflux in renal dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinckney, L.E.; Currarino, G.; Weinberg, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Primitive ducts, tubules, and cysts often communicate with the pelvocalyceal systems of dysplastic kidneys, and may sometimes be filled in retrograde fashion with radiographic contrast material. Their size, shape, and distribution provide a variable radiographic appearance that must be distinguished from other causes of intrarenal reflux. When reflux filling of dysplastic structures is incomplete, the radiographic findings do not fully represent the severity of anatomic abnormality

  15. Prevalence of urinary tract infection and vesicoureteral reflux in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Batavia, Jason P; Ahn, Jennifer J; Fast, Angela M; Combs, Andrew J; Glassberg, Kenneth I

    2013-10-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction is a common pediatric urological problem that is often associated with urinary tract infection. We determined the prevalence of a urinary tract infection history in children with lower urinary tract dysfunction and its association, if any, with gender, bowel dysfunction, vesicoureteral reflux and specific lower urinary tract conditions. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of children diagnosed with and treated for lower urinary tract dysfunction, noting a history of urinary tract infection with or without fever, gender, bowel dysfunction and vesicoureteral reflux in association with specific lower urinary tract conditions. Of the 257 boys and 366 girls with a mean age of 9.1 years 207 (33%) had a urinary tract infection history, including 88 with at least 1 febrile infection. A total of 64 patients underwent voiding cystourethrogram/videourodynamics, which revealed reflux in 44 (69%). In 119 of the 207 patients all infections were afebrile and 18 underwent voiding cystourethrogram/videourodynamics, which revealed reflux in 5 (28%). A urinary tract infection history was noted in 53% of girls but only 5% of boys (p infection history than patients with idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder or primary bladder neck dysfunction (each p urinary tract dysfunction have a much higher urinary tract infection incidence than males. This association was most often noted for lower urinary tract conditions in which urinary stasis occurs, including detrusor underutilization disorder and dysfunctional voiding. Reflux was found in most girls with a history of febrile infections. Since reflux was identified in more than a quarter of girls with only afebrile infections who were evaluated for reflux, it may be reasonable to perform voiding cystourethrogram or videourodynamics in some of them to identify reflux. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Physiological analysis of the effects of rikkunshito on acid and non-acid gastroesophageal reflux using pH-multichannel intraluminal impedance monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Hisayoshi; Tazuke, Yuko; Soh, Hideki; Yoneda, Akihiro; Fukuzawa, Masahiro

    2014-09-01

    To clarify the effects of rikkunshito on acid reflux, non-acid reflux, and esophageal clearance in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We enrolled seven patients with vomiting and/or stridor (median 6 years; 1 month-17 years), with a percent total time of esophageal pH reflux index) over 4.0%. Rikkunshito (TJ-43; Tsumura Co, Tokyo, Japan) was given in three divided doses before meals. We retrospectively investigated its efficacy using pH-multichannel intraluminal impedance before and 7 (6-10) days after starting treatment. Statistical analyses were conducted using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. In the pH analyses alone, the median number of acid reflux episodes >5 min (14 versus 10, p = 0.046) and median acid-clearance time (184 versus 134 s, p = 0.03) decreased significantly, although median decrease in reflux index did not reach significance (16.0 versus 17.9%, p = 0.06). In the combined impedance and pH analyses, the median number (36 versus 36, p = 0.03) and median duration (1.9 versus 1.1%, p = 0.046) of acid reflux decreased significantly; non-acid reflux and bolus clearance time did not change. Rikkunshito effectively reduced acid reflux, but not esophageal clearance, in patients with GERD.

  17. Gastroesophageal reflux and respiratory diseases in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatima, S.; Saeed, M.A.; Jafri, S.R.A.; Raza, M.; Kundi, Z.U.; Hyder, S.W.

    2002-01-01

    The association of gastroesophageal reflux disease and its pulmonary manifestation is well known however the exact underlying mechanism is unclear. The medical literature is deluged with studies on relationship between Gear and its pulmonary manifestations. The aim of this study was to 1) determine prevalence of GER in children with rLRTI, wheezing and asthma. 2) determine prevalence of asymptomatic respiratory anomalies in children with clinical reflux 3) determine effectiveness of anti-reflux therapy in clinical control of asthma, wheezing and rLRTI. Children were included in the study if they presented either with rLRTI, wheezing, Bronchial asthma or Clinical suspicion of GER without any respiratory symptoms. The GER study comprised esophageal transit, gastroesophageal reflux and lung aspiration studies. Acquisition and processing were according to predetermined protocol. Segmental and global esophageal transit times, GER according to duration of episode and volume of refluxed liquid, Reflux severity, Gastric retention at 30 minutes, Gastric emptying time, Presence of lung aspiration were calculated for each study. All children underwent Barium studies on a separate day. Clinical follow-up was done every 3 months and GER study was repeated every 6 months up to one year. The patient's therapy was determined by local protocols at discretion of clinicians. GER scintigraphy was performed in 43 patients (age range 5 months -12 years). Gastroesophageal reflux of varying degrees was observed in 10 children (23.25%) in all groups. The severity of clinical symptoms was directly related to severity of GER. The direct correlation was found between GER and reflux index. The results of GER scintigraphy were compared with Barium studies and results were found to be superior in terms of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in detecting disease. It was possible to objectively evaluate and monitor response to therapy after medical treatment in few cases with help of follow

  18. Respiratory and laryngeal symptoms secondary to gastro-oesophageal reflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, G; Mainie, I; McGarvey, L P A

    2011-01-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux may cause a range of laryngeal and respiratory symptoms. Mechanisms responsible include the proximal migration of gastric refluxate beyond the upper oesophageal sphincter causing direct irritation of the larynx and lower airway. Alternatively, refluxate entering the distal oesophagus alone may stimulate oesophageal sensory nerves and indirectly activate airway reflexes such as cough and bronchospasm. Recognising reflux as a cause for these extraoesophageal symptoms can be difficult as many patients do not have typical oesophageal symptoms (eg, heartburn) and clinical findings on laryngoscopy are not very specific. Acid suppression remains an effective treatment in the majority of patients but there is growing appreciation of the need to consider and treat non-acid and volume reflux. New opinions about the role of existing medical and surgical (laparoscopic techniques) treatment are emerging and a number of novel anti-reflux treatments are under development. PMID:28839612

  19. The relationship between complaints of night-time heartburn and sleep-related gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, W C; Goodrich, S; Estep, M E; Shepherd, K

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether the complaint of night-time heartburn (NHB) as opposed to daytime heartburn (DHB) is a reliable reflection of actual sleep-related reflux events. Three groups of individuals were studied: individuals with complaints of NHB at least twice per week (n = 24), individuals with complaints of DHB (n = 23), and normal participants without any complaints of regular heartburn during the day or night (n = 25). All three groups were studied on one occasion with combined pH monitoring and polysomnography, and subjective questionnaires about sleep disturbance and sleep quality were given to all participants. The NHB group had significantly more sleep-related reflux events compared with both DHB and control groups (P < 0.01). DHB subjects had significantly (P < 0.05) more sleep-related reflux events than normal controls. Total acid contact time (ACT) was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in the NHB group compared with both the DHB and control group. Sleep-related ACT was also significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in the NHB group compared with the other two groups, while upright (daytime) ACT was not significantly different. The NHB group was significantly (P < 0.05) worse regarding measures of both objective and subjective sleep quality. Subjects with exclusively DHB do have sleep-related reflux that is greater than normal controls. Subjects with NHB have significantly more sleep-related reflux, and both objective and subjective sleep abnormalities compared with normal controls. Complaints of NHB reflect sleep-related reflux events and may be indicative of a more clinically significant condition. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  20. Oesophageal flap valvuloplasty and wrapping suturing prevent gastrooesophageal reflux disease in dogs after oesophageal anastomosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ji-Gang; Liu, Quan-Xing; Den, Xu-Feng; Min, Jia-Xin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To examine the efficiency of oesophageal flap valvuloplasty and wrapping suturing technique in decreasing the rate of postoperative gastrooesophageal reflux disease in a dog model. METHODS: We operated on 10 dogs in this study. First, we resected a 5-cm portion of the distal oesophagus and then restored the continuity of the oesophageal and gastric walls by end-to-end anastomosis. A group of five dogs was subjected to the oesophageal flap valvuloplasty and wrapping suturing technique, whereas another group (control) of five dogs was subjected to the stapling technique after oesophagectomy. The symptom of gastrooesophageal reflux was recorded by 24-h pH oesophageal monitoring. Endoscopy and barium swallow examination were performed on all dogs. Anastomotic leakage was observed by X-ray imaging, whereas benign anastomotic stricture and mucosal damage were observed by endoscopy. RESULTS: None of the 10 dogs experienced anastomotic leakage after oesophagectomy. Four dogs in the new technology group resumed regular feeding, whereas only two of the dogs in the control group tolerated solid food intake. pH monitoring demonstrated that 25% of the dogs in the experimental group exhibited reflux and that none had mucosal damage consistent with reflux. Conversely, both reflux and mucosal damage were observed in all dogs in the control group. CONCLUSION: The oesophageal flap valvuloplasty and wrapping suturing technique can improve the postoperative quality of life through the long-term elimination of reflux oesophagitis and decreased stricture formation after primary oesophageal anastomosis. PMID:25516655

  1. [Esophageal motor function of gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Tian, Yuan; Ding, Yan

    2010-08-01

    To study the relationship between esophageal motor functional disorder [decreased lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP)and ineffective motility (IEM)] and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Totally 89 patients with GERD were enrolled in this study. All of them underwent 24-hour pH monitoring with dual-channel probe and stationary esophageal manometry. In addition, 77 of these patients underwent upper endoscopy. IEM and LES, 10 mmHg were common disturbances in patients with GERD (54% and 48%, respectively). The number of the acid reflux events of distal esophagus and prevalence of moderate or severe erosive esophagitis (EE) were significantly higher in patients with low LESP and IEM than patients without low LESP ( Pesophagus was significantly correlated with the severity of esophagitis, distal esophagus amplitude, and LESP, while no such correlation was found between IEM and degree of esophageal acid exposure or esophagitis. The pathophysiology of GERD is probably multifactorial. Lower LESP or IEM is not a independent pathophysiological factor for GERD. However,one single factor is insufficient to explain all the pathogenic mechanism of GERD.

  2. Intra-renal reflux: A new cause of medullary hyperechogenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diard, F.; Nicolau, A.; Bernard, S.

    1987-01-01

    A 5-month-old infant with untreated severe urinary tract infection and bilateral vesico-ureteral reflux, had diffuse intrarenal reflux and hyperechogenicity of the medulla of two normal sized kidneys. We discuss the hyperechogenicity of the medulla in relationship to the intrarenal reflux. (orig.)

  3. A PROPOSITION FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE IN CHILDREN - A REPORT FROM A WORKING GROUP ON GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENPLAS, Y; ASHKENAZI, A; BELLI, D; BOIGE, N; BOUQUET, J; CADRANEL, S; CEZARD, JP; CUCCHIARA, S; DUPONT, C; GEBOES, K; GOTTRAND, F; HEYMANS, HSA; JASINSKI, C; KNEEPKENS, CMF; KOLETZKO, S; MILLA, P; MOUGENOT, JF; NUSSLE, D; NAVARRO, J; NEWELL, SJ; OLAFSDOTTIR, E; PEETERS, S; RAVELLI, A; POLANCO, [No Value; SANDHU, BK; TOLBOOM, J

    In this paper, a Working Group on Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux discusses recommendations for the first line diagnostic and therapeutic approach of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in infants and children. All members of the Working Group agreed that infants with uncomplicated gastro-oesophageal reflux

  4. Association between respiratory events and nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux events in patients with coexisting obstructive sleep apnea and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimchariyatam, Nattapong; Tantipornsinchai, Warangkana; Desudchit, Tayard; Gonlachanvit, Sutep

    2016-06-01

    Literature has addressed the increased prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Significant improvement of GERD has been found after OSA treatment. However, precise mechanisms underlying this correlation remain unclear. We examined the association between nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and sleep events in patients with coexisting OSA and GERD. A case-crossover study among 12 patients with coexisting moderate-severe OSA and GERD was conducted. Participants underwent simultaneous polysomnography and esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. GER subtypes (ie, acid reflux, non-acid reflux) were defined as outcomes. Respective control time points were selected in all eligible control periods. Each sleep event was assessed individually. Estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were analyzed. A p-value of reflux and 28 non-acid reflux. Arousals and awakenings were significantly associated with subsequent GER events. The OR for GER following an arousal was 2.31 (95% CI 1.39-3.68; p  0.05). Both awakening and arousal appear to precipitate any subtype of GER events in patients with coexisting GERD and moderate to severe OSA. However, GER events were significantly less likely to occur after other respiratory events and did not appear to cause sleep-related events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between sleep and acid gastro-oesophageal reflux in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammari, Mohamed; Djeddi, Djamal; Léké, André; Delanaud, Stéphane; Stéphan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Telliez, Frédéric

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of gastro-oesophageal acid reflux on sleep in neonates and, reciprocally, the influence of wakefulness (W) and sleep stages on the characteristics of the reflux (including the retrograde bolus migration of oesophageal acid contents). The pH and multichannel intraluminal impedance were measured during nocturnal polysomnography in 25 infants hospitalised for suspicion of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Two groups were constituted according to whether or not the infants displayed gastro-oesophageal reflux (i.e. a reflux group and a control group). There were no differences between the reflux and control groups in terms of sleep duration, sleep structure and sleep state change frequency. Vigilance states significantly influenced the gastro-oesophageal reflux pattern: the occurrence of gastro-oesophageal reflux episodes was greater during W (59 ± 32%) and active sleep (AS; 35 ± 30%) than during quiet sleep (QS; 6 ± 11%), whereas the mean duration of gastro-oesophageal reflux episodes was higher in QS than in W and AS. The percentage of retrograde bolus migrations of distal oesophageal acid content was significantly higher in AS (62 ± 26%) than in W (42 ± 26%) and QS (4.5 ± 9%). In neonates, gastro-oesophageal reflux occurred more frequently during W, whereas the physiological changes associated with sleep state increase the physiopathological impact of the gastro-oesophageal reflux. The duration of oesophagus-acid contact was greater during sleep; AS facilitated the retrograde migration of oesophageal acid content, and QS was characterised by the risk of prolonged acid mucosal contact. © 2011 European Sleep Research Society.

  6. Two years of experience with robot-assisted anti-reflux surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanberg Jensen, Jonas; Kold Antonsen, Henning; Durup, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Robot-assisted anti-reflux surgery (RAAS) is an alternative to conventional laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery (CLAS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate initial Danish experiences with robot-assisted anti-reflux surgery compared to conventional laparoscopic anti-reflux...... significantly dependent on type of fundic wrap with reoperation of Nissen fundoplication being dysphagia and reoperation of Toupet being recurrent reflux (p = 0.008). There was no clearly determined learning curve. Conclusions RAAS was safe, feasible and with equal efficacy to CLAS. There were however...

  7. Does the Compliance of the Bladder Affect the Grade of Vesicoureteral Reflux?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Kilinc

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We retrospectively reviewed videourodynamic outcomes in children with primary vesicoureteral reflux. The aim of this study to evaluate the relationship between vesicoureteral reflux grade and bladder compliance. Material and Method: Videourodynamic traces of 53 children with primary vesicoureteral reflux investigated between January 2004 and January 2012 were reviewed. The detrusor pressures of the point when the reflux started were recorded. The detrusor pressures 10 cmH2O or less at that point was accepted as normal compliance (Group 1, the detrusor pressures more than10 cm H2O was accepted as hipocompliance (Group 2. The reflux grades were divided into two grades, low-grade reflux (grades 1 and 2, high-grade reflux (grades 3, 4 and 5. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test. Results: Patients’ ages ranged between 5 and 11 years (mean 7.09±1.81 years. Of the 53 patients, 29 (54.7% had normal compliance (Group 1, 24 (45.3% had hipocompliance (Group 2. Twenty-four (82.8% patients in-group 1 had a low-grade reflux, 5 (17.2% patients had a high-grade reflux. In group 2, 8 (33.3% patients had a low-grade reflux, 16 (66.7% patients had a high-grade reflux. The detected high-grade reflux in-group 2 was significantly higher than in-group 1 (p<0.001. Discussion: The physicians should be considering the bladder compliance at the point when the reflux started in primary vesicoureteral reflux cases. The bladder hipocompliance may play a secondary role in reflux grade.

  8. Acid and non-acid reflux patterns in patients with erosive esophagitis and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD): a study using intraluminal impedance monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conchillo, José M.; Schwartz, Matthijs P.; Selimah, Mohamed; Samsom, Melvin; Sifrim, Daniel; Smout, André J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and erosive esophagitis (EE) are the most common phenotypic presentations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). AIM: To assess acid and non-acid reflux patterns in patients with EE and NERD using combined esophageal pH-impedance monitoring. METHODS:

  9. Acid and non-acid reflux patterns in patients with erosive esophagitis and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) : A study using intraluminal impedance monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conchillo, Jose M.; Schwartz, Matthijs P.; Selimah, Mohamed; Samsom, Melvin; Sifrim, Daniel; Smout, Andre J.

    Background Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) and erosive esophagitis (EE) are the most common phenotypic presentations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Aim To assess acid and non-acid reflux patterns in patients with EE and NERD using combined esophageal pH-impedance monitoring. Methods A

  10. The comparative analyses of different diagnostic approaches in detection of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristic, Nina; Milovanovic, Ivan; Radusinovic, Milica; Stevic, Marija; Ristic, Milos; Ristic, Maja; Kisic Tepavcevic, Darija; Alempijevic, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the different diagnostic approaches in detection of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children presented with symptoms suggesting gastroesophageal reflux disease. The study design was cross sectional. The study retrospectively included all children who underwent combined multiple intraluminal impedance and pH (pH-MII) monitoring due to gastrointestinal and/or extraesophageal symptoms suggesting gastroesophageal reflux disease at University Children's Hospital in Belgrade, from July 2012 to July 2016. A total of 218 (117 boys/101 girls), mean age 6.7 years (range 0.06-18.0 years), met the inclusion criteria. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was found in 128 of 218 children (57.4%) by pH-MII and in 76 (34.1%) children by pH metry alone. Using pH-MII monitoring as gold standard, sensitivity of pH-metry was lowest in infants (22.9%), with tendency to increase in older age groups (reaching 76.4% in children ≥ 9 years). The sensitivity of pH-metry alone in children with extraesophageal symptoms was 38.1%, while the sensitivity of pH-metry in children with gastrointestinal symptoms was 63.8%. Reflux esophagitis was identified in 31 (26.1%) of 119 children who underwent endoscopy. Logistic regression analysis showed that best predictors of endoscopic reflux esophagitis are the longest acid episode (OR = 1.52, preflux composite score (OR = 3.31, preflux composite score ≥ 29 (AUC 0.786, CI 0.695-0.877, preflux ≥ 18 minutes (AUC 0.784, CI 0.692-0.875, pgastroesophageal reflux disease, especially in infants. Our findings also showed that pH-MII parameters correlated significantly with the endoscopically confirmed erosive esophagitis.

  11. Recurrent urinary tract infections in young children: role of DMSA scintigraphy in detecting vesicoureteric reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awais, Muhammad; Rehman, Abdul; Nadeem, Naila; Zaman, Maseeh Uz

    2015-01-01

    Performing micturiting cystourethrography (MCUG) in young children with recurrent urinary tract infections is controversial with discrepancy among the major guidelines. Previous studies have shown that a normal dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy may avoid the need of performing MCUG for detecting vesicoureteric reflux in children with first febrile urinary tract infection. However, the role of DMSA for ruling out vesicoureteric reflux in children with recurrent urinary tract infections has not been studied. Approval from institutional ethical review committee was sought and the requirement of informed consent was waived. A total of 50 children under the age of 10 years with recurrent urinary tract infections underwent MCUG scan within 3 months of DMSA scan from January 2011 to September 2012 at our institution. Diagnosis of recurrent urinary tract infections and grading of vesicoureteric reflux was according to previously established standards. Abnormalities on DMSA scan - scarring, hydronephrosis and reduced differential renal function - were compared with presence of vesicoureteric reflux on MCUG. High-grade vesicoureteric reflux was noted on MCUG in 22 (44%) cases. The findings on DMSA included hydronephrosis and scarring in 25 (50%) and 25 (50%) cases, respectively. Abnormalities on DMSA scan for detecting the presence of high-grade vesicoureteric reflux on MCUG examination had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 95.45%, 35.71%, 53.85% and 90.91%, respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 1.48 and 0.13 respectively. DMSA scan had high overall sensitivity and negative predictive value with a low negative likelihood ratio for ruling out high-grade vesicoureteric reflux on MCUG, which may obviate the need of invasive MCUG along with its associated drawbacks. (orig.)

  12. Recurrent urinary tract infections in young children: role of DMSA scintigraphy in detecting vesicoureteric reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awais, Muhammad; Rehman, Abdul; Nadeem, Naila [Aga Khan University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Karachi (Pakistan); Zaman, Maseeh Uz [Aga Khan University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2014-07-04

    Performing micturiting cystourethrography (MCUG) in young children with recurrent urinary tract infections is controversial with discrepancy among the major guidelines. Previous studies have shown that a normal dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy may avoid the need of performing MCUG for detecting vesicoureteric reflux in children with first febrile urinary tract infection. However, the role of DMSA for ruling out vesicoureteric reflux in children with recurrent urinary tract infections has not been studied. Approval from institutional ethical review committee was sought and the requirement of informed consent was waived. A total of 50 children under the age of 10 years with recurrent urinary tract infections underwent MCUG scan within 3 months of DMSA scan from January 2011 to September 2012 at our institution. Diagnosis of recurrent urinary tract infections and grading of vesicoureteric reflux was according to previously established standards. Abnormalities on DMSA scan - scarring, hydronephrosis and reduced differential renal function - were compared with presence of vesicoureteric reflux on MCUG. High-grade vesicoureteric reflux was noted on MCUG in 22 (44%) cases. The findings on DMSA included hydronephrosis and scarring in 25 (50%) and 25 (50%) cases, respectively. Abnormalities on DMSA scan for detecting the presence of high-grade vesicoureteric reflux on MCUG examination had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 95.45%, 35.71%, 53.85% and 90.91%, respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 1.48 and 0.13 respectively. DMSA scan had high overall sensitivity and negative predictive value with a low negative likelihood ratio for ruling out high-grade vesicoureteric reflux on MCUG, which may obviate the need of invasive MCUG along with its associated drawbacks. (orig.)

  13. Frequency, types and complications of barrett's esophagus in patients with symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, A.L.; Sadiq, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the frequency, types and complications of Barrett's esophagus in symptomatic gastro-esophageal reflux patients. Subjects: A total of 100 patients of gastro-esophageal reflux were studied to evaluate the frequency, types and complications of Barrett's esophagus. Endoscopic biopsies were taken and examined with H and E and various special stains like PAS, Alcian blue/PAS, high iron diamine/ Alcian blue and Giemsa stains. Results: Of 100 cases studied, 32 were found to have Barrett's esophagus on microscopy. The remaining 68 cases showed low and high grade changes of gastro-esophageal reflux. Conclusion: In comparison with studies from western countries, Barrett's esophagus was found to be relatively more common in our population. However, the frequency of complications like ulcer, stricture, dysplasia and adenocarcinoma was lesser. (author)

  14. Vesicoureteral Reflux and Duplex Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is the most common anomaly associated with duplex systems. In addition to an uncomplicated duplex system, reflux can also be secondary in the presence of an ectopic ureterocele with duplex systems. Controversy exists in regard to the initial and most definitive management of these anomalies when they coexist. This paper will highlight what is currently known about duplex systems and VUR, and will attempt to provide evidence supporting the various surgical approa...

  15. Quantitation of esophageal transit and gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmud, L.S.; Fisher, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Scintigraphic techniques are the only quantitative methods for the evaluation of esophageal transit and gastroesophageal reflux. By comparison, other techniques are not quantitative and are either indirect, inconvenient, or less sensitive. Methods, such as perfusion techniques, which measure flow, require the introduction of a tube assembly into the gastrointestinal tract with the possible introduction of artifacts into the measurements due to the indwelling tubes. Earlier authors using radionuclide markers, introduced a method for measuring gastric emptying which was both tubeless and quantitative in comparison to other techniques. More recently, a number of scintigraphic methods have been introduced for the quantitation of esophageal transit and clearance, the detection and quantitation of gastroesophageal reflux, the measurement of gastric emptying using a mixed solid-liquid meal, and the quantitation of enterogastric reflux. This chapter reviews current techniques for the evaluation of esophageal transit and gastroesophageal reflux

  16. Dynamic characteristic of gastro-oesophageal reflux in ambulatory patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and normal control subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weusten, B. L.; Akkermans, L. M.; vanBerge-Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate the dynamic characteristics of pathologic gastro-oesophageal reflux. METHODS: Five-channel ambulatory 24-h oesophageal pH monitoring was performed in 19 gastro-oesophageal reflux disease patients (age, 21-74 years) and in 19 healthy volunteers

  17. Gastroesophageal reflux disease in 2006. The imperfect diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, John T.

    2006-01-01

    There continues to be significant controversy related to diagnostic testing for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Clearly, barium contrast fluoroscopy is superior to any other test in defining the anatomy of the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract. Although fluoroscopy can demonstrate gastroesophageal reflux (GER), this observation does not equate to GERD. Fluoroscopy time should not be prolonged to attempt to demonstrate GER during barium contrast radiography. There are no data to justify prolonging fluoroscopy time to perform provocative maneuvers to demonstrate reflux during barium contrast UGI series. Symptoms of GERD may be associated with physiologic esophageal acid exposure measured by intraesophageal pH monitoring, and a significant percentage of patients with abnormal esophageal acid exposure have no or minimal clinical symptoms of reflux. Abnormal acid exposure defined by pH monitoring over a 24-h period does not equate to GERD. In clinical practice presumptive diagnosis of GERD is reasonably assumed by substantial reduction or elimination of suspected reflux symptoms during therapeutic trial of acid reduction therapy. (orig.)

  18. Gastroesophageal reflux disease in 2006. The imperfect diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, John T. [Children' s Hospital of Alabama, Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Birmingham, AL (United States); University of Alabama-Birmingham School of Medicine, Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2006-09-15

    There continues to be significant controversy related to diagnostic testing for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Clearly, barium contrast fluoroscopy is superior to any other test in defining the anatomy of the upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract. Although fluoroscopy can demonstrate gastroesophageal reflux (GER), this observation does not equate to GERD. Fluoroscopy time should not be prolonged to attempt to demonstrate GER during barium contrast radiography. There are no data to justify prolonging fluoroscopy time to perform provocative maneuvers to demonstrate reflux during barium contrast UGI series. Symptoms of GERD may be associated with physiologic esophageal acid exposure measured by intraesophageal pH monitoring, and a significant percentage of patients with abnormal esophageal acid exposure have no or minimal clinical symptoms of reflux. Abnormal acid exposure defined by pH monitoring over a 24-h period does not equate to GERD. In clinical practice presumptive diagnosis of GERD is reasonably assumed by substantial reduction or elimination of suspected reflux symptoms during therapeutic trial of acid reduction therapy. (orig.)

  19. Airway Reflux, Cough and Respiratory Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, Ian D.; Morice, Alyn H.

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly accepted that the effects of gastro-oesophageal reflux are not limited to the gastrointestinal tract. The adjacent respiratory structures are also at risk from material ejected from the proximal oesophagus as a result of the failure of anatomical and physiological barriers. There is evidence of the influence of reflux on several respiratory and otorhinological conditions and although in many cases the precise mechanism has yet to be elucidated, the association alone opens potential novel avenues of therapy to clinicians struggling to treat patients with apparently intractable respiratory complaints. This review provides a description of the airway reflux syndrome, its effects on the lung and current and future therapeutic options. PMID:23251752

  20. Which drugs are risk factors for the development of gastroesophageal reflux disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Zeynel; Pınarbaşı Şimşek, Binnur

    2017-12-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which is common in many communities, is associated with structural factors, eating habits, and the use of certain drugs. The use of such drugs can lead to the emergence of GERD and can also exacerbate existing reflux symptoms. These drugs can contribute to GERD by directly causing mucosal damage, by reducing lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP), or by affecting esophagogastric motility. In this article, we report our investigation of the relationships between GERD and medications within the scope of the "Turkish GERD Consensus Group." For the medication groups for which sufficient data were obtained (Figure 1), a systematic literature review in English was conducted using the keywords "gastroesophageal reflux" [MeSH Terms] and "anti-inflammatory agents, non-steroidal" [MeSH Terms], "gastroesophageal reflux" [MeSH Terms] and "acetylsalicylic acid" [MeSH Terms], "gastroesophageal reflux" [All Fields] and "estrogenic agents" [All Fields], "gastroesophageal reflux" [All Fields] and "progesterones" [All Fields], "gastroesophageal reflux" [All Fields] and "hormone replacement therapy" [All Fields], "gastroesophageal reflux" [MeSH Terms] and "diphosphonates" [MeSH Terms] OR "diphosphonates" [All Fields], "calcium channel blockers" [MeSH Terms] and "gastroesophageal reflux" [MeSH Terms], "gastroesophageal reflux" [MeSH Terms] and "nitrates" [MeSH Terms], "gastroesophageal reflux" [MeSH Terms] and "antidepressive agents" [MeSH Terms], "gastroesophageal reflux" [MeSH Terms] and "benzodiazepines" [MeSH Terms] and "hypnotic drugs" [MeSH Terms], "gastroesophageal reflux" [MeSH Terms] and "cholinergic antagonists" [MeSH Terms], "gastroesophageal reflux" [MeSH Terms] and "theophylline" [MeSH Terms], and "gastroesophageal reflux [MeSH Terms] AND "anti-asthmatic agents" [MeSH Terms]. The studies were analyzed and the results are presented here.

