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Sample records for total radiated x-ray

  1. Total and available metal contents in sediments by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Sobrinho, Gilmar A.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the total and available contents of Al, Si, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr, Ba, Ce and Pb in sediments from river Atibaia were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence technique. The detection limits for K series varies from 200 ng.mL -1 for Al to 2 ng.mL -1 for Zn while for L series the value varies from 20 ng.mL -1 for Ba to 10 ng.mL -1 for Pb. The samples were submitted to two different processes, in order to obtain the total and biological available metal contents. The information about metal content is a important parameter for a correct evaluation about the hydrologic cycle in Piracicaba basin. All the measure were carried out at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas, SP, Brazil, using a white beam for excitation. (author)

  2. Synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) for evaluation of food contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, A.E.S.; Brienza, S.M.B.; Moreira, S.; Zucchi, O.L.A.; Nascimento Filho, V.F.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF) for the determination of metals and other elements in food available to the population in commercial establishments, in order to evaluate the risks of contamination by these products. The analyzed species were vegetables, leafy vegetables, fruits, cereal and grain. The results indicated that some species were contaminated by Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb with concentrations much higher than the reference values. (author)

  3. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis with synchrotron radiation monochromatized by multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieder, R.; Wobrauschek, P.; Ladisich, W.; Streli, C.; Aiginger, H.; Garbe, S.; Gaul, G.; Knoechel, A.; Lechtenberg, F.

    1995-01-01

    To achieve lowest detection limits in total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) synchrotron radiation has been monochromatized by a multilayer structure to obtain a relative broad energy band compared to Bragg single crystals for an efficient excitation. The energy has been set to 14 keV, 17.5 keV, 31 keV and about 55 keV. Detection limits of 20 fg and 150 fg have been achieved for Sr and Cd, respectively. ((orig.))

  4. The feasibility of 10 keV X-ray as radiation source in total dose response radiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ruoyu; Li Bin; Luo Hongwei; Shi Qian

    2005-01-01

    The standard radiation source utilized in traditional total dose response radiation test is 60 Co, which is environment-threatening. X-rays, as a new radiation source, has the advantages such as safety, precise control of dose rate, strong intensity, possibility of wafer-level test or even on-line test, which greatly reduce cost for package, test and transportation. This paper discussed the feasibility of X-rays replacing 60 Co as the radiation source, based on the radiation mechanism and the effects of radiation on gate oxide. (authors)

  5. Beer analysis by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.; Zucchi, Orgheda L.D.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn and Br in twenty-nine brands of national and international beers were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF). The results were compared with the limits established by the Brazilian Legislation and the nutritive values established by National Agricultural Library (NAL). The measurements were performed at the X-ray Fluorescence Beamline at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, in Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using a polychromatic beam for excitation. A small volume of 5 μL of sample beers containing just an internal standard, used to correct geometry effects, were analyzed without any pre-treatment. The measuring time was 100 s and the detection limits obtained varied from 1μg.L -1 for Mn and Fe to 15μg.L -1 for P. (author)

  6. Beer analysis by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.D.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn and Br in twenty-nine brands of national and international beers were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF). The results were compared with the limits established by the Brazilian Legislation and the nutritive values established by National Agricultural Library (NAL). The measurements were performed at the X-ray Fluorescence Beamline at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, in Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using a polychromatic beam for excitation. A small volume of 5 {mu}L of sample beers containing just an internal standard, used to correct geometry effects, were analyzed without any pre-treatment. The measuring time was 100 s and the detection limits obtained varied from 1{mu}g.L{sup -1} for Mn and Fe to 15{mu}g.L{sup -1} for P. (author)

  7. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols using Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence and Fe K-edge total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near-edge structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fittschen, U.E.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: ursula.fittschen@chemie.uni-hamburg.de; Meirer, F. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: fmeirer@ati.ac.at; Streli, C. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: streli@ati.ac.at; Wobrauschek, P. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria)], E-mail: wobi@ati.ac.at; Thiele, J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Julian.Thiele@gmx.de; Falkenberg, G. [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: falkenbe@mail.desy.de; Pepponi, G. [ITC-irst, Via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo (Trento) (Italy)], E-mail: pepponi@itc.it

    2008-12-15

    In this study a new procedure using Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) to characterize elemental amounts in atmospheric aerosols down to particle sizes of 0.015 um is presented. The procedure was thoroughly evaluated regarding bounce off effects and blank values. Additionally the potential of total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near edge structure (SR-TXRF-XANES) for speciation of FeII/III down to amounts of 34 pg in aerosols which were collected for 1 h is shown. The aerosols were collected in the city of Hamburg with a low pressure Berner impactor on Si carriers covered with silicone over time periods of 60 and 20 min each. The particles were collected in four and ten size fractions of 10.0-8.0 {mu}m, 8.0-2.0 {mu}m, 2.0-0.13 {mu}m 0.13-0.015 {mu}m (aerodynamic particle size) and 15-30 nm, 30-60 nm, 60-130 nm, 130-250 nm, 250-500 nm, 0.5-1 {mu}m, 1-2 {mu}m, 2-4 {mu}m, 4-8 {mu}m, 8-16 {mu}m. Prior to the sampling 'bounce off' effects on Silicone and Vaseline coated Si carriers were studied with total reflection X-ray fluorescence. According to the results silicone coated carriers were chosen for the analysis. Additionally, blank levels originating from the sampling device and the calibration procedure were studied. Blank levels of Fe corresponded to 1-10% of Fe in the aerosol samples. Blank levels stemming from the internal standard were found to be negligible. The results from the Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of the aerosols showed that 20 min of sampling time gave still enough sample material for elemental determination of most elements. For the determination of the oxidation state of Fe in the aerosols different Fe salts were prepared as a reference from suspensions in isopropanol. The results from the Fe K-edge Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis of the aerosol samples showed that mainly Fe(III) was present in

  8. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols using Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence and Fe K-edge total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near-edge structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fittschen, U.E.A.; Meirer, F.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Thiele, J.; Falkenberg, G.; Pepponi, G.

    2008-01-01

    In this study a new procedure using Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) to characterize elemental amounts in atmospheric aerosols down to particle sizes of 0.015 um is presented. The procedure was thoroughly evaluated regarding bounce off effects and blank values. Additionally the potential of total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near edge structure (SR-TXRF-XANES) for speciation of FeII/III down to amounts of 34 pg in aerosols which were collected for 1 h is shown. The aerosols were collected in the city of Hamburg with a low pressure Berner impactor on Si carriers covered with silicone over time periods of 60 and 20 min each. The particles were collected in four and ten size fractions of 10.0-8.0 μm, 8.0-2.0 μm, 2.0-0.13 μm 0.13-0.015 μm (aerodynamic particle size) and 15-30 nm, 30-60 nm, 60-130 nm, 130-250 nm, 250-500 nm, 0.5-1 μm, 1-2 μm, 2-4 μm, 4-8 μm, 8-16 μm. Prior to the sampling 'bounce off' effects on Silicone and Vaseline coated Si carriers were studied with total reflection X-ray fluorescence. According to the results silicone coated carriers were chosen for the analysis. Additionally, blank levels originating from the sampling device and the calibration procedure were studied. Blank levels of Fe corresponded to 1-10% of Fe in the aerosol samples. Blank levels stemming from the internal standard were found to be negligible. The results from the Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of the aerosols showed that 20 min of sampling time gave still enough sample material for elemental determination of most elements. For the determination of the oxidation state of Fe in the aerosols different Fe salts were prepared as a reference from suspensions in isopropanol. The results from the Fe K-edge Synchroton radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence-X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis of the aerosol samples showed that mainly Fe(III) was present in all particle size fractions

  9. Total radiation dosage from X-ray examinations in rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic skeletal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldursson, H.; Gustafsson, M.

    1977-01-01

    Young patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic diseases of the skeleton are increasingly being operated on with replacement of major joints. The great number of associated X-ray examinations performed on these patients has caused some anxiety amongst orthopaedic surgeons. Two patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis have been studied. An attempt was made to calculate the total radiation dose to bone marrow and gonads. For lack of recommendations for the maximum permissible radiation dose to patients, the dose calculated has been compared with the maximum permissible dose of radiation workers, and with the dose limit for non-occupational irradiation of individuals. The yearly absorbed dose in these two patients is much lower than the maximum permissible dose of radiation workers and only slightly higher than the dose limit for non-occupational exposure of individuals. (author)

  10. Multielemental analysis in Brazilian cigarettes using total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Moreira, Silvana

    2005-01-01

    In order to identify major and trace elements in conventional and light Brazilian cigarettes, Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SR-TXRF) was used. The fluorescence measurements were carried out at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas - Sao Paulo. This technique enables detection limit is in the ngg -1 range, which is very useful in elemental tobacco smoke analysis, since it presents most of its elements at a trace level. The major elements identified in tobacco samples were: S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe and Cd, and the trace elements were: Ti, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Ba. However in tobacco smoke samples, there were only two major elements: K and Ca, the others were present a trace level. The rate transfer of tobacco to tobacco smoke was about 2.5 % for all elements studied. (author)

  11. Observation of X-ray shadings in synchrotron radiation-total reflection X-ray fluorescence using a color X-ray camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fittschen, Ursula Elisabeth Adriane, E-mail: ursula.fittschen@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [Institut für Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Menzel, Magnus [Institut für Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Universität Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Scharf, Oliver [IfG Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Radtke, Martin; Reinholz, Uwe; Buzanich, Günther [BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany); Lopez, Velma M.; McIntosh, Kathryn [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Streli, Christina [Atominstitut, TU Wien, Vienna (Austria); Havrilla, George Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Absorption effects and the impact of specimen shape on TXRF analysis has been discussed intensively. Model calculations indicated that ring shaped specimens should give better results in terms of higher counts per mass signals than filled rectangle or circle shaped specimens. One major reason for the difference in signal is shading effects. Full field micro-XRF with a color X-ray camera (CXC) was used to investigate shading, which occurs when working with small angles of excitation as in TXRF. The device allows monitoring the illuminated parts of the sample and the shaded parts at the same time. It is expected that sample material hit first by the primary beam shade material behind it. Using the CXC shading could be directly visualized for the high concentration specimens. In order to compare the experimental results with calculation of the shading effect the generation of controlled specimens is crucial. This was achieved by “drop on demand” technology. It allows generating uniform, microscopic deposits of elements. The experimentally measured shadings match well with those expected from calculation. - Highlights: • Use of a color X-ray camera and drop on demand printing to diagnose X-ray shading • Specimens were obtained uniform and well-defined in shape and concentration by printing. • Direct visualization and determination of shading in such specimens using the camera.

  12. Observation of X-ray shadings in synchrotron radiation-total reflection X-ray fluorescence using a color X-ray camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fittschen, Ursula Elisabeth Adriane; Menzel, Magnus; Scharf, Oliver; Radtke, Martin; Reinholz, Uwe; Buzanich, Günther; Lopez, Velma M.; McIntosh, Kathryn; Streli, Christina; Havrilla, George Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Absorption effects and the impact of specimen shape on TXRF analysis has been discussed intensively. Model calculations indicated that ring shaped specimens should give better results in terms of higher counts per mass signals than filled rectangle or circle shaped specimens. One major reason for the difference in signal is shading effects. Full field micro-XRF with a color X-ray camera (CXC) was used to investigate shading, which occurs when working with small angles of excitation as in TXRF. The device allows monitoring the illuminated parts of the sample and the shaded parts at the same time. It is expected that sample material hit first by the primary beam shade material behind it. Using the CXC shading could be directly visualized for the high concentration specimens. In order to compare the experimental results with calculation of the shading effect the generation of controlled specimens is crucial. This was achieved by “drop on demand” technology. It allows generating uniform, microscopic deposits of elements. The experimentally measured shadings match well with those expected from calculation. - Highlights: • Use of a color X-ray camera and drop on demand printing to diagnose X-ray shading • Specimens were obtained uniform and well-defined in shape and concentration by printing. • Direct visualization and determination of shading in such specimens using the camera

  13. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation applied to biological and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simabuco, S.M.; Matsumoto, E.; Jesus, E.F.O.; Lopes, R.T.; Perez, C.; Nascimento Filho, V.F.; Costa, R.S.S.; Tavares do Carmo, M.G.; Saunders, C.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence has been applied for trace elements in water and aqueous solutions, environmental samples and biological materials after sample preparation and to surface analysis of silicon wafers. The present paper shows some results of applications for rainwater, atmospheric particulate material, colostrum and nuclear samples. (author)

  14. Synchrotron radiation total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis; of polymer coated silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, L.; Kregsamer, P.; Pianetta, P.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) provides an efficient method for analyzing trace metal contamination on silicon wafer surfaces. New polymeric materials used as interlayer dielectrics in microprocessors are applied to the surface of silicon wafers by a spin-coating process. Analysis of these polymer coated wafers present a new challenge for TXRF analysis. Polymer solutions are typically analyzed for bulk metal contamination prior to application on the wafer using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Questions have arisen about how to relate results of surface contamination analysis (TXRF) of a polymer coated wafer to bulk trace analysis (ICP-MS) of the polymer solutions. Experiments were done to explore this issue using synchrotron radiation (SR) TXRF. Polymer solutions were spiked with several different concentrations of metals. These solutions were applied to silicon wafers using the normal spin-coating process. The polymer coated wafers were then measured using the SR-TXRF instrument set-up at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). Several methods of quantitation were evaluated. The best results were obtained by developing calibration curves (intensity versus ppb) using the spiked polymer coated wafers as standards. Conversion of SR-TXRF surface analysis results (atoms/cm 2 ) to a volume related concentration was also investigated. (author)

  15. Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Microcontamination Analysis on Silicon Wafer Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaura, Norikatsu

    1997-10-01

    As dimensions in state-of-the-art CMOS devices shrink to less than 0.1 pm, even low levels of impurities on wafer surfaces can cause device degradation. Conventionally, metal contamination on wafer surfaces is measured using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TXRF). However, commercially available TXRF systems do not have the necessary sensitivity for measuring the lower levels of contamination required to develop new CMOS technologies. In an attempt to improve the sensitivity of TXRF, this research investigates Synchrotron Radiation TXRF (SR TXRF). The advantages of SR TXRF over conventional TXRF are higher incident photon flux, energy tunability, and linear polarization. We made use of these advantages to develop an optimized SR TXRF system at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). The results of measurements show that the Minimum Detection Limits (MDLs) of SR TXRF for 3-d transition metals are typically at a level-of 3x10{sup 8} atoms/cm{sup 2}, which is better than conventional TXRF by about a factor of 20. However, to use our SR TXRF system for practical applications, it was necessary to modify a commercially available Si (Li) detector which generates parasitic fluorescence signals. With the modified detector, we could achieve true MDLs of 3x10{sup 8} atoms/cm{sup 2} for 3-d transition metals. In addition, the analysis of Al on Si wafers is described. Al analysis is difficult because strong Si signals overlap the Al signals. In this work, the Si signals are greatly reduced by tuning the incident beam energy below the Si K edge. The results of our measurements show that the sensitivity for Al is limited by x-ray Raman scattering. Furthermore, we show the results of theoretical modeling of SR TXRF backgrounds consisting of the bremsstrahlung generated by photoelectrons, Compton scattering, and Raman scattering. To model these backgrounds, we extended conventional theoretical models by taking into account several aspects particular

  16. Multielemental analysis in cigarettes using total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, R.F.; Anjos, M.J. dos; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Lopes, R.T.; Moreira, S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: It is well known that trace elements have important ejects in the life processes. Some of these elements are toxic for the human even at a very low level of intake. It is known that tobacco plant easily absorbs the heavy metals from the soil, especially Cd and Ni, accumulating them in its leaves. Part of these metals are transferred from tobacco to human body where they will be accumulated and damage some organs, mainly kidneys and liver. In this way, cigarettes are responsible for the death of millions of people in the world, about one death every eight seconds. The aim of this work was to determine the elemental concentrations of ten different elements in tobacco of Brazilian cigarettes used Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation method. The fluorescence measurements were carried out at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas - Sao Paulo. A qualitative analysis of spectral peaks showed that the samples contained potassium, calcium, titanium, chromium, manganese, iron, copper, rubidium and strontium. Among these elements, calcium, potassium and iron presented the highest concentrations. There was a wide range in the elemental concentrations in the tobacco, due various factors, such as agricultural practices, soil characteristics, climatic conditions and plant varieties. Our results are in good concern with the results reported by the scientific literature