  1. The clinical value of pharyngeal pH monitoring using a double-probe, triple-sensor catheter in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muderris, Togay; Gokcan, M Kursat; Yorulmaz, Irfan

    2009-02-01

    To determine the clinical value of pharyngeal pH monitoring for the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) by using a double-probe, triple-sensor catheter in patients with symptoms of LPR. Prospective review of pH values recorded at the pharyngeal sensor, with the sensor placed in the proximal esophagus in patients with suspected LPR. Tertiary care university hospital. Thirty-three consecutive patients with symptoms of LPR. A pH test result was considered abnormal if a single reflux episode was detected in the hypopharynx and if, in the proximal esophagus, the total percentage of time the pH value was below 4 was 1.0% or higher. Data obtained from sensors were compared to determine the validity of pharyngeal sensor. Correlation between patients' reflux finding scores, reflux finding indexes, and reflux episodes were analyzed. Of 33 patients, 17 had more than 1 reflux episode detected by the pharyngeal sensor and 19 had pathological reflux detected by the proximal esophageal sensor. Four patients who had pharyngeal reflux had a normal esophageal acid exposure time, and 6 patients who had pathological reflux detected by the proximal esophageal sensor did not experienced any pharyngeal reflux episode. Four patients would have had a false-negative test result and 6 subjects would have had a false-positive test result if a hypopharyngeal pH sensor was not implemented. The adjustable, bifurcated, triple-sensor pH probe allows identifying true hypopharyngeal reflux episodes. If single-probe, double-sensor pH monitoring is to be performed, the proximal probe should be placed in the pharynx, not in the upper esophagus.

  2. Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Murphy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD is a disorder in which reflux of stomach contents causes troublesome symptoms and/or complications and which affects health-related quality of life. It is one of the commonest disorders and appears to be increasing in incidence. The mechanisms leading to reflux are complex and multifactorial. The lower oesophageal sphincter (LES is an important part of the gastro-oesophageal barrier. Transient LES relaxations (TLESRs lead to reflux as these vagally mediated motor patterns cause relaxation of the LES and also result in oesophageal shortening and inhibition of the crural diaphragm. Heartburn and regurgitation are the characteristic symptoms of GERD. A clinical diagnosis of GERD can be made with typical symptoms. Oesophagitis is seen in a minority of patients with GERD. Lifestyle modification is widely advocated for patients with GERD. For short-term relief of symptoms of mild GERD, antacids/alginates are frequently used but they do not heal oesophagitis. Both histamine 2 receptor antagonists (H2RA and proton pump inhibitors (PPI have been shown to heal and prevent relapse of oesophagitis, although PPIs have been shown to be superior. The PPIs are the recommended first-line therapy for erosive oesophagitis and initial management of non-erosive reflux disease. Maintenance PPI therapy should be given to patients with oesophagitis, those who have recurrence of symptoms after discontinuation of medication and for those with complications of GERD.

  3. A stepwise protocol for the treatment of refractory gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghuai; Lv, Hanjing; Yu, Li; Chen, Qiang; Liang, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    Background Refractory gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC) is difficult to manage. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of a novel stepwise protocol for treating this condition. Methods A total of 103 consecutive patients with suspected refractory reflux-induced chronic cough failing to a standard anti-reflux therapy were treated with a stepwise therapy. Treatment commences with high-dose omeprazole and, if necessary, is escalated to subsequent sequential treatment with ranitidine and finally baclofen. The primary end-point was overall cough resolution, and the secondary end-point was cough resolution after each treatment step. Results High-dose omeprazole eliminated or improved cough in 28.1% of patients (n=29). Further stepwise of treatment with the addition of ranitide yielded a favorable response in an additional 12.6% (n=13) of patients, and subsequent escalation to baclofen provoked response in another 36.9% (n=38) of patients. Overall, this stepwise protocol was successful in 77.6% (n=80) of patients. The diurnal cough symptom score fell from 3 [1] to 1 [0] (Z=6.316, P=0.000), and the nocturnal cough symptom score decreased from 1 [1] to 0 [1] (Z=–4.511, P=0.000), with a corresponding reduction in the Gastroesophageal Reflux Diagnostic Questionnaire score from 8.6±1.7 to 6.8±0.7 (t=3.612, P=0.000). Conversely, the cough threshold C2 to capsaicin was increased from 0.49 (0.49) µmol/L to 1.95 (2.92) µmol/L (Z=–5.892, P=0.000), and the cough threshold C5 was increased from 1.95 (2.92) µmol/L to 7.8 (5.85) µmol/L (Z=–5.171, P=0.000). Conclusions Sequential stepwise anti-reflux therapy is a useful therapeutic strategy for refractory reflux-induced chronic cough. PMID:26904227

  4. Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children with subureteral dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection: a single-centre, 7-year experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biočíc, Mihovil; Todoríc, Jakov; Budimir, Dražen; Roíc, Andrea Cvitkovíc; Pogorelíc, Zenon; Juríc, Ivo; Šušnjar, Tomislav

    2012-01-01

    Background The goals of medical intervention in patients with vesicoureteral reflux are to allow normal renal growth, prevent infections and pyelonephritis, and prevent renal failure. We present our experience with endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children by subureteral dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer injection. Methods Under cystoscopic guidance, dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer underneath the intravesical portion of the ureter in a subureteral or submucosal location was injected in patients undergoing endoscopic correction of vesicoureteral reflux. Results A total of 282 patients (120 boys and 162 girls) underwent the procedure. There were 396 refluxed ureters altogether. The mean age of patients was 4.9 years. The mean overall follow-up period was 44 months. Among the 396 ureters treated, 76% were cured with a single injection. A second and third injection raised the cure rate to 93% and 94%, respectively. Twenty-two (6%) ureters failed all 3 injections, and were converted to open surgery. Conclusion Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux can be recommended as a first-line therapy for most cases of vesicoureteral reflux, because of the short hospital stay, absence of complications and the high success rate. PMID:22854114

  5. The association between gastroesophageal flap valve function and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, O; Kalkan, Ç; Yaman, A; Tüzün, A; Soykan, I

    2017-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination is usually the first step in the evaluation of patients with suspected gastroesopageal reflux disease. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the association between gastroesophageal flap valve function (GEFV) and gastroesophapgeal reflux symptoms in patients undergoing routine upper endoscopy. Patients and methods: 1507 patients were included into the study and the GEFV graded I to IV as follows: Hill I-II: normal GEFV, and Hill III-IV: abnormal GEFV. Patients in abnormal GEFV group had a higher incidence of reflux symptoms compared to normal GEFV group (53.4% vs 47.4% for heartburn p=0.03 and 53.2% vs 42.4% for regurgitation, preflux symptoms were in abnormal GEFV group. In patients undergoing endoscopy because of reflux symptoms, Grade III-IV valve was detected more commonly in patients with reflux symptoms compared to patients without reflux symptoms (p = 0.01). Patients with abnormal valves (Hill grades III and IV) but without reflux symptoms, esophagitis and hiatal hernia should be evaluated individually by means of the presence of gastroesophageal reflux disease which means that GEFV is not a good indicator of reflux disease. © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.

  6. The effect of itopride combined with lansoprazole in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Byung-Joon; Lee, Dong-Soo

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of adding a prokinetic agent to proton pump inhibitors (PPI) for the treatment of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) disease. A prospective, randomized open trial comparing lansoprazole plus itopride to lansoprazole single therapy was performed for 12 weeks. Sixty-four patients with a reflux finding score (RFS) >7 and a reflux symptom index (RSI) >13 were enrolled and received either lansoprazole 30 mg once daily with itopride 50 mg three times daily or lansoprazole 30 mg once daily for 12 weeks. RSI and RFS were completed at baseline, after 6 weeks, and after 12 weeks. During the treatment period, RSI and RFS were significantly improved compared with the pretreatment scores in both study groups. Reductions of total RSI and globus symptom were significantly higher in the lansoprazole plus itopride group compared to the lansoprazole group. In the RFS, however, there were no significant differences between the two groups. In conclusion, itopride in addition to PPI did not show any superior RFS improvement compared to PPI single therapy, but was helpful in speeding up relief of reflux symptoms in LPR patients. Thus, itopride may be considered as the secondary additive agent in the PPI treatment of LPR patients.

  7. Novel therapeutics for gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbib, Frank; Simon, Mireille

    2012-09-01

    Approximately 20-30% of patients with gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms report inadequate symptom relief while on proton-pump inhibitor therapy. The mechanisms involved are failure of the antireflux barrier (transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations), high proximal extent of the refluxate, esophageal hypersensitivity and impaired mucosal integrity. Persisting acid or nonacid reflux can be demonstrated in 40-50% of cases, suggesting that there is room for antireflux therapy in these patients. New antireflux compounds have been shown to decrease the occurrence of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations. The most promising classes of compounds are GABA type B agonists and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonists, which can reduce both reflux episodes and symptoms, but the development of these compounds has been abandoned for either safety issues or lack of efficacy. Esophageal hypersensitivity and impaired mucosal integrity may prove to be relevant therapeutic targets in the future.

  8. Bladder volume at onset of vesicoureteral reflux is an independent risk factor for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Siobhan E; Arlen, Angela M; Storm, Douglas W; Kieran, Kathleen; Cooper, Christopher S

    2015-04-01

    Improved identification of children with vesicoureteral reflux at risk for recurrent febrile urinary tract infection may impact management decisions. We hypothesized that reflux occurring earlier during bladder filling increases the duration of exposure of the kidneys to bacteria, and, therefore, increases the risk of pyelonephritis. Children with vesicoureteral reflux and detailed voiding cystourethrogram data were identified. Bladder volume at onset of reflux was normalized for age. Demographics, reflux grade, laterality, presence/absence of bladder-bowel dysfunction and breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections were assessed. Median followup was 24 months (IQR 12 to 52). A total of 208 girls and 47 boys were analyzed with a mean ± SD age at diagnosis of 3.1 ± 2.6 years. On univariate analysis history of febrile urinary tract infection (HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.33-2.85, p = 0.01), dilating vesicoureteral reflux (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.05-2.42, p = 0.03) and bladder-bowel dysfunction (HR 1.66, 95% CI 0.99-2.75, p = 0.05) were associated with an increased risk of breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection. Median bladder volume at onset of reflux in children with breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection was significantly less (33.1%) than in those without infection (49.5%, p = 0.003). Reflux onset at 35% predicted bladder capacity or less was associated with a significantly increased risk of breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection on multivariate analysis (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.05-2.38, p = 0.03). Children with early filling vesicoureteral reflux are at increased risk for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection independent of reflux grade. Bladder volume at onset of reflux should be recorded during cystograms since it provides additional prognostic information about the risk of pyelonephritis and resolution, and may assist with counseling and clinical decision making. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  9. Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the ureter if a child’s valve doesn’t work properly. The doctor provides the treatment using general anesthesia and a child can usually go home the same day. Secondary vesicoureteral reflux Doctors treat secondary VUR after finding the exact cause of the condition . Treatment may include surgery to ...

  10. Vesico-ureteral reflux in children with prenatally detected hydronephrosis: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerde, A. M.; Meutgeert, M. H.; de Jong, T. P. V. M.; Giltay, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the value of prenatally detected hydronephrosis (PNH) as a prognostic factor for vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR). The MEDLINE database was searched for articles on PNH and VUR published between 1980 and 2004. A total of 18 studies were identified and reviewed for various aspects. Results

  11. Gastroesophageal reflux: comparison of barium studies with 24-h pH monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, John J.; Levine, Marc S.; Redfern, Regina O.; Rubesin, Stephen E.; Laufer, Igor; Katzka, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the correlation between massive gastroesophageal reflux (GER) on barium studies and pathologic acid reflux on 24-h pH monitoring. Methods: A search of hospital records from January 1997 to January 2001 revealed 28 patients who underwent both barium studies and 24-h pH monitoring. The radiologic reports were reviewed to determine the presence and degree of GER. Patients with reflux to or above the thoracic inlet either spontaneously or with provocative maneuvers in the recumbent position were classified as having massive reflux, whereas the remaining patients with reflux below the thoracic inlet or no reflux comprised the control group. The pH monitoring reports were also reviewed to determine if pathologic acid reflux was present in the recumbent position. The findings on these studies were then compared to determine the frequency of pathologic acid reflux in the recumbent position on pH monitoring in patients with massive reflux on barium studies compared with the control group. Results: Massive GER was observed on barium studies in 11 (39%) of the 28 patients and reflux below the thoracic inlet or no reflux in the remaining 17 patients (61%) who comprised the control group. All 11 patients (100%) with massive reflux on barium studies had pathologic acid reflux on pH monitoring in the recumbent position compared with six (35%) of 17 patients in the control group (P=0.0009). The pH in the distal esophagus on pH monitoring was less than 4.0 for 13.1% of the recumbent period for patients with massive GER on barium studies compared with 6.2% of the recumbent period for the control group (P=0.0076). Conclusion: Although 24-h pH monitoring remains the gold standard for the detection of GER, our experience suggests that patients with massive reflux on barium studies are so likely to have pathologic acid reflux in the recumbent position that these individuals can be further evaluated and treated for their gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD

  12. Gastroesophageal reflux: comparison of barium studies with 24-h pH monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, John J.; Levine, Marc S. E-mail: levine@oasis.rad.upenn.edu; Redfern, Regina O.; Rubesin, Stephen E.; Laufer, Igor; Katzka, David A

    2003-08-01

    Objective: To determine the correlation between massive gastroesophageal reflux (GER) on barium studies and pathologic acid reflux on 24-h pH monitoring. Methods: A search of hospital records from January 1997 to January 2001 revealed 28 patients who underwent both barium studies and 24-h pH monitoring. The radiologic reports were reviewed to determine the presence and degree of GER. Patients with reflux to or above the thoracic inlet either spontaneously or with provocative maneuvers in the recumbent position were classified as having massive reflux, whereas the remaining patients with reflux below the thoracic inlet or no reflux comprised the control group. The pH monitoring reports were also reviewed to determine if pathologic acid reflux was present in the recumbent position. The findings on these studies were then compared to determine the frequency of pathologic acid reflux in the recumbent position on pH monitoring in patients with massive reflux on barium studies compared with the control group. Results: Massive GER was observed on barium studies in 11 (39%) of the 28 patients and reflux below the thoracic inlet or no reflux in the remaining 17 patients (61%) who comprised the control group. All 11 patients (100%) with massive reflux on barium studies had pathologic acid reflux on pH monitoring in the recumbent position compared with six (35%) of 17 patients in the control group (P=0.0009). The pH in the distal esophagus on pH monitoring was less than 4.0 for 13.1% of the recumbent period for patients with massive GER on barium studies compared with 6.2% of the recumbent period for the control group (P=0.0076). Conclusion: Although 24-h pH monitoring remains the gold standard for the detection of GER, our experience suggests that patients with massive reflux on barium studies are so likely to have pathologic acid reflux in the recumbent position that these individuals can be further evaluated and treated for their gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD

  13. Operational resource theory of total quantum coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Si-ren; Yu, Chang-shui

    2018-01-01

    Quantum coherence is an essential feature of quantum mechanics and is an important physical resource in quantum information. Recently, the resource theory of quantum coherence has been established parallel with that of entanglement. In the resource theory, a resource can be well defined if given three ingredients: the free states, the resource, the (restricted) free operations. In this paper, we study the resource theory of coherence in a different light, that is, we consider the total coherence defined by the basis-free coherence maximized among all potential basis. We define the distillable total coherence and the total coherence cost and in both the asymptotic regime and the single-copy regime show the reversible transformation between a state with certain total coherence and the state with the unit reference total coherence. Extensively, we demonstrate that the total coherence can also be completely converted to the total correlation with the equal amount by the free operations. We also provide the alternative understanding of the total coherence, respectively, based on the entanglement and the total correlation in a different way.

  14. The Mystery and Misery of Acid Reflux in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Mike; Davenport, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    When a child is sick, parents want answers. They want to know what is wrong, what they can do, and how to get their child healthy--pronto. Regrettably, there are some puzzling illnesses affecting children that are surrounded by mystery. One of them is gastroesophageal reflux (GER), otherwise known as acid reflux--or "reflux" for short. Reflux…

  15. Startup and operating characteristics of an external air-lift reflux partial nitritation-ANAMMOX integrative reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Huang, Yong; Yuan, Yi; Bi, Zhen; Liu, Xin

    2017-08-01

    The differences in the physiological characteristics between AOB and ANAMMOX bacteria lead to suboptimal performance when used in a single reactor. In this study, aerobic and anaerobic zones with different survival environments were constructed in a single reactor to realize partitioned culture of AOB and ANAMMOX bacteria. An external air-lift reflux system was formed which used the exhaust from the aeration zone as power to return the effluent to the aeration zone. The reflux system effectively alleviated the large pH fluctuations and promoted NO 2 - -N to rapidly use by ANAMMOX bacteria, effectively inhibiting the activity of NOB. After 95d of running, the nitrogen removal rate increased from the initial 0.21kg/(m 3 ·d) to 3.1kg/(m 3 ·d). FISH analyses further demonstrated that AOB and ANAMMOX bacteria acquired efficient enrichment in the corresponding zone. Thus, this type of integrative reactor may create the environments needed for the partial nitritation-ANAMMOX processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of pectin solution for preventing gastro-esophageal reflux events in patients with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kyoichi; Furuta, Kenji; Aimi, Masahito; Fukazawa, Kousuke; Shimura, Shino; Ohara, Shunji; Nakata, Shuji; Inoue, Yukiko; Ryuko, Kanji; Ishine, Junichi; Katoh, Kyoko; Hirata, Toshiaki; Ohhata, Shuzo; Katoh, Setsushi; Moriyama, Mika; Sumikawa, Masuko; Sanpei, Mari; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of pectin solution, which increases the viscosity of liquid nutrient, for prevention of gastro-esophageal reflux in comparison with half-solid nutrient. The subjects were 10 elderly patients undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding. Twenty-four-hour esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH testing was performed during intake of half-solid nutrient and a combination of pectin solution and liquid nutrient. During 4 h after delivery, there was no significant difference in the total number of gastro-esophageal reflux events between the feeding of the half-solid nutrient and the combination of pectin solution and liquid nutrient (5.7 ± 1.2 vs 5.3 ± 1.0/4 h). Acidic reflux after delivery of the half-solid nutrient was significantly more frequent than that after delivery of the combination of pectin solution and liquid nutrient (80.7% vs 60.4%, p = 0.018). The incidence of gastro-esophageal reflux reaching the upper portion of the esophagus tended to be higher during delivery of the half-solid nutrient than during delivery of the combination of pectin solution and liquid nutrient (47.4% vs 34.0%, p = 0.153). In conclusion, the usage of pectin solution combined with liquid nutrient is effective for preventing acidic gastro-esophageal reflux and gastro-esophageal reflux reaching the upper portion of the esophagus.

  17. Associations among gastroesophageal reflux disease, psychological stress, and sleep disturbances in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Masatsugu; Takaishi, Osamu; Nakahara, Kenichi; Iwakura, Narika; Hasegawa, Tomoki; Oyama, Maizumi; Inoue, Ayumi; Ishizu, Hirotaka; Satoh, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and psychological stress are associated with sleep disturbances. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of sleep disturbances, anxiety, and depression by GERD subtypes and to identify factors associated with sleep disturbances in general population. A total of 2002 Japanese subjects, who underwent annual health checkups, were enrolled and asked to fill out a questionnaire, including the frequency scale for the symptoms of GERD (FSSG), Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), Rome III questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). GERD was divided into asymptomatic erosive reflux disease (a-ERD), symptomatic ERD (s-ERD), and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), according to the presence or absence of esophageal mucosal injury on endoscopy, and the FSSG scores. Sleep disturbances were diagnosed in subjects with AIS score ≥6. Prevalence of sleep disturbances was significantly higher in GERD subjects than in controls (35.9 and 14.7%, respectively), especially, in the NERD group (45.1%). Sleep duration was significantly shorter in the s-ERD group compared with other groups. Subjects in the NERD and s-ERD groups showed higher HADS scores, resulting in higher incidences of anxiety and depression than those in the control and a-ERD groups. Reflux symptoms, anxiety, depression, and coexisting functional dyspepsia, but not the presence of esophageal mucosal injury, were associated with an increased odds ratio for sleep disturbances. There were significant positive associations among reflux symptoms, psychological stress, and sleep disturbance in Japanese adults. Further studies investigating the efficacy of therapy are needed.

  18. Systematic review and meta-analysis of laparoscopic Nissen (posterior total) versus Toupet (posterior partial) fundoplication for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, J. A. J. L.; Mauritz, F. A.; Ahmed Ali, U.; Draaisma, W. A.; Ruurda, J. P.; Gooszen, H. G.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Broeders, I. A. M. J.; Hazebroek, E. J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) is currently considered the surgical approach of choice for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). Laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication (LTF) has been said to reduce troublesome dysphagia and gas-related symptoms. A systematic review and

  19. PPI therapy is equally effective in well-defined non-erosive reflux disease and in reflux esophagitis: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijenborg, P. W.; Cremonini, F.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Symptomatic response to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy in patients with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) is often reported as lower than in patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD). However, the definition of NERD differs across clinical trials. This meta-analysis aims to estimate

  20. Out-patient radiology in gastro-esophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, G.; Risi, D.; Accordino, M.E.; Meli, C.; Iascone, C.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective analysis is reported of 131 symptomatic patients for gastro-esophageal reflux, comparing the radiological diagnosis to endoscopic, manometric and pH-metric results. A low incidence of x-ray examination is found. The role of radiology in gastro-esophageal reflux is considered and discussed

  1. Ambulatory reflux monitoring for diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: Update of the Porto consensus and recommendations from an international consensus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, S; Gyawali, C P; Savarino, E; Yadlapati, R; Zerbib, F; Wu, J; Vela, M; Tutuian, R; Tatum, R; Sifrim, D; Keller, J; Fox, M; Pandolfino, J E; Bredenoord, A J

    2017-10-01

    An international group of experts evaluated and revised recommendations for ambulatory reflux monitoring for the diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Literature search was focused on indications and technical recommendations for GERD testing and phenotypes definitions. Statements were proposed and discussed during several structured meetings. Reflux testing should be performed after cessation of acid suppressive medication in patients with a low likelihood of GERD. In this setting, testing can be either catheter-based or wireless pH-monitoring or pH-impedance monitoring. In patients with a high probability of GERD (esophagitis grade C and D, histology proven Barrett's mucosa >1 cm, peptic stricture, previous positive pH monitoring) and persistent symptoms, pH-impedance monitoring should be performed on treatment. Recommendations are provided for data acquisition and analysis. Esophageal acid exposure is considered as pathological if acid exposure time (AET) is greater than 6% on pH testing. Number of reflux episodes and baseline impedance are exploratory metrics that may complement AET. Positive symptom reflux association is defined as symptom index (SI) >50% or symptom association probability (SAP) >95%. A positive symptom-reflux association in the absence of pathological AET defines hypersensitivity to reflux. The consensus group determined that grade C or D esophagitis, peptic stricture, histology proven Barrett's mucosa >1 cm, and esophageal acid exposure greater >6% are sufficient to define pathological GERD. Further testing should be considered when none of these criteria are fulfilled. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Anti-reflux surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery. You may need another surgery in the future if you develop new reflux symptoms or swallowing ... Diseases of the esophagus. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  3. Gastroesophageal reflux and lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Keith C

    2015-08-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) can cause respiratory symptoms and may trigger, drive and/or worsen airway disorders, interstitial lung diseases and lung allograft dysfunction. Whether lifestyle changes and acid suppression alone can counter and prevent the adverse effects of GER on the respiratory tract remains unclear. Recent data suggest that antireflux surgery may be more effective in preventing lung disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or lung transplant recipients who have evidence of allograft dysfunction associated with the presence of excessive GER. Additional research and clinical trials are needed to determine the role of GER in various lung disorders and identify which interventions are most efficacious in preventing the respiratory consequences of gastroesophageal reflux disease. In addition, measuring biomarkers that indicate that gastric refluxate has been aspirated into the lower respiratory tract (e.g., pepsin and bile acid concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) may prove helpful in both diagnosis and therapeutic decision making.

  4. Dose-dependent effects of lesogaberan on reflux measures in patients with refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Philip B; Silberg, Debra G; Ruth, Magnus; Miller, Frank; Pandolfino, John

    2014-11-18

    The γ-aminobutyric acid type B-receptor agonist lesogaberan (AZD3355) has been developed for use in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms despite proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy (partial responders). This study aimed to explore the dose-response effect of lesogaberan on reflux episodes in partial responders. In this randomized, single-centre, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study, partial responders taking optimised PPI therapy were given 30, 90, 120 and 240 mg doses of lesogaberan. Each dose was given twice (12 h apart) during a 24-h period, during which impedance-pH measurements were taken. Twenty-five patients were included in the efficacy analysis and 27 in the safety analysis. The effect of lesogaberan on the mean number of reflux episodes was dose-dependent, and all doses significantly reduced the mean number of reflux episodes relative to placebo. Lesogaberan also dose-dependently reduced the mean number of acid reflux episodes (except the 30 mg dose) and weakly acid reflux episodes (all doses) significantly, relative to placebo. Regardless of dose, lesogaberan had a similar effect on the percentage of time with esophageal pH < 4 [mean reduction: 68.5% (30 mg), 54.2% (90 mg), 65.9% (120 mg), 72.1% (240 mg); p < 0.05 except 90 mg dose]. No adverse events led to discontinuation and no serious adverse events occurred during active treatment. Lesogaberan inhibited reflux in a dose-dependent manner in partial responders taking optimised PPI therapy, and these effects were significant versus placebo. All lesogaberan doses were well tolerated and were not associated with clinically relevant adverse events. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01043185.

  5. Sex and Gender Differences in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Gwang Ha

    2016-01-01

    It is important to understand sex and gender-related differences in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) because gender-related biologic factors might lead to better prevention and therapy. Non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) affects more women than men. GERD symptoms are more frequent in patients with NERD than in those with reflux esophagitis. However, men suffer pathologic diseases such as reflux esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus (BE), and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) more frequently than women. The prevalence of reflux esophagitis is significantly increased with age in women, especially after their 50s. The mean age of EAC incidence in women is higher than in men, suggesting a role of estrogen in delaying the onset of BE and EAC. In a chronic rat reflux esophagitis model, nitric oxide was found to be an aggravating factor of esophageal injury in a male-predominant way. In addition, the expression of esophageal occludin, a tight junction protein that plays an important role in the esophageal defense mechanism, was up-regulated in women. This explains the male predominance of reflux esophagitis and delayed incidence of BE or EAC in women. Moreover, the symptoms such as heartburn, regurgitation, and extra-esophageal symptoms have been more frequently reported by women than by men, suggesting that sex and gender play a role in symptom perception. Differential sensitivity with augmented symptoms in women might have diagnostic and therapeutic influence. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that hormone replacement therapy has a protective effect against esophageal cancer. However, an anti-inflammatory role of estrogen remains compelling, which means further study is necessary in this area. PMID:27703114

  6. Reflux condensation behavior in SBLOCA tests of ATLAS facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon-Sik; Park, Hyun-Sik; Cho, Seok; Choi, Ki-Yong; Kang, Kyoung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Behavior of a reflux condensation heat transfer was investigated for SBLOCA tests. • Behavior of the reflux condensate in HL, SG inlet plenum, and U-tubes were evaluated. • Concept of a steam moisturizing phenomenon was introduced and discussed. • Test data and MARS calculations were compared and discussed on the reflux condensate. - Abstract: The behavior of the reflux condensation heat transfer in a hot side steam generator (SG) U-tubes during a cold leg (CL) pipe and a direct vessel injection (DVI) line break in small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) tests of the ATLAS facility was investigated including MARS code calculations. Among the SBLOCA tests, a 6″-CL pipe and 50%-DVI line break SBLOCA test were selected to investigate the behavior of the reflux condensation. A reflux condensation heat transfer seemed to occur from the time the SG U-tubes were half-empty to near the loop seal clearing (LSC). It was found that a transition regime existed between the reflux condensation heat transfer and reverse heat transfer. The remaining reflux condensate in SG U-tubes owing to the counter-current flow limit (CCFL) phenomenon and a separating effect of liquid carry-over and/or entrainment with steam moisturizing seemed to affect the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the transition regime. It was also found that the steam flowrate of the loop pipings and SG U-tubes seemed to have a strong effect on the duration time of the transition regime, e.g., a larger steam flowrate results in a longer duration. From a comparison of the reflux condensation behavior between the ATLAS tests and MARS code calculations, overall qualitative agreements were found between the two cases. The largest discrepancies were found in the SG inlet plenum water level between the two cases, and the authors suggest that the combination effects of the remaining reflux condensate in SG U-tubes and a separating effect of liquid carry-over and/or entrainment with steam

  7. Gastroesophageal reflux - correlation between diagnostic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Maria das Gracas de Almeida; Penas, Maria Exposito; Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa; Lemme, Eponina Maria O.; Martinho, Maria Jose Ribeiro

    1999-01-01

    A group of 97 individuals with typical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was submitted to gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy (GES) and compared to the results obtained from endoscopy, histopathology and 24 hours pHmetry. Twenty-four healthy individuals were used as a control group and they have done only the GERS. The results obtained showed that: a) the difference int he reflux index (RI) for the control group and the sick individuals was statistically significant (p < 0.0001); b) the correlation between GERS and the other methods showed the following results: sensitivity, 84%; specificity, 95%; positive predictive value, 98%; negative predictive value, 67%; accuracy, 87%. We have concluded that the scintigraphic method should be used to confirm the diagnosis of GERD and also recommended as initial investiative procedure. (author)

  8. Heartburn, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and non-erosive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-01-31

    Jan 31, 2010 ... hypersensitivity.7,8. Management of GORD. Depending on how ... reflux include lifestyle changes, dietary modification and using non-prescription ... acid clearance, minimising the incidence of reflux events, or both.8 Lifestyle ...

  9. Association between nocturnal bruxism and gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Shouichi; Tanimoto, Yuko; Araki, Yoshiko; Katayama, Akira; Fujii, Akihito; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2003-11-01

    To examine the relationship between nocturnal bruxism and gastroesophageal reflux. Controlled descriptive study and double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical study. Portable pH monitoring, electromyography, and audio-video recordings were conducted during the night in the subjects' home. Ten patients with bruxism and 10 normal subjects were matched for height, weight, age, and sex. They did not have symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Medication with a proton pump inhibitor (ie, a gastric-acid-inhibiting drug). The bruxism group showed a significantly higher frequency of nocturnal rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) episodes (mean +/- SD: 6.7 +/- 2.2 times per hour) and a higher frequency and percentage of time of gastroesophageal reflux episodes with a pH less than 4.0 and 5.0 (0.5 +/- 0.9 and 3.6 +/- 1.6 times per hour and 1.3% +/- 2.5% and 7.4% +/- 12.6%, respectively) than the control group (RMMA episodes: 2.4 +/- 0.9 times per hour; gastroesophageal reflux episodes: 0.0 +/- 0.0 and 0.1 +/- 0.3 times per hour and 0.0% +/- 0.0% and 0.0% +/- 0.0%, respectively). In the bruxism group, 100% of the gastroesophageal reflux episodes with a pH less than 3.0 and 4.0 included both an RMMA episode and an electromyographic burst, the duration of which was approximately 0.5 to 1.0 seconds, probably representing swallowing of saliva. The majority of gastroesophageal reflux episodes with a pH of 4.0 to 5.0 also included both an RMMA episode and an electromyographic burst in the control and bruxism groups (100% +/- 0.0% vs 70.7% +/- 16.5%), again probably due to swallowing of saliva. The remaining minority of gastroesophageal reflux episodes with a pH of 4.0 to 5.0 contained only an electromyographic burst (swallowing of saliva). The frequency of RMMA episodes after the release of the medication from the proton pump inhibitor, which increased the gastric and esophageal pH, was significantly lower than that after administration of the placebo in the control

  10. [Knowledge and practice of Brazilian pediatricians concerning gastroesophageal reflux disease in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Ana Cristina Fontenele; de Freitas, Carla Lima; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2015-01-01

    To assess the knowledge and practice of pediatricians about infants with physiological reflux and gastroesophageal reflux disease. 140 pediatricians were interviewed during two scientific events in 2009 and 2010. The questions referred to two clinical cases of infants. One with symptoms of infant regurgitation (physiological reflux) and another with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Among 140 pediatricians, 11.4% (n=16) and 62.1% (n=87) would require investigation tests, respectively for infant regurgitation (physiological reflux) and gastroesophageal reflux disease. A series of upper gastrointestinal exams would be the first requested with a higher frequency. Medication would be prescribed by 18.6% (n=26) in the case of physiological reflux and 87.1% (n=122) in the case of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Prokinetic drugs would be prescribed more frequently than gastric acid secretion inhibitors. Sleeping position would be recommended by 94.2% (n=132) and 92.9% (n=130) of the respondents, respectively for the case of physiological reflux and gastroesophageal reflux disease; however, about half of the respondents would recommend the prone position. Only 10 (7.1%) of the pediatricians would exclude the cow's milk protein from the infants' diet. Approaches different from the international guidelines are often considered appropriate, especially when recommending a different position other than the supine and prescription of medication. In turn, the interviews enable us to infer the right capacity of the pediatricians to distinguish physiologic reflux and gastroesophageal reflux disease correctly. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Review article: The measurement of non-acid gastro-oesophageal reflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oesophageal pH monitoring has been used for three decades to study gastro-oesophageal reflux, but it does not allow detection of non-acid reflux episodes. AIM: To discuss the techniques by which non-acid reflux can be measured and to evaluate the clinical relevance of such measurements.

  12. Clinical and polysomnographic predictors of laryngopharyngeal reflux in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparroz, Fábio Azevedo; Campanholo, Milena de Almeida Torres; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Park, Sung Woo; Haddad, Leonardo; Gregório, Luís Carlos; Haddad, Fernanda Louise Martinho

    2018-04-14

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and laryngopharyngeal reflux are diseases with a high prevalence in the overall population; however, it remains unclear whether they are diseases with the same risk factors present in the same populations or if there is any association between them. To evaluate and determine the prevalence of laryngopharyngeal reflux in patients with moderate and severe obstructive apnea syndrome and also to determine its predictive factors. Historical cohort, cross-sectional study of patients aged 18-70 years, referred to a tertiary service Otorhinolaryngology outpatient clinic with a polysomnographic diagnosis of moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The reflux symptom index questionnaire and the reflux finding score at indirect videolaryngoscopy were applied to the assessed population, considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Fifty-six patients were evaluated, of which 64.3% had a positive laryngopharyngeal reflux (positive reflux symptom index and/or positive endolaryngeal reflux finding score). Body mass index was a predictor of reflux presence in this group of patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. In patients with positive score for endoscopic findings and reflux symptom index (12.3%), there was a trend toward significance for a higher mean apnea-hypopnea index and a higher percentage of sleep time with oxyhemoglobin saturation below 90% (p=0.05). The prevalence of laryngopharyngeal reflux was higher in this group of patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and the body mass index was a predictor of laryngopharyngeal reflux in these patients. There was a trend toward greater oxyhemoglobin desaturation in patients with a positive score for reflux symptoms index (RSI) and reflux finding score (RFS). Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  13. Acid and non-acid reflux during physiotherapy in young children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Michael; Krishnan, Usha; Jaffé, Adam; Belessis, Yvonne

    2012-02-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux (GOR) may contribute to lung disease in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). There is conflicting evidence regarding the effect of chest physiotherapy (CPT) in the head-down position on GOR. Furthermore, there is currently no evidence on the impact of physiotherapy on GOR as assessed by pH-multichannel intraluminal impedance (pH-MII). (1) To characterize GOR in young children with CF. (2) To determine whether the head-down position during physiotherapy exacerbates GOR. Children were studied using pH-MII monitoring over 24-hr, during which they received two 20-min sessions of CPT. One session was performed in "modified" drainage positions with no head-down tilt and the alternate session in "gravity-assisted" drainage positions, which included 20° head-down tilt. Twenty children with CF (8 males), median age 12 months (range 8-34) were recruited. A total of 1,374 reflux episodes were detected in all children, of which 869 (63%) were acid and 505 (37%) were non-acid. Seventy-two percent of the episodes migrated proximally. During CPT, there was no significant difference between total number of reflux episodes in the modified or gravity-assisted positions, median [inter-quartile range (IQR)] 1 (0-2.5) compared to 1 (0.75-3) episode, respectively, P = 0.63. There was also no significant difference between the number of reflux episodes which migrated proximally, median (IQR) 1 (0-2) compared to 0 (0-2) episodes, respectively, P = 0.75. In young children with CF, GOR is primarily acidic and proximal migration is common. Physiotherapy in the head-down position does not appear to exacerbate GOR. The impact of GOR on lung disease remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The detection of gastro-oesophageal reflux in varicose changes of the oesophagus using scintigraphy. Szintigraphischer Nachweis des gastro-oesophagealen Refluxes bei Patienten mit Oesophagusvarizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kielmann, U.

    1984-08-27

    Comparative studies carried out in 22 bearers of oesophageal varices and 13 asymptomatic healthy volunteers on the basis of gastric reflux scintigraphy revealed findings to prove the occurrence of physiological reflux for the control group and, by contrast with this observation, markedly prolonged reflux episodes in the patient group. The occurrence of reflux was seen to be linked to the size of the varices found in the terminal oesophagus (negative correlation). A positive and significant correlation could be established between the size of a patient's varices and the frequency of haemorrhages. Bleedings and reflux episodes, however, were observed to be quite unrelated events. The results obtained strongly suggested that gastro-oesophageal reflux cannot be regarded as having a key role in haemorrhages from oesophageal varices. Nor was it possible to find statistical support for the effects of sclerotherapy on the frequency of haemorrhages. This was evidence in confirmation of the fact that obliteration is the obvious method in the treatment of haemorrhaging varices of the oesophagus. (TRV).

  15. Current status of gastroesophageal reflux disease : diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Tang-Wei; Chen, Shou-Chien; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the recent advances in diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Previous studies were searched using the terms "gastroesophageal reflux disease" and "diagnosis" or "treatment" in Medline and Pubmed. Articles that were not published in the English language, manuscripts without an abstract, reviews, meta-analysis, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. After a preliminary screening, all of the articles were reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of the contemporary approaches to GERD. GERD has a variety of symptomatic manifestations, which can be grouped into typical, atypical and extra-esophageal symptoms. Those with the highest specificity for GERD are acid regurgitation and heartburn. In the absence of other alarming symptoms, these symptoms allow one to make a presumptive diagnosis of GERD and initiate empiric therapy. GERD-associated complications include erosive esophagitis, peptic stricture, Barrett's esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma and pulmonary disease. Management of GERD may involve lifestyle modifications, medical and surgical therapy. Medical therapy involves acid suppression, which can be achieved with antacids, histamine-receptor antagonists or proton-pump inhibitors. Whereas most patients can be effectively managed with medical therapy, others may go on to require anti-reflux surgery after undergoing a proper pre-operative evaluation. The management of this disease requires a complex approach. Maintenance therapy of GERD after using anti-secretory drugs should be continuously monitored. © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.

  16. Scintigraphic demonstration of bile reflux after gastro-intestinal surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratz, K.F.; Creutzig, H.; Lieth, U. von der; Hundeshagen, H.

    1983-04-01

    Bile reflux may occur after a variety of reconstructive procedures in the gastro-intestinal tract and biliary system. The present paper deals with reflux into the duodenum, jejunum, stomach, oesophagus and into blind loops. The demonstration of reflux by sup(99m)Tc labelled IDA acid derivatives, and a possible quantitative approach, are discussed. The advantages of isotope methods are: 1. Direct demonstration of bile reflux without any intervention in the physiological process and with little trouble to the patient. 2. The ability to use the method for various reconstructive procedures and 3. the additional information obtained which may help in the differential diagnosis of blind loops, biliary obstruction, cholecystitis or liver metastases if there has been a gastrectomy for a malignant tumour. In combination with a second administration of a radio-isotope tracer, one may be able to demonstrate abnormalities in the motility of the stomach or gut, or pyloric stenosis or gastro-oesophageal reflux.

  17. Tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness-Jensen, Eivind; Lagergren, Jesper

    2017-10-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) develops when reflux of gastric content causes troublesome symptoms or complications. The main symptoms are heartburn and acid regurgitation and complications include oesophagitis, strictures, Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. In addition to hereditary influence, GORD is associated with lifestyle factors, mainly obesity. Tobacco smoking is regarded as an aetiological factor of GORD, while alcohol consumption is considered a triggering factor of reflux episodes and not a causal factor. Yet, both tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption can reduce the lower oesophageal sphincter pressure, facilitating reflux. In addition, tobacco smoking reduces the production of saliva rich in bicarbonate, which is important for buffering and clearance of acid in the oesophagus. Alcohol also has a direct noxious effect on the oesophageal mucosa, which predisposes to acidic injury. Tobacco smoking cessation reduces the risk of GORD symptoms and avoidance of alcohol is encouraged in individuals where alcohol consumption triggers reflux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Utility Estimation for Pediatric Vesicoureteral Reflux: Methodological Considerations Using an Online Survey Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejwani, Rohit; Wang, Hsin-Hsiao S; Lloyd, Jessica C; Kokorowski, Paul J; Nelson, Caleb P; Routh, Jonathan C

    2017-03-01

    The advent of online task distribution has opened a new avenue for efficiently gathering community perspectives needed for utility estimation. Methodological consensus for estimating pediatric utilities is lacking, with disagreement over whom to sample, what perspective to use (patient vs parent) and whether instrument induced anchoring bias is significant. We evaluated what methodological factors potentially impact utility estimates for vesicoureteral reflux. Cross-sectional surveys using a time trade-off instrument were conducted via the Amazon Mechanical Turk® (https://www.mturk.com) online interface. Respondents were randomized to answer questions from child, parent or dyad perspectives on the utility of a vesicoureteral reflux health state and 1 of 3 "warm-up" scenarios (paralysis, common cold, none) before a vesicoureteral reflux scenario. Utility estimates and potential predictors were fitted to a generalized linear model to determine what factors most impacted utilities. A total of 1,627 responses were obtained. Mean respondent age was 34.9 years. Of the respondents 48% were female, 38% were married and 44% had children. Utility values were uninfluenced by child/personal vesicoureteral reflux/urinary tract infection history, income or race. Utilities were affected by perspective and were higher in the child group (34% lower in parent vs child, p pediatric conditions. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Short-term outcomes using magnetic sphincter augmentation versus Nissen fundoplication for medically resistant gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Brian E; Farivar, Alexander S; Shultz, Dale; Brennan, Christina; Vallières, Eric; Aye, Ralph W

    2014-08-01

    In 2012 the United States Food and Drug Administration approved implantation of a magnetic sphincter to augment the native reflux barrier based on single-series data. We sought to compare our initial experience with magnetic sphincter augmentation (MSA) with laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF). A retrospective case-control study was performed of consecutive patients undergoing either procedure who had chronic gastrointestinal esophageal disease (GERD) and a hiatal hernia of less than 3 cm. Sixty-six patients underwent operations (34 MSA and 32 LNF). The groups were similar in reflux characteristics and hernia size. Operative time was longer for LNF (118 vs 73 min) and resulted in 1 return to the operating room and 1 readmission. Preoperative symptoms were abolished in both groups. At 6 months or longer postoperatively, scores on the Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Health Related Quality of Life scale improved from 20.6 to 5.0 for MSA vs 22.8 to 5.1 for LNF. Postoperative DeMeester scores (14.2 vs 5.1, p=0.0001) and the percentage of time pH was less than 4 (4.6 vs 1.1; p=0.0001) were normalized in both groups but statistically different. MSA resulted in improved gassy and bloated feelings (1.32 vs 2.36; p=0.59) and enabled belching in 67% compared with none of the LNFs. MSA results in similar objective control of GERD, symptom resolution, and improved quality of life compared with LNF. MSA seems to restore a more physiologic sphincter that allows physiologic reflux, facilitates belching, and creates less bloating and flatulence. This device has the potential to allow individualized treatment of patients with GERD and increase the surgical treatment of GERD. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Esophageal Mucosal Impedance Pattern is Distinct in Patients With Extraesophageal Reflux Symptoms and Pathologic Acid Reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitt, Robert T; Lal, Pooja; Yuksel, Elif Saritas; Ates, Fehmi; Slaughter, James C; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Higginbotham, Tina; Vaezi, Michael F

    2017-05-01

    Current diagnostic tests for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) do not consistently measure chronicity of reflux. Mucosal impedance (MI) is a minimally invasive measurement to assess esophageal conductivity changes due to GERD. We aimed to investigate MI pattern in patients with symptoms of extraesophageal reflux (EER) in a prospective longitudinal cohort study. Patients with potential symptoms of EER undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with wireless pH monitoring were studied. Participants included those with erosive esophagitis (E+), normal EGD/abnormal pH (E-/pH+), and normal EGD/normal pH (E-/pH-). MI was measured from the site of injury in patients with E+, as well as at 2, 5, and 10 cm above the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) in all participants. Forty-one patients with symptoms of EER were studied. MI measurements at 2 cm above the SCJ were significantly (P = 0.04) different among the three groups, with MI lowest for E+ and greatest for E-/pH- patients. Although not statistically significant, there is a graded increase in median (interquartile range) MI axially along the esophagus at 5 cm (P = 0.20) and at 10 cm (P = 0.27) above the SCJ, with those with reflux (E+ and E-/pH+) having a lower MI than those without. Patients with symptoms of EER and evidence of acid reflux have an MI lower than those without at 2 cm above the SCJ, with a trend at 5 cm and 10 cm as well. MI may be a tool to assess presence of GERD in patients presenting with EER symptoms. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver on-sun test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andraka, C E; Moreno, J B; Diver, R B; Moss, T A [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The efficient operation of a Stirling engine requires the application of a high heat flux to the relatively small area occupied by the heater head tubes. Previous attempts to couple solar energy to Stirling engines generally involved directly illuminating the heater head tubes with concentrated sunlight. In this study, operation of a 75-kW{sub t} sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver has been demonstrated and its performance characterized on Sandia's nominal 75-kW{sub t} parabolic-dish concentrator, using a cold-water gas-gap calorimeter to simulate Stirling engine operation. The pool boiler (and more generally liquid-metal reflux receivers) supplies heat to the engine in the form of latent heat released from condensation of the metal vapor on the heater head tubes. The advantages of the pool boiler include uniform tube temperature, leading to longer life and higher temperature available to the engine, and decoupling of the design of the solar absorber from the engine heater head. The two-phase system allows high input thermal flux, reducing the receiver size and losses, therefore improving system efficiency. The receiver thermal efficiency was about 90% when operated at full power and 800{degree}C. Stable sodium boiling was promoted by the addition of 35 equally spaced artificial cavities in the wetted absorber surface. High incipient boiling superheats following cloud transients were suppressed passively by the addition of small amounts of xenon gas to the receiver volume. Stable boiling without excessive incipient boiling superheats was observed under all operating conditions. The receiver developed a leak during performance evaluation, terminating the testing after accumulating about 50 hours on sun. The receiver design is reported here along with test results including transient operations, steady-state performance evaluation, operation at various temperatures, infrared thermography, x-ray studies of the boiling behavior, and a postmortem analysis.

  2. Demonstration of gastroesophageal reflux in children by radionuclide gastroesophagography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudd, T.G.; Christie, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-five infants and children with proved gastroesophageal reflux were studied by radionuclide gastroesophagography to determine its sensitivity in detecting reflux. Patients swallowed an inert radiotracer (Tc-99m sulfur colloid) and gamma camera images of the stomach and esophagus were made with and without abdominal pressure. The test was easy to perform and was well tolerated. Reflux was demonstrated in 20 patients (80%); this compared favorably with barium gastroesophagography

  3. Food-stimulated gastro-oesophageal reflux demonstrated by barium examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, T.; Thommesen, P.

    A prospective investigation on gastro-oesophageal reflux in 97 consecutive patients has been carried out by means of a barium examination employing the conventional method and after food stimulation. Gastro-oesophageal reflux was observed in 38 patients with and 15 patients without oesophageal symptoms. Gastro-oesophageal reflux was induced by two mechanisms, an active component after food stimulation and a passive component after the conventional method including respiratory manoeuvres and leg raising. In 32 patients, only the active component could be demonstrated and in 6 patients only the passive component. In the remaining 15 patients both active and passive components occurred. The clinical significance of the active and passive components in gastro-oesophageal reflux needs further investigation.

  4. Food-stimulated gastro-oesophageal reflux demonstrated by barium examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, T.; Thommesen, P.

    1986-01-01

    A prospective investigation on gastro-oesophageal reflux in 97 consecutive patients has been carried out by means of a barium examination employing the conventional method and after food stimulation. Gastro-oesophageal reflux was observed in 38 patients with and 15 patients without oesophageal symptoms. Gastro-oesophageal reflux was induced by two mechanisms, an active component after food stimulation and a passive component after the conventional method including respiratory manoeuvres and leg raising. In 32 patients, only the active component could be demonstrated and in 6 patients only the passive component. In the remaining 15 patients both active and passive components occurred. The clinical significance of the active and passive components in gastro-oesophageal reflux needs further investigation. (orig.)

  5. Increased proximal reflux in a hypersensitive esophagus might explain symptoms resistant to proton pump inhibitors in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohof, Wout O; Bennink, Roelof J; de Jonge, Hugo; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 30% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease have symptoms resistant to treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Several mechanisms such as esophageal hypersensitivity, increased mucosal permeability, and possibly the position of the gastric acid pocket might underlie a partial response to PPIs. To what extent these mechanisms interact and contribute to PPI-resistant symptoms, however, has not been investigated previously. In 18 gastroesophageal reflux disease patients (9 PPI responders and 9 PPI partial responders), esophageal sensitivity, mucosal permeability, and postprandial reflux parameters were determined during PPI use. Esophageal sensitivity for distension was measured by gradual balloon inflation at 5 and 15 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter. The mucosal permeability of 4 esophageal biopsy specimens per patient was determined in Ussing chambers by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance and transmucosal flux of fluorescein. Postprandial reflux parameters were determined using concurrent high-resolution manometry/pH impedance after a standardized meal. In addition, the acid pocket was visualized using scintigraphy. No difference in the rate of postprandial acid reflux, in the pH of the acid pocket (PPI responders 3.7 ± 0.7 vs PPI partial responders 4.2 ± 0.4; P = .54), or in the position of the acid pocket was observed in PPI partial responders compared with PPI responders. In addition, the permeability of the esophageal mucosa was similar in both groups, as shown by a similar transepithelial electrical resistance and flux of fluorescein. PPI partial responders had more reflux episodes with a higher mean proximal extent, compared with PPI responders, and were more sensitive to balloon distension, both in the upper and lower esophagus. PPI-resistant symptoms most likely are explained by increased proximal reflux in a hypersensitive esophagus and less likely by increased mucosal permeability or the position of

  6. Dilated intercellular space diameter as marker of reflux-related mucosal injury in children with chronic cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, O; Mancini, V; Thapar, N; Ribolsi, M; Emerenziani, S; de'Angelis, G; Bizzarri, B; Lindley, K J; Cicala, M

    2014-04-01

    The diagnostic corroboration of the relationship between gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic cough remains challenging. To compare oesophageal mucosal intercellular space diameter (ISD) in children with GERD, children with gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER)-related cough (GrC) and a control group, and to explore the relationship between baseline impedance levels and dilated ISD in children with GER-related cough. Forty children with GERD, 15 children with GrC and 12 controls prospectively underwent oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with oesophageal biopsies taken 2-3 cm above squamocolumnar junction. ISD were quantified using transmission electron microscopy. Impedance-pH monitoring with evaluation of baseline impedance in the most distal impedance channel was performed in both patient groups. A significant difference in mean ISD values was found between GrC patients (0.9 ± 0.2 μm) and controls (0.5 ± 0.2 μm, P reflux parameter. Finally, there was no correlation between ISD and distal baseline impedance values (r:-0.35; NS). In children with reflux-related cough, dilated intercellular space diameter appears to be an objective and useful marker of oesophageal mucosal injury regardless of acid exposure, and its evaluation should be considered for those patients where the diagnosis is uncertain. In children with reflux-related cough, baseline impedance levels have no role in identifying reflux-induced oesophageal mucosal ultrastructural changes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Comparative study of two modes of gastroesophageal reflux measuring: conventional esophageal pH monitoring and wireless pH monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimon Sobhi Azzam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Esophageal pH monitoring is considered to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal acid reflux. However, this method is very troublesome and considerably limits the patient's routine activities. Wireless pH monitoring was developed to avoid these restrictions. OBJECTIVE: To compare the first 24 hours of the conventional and wireless pH monitoring, positioned 3 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter, in relation to: the occurrence of relevant technical failures, the ability to detect reflux and the ability to correlate the clinical symptoms to reflux. METHODS: Twenty-five patients referred for esophageal pH monitoring and with typical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease were studied prospectively, underwent clinical interview, endoscopy, esophageal manometry and were submitted, with a simultaneous initial period, to 24-hour catheter pH monitoring and 48-hour wireless pH monitoring. RESULTS: Early capsule detachment occurred in one (4% case and there were no technical failures with the catheter pH monitoring (P = 0.463. Percentages of reflux time (total, upright and supine were higher with the wireless pH monitoring (P < 0.05. Pathological gastroesophageal reflux occurred in 16 (64% patients submitted to catheter and in 19 (76% to the capsule (P = 0.355. The symptom index was positive in 12 (48% patients with catheter pH monitoring and in 13 (52% with wireless pH monitoring (P = 0.777. CONCLUSIONS: 1 No significant differences were reported between the two methods of pH monitoring (capsule vs catheter, in regard to relevant technical failures; 2 Wireless pH monitoring detected higher percentages of reflux time than the conventional pH-metry; 3 The two methods of pH monitoring were comparable in diagnosis of pathological gastroesophageal reflux and comparable in correlating the clinical symptoms with the gastroesophageal reflux.

  8. Gastropharyngeal and gastroesophageal reflux in globus and hoarseness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C. F.; van Leeuwen, J. A.; Mathus-Vliegen, L. M.; Devriese, P. P.; Semin, A.; Tan, J.; Schouwenburg, P. F.

    2000-01-01

    The role of gastropharyngeal reflux in patients with globus pharyngeus and hoarseness remains unclear. To evaluate patients with complaints of globus, hoarseness, or globus and hoarseness combined for the presence of gastropharyngeal and gastroesophageal reflux. Prospective clinical cohort study of

  9. Current Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Nonerosive Reflux Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Lin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonerosive reflux disease (NERD is a distinct pattern of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. It is defined as a subcategory of GERD characterized by troublesome reflux-related symptoms in the absence of esophageal mucosal erosions/breaks at conventional endoscopy. In clinical practice, patients with reflux symptoms and negative endoscopic findings are markedly heterogeneous. The potential explanations for the symptom generation in NERD include microscopic inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity (stress and sleep, and sustained esophageal contractions. The use of 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring gives further insight into reflux characteristics and symptom association relevant to NERD. The treatment choice of NERD still relies on acid-suppression therapy. Initially, patients can be treated by a proton pump inhibitor (PPI; standard dose, once daily for 2–4 weeks. If initial treatment fails to elicit adequate symptom control, increasing the PPI dose (standard dose PPI twice daily is recommended. In patients with poor response to appropriate PPI treatment, 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring is indicated to differentiate acid-reflux-related NERD, weakly acid-reflux-related NERD (hypersensitive esophagus, nonacid-reflux-related NERD, and functional heartburn. The response is less effective in NERD as compared with erosive esophagitis.

  10. The relationship between helicobacter pylori infection and gastro-esophageal reflux disease

    OpenAIRE

    Batool M Mahdi

    2011-01-01

    Background : Gastro-esophageal reflux disease is a common condition, affecting 25%-40% of the population. Increasing attention has been paid to the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and reflux esophagitis. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between CagA+ H. pylori and endoscopically proven gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Patients and Methods: The study group included 60 hospital patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease between 2007 and 2009 ...

  11. Evaluation of prenatal hydronephrosis: novel criteria for predicting vesicoureteral reflux on ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nora G; Rushton, H Gil; Peters, Craig A; Groves, Danja S; Pohl, Hans G

    2014-09-01

    Radiographic evaluation for prenatal hydronephrosis often includes voiding cystourethrography to ascertain whether vesicoureteral reflux is present. We sought to determine whether use of voiding cystourethrography could be limited to those patients at greatest risk for vesicoureteral reflux. We hypothesized that vesicoureteral reflux could be predicted by findings on renal/bladder ultrasonography of hydroureter, renal dysmorphia and/or duplication. We reviewed the records of patients with prenatal hydronephrosis who underwent initial postnatal ultrasonography and voiding cystourethrography during a 3-year period. The presence of vesicoureteral reflux on voiding cystourethrogram was correlated to ultrasound findings, including hydronephrosis grade, presence of hydroureter, renal dysmorphia or duplication, with ultrasound considered positive for any of the latter 3 findings. Of 262 patients 47 (18%) had vesicoureteral reflux. Ultrasound was positive in 24 of 29 patients (83%) with high grade reflux and 12 of 18 (67%) with low grade reflux. If ultrasonography showed any of the 3 positive findings, the odds ratio of detecting vesicoureteral reflux was 8.07 (95% CI 3.86, 16.87). Using these criteria, among all cases of prenatal hydronephrosis 5 (2%) with high grade vesicoureteral reflux and 6 (2%) with low grade reflux would have been missed. Among the 47 cases of reflux overall 5 of 29 high grade (17%) and 6 of 18 low grade cases (33%) would have been missed. By using ultrasonography criteria of hydroureter, duplication and renal dysmorphia for patients with prenatal hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux can be detected more specifically. Using our criteria, 165 of 262 voiding cystourethrograms (63%) could have been avoided in patients with prenatal hydronephrosis during a 3-year period. Reducing these evaluations may decrease risks regarding radiation exposure, family anxiety and health care costs. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and

  12. Pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease: Current diagnosis and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a disorder difficult to diagnose and to treat. Due to the current definition of GERD, i.e. gastroesophageal reflux (GER) causing bothersome symptoms and/or complications, diagnosis is subject to broad interpretation. This thesis consists of studies

  13. Laparoscopic surgery for gastro-esophageal acid reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijven, Marlies P.; Gisbertz, Suzanne S.; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease is a troublesome disease for many patients, severely affecting their quality of life. Choice of treatment depends on a combination of patient characteristics and preferences, esophageal motility and damage of reflux, symptom severity and symptom correlation to acid

  14. Small volume acid reflux in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients with hiatal hernia is only detectable by pH-metry but not by multichannel intraluminal impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigt, J; Malfertheiner, P

    2013-07-01

    Until now, it is uncertain if the so-called pH-only reflux episodes that consist of a pH drop without evidence of retrograde bolus movement in multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII) represent reflux episodes or artifacts. Hiatal hernia (HH) may allow reflux of small volumes to occur that can be detected by pH-metry but not by MII. The aim was to search for a mechanism that can explain pH-only reflux, 20 patients (12 females and 8 males, median age 52 years, interquartile range [IQR]: 40.5-60.75 years) were investigated with MII-pH off PPI. Impedance and pH-metry data were analyzed separately. The differences in detection rate of acid reflux between pH-metry and MII were correlated with the presence of HH. In an in vitro experiment, MII-pH probes were flushed with citric acid in plastic tubes of different size with capillary diameter and diameters of 2.5 mm and 4.5 mm, while recording pH values and impedance. HH was present in six patients and absent in 14 patients. In patients with HH in comparison with patients with absent HH, the difference of acid reflux detection between pH-metry and MII is significantly higher (70%, IQR: 15-88% and 3.6%, IQR: 0-31%, respectively). In vitro all simulated reflux lead to a fall in pH whereas a corresponding decrease in impedance was only recognizable in the 4.5-mm plastic tubes. Acid reflux episodes in patients with HH are more frequently detected by pH-metry than by MII. Small volume reflux that does not lead to a decrease in impedance is the likely explanation for this phenomenon. © 2012 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  15. Endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux using calcium hydroxyl apatite in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavakoli Azin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection of biomaterial to suburetral region, using minimally invasive procedure, has become an interesting topic for urologists to treat vesicoureteral reflux. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of injecting newly introduced calcium hydroxyl apatite to suburetral region, for treating an experimentally induced vesicoureteral reflux in dogs. Findings Bilateral vesicoureteral refluxed (VUR mixed breed dogs (n = 12; 10-15 kg live weight, 3-6 months of age were selected for this study. The presence and grade of the reflux were determined using cystography. Accordingly, 6 dogs displayed grade 1 & 2 and the other 6 showed grade 3 & 4 bilateral VUR. Every single dog, with bilateral VUR, underwent endoscopic treatment and received an injection of calcium hydroxyl apatite (an Iranian made product into the left (treated side and an injection of the similar volume of normal saline in to the right (control side subureteric space. One week, 3 and 6 months after treatment, cystography was performed. On each occasion, 4 dogs were euthanized by gas inhalation and biopsy samples were collected for histopathological study from ureter, bladder, kidney, lung and spleen in order to investigate the biomaterial migration into different organs. Data were analyzed using Chi-squared test. In control sides, radiographs confirmed the same grade of VUR, found at the initiation of the study. VUR was resolved in 100% (6/6 of Grade 1 & 2 and 83.33% (5/6 of Grade 3 & 4 in treated side. Therefore, the total success rate of this study was 91.67% (11/12. Macroscopic examination of the vesicouretral region of the treated side revealed a firm and consistent biomaterial mass at the site of injection. Histological findings confirmed inflammation at treated side. In contrast, there was no tissue reaction on control side. There was no evidence for biomaterial migration in macroscopic and microscopic observations in this study. Conclusion In

  16. Association between follicular tracheitis and gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Melanie; Meier, Jeremy; Asfour, Fadi; Jackson, Daniel; Grimmer, J Fredrik; Muntz, Harlan R; Park, Albert H

    2016-03-01

    Follicular tracheitis (also known as tracheal cobblestoning) is an entity that is poorly described and of unclear significance. The objective of this study was to better define follicular tracheitis and determine the association between the clinical finding of follicular tracheitis on bronchoscopy and objective evidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Retrospective chart review of children with recurrent croup having undergone a rigid bronchoscopy and an investigation for gastroesophageal reflux between 2001 and 2013. 117 children with recurrent croup children age 6-144 months were included in the study. Follicular tracheitis was noted on 41% of all bronchoscopies. Fifty-nine percent of all children who underwent bronchoscopy were diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux on at least one investigation. Forty-nine of 117 children underwent a pH probe study, and 51% were found to have evidence of reflux on this study. Nine children were diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis. Three patients underwent a biopsy of the follicular tracheitis lesions, which revealed chronic inflammation. There was no evidence of an association between findings of follicular tracheitis and a positive test for gastroesophageal reflux (p=0.52) or a positive pH probe study (p=0.64). There was no association between follicular tracheitis and subglottic stenosis (p=0.33) or an history of asthma and/or atopy (p=0.19). In children with recurrent croup, follicular tracheitis remains an unspecific finding associated with an inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. if, when and how to treat gastro-oesophageal reflux

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    persistent occult gastro-oesophageal reflux; (iiz) persistence ... deterioration of bronchopulmonary disease. From this the reader ... problem by means of simple barium studies, to management ... Gastroesophageal reflux in the preterm infant.