  17. Recent results of synchrotron radiation induced total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis at HASYLAB, beamline L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streli, C. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: streli@ati.ac.at; Pepponi, G. [ITC-irst, Povo (Italy); Wobrauschek, P. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Jokubonis, C. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Falkenberg, G. [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor at Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Zaray, G. [Institute of Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, 3 EOTVOS Univ, Budapest (Hungary); Broekaert, J. [Institute of Anorganic and Applied Chemistry, University Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Fittschen, U. [Institute of Anorganic and Applied Chemistry, University Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Peschel, B. [Institute of Anorganic and Applied Chemistry, University Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    At the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor (HASYLAB), Beamline L, a vacuum chamber for synchrotron radiation-induced total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis, is now available which can easily be installed using the adjustment components for microanalysis present at this beamline. The detector is now in the final version of a Vortex silicon drift detector with 50-mm{sup 2} active area from Radiant Detector Technologies. With the Ni/C multilayer monochromator set to 17 keV extrapolated detection limits of 8 fg were obtained using the 50-mm{sup 2} silicon drift detector with 1000 s live time on a sample containing 100 pg of Ni. Various applications are presented, especially of samples which are available in very small amounts: As synchrotron radiation-induced total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis is much more sensitive than tube-excited total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis, the sampling time of aerosol samples can be diminished, resulting in a more precise time resolution of atmospheric events. Aerosols, directly sampled on Si reflectors in an impactor were investigated. A further application was the determination of contamination elements in a slurry of high-purity Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. No digestion is required; the sample is pipetted and dried before analysis. A comparison with laboratory total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis showed the higher sensitivity of synchrotron radiation-induced total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis, more contamination elements could be detected. Using the Si-111 crystal monochromator also available at beamline L, XANES measurements to determine the chemical state were performed. This is only possible with lower sensitivity as the flux transmitted by the crystal monochromator is about a factor of 100 lower than that transmitted by the multilayer monochromator. Preliminary results of X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements for As in xylem sap from cucumber plants fed with As(III) and As(V) are

  18. Recent results of synchrotron radiation induced total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis at HASYLAB, beamline L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streli, C.; Pepponi, G.; Wobrauschek, P.; Jokubonis, C.; Falkenberg, G.; Zaray, G.; Broekaert, J.; Fittschen, U.; Peschel, B.

    2006-01-01

    At the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor (HASYLAB), Beamline L, a vacuum chamber for synchrotron radiation-induced total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis, is now available which can easily be installed using the adjustment components for microanalysis present at this beamline. The detector is now in the final version of a Vortex silicon drift detector with 50-mm 2 active area from Radiant Detector Technologies. With the Ni/C multilayer monochromator set to 17 keV extrapolated detection limits of 8 fg were obtained using the 50-mm 2 silicon drift detector with 1000 s live time on a sample containing 100 pg of Ni. Various applications are presented, especially of samples which are available in very small amounts: As synchrotron radiation-induced total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis is much more sensitive than tube-excited total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis, the sampling time of aerosol samples can be diminished, resulting in a more precise time resolution of atmospheric events. Aerosols, directly sampled on Si reflectors in an impactor were investigated. A further application was the determination of contamination elements in a slurry of high-purity Al 2 O 3 . No digestion is required; the sample is pipetted and dried before analysis. A comparison with laboratory total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis showed the higher sensitivity of synchrotron radiation-induced total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis, more contamination elements could be detected. Using the Si-111 crystal monochromator also available at beamline L, XANES measurements to determine the chemical state were performed. This is only possible with lower sensitivity as the flux transmitted by the crystal monochromator is about a factor of 100 lower than that transmitted by the multilayer monochromator. Preliminary results of X-ray absorption near-edge structure measurements for As in xylem sap from cucumber plants fed with As(III) and As(V) are reported. Detection

  19. Elemental concentration in normal skin and fibroepithelial polip lesions by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Julio C.A.C.R.; Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Anjos, Marcelino J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the concentrations of trace elements were measured in acrochordon, a skin lesion also known as skin tag or fibroepithelial polyp, as well as in normal skin from the same patient. The samples were analysed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X- ray Fluorescence (SRTXRF) in the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas/Sao Paulo-Brazil. The collection of lesion and healthy skin samples, including papillary dermis and epidermis, has involved 17 patients. It was evaluated the presence of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb in the paired samples, which were compared, and significant differences were found in some of them. (author)

  20. Fish samples as bioindicator of environmental quality: synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de; Moreira, Silvana; Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura , Piracicaba, SP; Brazil)

    2005-01-01

    In this study fish were used as bioindicators of environmental contamination. The species were collected in Piracicaba River, Sao Paulo state, Brazil and the toxic elements concentrations were determined in muscle tissue and viscus (liver, intestine and stomach) by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SR-TXRF). Were determined the elements Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ba. The results were compared with values established by Brazilian Legislation for general food. The elements concentrations evidenced potential risk to human health and environmental quality alteration of the studied area. The measurements were realized at the 'Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron' (LNLS) located in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. (author)

  1. Fish samples as bioindicator of environmental quality: synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In this study fish were used as bioindicators of environmental contamination. The species were collected in Piracicaba River, Sao Paulo state, Brazil and the toxic elements concentrations were determined in muscle tissue and viscus (liver, intestine and stomach) by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SR-TXRF). Were determined the elements Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ba. The results were compared with values established by Brazilian Legislation for general food. The elements concentrations evidenced potential risk to human health and environmental quality alteration of the studied area. The measurements were realized at the 'Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron' (LNLS) located in Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. (author)

  2. Radiation safety in X-ray facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-09-01

    The guide specifies the radiation safety requirements for structural shielding and other safety arrangements used in X-ray facilities in medical and veterinary X-ray activities and in industry, research and education. The guide is also applicable to premises in which X-ray equipment intended for radiation therapy and operating at a voltage of less than 25 kV is used. The guide applies to new X-ray facilities in which X-ray equipment that has been used elsewhere is transferred. The radiation safety requirements for radiation therapy X-ray devices operating at a voltage exceeding 25 kV, and for the premices in which such devices are used, are set out in Guide ST 2.2

  3. Radiation safety in X-ray facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The guide specifies the radiation safety requirements for structural shielding and other safety arrangements used in X-ray facilities in medical and veterinary X-ray activities and in industry, research and education. The guide is also applicable to premises in which X-ray equipment intended for radiation therapy and operating at a voltage of less than 25 kV is used. The guide applies to new X-ray facilities in which X-ray equipment that has been used elsewhere is transferred. The radiation safety requirements for radiation therapy X-ray devices operating at a voltage exceeding 25 kV, and for the premices in which such devices are used, are set out in Guide ST 2.2.

  4. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, W.; Prange, A.

    1987-01-01

    In the past few years, total reflection X-ray flourescence analysis (TXRF) has found an increasing number of assignments and applications. Experience of trace element analysis using TXRF and examples of applications are already widespread. Therefore, users of TXRF had the opportunity of an intensive exchange of their experience at the 1st workshop on total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis which took place on May 27th and 28th 1986 at the GKSS Research Centre at Geesthacht. In a series of lectures and discussions dealing with the analytical principle itself, sample preparation techniques and applications as well as comuter programs for spectrum evaluation, the present state of development and the range of applications were outlined. 3 studies out of a total of 14 were included separately in the INIS and ENERGY databases. With 61 figs., 12 tabs [de

  5. Evaluation of heavy metals in atmospheric emissions from automotive industry by total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Weber Neto, Jose; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de

    2009-01-01

    This study had as goal to determine heavy metals and other elements (Ba, Br, Ca, Pb, Cl, Cr, Sr, Fe, Mn, Ni, K, Si, Ti and Zn) in atmospheric pollutants generated by an automotive industry located in the city of Engenheiro Coelho, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The sampling and sample preparation procedures were based on methods established by the Company of Sanitation and Technology (CETESB L9.234) and also by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA - Method 29). The analysis was performed at XRF Beamline (D09B-XRF) in the Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory (Campinas/SP). A white beam of synchrotron radiation was used for sample and standard excitation which were irradiated by 100 seconds. For X-ray lines detection, a Ge (HP) detector with 150 eV of resolution at 5.9 keV was employed. For zinc, iron, barium, calcium and potassium, the values obtained were in the range of 30 mg/Nm 3 and, for other elements, the concentrations were approximately 1 mg/Nm 3 . The sum of As, Be, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Te and Zn concentration was compared with the limits established by CONAMA 264/1999 and SEMA 041/2002 resolutions (7.0 mg/Nm 3 ) and it was observed that, for all samples, sums are higher than the permissive value mainly due to the high concentration of zinc. Detection limits for SR-TXRF technique were 0.10 μg/Nm 3 for Pb and 0.02 μg/Nm 3 for Zn. (author)

  6. Evaluation of heavy metals in atmospheric emissions from automotive industry by total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Weber Neto, Jose, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de, E-mail: aesvives@unimep.b [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo

    2009-07-01

    This study had as goal to determine heavy metals and other elements (Ba, Br, Ca, Pb, Cl, Cr, Sr, Fe, Mn, Ni, K, Si, Ti and Zn) in atmospheric pollutants generated by an automotive industry located in the city of Engenheiro Coelho, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The sampling and sample preparation procedures were based on methods established by the Company of Sanitation and Technology (CETESB L9.234) and also by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA - Method 29). The analysis was performed at XRF Beamline (D09B-XRF) in the Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory (Campinas/SP). A white beam of synchrotron radiation was used for sample and standard excitation which were irradiated by 100 seconds. For X-ray lines detection, a Ge (HP) detector with 150 eV of resolution at 5.9 keV was employed. For zinc, iron, barium, calcium and potassium, the values obtained were in the range of 30 mg/Nm{sup 3} and, for other elements, the concentrations were approximately 1 mg/Nm{sup 3}. The sum of As, Be, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Te and Zn concentration was compared with the limits established by CONAMA 264/1999 and SEMA 041/2002 resolutions (7.0 mg/Nm{sup 3}) and it was observed that, for all samples, sums are higher than the permissive value mainly due to the high concentration of zinc. Detection limits for SR-TXRF technique were 0.10 mug/Nm{sup 3} for Pb and 0.02 mug/Nm{sup 3} for Zn. (author)

  7. Multielement determination in river-water of Sepetiba Bay tributaries (Brazil) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.M.; Castro, C.R.F.; Lopes, R.T.; Anjos, M.J.; Rio de Janeiro State Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Trace elements were determined in the surface waters of tributaries of the Sepetiba Bay, Brazil (Piraque, Ita, Sao Francisco, Guarda, Guandu Mirim, Vala do Sangue and Engenho Novo rivers) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). Eighteen trace elements could be determined in the dissolved and the suspended particulate phases: Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb. The elemental concentration values were compared to the values recommended by the Brazilian legislation. (author)

  8. Radiation therapy for angiosarcoma of the scalp: treatment outcomes of total scalp irradiation with X-rays and electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Masaharu; Wada, Hidefumi; Ogino, Ichiro; Omura, Motoko; Koike, Izumi; Tayama, Yoshibumi; Odagiri, Kazumasa; Kasuya, Takeo; Inoue, Tomio

    2014-10-01

    Wide surgical excision is the standard treatment for angiosarcoma of the scalp, but many patients are inoperable. Therefore, we investigated the outcome of radiation therapy for angiosarcoma of the scalp. Seventeen patients with angiosarcoma of the scalp underwent radiation therapy with total scalp irradiation. Four patients had cervical lymph node metastases, but none had distant metastases. A median initial dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions was delivered to the entire scalp. Subsequently, local radiation boost to the tumor sites achieved a median total dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Fourteen of the 17 patients developed recurrences during the median follow-up period of 14 months after radiation therapy; 7 had recurrences in the scalp, including primary tumor progression in 2 patients and new disease in 5, and 12 patients developed distant metastases. The primary progression-free, scalp relapse-free, and distant metastasis-free rates were 86, 67, and 38 % at 1 year and 86, 38, and 16 % at 3 years, respectively. Thirteen patients died; the overall and cause-specific survival rates were both 73 % at 1 year and 23 and 44 % at 3 years, respectively. The median survival time was 16 months. There were no therapy-related toxicities ≥ grade 3. Total scalp irradiation is safe and effective for local tumor control, but a dose of ≤ 50 Gy in conventional fractions may be insufficient to eradicate microscopic tumors. For gross tumors, a total dose of 70 Gy, and > 70 Gy for tumors with deep invasion, is recommended.

  9. Radiation risks for patients having X rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, J.; Thomas, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    In addition to radiation from naturally occurring radioactive materials and cosmic rays, individuals in developed countries receive radiation doses to bone marrow and gonads from the medical diagnostic use of X rays. A brief discussion of radiation epidemiology shows that deleterious effects are low even when doses are high. The concept of acceptable risk is introduced to help evaluate the small, but still existent, risks of radiation dose. Examples of bone marrow and gonadal doses for representative X-ray examinations are presented along with the current best estimates, per unit of X-ray dose, of the induction of leukemia or of genetic harm. The risk to the patient from an examination can then be compared with the normal risk of mortality from leukemia or of the occurrence of genetic defects. The risk increase is found to be very low. The risks to unborn children from radiographic examinations are also discussed. The benefit to the patient from information obtained from the examination must be balanced against the small risks

  10. Techniques for materials research with synchrotron radiation x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    A brief introductory survey is presented of the properties and generation of synchrotron radiation and the main techniques developed so far for its application to materials problems. Headings are:synchrotron radiation; X-ray techniques in synchrotron radiation (powder diffraction; X-ray scattering; EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure); X-ray fluorescent analysis; microradiography; white radiation topography; double crystal topography); future developments. (U.K.)

  11. Monitoring of the environmental pollution by trace element analysis in tree-rings using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirito de Vives, Ana Elisa [School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design Methodist University of Piracicaba, Rodovia Santa Barbara D' Oeste/Iracemapolis, km 01, 13450-000 Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Moreira, Silvana [State University of Campinas - UNICAMP/FEC (Brazil); Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo [School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design Methodist University of Piracicaba, Rodovia Santa Barbara D' Oeste/Iracemapolis, km 01, 13450-000 Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil); Silva Medeiros, Jean Gabriel [University of Sao Paulo - USP/ ESALQ (Brazil); Tomazello Filho, Mario Tomazello [University of Sao Paulo - USP/ ESALQ (Brazil); Araujo Domingues Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza [University of Sao Paulo - USP/FCFRP (Brazil); Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [University of Sao Paulo - USP/CENA (Brazil)

    2006-11-15

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, in order to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collection was carried out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, which presents high level of environmental contamination in water, soil and air, due to industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. The species Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') was selected because it is widely used in urban forestation. Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (SR-TXRF) was employed to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was performed in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for X-ray detection. In several samples, P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. The K/Ca, K/P and Pb/Ca ratios were found to decrease towards the bark.

  12. Monitoring of the environmental pollution by trace element analysis in tree-rings using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirito de Vives, Ana Elisa; Moreira, Silvana; Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo; Silva Medeiros, Jean Gabriel; Tomazello Filho, Mario Tomazello; Araujo Domingues Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, in order to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collection was carried out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, which presents high level of environmental contamination in water, soil and air, due to industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. The species Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') was selected because it is widely used in urban forestation. Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (SR-TXRF) was employed to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was performed in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for X-ray detection. In several samples, P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba and Pb were quantified. The K/Ca, K/P and Pb/Ca ratios were found to decrease towards the bark

  13. Radiation therapy for angiosarcoma of the scalp. Treatment outcomes of total scalp irradiation with X-rays and electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, Masaharu; Koike, Izumi; Kasuya, Takeo; Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Wada, Hidefumi [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Ogino, Ichiro [Yokohama City University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Omura, Motoko [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Shonankamakura General Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Kamakura, Kanagawa (Japan); Tayama, Yoshibumi [Yokohama Minami Kyousai Hospital, Department of Radiology, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Odagiri, Kazumasa [Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Yokohama Municipal Citizen' s Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    Wide surgical excision is the standard treatment for angiosarcoma of the scalp, but many patients are inoperable. Therefore, we investigated the outcome of radiation therapy for angiosarcoma of the scalp. Seventeen patients with angiosarcoma of the scalp underwent radiation therapy with total scalp irradiation. Four patients had cervical lymph node metastases, but none had distant metastases. A median initial dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions was delivered to the entire scalp. Subsequently, local radiation boost to the tumor sites achieved a median total dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Fourteen of the 17 patients developed recurrences during the median follow-up period of 14 months after radiation therapy; 7 had recurrences in the scalp, including primary tumor progression in 2 patients and new disease in 5, and 12 patients developed distant metastases. The primary progression-free, scalp relapse-free, and distant metastasis-free rates were 86, 67, and 38 % at 1 year and 86, 38, and 16 % at 3 years, respectively. Thirteen patients died; the overall and cause-specific survival rates were both 73 % at 1 year and 23 and 44 % at 3 years, respectively. The median survival time was 16 months. There were no therapy-related toxicities ≥ grade 3. Total scalp irradiation is safe and effective for local tumor control, but a dose of ≤ 50 Gy in conventional fractions may be insufficient to eradicate microscopic tumors. For gross tumors, a total dose of 70 Gy, and > 70 Gy for tumors with deep invasion, is recommended. (orig.) [German] Umfangreiche chirurgische Exzision ist die Standardbehandlung fuer Angiosarkome der Kopfhaut, aber viele Patienten sind nicht operierbar. Daher haben wir die Ergebnisse einer Strahlenbehandlung fuer Angiosarkome der Kopfhaut untersucht. Insgesamt 17 Patienten mit Angiosarkom der Kopfhaut erhielten eine Strahlenbehandlung der gesamten Kopfhaut. Vier Patienten hatten zervikale Lymphknotenmetastasen, aber keine Fernmetastasen. Die gesamte Kopfhaut

  14. Plasma x-ray radiation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, N F; Kargin, V I; Ryaslov, E A; Pikar', A S

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives the results of studies on a plasma x-ray source, which enables one to obtain a 2.5-krad radiation dose per pulse over an area of 100 cm2 in the quantum energy range from 20 to 500 keV. Pulse duration is 100 ns. Spectral radiation distributions from a diode under various operation conditions of a plasma are obtained. A Marx generator served as an initial energy source of 120 kJ with a discharge time of T/4 = 10-6 s. A short electromagnetic pulse (10-7 s) was shaped using plasma erosion opening switches.

  15. Soft X-ray radiation damage in EM-CCDs used for Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, D.; Soman, M.; Holland, A.; Keelan, J.; Hall, D.; Holland, K.; Colebrook, D.

    2018-02-01

    Advancement in synchrotron and free electron laser facilities means that X-ray beams with higher intensity than ever before are being created. The high brilliance of the X-ray beam, as well as the ability to use a range of X-ray energies, means that they can be used in a wide range of applications. One such application is Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS). RIXS uses the intense and tuneable X-ray beams in order to investigate the electronic structure of materials. The photons are focused onto a sample material and the scattered X-ray beam is diffracted off a high resolution grating to disperse the X-ray energies onto a position sensitive detector. Whilst several factors affect the total system energy resolution, the performance of RIXS experiments can be limited by the spatial resolution of the detector used. Electron-Multiplying CCDs (EM-CCDs) at high gain in combination with centroiding of the photon charge cloud across several detector pixels can lead to sub-pixel spatial resolution of 2-3 μm. X-ray radiation can cause damage to CCDs through ionisation damage resulting in increases in dark current and/or a shift in flat band voltage. Understanding the effect of radiation damage on EM-CCDs is important in order to predict lifetime as well as the change in performance over time. Two CCD-97s were taken to PTB at BESSY II and irradiated with large doses of soft X-rays in order to probe the front and back surfaces of the device. The dark current was shown to decay over time with two different exponential components to it. This paper will discuss the use of EM-CCDs for readout of RIXS spectrometers, and limitations on spatial resolution, together with any limitations on instrument use which may arise from X-ray-induced radiation damage.

  16. Characteristics of x-ray radiation from a gas-puff z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, N.; Takasugi, K.

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of x-ray radiation from Ar gas-puff z-pinch plasma have been investigated by changing delay time of discharge from gas puffing. Intense cloud structure of x-ray image was observed at small delay time region, but the total x-ray signal was not so intense. The x-ray signal increased with increasing the delay time, and hot spots of x-ray image also became intense. Electron temperature was evaluated from x-ray spectroscopic data, and no significant difference in temperature was observed. (author)

  17. Radiation doses for X-ray diagnosis teeth in dental medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direkov, Lyubomir

    2009-01-01

    X-rays are the first ionizing radiation, which are applied in medicine for diagnostic radiology and X-ray therapy. While in the beginning they are mainly used for X-ray photos of the chest /lungs and in severe fractures of the limbs, then in recent years they are widely applied in diagnostics of teeth in dental medicine. Considering that caries is a widespread disease, both in children and adults, and it requires repeated x-ray photographs of the damaged teeth for the individual, the total radiation doses, which reflect on people from the X-rays are at high values. In order to reduce external exposure to other organs /mainly thyroid gland/ by X-ray pictures of teeth, it should be used with special lead aprons with large coefficient of reduction. Keywords: doses of radiation, X-ray machines, dental, x-ray pictures of teeth, protection sources

  18. Evaluation of growth tree rings of Tipuana Tipu as biomonitoring of environmental pollution by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Geraldo, Simoni Michetti; Canteras, Felippe Benavente

    2013-01-01

    The bioindicators, plants or animals capable to present qualitative and/or quantitative answers, when exposed to pollutant substances. Trees record and incorporate in their log, developed year after year, the impressions of the environment, becoming possible the study of the different environmental changes, including contamination, that have occurred over the life of these trees. The selected species, Tipuana Tipu, of the Leguminosae family, is native of Argentina and Bolivia and was introduced in Brazil as an ornamental plant. It is one of the most common trees in the urban landscaping in Sao Paulo city. The present project has as main objective the determination of the content of potentially toxic elements in samples of growth the tree rings of Tipuana Tipu, previously dated, collected in strategically locations of Sao Paulo, using Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence. Samples were also collected in the Piracicaba (SP), local of little access and small flow traffic. The SR-TXRF analysis was carried out in the X-ray Fluorescence Beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, located in Campinas city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Some trace elements present concentrations higher than considered as normal in some periods. In this paper the highest value for Pb was 123.54 μg.g -1 considered as threshold value was observed for the period 1998 to 2000 for University of Sao Paulo, Butanta site. For the same period excessive level was also observed for samples collected in Piracicaba city. In Sao Paulo city, sample collected in the campus of University of Sao Paulo (Butanta), showed the highest toxicity, with concentration above the tolerable limit for Ti, Cr and Cu. For the samples collected in Piracicaba city the concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Pb exceeding the toxicity limits. (author)

  19. Evaluation of growth tree rings of Tipuana Tipu as biomonitoring of environmental pollution by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Geraldo, Simoni Michetti; Canteras, Felippe Benavente, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br, E-mail: felippe.canteras@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEC/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    The bioindicators, plants or animals capable to present qualitative and/or quantitative answers, when exposed to pollutant substances. Trees record and incorporate in their log, developed year after year, the impressions of the environment, becoming possible the study of the different environmental changes, including contamination, that have occurred over the life of these trees. The selected species, Tipuana Tipu, of the Leguminosae family, is native of Argentina and Bolivia and was introduced in Brazil as an ornamental plant. It is one of the most common trees in the urban landscaping in Sao Paulo city. The present project has as main objective the determination of the content of potentially toxic elements in samples of growth the tree rings of Tipuana Tipu, previously dated, collected in strategically locations of Sao Paulo, using Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence. Samples were also collected in the Piracicaba (SP), local of little access and small flow traffic. The SR-TXRF analysis was carried out in the X-ray Fluorescence Beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, located in Campinas city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Some trace elements present concentrations higher than considered as normal in some periods. In this paper the highest value for Pb was 123.54 μg.g{sup -1} considered as threshold value was observed for the period 1998 to 2000 for University of Sao Paulo, Butanta site. For the same period excessive level was also observed for samples collected in Piracicaba city. In Sao Paulo city, sample collected in the campus of University of Sao Paulo (Butanta), showed the highest toxicity, with concentration above the tolerable limit for Ti, Cr and Cu. For the samples collected in Piracicaba city the concentrations of Cr, Ni, Cu, and Pb exceeding the toxicity limits. (author)

  20. Evaluation of Fe and Zn/Cu ratio in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Leitao, Roberta G.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Bellido, Alfredo Victor B.; Anjos, Marcelino J.

    2011-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. In this work we have analyzed serum samples from patients with SCA by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. We have studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 years old, suffering from SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60 years old. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Student's t-test was applied in order to check whether the two populations (CG x SCA) had the same mean values. It was observed that elemental concentration of P, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br differed significantly (α = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and SCA. The concentrations of K, Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger 15%, 120 % and 20 %, respectively, when compared with the CG. On the other hand, the concentrations of P (-20 %), Cl (-6 %), Zn (-25 %) and Br (-22 %) were smaller than the values determined for the control group. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples of patients with SCA group than the CG. So, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. (author)

  1. Evaluation of Fe and Zn/Cu ratio in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Leitao, Roberta G.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: catarine@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Lab. de Instrumentaco Nuclear; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.b [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bellido, Alfredo Victor B., E-mail: alfredo@ien.gov.b [Federal Fluminense University (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Chemistry Inst.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b [State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Physics Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. In this work we have analyzed serum samples from patients with SCA by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. We have studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 years old, suffering from SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60 years old. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Student's t-test was applied in order to check whether the two populations (CG x SCA) had the same mean values. It was observed that elemental concentration of P, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br differed significantly ({alpha} = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and SCA. The concentrations of K, Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger 15%, 120 % and 20 %, respectively, when compared with the CG. On the other hand, the concentrations of P (-20 %), Cl (-6 %), Zn (-25 %) and Br (-22 %) were smaller than the values determined for the control group. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples of patients with SCA group than the CG. So, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. (author)

  2. Evaluation of Fe and Zn/Cu ratio in serum of patients with sickle cell anemia by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Leitao, Roberta G; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: catarine@lin.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear. Lab. de Instrumentaco Nuclear; Carvalho, Silvia M.F., E-mail: silvia@hemorio.rj.gov.b [State Institute of Hematology Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti (HEMORIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bellido, Alfredo Victor B., E-mail: alfredo@ien.gov.b [Federal Fluminense University (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Chemistry Inst.; Anjos, Marcelino J., E-mail: marcelin@lin.ufrj.b [State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Physics Inst.

    2011-07-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a blood disorder that affects hemoglobin, the protein found in red blood cells that help carry oxygen throughout the body. In this work we have analyzed serum samples from patients with SCA by using total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). The SRTXRF measurements were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo using a polychromatic beam. We have studied forty-three patients aged 18-50 years old, suffering from SCA and Sixty healthy volunteers aged 18-60 years old. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Student's t-test was applied in order to check whether the two populations (CG x SCA) had the same mean values. It was observed that elemental concentration of P, Cl, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br differed significantly ({alpha} = 0.05) between groups of healthy subjects and SCA. The concentrations of K, Fe and Cu in the serum samples of patients with SCA were larger 15%, 120 % and 20 %, respectively, when compared with the CG. On the other hand, the concentrations of P (-20 %), Cl (-6 %), Zn (-25 %) and Br (-22 %) were smaller than the values determined for the control group. The serum level Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (60%) in the serum samples of patients with SCA group than the CG. So, the Cu/Zn ratio can be used as an adjuvant index in enhancement for diagnosis of SCA. There are evidences of an association among Fe, Cu, Zn and Cu/Zn in the SCA pathogenesis process. (author)

  3. X-ray radiation effects in multilayer epitaxial graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, Jeremy; Tinkey, Holly; Hankinson, John; Heer, Walt A. de; Conrad, Edward H. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Arora, Rajan; Kenyon, Eleazar; Chakraborty, Partha S.; Cressler, John D. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Berger, Claire [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); CNRS-Institut Neel, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2011-12-05

    We characterize multilayer graphene grown on C-face SiC before and after exposure to a total ionizing dose of 12 Mrad(SiO{sub 2}) using a 10 keV x-ray source. While we observe the partial peeling of the top graphene layers and the appearance of a modest Raman D-peak, we find that the electrical characteristics (mobility, sheet resistivity, free carrier concentration) of the material are mostly unaffected by radiation exposure. Combined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data showing numerous carbon-oxygen bonds after irradiation, we conclude that the primary damage mechanism is through surface etching from reactive oxygen species created by the x-rays.

  4. The application of synchrotron radiation to X-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiller, E.; Eastman, D.E.; Feder, R.; Grobman, W.D.; Gudat, W.; Topalian, J.

    1976-06-01

    Synchrotron radiation from the German electron synchrotron DESY in Hamburg has been used for X-ray lithograpgy. Replications of different master patterns (for magnetic bubble devices, fresnel zone plates, etc.) were made using various wavelengths and exposures. High quality lines down to 500 A wide have been reproduced using very soft X-rays. The sensitivities of X-ray resists have been evaluated over a wide range of exposures. Various critical factors (heating, radiation damage, etc.) involved with X-ray lithography using synchrotron radiation have been studied. General considerations of storage ring sources designed as radiation sources for X-ray lithography are discussed, together with a comparison with X-ray tube sources. The general conclusion is that X-ray lithography using synchrotron radiation offers considerable promise as a process for forming high quality sub-micron images with exposure times as short as a few seconds. (orig.) [de

  5. Determination of technetium by total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudez, J.I.; Greaves, E.D.; Nemeth, P.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a technique using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) for determination of Technetium produced by elution of chromatography generators with physiological saline solutions. The analysis with the 18.41 keV K α line of Technetium was accomplished with monochromatized K α radiation from a silver anode x-ray tube operated at 45 keV and 20 mA. This radiation at 22.104 keV is efficiently coupled to the 21.054 keV absorption edge of Tc. It is also of advantage in the direct analysis of organic and saline properties of the Tc-bearing samples. Quantification was accomplished by internal standard addition of Ga and using an interpolated value of the sensitivity for Tc between Molybdenum and Rhenium. Data processing was carried out with the QXAS-AXIL software package. System sensitivity was found adequate for direct Tc determination of eluted saline solutions. The interest and advantages of the use of the technique as an auxiliary in the synthesis and characterization of Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals used for diagnosis in nuclear medicine are discussed. Detection limits in the matrices analyzed are reported. (author)

  6. Synchrotron radiation calibration for soft X-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, Jiamin; Guo, Cun; Xu, Rongkun; Jiang, Shilun; Xu, Zeping; Chen, Jinchuan; Xia, Guangxin; Xue, Feibiao; Qin, Yi

    2009-04-01

    The calibration experiments were carried out to X-ray film, scintillator and transmission grating by employing the soft X-ray station at 3W1B beam-line in Beijing synchrotron Radiation Facility. The experiments presented the black intensity curve and energy response curve of soft X-ray film. And the experimental results can be used in diagnosis of X-ray radiation characterization of Z-pinch, such as in the measurement of soft X-ray Power Meter, grating spectrometer, pinhole camera and one-dimension imaging system which can ensure precision of Z-pinch results. (authors)

  7. Total-reflection x-ray fluorescence with a brillant undulator x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, K.; Eba, H.; Numako, C.; Suzuki, M.; Inoue, K.; Yagi, N.