  18. Diagnosis of intrarenal reflux and its role in pathogenesis of reflux nephropathy in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimatsu, Akiko [Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-06-01

    We compared newly developed radionuclide cystography with conventional contrast voiding cystography (VCG) with regard to their diagnostic usefulness of intrarenal reflux (IRR) in children. Based on the imaging findings, we assessed the role of IRR in the pathogenesis of reflux nephropathy (RN). Among the ureters which revealed IRR diagnosed by radionuclide cystography, 38.9% (7 out of 18 ureters) of the cases examined by VCG had IRR. In the case of VCG, the sensitivity and specificity of IRR detection were 33.3% and 100%, respectively. There was a statistical correlation between the presence/absence of IRR and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). RN was significantly correlated with advanced grade of VUR associated with IRR. Among 9 kidneys of the subjects who had suffered from urinary tract infection (UTI) only once, IRR was detected in 33.3% (3/9) and RN in 66.7% (2/3). From these findings, conventional contrast VCG is considered not effective for the diagnosis of IRR. Moreover, it is suggested that VUR complicated with IRR is deeply associated with the development of RN. In addition, it is suggested that UTI might be related to the onset of IRR. (author)

  19. Diagnosis of intrarenal reflux and its role in pathogenesis of reflux nephropathy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimatsu, Akiko

    2000-01-01

    We compared newly developed radionuclide cystography with conventional contrast voiding cystography (VCG) with regard to their diagnostic usefulness of intrarenal reflux (IRR) in children. Based on the imaging findings, we assessed the role of IRR in the pathogenesis of reflux nephropathy (RN). Among the ureters which revealed IRR diagnosed by radionuclide cystography, 38.9% (7 out of 18 ureters) of the cases examined by VCG had IRR. In the case of VCG, the sensitivity and specificity of IRR detection were 33.3% and 100%, respectively. There was a statistical correlation between the presence/absence of IRR and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). RN was significantly correlated with advanced grade of VUR associated with IRR. Among 9 kidneys of the subjects who had suffered from urinary tract infection (UTI) only once, IRR was detected in 33.3% (3/9) and RN in 66.7% (2/3). From these findings, conventional contrast VCG is considered not effective for the diagnosis of IRR. Moreover, it is suggested that VUR complicated with IRR is deeply associated with the development of RN. In addition, it is suggested that UTI might be related to the onset of IRR. (author)

  20. Upper aerodigestive tract disorders and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Andrea; Bianchini, Chiara; Zuolo, Michele; Feo, Carlo Vittorio

    2015-02-16

    A wide variety of symptoms and diseases of the upper aerodigestive tract are associated to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). These disorders comprise a large variety of conditions such as asthma, chronic otitis media and sinusitis, chronic cough, and laryngeal disorders including paroxysmal laryngospasm. Laryngo-pharyngeal reflux disease is an extraoesophageal variant of GORD that can affect the larynx and pharynx. Despite numerous research efforts, the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux often remains elusive, unproven and controversial, and its treatment is then still empiric. Aim of this paper is to review the current literature on upper aerodigestive tract disorders in relation to pathologic gastro-oesophageal reflux, focusing in particular on the pathophysiology base and results of the surgical treatment of GORD.

  1. PP-16 WEAK ACID REFLUX A TRIGGER FOR RECURRENT RESPIRATORY DISEASES IN CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostovski, Aco; Zdraveska, Nikolina

    2015-10-01

    The main advantage of multichannel intraluminar impedance (MII) compared with pH monitoring is its ability to detect both acid and non-acid gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and to determine the characteristics of reflux (liquid or gas). To compare the value of pH monitoring and MII for diagnosis of GER in children who present with refractory respiratory symptoms. A prospective study that included 37 patients, aged 4.25 ± 3.15 years, using combined MII-pH monitoring was performed. Patients were referred for investigation because of suspected GER as the etiology of recurrent respiratory diseases, including recurrent obstructive bronchitis, recurrent pneumonia, laryngitis, and chronic cough. We analyzed the percentage of time during which the pH was less than 4, the numeric and percentile values of acid, weak acid, and non-acid reflux episodes, and the values of liquid and mixed reflux. Diagnostic values were determined separately for pH monitoring and MII using Fisher's exact test. Reflux was detected in 31 patients. pH monitoring was positive in 20 patients (% time during which pH acid and weak acid reflux episodes, 3 had only acid reflux, 8 had weak acid reflux, and 3 had non-acid reflux. Sixteen patients had mixed (liquid and gas) reflux, and 14 had both liquid and mixed reflux. This study suggests that significant numbers of GER include weak acid reflux that cannot be detected by pH probes alone. The weak acid reflux could be a trigger for recurrent respiratory symptoms. Combining pH with MII monitoring is a valuable diagnostic method for diagnosing GER in children.

  2. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy to assess the severity of gastroesophageal reflux disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menin, R.A.; Malmud, L.S.; Petersen, R.P.; Maier, W.P.; Fisher, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-six (36) patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux were studied. Symptoms of heartburn, regurgitation, and dysphagia were scored as to their severity and compared to quantitative tests of gastroesophageal reflux. Patients were studied with the acid reflux test, fiberoptic endoscopy, exophageal mucosal biopsy with a pinch forceps, esophageal manometry, and radioisotopic gastroesophgeal scintigraphy. Symptoms were scored according to an arbitrary grading system as mild, moderate, or severe. There were significant correlations between symptoms scores and both the degree of endoscopic esophagitis and the gastroesophageal reflux indices as measured by the radioisotopic scintiscan, but not with the degree of histologic esophagitis or lower esophageal sphincter pressure. Review of the findings suggest the following profile for patients who might require antireflux surgery: severe symptoms; presence of endoscopic esophagitis; resting lower esophageal sphincter pressure below 10 mmHg; and gastroesophageal reflux index above 10%

  3. Acid reflux directly causes sleep disturbances in rat with chronic esophagitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Nakahara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD is strongly associated with sleep disturbances. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI therapy improves subjective but not objective sleep parameters in patients with GERD. This study aimed to investigate the association between GERD and sleep, and the effect of PPI on sleep by using a rat model of chronic acid reflux esophagitis. METHODS: Acid reflux esophagitis was induced by ligating the transitional region between the forestomach and the glandular portion and then wrapping the duodenum near the pylorus. Rats underwent surgery for implantation of electrodes for electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings, and they were transferred to a soundproof recording chamber. Polygraphic recordings were scored by using 10-s epochs for wake, rapid eye movement sleep, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. To examine the role of acid reflux, rats were subcutaneously administered a PPI, omeprazole, at a dose of 20 mg/kg once daily. RESULTS: Rats with reflux esophagitis presented with several erosions, ulcers, and mucosal thickening with basal hyperplasia and marked inflammatory infiltration. The reflux esophagitis group showed a 34.0% increase in wake (232.2±11.4 min and 173.3±7.4 min in the reflux esophagitis and control groups, respectively; p<0.01 accompanied by a reduction in NREM sleep during light period, an increase in sleep fragmentation, and more frequent stage transitions. The use of omeprazole significantly improved sleep disturbances caused by reflux esophagitis, and this effect was not observed when the PPI was withdrawn. CONCLUSIONS: Acid reflux directly causes sleep disturbances in rats with chronic esophagitis.

  4. Influence of Cisapride on food-stimulated gastro-oesophageal reflux: A radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelineck, J.; Aksglade, K.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Thommesen, P.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of Cisapride on food-stimulated gastro-oesophageal reflux meachanisms was studied in a double-blind cross-over investigation in 24 consecutive patients selected by endoscopy, 12 with microscopical evidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux and 12 with additional macroscopic oesoghagitis. 63% had food-stimulated gastro-oesophageal reflux, and Cisapride significantly reduced the tendency to gastro-oesophageal reflux and mucosal contact time between gastric content and the oesophageal mucosa in 73% of these patients. It is concluded that Cisapride could be valuable in the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux. (orig.) [de

  5. Effectiveness of a transluminal endoscopic fundoplication for the treatment of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephanie; Jarboe, Marcus D; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

    2012-03-01

    Although laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication is the standard surgical treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), surgical complications and post-operative pain are not uncommon, especially for those patients who are neurologically impaired (NI) or undergoing re-operative procedures. To address this challenge, we utilized the transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) procedure to treat GERD via an endoscopic approach. Eleven TIF patients were included with an average age of 16.5 ± 5.1 years and weight of 45.7 ± 13.3 kg. NI was present in nine patients (82%), including a predominant number of patients with a history of seizures and gastrostomy tube feeding. Five patients had a history of a previous failed fundoplication requiring a re-operative procedure (45%). A retrospective chart review evaluated patient outcomes and post-operative complications. The length of the TIF procedure was 113.3 ± 31.3 min with minimal blood loss. The length of stay was 1.2 ± 0.4 days, although one TIF patient was re-admitted for endoscopic clipping for gastric bleeding. At a follow-up of 8.2 ± 4.2 months, TIF effectively resolved GERD in 10 out of 11 children. A few of the patient's families reported complaints of gagging or dysphagia (30%, 3/11); however it was difficult to determine if complaints were due the procedures itself or baseline NI. All patients who had a follow-up upper GI or pH probe study showed no evidence of reflux. One TIF patient had no recurrent reflux but required an esophago-gastric disconnection for retching. The TIF procedure can complement the current surgically and medically available options for children with GERD, especially in complicated patients such as those with NI. However, complications including hemorrhage emphasize the potential risk of the procedure. Further studies with more patients and a longer follow-up course must be conducted to better assess efficacy.

  6. Acid reflux directly causes sleep disturbances in rat with chronic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Kenichi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Tsukahara, Takuya; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshio; Urade, Yoshihiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is strongly associated with sleep disturbances. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy improves subjective but not objective sleep parameters in patients with GERD. This study aimed to investigate the association between GERD and sleep, and the effect of PPI on sleep by using a rat model of chronic acid reflux esophagitis. Acid reflux esophagitis was induced by ligating the transitional region between the forestomach and the glandular portion and then wrapping the duodenum near the pylorus. Rats underwent surgery for implantation of electrodes for electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings, and they were transferred to a soundproof recording chamber. Polygraphic recordings were scored by using 10-s epochs for wake, rapid eye movement sleep, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. To examine the role of acid reflux, rats were subcutaneously administered a PPI, omeprazole, at a dose of 20 mg/kg once daily. Rats with reflux esophagitis presented with several erosions, ulcers, and mucosal thickening with basal hyperplasia and marked inflammatory infiltration. The reflux esophagitis group showed a 34.0% increase in wake (232.2±11.4 min and 173.3±7.4 min in the reflux esophagitis and control groups, respectively; preflux esophagitis, and this effect was not observed when the PPI was withdrawn. Acid reflux directly causes sleep disturbances in rats with chronic esophagitis.

  7. Gastroesophageal reflux disease - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptic esophagitis - children; Reflux esophagitis - children; GERD - children; Heartburn - chronic - children; Dyspepsia - GERD - children ... GERD. Certain factors can lead to GERD in children, including: Birth defects, such as hiatal hernia , a ...

  8. Detection of endogenous DNA adducts, O-carboxymethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine and 3-ethanesulfonic acid-2'-deoxycytidine, in the rat stomach after duodenal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Masaru; Totsuka, Yukari; Nishimura, Koichi; Mukaisho, Ken-Ichi; Chen, Kuan-Hao; Hattori, Takanori; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2008-09-01

    The endogenous DNA adducts O(6)-carboxymethyl-deoxyguanosine (O(6)-CM-dG) and 3-ethanesulfonic acid-deoxycytidine (3-ESA-dC) are produced from N-nitroso bile acid conjugates, such as N-nitrosoglycocholic acid (NO-GCA) and N-nitrosotaurocholic acid (NO-TCA), respectively. Formation of these DNA adducts in vivo was here analyzed by 32P-postlabeling in the glandular stomach of rats subjected to duodenal content reflux surgery. In this model, all duodenal contents, including bile acid conjugates, flow back from the jejunum into the gastric corpus. The levels of O(6)-CM-dG found at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery were 40.9 +/- 9.4 and 56.3 +/- 3.2 per 10(8) nucleotides, respectively, whereas the sham operation groups had values of 5.8 +/- 2.3 and 5.9 +/- 0.5 per 10(8) nucleotides. Moreover, adduct spots corresponding to 3-ESA-dC were detected in both duodenal reflux and sham operation groups and levels in the duodenal reflux groups were around four-fold elevated at 11.2 +/- 1.0 and 8.9 +/- 1.0 per 10(8) nucleotides after 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. When the duodenal reflux animals were treated with a nitrite trapping agent, thiazolidine- 4-carboxylic acid (thioproline, TPRO), the levels of O(6)-CM-dG and 3-ESA-dC were reduced to the same levels as in the sham operation animals. These observations suggest that NO-TCA and NO-GCA are formed by nitrosation of glycocholic acid and taurocholic acid, respectively, and these nitroso compounds produce DNA adducts in the glandular stomach of rats subjected to duodenal content reflux surgery.

  9. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and non-asthma lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Morehead

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD is a common disorder in Western countries, and its relationship to airways disorders (e.g. asthma has been well established. Lung diseases other than asthma have also been associated with GERD, but the nature and scope of this relationship has not been fully defined. Diseases that have been associated with GERD include bronchiolitis syndromes, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, scleroderma and nontubercular mycobacterial infection. Diagnostic evaluation centres upon proving both reflux and pulmonary aspiration, which may be accomplished in some cases by lung biopsy. However, in many cases a compatible clinical and radiographic picture coupled with proof of proximal reflux by combined oesophageal probe testing may suffice for a provisional diagnosis and allow institution of anti-reflux measures. Proton-pump inhibitors are the medications of choice for GERD; other interventions shown to reduce reflux are weight loss, elevation of the head of the bed and avoidance of recumbency after meals. However, acid suppression therapy does not address non-acid reflux that may be important in disease pathogenesis in select patients, and lifestyle modifications often fail. Laparoscopic fundoplication is the procedure of choice for medically refractory GERD with excellent short-term results with respect to respiratory symptoms associated with GERD; however, long-term studies document a significant percentage of patients requiring ongoing acid suppression therapy.

  10. [Clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with pathologic chronic gastroesophageal reflux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csendes, A; Burdiles, P; Maluenda, F; Cortés, C; Korn, O; Rojas, J; Tepper, P; Huertas, C; Sagastume, H; Puente, G; Quezada, F; Csendes, P

    1998-07-01

    Sixty percent of adults has typical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux in Chile. To report the clinical and laboratory features of patients with gastroesophageal reflux. Five hundred thirty-four patients (255 male) with gastroesophageal reflux were included in a prospective protocol that included clinical analysis, manometry and endoscopy in all patients, barium swallow in 427, scintigraphy in 195, acid reflux test in 359, 24 h pH in 175, and differential potential of gastroesophageal mucosa in 73 patients. There was no correlation between the severity of symptoms and the endoscopical severity. Patients with Barret esophagus were 12 years older, were male in a greater proportion and had a higher proportion of manometrically incompetent sphincters than patients with esophageal reflux but without esophagitis or with erosive esophagitis. Severity of acid reflux, measured with 24 h pH monitoring was proportional to the endoscopical damage of the mucosa. There was a close relationship between the mucosal change limit determined with differential potentials and with endoscopy. No short esophagi were found. Patients with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux must be assessed using several objective measures to determine the severity of their pathological alterations.

  11. Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication offers high patient satisfaction with relief of extraesophageal symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakita, Steven; Villadolid, Desiree; Thomas, Ashley; Bloomston, Mark; Albrink, Michael; Goldin, Steven; Rosemurgy, Alexander

    2006-03-01

    Nissen fundoplication is applied for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), usually because of symptoms of esophageal injury. When presenting symptoms are extraesophageal, there is less enthusiasm for operative control of reflux because of concerns of etiology and efficacy. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication in palliating extraesophageal symptoms of GERD. Patients were asked to score their symptoms before and after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication on a Likert scale (0 = never/none to 5 = always/every time I eat). A total of 322 patients with extraesophageal symptoms (asthma, cough, gas/bloat, chest pain, and odynophagia) of 4 to 5 were identified and analyzed. After fundoplication, all extraesophageal symptom scores improved (P < 0.0001 for all, Wilcoxon matched-pairs test). Likewise, postoperative symptoms were noted to be greatly improved or resolved in 67 per cent to 82 per cent of patients for each symptom. Furthermore, after fundoplication, patients were less likely to modify their dietary (82% vs 49%) or sleeping habits (70% vs 28%) to avoid initiating/ exacerbating symptoms. Although extraesophageal symptoms are conventionally thought to be inadequately palliated by surgery, this study documents excellent relief of extraesophageal symptoms after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication, denotes high patient satisfaction, and encourages application of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication.

  12. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy and endoscopy in the diagnosis of esophageal reflux and esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, W.P.; Van der Schaaf, A.; Grieve, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The value of gastroesophageal (G/E) scintigraphy in the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux was assessed in 51 subjects, who presented with heartburn and had endoscopic evidence of reflux esophagitis. G/E scintigraphy was done using /sup 99m/Tc sulfur-colloid in acidified orange juice. The G/E reflux index was calculated according to previous reports. The mean (+/- SD) G/E reflux index in 18 patients with severe esophagitis and 30 patients with moderate esophagitis were 1.6% (+/- 1.5) and 3.2% (+/- 5.0), respectively. The mean G/E reflux index in 14 control subjects was 2.4% (+/- 1.1). There was no significant difference between the esophagitis and control groups. Furthermore, if 4% was taken as upper limit of normal, this will include almost all the esophagitis patients and controls. It is concluded that the G/E reflux index based on G/E scintigraphy is of little value in the diagnosis of G/E reflux

  13. Incidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux in geriatric clinical patients - a radiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brackins-Romero, J.; Bruening, B.; Beyer, H.K.

    1984-05-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux is obviously caused by an insufficiency of the dilatable lower end of the oesophagus. The physiological pressure acting on it corresponds to 15-30 mm Hg so that the gastric juice is prevented from entering the oesophagus. Reflux is associated with a reduction of that pressure. Many causes may be responsible, although hiatal hernia, where confirmed, will only play a secondary part. In half of the 74 examined elderly patients, gastro-oesophageal reflux was confirmed by radiology. About half of these suffered also from hiatal hernia which was a sliding hernia in 75 per cent of the cases. In about 25 per cent of the patients suffering from gastro-oesophageal reflux, signs of oesophagitis were discovered by radiology. There was no correlation between overweight and the incidence of reflux, but hiatus hernia and a positive Broca test were distinctly related to one another. In patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux, vomiting as a key symptom was more frequently confirmed than in patients without reflux.

  14. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy and endoscopy in the diagnosis of esophageal reflux and esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, W.P.; Van der Schaaf, A.; Grieve, J.C.

    1985-04-01

    The value of gastroesophageal (G/E) scintigraphy in the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux was assessed in 51 subjects, who presented with heartburn and had endoscopic evidence of reflux esophagitis. G/E scintigraphy was done using /sup 99m/Tc sulfur-colloid in acidified orange juice. The G/E reflux index was calculated according to previous reports. The mean (+/- SD) G/E reflux index in 18 patients with severe esophagitis and 30 patients with moderate esophagitis were 1.6% (+/- 1.5) and 3.2% (+/- 5.0), respectively. The mean G/E reflux index in 14 control subjects was 2.4% (+/- 1.1). There was no significant difference between the esophagitis and control groups. Furthermore, if 4% was taken as upper limit of normal, this will include almost all the esophagitis patients and controls. It is concluded that the G/E reflux index based on G/E scintigraphy is of little value in the diagnosis of G/E reflux.

  15. Idiopathic gastroesophageal reflux disease in an adult horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Shannon J; Johnson, Philip J; David, Andrew; Cook, Cristi Reeves

    2004-06-15

    Chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed in a 22-year-old female Tennessee Walking Horse that had signs of bruxism and ptyalism. Esophageal ulceration was detected via endoscopy. Compared with the damage to the proximal portions of the esophagus, the severity of the ulceration increased toward the gastroesophageal junction. Esophageal ulceration attributable to chronic gastric acid reflux is usually secondary to pyloric outflow obstruction in horses. In the horse of this report, there was no evidence of either a chronic pyloric or duodenal obstruction that could have resulted in esophageal ulceration. Esophageal ulceration in this horse was attributed to gastroesophageal reflux disease, a common condition in humans in which the underlying abnormality is functional incompetence of the gastroesophageal junction. Treatment is directed at decreasing gastric acidity and protecting the ulcerated mucosa. In the horse of this report, treatment was unsuccessful and the horse was euthanatized; a physical cause of gastroesophageal reflux disease was not identified during an extensive postmortem examination.

  16. Gastroesophageal reflux disease - unit description, diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Raban

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many GPs are increasingly dealing with patients complaining of ailments likely to suggest gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD. These symptoms include heartburn, abdominal pain, and a feeling of esophageal reflux (regurgitation. GERD is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases that gastroenterologists meet in their practice (1, 2. In North America the problem is affected from 18.1% to even 27.8% of the population. The situation is similar in Europe, where the proportion of people with reflux symptoms is in the range of 8.8% - 25.9%. Among European countries, the prevalence of GERD symptoms is higher in the north of the continent than in the south. The growing problem of overweight and obesity that makes GERD more and more recognized in the population of children and adolescents (3 is a worrying fact. Interestingly, reflux-related complaints are much less frequent in eastern Asia, affecting only 2.5% -7.8% of the population (4.

  17. Endoscopic augmentation of the lower esophageal sphincter for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease: Multicenter study of the gatekeeper reflux repair system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fockens, P.; Bruno, M. J.; Gabbrielli, A.; Odegaard, S.; Hatlebakk, J.; Allescher, H. D.; Rösch, T.; Rhodes, M.; Bastid, C.; Rey, J.; Boyer, J.; Muehldorffer, S.; van den Hombergh, U.; Costamagna, G.

    2004-01-01

    Background and Study Aims: The safety and effectiveness of the Gatekeeper Reflux Repair System (Medtronic Europe, Tolochenaz, Switzerland) in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was evaluated. This new, reversible treatment modality involves the endoscopic introduction of

  18. The Effects of Switching to Vonoprazan, a Novel Potassium-Competitive Acid Blocker, on Gastric Acidity and Reflux Patterns in Patients with Erosive Esophagitis Refractory to Proton Pump Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hiroshi; Kanamori, Atsushi; Kano, Chise; Hashimura, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Kei; Tsujimae, Masahiro; Yoshizaki, Tetsuya; Momose, Kenji; Obata, Daisuke; Eguchi, Takaaki; Fujita, Mikio; Okada, Akihiko

    2017-01-01

    The effects of vonoprazan and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in patients with reflux esophagitis (RE) have not yet been compared using multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (MII-pH). A total of 8 patients with persistent gastric mucosal injury, despite completing an 8-week standard PPI therapy, were enrolled in the study. While they were on standard PPI therapy, the baseline values of reflux parameters, holding time ratio (HTR) of gastric pH >4, and esophageal pH 4 HTR was observed, from 26.5 to 78.0% (p = 0.029). A reduction in esophageal pH acid clearance time and the total number of reflux events, including acid and proximal reflux events, were significantly reduced. Vonoprazan may be a better therapy for the treatment of patients with PPI-refractory RE. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Does gastroesophageal reflux increase chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliaz, Sinem; Iliaz, Raim; Onur, Seda Tural; Arici, Serpil; Akyuz, Umit; Karaca, Cetin; Demir, Kadir; Besisik, Fatih; Kaymakoglu, Sabahattin; Akyuz, Filiz

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been investigated less than asthma-GER. We aimed to evaluate the presence of GER in patients with COPD and its impact on exacerbations. We included 24 patients with stable mild-moderate stage COPD and 19 volunteers as the control group. We conducted a gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptom questionnaire, gastroscopy, manometry, and an ambulatory 24-h pH-impedance study. According to the GERD questionnaire, only 5 (20.8%) patients with COPD had typical GER symptoms. According to the 24-h pH-impedance study, the mean DeMeester score (DMS) was 38.1 ± 34.6 in the COPD group and 13.3 ± 16.8 in the control group (p = 0.01). The acid reflux (DMS > 14.7) rate was higher in patients with COPD than in controls (73.9% vs 26.3%, p = 0.01). The symptom association probability positivity rate was 17.4% (n = 4) in the COPD group, which was similar to the controls (p = 0.11). The mean proximal extension rate of reflux (Z 17 cm) was 26.4 ± 12.9% in the COPD group. The proximal extent of reflux was positively correlated with the number of COPD exacerbations per year (p = 0.03, r = 0.448). In the motility results, only 2 (20%) patients in the control group had a minor motility disorder. Seventeen (70.8%) patients in the COPD group had a minor motility disorder, and 4 (16.7%) had major motility disorders (p gastroesophageal reflux was frequent in patients with COPD, but only a quarter had typical reflux symptoms. The proximal extent of reflux may trigger frequent exacerbations of COPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Is scintigraphy of value in the diagnosis of gastrooesophageal reflux disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellen, G.; Brudin, L.; Haakansson, H.O. (Centrallasarettet, Kalmar (Sweden))

    1991-01-01

    110 patients with suspected oesophageal symptoms were investigated by means of oesophageal endoscopy (OE), 24-h pH- metry, and oesophageal scintigraphy (ES). When 24-h pH-metry formed the basis for diagnosis of gastrooesophageal reflux disease (GERD), the sensitivity for ES at abdominal compression was 64%, but no statistically significant differences were found among erect refluxers, supine refluxers, and comibined refluxers. Only 4% of the GERD patients had pathologic oesophageal clearing at ES. The more severe the macroscopic oesophagitis found by OE, the more pronounced were the abnormal findings at 24-h pH-metry and at ES with abdominal compression. Increased postprandial reflux was associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux and hiatal hernia at ES with abdominal compression and the most severe form of oesophagitis, respectively. It is concluded that ES has too low sensitivity to be recommended as a screening test for GERD. Nevertheless, the specificity of 76% can to some extent help us to rule out GERD in patients. 19 refs., 7 tabs.

  1. The Changing Impact of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akst, Lee M; Haque, Omar J; Clarke, John O; Hillel, Alexander T; Best, Simon R A; Altman, Kenneth W

    2017-03-01

    The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) database was utilized to understand evolving national trends in diagnosis and management of reflux. The NAMCS database was queried for visits related to gastroesophageal reflux diagnosis and management. Analysis performed for time periods 1998-2001, 2002-2005, and 2006-2009 was weighted to provide national estimates of care. Results were compared to previously reported time periods from 1990 to 2001 to evaluate patterns in overall visits, age and ethnicity of patients, provider type, and prescriptions provided. The number of ambulatory visits for reflux increased from 8 684 000 in 1998-2001 to 15 750 000 in 2006-2009. Visits increased across each time period for internal medicine, family, and gastroenterology physicians. Among otolaryngologists, absolute visits increased from 1998-2001 to 2002-2005 but decreased in 2006-2009; difference between these time periods did not reach statistical significance. From 1998-2001 to 2006-2009, reflux medication use increased 233%, with continuing trends toward increased proton pump inhibitor use. Reflux visits have increased across all demographic subgroups studied. Knowledge of these trends may inform further paradigm shifts in diagnosis and management of reflux.

  2. Pyelonephritis, renal scarring, and reflux nephropathy: a pediatric urologist's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Edwin A.