    2000-01-01

    Total-reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a highly sensitive technique for analyzing trace elements, because of the very low background from the sample support. Use of third-generation synchrotron x-ray source could further enhance the detection power. However, while such high sensitivity permits the detection of signals from trace elements of interest, it also means that one can observe weak parasitic x-rays as well. If the sample surface becomes even slightly contaminated, owing to air particulates near the beamline, x-ray fluorescence lines of iron, zinc, copper, nickel, chromium, and titanium can be observed even for a blank sample. Another critical problem is the low-energy-side tail of the scattering x-rays, which ultimately restricts the detection capability of the technique using a TXRF spectrometer based on a Si(Li) detector. The present paper describes our experiments with brilliant undulator x-ray beams at BL39XU and BL40XU, at the SPring-8, Harima, Japan. The emphasis is on the development of instruments to analyze a droplet of 0.1 μl containing trace elements of ppb level. Although the beamline is not a clean room, we have employed equipment for preparing a clean sample and also for avoiding contamination during transferring the sample into the spectrometer. We will report on the successful detection of the peak from 0.8 ppb selenium in a droplet (absolute amount 80 fg). We will also present the results of recent experiments obtained from a Johansson spectrometer rather than a Si(Li) detector. (author)

  8. Management of diagnostic x-ray radiation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, T.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a simple, inexpensive, and effective method to prevent the scattering of x-ray radiation by using a lead apron in the x-ray rooms of developing countries. In developed countries, the scattering of x-ray radiation among patients and radiographers in diagnostic x-ray rooms has been minimized by various methods. However, in some developing countries, scattered x-ray radiation has not yet been adequately contained. The policy of As Law As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) requires that patients who are waiting for their examinations must be protected from scattered x-ray radiation. However, from the author's experience, protection from scattered x-ray radiation in x-ray rooms is often insufficient in developing countries. In addition, major public hospitals in big cities are overwhelmed with patients because radiology resources in developing countries are concentrated in the big cities. Moreover, the situation is made worse by short working hours in public hospitals. Hours from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. are typical. Because of the circumstances, radiographers, who are in a rush to finish all of the examinations within their normal working hours, sometimes allow patients to enter the x-ray rooms while they are waiting for their examinations. Chest and abdominal x-rays are the most common kinds of diagnostic x-ray examination in developing countries. Thus, in this study, anthropomorphic chest and abdominal phantoms were x-rayed for measuring the scattered x-ray radiation with and without protection using a 0.25mmPb lead apron at specific points from the anthropomorphic phantoms in the x-ray room. The lead apron was hung on a mobile apron-hanger and placed next to the anthropomorphic phantom. The scattered radiation dosimetry for chest x-rays proves that this simple method reduces scattered x-ray radiation to 15% at one-meter point and to almost 0% at the two-meter point from the anthropomorphic phantom in the x-ray room. Lead aprons are

  9. Quantification of potentially toxic elements in sewage and sludge from treatment plants in the cities of Campinas and Jaguariuna using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Luciana Carla Ferreira de; Canteras, Felippe Benavente; Moreira, Silvana, E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br, E-mail: felippe.canteras@gmail.com, E-mail: lucarla24@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico. Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente

    2013-07-01

    The rapid urban and industrial development in last decades has brought as one of the consequences, changes in the environment. The lack of planning of city growth is, today, one of the major causes of water pollution including residential, industrial, agricultural, and hospital waste. The metals contamination is a major problem, causing serious changes to the environment, causing harm to human health. The sludge generated at sewage treatment plants, is an important source of nutrients and organic matter, and therefore it can also be reused mainly for agricultural use, since contaminants are removed. The cities of Campinas and Jaguariuna are inserted in the Campinas Metropolitan Region (CMR), one of the most dynamic regions in the Brazilian economy. Therefore, to study the anthropogenic influences of the cities, evaluated the quality of raw and treated effluent and the sludge generated in sewage treatment plants, especially with regard to heavy metals. Measurements of metals were performed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence. For treated effluent data were compared to CONAMA 357 law and Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb showed concentrations in according with the law. To reuse in agriculture the contents were compared to the limits defined by CETESB and some elements had concentrations above to the permitted preventing its reuse. For sludge, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb, in the two treatment plants studied, the concentrations were lower than the maximum permissible values established by CONAMA 375 law allowing the sludge application sludge on agricultural land. (author)

  10. Quantification of potentially toxic elements in sewage and sludge from treatment plants in the cities of Campinas and Jaguariuna using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Luciana Carla Ferreira de; Canteras, Felippe Benavente; Moreira, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    The rapid urban and industrial development in last decades has brought as one of the consequences, changes in the environment. The lack of planning of city growth is, today, one of the major causes of water pollution including residential, industrial, agricultural, and hospital waste. The metals contamination is a major problem, causing serious changes to the environment, causing harm to human health. The sludge generated at sewage treatment plants, is an important source of nutrients and organic matter, and therefore it can also be reused mainly for agricultural use, since contaminants are removed. The cities of Campinas and Jaguariuna are inserted in the Campinas Metropolitan Region (CMR), one of the most dynamic regions in the Brazilian economy. Therefore, to study the anthropogenic influences of the cities, evaluated the quality of raw and treated effluent and the sludge generated in sewage treatment plants, especially with regard to heavy metals. Measurements of metals were performed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence. For treated effluent data were compared to CONAMA 357 law and Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb showed concentrations in according with the law. To reuse in agriculture the contents were compared to the limits defined by CETESB and some elements had concentrations above to the permitted preventing its reuse. For sludge, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba and Pb, in the two treatment plants studied, the concentrations were lower than the maximum permissible values established by CONAMA 375 law allowing the sludge application sludge on agricultural land. (author)

  11. Biomonitoring of environmental pollution using growth tree rings of Tipuana tipu: Quantification by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldo, S. M.; Canteras, F. B.; Moreira, S.

    2014-02-01

    Currently, many studies use the bioindicators to qualitatively and/or quantitatively measure pollution. The analyses of tree growth rings represent one such bioindicator as changes in the environment are often recorded as impressions in the wood. The main objective of the present study is to examine the growth rings of Tipuana tipu - a member of the Leguminosae family that is native to Argentina and Bolivia and was introduced in Brazil as an ornamental plant - for potentially toxic elements. T. tipu is one of the most common trees in the urban landscape of Sao Paulo city and would provide an accurate reflection of environment changes. Tree ring samples previously dated using Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence were collected from strategic locations in Sao Paulo. These locations include Piracicaba (SP) that has little access and small flow traffic and the campus of the University of São Paulo. Some trace elements present concentrations higher than considered as normal in some periods. In São Paulo city, samples collected from the campus of University of São Paulo (Butantã), showed the highest toxicity, with concentrations above the tolerable limit for the elements: Cr, Cu, and Pb. For the samples collected in Piracicaba city, one sample presented highest concentrations for the majority of the elements when compared to the other four samples collected at the same place, exceeding the toxicity limits for: Cr, Ni, Cu, and Pb.

  12. Wavelength dispersive X-ray absorption fine structure imaging by parametric X-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Manabu; Sakai, Takeshi; Sato, Isamu; Hayakawa, Yasushi; Nogami, Kyoko; Tanaka, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Ken; Nakao, Keisuke

    2008-01-01

    The parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) generator system at Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application (LEBRA) in Nihon University is a monochromatic and coherent X-ray source with horizontal wavelength dispersion. The energy definition of the X-rays, which depends on the horizontal size of the incident electron beam on the generator target crystal, has been investigated experimentally by measuring the X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra on Cu and CuO associated with conventional X-ray absorption imaging technique. The result demonstrated the controllability of the spectrum resolution of XANES by adjusting of the horizontal electron beam size on the target crystal. The XANES spectra were obtained with energy resolution of several eV at the narrowest case, which is in qualitative agreement with the energy definition of the PXR X-rays evaluated from geometrical consideration. The result also suggested that the wavelength dispersive X-ray absorption fine structure measurement associated with imaging technique is one of the promising applications of PXR. (author)

  13. Radiation hazards of X-ray mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailar, J.C. III

    1978-01-01

    X-ray mammography delivers significant amounts of ionizing radiation to the breast, and the female breast is more susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis than any other human organ. On the other hand, breast cancer is least likely to cause serious illness and death when it is detected at a very early stage. The risks and benefits of mammography can be estimated. This paper summarizes current risk estimates, then proceeds to a comparison of risks and benefits. As for breast cancer mortality, the addition of mammography to a programme of annual breast examinations of average U.S. women is of questionable value for women under age 50 but it is probably beneficial for older women. However, the break-even point is closely related to the average radiation exposure of breast tissue, and would be earlier in a few centres now using optimum techniques and equipment. For women with below-average risks of breast cancer, the age would be higher, and for a few women with a high probability of developing breast cancer it would be lower. Breast cancer screening programmes have been improved significantly since criticisms were first publicized in mid-1975. Partial improvements include reduction in radiation exposure (at least in some centres), guidelines from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the American Cancer Society (ACS) for restricting the screening of women under age 50, and changes in the patient consent form signed by participants in the NCI-ACS programme. Professional and public awareness of the need to balance the benefits of screening with its risks and costs has rapidly and markedly increased. Future improvements should further define the optimum design and application of breast cancer screening programmes

  14. Monitoring environmental pollution of trace elements in tree-rings by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de; Brienza, Sandra Maria B.; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel S.; Tomazello Filho, Mario; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D.; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, as a manner to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collecting was carry out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, that presents high level of environmental contamination of the water, soil and air, due industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. It was selected the Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') specie because its very used in urban arborization. It was employed the analytical technique named total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was done in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for characteristic X-ray detection. It was quantified the P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba e Pb elements. (author)

  15. Monitoring environmental pollution of trace elements in tree-rings by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria B. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil) Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel S.; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]. E-mail: jeangm@esalq.usp.br; mtomazel@esalq.usp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, as a manner to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collecting was carry out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, that presents high level of environmental contamination of the water, soil and air, due industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. It was selected the Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') specie because its very used in urban arborization. It was employed the analytical technique named total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was done in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for characteristic X-ray detection. It was quantified the P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba e Pb elements. (author)

  16. Stabilization of synchrotron radiation x-ray beam by MOSTAB

    CERN Document Server

    Kudo, T P; Tanida, H; Furukawa, Y; Hirono, T; Ishikawa, T; Nishino, Y

    2003-01-01

    Monochromator stabilization (MOSTAB) is a feedback control system to stabilize an x-ray beam of synchrotron radiation. It applies a feedback voltage to a piezo electric transducer attached to a double-crystal monochromator. We developed MOSTAB modules and examined their performances using SPring-8 beamlines. The x-ray beam position stabilization using MOSTAB was realized simultaneously with the x-ray beam intensity stabilization. As an example of its application, we performed EXAFS measurement with MOSTAB. (author)

  17. Dose enhancement effects of X ray radiation in bipolar transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Panxun

    1997-01-01

    The author has presented behaviour degradation and dose enhancement effects of bipolar transistors in X ray irradiation environment. The relative dose enhancement factors of X ray radiation were measured in bipolar transistors by the experiment methods. The mechanism of bipolar device dose enhancement was investigated

  18. Infrared Radiography: Modeling X-ray Imaging without Harmful Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietz, Otto; Mylott, Elliot; Widenhorn, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Planar x-ray imaging is a ubiquitous diagnostic tool and is routinely performed to diagnose conditions as varied as bone fractures and pneumonia. The underlying principle is that the varying attenuation coefficients of air, water, tissue, bone, or metal implants within the body result in non-uniform transmission of x-ray radiation. Through the…

  19. Application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Applicability of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry for trace elemental analysis of rainwater samples was studied. The study was used to develop these samples as rainwater standards by the National University of Singapore (NUS). Our laboratory was one of the participants to use TXRF for this study.

  20. Comparative study of radiation dose between digital panoramic X-ray unit and general panoramic X-ray unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qingshan; Duan Tao; Wang Xiaoyun; Zhao Li; Dong Jian; Wei Lei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the actual dose of patients who receive the same medical practice by either digital panoramic X-ray unit and general panoramic X-ray unit and give evidence for better selection of oral X-ray examination method. Methods: Round sheet lithium fluoride (LiF) thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were used. The experiment was divided into natural background contrast group, general panoramic X-ray children group, general panoramic X-ray adults group, digital panoramic X-ray children group and digital panoramic X-ray adults group. The dosimeter of natural background radiation was placed at the office of the doctor, the dosimeters of general panoramic X-ray children group and general panoramic X-ray adults group were irradiated by different conditions according to the clinical application of panoramic X-ray to children and adults, the dosimeters of digital panoramic X-ray children group and digital panoramic X-ray adults group were irradiated by different conditions according to the clinical application of digital panoramic X-ray to children and adults. The thermoluminescent dosimeter was used to count and calculate the exposure doses in various groups. Results: The dose of children exposed in general panoramic X-ray unit was 1.28 times of that in digital panoramic X-ray unit, there was significant difference (t=6.904, P<0.01). The dose of adults exposed in general panoramic X-ray unit was 1.55 times of that in the digital panoramic X-ray unit, there also was significant difference (t=-11.514. P< 0.01). Conclusion: The digital panoramic X-ray unit can reduce the dose of patients, so the digital panoramic X-ray unit should be used as far as possible. (authors)

  1. X-ray elastography: Modification of x-ray phase contrast images using ultrasonic radiation pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Theron J.; Bailat, Claude; Rose-Petruck, Christoph; Diebold, Gerald J.; Gehring, Stephan; Laperle, Christopher M.; Wands, Jack

    2009-01-01

    The high resolution characteristic of in-line x-ray phase contrast imaging can be used in conjunction with directed ultrasound to detect small displacements in soft tissue generated by differential acoustic radiation pressure. The imaging method is based on subtraction of two x-ray images, the first image taken with, and the second taken without the presence of ultrasound. The subtraction enhances phase contrast features and, to a large extent, removes absorption contrast so that differential movement of tissues with different acoustic impedances or relative ultrasonic absorption is highlighted in the image. Interfacial features of objects with differing densities are delineated in the image as a result of both the displacement introduced by the ultrasound and the inherent sensitivity of x-ray phase contrast imaging to density variations. Experiments with ex vivo murine tumors and human tumor phantoms point out a diagnostic capability of the method for identifying tumors.

  2. Total reflection X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Total reflection X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (TRXPS) is reviewed and all the published papers on TRXPS until the end of 2009 are included. Special emphasis is on the historical development. Applications are also described for each report. The background reduction is the most important effect of total reflection, but interference effect, relation to inelastic mean free path, change of probing depth are also discussed.

  3. X-ray energy-dispersive diffractometry using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, B.; Staun Olsen, J.; Gerward, L.

    1977-03-01

    In contrast to bremsstrahlung from X-ray tubes, synchrotron radiation is very intense, has a smooth spectrum, its polarization is well defined, and at DESY the range of useful photon energies can be extended to about 70 keV and higher. In addition the X-ray beam is very well collimated. Thus synchrotron radiation seems to be an ideal X-ray source for energy-dispersive diffractometry. This note briefly describes the experimental set up at DESY, shows examples of results, and presents the underlying 'philosophy' of the research programme. (Auth.)

  4. Determination of sulphur with total reflection x-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmeyer, S.; Kolbesen, B.O.

    2000-01-01

    The potential and limitations of total reflection x-ray spectrometry (TXRF) were tested for the quantitative determination of the light element sulphur in inorganic and biological samples. As representatives of inorganic samples alkali, transition metal, magnesium and aluminum sulphates were investigated. As biological samples the sulphur containing amino acid methionine and the pharmaceutical drug insulin were chosen. All measurements were performed on a TXRF-spectrometer EXTRA IIA (Atomika Instruments, Oberschleissheim/Germany) using tungsten L-radiation as the excitation tube. Various concentrations of all samples ranging from 20 mg/l to 0.5 mg/l were determined. In addition the surface topography and thickness of the dry residue of these samples were investigated with SEM and a thickness profilometer (Alpha-Step). The result show that the reliable determination of sulphur in sulphates depends on the cation involved. Alkali sulphates like Na 2 SO 4 , or K 2 SO 4 form bulky residues resulting in significant deviations of the recovery rate of sulphur. In this case the use of smoothing detergents like 1 % HF, 1 % malic acid and 2 % hydrazinhydrat was found to be necessary for accurate determination. The results for the biological samples agree well with the expected values. The investigations lead to the conclusion that TXRF combined with a proper samples preparation is well suited for the determination of sulphur in different samples with various concentrations and matrices. (author)

  5. Thumba X-ray plant: Are radiation fears justified

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhvanath, U.

    1978-01-01

    Technical facts about the X-ray unit located at Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thumba (India) are set down to explain that it is not posing any radiation hazard as reported in a newspaper and thus radiation fears are not justifiable. It is stated that, after thorough checking, X-ray installations in this space centre cause negligible exposure even to workers who handle these units, and others practically do not get any exposure at all. (B.G.W.)

  6. Magnetic X-Ray Scattering with Synchrotron Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moncton, D. E.; Gibbs, D.; Bohr, Jakob

    1986-01-01

    With the availability of high-brilliance synchrotron radiation from multiple wigglers, magnetic X-ray scattering has become a powerful new probe of magnetic structure and phase transitions. Similar to the well-established magnetic neutron scattering technique, magnetic X-ray scattering methods have...... many complementary advantages. A brief review is presented of the history of magnetic X-ray scattering as well as recent results obtained in studies of the rare-earth magnet holmium with emphasis on instrumentational aspects. In particular, the development of a simple polarization analyzer...... to distinguish charge and magnetic scattering is described....

  7. X-ray spectrometry with synchrotron radiation; Roentgenspektrometrie mit Synchrotronstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Matthias [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Roentgen- und IR-Spektrometrie' ; Gerlach, Martin; Holfelder, Ina; Hoenicke, Philipp; Lubeck, Janin; Nutsch, Andreas; Pollakowski, Beatrix; Streeck, Cornelia; Unterumsberger, Rainer; Weser, Jan; Beckhoff, Burkhard

    2014-12-15

    The X-ray spectrometry of the PTB at the BESSY II storage ring with radiation in the range from 78 eV to 10.5 keV is described. After a description of the instrumentation development reference-sample free X-ray fluorescence analysis, the determination of fundamental atomic parameters, X-ray fluorescence analysis under glance-angle incidence, highly-resolving absorption spectrometry, and emission spectrometry are considered. Finally liquid cells and in-situ measurement techniques are described. (HSI)

  8. Calibration of diagnostic x-ray machines using radiation exposure and radiographic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agba, E.H.; Uloko, P. I.; Tyovenda, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    Calibration of diagnostic x-ray machines using radiation exposure and radiographic parameters of the x-ray machines has been carried out. Three phase diagnostic x-ray machines situated at Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, General Hospital, Otukpo and Christian Hospital, Mkar were used for the calibration work. The radiation meter was used to measure x-ray radiation exposure. The result of this work demonstrates mR/mAs=C(KV p ) that there exist a power law relation of the form between the radiation exposure and the radiographic parameters of diagnostic x-ray machines, which can be used to estimate patient exposure during routine x-ray diagnostic examinations for wide range of operating parameters. The values of the power exponent n, constant c and total filtrations of the diagnostic x-ray machines have been estimated. These values for the diagnostic x-ray machines at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi are: 2.14, 0.88 and 2.77 respectively, for the one at the General Hospital, Otukpo are: 2.07, 0.76 and 2.68 respectively and that of the Christian Hospital, Mkar are: 2.01,0.69 and 2.61 respectively.

  9. Application of synchrotron radiation to X-ray interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, M [King' s Coll., London (UK). Wheatstone Physics Lab.

    1980-05-01

    X-ray interferometry has been attempted with synchrotron radiation at Hamburg and at Orsay. Experiments will start this year at the Storage Ring Source at Daresbury. This review covers work which has already been completed and outlines the likely trends in phase sensitive X-ray polarimetry, high resolution spectroscopy (including real and imaginary-part EXAFS) and novel experiments with many-beam-case interferometers.

  10. Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It will be interesting to see how long the present rate of technological change

  11. Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-01-01

    Elemental analysis using emission of characteristic x rays is a well-established scientific method. The success of this analytical method is highly dependent on the properties of the source used to produce the x rays. X-ray tubes have long existed as a principal excitation source, but electron and proton beams have also been employed extensively. The development of the synchrotron radiation x-ray source that has taken place during the past 40 years has had a major impact on the general field of x-ray analysis. Even tier 40 years, science of x-ray analysis with synchrotron x-ray beams is by no means mature. Improvements being made to existing synchrotron facilities and the design and construction of new facilities promise to accelerate the development of the general scientific use of synchrotron x-ray sources for at least the next ten years. The effective use of the synchrotron source technology depends heavily on the use of high-performance computers for analysis and theoretical interpretation of the experimental data. Fortunately, computer technology has advanced at least as rapidly as the x-ray technology during the past 40 years and should continue to do so during the next decade. The combination of these technologies should bring about dramatic advances in many fields where synchrotron x-ray science is applied. It is interesting also to compare the growth and rate of acceptance of this particular research endeavor to the rates for other technological endeavors. Griibler [1997] cataloged the time required for introduction, diffusion,and acceptance of technological, economic, and social change and found mean values of 40 to 50 years. The introduction of the synchrotron source depends on both technical and non-technical factors, and the time scale at which this seems to be occurring is quite compatible with what is seen for other major innovations such as the railroad or the telegraph. It will be interesting to see how long the present rate of technological change

  12. The IHS diagnostic X-ray equipment radiation protection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, A.; Byrns, G.; Suleiman, O.

    1994-01-01

    The Indian Health Service (IHS) operates or contracts with Tribal groups to operate 50 hospitals and approximately 165 primary ambulatory care centers. These facilities contain approximately 275 medical and 800 dental diagnostic x-ray machines. IHS environmental health personnel in collaboration with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) developed a diagnostic x-ray protection program including standard survey procedures and menu-driven calculations software. Important features of the program include the evaluation of equipment performance collection of average patient entrance skin exposure (ESE) measurements for selected procedures, and quality assurance. The ESE data, collected using the National Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) protocol, will be presented. The IHS Diagnostic X-ray Radiation Protection Program is dynamic and is adapting to changes in technology and workload

  13. Diamond detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sio, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Universita di Firenze, L.go E. Fermi 2, 50125 Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: desio@arcetri.astro.it; Pace, E. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Universita di Firenze, L.go E. Fermi 2, 50125 Firenze (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, v. G. Sansone 1, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Cinque, G.; Marcelli, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Achard, J.; Tallaire, A. [LIMHP-CNRS, University of Paris XIII, 99 Avenue JB Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2007-07-15

    Due to its unique physical properties, diamond is a very appealing material for the development of electronic devices and sensors. Its wide band gap (5.5 eV) endows diamond based devices with low thermal noise, low dark current levels and, in the case of radiation detectors, high visible-to-X-ray signal discrimination (visible blindness) as well as high sensitivity to energies greater than the band gap. Furthermore, due to its radiation hardness diamond is very interesting for applications in extreme environments, or as monitor of high fluency radiation beams. In this work the use of diamond based detectors for X-ray sensing is discussed. On purpose, some photo-conductors based on different diamond types have been tested at the DAFNE-L synchrotron radiation laboratory at Frascati. X-ray sensitivity spectra, linearity and stability of the response of these diamond devices have been measured in order to evidence the promising performance of such devices.

  14. Diamond detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Sio, A.; Pace, E.; Cinque, G.; Marcelli, A.; Achard, J.; Tallaire, A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to its unique physical properties, diamond is a very appealing material for the development of electronic devices and sensors. Its wide band gap (5.5 eV) endows diamond based devices with low thermal noise, low dark current levels and, in the case of radiation detectors, high visible-to-X-ray signal discrimination (visible blindness) as well as high sensitivity to energies greater than the band gap. Furthermore, due to its radiation hardness diamond is very interesting for applications in extreme environments, or as monitor of high fluency radiation beams. In this work the use of diamond based detectors for X-ray sensing is discussed. On purpose, some photo-conductors based on different diamond types have been tested at the DAFNE-L synchrotron radiation laboratory at Frascati. X-ray sensitivity spectra, linearity and stability of the response of these diamond devices have been measured in order to evidence the promising performance of such devices

  15. Radiation processing with high-energy X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, Marshall R.; Stichelbaut, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    The physical, chemical or biological characteristics of selected commercial products and materials can be improved by radiation processing. The ionizing energy can be provided by accelerated electrons with energies between 75 keV and 10 MeV, gamma rays from cobalt-60 with average energies of 1.25 MeV or X-rays with maximum energies up to 7.5 MeV. Electron beams are preferred for thin products, which are processed at high speeds. Gamma rays are used for products that are too thick for treatment with electron beams. High-energy X-rays can also be used for these purposes because their penetration in solid materials is similar to or even slightly greater than that of gamma rays. Previously, the use of X-rays had been inhibited by their slower processing rates and higher costs when compared with gamma rays. Since then, the price of cobalt-60 sources has been increased and the radiation intensity from high-energy, high-power X-ray generators has also increased. For facilities requiring at least 2 MCi of cobalt-60, the capital and operating costs of X-ray facilities with equivalent processing rates can be less than that of gamma-ray irradiators. Several high-energy electron beam facilities have been equipped with removable X-ray targets so that irradiation processes can be done with either type of ionizing energy. A new facility is now being built which will be used exclusively in the X-ray mode to sterilize medical products. Operation of this facility will show that high-energy, high-power X-ray generators are practical alternatives to large gamma-ray sources. (author)

  16. A multiple CCD X-ray detector and its first operation with synchrotron radiation X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, M; Kumasaka, T; Sato, K; Toyokawa, H; Aries, I F; Jerram, P A; Ueki, T

    1999-01-01

    A 4x4 array structure of 16 identical CCD X-ray detector modules, called the multiple CCD X-ray detector system (MCCDX), was submitted to its first synchrotron radiation experiment at the protein crystallography station of the RIKEN beamline (BL45XU) at the SPring-8 facility. An X-ray diffraction pattern of cholesterol powder was specifically taken in order to investigate the overall system performance.

  17. Radiation protection requirements for dental X-ray diagnostic facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taschner, P.; Koenig, W.; Andreas, M.; Trinius, W.

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of radiation protection regulations the planning of dental X-ray facilities is discussed considering organizational, technical and structural measures suitable for fulfilling protection requirements. Finally, instructions are given aimed at reducing radiation doses to personnel and patients. (author)

  18. Radiation protection requirements for dental X-ray diagnostic facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taschner, P; Koenig, W [Staatliches Amt fuer Atomsicherheit und Strahlenschutz, Berlin (German Democratic Republic); Andreas, M [Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Fachrichtung Stomatologie; Trinius, W [Karl-Marx-Universitaet, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik

    1976-03-01

    On the basis of radiation protection regulations the planning of dental X-ray facilities is discussed considering organizational, technical and structural measures suitable for fulfilling protection requirements. Finally, instructions are given aimed at reducing radiation doses to personnel and patients.

  19. A synchrotron radiation facility for x-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, C.J.; Lewis, R.A.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1997-01-01

    A proposal for an x-ray optics test facility based at a synchrotron radiation source is presented. The facility would incorporate a clean preparation area, and a large evacuable test area. The advantages of using a synchrotron as the source of the test radiation are discussed. These include the a...

  20. Assessment of pediatrics radiation dose from routine x-ray ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Given the fact that children are more sensitive to ionizing radiation than adults,with an increased risk of developing radiation-induced cancer,special care should be taken when they undergo X-ray examinations. The main aim of the current study was to determine Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) to pediatric ...

  1. Computed tomography for light materials using a monochromatic X-ray beam produced by parametric X-ray radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Y., E-mail: yahayak@lebra.nihon-u.ac.jp [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Hayakawa, K.; Inagaki, M. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Kaneda, T. [Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Sakaecho-Nishi 2-870-1, Matsudo 271-8587 (Japan); Nakao, K.; Nogami, K. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Sakae, T. [Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Sakaecho-Nishi 2-870-1, Matsudo 271-8587 (Japan); Sakai, T.; Sato, I. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan); Takahashi, Y. [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho, Tsukuba 305-8501 (Japan); Tanaka, T. [Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application, Nihon University, Narashinodai 7-24-1, Funabashi 274-8501 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Computed tomography (CT) for light materials such as soft biological tissues was performed using a monochromatic X-ray beam provided by a parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) source at the Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application (LEBRA) of Nihon University. Using a high-efficiency flat panel detector (FPD), each projection image for CT was taken with exposure times of 5 or 10 s, and 60–360 projection images in each run were obtained with total measurement time of 5 min to 1 h. CT images were obtained from the projection images using the conventional calculation method. The typical tomograms obtained had sharp outlines, which are likely attributable to the propagation-based phase contrast.

  2. Characterization of radiation qualities used in diagnostic X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bero, M.; Zahili, M.; Al Ahmad, M.

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to adjust the radiation beams emitted from X-ray tubes installed at the National Radiation Metrology Laboratory in the field of diagnostic radiology (radiology and mammography) according to the IAEA protocol code number TRS 457, the second goal of this study is to establish various radiation qualities used fordiagnostic radiology applications: RQR, RQA and RQT and the radiation qualities related to mammography applications: RQA-M and RQR-M (author).

  3. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence - an approach to nanoanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klockenkaemper, R.

    2000-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) is a powerful tool used for industrial production, geological prospecting and for environmental control. However, the method suffers from a lack of sensitivity so that analyses are restricted to microanalytical investigations. That means: the sample amount needed for analysis is above some 10 micrograms, concentrations to be determined have to be on the μg/ml level, and thin layers to be characterized must be of micrometer thickness. In contrast to conventional XRFA, total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is extremely sensitive and even allows nano-analytical investigations. Three different ways can be taken: (i) use of minute sample amounts of only 10 nano-grams, (ii) determination of extreme traces below ng/ml and (iii) surface analysis and depth profiling of shallow layers with nano-meter thickness. In this lecture, the basic physical phenomena of total reflection and standing waves are outlined. The experimental equipment for TXRF is sketched out and commercially available instruments of different manufacturers are compared. Furthermore, examples are given for the three kinds of nano-analytical applications: ultra-micro, analysis, ultra trace analysis and mono- and thin-layer analysis. (author)

  4. Radiation guard for x-ray table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collica, C.; Epifano, L.; Farella, R.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation guard suitable for use in conjunction with a diagnostic table and penetrable by the hands of an operator to facilitate moving or examining a patient positioned on a table. In accordance with the invention there is provided a supportive frame mountable at about an edge of the table so as to extend vertically from about the edge, the frame comprising at least a pair of spaced bars. A plurality of strips of flexible radiation shielding material are mounted across the bars in closely spaced relationship, the strips being mounted sufficiently close together to prevent substantial radiation leakage through the frame. The hands of an operator can be inserted between the adjacent strips to manually reposition or examine a patient while protecting most of the operator's body from substantial radiation. 9 claims, 4 drawing figures

  5. Experimental investigations of the dosimetric features of x-ray radiation used in x-ray diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prostyakova, M A

    1975-10-01

    For radiation hygiene estimates of the extent of the irradiation of various organs and tissues in roentgenological investigations, the quality and quantity of the primary radiation beam and its behaviour in the irradiated medium are assessed. It is shown that the effective energy of x-rays generated at 50-100 kV and with different radiation field dimensions at different depths in a tissue-equivalent irradiated medium is more or less constant, varying within the range 25 to 32 keV. The constancy of effective x-ray energies in a tissue-equivalent medium enables one to use, for different x-ray tube regimes, constant values of the roentgen-rad conversion factor for soft tissue and bone tissue. The investigations confirm the desirability of using high voltages across the x-ray tube in practical x-ray work.