    2008-01-01

    Imaging of children with a clinical diagnosis of pyelonephritis is performed to characterize the extent of the infection, to identify associated renal injury and to uncover risk factors for future infections and renal damage. Although there is general agreement regarding the need for parenchymal imaging and the need to exclude processes that are either functionally or anatomically obstructive, there is controversy regarding the need for routine cystography, especially when parenchymal involvement has not been documented. A protocol that limits the use of cystography for evaluation of urinary tract infections must assume that the diagnosis of reflux is at least of variable clinical significance. It is now clear that vesicoureteral reflux and reflux nephropathy represent a diverse population that includes both congenital and acquired processes. MR imaging will improve our understanding of vesicoureteral reflux, pyelonephritis and renal scarring and might help us to identify and manage those patients most at risk for recurrent infections and renal injury. To recognize the potential contributions of this newer imaging technique it is helpful to look at our understanding of the pathophysiology of pyelonephritis, reflux and reflux nephropathy. (orig.)

  3. The Role of Esophageal PH-metri Test on Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Setyawati, Katharina; Abdullah, Murdani; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Fauzi, Achmad; Makmun, Dadang; Simadibrata, Marcellus; Manan, Chudahman; Rani, Abdul Aziz

    2008-01-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease is a pathological condition of esophagus which is caused by gastric content reflux into esophagus. There is an increased prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease. The roles of esophageal pH-metry in clinical application include looking for abnormal acid exposure on esophagus with no abnormality found in endoscopy; evaluating patients following the anti-reflux surgery who are being suspected for abnormal esophageal reflux; evaluating patients with normal ...

  4. Proton Pump Inhibitors in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Friend or Foe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, C Prakash

    2017-09-01

    Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been redefined, in light of recent advances highlighting GERD phenotypes that respond to PPIs, and fresh revelations of potential risks of long-term PPI therapy. Erosive esophagitis predicts excellent response to PPI therapy, but non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) with abnormal reflux parameters on ambulatory reflux monitoring also demonstrates a similar response. In contrast, response is suboptimal in the absence of abnormal reflux parameters. In this setting, if an alternate appropriate indication for PPI therapy does not coexist, risks may outweigh benefits of PPI therapy. Adverse events from long-term PPI therapy continue to be reported, most based on association rather than cause-and-effect. Appropriate indications need to be established before embarking on long-term PPI therapy. Future research will define true risks of long-term PPI therapy, and develop alternate management options for acid peptic diseases.

  5. Correlation of obstructive sleep apnoea and laryngopharyngeal reflux: phmetry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhennawi, D M; Ahmed, M R; Abou-Halawa, A S

    2016-12-01

    To study the correlation of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). A descriptive study. Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt. 62 patients with polysomnography confirmed OSA. Patients were evaluated with ambulatory 24-h double channel pH monitoring. Mean reflux symptom index in the study group was 9 ± 5.5, and it was > 13 in all patients with severe OSA. Signs of LPR reflux were present in 34 (55%) patients. Abnormal reflux was detected in the distal oesophagus in 41 patients (66%) and in the proximal oesophagus in 21 patients (34%). Patients with severe OSA had significantly higher nocturnal LPR reflux episodes compared to patients with mild disease (P .05). LPR is common in patients with OSA. Patients with severe OSA have significantly higher nocturnal LPR. This should be considered when treating this group of patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. How to differentiate non-erosive reflux disease from functional heartburn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Mei Yun

    2012-12-01

    Heartburn is a common symptom in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Endoscopic examination can differentiate between reflux esophagitis and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), but not between NERD and functional heartburn. With the development of new techniques, more NERD patients could be identified among those previously diagnosed with functional heartburn. Most patients with NERD, however, could be identified based on their clinical characteristics and response to proton pump inhibitors and/or integrated anti-gastroesophageal reflux therapy. © 2012 The Author. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2012 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. The oesophagus and cough: laryngo-pharyngeal reflux, microaspiration and vagal reflexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is generally considered to be one of the commonest causes of chronic cough, however randomised controlled trials of proton pump inhibitors have often failed to support this notion. This article reviews the most recent studies investigating the mechanisms thought to link reflux and cough, namely laryngo-pharyngeal reflux, micro-aspiration and neuronal cross-organ sensitisation. How recent evidence might shed light on the failure of acid suppressing therapies and suggest new approaches to treating reflux related cough are also discussed. PMID:23590893

  8. TREATMENT FOR GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE AMONG CHILDREN, SUFFERING FROM JUVENILE ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Bzarova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the evaluation results of esomeprazol efficacy in the complex therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease among 152 children aged between 3 and 18, suffering from juvenile arthritis. The treatment scheme used in treatment induced the remission of gastro esophageal reflux disease among 45% of patients, conduced to considerable decrease of the esophagus affect intensity among 53% of patients, epithelized erosions of the mucous coat of esophagus among 30 of 32 children. The medication did not cause any clinically significant side responses among the cured children (even younger ones and may be applied to treat gastro esophageal reflux disease among the patients, suffering from juvenile arthritis.Key words: gastroesophageal reflux disease, children, treatment, reflux, esomeprazol, esophagitis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

  9. Vesicoureteral reflux and continuous prophylactic antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR management must be tailored based on the risk for further infections and renal scarring, gender, likelihood of spontaneous resolution, and parental preferences. Because we now understand that sterile VUR is benign and most reflux spontaneously resolves over time, the initial approach in majority of children is non-surgical with continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP and correction of bladder and bowel dysfunction. Despite increasing utilization of CAP over the past four decades, the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis has been questioned due to conflicting results of studies plagued with design flaws and inadequate subject sample size. The Randomized Intervention for Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux (RIVUR trial, which was designed to address many of the limitations from previous studies, provided much needed answers. In this review, we sought to describe the controversy surrounding VUR management, highlight the results of RIVUR trial, and discuss how the RIVUR findings impact our understanding of CAP in the management of VUR.

  10. Hiatial hernia in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, B.; Petersen, H.; Myrvold, H.E.; Grette, K.; Roeysland, P.; Halvorsen, T.

    1986-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and radiologic examination were performed in 101 patients with symptoms strongly suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. Hiatus hernia (HH) was found in 50 patients diagnosed by radiography or endoscopy, or both, in 22, 19, and 9 patients respectively. Severe endoscopic esophagitis (grades III and IV) was found more often in the patients with HH than in those without. The same was true for the early positive timed acid perfusion tests. Furthermore, the patients with HH more often had reflux by the standard acid reflux test (42 og 50 versus 28 of 51, gastroesophageal scintigraphy (47 of 50 versus 40 of 51; and radiography (20 of 50 versus 2 of 51; than the patients without HH. The results show that severe GER disease can occur without an associated HH and indicate that patients with symptoms of GER disease and associated HH are likely to have a more severe GER disease than those without HH.

  11. Contemporary Management of Vesicoureteral Reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiyev, Perviz; Burgu, Berk

    2017-04-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) remains the most interesting topic of pediatric urology due to the dynamic nature of recent controversial publications. Starting from the need for a diagnosis to the necessity and effectiveness of treatment in preventing scars, VUR remains in the mist. Although recent strong evidence helped as fog lights in this blurriness, more data are required for achieving crystal clearance. This article aims to summarize and discuss the current state of the evidence regarding VUR management. To provide a comprehensive synthesis of the main evidence in the literature on the current and contemporary management of VUR in children; to discuss conservative management with continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP), especially its effectiveness and safety; and to review the current evidence regarding contemporary surgical techniques. We conducted a nonsystematic review of the literature using the recent guidelines and PubMed database regarding surveillance, CAP, endoscopic, open, laparoscopic, and robot-assisted ureteral surgical treatment. Despite the striking results of previous studies revealing the ineffectiveness of CAP, more recent studies and their two fresh meta-analyses revealed a positive role for CAP in the contemporary management of VUR. One of the most interesting findings is the redundant rising of endoscopic correction and its final settlement to real indicated cases. Patient individualization in the contemporary management of VUR seems to be the keyword. The evidence in the literature showed a safe and effective use of laparoscopic and robot-assisted laparoscopic reimplantations. The goal of VUR treatment is to prevent the occurrence of febrile urinary tract infections and formation of scars in the renal parenchyma. The approach should be risk adapted and individualized according to current knowledge. Individual risk is influenced by the presentation age, sex, history of pyelonephritis and renal damage, grade of reflux, bladder bowel

  12. Counter-current flow limitation at hot leg pipe during reflux condensation cooling after small-break LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Yong; Ha, Sang Jun; Jo, Yung Jo; Jun, Hwang Yong

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of hot leg flooding is evaluated in case of a small-break loss-of-coolant accident in Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) operating at the core power of 3983 MW normally. The vapor and liquid velocities in hot leg and steam generator tubes are calculated during reflux condensation cooling with the accident scenarios of three typical break sizes, 0.13 %, 1.02 % and 10.19 % cold leg break. The calculated results are compared with the existing flooding correlations. It is predicted that the hot leg flooding is excluded when two steam generators are available. It is also shown that the possibility of hot leg flooding under the operation with one steam generator is very low. Therefore, it can be said that the occurrence of hot leg flooding is unexpected when the reflux condensation cooling is maintained in steam generator tubes

  13. Parent's Take Home Guide to GERD (Gastroesophogeal Reflux Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or recurrent pneumonia •Hoarseness •Asthma If you have concerns, speak to your healthcare provider. SICK AND TIRED OF BEING SICK (13+ years) Reflux and your Teen Gastroesophageal Reflux (GER) occurs during or after a ...

  14. [Intraesophageal pH in children with suspected reflux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calva-Rodríguez, R; García-Aranda, J A; Bendimez-Cano, A; Estrada-Saavedra, R

    1989-05-01

    We study 22 children with clinical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. The main manifestations were: frequent vomiting, failure to thrive and repetitive pneumonia. In all of them we perform barium esophagogram (SEGD) with fluoroscopy, esophageal manometry (EM) and a four hours intraesophageal pH measurement. Thirteen of the twenty two children present a pathologic reflux (ERGE); in 16 we found SEGD that show reflux; three of them had an abnormal EM, the other 13 were normal. Seven patients showed alteration of the intraesophageal pH measurement. In conclusion the intraesophageal pH measurement in short period of time (4 hours) is a good method in the diagnosis of patients with ERGE.

  15. Impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease on daily life: the Systematic Investigation of Gastrointestinal Diseases in China (SILC epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Xiaoping

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease imposes a significant burden of illness in Western populations. However, data on the impact of reflux symptoms on daily life in Asian populations are scarce. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of GERD (defined on the basis of symptoms on health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL in individuals from five regions in China, as part of the Systematic Investigation of Gastrointestinal Diseases in China (SILC study. Methods In total, 18 000 residents were randomly selected from across five regions of China and asked to complete a general information questionnaire and a Chinese version of the Reflux Disease Questionnaire (RDQ. A randomly selected subsample of one-fifth of subjects (20% from each region completed Chinese versions of the 36-item self-administered (SF-36 questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS questionnaire. Reflux symptoms were defined as the presence of heartburn and/or regurgitation. Symptom-defined GERD was diagnosed as mild heartburn and/or regurgitation ≥2 days per week, or moderate/severe heartburn and/or regurgitation ≥1 day a week, based on the Montreal Definition of GERD for population-based studies. Results The response rate was 89.4% for the total sample (16 091/18 000, and for the 20% subsample (3219/3600. Meaningful impairment was observed in all 8 SF-36 dimensions in participants with symptom-defined GERD, in 7 of the 8 SF-36 dimensions in participants with troublesome reflux symptoms, and in 6 of the 8 SF-36 dimensions in participants with reflux symptoms below the threshold for symptom-defined GERD. Meaningful daytime sleepiness was also observed in each of these groups. The proportion of individuals reporting troublesome symptoms increased as reflux symptom frequency and severity approached the threshold for symptom-defined GERD, and this was associated with concomitant decreases in all HRQoL measures. Troublesome symptoms were reported by 68.2% (75

  16. [Comparison of surgical patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsolt, Simonka; Paszt, Attila; Géczi, Tibor; Abrahám, Szabolcs; Tóth, Illés; Horváth, Zoltán; Pieler, József; Tajti, János; Varga, Akos; Tiszlavicz, László; Németh, István; Izbéki, Ferenc; Rosztóczy, András; Wittmann, Tibor; Lázár, György

    2014-10-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the only known precursor of adenocarcinoma occuring in the lower third of the esophagus. According to statistics, severity and elapsed time of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are major pathogenetic factors in the development of Barrett's esophagus. In a retrospective study between 2001 and 2008, we compared the preoperative results (signs and sympthoms, 24 hour pH manometry, esophageal manometry, Bilitec) and treatment efficacy of 176 GERD patients and 78 BE patients, who have undergone laparoscopic Nissen procedure for reflux disease. The two groups of patients had similar demographic features, and elapsed time of reflux sympthoms were also equal. Both groups were admitted for surgery after a median time of 1.5 years (19.87 vs. 19.20 months) of ineffective medical (proton pump inhibitors) treatment. Preoperative functional tests showed a more severe presence of acid reflux in the BE group (DeMeester score 18.9 versus 41.9, p reflux complaints (group I: 73%, group II: 81% of patients), LES functions improved (17.58 vs.18.70 mmHg), and the frequency and exposition of acid reflux decreased (DeMeester score 7.73 vs. 12.72). The severity of abnormal acid reflux occuring parallel with the incompetent function of the damaged LES triggers not only inflammation in the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ), but also metaplastic process, and the development of Barrett's esophagus. Laparoscopic Nissen procedure for reflux disease can further improve outcome among patients with GERD not responding to conservative therapy.

  17. Evaluation of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in wheezy infants using 24-h oesophageal combined impedance and pH monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Ahmed; El-Desoky, Tarek; Fathi, Khalid; Fawzi Elkashef, Wagdi; Zaki, Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is incriminated as a cause of non-asthmatic infantile wheeze. To date, no diagnostic test is considered standard for GERD-related airway reflux diagnosis. Oesophageal combined multiple channel intraluminal impedance and pH (MII-pH) monitoring is proposed to be a sensitive tool for evaluation of all GERD including infantile wheeze. We aimed to determine the GERD prevalence amongst wheezy infants in the first year of life using combined MII-pH versus pH monitoring alone and evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of objective MII-pH monitoring parameters in GERD-associated infantile wheeze diagnosis compared to those of lipid-laden macrophage index (LLMI). Thirty-eight wheezy infants below 1year of age were evaluated for GERD using oesophageal combined MII-pH monitoring and LLMI. Totally, 60.5% of cases had abnormal MII-pH; only 7.9% of them had abnormal pH monitoring. LLMI was significantly higher in wheezy infants with abnormal MII-pH than infants with normal MII-pH monitoring (112±88 versus 70±48; P=0.036). The current definitions of abnormal MII-pH study, reflux index≥10% and distal reflux episodes≥100, had low sensitivity (23%) but high specificity (100% and 96%, respectively) in GERD-related aspiration diagnosis defined by LLMI≥100. Using ROC curves, bolus contact time≥2.4% and proximal reflux episodes≥46 had 61% and 54% sensitivity and 64% and 76% specificity, respectively, in GERD-related aspiration diagnosis. Combined MII-pH is superior to pH monitoring in reflux-associated infantile wheeze diagnosis. Objective data including proximal reflux episodes and bolus contact time should be combined with the current parameters used in reflux-associated infantile wheeze diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. New insights in gastroesophageal reflux, esophageal function and gastric emptying in relation to dysphagia before and after anti-reflux surgery in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M. J.; Loots, C. M.; Benninga, M. A.; Omari, T. I.; van Wijk, M. P.

    2013-01-01

    In children with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease refractory to pharmacological therapies, anti-reflux surgery (fundoplication) may be a treatment of last resort. The applicability of fundoplication has been hampered by the inability to predict which patient may benefit from surgery and which

  19. Role of gastroesophageal reflux disease in lung transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathorn, Kelly E; Chan, Walter W; Lo, Wai-Kit

    2017-01-01

    Lung transplantation is one of the highest risk solid organ transplant modalities. Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and lung transplant outcomes, including acute and chronic rejection. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology, evaluation, and management of GERD in lung transplantation, as informed by the most recent publications in the field. The pathophysiology of reflux-induced lung injury includes the effects of aspiration and local immunomodulation in the development of pulmonary decline and histologic rejection, as reflective of allograft injury. Modalities of reflux and esophageal assessment, including ambulatory pH testing, impedance, and esophageal manometry, are discussed, as well as timing of these evaluations relative to transplantation. Finally, antireflux treatments are reviewed, including medical acid suppression and surgical fundoplication, as well as the safety, efficacy, and timing of such treatments relative to transplantation. Our review of the data supports an association between GERD and allograft injury, encouraging a strategy of early diagnosis and aggressive reflux management in lung transplant recipients to improve transplant outcomes. Further studies are needed to explore additional objective measures of reflux and aspiration, better compare medical and surgical antireflux treatment options, extend follow-up times to capture longer-term clinical outcomes, and investigate newer interventions including minimally invasive surgery and advanced endoscopic techniques. PMID:28507913

  20. The gastric accommodation response to meal intake determines the occurrence of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations and reflux events in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, A; Altan, E; Tack, J

    2014-04-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux (GER), the retrograde flow of gastric contents into the esophagus is a physiologic phenomenon, which can evoke symptoms and/or lesions in the esophagus (=gastro-esophageal reflux disease or GERD). Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) reduce gastric acidity; however, as they are unable to control transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs), the main mechanism for reflux in GERD, they do not abolish reflux. TLESRs occur predominantly in the postprandial period, and they are believed to be triggered by gastric distention. Gastric accommodation (GA) is the physiologic response to gastric distention and serves to prevent a rise in gastric wall tension during food intake. We aimed to study the relationship between GA and TLESRs, as they both are triggered by gastric distention. We studied 12 GERD patients (average age 37 years [range 18-62], 7m/5f) and nine healthy volunteers (average age 27 years [range 22-36], 2m/7f) using high resolution manometry-impedance measurement before and after a mixed meal challenge. We determined the number of TLESRs (with or without reflux) and measured pre- and postprandial IGP. The change in IGP between the pre- and postprandial period (ΔIGP) is used as surrogate for GA. We also measured LES pressure before and after the meal and calculated the change (ΔLESp). There were no statistical differences between pre- and postprandial IGP in GERD and healthy volunteers and similarly, there was no significant difference between pre- and postprandial LES pressures in GERD patients and healthy volunteers. The number of TLESRs (with or without reflux) was similar in GERD and healthy volunteers. More importantly, we did observe a negative correlation between ΔIGP and the number of TLESRs, irrespective of whether they were associated with reflux or not, in the GERD patients (without reflux r = -0.67, p = 0.017; with reflux r = -0.81, p = 0.0014). The same observations were found in healthy volunteers, where ΔIGP and

  1. Risks and benefits of antireflux operations in neurologically impaired children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgstein, E. S.; Heij, H. A.; Beugelaar, J. D.; Ekkelkamp, S.; Vos, A.

    1994-01-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) in neurologically impaired children often causes feeding problems and complications of oesophagitis and is frequently resistant to medical treatment. Fifty neurologically impaired children underwent anterior gastropexy as anti-reflux operation, combined with

  2. Incidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux in geriatric clinical patients - a radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackins-Romero, J.; Bruening, B.; Beyer, H.K.

    1984-01-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux is obviously caused by an insufficiency of the dilatable lower end of the oesophagus. The physiological pressure acting on it corresponds to 15-30 mm Hg so that the gastric juice is prevented from entering the oesophagus. Reflux is associated with a reduction of that pressure. Many causes may be responsible, although hiatal hernia, where confirmed, will only play a secondary part. In half of the 74 examined elderly patients, gastro-oesophageal reflux was confirmed by radiology. About half of these suffered also from hiatal hernia which was a sliding hernia in 75 per cent of the cases. In about 25 per cent of the patients suffering from gastro-oesophageal reflux, signs of oesophagitis were discovered by radiology. There was no correlation between overweight and the incidence of reflux, but hiatus hernia and a positive Broca test were distinctly related to one another. In patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux, vomiting as a key symptom was more frequently confirmed than in patients without reflux. (orig./WU) [de

  3. Use of acid-suppressive therapy before anti-reflux surgery in 2922 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lødrup, A; Pottegård, A; Hallas, J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend that patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease are adequately treated with acid-suppressive therapy before undergoing anti-reflux surgery. Little is known of the use of acid-suppressive drugs before anti-reflux surgery. AIM: To determine the use of proton pump...... inhibitors and H2 -receptor antagonists in the year before anti-reflux surgery. METHODS: A nationwide retrospective study of all patients aged ≥18 undergoing first-time anti-reflux surgery in Denmark during 2000-2012 using data from three different sources: the Danish National Register of Patients......, the Danish National Prescription Register, and the Danish Person Register. RESULTS: The study population thus included 2922 patients (median age: 48 years, 55.7% male). The annual proportion of patients redeeming ≥180 DDD of acid-suppressive therapy increased from 17.0% 5 years before anti-reflux surgery...

  4. Persistent gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms despite proton pump inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Daphne; How, Choon How; Ang, Tiing Leong

    2016-10-01

    About one-third of patients with suspected gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) do not respond symptomatically to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Many of these patients do not suffer from GERD, but may have underlying functional heartburn or atypical chest pain. Other causes of failure to respond to PPIs include inadequate acid suppression, non-acid reflux, oesophageal hypersensitivity, oesophageal dysmotility and psychological comorbidities. Functional oesophageal tests can exclude cardiac and structural causes, as well as help to confi rm or exclude GERD. The use of PPIs should only be continued in the presence of acid reflux or oesophageal hypersensitivity for acid reflux-related events that is proven on functional oesophageal tests. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  5. Ureteroneocystostomy after failed dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer injection for vesicoureteral reflux treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Pinto, João; Osório, Angélica; Pereira, Joana; Sousa, Catarina; de Castro, João Luís Ribeiro; Réis, Armando

    2013-10-01

    To report our experience of open ureteroneocystostomy after failed endoscopic treatment. Clinical charts of 787 children who entered our dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (DxHA) endoscopic injection program for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) treatment between May 2000 and December 2009 were reviewed. Fifty-one of these patients were submitted to open ureteroneocystostomy for complete resolution of VUR. Twenty-eight patients (55%) were female. Median age at surgery was 65 months (range: 26-182). Median time going from first endoscopic injection until open surgery was 13 months (range 1-58). Surgical ureteral reimplantation was bilateral in 62.7% of the cases. Of a total of 83 operated ureters, nine were duplex ureters, nine were megaureters, six were ectopic, and two had periureteral diverticulum. Mean operative time was 70 min (range 45-120 min). There were no intra-operative complications. Follow-up VCUG showed complete resolution of VUR in 98% of patients. There was only one right-sided grade III VUR that persisted after bilateral reimplantation. It resolved with a single subureteral DxHA injection. Ureteroneocystostomy after a failed endoscopic treatment can achieve successful results in a high percentage of patients with minimal complications. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Surgical reintervention after antireflux surgery for gastroesophageal reflux disease: a prospective cohort study in 130 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furnée, Edgar J. B.; Draaisma, Werner A.; Broeders, Ivo A. M. J.; Smout, Andre J. P. M.; Gooszen, Hein G.

    2008-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: Surgical reintervention after antireflux surgery for gastroesophageal reflux disease is required in 3% to 6% of patients. The subjective outcome after reintervention has been reported in several studies, but objective results after these subsequent operations have rarely been published.

  7. [The characteristics of esophagogastric junction contractile index in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease or functional heartburn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K; Duan, L P; Ge, Y; Xia, Z W; Xu, Z J

    2016-04-01

    To study the role of esophagogastric junction contractile index (EGJ-CI) in evaluating the function of anti-reflux barrier, and in differentiating patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) from those with functional heartburn (FH). A total of 115 patients presenting heartburn were enrolled in the study from January 2012 to June 2015.All subjects had completed Gerd-Q questionnaire and undergone gastroscopy, 24-hour pH-impedance monitoring and esophageal high-resolution manometry. GERD patients were divided into as reflux esophagitis, acid-nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) and weakly acid-NERD groups. Patients with normal esophageal mucosa, normal acid exposure and negative proton pump inhibitor test were enrolled in FH group. EGJ-CI (mmHg·cm) as well as EGJ rest pressure and 4s integrated relaxation pressure (IRP 4s) were measured. Among the 115 patients, 18 were reflux esophagitis [(49.0±18.9) years, M∶F=10∶8], 25 were acid-NERD [(48.7±14.4) years, M∶F=13∶12], 37 were weakly acid-NERD [(52.0±14.8) years, M∶F=15∶22] and 35 were FH [(53.6±14.8), M∶F=8∶27]. No differences of Gerd-Q scores were noticed between the four groups. (1)Negative correlations were demonstrated between EGJ-CI and esophageal acid exposure time (r=-0.283, P=0.002), EGJ-CI and acid reflux events (r=-0.233, P=0.012), EGJ-CI and weakly acid reflux events (r=-0.213, P=0.022), EGJ-CI and non-acid reflux events (r=-0.200, P=0.032). (2)The value of EGJ-CI was significantly higher in FH patients than in the three subgroups of GERD(all P<0.01). EGJ rest pressure of FH group was higher than that of acid-NERD (P<0.01). IRP 4s in acid-NERD group was lower than that of FH and weakly acid-NERD (P<0.05). (3)The area under curve (AUC) of EGJ-CI was higher than that of EGJ-CIT, EGJ rest pressure or IRP 4s(0.686 vs 0.678, 0.641 and 0.578). The cut-off value of EGJ-CI to differentiate GERD from FH was 9.74 mmHg·cm with sensitivity 82.86% and specificity 51.52%. The EGJ-CI values are

  8. Evaluating the autonomic nervous system in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Ju; Shu, Chih-Hung; Chou, Kun-Ta; Wang, Yi-Fen; Hsu, Yen-Bin; Ho, Ching-Yin; Lan, Ming-Ying

    2013-06-01

    The pathogenesis of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) remains unclear. It is linked to but distinct from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which has been shown to be related to disturbed autonomic regulation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether autonomic dysfunction also plays a role in the pathogenesis of LPR. Case-control study. Tertiary care center. Seventeen patients with LPR and 19 healthy controls, aged between 19 and 50 years, were enrolled in the study. The patients were diagnosed with LPR if they had a reflux symptom index (RSI) ≥ 13 and a reflux finding score (RFS) ≥ 7. Spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis was used to assess autonomic function. Anxiety and depression levels measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) were also conducted. In HRV analysis, high frequency (HF) represents the parasympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system, whereas low frequency (LF) represents the total autonomic activity. There were no significant differences in the LF power and HF power between the 2 groups. However, significantly lower HF% (P = .003) and a higher LF/HF ratio (P = .012) were found in patients with LPR, who demonstrated poor autonomic modulation and higher sympathetic activity. Anxiety was also frequently observed in the patient group. The study suggests that autonomic dysfunction seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of LPR. The potential beneficial effect of autonomic nervous system modulation as a therapeutic modality for LPR merits further investigation.

  9. Esophageal scintigraphy and pH monitoring in adults with gastroesophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouin, H.; Chamouard, P.; Baumann, R. and others

    1987-10-01

    Thirty-seven adults with gastroesophageal reflux were explored by oesophageal scintigraphy and pH monitoring (three hours postprandial). Scintigraphy was less frequently positive than pH test in gastroesophageal reflux (81% versus 57%) with a significant difference. It is suggested that postprandial pH monitoring is reliable in the initial assessment of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux.

  10. [Influence of chest physiotherapy on gastro-œsophageal reflux in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reychler, G; Jacques, L; Arnold, D; Scheers, I; Smets, F; Sokal, E; Stephenne, X

    2015-05-01

    Chest physiotherapy is regularly prescribed for children, particularly in cystic fibrosis. Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in this disease and is associated with certain chest physiotherapy manoeuvres. To evaluate the influence of two chest physiotherapy techniques on gastro-oesophageal reflux in children. Twenty-nine children were investigated by routine pHmetry. During the examination, they performed two chest physiotherapy manoeuvres in a seated position for 10 minutes each with a 5 minutes rest between them. The two manoeuvres used were a slow expiration technique (ELPr) and positive expiratory pressure (PEP). It was a prospective study and the order of manoeuvres was randomised. The pH traces were analysed blindly when all the studies had been completed. In the sample, 21% of children had gastro-oesophageal reflux during the physiotherapy session. No relationship was found between reflux during physiotherapy and pathological reflux (P=0.411) nor the physiotherapy technique used (P=0.219). The use of these two chest physiotherapy techniques in children in a seated position can produce gastro-oesophageal reflux. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The relationship between helicobacter pylori infection and gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Batool M

    2011-03-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease is a common condition, affecting 25%-40% of the population. Increasing attention has been paid to the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and reflux esophagitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between CagA+ H. pylori and endoscopically proven gastro-esophageal reflux disease. The study group included 60 hospital patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease between 2007 and 2009 as compared with 30 healthy patients from a control group that was age and sex matched. Helicobacter pylori CagA+ was identified by an immunological test (Immunochromatography test) (ACON, USA). Helicobacter pyloriCagA+ was present in 42/60 (70%) of the patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease and in 11/30 (36.6%) patients in the control group (p=0.002). The Odds ratio = 0.8004 with 95% Confidence Interval = from 0.3188 to 2.0094. The relative risk=1.35 that indicates an association between Helicobacter pylori and disease. The presence of Helicobacter pylori is significantly increased in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease as compared with the control group.

  12. Is this a reflux patient or is it a patient with functional dyspepsia with additional reflux symptoms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funch-Jensen, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Patients with pyrosis or regurgitation as the dominating symptoms have gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). However, patients with more atypical symptoms may also suffer from it. The disease is usually chronic and patients who have additional oesophagitis are at risk of developing complicati......Patients with pyrosis or regurgitation as the dominating symptoms have gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). However, patients with more atypical symptoms may also suffer from it. The disease is usually chronic and patients who have additional oesophagitis are at risk of developing...