  6. Costs of radiation protection in X-ray diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prahl, M.

    1987-01-01

    The study described investigates into the costs arising from physical protection measures against radiation, in particular from dosimetric determinations carried out in humans according to section 40 of the X-Ray Ordinance, from special structural requirements of examination rooms and higher purchase prices for X-ray units offering built-in protective devices (hardware-related radiation protection). The conventional fluoroscope is chosen as an example of how this is achieved today. At first, a survey is given of X-ray installations in North Rhine-Westphalia, the technical details of which are described. This provides approximative information on the extent of dosimetric calculations in humans, the necessary expenditure on shieldings and the costs involved in additional hardware-related measures. (orig./DG) [de

  7. Radiation-driven winds in x-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friend, D.B.; Castor, J.I.

    1982-01-01

    We discuss the properties of a radiation-driven stellar wind in an X-ray binary system. The Castor, Abbott, Klein line-driven wind model is used, but the effects of the compact companion (gravity and continuum radiation pressure) and the centrifugal force due to orbital motion are included. These forces destroy the spherical symmetry of the wind and can make the mass loss and accretion strong functions of the size of the primary relative to its critical potential lobe. We in most systems the wind alone could power the X-ray emission. It also appears that, in the evolution of these systems, there would be a continuous transition from wind accretion to critical potential lobe overflow. The model is also used to make a prediction about the nature of a suspected binary system which is not known to be an X-ray emitter

  8. Soft X-ray microscopy and lithography with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudat, W.

    1977-12-01

    Considerable progress in the technique microscopy with soft X-ray radiation has been achieved in particular through the application of synchrotron radiation. Various methods which are currently being studied theoretically or already being used practically will be described briefly. Attention is focussed on the method of contact microscopy. Various biological specimens have been investigated by this method with a resolution as good as 100 A. X-ray lithography which in the technical procedure is very similar to contact microscopy gives promise for the fabrication of high quality submicron structures in electronic device production. Important factors limiting the resolution and determining the performance of contact microscopy and X-ray lithography will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  9. Quantitative X-ray microtomography with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donath, T.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron-radiation-based computed microtomography (SR μ CT) is an established method for the examination of volume structures. It allows to measure the x-ray attenuation coefficient of a specimen three-dimensionally with a spatial resolution of about one micrometer. In contrast to conventional x-ray sources (x-ray tubes), the unique properties of synchrotron radiation enable quantitative measurements that do not suffer from beam-hardening artifacts. During this work the capabilities for quantitative SR μ CT measurements have been further improved by enhancements that were made to the SR μ CT apparatus and to the reconstruction chain. For high-resolution SR μ CT an x-ray camera consisting of luminescent screen (x-ray phosphor), lens system, and CCD camera was used. A significant suppression of blur that is caused by reflections inside the luminescent screen could be achieved by application of an absorbing optical coating to the screen surface. It is shown that blur and ring artifacts in the tomographic reconstructions are thereby drastically reduced. Furthermore, a robust and objective method for the determination of the center of rotation in projection data (sinograms) is presented that achieves sub-pixel precision. By implementation of this method into the reconstruction chain, complete automation of the reconstruction process has been achieved. Examples of quantitative SR μ CT studies conducted at the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY are presented and used for the demonstration of the achieved enhancements. (orig.)

  10. The effect of well-characterized, very low-dose x-ray radiation on fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Katelyn; Bradley, Suzanne; Baginski, Bryana; Wilson, Joseph R; Medlin, Donald; Zheng, Leon; Wilson, R Kevin; Rusin, Matthew; Takacs, Endre; Dean, Delphine

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of low-dose radiation on fibroblast cells irradiated by spectrally and dosimetrically well-characterized soft x-rays. To achieve this, a new cell culture x-ray irradiation system was designed. This system generates characteristic fluorescent x-rays to irradiate the cell culture with x-rays of well-defined energies and doses. 3T3 fibroblast cells were cultured in cups with Mylar® surfaces and were irradiated for one hour with characteristic iron (Fe) K x-ray radiation at a dose rate of approximately 550 μGy/hr. Cell proliferation, total protein analysis, flow cytometry, and cell staining were performed on fibroblast cells to determine the various effects caused by the radiation. Irradiated cells demonstrated increased proliferation and protein production compared to control samples. Flow cytometry revealed that a higher percentage of irradiated cells were in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle compared to control counterparts, which is consistent with other low-dose studies. Cell staining results suggest that irradiated cells maintained normal cell functions after radiation exposure, as there were no qualitative differences between the images of the control and irradiated samples. The result of this study suggest that low-dose soft x-ray radiation might cause an initial pause, followed by a significant increase, in proliferation. An initial "pause" in cell proliferation could be a protective mechanism of the cells to minimize DNA damage caused by radiation exposure. The new cell irradiation system developed here allows for unprecedented control over the properties of the x-rays given to the cell cultures. This will allow for further studies on various cell types with known spectral distribution and carefully measured doses of radiation, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms behind varied cell responses to low-dose x-rays reported in the literature.

  11. Radiation safety in X-ray diagnostic installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, K.R.; Ambiger, T.Y.; Viswanathan, P.S.

    1977-01-01

    Safety measures to be strictly adhered to in handling X-ray equipment and exposing patients to X-radiation are described in detail. Hazards resulting from ignorance and careless handling are mentioned. Methods of shielding are indicated. (A.K.)

  12. Absolute differential yield of parametric x-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchagin, A.V.; Pristupa, V.I.; Khizhnyak, N.A.

    1993-01-01

    The results of measurements of absolute differential yield of parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) in thin single crystal are presented for the first time. It has been established that the experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations according with kinematical theory. The influence of density effect on PXR properties is discussed. (author). 19 refs., 7 figs

  13. Radiation dosimetry of computed tomography x-ray scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, J.L.; Williamson, B.D.P.; Le Heron, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the development and application of the methods employed in National Radiation Laboratory (NRL) surveys of computed tomography x-ray scanners (CT scanners). It includes descriptions of the phantoms and equipment used, discussion of the various dose parameters measured, the principles of the various dosimetry systems employed and some indication of the doses to occupationally exposed personnel

  14. X-ray diffraction microtomography using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Barroso, R C; Jesus, E F O; Oliveira, L F

    2001-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction computed tomography technique is based on the interference phenomena of the coherent scatter. For low-momentum transfer, it is most probable that the scattering interaction will be coherent. A selective discrimination of a given element in a scanned specimen can be realized by fixing the Bragg angle which produces an interference peak and then, to carry out the computed tomography in the standard mode. The image reconstructed exalts the presence of this element with respect to other ones in a sample. This work reports the feasibility of a non-destructive synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction imaging technique. This research was performed at the X-ray Diffraction beam line of the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) in Brazil. The coherent scattering properties of different tissue and bone substitute materials were evaluated. Furthermore, diffraction patterns of some polycrystalline solids were studied due to industrial and environmental human exposure to these metals. The obtai...

  15. X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Attwood, David

    2016-01-01

    With this fully updated second edition, readers will gain a detailed understanding of the physics and applications of modern X-ray and EUV radiation sources. Taking into account the most recent improvements in capabilities, coverage is expanded to include new chapters on free electron lasers (FELs), laser high harmonic generation (HHG), X-ray and EUV optics, and nanoscale imaging; a completely revised chapter on spatial and temporal coherence; and extensive discussion of the generation and applications of femtosecond and attosecond techniques. Readers will be guided step by step through the mathematics of each topic, with over 300 figures, 50 reference tables and 600 equations enabling easy understanding of key concepts. Homework problems, a solutions manual for instructors, and links to YouTube lectures accompany the book online. This is the 'go-to' guide for graduate students, researchers and industry practitioners interested in X-ray and EUV interaction with matter.

  16. Anomalous x-ray radiation of beam plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, S.K.; Zavyalov, M.A.; Mikhin, S.G.; Tarasenkov, V.A.; Telkovskij, V.G.; Khrabrov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of non-equilibrium stationary plasma under the conditions of the planned plasma-chemical reactors based on beam-plasma discharge were investigated. The x-ray spectrum of the beam-plasma was measured and anomalous spectral properties were analyzed. Starting with some critical pressure the anomalous radiation was added to the classical bremsstrahlung spectrum. The occurrence of anomalous radiation can be used to diagnose the condition of beam transportation in such systems. (D.Gy.)

  17. X-ray Synchrotron Radiation in a Plasma Wiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuoquin; /UCLA /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-09-27

    A relativistic electron beam can radiate due to its betatron motion inside an ion channel. The ion channel is induced by the electron bunch as it propagates through an underdense plasma. In the theory section of this thesis the formation of the ion channel, the trajectories of beam electrons inside the ion channel, the radiation power and the radiation spectrum of the spontaneous emission are studied. The comparison between different plasma wiggler schemes is made. The difficulties in realizing stimulated emission as the beam traverses the ion channel are investigated, with particular emphasis on the bunching mechanism, which is important for the ion channel free electron laser. This thesis reports an experiment conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) to measure the betatron X-ray radiations for the first time. They first describe the construction and characterization of the lithium plasma source. In the experiment, the transverse oscillations of the SLAC 28.5 GeV electron beam traversing through a 1.4 meter long lithium plasma source are clearly seen. These oscillations lead to a quadratic density dependence of the spontaneously emitted betatron X-ray radiation. The divergence angle of the X-ray radiation is measured. The absolute photon yield and the spectral brightness at 14.2 KeV photon energy are estimated and seen to be in reasonable agreement with theory.

  18. Prophylactic radiation protection in X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Loehr, H.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray diagnosis can lead to stochastic ratidation damage such as uncreased incidence of malignant growths resp. leucemia and malformations in the child and grandchild generations as a consequence of radiation-induced mutations. Non-stocharadiation damage such as burns and lense opacification, which are in each instance clearly attributable to radiation, occur today only on account of incorrect handling of the examination method and technical defects. Normally, the risk to both patient and diagnostician is low and acceptable. Yed if adequate awareness of radiation hazards is missing - which includes full control over the X-ray appliance and knowledge of possible technical defects, the legal maximum doses may be surpassed and avoidable damage caused. (orig.) [de

  19. On the theory of X-ray pulsar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheleznyakov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The origin of hard X-ray spectrum (continuum and cyclotron lines) of pulsars in binary systems is discussed. A model of the polar region of a neutron star consisting of a hot spot in a dense plasma atmosphere with a quasi-homogeneous magnetic field and an extended accreting column in an inhomogeneous dipolar field is investigated. In the hot spot bremsstrahlung and Thomson scattering form continuum radiation, while bremsstrahlung and cyclotron scattering produce the absorption cyclotron lines. By the observed continuum intensity one can estimate the maximum distances to pulsars. Cyclotron scattering in gyro-resonant layers localized in the accreting column leads to a general attenuation of the radiation of a hot spot, but is unable to ensure the formation of cyclotron lines. For strong accretion the hot spot radiation becomes insignificant, the lines disappear and the pulsating component of an X-ray pulsar is produced by the accreting column bremsstrahlung transformed by Thomson scattering. (orig.)

  20. Radiation dose and radiation risk to foetuses and newborns during X-ray examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, A. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the way in which the demands set by degree 423/2000 by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health are fulfilled with respect to the most radiosensitive groups, the foetus and the child, by estimating the radiation dose and radiation risk to the foetus from x-ray examinations of an expectant mother's pelvic region, finding out the practice involved in preventing doses to embryos and foetuses and assessing dose practices in cases where an embryo or foetus is or shall be exposed, and by estimating radiation dose and risk due to the radiation received by a new-born being treated in a paediatric intensive care unit. No statistics are available in Finland to indicate how many x-ray examinations of the pelvic region and lower abdomen are made to pregnant patients or to show the dose and risk to the foetus due these examinations. In order to find out the practices in radiological departments concerning the pelvic x-ray examination of fertile woman and the number of foetuses exposed, a questionnaire was sent to all radiation safety officers responsible for the safe use of radiation (n = 290). A total of 173 questionnaires were returned. This study recorded the technique and Dose-Area Product of 118 chest examinations of newborns in paediatric intensive care units. Entrance surface doses and effective doses were calculated separately to each newborn. Based on the patient records, the number of all x-ray examinations during the study was calculated and the effective doses were estimated retrospectively to each child. The radiation risk was estimated both for the foetuses and for the newborns. According to this study, it is rare in Finland to expose a pregnant woman to radiation. On the other hand, with the exception of pelvimetry examinations, there are no compiled statistics concerning the number of pelvic x-ray examinations of a pregnant woman. There was no common practice on how to exclude the possibility of pregnancy. The dose

  1. Radiation dose and radiation risk to foetuses and newborns during X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettunen, A.

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the way in which the demands set by degree 423/2000 by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health are fulfilled with respect to the most radiosensitive groups, the foetus and the child, by estimating the radiation dose and radiation risk to the foetus from x-ray examinations of an expectant mother's pelvic region, finding out the practice involved in preventing doses to embryos and foetuses and assessing dose practices in cases where an embryo or foetus is or shall be exposed, and by estimating radiation dose and risk due to the radiation received by a new-born being treated in a paediatric intensive care unit. No statistics are available in Finland to indicate how many x-ray examinations of the pelvic region and lower abdomen are made to pregnant patients or to show the dose and risk to the foetus due these examinations. In order to find out the practices in radiological departments concerning the pelvic x-ray examination of fertile woman and the number of foetuses exposed, a questionnaire was sent to all radiation safety officers responsible for the safe use of radiation (n = 290). A total of 173 questionnaires were returned. This study recorded the technique and Dose-Area Product of 118 chest examinations of newborns in paediatric intensive care units. Entrance surface doses and effective doses were calculated separately to each newborn. Based on the patient records, the number of all x-ray examinations during the study was calculated and the effective doses were estimated retrospectively to each child. The radiation risk was estimated both for the foetuses and for the newborns. According to this study, it is rare in Finland to expose a pregnant woman to radiation. On the other hand, with the exception of pelvimetry examinations, there are no compiled statistics concerning the number of pelvic x-ray examinations of a pregnant woman. There was no common practice on how to exclude the possibility of pregnancy. The dose to a

  2. Quantitative X-ray microtomography with synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donath, T. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung

    2007-07-01

    Synchrotron-radiation-based computed microtomography (SR{sub {mu}}CT) is an established method for the examination of volume structures. It allows to measure the x-ray attenuation coefficient of a specimen three-dimensionally with a spatial resolution of about one micrometer. In contrast to conventional x-ray sources (x-ray tubes), the unique properties of synchrotron radiation enable quantitative measurements that do not suffer from beam-hardening artifacts. During this work the capabilities for quantitative SR{sub {mu}}CT measurements have been further improved by enhancements that were made to the SR{sub {mu}}CT apparatus and to the reconstruction chain. For high-resolution SR{sub {mu}}CT an x-ray camera consisting of luminescent screen (x-ray phosphor), lens system, and CCD camera was used. A significant suppression of blur that is caused by reflections inside the luminescent screen could be achieved by application of an absorbing optical coating to the screen surface. It is shown that blur and ring artifacts in the tomographic reconstructions are thereby drastically reduced. Furthermore, a robust and objective method for the determination of the center of rotation in projection data (sinograms) is presented that achieves sub-pixel precision. By implementation of this method into the reconstruction chain, complete automation of the reconstruction process has been achieved. Examples of quantitative SR{sub {mu}}CT studies conducted at the Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY are presented and used for the demonstration of the achieved enhancements. (orig.)

  3. X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Radiation Detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Disclosed is a semiconductor radiation detector for detecting X-ray and / or gamma-ray radiation. The detector comprises a converter element for converting incident X-ray and gamma-ray photons into electron-hole pairs, at least one cathode, a plurality of detector electrodes arranged with a pitch...... (P) along a first axis, a plurality of drift electrodes, a readout circuitry being configured to read out signals from the plurality of detector electrodes and a processing unit connected to the readout circuitry and being configured to detect an event in the converter element. The readout circuitry...... is further configured to read out signals from the plurality of drift electrodes, and the processing unit is further configured to estimate a location of the event along the first axis by processing signals obtained from both the detector electrodes and the drift electrodes, the location of the event along...

  4. Radiation exposure in X-ray studies of the hips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kainberger, F [Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Brueder, Salzburg (Austria). Roentgeninstitut

    1979-12-01

    The genetic exposure of the small child is above all a consequence of the rapid increase in X-ray studies, a problem which has not yet been settled. Through phantom measurements it can be shown, that dose reduction is of considerable practical significance if appropriate lead shielding is employed. The radiation dose can be significantly reduced, provided that the shielding material is of an appropriate lead equivalent. The form of the pelvic shield which is used is also of crucial importance.

  5. Thin film characterization by total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danel, Adrien; Nolot, Emmanuel; Veillerot, Marc; Olivier, Segolene; Decorps, Tifenn; Calvo-Munoz, Maria-Luisa; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Lhostis, Sandrine; Kohno, Hiroshi; Yamagami, Motoyuki; Geoffroy, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Sensitive and accurate characterization of films thinner than a few nm used in nanoelectronics represents a challenge for many conventional production metrology tools. With capabilities in the 10 10 at/cm 2 , methods usually dedicated to contamination analysis appear promising, especially Total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF). This study shows that under usual configuration for contamination analysis, with incident angle smaller than the critical angle of the substrate, TXRF signal saturation occurs very rapidly for dense films (below 0.5 nm for HfO 2 films on Si wafers using a 9.67 keV excitation at 0.5 deg.). Increasing the incident angle, the range of linear results can be extended, but on the other hand, the TXRF sensitivity is degraded because of a strong increase of the measurement dead time. On HfO 2 films grown on Si wafers, an incident angle of 0.32 deg. corresponding to a dead time of 95% was used to achieve linear analysis up to 2 nm. Composition analysis by TXRF, and especially the detection of minor elements into thin films, requires the use of a specific incident angle to optimize sensitivity. Although quantitative analyses might require specific calibration, this work shows on Co-based films that the ratio between minor elements (W, P, Mo) and Co taking into account their relative sensitivity factors is a good direct reading of the composition

  6. Patients Radiation Load Caused by Digitalised X-Ray Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodemova, D.; Prikazska, M.; Horvathova, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The radiation load of population all over the world from medical examinations clearly demonstrate the importance of implementation of quality assurance and quality control programmes into the activities of radiological departments. The basic aim of quality assurance programme is to ensure that the radiation dose is kept as low as reasonably practicable consistent with adequate image quality. As many other fields, the rapid development of techniques brought change-over from the conventional analogue technique to the digital technique. In this connection conventional X-ray film is being abandoned and images are being viewed on either laser film or monitor. The main advantages of using digital equipment lay in improved image quality and diagnostic accuracy through digital image processing, reduction in patient exposure, cost reduction by reduction film usage, more efficient storage and retrieval of radiographic images through picture archiving. Several studies that have been conducted for comparison of various diagnostic examinations performed on digital and analogue X-ray equipment have shown that in barium meal examinations, there is potential for dose saving in the digital image intensifier technique. The aim of this study was to compare measured values of dose-area product for colon investigations using different X-ray equipment types, on digital and one analogue. Our material consisted of 60 randomly selected patients, 24 of them were examined with digital equipment and 36 patients with the analogue equipment. (author)

  7. Current state of radiation protection in x-ray diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orito, T; Koshida, K; Maekawa, R; Sanada, S; Hiraki, T [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine

    1979-09-01

    The therapeutic roentgenologic technician's concern for and providing of protection from radiation while patients underwent x-ray examination in 1973 was reported. An investigation was carried out to determine the degree of changes 5 years later. Questionnaires were distributed to 200 subjects. These subjects were selected, according to duoble sampling process, from a membership list of the Japan Society of Radiologic Technologists. Answers were obtained from 135 (67.5%). The results showed that the size of the field was restricted in 60.7% of the patients, the germinal glands were protected in 64.4% of the patients, the apparatuses were checked regularly in 9.6% of the institutions, and protectors were put on 62.5% of the attendants (mothers, etc.) when children underwent x-ray examination. Also, all of the apparatuses were set up in on section in 61.6% of the institutions and the films were monitored in 57.0% of departments.

  8. Radiation Dose Measurements in Routine X Ray Examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, H.; Sulieman, A.; Suliman, I.I.; Sam, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of current study was to evaluate patients radiation dose in routine X-ray examinations in Omdurman teaching hospital Sudan.110 patients was examined (134) radiographs in two X-ray rooms. Entrance surface doses (ESDs) were calculated from patient exposure parameters using DosCal software. The mean ESD for the chest, AP abdomen, AP pelvis, thoracic spine AP, lateral lumber spine, anteroposterior lumber spine, lower limb and for the upper limb were; 231±44 Gy,453± 29 Gy, 567±22 Gy, 311±33 Gy,716±39 Gy, 611±55 Gy,311±23 Gy, and 158±57 Gy, respectively. Data shows asymmetry in distribution. The results of were comparable with previous study in Sudan.

  9. Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Rasouli, H. [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T. [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points – three TLDs per point – to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

  10. 42 CFR 410.35 - X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.35 X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope. Medicare Part B pays for X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services, including radium therapy and...

  11. Trace elements determination in red and white wines using total-reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, M.J.; Lopes, R.T.; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Moreira, S.; Barroso, R.C.; Castro, C.R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Several wines produced in different regions from south of Brazil and available in markets in Rio de Janeiro were analyzed for their contents of elements such as: P, S, Cl, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. Multi-element analysis was possible with simple sample preparation and subsequent analysis by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation. The measurement was carried at the X-ray fluorescence beamline in the Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory in Campinas, Brazil. The levels of the various elements obtained were lower in the Brazilian wines than the values generally found in the literature. The present study indicates the capability of multi-element analysis for determining the contents of various elements present in wines coming from Brazil vineyards by using a simple, sensitive and precise method

  12. X-ray and nuclear radiation facilities: personnel safety features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, W.J.; Pipes, E.W.; Rucker, T.R.; Smith, D.N.; West, C.M.

    1976-10-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is a research and production installation. The nature and versatility of this work require the use of a large number and variety of x-ray and radiographic sources for nondestructive testing and material analyses. Presently, there are over 80 x-ray generators in the plant, which range in size from small, portable units which operate at a less than 50 kilovolts potential and 0.1 milliampere current to an electron linear accelerator which operates at 12-million electron volts and produces a radiation beam of such intensity that it could deliver a lethal dose to man in a fraction of a minute. There are also almost 50 gamma and neutron sources in use in the plant. These units range in size from a few millicuries to several hundred curies. Although the radiation safety at each of these facilities was considered adequate, the administrative and maintenance procedures became unduly complicated. Accordingly, engineering standards and uniform operating procedures were considered necessary to alleviate these complications and, in so doing, provide an improved measure of radiation safety. Development and implementation of these standards are described and the general philosophy and approach to these standards are outlined. Use of a matrix (type of installation versus radiation safety feature) to facilitate equipment classification and personnel safety feature requirements is presented. Included is a set of the standards showing formats, matrices, etc., and the detailed standards for each safety feature

  13. Radiation exposure with the NOMAD portable X-ray system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, A D; Bonvento, M; Biernacki, J; Colosi, D C

    2008-02-01

    A new hand-held battery-operated portable X-ray system was tested for possible leakage radiation through the existing heavy metal compounds surrounding the X-ray tube, backscatter radiation through the lead-filled acrylic shield attached at the end of the exit tube and patient exposure. Dose measurements were conducted using a DXTRR phantom and a water phantom. All measurements were recorded using calibrated thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD), calibrated Unfors Model 583L dosemeter, and a calibrated Radcal MDH model 1015 dosemeter. The settings for all exposure were 60 kVp, 2.3 mA and 0.25 s using Kodak Insight (Class F) film. All backscatter measurements, in front of the shield, behind the shield, at the finger of the operator, the operator's chest, eyes and gonads were significantly below the maximum permissible radiation leakage as per the United States Food and Drug Administration regulations (100 mR h(-1)). Our measurements indicate that the exposure would be well within the occupational maximum permissible dose for an occupationally exposed person. Film dose was consistent with the manufacturer's recommendations. As a result of our measurements, the State of New York Bureau of Environmental Radiation Protection granted us a variance to use the NOMAD on a case-by-case basis. Our data have shown that the NOMAD presents risks that are no greater than with standard dental radiographic units to the patient or operator and the measured doses are well below recommended levels.

  14. Skull x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  15. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  16. Review of Radiation Safety in Medical X-Ray Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koteng, O.A.

    2015-01-01

    Medical X-Ray machines have been used for more than a century for non-invasive diagnosis of patients for the benefit of mankind. The safety of operators and patients during such practice has improved with time, but, still cases of detrimental effects to Radiation Workers in Kenya including cancer related deaths have been reported in the recent past. An ongoing study is reviewing the safety status of the worker and patients during medical and dental exposures. The study was initiated following complaint of recurrent headaches by a radiographer working in a busy Kenyan hospital. (author)

  17. X-ray total reflection mirrors for coherent illumination

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, T; Yabashi, M; Souvorov, A; Yamauchi, K; Yamamura, K; Mimura, H; Saito, A; Mori, Y

    2002-01-01

    X-ray mirrors for coherent illumination demand much higher surface quality than is achievable with the conventional polishing techniques. Plasma chemical vaporization machining (CVM) and elastic emission machining (EEM) have been applied for x-ray mirror manufacturing. Figure error of a flat silicon single crystal mirrors made with CVM+EEM process was reduced to 2.0 nm peak-to-valley and 0.2 nm RMS. The machining process was also applied to make elliptical mirrors. One-dimensional focusing with a single elliptical mirror showed diffraction-limited properties with the focal width of 200 nm. Two-dimensional focusing with Kirkpatric-Baez configuration gave a focal spot size of 200 nm x 200 nm. (author)

  18. Light source for synchrotron radiation x-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiyong; Jiang Jianhua; Tian Yulian

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of the synchrotron radiation source for X-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL) is described, local geometrical resolution of topographies is discussed, and the diffracting intensities of white beam topography is given

  19. Clinical application of radiation dosimetry on X-ray radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Takeo

    1995-01-01

    In the case of radiotherapy, it is important to give proper dose for a tumor, to be treated with the objective of therapy, and to evaluate the dose, considering dose for other organs at risk to a sufficient extent. To provide an exposure dose at the target volume of tumor parts, it should be required to get a good understanding of the correct dosimetric method and also to apply this to clinical application in practice. All over the country, so as not to produce any difference in the given dose, 'A practical code for the dosimetry of high energy X-rays in radiotherapy' was issued by the Japanese Associations of radiological physicists in 1972. In 1986, it was revised. At about 85% of therapeutic facilities in the country, radiation engineers perform dose measurements and controls. Therefore, I have explained the process of measurement and dose calculation, with the main objective directed at the engineers in charge of the radiotherapy so as to easily radiation dosimetry of X-ray with dosemeters and phantom used at each facility according to the 'practical code'. (author)

  20. First combined total reflection X-ray fluorescence and grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of aeolian dust archived in Antarctica and Alpine deep ice cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cibin, G. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX110DE (United Kingdom); IMONT/EIM, Ente Italiano della Montagna, P.za dei Caprettari 70, 00176 Roma (Italy); Universita' degli Studi di Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, L.go S. Leonardo Murialdo 1, 00146 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: giannantonio.cibin@diamond.ac.uk; Marcelli, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, P.O. Box 13, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Maggi, V. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Sala, M. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra ' A. Desio' , Sez. Mineralogia, Via Mangiagalli 34, 20133 Milano (Italy); Marino, F.; Delmonte, B. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Albani, S. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e del Territorio, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Siena, Dottorato in Scienze Polari, via Laterina 8, 53100 Siena (Italy); Pignotti, S. [IMONT/EIM, Ente Italiano della Montagna, P.za dei Caprettari 70, 00176 Roma (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    Aeolian mineral dust archived in polar and mid latitude ice cores represents a precious proxy for assessing environmental and climatic variations at different timescales. In this respect, the identification of dust mineralogy plays a key role. In this work we performed the first preliminary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments on mineral dust particles extracted from Antarctic and from Alpine firn cores using grazing incidence geometry at the Fe K-edge. A dedicated high vacuum experimental chamber was set up for normal-incidence and total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy analyses on minor amounts of mineral materials at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Results show that this experimental technique and protocol allows recognizing iron inclusion mineral fraction on insoluble dust in the 1-10 {mu}g range.

  1. First combined total reflection X-ray fluorescence and grazing incidence X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization of aeolian dust archived in Antarctica and Alpine deep ice cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cibin, G.; Marcelli, A.; Maggi, V.; Sala, M.; Marino, F.; Delmonte, B.; Albani, S.; Pignotti, S.

    2008-01-01

    Aeolian mineral dust archived in polar and mid latitude ice cores represents a precious proxy for assessing environmental and climatic variations at different timescales. In this respect, the identification of dust mineralogy plays a key role. In this work we performed the first preliminary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments on mineral dust particles extracted from Antarctic and from Alpine firn cores using grazing incidence geometry at the Fe K-edge. A dedicated high vacuum experimental chamber was set up for normal-incidence and total-reflection X-Ray Fluorescence and Absorption Spectroscopy analyses on minor amounts of mineral materials at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Results show that this experimental technique and protocol allows recognizing iron inclusion mineral fraction on insoluble dust in the 1-10 μg range

  2. Measuring scatter radiation in diagnostic x rays for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayiotakis, George; Vlachos, Ioannis; Delis, Harry; Tsantilas, Xenophon; Kalyvas, Nektarios; Kandarakis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, radiation protection and dosimetry in medical X-ray imaging practice has been extensively studied. The purpose of this study was to measure secondary radiation in a conventional radiographic room, in terms of ambient dose rate equivalent H*(10) and its dependence on the radiographic exposure parameters such as X-ray tube voltage, tube current and distance. With some exceptions, the results indicated that the scattered radiation was uniform in the space around the water cylindrical phantom. The results also showed that the tube voltage and filtration affect the dose rate due to the scatter radiation. Finally, the scattered X-ray energy distribution was experimentally calculated. (authors)

  3. Intensity of diffracted X-rays from biomolecules with radiation damage caused by strong X-ray pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Takeshi; Tokuhisa, Atsushi; Moribayashi, Kengo; Fukuda, Yuji; Kono, Hidetoshi; Go, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In order to realize the coherent X-ray diffractive imaging of single biomolecules, the diffraction intensities, per effective pixel of a single biomolecule with radiation damage, caused by irradiation using a strong coherent X-ray pulse, were examined. A parameter survey was carried out for various experimental conditions, using a developed simulation program that considers the effect of electric field ionization, which was slightly reported on in previous studies. The two simple relationships among the parameters were identified as follows: (1) the diffraction intensity of a biomolecule slightly increases with the incident X-ray energy; and that (2) the diffraction intensity is approximately proportional to the target radius, when the radius is longer than 400 Å, since the upper limit of the incident intensity for damage to the biomolecules marginally changes with respect to the target radius. (author)

  4. Evaluation of water and sediment of the Graminha and Aguas da Serra streams in the city of Limeira (Sp-Brazil) by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Fazza, Elizete Vieira

    2008-01-01

    The city of Limeira is located in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil and has the second largest economy and demographic growth of the state. It comprises an expressive economy with industries in several productive sectors. The source of the Graminha and Aguas da Serra streams is located within the Limeira urban zone. The streams cross part of the rural zone and unite by draining into the Piracicaba River. It is possible that these basins suffer or have already suffered the impacts of environmental pollution caused by anthropogenic factors. Since the city has galvanization industries for the production of precious and semi-precious jewels as well as imitation jewelry, the concentration descriptions and interpretations of heavy metals in waters and sediments indicate anthropogenic influence and the dumping of these compounds into the Piracicaba River. The Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) was used for determining the metals. All measurements were performed using a white beam of synchrotron radiation for excitation and a Ge hyperpure detector. Detection limits for water samples were 0.04 μg L -1 and in sediment samples 0.03 μg g -1 for Cu and Zn elements. In the water samples, concentrations higher than permissible as established by the Brazilian legislation (CONAMA) for Al, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu and Pb, were observed. For sediment samples, values higher than quality reference values defined by the Brazilian legislation (CETESB) were verified for Cr, Zn, Cu, Ni and Pb

  5. Evaluation of water and sediment of the Graminha and Aguas da Serra streams in the city of Limeira (Sp-Brazil) by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana [University of Campinas, School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design, P. O. Box 602, Zip Code 13083-852, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Fazza, Elizete Vieira [University of Campinas, School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urban Design, P. O. Box 602, Zip Code 13083-852, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: fazzaelizete@yahoo.com

    2008-12-15

    The city of Limeira is located in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil and has the second largest economy and demographic growth of the state. It comprises an expressive economy with industries in several productive sectors. The source of the Graminha and Aguas da Serra streams is located within the Limeira urban zone. The streams cross part of the rural zone and unite by draining into the Piracicaba River. It is possible that these basins suffer or have already suffered the impacts of environmental pollution caused by anthropogenic factors. Since the city has galvanization industries for the production of precious and semi-precious jewels as well as imitation jewelry, the concentration descriptions and interpretations of heavy metals in waters and sediments indicate anthropogenic influence and the dumping of these compounds into the Piracicaba River. The Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) was used for determining the metals. All measurements were performed using a white beam of synchrotron radiation for excitation and a Ge hyperpure detector. Detection limits for water samples were 0.04 {mu}g L{sup -1} and in sediment samples 0.03 {mu}g g{sup -1} for Cu and Zn elements. In the water samples, concentrations higher than permissible as established by the Brazilian legislation (CONAMA) for Al, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu and Pb, were observed. For sediment samples, values higher than quality reference values defined by the Brazilian legislation (CETESB) were verified for Cr, Zn, Cu, Ni and Pb.