  13. Experimental model of gastroesophageal reflux in rats Modelo experimental de refluxo gastroesofágico em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Vieira Gaia Filho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model of gastroesophageal reflux in rats. METHODS: Sixty Wistar rats underwent surgery and were assigned to one of the three groups of twenty animals each. The animals in group A underwent total esophageal myectomy and, in group (B, underwent partial myectomy. The third group was the control group (C. A contrast radiographic study of the esophagus was performed to evaluate gastroesophageal reflux. The anatomopathological study of the esophagus was used to evaluate esophagitis. RESULTS: During the 30-day postoperative follow-up, 14 animals in group A presented with reflux of barium in the esophagus. The presence of barium in the esophagus was observed in 7 animals in group B and in 2 animals in the control group. The result of the histopathology examination was controversial. A marked weight loss in the rats undergoing total myectomy was observed, however there was no significant statistical difference. CONCLUSION: Total myectomy in the lower third of the esophagus caused gastroesophageal reflux in the majority of the animals.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo experimental de refluxo gastroesofágico em ratos. MÉTODOS: Sessenta ratos, Wistar, foram operados e distribuídos em três grupos de vinte animais. Os animais foram submetidos a miectomia total do esôfago em um grupo(A, e em outro grupo foram submetidos a miectomia parcial(B. O terceiro grupo foi o grupo controle(C. Para avaliar o refluxo gastroesofágico realizou-se o estudo radiológico contrastado do esôfago. O estudo anátomo-patológico do esôfago foi utilizado para avaliar esofagite. RESULTADOS: Durante os 30 dias de pós-operatório, 14 animais do grupo A apresentaram refluxo de Bário no esôfago. Em 07 animais do grupo B e em 02 do grupo controle, foram observados a presença de Bário no esôfago. O resultado do histopatológico foi controverso. Observou-se perda ponderal importante nos ratos submetidos a miectomia total, porém não existiu

  14. Laparoscopic anterior versus posterior fundoplication for gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Muhammed Ashraf; Subramanya, Manjunath S; Hossain, Md Belal; Yunus, Rossita Mohamad; Khan, Shahjahan; Memon, Breda

    2015-04-01

    Although laparoscopic posterior fundoplication (LPF) i.e., Nissen or Toupet have the proven efficacy for controlling gastro-esophageal reflux surgically, there remain problems with postoperative dysphagia and gas bloat syndrome. To decrease some of these postoperative complications, laparoscopic anterior fundoplication (LAF) was introduced. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to investigate the merits and drawbacks of LPF versus LAF for the treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). A search of Medline, Embase, Science Citation Index, Current Contents, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and the Cochrane Database identified all RCTs comparing different types of LPF and LAF published in the English Language between 1990 and 2013. The meta-analysis was prepared in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. Data was extracted and analyzed on ten variables which include dysphagia score, heartburn rate, redo operative rate, operative time, overall complications, rate of conversion to open, Visick grading of satisfaction, overall satisfaction, length of hospital stay, and postoperative 24-h pH scores. Nine trials totaling 840 patients (anterior = 425, posterior = 415) were analyzed. There was a significant reduction in the odds ratio for dysphagia in the LAF group compared to the LPF group. Conversely, significant reduction in the odds ratio for heartburn was observed for LPF compared to LAF. Comparable effects were noted for both groups for other variables which include redo surgery, operating time, overall complications, conversion rate, Visick's grading, patients' satisfaction, length of hospital stay, and postoperative 24-h pH scores. Based on this meta-analysis, LPF compared to LAF is associated with significant reduction in heartburn at the expense of higher dysphagia rate on a short- and medium-term basis. We therefore

  15. Efficacy of a potassium-competitive acid blocker for improving symptoms in patients with reflux esophagitis, non-erosive reflux disease, and functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaoka, Daisuke; Nagahara, Akihito; Hojo, Mariko; Matsumoto, Kenshi; Ueyama, Hiroya; Matsumoto, Kohei; Izumi, Kentaro; Takeda, Tsutomu; Komori, Hiroyuki; Akazawa, Yoichi; Shimada, Yuji; Osada, Taro; Watanabe, Sumio

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of a potassium-competitive acid blocker (PCAB) named vonoprazan (VPZ) for improving symptoms in patients with reflux esophagitis (RE), non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), and functional dyspepsia (FD). A hospital-based, retrospective study of outpatients in our department (Department of Gastroenterology, University of Juntendo, Tokyo, Japan) between March 2015 and August 2016 was performed. The patients who were experiencing heartburn, acid regurgitation, gastric pain, and/or a heavy feeling in the stomach of at least moderate severity at baseline were treated with 20 mg VPZ once daily for 4 weeks. The patients completed the global overall symptom (GOS) scale to determine their symptom severity at baseline and after the 4 week treatment period. The proportions of patients with RE, NERD, and FD achieving improvement of their symptoms, defined as a GOS scale score of 1 ('no problem') or 2 ('minimal problem'), were evaluated. During 4 weeks of VPZ therapy, changes in the gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) score, which was defined as the total points for heartburn and acid regurgitation on the GOS scale in patients with RE and NERD, and in the FD score, which was defined as the total points for gastric pain and a heavy feeling in the stomach on the GOS scale in patients with FD, were also evaluated. A total of 88 eligible cases were included in the present study, comprising 20 patients with RE, 25 patients with NERD, and 43 patients with FD. The rates of symptomatic improvement in patients with RE, NERD, and FD were 75.0, 60.0, and 48.8%, respectively. For the patients who were first administered VPZ, the rates of symptomatic improvement were 90.9, 66.7, and 58.8% in patients with RE, NERD, and FD, respectively. For those patients who were resistant to 8 weeks of proton pump inhibitor therapy, the rates of symptomatic improvement were 55.6, 53.8, and 42.3% in patients with RE, NERD, and FD, respectively

  16. Esophageal scintigraphy and pH monitoring in adults with gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouin, H.; Chamouard, P.; Baumann, R.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-seven adults with gastroesophageal reflux were explored by oesophageal scintigraphy and pH monitoring (three hours postprandial). Scintigraphy was less frequently positive than pH test in gastroesophageal reflux (81% versus 57%) with a significant difference. It is suggested that postprandial pH monitoring is reliable in the initial assessment of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux [fr

  17. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease and exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebrigtsen, Truls S; Marott, Jacob L; Vestbo, Jørgen; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Hallas, Jesper; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that gastro-esophageal reflux disease is a risk factor for exacerbations in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Among 9622 participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we identified 1259 individuals with COPD and information on gastro-esophageal reflux disease and the regular use of acid inhibitory treatment. These individuals were followed for 5 years with regard to medically treated COPD exacerbations, which we defined as a short course treatment with oral corticosteroids alone or in combination with antibiotics. We applied a multivariable Cox regression analysis with adjustment for well-established risk factors associated with COPD exacerbations or gastro-esophageal reflux disease, including COPD severity, and symptoms. Individuals with COPD and gastro-esophageal reflux disease had more chronic bronchitis (31 vs 21%, P = 0.004), more breathlessness (39 vs 22%, P gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Among individuals with COPD and gastro-esophageal reflux disease, those who did not use acid inhibitory treatment regularly had an increased risk of COPD exacerbations during follow-up, hazards ratio (HR): HR = 2.7 (1.3-5.4, P = 0.006). Individuals with gastro-esophageal reflux disease, using acid inhibitory treatment regularly did not have an increased risk of exacerbations, HR = 1.2 (0.6-2.7, P = 0.63). Gastro-esophageal reflux disease was associated with an increased risk of medically treated exacerbations of COPD, but only in those individuals who did not use acid inhibitory treatment regularly. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  18. Gastroesophageal reflux disease. Scintigraphic, endoscopic and histologic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kault, B.; Halvorsen, T.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Myrvold, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Radionucleotide scintigraphy and esophagoscopy with biopsy were carried out in 101 patients with symptoms strongly suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. GER was visualized by scintigraphy in 86.1% of the patients. Endoscopic and histologic esophagitis were found in 68.1% and 58.4% of the patients, respectively, whereas both examinations taken together showed evidence of esophagitis in 82%. Histologic evidence of esophagitis was found in nearly all patients with severe endoscopic changes, and in 43.7% of the patients with no endoscopic abnormality. Scintigraphic reflux was demonstrated more frequently in the patients with severe endoscopic esophagitis (97.5%) than in those with no or only mild endoscopic changes (78.6%). Scintigraphic reflux was found in 91.5% and 78.5% of the patients with and without histologic evidence of esophagitis. 15 of the 18 patients (83.3%) without endoscopic and histologic abnormalities in the esophagus had scintigraphic evidence of reflux. The present study strongly supports the clinical significance of scintigraphy in GER disease and confirms that esophageal biopsy specimens increase the sensitivity of endoscopic evaluation. 31 refs.

  19. The extraction of total lipids from parsley: Petroselinum crispum (mill. Nym. Ex. A.W. Hill seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mihajlo Z.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of extraction of total lipids from ground parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill. Nym. ex. A.W. Hill seeds with a mixture of ethanol or methanol with non-polar organic solvents, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene and petroleum ether, at various temperatures were studied. The maceration technique with reflux was used. The kinetic parameters were determined in extraction kinetic equations, as well as the optimal operation conditions for total lipids extraction. The maximum total lipids yield under optimal conditions was 33.7 g per 100 g of dry parsley seeds. Nine lipid fractions of the total lipids were separated by thin layer chromatography among which were phospholipids, sterol, mono-, di- and triacylglycerol, free fatty acids and carbohydrates.

  20. How useful is gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy in suspected childhood aspiration?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, H.D.; Adams, J.C.; Hayden, C.K.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    It has been suggested that gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy might be useful in assisting one in determining therapy for patients suspected of aspirating or becoming apneic secondary to gastroesophageal reflux. This, however, has not been our experience and in reviewing 23 patients with recurrent pneumonia and/or apnea who had gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy, we were able to detect aspiration in only one. This was especially significant since 13 (59%) of these patients had demonstrable reflux, and of these, eight were treated successfully for suspected aspiration even though none was demonstrated isotopically. To be sure, the demonstration of pulmonary aspiration with gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy had little influence on patient selection and response to therapy. For this reason we feel there is little justification in depending on the GRS for the specific purpose of trying to document pulmonary aspiration in infants and children who are refluxing. One of the more serious complications of gastroesophageal (GE) reflux is aspiration leading to recurrent pulmonary infections and/or apnea. However, it always has been difficult to demonstrate actual aspiration into the lungs, and to be sure, barium studies of the upper GI tract seldom reveal this complication. Recently, however, considerable interest has been generated in gastroesophageal scintigraphy (GRS) as a possible means of documenting such aspiration. Rationale for this stems from the fact that suspected patients can be studied over a longer period of time and in addition, delayed and overnight images can be obtained. However, our experience does not support GRS as being an adequate method for demonstrating aspiration. (orig.)

  1. How useful is gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy in suspected childhood aspiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawcett, H.D.; Adams, J.C.; Hayden, C.K.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1988-05-01

    It has been suggested that gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy might be useful in assisting one in determining therapy for patients suspected of aspirating or becoming apneic secondary to gastroesophageal reflux. This, however, has not been our experience and in reviewing 23 patients with recurrent pneumonia and/or apnea who had gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy, we were able to detect aspiration in only one. This was especially significant since 13 (59%) of these patients had demonstrable reflux, and of these, eight were treated successfully for suspected aspiration even though none was demonstrated isotopically. To be sure, the demonstration of pulmonary aspiration with gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy had little influence on patient selection and response to therapy. For this reason we feel there is little justification in depending on the GRS for the specific purpose of trying to document pulmonary aspiration in infants and children who are refluxing. One of the more serious complications of gastroesophageal (GE) reflux is aspiration leading to recurrent pulmonary infections and/or apnea. However, it always has been difficult to demonstrate actual aspiration into the lungs, and to be sure, barium studies of the upper GI tract seldom reveal this complication. Recently, however, considerable interest has been generated in gastroesophageal scintigraphy (GRS) as a possible means of documenting such aspiration. Rationale for this stems from the fact that suspected patients can be studied over a longer period of time and in addition, delayed and overnight images can be obtained. However, our experience does not support GRS as being an adequate method for demonstrating aspiration.

  2. Impact of gastro-esophageal reflux on mucin mRNA expression in the esophageal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roon, Aafke H C; Mayne, George C; Wijnhoven, Bas P L; Watson, David I; Leong, Mary P; Neijman, Gabriëlle E; Michael, Michael Z; McKay, Andrew R; Astill, David; Hussey, Damian J

    2008-08-01

    Changes in the expression of mucin genes in the esophageal mucosa associated with uncomplicated gastro-esophageal reflux disease have not been evaluated even though such changes could be associated with reflux-induced mucosal damage. We therefore sought to identify reflux-induced changes in mucin gene expression using a cell line and biopsies from the esophageal mucosa in patients with and without reflux. MUC-1, MUC-3, MUC-4, and MUC-5AC gene expressions were investigated in the HET-1A cell line following exposure to acid (pH 4) and/or bile (120 muM of a bile salt milieu), and in esophageal mucosal biopsies from controls, subjects with non-erosive gastro-esophageal reflux, and subjects with reflux associated with ulcerative esophagitis (erosive). The mucosal biopsies were also evaluated for IL-6 mRNA expression (inflammatory marker) and CK-14 mRNA expression (mucosal basal cell layer marker). Gene expression was determined using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. In the cell line studies, there were differences in mRNA levels for all of the evaluated mucins following treatment with either acid or the acid and bile combination. In the studies which evaluated tissue specimens, IL-6 and CK-14 mRNA levels increased according to degree of reflux pathology. The expression of MUC-1 and MUC-4 in mucosa from patients with erosive reflux was lower than in subjects without reflux and in patients with non-erosive reflux, whereas the expression of MUC-3 and MUC-5AC was increased (although these differences did not reach significance at p reflux groups. The correlation between IL-6 and MUC-3 was significant within the control and erosive reflux groups, and the correlation between MUC-1 and MUC-5AC was significant within the erosive reflux group. The results of this study suggest that the profile of mucin expression in the esophageal mucosa is influenced by the pH and composition of the gastro-esophageal reflux. Further work should explore the

  3. PFP total operating efficiency calculation and basis of estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINCLAIR, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Total Operating Efficiency Calculation and Basis of Estimate document is to provide the calculated value and basis of estimate for the Total Operating Efficiency (TOE) for the material stabilization operations to be conducted in 234-52 Building. This information will be used to support both the planning and execution of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Stabilization and Deactivation Project's (hereafter called the Project) resource-loaded, integrated schedule

  4. Radiologic findings after fundoplication compared with a pH reflux test and symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, S.G.; Soekjer, H.; Johansson, K.E.; Tibbling, L.

    In a follow-up after fundoplication, 61 patients underwent a double contrast examination of the stomach and a radiologic examination to detect any gastro-oesophageal reflux. The radiologic findings were compared with pH reflux test and symptoms. Gastro-oesophageal reflux was found in 7 patients at radiologic examination. None of these patients had an adequate fundoplication at a double contrast examination of the stomach and all had symptoms indicating reflux. Recurrence of gastro-oesophageal reflux may be shown at the radiologic examination and predicted by the morphologic appearances at the double contrast examination.

  5. Radiologic findings after fundoplication compared with a pH reflux test and symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransson, S.G.; Soekjer, H.; Johansson, K.E.; Tibbling, L.; Linkoeping Univ.; Linkoeping Univ.

    1986-01-01

    In a follow-up after fundoplication, 61 patients underwent a double contrast examination of the stomach and a radiologic examination to detect any gastro-oesophageal reflux. The radiologic findings were compared with pH reflux test and symptoms. Gastro-oesophageal reflux was found in 7 patients at radiologic examination. None of these patients had an adequate fundoplication at a double contrast examination of the stomach and all had symptoms indicating reflux. Recurrence of gastro-oesophageal reflux may be shown at the radiologic examination and predicted by the morphologic appearances at the double contrast examination. (orig.)

  6. COMPARISON OF SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF LEVOSULPIRIDE AND ITOPRIDE IN TREATMENT OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ibrahim Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD is a common condition caused by reflux of the liquid acidic contents of the stomach into the oesophagus. Prokinetic medications can be used to treat or control the disease. Such medications can have mild-toserious adverse effects. Levosulpiride and itopride are two such medications, which are used for treating GERD. The aim of the study is to assess the safety and efficacy of levosulpiride and itopride in the management of GERD and to study the side effects and treatment outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total 210 patients aged 18 to 90 years, 99 males and 111 females (male:female ratio of 1:1.1 with reflux oesophagitis were divided into three groups and an endoscopy test was done before starting treatment. The control group received rabeprazole and the two test groups received levosulpiride and itopride. Clinical adverse events were recorded at the end of week 1 and week 2. Following treatment, relief of symptoms was assessed at the end of 2 weeks. RESULTS There were total 210 patients (99 males and 111 females. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.1. GERD was more common in the 31-50 year age group. Most common symptoms were of dyspepsia, regurgitation, vomiting and heartburn. Improvement of symptoms during the treatment was seen in 53% levosulpiride and 41% itopride patients, respectively. The main adverse effects were abdominal pain and nausea. The percentage of nausea was high with itopride than levosulpiride. CONCLUSION Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common problem frequently seen in both genders and in younger people. Symptomatic relief and endoscopic recovery is early with levosulpiride than itopride. Levosulpiride gives better quality of life earlier in the treatment than itopride and has lesser side effects and better healing outcome.

  7. Dynamic scintigraphy of the oesophagus in the evaluation of reflux oesophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babic, Z.; Ugarkovic, B.; Ivancevic, D.; Babic, D. (Zagreb Univ. Hospital Center (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine General Hospital ' Dr. Josip Kajfes' , Zagreb (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Gastroenterology)

    1990-11-01

    A method is presented which combines gastro-oesophageal reflux quantification and oesophageal activity. A group of 33 subjects with gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms and endoscopically confirmed reflux oesophagitis and a group of 21 asymptomatic subjects with normal oesophageal, gastric and duodenal endoscopic findings were examined. The subjects were given 37 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-Sn-colloid in saline orally and then scintiscanned dynamically. The gastro-oesophageal quantification was done after transit measurement and after the oesophageal time activity (to detect residual oesophageal activity) reached its minimum. The difference in the reflux indices between the two groups was highly significant. In low-grade oesophagitis measured reflux was lower than in higher grades of disease. Only 4.7% false-positive results were observed with a specificity of 95%, indicating that this method may be superior to methods published earlier. (orig.).

  8. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Population Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nwokediuko, Sylvester

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease varies in different parts of the world. There are no population based studies in Nigeria. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease in a population of Nigerian medical students. Methods The Carlsson-Dent questionnaire was administered to medical students in the clinical phase of their training at the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus. Some putative risk ...

  9. Gastric emptying in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lin; Yang Xiaochuan; Kuang Anren; Li Lixia; Ouyang Qin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and gastric emptying rate was investigated. Results of endoscopy, 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring were also evaluated. Methods: 15 patients were evaluated with endoscopy, pH monitoring and radionuclide gastric emptying. The results were compared with that of 17 control subjects. Correlations of gastric emptying rate and esophagitis, 24-hour pH monitoring between GERD patients and control subjects were also analyzed. Results: Liquid gastric emptying rate of GERD patients was significantly lower than that of control subjects at 15 and 30 min (P 0.05), but there exhibited a linear correlation between 50% solid emptying time and esophagus pH total score (r=0.643, P<0.05). Conclusions: The results indicate a delayed liquid and solid gastric emptying in GERD patients. There is a linear correlation between 50% solid emptying time and esophagus pH total score. Delayed gastric emptying may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of GERD

  10. Atrial Fibrillation and Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux Disease - Controversies and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floria, Mariana; Barboi, Oana; Rezus, Ciprian; Ambarus, Valentin; Cijevschi-Prelipcean, Cristina; Balan, Gheorghe; Drug, Vasile Liviu

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation and gastro-oesophageal reflux are common manifestations in daily practice. The atria and the oesophagus are closely located and have similar nerve innervations. Over the last years, it has been observed that atrial fibrillation development and reflux disease could be related. Atrial fibrillation occurrence could be due to vagal nerve overstimulation. This, in association with vagal nerve-mediated parasympathetic stimulation, has also been observed in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux. These mechanisms, in addition to inflammation, seem to be implicated in the pathophysiology of both diseases. Despite these associations supported by clinical and experimental studies, this relationship is still considered controversial. This review summarizes critical data regarding the association of gastro-oesophageal reflux and atrial fibrillation as well as their clinical implications.

  11. Observer agreement of lower limb venous reflux assessed by duplex ultrasound scanning using manual and pneumatic cuff compression in patients with chronic venous disease and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, R; Kreiner, S; Bækgaard, Niels

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate observer agreement between two experienced ultrasound operators examining deep venous reflux assessed by duplex ultrasound (DU) using either manual or pneumatic cuff compression. In addition, the two methods were compared with each other with regard to immediate "eyeba...... "eyeballing" and direct measurements of reflux time from Doppler flow curves....

  12. The diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mouzan, Mohammad I.; Abdullah, Asaad M.

    2002-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common disorder affecting children worldwide. The objective of this study is to report our experience on the accuracy of tests used for the diagnosis ofgastroesophageal reflux disease with emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of each of them. This study took place in the Pediatric Gastroenterology Division, Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the period of 1994 through to 1999. Results of barium meal, 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring, endoscopy, and gastrointestinal scintigraphy are analyzed and compared in children with and without gastroesophageal reflux disease. One hundred and forty-four children were investigated. The diagnosis was confirmed in 85 and excluded in 59 children, who will be considered as patients without gastroesophageal reflux disease. The results of barium meal, 24 hour pH monitoring, endoscopy, and gastrointestinal scintigraphy were positive in 80%, 78%, 92%, and 70% of the patients with gastroesophageal disease. The same studies were falsely positive in 29%, 9%, 19%, and 0% of those without gastroesophageal reflux disease. Esophageal pH was the most specific diagnostic study (91%), whereas endoscopy was the most sensitive (92%) and had the best positive predictive value (95%). The results of this study are similar to reports from other parts of the world. It is stressed that all procedures have important advantages and disadvantages indicating that the selection of procedures should be individualized and based on the clinical situation. (author)

  13. Outcomes of targeted treatment for vesicoureteral reflux in children with nonneurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Angela M; Nees, Shannon N; Van Batavia, Jason P; Combs, Andrew J; Glassberg, Kenneth I

    2013-09-01

    There is a known association between nonneurogenic lower urinary tract conditions and vesicoureteral reflux. Whether reflux is secondary to the lower urinary tract condition or coincidental is controversial. We determined the rate of reflux resolution in patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction using targeted treatment for the underlying condition. Patients diagnosed and treated for a lower urinary tract condition who had concomitant vesicoureteral reflux at or near the time of diagnosis were included. Patients underwent targeted treatment and antibiotic prophylaxis, and reflux was monitored with voiding cystourethrography or videourodynamics. Vesicoureteral reflux was identified in 58 ureters in 36 females and 5 males with a mean age of 6.2 years. After a mean of 3.1 years of treatment reflux resolved with targeted treatment in 26 of 58 ureters (45%). All of these patients had a history of urinary tract infections before starting targeted treatment. Resolution rates of vesicoureteral reflux were similar for all reflux grades. Resolution or significant improvement of reflux was greater in the ureters of patients with dysfunctional voiding (70%) compared to those with idiopathic detrusor overactivity disorder (38%) or detrusor underutilization (40%). Vesicoureteral reflux associated with lower urinary tract conditions resolved with targeted treatment and antibiotic prophylaxis in 45% of ureters. Unlike the resolution rates reported in patients with reflux without a coexisting lower urinary tract condition, we found that there were no differences in resolution rates among grades I to V reflux in patients with lower urinary tract conditions. Patients with dysfunctional voiding had the most improvement and greatest resolution of reflux. Additionally grade V reflux resolved in some patients. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery : indications, techniques and physiological effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, J.A.J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a highly prevalent chronic disorder in which retrograde flow of gastric contents into the oesophagus causes troublesome symptoms or lesions. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy controls reflux disease in 95% of the patients and the remaining 5% have

  15. Radiological evaluation of esophageal motility and gastroesophageal reflux disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schima, W.; Pokieser, P.; Schober, E.

    1995-01-01

    Radiological evaluation of esophageal motility and the lower esophageal sphincter has gained increased attention in recent years. Videofluoroscopic investigation of esophageal motor function is superior to static film radiography, as repeated analysis of the videotaped recordings is possible. With emphasis on radiological techniques, normal esophagel physiology and motility and a variety of esophageal motor disorders are discussed in this review paper. Radiological evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux and reflux esophagitis is described. Clinical and radiological findings in esophageal motility disorders and gastroesophageal reflux disease and the radiological efficacy compared to that of manometry and pH-metry are discussed. (orig.) [de

  16. Scintigraphic scoring system for grading severity of gastro-esophageal reflux on 99mTc sulfur colloid gastro-esophageal reflux scintigraphy: a prospective study of 39 cases with pre and post treatment assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranik, Ameya D.; Nair, Gopinathan; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Shinto, Ajit; Zade, Anand; Aggarwal, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at developing a scoring system for scintigraphic grading of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER), on gastro-esophageal reflux scintigraphy (GERS) and comparison of clinical and scintigraphic scores, pre- and post-treatment. A total of 39 cases with clinically symptomatic GER underwent 99m Tc sulfur colloid GERS; scores were assigned based on the clinical and scintigraphic parameters. Post domperidone GERS was performed after completion of treatment. Follow up GERS was performed and clinical and scintigraphic parameters were compared with baseline parameters. Paired t-test on pre and post domperidone treatment clinical scores showed that the decline in post-treatment scores was highly significant, with P value < 0.001. The scintigraphic scoring system had a sensitivity of 93.9% in assessing treatment response to domperidone, specificity of 83.3% i.e., 83.3% of children with no decline in scintigraphic scores show no clinical response to Domperidone. The scintigraphic scoring system had a positive predictive value of 96.9% and a negative predictive value of 71.4%. GERS with its quantitative parameters is a good investigation for assessing the severity of reflux and also for following children post-treatment. (author)

  17. Hiatus hernia in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, B.; Petersen, H.; Myrvold, H.E.; Grette, K.; Roeysland, P.; Halvorsen, T.

    1986-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and radiologic examination were performed in 101 patients with symptoms strongly suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. Hiatus hernia (HH) was found in 50 patients diagnosed by radiography or endoscopy, or both, in 22, 19, and 9 patients respectively. Severe endoscopic esophagitis (grades III and IV) was found more often (p<0.05) in the patients with HH than in those without. The same was true for the early positive timed acid perfusion tests (p<0.02). Furthermore, the patients with HH more often had reflux by the standard acid reflux test (42 og 50 versus 28 of 51; p<0.01), gastroesophageal scintigraphy (47 of 50 versus 40 of 51; p<0.05), and radiography (20 of 50 versus 2 of 51; p<0.001) than the patients without HH. The results show that severe GER disease can occur without an associated HH and indicate that patients with symptoms of GER disease and associated HH are likely to have a more severe GER disease than those without HH

  18. Protective Effect of ECQ on Rat Reflux Esophagitis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyeon-Soon; Han, Jeong Hoon; Jeong, Jun Yeong; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to determine the protective effect of Rumex Aquaticus Herba extracts containing quercetin-3-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (ECQ) on experimental reflux esophagitis. Reflux esophagitis was induced by surgical procedure. The rats were divided into seven groups, namely normal group, control group, ECQ (1, 3, 10, 30 mg/kg) group and omeprazole (30 mg/kg) group. ECQ and omeprazole groups received intraduodenal administration. The Rats were starved for 24 hours before the experiments, but were freely allowed to drink water. ECQ group attenuated the gross esophagitis significantly compared to that treated with omeprazole in a dose-dependent manner. ECQ decreased the volume of gastric juice and increased the gastric pH, which are similar to those of omeprazole group. In addition, ECQ inhibited the acid output effectively in reflux esophagitis. Significantly increased amounts of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the mucosal depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) were observed in the reflux esophagitis. ECQ administration attenuated the decrement of the GSH levels and affected the MDA levels and MPO activity. These results suggest that the ECQ has a protective effect which may be attributed to its multiple effects including anti-secretory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions on reflux esophagitis in rats.

  19. Scintigraphy in the detection of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children with caustic oesophageal burns: a comparative study with radiography and 24-h pH monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezcan, Z.; Erinc, R.; Dirlik, A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Ege University Medical Faculty, Izmir (Turkey); Oezcan, C.; Mutaf, O. [Dept. of Paediatric Surgery, Ege University Medical Faculty, Izmir (Turkey)

    2001-10-01

    Background: Caustic injury of the oesophagus not only causes luminal narrowing but is also responsible for longitudinal contraction, resulting in gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR), which leads to failure of conventional therapy. Therefore, the development of GOR should be investigated periodically to direct appropriate management of these patients. Purpose: To determine the ability of scintigraphy to detect GOR in children with caustic oesophageal strictures in comparison with barium study and 24-h pH monitoring. Materials and methods: Seventeen children with caustic oesophageal injury underwent scintigraphy, an upper GI barium study and 24-h pH monitoring within the same week. Five patients were also investigated post-operatively for the assessment of surgical outcome after antireflux surgery. Results: On the whole, there was good correlation (r = 0.78, P < 0.00 l) between scintigraphy and 24-h oesophageal pH monitoring. Scintigraphy detected all but one (9/10) refluxing patients and also correctly identified all (7/7) non-refluxing patients. Barium studies demonstrated 6 out of 10 refluxing patients. There were no false-positive barium studies in non-refluxing patients. Post-operative studies demonstrated no evidence of GOR in surgically treated patients. Conclusions: Our results indicate that, by comparison with barium studies, scintigraphy is useful in the detection of GOR in cases with caustic oesophageal strictures and may be used as a screening modality for those under clinical follow-up. (orig.)

  20. Extravesical detrusorrhaphy for vesicoureteral reflux in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H M; Yu, T J

    1998-03-01

    Extravesical detrusorrhaphy is a simple and safe approach to antireflux surgery; however, its use in Taiwan has seldom been reported. We report the outcomes of 15 patients (23 ureters) with primary vesicoureteral reflux who underwent extravesical detrusorrhaphy between January 1995 and April 1996, and describe the surgical technique. Overall, vesicoureteral reflux was cured in 22 of 23 ureters. Postoperative morbidity and complications were minimal. None of the patients had obstruction or significant hematuria. The discomfort related to bladder spasms during the postoperative period was subjectively decreased compared to the conventional transvesical technique. There was transient voiding inefficiency in three patients, as well as urinary retention in one, which resolved spontaneously after 4 weeks of Foley catheter drainage. Our experience showed that detrusorrhaphy is an effective way to correct vesicoureteral reflux with minimal morbidity and discomfort. Proper patient selection and strict adherence to the surgical principle are important for high success rates.

  1. Impaired Upper Esophageal Sphincter Reflexes in Patients with Supra-Esophageal Reflux Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, Arash; Venu, Mukund; Naini, Sohrab Rahimi; Gonzaga, Jason; Lang, Ivan; Massey, Benson; Jadcherla, Sudarshan; Shaker, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Normal responses of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and esophageal body to liquid reflux events prevent esophagopharyngeal reflux and its complications, but abnormal responses have not been characterized. We investigated whether patients with supra-esophageal reflux disease (SERD) have impaired UES and esophageal body responses to simulated reflux events. Methods We performed a prospective study of 25 patients with SERD (19–82 y old, 13 female) and complaints of regurgitation and supra-esophageal manifestations of reflux. We also included 10 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD; 32–60 y old, 7 female) without troublesome regurgitation and supra-esophageal symptoms and 24 healthy asymptomatic individuals (controls; 19–49 y old, 13 female). UES and esophageal body pressure responses, along with luminal distribution of infusate during esophageal rapid and slow infusion of air or liquid, were monitored by concurrent high-resolution manometry and intraluminal impedance. Results A significantly smaller proportion of patients with SERD had UES contractile reflexes in response to slow esophageal infusion of acid than controls or patients with GERD. Only patients with SERD had abnormal UES relaxation responses to rapid distension with saline. Diminished esophageal peristaltic contractions resulted in esophageal stasis in patients with GERD or SERD. Conclusions Patients with SERD and complaints of regurgitation have impaired UES and esophageal responses to simulated liquid reflux events. These patterns could predispose them to esophagopharyngeal reflux. PMID:26188682

  2. Laparoscopic Anti-Reflux (GERD) Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Humanitarian Efforts Login Laparoscopic Anti-Reflux (GERD) Surgery Patient Information from SAGES Download PDF Find a SAGES Surgeon Surgery for “Heartburn” If you suffer from moderate to ...

  3. Pattern of food intolerance in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Michele; Lo Cascio, Natalina; Rabitti, Stefano; Eusebi, Leonardo H; Zeni, Elena; Soavi, Cecilia; Cassol, Francesca; Zuliani, Giovanni; Zagari, Rocco M

    2017-12-01

    Many food items have been involved in gastro-esophageal reflux disease pathogenesis and dietary modification has been proposed as first-line treatment. Test-based exclusion diets have shown to significantly reduce reflux symptoms. We aimed to assess the patterns of food intolerance in a series of patients with typical gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms (GERS). We retrospectively evaluated all patients with typical reflux symptoms, attending the Centre Study Association on Food Intolerance and Nutrition of Ferrara from January 2010 to October 2015, who resulted positive to at least one food item at the Leucocytotoxic Test. The presence and severity of typical GERS (heartburn and/or acid regurgitation) were assessed using the Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease Impact Scale (GIS) questionnaire. Only individuals with a GIS Score of at least 5 points were included. Almost all patients (91.1%) were intolerant to at least 5 food items. The most frequent food intolerance (more than 33% of patients) were found for milk (55.4%), lettuce (46.4%), coffee (43.7%), brewer's yeast (42.9%), pork (42.9%), tuna (37.5%), rice (35.7%), sole (34.8%), asparagus (34.8%) and eggs (33.9%). Nine different clusters of food intolerance were detected. Patients with typical gastro-esophageal reflux symptoms seem to have intolerance to multiple food items, some of which (lettuce, brewer's yeast, tuna, rice, sole and asparagus) have not yet been associated to gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

  4. Short-term and long-term effect of diaphragm biofeedback training in gastroesophageal reflux disease: an open-label, pilot, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Shang, W; Wang, Z; Liu, X; Fang, X; Ke, M

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of diaphragm biofeedback training (DBT) for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A total of 40 patients with GERD treated at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital between September 2004 and July 2006 were randomized to receive DBT and rabeprazole proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or rabeprazole alone. The DBT + rabeprazole group received DBT during the 8-week initial treatment; the rabeprazole group did not. During the 6-month follow up, all patients took acid suppression according to their reflux symptoms, and the patients in the DBT + rabeprazole group were required to continue DBT. The primary outcome (used for power analysis) was the amount of acid suppression used at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were reflux symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQL), and esophageal motility differences after the 8-week treatment compared with baseline. Acid suppression usage significantly decreased in the DBT + rabeprazole group compared with the rabeprazole group at 6 months (P reflux symptoms and GERD-HRQL were significantly improved in both groups (P gastroesophageal junction pressure (GEJP) significantly increased in the DBT + rabeprazole group (P reflux barrier, providing a non-pharmacological maintenance therapy and reducing medical costs for patients with GERD. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  5. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Sleep Quality in a Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Jyh Chen

    2009-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study highlights the adverse effect of gastroesophageal reflux on sleep, even in the absence of reflux symptoms. This finding has therapeutic implications in patients with silent erosive disease, and future trials are warranted.

  6. Correlation of Gastroesophageal reflux disease Assessment Symptom Questionnaire to impedance-pH measurements in children

    OpenAIRE

    Prachuapthunyachart, Sittichoke; Jarasvaraparn, Chaowapong; Gremse, David A

    2017-01-01

    Background: Esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring has become one of the preferred tests to correlate observed reflux-like behaviors with esophageal reflux events. The Gastroesophageal reflux disease Assessment Symptom Questionnaire is a validated tool used to distinguish infants with gastroesophageal reflux disease from healthy children. The aim of this study was to determine whether the Gastroesophageal reflux disease Assessment Symptom Questionnaire composite symptom ...

  7. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy for diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Michiomi; Aoki, Nobuhiko; Imura, Souichi; Eguchi, Hiroyuki; Tamamoto, Humihiko

    1995-01-01

    99m Tc-DTPA is a sensitive technique for the detection of gastro-esophageal reflux in children. Forty-eight children with gastro-esophageal reflux are scored by the results of the time activity curve of gastro-esophageal scintiscanning and the 24 hr esophageal pH tests. The score of gastro-esophageal scintiscanning is compared with the 24 hr esophageal pH score. There is a correlation in the score between the gastro-esophageal scintiscanning and the 24 hr esophageal pH test. (author)

  8. A Modern Magnetic Implant for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Robert A

    2017-09-01

    A magnetic implant for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was Food and Drug Administration-approved in 2012 and has been extensively evaluated. The device is a ring of magnets that are placed around the gastroesophageal junction, augmenting the native lower esophageal sphincter and preventing reflux yet preserving lower esophageal sphincter physiologic function and allowing belching and vomiting. Magnetic force is advantageous, being permanent and precise, and forces between magnets decrease with esophageal displacement. Multiple patient cohorts have been studied using the magnetic device, and trials establish consistent, long-term improvement in pH data, GERD symptom scores, and proton-pump inhibitor use. A 5-year Food and Drug Administration trial demonstrated that most patients achieved normal pH scores, 85% stopped proton-pump inhibitors, and GERD health-related quality of life symptom scores improved from 27 to 4 at 5 years. Seven studies have compared magnetic augmentation with laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and demonstrated that the magnetic device achieved comparable efficacy with regard to proton-pump inhibitor cessation, GERD symptom score improvement, and heartburn and regurgitation scores. However, to date there have been no randomized, controlled trials comparing the 2 techniques, and the study cohorts are not necessarily comparable regarding hiatal hernia size, severity of reflux, body mass index scores, or esophagitis scores. Dysphagia incidence was similar in both groups. Reoperation rates and safety profiles were also comparable, but the magnetic device demonstrated significant beneficial differences in allowing belching and vomiting. The magnetic device is safe, with the main adverse event being dysphagia with an approximate 3%-5% chronic incidence. Device removals in clinical trials have been between 0% and 7% and were uneventful. There have been no erosions, perforations, or infections in FDA clinical trials

  9. Esophageal chemical clearance is impaired in gastro-esophageal reflux disease--a 24-h impedance-pH monitoring assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazzoni, M; Manta, R; Mirante, V G; Conigliaro, R; Frazzoni, L; Melotti, G

    2013-05-01

    Impedance-pH monitoring allows assessment of retrograde and antegrade intra-esophageal movement of fluids and gas. Reflux is followed by volume clearance and chemical clearance, elicited by secondary and swallow-induced peristalsis, respectively. We aimed to assess whether chemical clearance is impaired in gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Blinded retrospective review of impedance-pH tracings from patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD) and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), and from proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-refractory patients before and after laparoscopic fundoplication. The number of refluxes followed within 30 s by swallow-induced peristaltic waves was divided by the number of total refluxes to obtain a parameter representing chemical clearance namely the postreflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave (PSPW) index. The PSPW index was significantly lower in 31 ERD (15%) and in 44 NERD (33%) off-PPI patients than in 30 controls (75%), as well as in 18 ERD (16%) and in 48 NERD (31%) on-PPI patients than in 26 on-PPI functional heartburn (FH) cases (67%) (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). In 29 PPI-refractory patients, the median PSPW index was unaltered by otherwise effective antireflux surgery (20% postoperatively, 21% preoperatively). The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of the PSPW index in identifying GERD patients were 97%, 89%, 96%, and 93%. Impairment of chemical clearance is a primary pathophysiological mechanism specific to GERD: it is unaffected by medical/surgical therapy, is not found in FH, and is more pronounced in ERD than in NERD. Using the PSPW index could improve the diagnostic efficacy of impedance-pH monitoring. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Gastroesophageal reflux: a proposal for standardization of diagnostic using labelled compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Cruz, Maria das Gracas de.

    1991-01-01

    We evaluated the contribution of radiolabelled methods in the study of the gastroesophageal reflux. Thirty two patients with the clinical aspects of gastroesophageal reflux and endoscopic diagnosis of esophagitis were submitted to dynamic scintigraphy with 99 m Tc -colloidal. Twenty three subjects formed the control group. Reflux of the radioactive material was noticed into the esophagus in twenty seven patients and in only one control. The methods used were the modified techniques used by Fisher and Velasco, which showed similar results. One concludes that the dynamic scintigraphy is a clinically useful method as an initial investigation to confirm the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux in symptomatic patients with esophagitis. (author). 91 refs., 17 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Influence of gastric emptying on gastro-esophageal reflux: a combined pH-impedance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourcerol, G; Benanni, Y; Boueyre, E; Leroi, A M; Ducrotte, P

    2013-10-01

    The involvement of delayed gastric emptying (GE) in the pathophysiology of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) remains debated and has been to date only assessed using esophageal pH-metry that only detects acidic reflux. We therefore investigated whether delay in GE could impact on liquid, mixed, and gas reflux detected using combined esophageal pH-impedance recording. Thirty consecutive patients were explored with GE and esophageal pH-impedance measurement in the workup of typical symptoms of GERD. Gastric emptying was assessed using the (13) C-octanoic acid breath test and an ambulatory esophageal pH-impedance recording was performed off proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for 24 h. Gastric emptying was normal in 17 patients and delayed in 13 patients. Delay in GE increased the daily number of liquid/mixed reflux events detected by combined esophageal pH-impedance monitoring, but had no effect of esophageal acid exposure or gas reflux. This translated in increased number of postprandial reflux events, with a longer bolus clearance time and increased esophageal proximal extension. In patient with delayed GE, symptomatic reflux had a higher proximal extension and a longer bolus clearance time compared to symptomatic reflux events from patients with normal GE. Delay in GE increases daily and postprandial liquid/mixed reflux events. Reflux characteristics differently trigger symptoms in patients with normal and delayed GE, and may impact on the therapeutic strategy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Ureteroneocystostomy in primary vesicoureteral reflux: critical retrospective analysis of factors affecting the postoperative urinary tract infection rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Serkan Dogan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction To determine the parameters affecting the outcome of ureteroneocystostomy (UNC procedure for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. Materials and Methods Data of 398 patients who underwent UNC procedure from 2001 to 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Different UNC techniques were used according to laterality of reflux and ureteral orifice configuration. Effects of several parameters on outcome were examined. Disappearance of reflux on control VCUG or absence of any kind of UTI/symptoms in patients without control VCUG was considered as clinical improvement. Results Mean age at operation was 59.2 ± 39.8 months and follow-up was 25.6 ± 23.3 months. Grade of VUR was 1-2, 3 and 4-5 in 17, 79, 302 patients, respectively. Male to female ratio was 163/235. UNC was performed bilaterally in 235 patients and intravesical approach was used in 373 patients. The frequency of voiding dysfunction, scar on preoperative DMSA, breakthrough infection and previous surgery was 28.4%, 70.7%, 49.3% and 22.4%, respectively. Twelve patients (8.9% with postoperative contralateral reflux were excluded from the analysis. Overall clinical improvement rate for UNC was 92%. Gender, age at diagnosis and operation, laterality and grade of reflux, mode of presentation, breakthrough infections (BTI under antibiotic prophylaxis, presence of voiding dysfunction and renal scar, and operation technique did not affect the surgical outcome. However, the clinical improvement rate was lower in patients with a history of previous endoscopic intervention (83.9% vs. 94%. Postoperative UTI rate was 27.2% and factors affecting the occurrence of postoperative UTI were previous failed endoscopic injection on univariate analysis and gender, preoperative BTI, postoperative VUR state, voiding dysfunction on multivariate analysis. Surgery related complication rate was 2% (8/398. These were all low grade complications (blood transfusion in 1, hematoma under incision in 3 and prolonged

  13. The evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux before and after medical therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmud, L.S.; Fisher, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    Gastroesophageal scintigraphy is a quantitative technique that can be employed to detect and quantitate gastroesophageal reflux before and after the application of therapeutic modalities, including change in body position, bethanechol, atropine, antacids, and antacid-alginate compounds. Five groups of 10-15 patients each were studied before and after using each therapeutic modality and before and after atropine. The results were compared to the patient's symptomatology and to the acid reflux test. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy was performed following oral administration of 300 microCi 99mTc-sulfur colloid in 300 ml acidified orange juice. Thirty-second gamma camera images were obtained as the gastroesophageal gradient was increased from approximately 10 to 35 mm Hg at 5 mm Hg increments using an inflatable abdominal binder. Data were processed using a digital computer. Reflux was reduced by change in position from recumbent to upright, and by the use of subcutaneous bethanechol, oral antacid, or oral antacidalginate compound. Atropine increased reflux. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy is more sensitive than fluoroscopy, correlates well with clinical symptomatology, and is a reliable and convenient technique for the quantitative estimation of reflux before and after therapy

  14. Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux in Noncystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie L. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical presentation of noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis may be complicated by concomitant conditions, including gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR. Increased acidic GOR is principally caused by gastro-oesophageal junction incompetence and may arise from lower oesophageal sphincter hypotension, including transient relaxations, hiatus hernia, and oesophageal dysmotility. Specific pathophysiological features which are characteristic of respiratory diseases including coughing may further increase the risk of GOR in bronchiectasis. Reflux may impact on lung disease severity by two mechanisms, reflex bronchoconstriction and pulmonary microaspiration. Symptomatic and clinically silent reflux has been detected in bronchiectasis, with the prevalence of 26 to 75%. The cause and effect relationship has not been established, but preliminary reports suggest that GOR may influence the severity of bronchiectasis. Further studies examining the implications of GOR in this condition, including its effect across the disease spectrum using a combination of diagnostic tools, will clarify the clinical significance of this comorbidity.

  15. [Gastro-esophageal reflux and chronic respiratory diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirou, S; Germaud, P; Bruley des Varannes, S; Magnan, A; Blanc, F-X

    2015-12-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) frequently occurs in association with chronic respiratory diseases although the casual link is not always clear. Several pathophysiological and experimental factors are considered to support a role for GERD in respiratory disease. Conversely, respiratory diseases and bronchodilator treatment can themselves exacerbate GERD. When cough or severe asthma is being investigated, GERD does not need to be systematically looked for and a therapeutic test with proton pump inhibitors is not always recommended. pH impedance monitoring is now the reference diagnostic tool to detect non acid reflux, a form of reflux for which proton pump inhibitor treatment is ineffective. Recent data have shown a potential role of GERD in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiolitis obliterans following lung transplantation, leading to discussions about the place of surgery in this context. However, studies using pH impedance monitoring are still needed to better understand and manage the association between GERD and chronic respiratory diseases. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. An implantable, batteryless, and wireless capsule with integrated impedance and pH sensors for gastroesophageal reflux monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hung; Landge, Vaibhav; Tata, Uday; Seo, Young-Sik; Rao, Smitha; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Tibbals, H F; Spechler, Stuart; Chiao, J-C

    2012-11-01

    In this study, a device for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) monitoring has been prototyped. The system consists of an implantable, batteryless and wireless transponder with integrated impedance and pH sensors; and a wearable, external reader that wirelessly powers up the transponder and interprets the transponded radio-frequency signals. The transponder implant with the total size of 0.4 cm × 0.8 cm × 3.8 cm harvests radio frequency energy to operate dual-sensor and load-modulation circuitry. The external reader can store the data in a memory card and/or send it to a base station wirelessly, which is optional in the case of multiple-patient monitoring in a hospital or conducting large-scale freely behaving animal experiments. Tests were carried out to verify the signal transduction reliability in different situations for antenna locations and orientation. In vitro, experiments were conducted in a mannequin model by positioning the sensor capsule inside the wall of a tube mimicking the esophagus. Different liquids with known pH values were flushed through the tube creating reflux episodes and wireless signals were recorded. Live pigs under anesthesia were used for the animal models with the transponder implant attached on the esophageal wall. The reflux episodes were created while the sensor data were recorded wirelessly. The data were compared with those recorded independently by a clinically used wireless pH sensor capsule placed next to our implant transponder. The results showed that our transponder detected every episode in both acid and nonacid nature, while the commercial pH sensor missed events that had similar, repeated pH values, and failed to detect pH values higher than 10. Our batteryless transponder does not require a battery thus allowing longer diagnosis and prognosis periods to monitor drug efficacy, as well as providing accurate assessment of GERD symptoms.

  17. Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations--a pharmacological target for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch, D. P.; Tytgat, G. N. J.; Boeckxstaens, G. E. E.

    2002-01-01

    The oesophago-gastric junction functions as an anti-reflux barrier preventing increased exposure of the oesophageal mucosa to gastric contents. Failure of this anti-reflux barrier results in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, and may lead to complications such as oesophagitis, Barrett's oesophagus

  18. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, Anan; Hungin, A Pali S; Wooff, David; Childs, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and its association with the disease. Design Systematic review of studies reporting the prevalence of H pylori in patients with and without gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Data sources Four electronic databases, searched to November 2001, experts, pharmaceutical companies, and journals. Main outcome measure Odds ratio for prevalence of H pylori in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Results 20 studies were included. The pooled estimate of the odds ratio for prevalence of H pylori was 0.60 (95% confidence interval 0.47 to 0.78), indicating a lower prevalence in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Substantial heterogeneity was observed between studies. Location seemed to be an important factor, with a much lower prevalence of H pylori in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in studies from the Far East, despite a higher overall prevalence of infection than western Europe and North America. Year of study was not a source of heterogeneity. Conclusion The prevalence of H pylori infection was significantly lower in patients with than without gastro-oesophageal reflux, with geographical location being a strong contributor to the heterogeneity between studies. Patients from the Far East with reflux disease had a lower prevalence of H pylori infection than patients from western Europe and North America, despite a higher prevalence in the general population. What is already known on this topicThe relation between H pylori infection and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is controversialStudies on the prevalence of H pylori in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease have given conflicting resultsRecent guidelines recommend eradication of H pylori in patients requiring long term proton pump inhibitors, essentially for reflux diseaseWhat this study addsDespite heterogeneity between studies, the prevalence of H pylori was

  19. Partial symptom-response to proton pump inhibitors in patients with non-erosive reflux disease or reflux oesophagitis - a post hoc analysis of 5796 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bytzer, P; van Zanten, S Veldhuyzen; Mattsson, H

    2012-01-01

    Although most patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) benefit from proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy, some experience only partial symptom relief.......Although most patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) benefit from proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy, some experience only partial symptom relief....

  20. Quantitative radioisotope measurement of duodenogastric reflux in patients with ulcer or gastrectomized for ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyoedynmaa, S.; Paeaekkoenen, A.; Laensimies, E.; Korhonen, K.; Paeaekkoenen, M.; Aukee, S.

    1985-01-01

    In this work the duodenogastric reflux was quantified as the amount of radioactivity entering the stomach after an i.v. administration of sup(99m)Tc-HIDA in ulcer patients and in patients who had undergone BI gastrectomy. The results were compared with visual evidence of gastric activity in the gamma camera images and biochemical determination of gastric bile reflux. The method is useful in quantifying the reflux if the activity is above the background activity. It allows the determination of an upper limit for the reflux when the reflux is evident visually. Only two or three images are needed for the quantitation. No correlation was found between biochemical measurements of fasting bile reflux in the stomach and radioisotopic quantification. (orig.) [de

  1. Quantitative radioisotope measurement of duodenogastric reflux in patients with ulcer or gastrectomized for ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyoedynmaa, S.; Paeaekkoenen, A.; Laensimies, E.; Korhonen, K.; Paeaekkoenen, M.; Aukee, S.

    1985-06-01

    In this work the duodenogastric reflux was quantified as the amount of radioactivity entering the stomach after an i.v. administration of sup(99m)Tc-HIDA in ulcer patients and in patients who had undergone BI gastrectomy. The results were compared with visual evidence of gastric activity in the gamma camera images and biochemical determination of gastric bile reflux. The method is useful in quantifying the reflux if the activity is above the background activity. It allows the determination of an upper limit for the reflux when the reflux is evident visually. Only two or three images are needed for the quantitation. No correlation was found between biochemical measurements of fasting bile reflux in the stomach and radioisotopic quantification.

  2. Spontaneous resolution rates of vesicoureteral reflux in Brazilian children: a 30-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Zerati Filho

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We evaluated clinical characteristics of primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in infants in a 30-year period in Brazil with special reference to the relation of renal parenchymal damage to urinary tract infection and gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1975 through 2005, 417 girls (81.6% and 94 boys (18.4% with all grades of reflux were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were categorized by the worst grade of reflux, maintained on antibiotic prophylaxis and underwent yearly voiding cystourethrography until the reflux was resolved. VUR was considered resolved when a follow-up cystogram demonstrated no reflux. Surgical correction was recommended for those who fail medical therapy, severe renal scarring or persistent VUR. RESULTS: Grades I to V VUR resolved in 87.5%, 77.6%, 52.8%, 12.2% and 4.3%, respectively. Renal scars were present at presentation in 98 patients (19.2%. Neither gender nor bilaterality versus unilaterality was a helpful predictor of resolution. The significant difference was found among the curves using the log rank (p < 0.001 or Wilcoxon (p < 0.001 test. CONCLUSION: Despite the current use of screening prenatal ultrasound, many infants are still diagnosed as having vesicoureteral reflux only after the occurrence of urinary tract infection in our country. Scarring may be associated to any reflux grade and it may be initially diagnosed at any age but half of the scars are noted with higher grades of reflux (IV and V. The incidence of reflux related morbidity in children has significantly diminished over the last three decades.

  3. Dextranomer/hyaluronic acid endoscopic injection is effective in the treatment of intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux in patients with complete duplex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Manuela; Mohanan, Nochiparambil; Puri, Prem

    2013-05-01

    Endoscopic subureteral injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid has become an established alternative to long-term antibiotic prophylaxis or surgical treatment for vesicoureteral reflux. We evaluated the effectiveness of endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux in patients with complete duplex collecting systems. A total of 123 children underwent endoscopic correction of intermediate or high grade vesicoureteral reflux using injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid into complete duplex systems between 2001 and 2010. Vesicoureteral reflux was diagnosed by voiding cystourethrogram, and dimercapto-succinic acid scan was performed to evaluate the presence of renal scarring. Followup ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram were performed 3 months after the outpatient procedure and renal ultrasound thereafter every 2 years. Mean followup was 6.7 years. Complete duplex systems were unilateral in 110 patients and bilateral in 13. Reflux severity in the 136 refluxing units was grade II in 1 (0.7%), III in 52 (38.2%), IV in 61 (44.9%) and V in 22 (16.2%). Dimercapto-succinic acid scan revealed renal functional abnormalities in 63 children (51.2%). Vesicoureteral reflux resolved after the first endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in 93 ureters (68.4%), after a second injection in 35 (25.7%) and after a third injection in 8 (5.9%). Febrile urinary tract infection developed in 5 patients (4.1%) during followup. No patient required ureteral reimplantation or experienced significant complications. Our results confirm the safety and efficacy of endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in eradicating intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux in patients with complete duplex systems. We recommend this minimally invasive, 15-minute outpatient procedure as a viable option for treating intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux in patients with complete duplex collecting systems

  4. 24 CFR 902.47 - Management operations portion of total PHAS points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Management operations portion of... Operations § 902.47 Management operations portion of total PHAS points. Of the total 100 points available for a PHAS score, a PHA may receive up to 30 points based on the Management Operations Indicator. ...

  5. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy for diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Michiomi; Aoki, Nobuhiko; Imura, Souichi; Eguchi, Hiroyuki; Tamamoto, Humihiko [Tokyo Metropolitan Otsuka Hospital (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA is a sensitive technique for the detection of gastro-esophageal reflux in children. Forty-eight children with gastro-esophageal reflux are scored by the results of the time activity curve of gastro-esophageal scintiscanning and the 24 hr esophageal pH tests. The score of gastro-esophageal scintiscanning is compared with the 24 hr esophageal pH score. There is a correlation in the score between the gastro-esophageal scintiscanning and the 24 hr esophageal pH test. (author).

  6. Contribution of hiatal hernia to asthma in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Tong; Ji, Feng; Han, Xin-Wei; Gu, Lin-Xia; Wang, Li; Yue, Yong-Qiang; Wang, Zhong-Gao

    2018-05-01

    To determine the correlation between asthma and hiatal hernia (HH) in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-related asthma requiring laparoscopic anti-reflux surgery. One hundred and thirty-six GERD patients with medically refractory asthma with (80 patients) or without HH (56 patients) were enrolled. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was assessed by endoscopy, esophageal manometry, reflux monitoring and symptom questionnaires, and treated with laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) or LNF with concomitant hiatal hernia repair (LNF-HHR). The outcome measures included patients' satisfaction and drug independence. The patients with HH had lower esophageal sphincters (P = .005) and higher DeMeester scores (P = .014) than those without HH. After an average follow-up of 24 months, symptom scores were significantly decreased from the preoperative values (P reflux, but also controlled asthma symptoms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Urinary tract infection caused by Enterobacteriaceae and its relationship with vesicoureteral reflux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Álvarez, Manuel; Acosta Batista, Bárbara; Pérez Córdova, Rodolfo; Hernández Robledo, Ernesto

    The first urinary tract infection can be a marker of a urinary tract anomaly, mainly vesicoureteral reflux. The aim of this work was to determine the association between isolated enterobacteria with the presence and grade of vesicoureteral reflux in neonatal patients with their first urinary tract infection. A retrospective, observational and analytic study of newborns, who were admitted to the Neonatal Department, University Pediatric Hospital "Juan Manuel Márquez," in Havana, Cuba, from 1992 to 2013 was conducted. The causal microorganism of urinary tract infection was from the Enterobacteriaceae family. They were evaluated by radio imaging. The association between the presence and grade of vesicoureteral reflux with the causal microorganism of the urinary tract infection was analyzed. Newborn infants with urinary tract infection (450) were studied. Bacterial isolations in the urine cultures corresponded to E. coli in 316 cases (70.2%). The prevalence of vesicoureteral reflux was 18.2%. The presence of bacteria corresponding to the Enterobacteriaceae family (other than E. coli) had significant risk association with vesicoureteral reflux (OR: 2.02; p urinary tract infection. However, an association between the isolation of a microorganism of the Enterobacteriaceae family different to E. coli with the presence of vesicoureteral reflux and mainly with higher grades of vesicoureteral reflux exists. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Dental approach to erosive tooth wear in gastroesophageal reflux ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The duration of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), the frequency of reflux, the pH and type of acid, and the quality and quantity of saliva affect the severity of dental erosion due to GERD. Objective: To summarize the diagnostic protocol and treatment of dental erosion due to GERD. Methods: A Medline ...

  9. A proposition for the diagnosis and treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in children: A report from a working group on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Vandenplas (Yvan); A. Ashkenazi (A.); D. Belli (D.); N. Boige (N.); J. Bouquet (Jan); S. Cadranel (S.); J.P. Cezard (J.); S. Cucchiara (S.); C. Dupont (C.); K. Geboes (K.); F. Gottrand; H.S.A. Heymans (Hugo); C. Jasinski (C.); C.M.F. Kneepkens (Frank); S. Koletzko (Sybille); P. Milla (Peter); J.F. Mougenot (J.); D. Nusslé (D.); J. Navarro (J.); S.J. Newell (S.); E. Olafsdottir (E.); S. Peeters (S.); A. Ravelli (A.); I. Polanco (I.); B. Sandhu; J.J. Tolboom (Jules)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, a Working Group on Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux discusses recommendations for the first line diagnostic and therapeutic approach of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in infants and children. All members of the Working Group agreed that infants with uncomplicated

  10. ANTISECRETORY TREATMENT FOR PEDIATRIC GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE - A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Ângelo Zambam de; Marchese, Gabriela Meirelles; Fonseca, Bárbara Brum; Kupski, Carlos; Machado, Marta Brenner

    2017-12-01

    Proton pump inhibitors and histamine H2 receptor antagonists are two of the most commonly prescribed drug classes for pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease, but their efficacy is controversial. Many patients are treated with these drugs for atypical manifestations attributed to gastroesophageal reflux, even that causal relation is not proven. To evaluate the use of proton pump inhibitors and histamine H2 receptor antagonists in pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease through a systematic review. A systematic review was performed, using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. The search was limited to studies published in English, Portuguese or Spanish. There was no limitation regarding date of publication. Studies were considered eligible if they were randomized-controlled trials, evaluating proton pump inhibitors and/or histamine H2 receptor antagonists for the treatment of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease. Studies published only as abstracts, studies evaluating only non-clinical outcomes and studies exclusively comparing different doses of the same drug were excluded. Data extraction was performed by independent investigators. The study protocol was registered at PROSPERO platform (CRD42016040156). After analyzing 735 retrieved references, 23 studies (1598 randomized patients) were included in the systematic review. Eight studies demonstrated that both proton pump inhibitors and histamine H2 receptor antagonists were effective against typical manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease, and that there was no evidence of benefit in combining the latter to the former or in routinely prescribing long-term maintenance treatments. Three studies evaluated the effect of treatments on children with asthma, and neither proton pump inhibitors nor histamine H2 receptor antagonists proved to be significantly better than placebo. One study compared different combinations of omeprazole, bethanechol and placebo for the

  11. Mode of action of alginic acid compound in the reduction of gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmud, L.S.; Charkes, N.D.; Littlefield, J.; Reilley, J.; Stern, H.; Rosenberg, R.; Fisher, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate quantitatively the mode of action of alginic acid compound (AAC) in the treatment of patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy using an orally administered Tc-99m sulfur colloid solution was used to demonstrate that AAC decreased significantly the gastroesophageal reflux index from (9.9 +- 1.3)% to (6.5 +- 0.8)% (p < 0.05). No alteration of lower esophageal sphincter pressure was observed. After AAC was suitably labeled with Sr-87m, a dual-nuclide scintigraphic technique was used to show that most (< 75%) of the AAC was located in the upper half of the stomach in both normal subjects and patients with gastroesophageal reflux. In those subjects in whom reflux did occur after treatment with AAC, the Sr-87m-AAC refluxed into the esophagus preferentially compared with the liquid containing Tc-99m sulfur colloid. These findings suggest that AAC diminishes gastroesophageal reflux by means of its foaming, floating, and viscous properties

  12. Comparison of barium swallow and ultrasound in diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, D R; Bolia, A; Moore, D J

    1985-01-01

    Fifty one infants and older children with suspected gastro-oesophageal reflux entered a study comparing the diagnostic accuracy of a standard barium swallow examination with that of ultrasound scanning. All children were examined by both techniques. In 40 cases there was unequivocal agreement between the examinations. Of the remaining patients, four had definite reflux by ultrasonic criteria but showed no evidence of reflux on barium swallow examination, four had positive findings on ultrasound but showed only minimal reflux on barium swallow, and one showed minimal reflux on ultrasound but had a negative barium meal result. In two children the ultrasound study was inconclusive. Ultrasound has an important role in the diagnosis and follow up of patients under the age of 5 years with gastro-oesophageal reflux. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 PMID:3924317

  13. Quality of life, patient satisfaction, and disease burden in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease with or without laryngopharyngeal reflux symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Choi, Kee Don; Jung, Hye-Kyung; Youn, Young Hoon; Min, Byung-Hoon; Song, Kyung Ho; Huh, Kyu Chan

    2017-07-01

    Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) have decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL). The quality of life in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) symptoms is also significantly impaired. However, the impact of LPR symptoms on HRQL in GERD patients has not been studied. A nationwide, random-sample, and face-to-face survey of 300 Korean patients with GERD was conducted from January to March 2013. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms were assessed using the Rome III questionnaire, LPR symptoms using the reflux symptom index, and HRQL using the EuroQol five dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire. A structured questionnaire on patient satisfaction, sickness-related absences, and health-related work productivity was also used. Among the 300 patients with GERD, 150 had LPR symptoms. The mean EQ-5D index was lower in patients with GERD and LPR symptoms than in those without LPR (0.88 vs 0.91, P = 0.002). A linear regression model showed that the severity of LPR symptoms was related to decreased HRQL and was independent of age, marital status, body mass index, or household income. The overall satisfaction rate regarding treatment was lower in patients with GERD and LPR (40.0% vs 69.1%, P = 0.040). GERD patients with LPR symptoms reported greater sickness-related absent hours per week (0.36 vs 0.02 h, P = 0.016) and greater percentages of overall work impairment than those without LPR (31.1% vs 20.8%, P Gastroesophageal reflux disease patients with LPR symptoms have a poorer HRQL, a lower satisfaction rate, and a greater disease burden than those without LPR. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Experimental pulmonary fibrosis in rats with chronic gastric acid reflux esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Rintaro; Aoki, Shigehisa; Kuratomi, Yuichiro

    2015-10-01

    To elucidate the association between gastric acid reflux and respiratory diseases by studying the histological changes of the lower airway in rats with chronic acid reflux esophagitis. An experimental rat model of chronic acid reflux esophagitis was surgically created. The lower airways of these rats were histologically observed for more than 50 weeks. Although there were no histological changes which induced gastric acid reflux at 10 weeks after surgery, thickening of the basal laminae and the proliferation of the collagenous fibers were observed in the alveolar epithelium at 20 weeks after surgery. At 50 weeks after surgery, the collagenous fibers obliterated the pulmonary alveoli and bronchial lumen. These findings observed in the GERD rats are similar to the pathological findings of human pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we reported pathological changes in the lower airways of GERD rat models observed for more than 50 weeks. These results suggest that gastric acid reflux may be one of the pathogenic or exacerbating factors of pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of reflux nephropathy, pyelonephritis and renal dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grattan-Smith, J.D. [Emory University School of Medicine, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Little, Stephen B. [Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Jones, Richard A. [Emory University School of Medicine, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, Department of Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2008-01-15

    MR urography has the potential to significantly improve our understanding of the relationship between reflux nephropathy, pyelonephritis, vesicoureteric reflux and renal dysplasia. MR urography utilizes multiple parameters to assess both renal anatomy and function and provides a more complete characterization of acquired and congenital disease. Pyelonephritis and renal scarring can be distinguished by assessing the parenchymal contours and signal intensity. Characteristic imaging features of renal dysplasia include small size, subcortical cysts, disorganized architecture, decreased and patchy contrast enhancement as well as a dysmorphic pelvicalyceal system. Because of its ability to subdivide and categorize this heterogeneous group of disorders, it seems inevitable that MR urography will replace DMSA renal scintigraphy as the gold standard for assessment of pyelonephritis and renal scarring. MR urography will contribute to our understanding of renal dysplasia and its relationship to reflux nephropathy. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of reflux nephropathy, pyelonephritis and renal dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grattan-Smith, J.D.; Little, Stephen B.; Jones, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    MR urography has the potential to significantly improve our understanding of the relationship between reflux nephropathy, pyelonephritis, vesicoureteric reflux and renal dysplasia. MR urography utilizes multiple parameters to assess both renal anatomy and function and provides a more complete characterization of acquired and congenital disease. Pyelonephritis and renal scarring can be distinguished by assessing the parenchymal contours and signal intensity. Characteristic imaging features of renal dysplasia include small size, subcortical cysts, disorganized architecture, decreased and patchy contrast enhancement as well as a dysmorphic pelvicalyceal system. Because of its ability to subdivide and categorize this heterogeneous group of disorders, it seems inevitable that MR urography will replace DMSA renal scintigraphy as the gold standard for assessment of pyelonephritis and renal scarring. MR urography will contribute to our understanding of renal dysplasia and its relationship to reflux nephropathy. (orig.)

  17. [Proton pump inhibitors in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: what is the further step?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Mireille; Zerbib, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Optimisation of proton pump inhibitors use may improve reflux symptoms in 20-25% of the patients. Pathological gastro-oesophageal reflux should be documented in a patient with refractory reflux symptoms using upper endoscopy and/or pH testing. While on proton pump inhibitors twice daily, persistent symptoms are not related to gastro-oesophageal refluxdisease(GERD) in 50% of the patients. The new anti-reflux compounds have yet a limited efficacy and side effects that currently limit their development. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Scintigraphy, pH measurement and radiography in the evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, B.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Erichsen, H.; Myrvold, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Scintigraphy as a diagnostic tool has been explored in 69 patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) symptoms and endoscopic esophagitis. In all subjects the presence of reflux was also evaluated by radiography and intraesophageal pH measurements (standard acid reflux test). The overall sensitivity of scintigraphy (85.5%) was significantly higher than those of radiography (27.5%) and pH measurements (69.5%). Scintigraphy was performed with normal saline and with acidified orange juice as the transport medium for the isotope 99mTc. The yield of positive scintigrams was higher (22.3 to 61.1%, depending on the grade of endoscopic esophagitis) with the latter variant. Moreover, demonstration of spontaneous reflux was greatly facilitated by the acid scintigraphy. This was particularly obvious in the grade I esophagitis, in which the freqency of spontaneous reflux with saline method was 3.4% and with acid medium 34/3%. Reflux (induced or spontaneous) was seen in 22 normal control subjects with the saline method, and in 1 subject only with the acid method. On the basis of these findings it is concluded that scintigraphy, especially the acid variant of the technique, is a valuable diagnostic procedure in GER disease

  19. Pyelonephritis, renal scarring, and reflux nephropathy: a pediatric urologist's perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Edwin A. [Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Urology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Imaging of children with a clinical diagnosis of pyelonephritis is performed to characterize the extent of the infection, to identify associated renal injury and to uncover risk factors for future infections and renal damage. Although there is general agreement regarding the need for parenchymal imaging and the need to exclude processes that are either functionally or anatomically obstructive, there is controversy regarding the need for routine cystography, especially when parenchymal involvement has not been documented. A protocol that limits the use of cystography for evaluation of urinary tract infections must assume that the diagnosis of reflux is at least of variable clinical significance. It is now clear that vesicoureteral reflux and reflux nephropathy represent a diverse population that includes both congenital and acquired processes. MR imaging will improve our understanding of vesicoureteral reflux, pyelonephritis and renal scarring and might help us to identify and manage those patients most at risk for recurrent infections and renal injury. To recognize the potential contributions of this newer imaging technique it is helpful to look at our understanding of the pathophysiology of pyelonephritis, reflux and reflux nephropathy. (orig.)

  20. Scintigraphy, pH measurement and radiography in the evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, B.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Erichsen, H.; Myrvold, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    Scintigraphy as a diagnostic tool has been explored in 69 patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) symptoms and endoscopic esophagitis. In all subjects the presence of reflux was also evaluated by radiography and intraesophageal pH measurements (standard acid reflux test). The overall sensitivity of scintigraphy (85.5%) was significantly higher than those of radiography (27.5%) and pH measurements (69.5%). Scintigraphy was performed with normal saline and with acidified orange juice as the transport medium for the isotope 99mTc. The yield of positive scintigrams was higher (22.3 to 61.1%, depending on the grade of endoscopic esophagitis) with the latter variant. Moreover, demonstration of spontaneous reflux was greatly facilitated by the acid scintigraphy. This was particularly obvious in the grade I esophagitis, in which the freqency of spontaneous reflux with saline method was 3.4% and with acid medium 34/3%. Reflux (induced or spontaneous) was seen in 22 normal control subjects with the saline method, and in 1 subject only with the acid method. On the basis of these findings it is concluded that scintigraphy, especially the acid variant of the technique, is a valuable diagnostic procedure in GER disease.

  1. The role of hiatus hernia in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herwaarden, Margot A.; Samsom, Melvin; Smout, André J. P. M.

    2004-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the role of sliding hiatus hernia in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). The crural diaphragm acts as an external sphincter of the anti-reflux barrier. Contractions of the crural diaphragm increase lower-oesophageal-sphincter (LOS) pressure during each

  2. Tc-99m-DTPA renal scintigraphy and detection of intrarenal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poropat, M.; Basic, M.; Dodig, D.; Batinic, D.; Nizic, Lj.

    1994-01-01

    The intrarenal reflux plays the key role in the etiology of reflux nephropathy and its detection is of utmost importance in evaluating possible damage in kidney with reflux. In 176 kidneys (113 children) with different degree of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR), dynamic renal scintigraphy with Tc-99m-DTPA in zoom mode was performed. From each study 6 functional images of mean time were generated, kidney contour superimposed on each, and time activity curves (TAC) over possible areas of increased mean time were generated. In these study we analyzed only areas of increased mean time over the outer contour of the kidney which corresponds to the renal parenchyma. In later functional images of the mean time we found 53 focal retentions over the part of the kidney which corresponds to the renal cortex (33 in upper, 5 in middle and 15 in lower part of the kidney). TAC-s generated over these areas exhibited a sharp increase of activity on the descending part of the curves. We propose that the return of activity from the collecting system to the kidney cortex represents intrarenal reflux. In our opinion, analysis of functional images of the mean time could be a method for more accurate detection of intrarenal reflux and indicating the children with high risk to acquire renal scarring. (author)

  3. Evaluation of bile reflux in HIDA images based on fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Rong-Chin; Huang, Wen-Lin; Fan, Yu-Ming

    2015-05-01

    We propose a new method to help physicians assess, using a hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid scan image, whether or not there is bile reflux into the stomach. The degree of bile reflux is an important index for clinical diagnosis of stomach diseases. The proposed method applies image-processing technology combined with a hydrodynamic model to determine the extent of bile reflux or whether the duodenum is also folded above the stomach. This condition in 2D dynamic images suggests that bile refluxes into the stomach, when endoscopy shows no bile reflux. In this study, we used optical flow to analyze images from Tc99m-diisopropyl iminodiacetic acid cholescintigraphy (Tc99m-DISIDA) to ascertain the direction and velocity of bile passing through the pylorus. In clinical diagnoses, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is the main clinical tool for evaluating functional images of hepatobiliary metabolism. Computed tomography (CT) shows anatomical images of the external contours of the stomach, liver, and biliary extent. By exploiting the functional fusion of the two kinds of medical image, physicians can obtain a more accurate diagnosis. We accordingly reconstructed 3D images from SPECT and CT to help physicians choose which cross sections to fuse with software and to help them more accurately diagnose the extent and quantity of bile reflux. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Children(2-12 Month Based on Clinical Findings and Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Jassemi Zergani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gastroesophageal reflux is a common gastrointestinal disorder among infants, which can cause complications, such as esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus if its diagnosis and treatment are delayed. On the other hand, similarity of Gastro esophageal Reflux symptoms with symptoms of other childhood diseases makes its diagnosis and treatment difficult. So a proper tool for early screening and diagnostic test is essential. Methods: This study was conducted on 221 infants(2 to 12 months with initial symptoms of gastro esophageal reflux(frequent vomiting, restlessness after feeding, no weight gain, coughing repeatedly and refusing to eat that referred to pediatric Clinic of Rajai Hospital in Tonekabon. Data was collected with demographic and infant gastro esophageal reflux questionnaire by use of the information in records and interview with parents. Then the samples were examined via sonography for gastroesophagial reflux. Results: After initial screening based on infants gastro esophageal reflux tool, gastro esophageal reflux by ultrasound was positive in 63/3% of infants. The mean esophageal diameter was (20/73±2/54mm in infants with gastro esophageal reflux and (23/71±2/35mm in infants without gastro esophageal reflux. Conclusion: Due to the similarity of gastro esophageal Reflux symptoms with clinical symptoms of other childhood diseases, use of an initial screening measurement for early assessment of gastro esophageal reflux in infants is necessary. Moreover, appropriate, available and low costs diagnostic method with little complication seems essential such as ultrasonography for confirm diagnosis and early treatment.

  5. Vesicoureteric reflux in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameela A Kari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to identify the differences between primary and secondary vesicoureteric reflux (VUR and the effect of associated bladder abnormalities on kidney function. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with VUR who were followed up at King Abdulaziz University Hospital from January 2005 to December 2010. The review included results of radiological investigations and kidney function tests. We used Chi-square test for statistical analysis and paired t-test to compare group means for initial and last creatinine levels. Results: Ninety-nine children were included in this study. Twenty (20.2% had primary VUR, 11 had high-grade VUR, while 9 had low-grade reflux. All children with low-grade VUR had normal dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA. Renal scars were present in 72% of the children with high-grade VUR. The mean creatinine levels (initial and last for both groups were normal. Seventy-nine (79.8% children had secondary VUR, which was due to posterior urethral valves (PUV (46.8%, neurogenic bladder caused by meningomyelocele (25.3%, non-neurogenic neurogenic bladder (NNB (21.5%, or neurogenic bladder associated with prune belly syndrome (6.3%. Children with NNB, meningomyelocele and PUV had high creatinine at presentation with no considerable worsening of their kidney functions during the last visit. Renal scars were present in 49.4% of the children with secondary VUR. Conclusion: Children with primary VUR and normal bladder had good-functioning kidneys, while those with secondary VUR associated with abnormal bladder caused by NNB, spina bifida or PUV had abnormal kidney functions. DMSA scans were useful in predicting higher grades of VUR in children with primary reflux.

  6. Gastroesophageal reflux disease: Update on inflammation and symptom perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, Annamaria; Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Cocca, Silvia; Emerenziani, Sara; Cicala, Michele

    2013-10-21

    Although gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disorder in Western countries, with a significant impact on quality of life and healthcare costs, the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of symptoms remain to be fully elucidated. GERD symptoms and complications may result from a multifactorial mechanism, in which acid and acid-pepsin are the important noxious factors involved. Prolonged contact of the esophageal mucosa with the refluxed content, probably caused by a defective anti-reflux barrier and luminal clearance mechanisms, would appear to be responsible for macroscopically detectable injury to the esophageal squamous epithelium. Receptors on acid-sensitive nerve endings may play a role in nociception and esophageal sensitivity, as suggested in animal models of chronic acid exposure. Meanwhile, specific cytokine and chemokine profiles would appear to underlie the various esophageal phenotypes of GERD, explaining, in part, the genesis of esophagitis in a subset of patients. Despite these findings, which show a significant production of inflammatory mediators and neurotransmitters in the pathogenesis of GERD, the relationship between the hypersensitivity and esophageal inflammation is not clear. Moreover, the large majority of GERD patients (up to 70%) do not develop esophageal erosions, a variant of the condition called non-erosive reflux disease. This summary aims to explore the inflammatory pathway involved in GERD pathogenesis, to better understand the possible distinction between erosive and non-erosive reflux disease patients and to provide new therapeutic approaches.

  7. Effects of anxiety and depression in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, Boudewijn F; Bredenoord, Albert J; Saleh, Caroline M G; Smout, André J P M

    2015-06-01

    Increased levels of anxiety and depression have been associated with esophageal hyperalgesia and an increased risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We investigated the effects of anxiety and depression on GERD symptoms and the perception of reflux episodes in a well-characterized group of patients. We performed a prospective study of 225 consecutive patients who had symptoms of GERD evaluated. Patients underwent ambulatory 24-hour pH impedance monitoring, and levels of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. GERD was diagnosed in 147 patients (78 patients had functional heartburn); 36 patients were hypersensitive to gastroesophageal reflux. Among patients with GERD, increased levels of anxiety were associated with more severe retrosternal pain and retrosternal burning. Furthermore, increased levels of anxiety and depression each were associated with lower scores of the mental component of quality of life questionnaire. Levels of anxiety or depression were not associated with the number of reflux symptoms reported during 24-hour pH impedance monitoring or with the number of symptoms associated with a reflux event. Among GERD patients with hypersensitivity to reflux, levels of anxiety and depression and decreases in quality of life were similar to those of other patients with GERD. Patients with functional heartburn had higher levels of anxiety than patients with GERD. In patients with GERD, increased levels of anxiety are associated with increased severity of retrosternal pain and heartburn and reduced quality of life. Patients with GERD with hypersensitivity to gastroesophageal reflux have similar levels of anxiety and similar quality-of-life scores as other patients with GERD. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Causes of, and Therapeutic Approaches for, Proton Pump Inhibitor-Resistant Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Ishihara, Shunji

    2008-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most widely used drugs for treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, approximately 20% of patients with reflux esophagitis and 40% of those with nonerosive reflux diseases complain of troublesome symptoms, even during treatment with PPIs. In patients with reflux esophagitis, dose escalation and co-administration with a histamine ...

  9. Prevalence and Spectrum of Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease in Bronchial Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameschandra, Sahoo; Acharya, Vishak; Kunal; Vishwanath, Tantry; Ramkrishna, Anand; Acharya, Preetam

    2015-10-01

    There exists a complex interplay between asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Both these diseases are known to aggravate each other and amelioration of one is necessary for the control of the other. There is a paucity of studies in Indian population on this subject. To evaluate the clinical features and the endoscopic findings of the upper gastrointestinal tract in patients with bronchial asthma. Study was conducted at KMC group of hospitals, Mangalore in the Department of chest medicine in association with Department of gastroenterology. Subjects included 50 cases of bronchial asthma and controls were 58 non asthmatic patients with allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. All patients were queried about presence or absence of symptoms of upper gastro intestinal tract disorders by gastro oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) questionnaire and all the included patients underwent upper gastro intestinal endoscopy. The study showed that symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux were significantly more in asthmatics (52%) as compared to the controls (28%). The common presenting features of gastroesophageal reflux in asthmatics were heartburn (40%) retrosternal pain (24%), nocturnal cough (18%), dyspepsia (16%) and regurgitation (14%) and the above symptoms were significantly more common in asthmatics as compared to controls. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was found to be significantly more common in the asthmatics (58%) as compared to the control group where it was present in 32.75% of the subjects. Clinical or endoscopic evidence of any upper gastrointestinal disorder was found in 68% of the asthmatics as compared to 37.93% of the controls. This difference was found to be statistically significant. The study showed that gastroesophageal reflux disease was significantly more in asthmatics as compared to the controls. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms were more common in asthmatics as against controls. Clinical or endoscopic evidence of upper gastrointestinal disorder and

  10. Follow-up of a cohort of children and adolescents with gastro-esophageal reflux disease who were free of reflux esophagitis at initial diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruigómez, Ana; Lundborg, Per; Johansson, Saga; Wallander, Mari-Ann; García Rodríguez, Luis A

    2010-08-01

    Few studies have examined the incidence of complications from gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children and adolescents in primary care. Here we aimed to describe the natural history of GERD in a pediatric population with no reflux esophagitis at initial diagnosis, assessing diagnoses of new esophageal complications and extra-esophageal conditions. We used The Health Improvement Network UK primary care database (which includes data on more than 2 million patients) to identify individuals aged 1-17 years with a first diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux or heartburn in the period 2000-2005, via a computerized search followed by a manual review of the patient records. This search identified 1242 individuals with an incident diagnosis of GERD but no record of esophagitis. This cohort was followed-up to detect new diagnoses of esophageal complications and extra-esophageal conditions. During a mean follow-up period of almost 4 years, 40 children and adolescents had a confirmed new diagnosis of reflux esophagitis (incidence: 10.9 per 1000 person-years). No cases of Barrett's esophagus, esophageal stricture or esophageal ulcer were reported. Individuals with GERD had double the risk of an extra-esophageal condition such as asthma, pneumonia, cough or chest pain compared with children and adolescents with no diagnosis of GERD. Children and adolescents with GERD may be at risk of developing reflux esophagitis and a range of other extra-esophageal conditions, but more severe esophageal complications are rare.

  11. Gastro-esophageal reflux disease and exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Truls S; Marott, Jacob L; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that gastro-esophageal reflux disease is a risk factor for exacerbations in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Among 9622 participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we identified 1259 individuals with COPD...... applied a multivariable Cox regression analysis with adjustment for well-established risk factors associated with COPD exacerbations or gastro-esophageal reflux disease, including COPD severity, and symptoms. RESULTS: Individuals with COPD and gastro-esophageal reflux disease had more chronic bronchitis...... and information on gastro-esophageal reflux disease and the regular use of acid inhibitory treatment. These individuals were followed for 5 years with regard to medically treated COPD exacerbations, which we defined as a short course treatment with oral corticosteroids alone or in combination with antibiotics. We...

  12. [Gastritis associated with duodeno-gastric reflux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, M; Konate, A; Traore, C B; Drabo, M; Soukho, A espouse Diarra; Kalle, A; Dembele, M; Traore, H A; Maiga, M Y

    2007-01-01

    Our main objective was to study gastritis associated to duodeno-gastric reflux. It is about a longitudinal study case/witness, paired according to the sex and the age. It was unrolled from February 2005 to January 2006 in the digestive diseases department of the hospital Gabriél Touré, and endoscopic centers of Promenade des Angevins, and clinique Farako. The patients profited from an upper digestive endoscopy to appreciate endoscopic aspect of gastritis associated to bile in the stomach mucus lake. The gastric biopsies were systematic. This study included 50 patients having gastritis associated to bile in gastric mucus lake compared to 50 patients having gastritis associated to clearly gastric mucus lake. The sex-ratio was 1.26 in favour of men. The average age of the patients was of 41.30 +/- 15.43 years. On the symptomatic hand, fetid breath was significantly met in duodeno-gastric reflux (p = 0.013). Potash consumption in the "tô" (millet cake) was significantly reported in gastritis associated to bile in gastric mucus lake (p = 0.042). The endoscopic aspects were comparable. Histological aspects of nonatrophic chronic gastritis were significantly mint in witnesses as well into the antrum as into the fundus (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.00023). The reactional gastritis aspect was the prerogative of duodenogastric reflux (p ranging between 10(-6) and 3.10 (-6). Helicobacter pylori infection was found comparable in the two groups (p = 0.297). Dysplasia although rare was found only in gastritis associated to duodeno-gastric reflux. Gastritis associated to bile in gastric mucus does not se,nm to have specific clinical, endoscopic and histological presentation. However the presence of dysplasia must have an attentive monitoring.

  13. Belching during gastroscopy and its association with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B S; Lee, S H; Jang, D K; Chung, K H; Hwang, J H; Jang, S E; Cha, B H; Ryu, J K; Kim, Y-T

    2016-05-01

    Belching may result from transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation; therefore, it has been proposed that belching may be a manifestation of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This study was conducted to investigate the frequency of belching during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and its association with GERD. A retrospective review was performed on prospectively collected clinical and endoscopic data from 404 subjects who underwent EGD without sedation from December 2012 to May 2013 in a training hospital in Korea. All detectable belching events during endoscopy were counted. Frequency and severity of belching events were compared between the group with and without GERD using an ordinal logistic regression model. There were 145 GERD patients (26 erosive reflux disease and 119 nonerosive reflux disease [NERD]). In the multivariable analysis, GERD was significantly associated with a higher frequency of belching events (odds ratio = 6.59, P reflux disease (n = 378) and NERD (n = 293). NERD was also a predictive factor for frequent belching during EGD (odds ratio = 6.61, P Diseases of the Esophagus.

  14. [Esophageal complications of gastroesophageal reflux disease: consequences or defensive reactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Örs Péter; Bognár, Laura; Papp, András; Vereczkei, András

    2017-05-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease affects more than 10% of the adult population. Most patients can be effectively treated with lifestyle changes and adequate acid-reducing therapy. However, about 10% of the patients remain symptomatic despite treatment and severe complications may develop. Interestingly, some of these complications seem to be a sort of defensive mechanism that may either alleviate the patient's symptoms or prevent developing further complications. In Barrett's esophagus, which can be unambigously considered as a complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease, reflux symptoms ruining the quality of life may significantly improve, since the metaplastic Barrett epithelium is much more resistent to gastric acid, than the normal epithelial lining of the esophagus. Furthermore, the motility disorders (hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter, achalasia, cricopharyngeal achalasia) and structural changes (Schatzki's ring, esophageal stricture, subglottic trachea stenosis), which develop as a complication of reflux may help to prevent aspiration that can cause new complaints and may lead to further complications. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(20): 763-769.

  15. Radiologic diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux by means of graded abdominal compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, S.G.; Soekjer, H.; Johansson, K.E.; Tibbling, L.

    The aim of the study was to ascertain whether abdominal compression by a standardized technique increases the reliability of the radiologic diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Eighty-eight patients were examined by means of a manometric reflux test, 24-hour measurements of pH and endoscopy. The radiologic examination was performed with and without graded abdominal compression, the patient at the same time turning from side to side. When abdominal compression was included the result of the radiologic examination was positive in 31 patients. In the absence of abdominal compression reflux was detected in 11 of these patients. In one patient reflux was detected only without compression. All these 31 patients had one more test positive and in 27 at least 2 more tests were positive. Another 21 patients had reflux disease as indicated by at least 2 of the 3 other tests. The compression technique seems to yield no false positive responses, and proved to be significantly more reliable than examinations without compression.

  16. Gastroesophageal reflux after esophageal surgery. Evaluation by means of esophageal transit scintigram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Osamu; Yokoi, Hideki; Maebeya, Shinji and others

    1989-04-01

    By means of esophageal transit scintigram using /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA, 15 patients (13 esophageal carcinomas and 2 cardia carcinomas) were studied, in whom esophagogastric anastomosis was done according to the posterior invagination anastomosis technique we had devised. In all 8 patients with anastomosis at cervical region, gastroesophageal reflux was not seen on both scintigrams before and after meals, and the average pressure gradient of high pressure zone at anastomosis was 39.8 cmH/sub 2/O. In 2 of 7 patients with intrathoracic anastomosis, the scintigram before meals showed severe reflux. and the endoscopic findings showed diffuse and moderate erosion in the esophageal mucosa. The average pressure gradient across the anastomosis was 6.5 cmH/sub 2/O. In these 2 patients, the new fornix with a sharp angle of His was not formed. In the remaining 5 patients with intrathoracic anastomosis, reflux was not seen on the scintigram before meals. However, in 2 of them, the scintigram after meal and endoscopic examination revealed mild reflux and mild esophagitis respectively. Furthermore in one patient very mild reflux was observed only on the scintigram after meals but the endoscopic findings showed the normal esophageal mucosa. In these 5 patients, the average pressure gradient across the anastomosis was 17.0 cmH/sub 2/O, which was significantly higher (p<0.01) than that in 2 patients with severe reflux and was significantly lower (p<0.01) than the mean value of high pressure zone in 8 patients with cervical anastomosis. In conclusion, it is presumed that the formation of a large fornix enough to store food and a sharp angle of His are important factors in maintaining an anti-reflux mechanism. The esophageal transit scintigram was proved to be an excellent technique in detecting and evaluating quantitatively gastroesophageal reflux. (author).

  17. Sucralfate maintenance therapy in reflux esophagitis. Sucralfate Investigational Working Team

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, G. N.; Koelz, H. R.; Vosmaer, G. D.

    1995-01-01

    to prove in a double-blind placebo-controlled multinational trial the effects of sucralfate suspension 2 g BID and placebo in the prevention of recurrent reflux esophagitis. One hundred and eighty-four patients from 16 centers with reflux esophagitis Savary grade 1 and 2 were initially healed with