  6. Preliminary investigation of changes in x-ray multilayer optics subjected to high radiation flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockaday, M.P.; Blake, R.L.; Grosso, J.S.; Selph, M.M.; Klein, M.M.; Matuska, W. Jr.; Palmer, M.A.; Liefeld, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of metal multilayers was exposed to high x-ray flux using Sandia National Laboratories' PROTO II machine in the gas puff mode. Fluxes incident on the multilayers above 700 MW/cm 2 in total radiation, in nominal 20 ns pulses, were realized. The neon hydrogen- and helium-like resonance lines were used to probe the x-ray reflectivity properties of the multilayers as they underwent change of state during the heating pulse. A fluorescer-fiber optic-streak camera system was used to monitor the changes in x-ray reflectivity as a function of time and irradiance. Preliminary results are presented for a W/C multilayer. Work in progress to model the experiment is discussed. 13 refs., 4 figs

  7. Synchrotron radiation X-ray microfluorescence techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synchrotron X-ray imaging systems with fluorescence techniques was developed for biomedical researches in Brazilian Synchrotron Laboratory. An X-ray fluorescence microtomography system was implemented to analyse human prostate and breast samples and an X-ray microfluorescence system was implemented to ...

  8. Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence determination of interfering elements rubidium and uranium by profile fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Sangita; Khooha, Ajay; Singh, Ajit Kumar; Tiwari, M. K.; Misra, N. L.

    2018-06-01

    Systematic studies to assess the analytical parameters obtained in the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) determinations of interfering elements Rb and U using profile fitting are reported in the present manuscript. The X-ray lines Rb Kα and U Lα having serious spectral interference (ΔE = 218 eV), have been used as analytical lines. The intensities of these X-ray lines have been assessed using profile fitting. In order to compare the analytical results of Rb determinations in presence of U, with and without U excitation, synchrotron radiation was tuned to energy just above and below the U Labs edge. This approach shall excite both Rb Kα and U Lα simultaneously and Rb Kα selectively. Finally, the samples were also analyzed with a laboratory based TXRF spectrometer. The analytical results obtained in all these conditions were comparable. The authenticity of the results was assessed by analyzing U with respect to Rb in Rb2U(SO4)3, a standard reference material for U. The average precision obtained for TXRF determinations was below 3% (RSD, n = 3, 1σ) and the percent deviation of TXRF values from the expected values calculated on the basis of sample preparation was within 3%.

  9. Radiation safety aspects of new X-ray free electron laser facility, SACLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    In the safety point of view, X-ray free electron laser facilities have some characteristics in comparison with 3 rd generation synchrotron radiation facilities. One is that the high energy electrons are always injected into the beam dump and the beamlines must be constructed in the direction of the movements of electrons, and another is that the total number of accelerated electrons of X-ray free electron laser facilities is much larger than that of synchrotron radiation facilities. In addition to the importance of safety interlock systems, therefore, it is important that high energy electrons never invade into X-ray free electron laser beamlines and the amount of accelerated electron beam losses must be reduced as much as possible. At SACLA, a safety permanent magnet was installed into the X-ray light beam axis, and a beam halo monitor and beam loss monitors were installed within and around the electron transport pipes, respectively. In comparison with the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility, shielding design of SACLA, outline of the radiation safety systems including the monitors will be presented

  10. Observation of parametric X-ray radiation in an anomalous diffraction region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeyev, V.I., E-mail: vial@x4u.lebedev.ru [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, 53 Leninskiy prospect, Moscow (Russian Federation); Belgorod National Research University, 85 Pobedy st., Belgorod (Russian Federation); Eliseyev, A.N., E-mail: elisseev@pluton.lpi.troitsk.ru [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, 53 Leninskiy prospect, Moscow (Russian Federation); Belgorod National Research University, 85 Pobedy st., Belgorod (Russian Federation); Irribarra, E., E-mail: esteban.irribarra@epn.edu.ec [Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Ladrón de Guevara E11-253, Quito (Ecuador); Kishin, I.A., E-mail: ivan.kishin@mail.ru [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, 53 Leninskiy prospect, Moscow (Russian Federation); Belgorod National Research University, 85 Pobedy st., Belgorod (Russian Federation); Kubankin, A.S., E-mail: kubankin@bsu.edu.ru [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, 53 Leninskiy prospect, Moscow (Russian Federation); Belgorod National Research University, 85 Pobedy st., Belgorod (Russian Federation); Nazhmudinov, R.M., E-mail: fizeg@bk.ru [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, 53 Leninskiy prospect, Moscow (Russian Federation); Belgorod National Research University, 85 Pobedy st., Belgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-19

    A new possibility to expand the energy region of diffraction processes based on the interaction of relativistic charged particles with crystalline structures is presented. Diffracted photons related to parametric X-ray radiation produced by relativistic electrons are detected below the low energy threshold for the X-ray diffraction mechanism in crystalline structures for the first time. The measurements were performed during the interaction of 7 MeV electrons with a textured polycrystalline tungsten foil and a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite crystal. The experiment results are in good agreement with a developed model based on the PXR kinematical theory. The developed experimental approach can be applied to separate the contributions of real and virtual photons to the total diffracted radiation generated during the interaction of relativistic charged particles with crystalline targets. - Highlights: • Parametric X-ray radiation below the low energy threshold for diffraction of free X-rays. • Experimental separation of the contributions from different radiation mechanisms. • PXR from relativistic electrons in mosaic crystals and textured polycrystlas.

  11. Radiation exposure in X-ray examinations of the pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainberger, F.

    1977-01-01

    The article reports on radiation exposure during X-ray treatment of the pelvis of children. Special attention is paid to genetical radiation exposure. Generally a dose of 100 mR is assumed to be taken up if no adequate shielding is provided. In order to be able to judge the value of a shielding with suitable lead-equivalent values, measurements were carried out on a phantom. These measurements showed that the dosage can be reduced by at least a factor 100 by using a lead shielding. When doing this, the lead equivalent value must be 1 mm. The form of gonad protection also has great importance for the shielding efficiency. (orig.) [de

  12. Sample Environment in Experiments using X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B

    1984-01-01

    beam experiments with wavelength chosen at will from the continuous spectrum. Another type of insertion device, called undulator produces quasi-monochromatic radiation. The insertion devices enable the tailoring of the emitted S.R. to the requirements of the users and can be treated as the first......Modern electron (positron) storage rings are able to emit very intense X-ray radiation with a continuous spectrum extending to 0.1 A, from bending magnets and insertion devices (wavelength shifters and multipole wigglers). It can be used directly for white beam experiments and/or for monochromatic...... optical element of the beam line. This feature is especially important for experiments with samples in special environment because the latter imposes limitations both on scattering and absorption experiments. However, these limitations can be minimized in each case by finding the best match between...

  13. X-ray and radium gamma radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fokkema, R.E.

    1993-05-01

    During the period 1896-1939 a number of maxima could be distinguished in the incidence of X-ray and radium gamma ray injuries in patients. An explanation for these fluctuations is investigated in this study. The first distinguishable maximum in the number of reported cases of X-ray injuries can be found in the period 1896-1897 and mainly concerns skin lesions, caused by the lack of shielding and ignorance of the effects. In the period 1904-1905 there was once again an apparent prevalence of radiation injuries to patients. After 1905 the incidence of radiation injuries decreased due to a wider use of dosimetric methods. The third phase of increased injuries may be subdivided into three components. In diagnostic roentgenology from 1896 to 1926 a number of causes of roentgen burns persisted: multiple or long exposures, the use of a short focus-skin-distance and a lack of suitable dosimetric methods. The reduction of complications after 1923 can be attributed to several factors: systematic training of physics who wished to become roentgenologists, greater care of doctors, the use of an alternative method of radiotherapy according to Coutard's method, the introduction of dosimetry with ionization chambers (after 1924), the consensus reached over the roentgen as a unit of applied dosage (in 1928), and the introduction of absorption curves for radiation quality (in 1933). Around 1920 a high complication rate arose as a result of exposure to radiation emitted by radium. In 1922 the first reliable radium dosimetry method came available. This applied to external radium therapy by regular shaped applicators. After 1938 reliable dosimetry was achieved in the field of interstitial radium therapy (brachytherapy). Injuries from radium therapy, however, persisted till about 1940, caused not only by the delayed availability of radium dosimetry, but also to the use of radium therapy by poorly trained radium therapists. 28 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Actinide science with soft x-ray synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuh, D.

    2002-01-01

    Several workshops, some dating back more than fifteen years, recognised both the potential scientific impact and opportunities that would be made available by the capability to investigate actinide materials in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)/soft X-ray region of the synchrotron radiation (SR) spectrum. This spectral region revolutionized the approach to surface materials chemistry and physics nearly two decades ego. The actinide science community was unable to capitalize on these SR methodologies for the study of actinide materials until recently because of radiological safety concerns. ,The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBNL is a third-generation light source providing state-of-the-art performance in the VUV/soft X-ray region. Along with corresponding improvements in detector and vacuum technology, the ALS has rendered experiments with small amounts of actinide materials possible. In particular, it has been the emergence and development of micro-spectroscopic techniques that have enabled investigations of actinide materials at the ALS. The primary methods for the experimental investigation of actinide materials in the VUV/soft X-ray region are the complementary photoelectron spectroscopies, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) techniques. Resonant photo-emission is capable of resolving the 5f electron contributions to actinide bonding and can be used to characterise the electronic structure of actinide materials. This technique is clearly a most important methodology afforded by the tunable SR source. Core level and valence band photoelectron spectroscopies are valuable for the characterisation of the electronic properties of actinide materials, as well as for general analytical purposes. High-resolution core-level photo-emission and resonant photo-emission measurements from the a (monoclinic) and δ (FCC) allotropic phases of plutonium metal have been collected on beam line 7.0 at the ALS and the spectra show

  15. Current state of radiation protection in x-ray diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orito, Takeo; Koshida, Kichiro; Maekawa, Ryuichi; Sanada, Shigeru; Hiraki, Tatsunosuke

    1979-01-01

    The therapeutic roentgenologic technician's concern for and providing of protection from radiation while patients underwent x-ray examination in 1973 was reported. An investigation was carried out to determine the degree of changes 5 years later. Questionnaires were distributed to 200 subjects. These subjects were selected, according to duoble sampling process, from a membership list of the Japan Society of Radiologic Technologists. Answers were obtained from 135 (67.5%). The results showed that the size of the field was restricted in 60.7% of the patients, the germinal glands were protected in 64.4% of the patients, the apparatuses were checked regularly in 9.6% of the institutions, and protectors were put on 62.5% of the attendants (mothers, etc.) when children underwent x-ray examination. Also, all of the apparatuses were set up in on section in 61.6% of the institutions and the films were monitored in 57.0% of departments. (Nishio, M.)

  16. Fluorescent scanning x-ray tomography with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Maeda, Toshikazu; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Akatsuka, Takao; Ito, Tatsuo; Kishi, Kenichi; Wu, Jin; Kazama, Masahiro; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Itai, Yuji

    1995-02-01

    Fluorescent scanning (FS) x-ray tomography was developed to detect nonradioactive tracer materials (iodine and gadolinium) in a living object. FS x-ray tomography consists of a silicon (111) channel cut monochromator, an x-ray shutter, an x-ray slit system and a collimator for detection, a scanning table for the target organ, and an x-ray detector with pure germanium. The minimal detectable dose of iodine in this experiment was 100 ng in a volume of 2 mm3 and a linear relationship was shown between the photon counts of a fluorescent x ray and the concentration of iodine contrast material. A FS x-ray tomographic image was clearly obtained with a phantom.

  17. Effects of synchrotron radiation spectrum energy on polymethyl methacrylate photosensitivity to deep x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekaru, Harutaka; Utsumi, Yuichi; Hattori, Tadashi

    2003-01-01

    Since X-ray lithography requires a high photon flux to achieve deep resist exposure, a synchrotron radiation beam, which is not monochromatized, is generally used as a light source. If the synchrotron radiation beam is monochromatized, photon flux will decrease rapidly. Because of this reason, the wavelength dependence of the resist sensitivity has not been investigated for deep X-ray lithography. Measuring the spectrum of a white beam with a Si solid-state detector (SSD) is difficult because a white beam has a high intensity and an SSD has a high sensitivity. We were able to measure the spectrum and the photocurrent of a white beam from a beam line used for deep X-ray lithography by keeping the ring current below 0.05 mA. We evaluated the characteristics of the output beam based on the measured spectrum and photocurrent, and used them to investigate the relationship between the total exposure energy and the dose-processing depth with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). We found that it is possible to guess the processing depth of PMMA from the total exposure energy in deep X-ray lithography. (author)

  18. Application of synchrotron radiation to x-ray fluorescence analysis of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Hanson, A.L.

    1986-08-01

    The development of synchrotron radiation x-ray sources has provided the means to greatly extend the capabilities of x-ray fluorescence analysis for determinations of trace element concentrations. A brief description of synchrotron radiation properties provides a background for a discussion of the improved detection limits compared to existing x-ray fluorescence techniques. Calculated detection limits for x-ray microprobes with micrometer spatial resolutions are described and compared with experimental results beginning to appear from a number of laboratories. The current activities and future plans for a dedicated x-ray microprobe beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented

  19. Radiation damage resistance in mercuric iodide X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patt, B E; Dolin, R C; Devore, T M; Markakis, J M [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (USA); Iwanczyk, J S; Dorri, N [Xsirius, Inc., Marina del Rey, CA (USA); Trombka, J [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (USA). Goddard Space Flight Center

    1990-12-20

    Mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2}) radiation detectors show great potential as ambient-temperature solid-state detectors for X-rays, gamma rays and visible light, with parameters that are competitive with existing technologies. In a previous experiment, HgI{sub 2} detectors irradiated with 10 MeV protons/cm{sup 2} exhibited no damage. The 10 MeV protons represent only the low range of the spectrum of energies that are important. An experiment has been conducted at the Saturne accelerator facility at Saclay, France, to determine the susceptibility of these detectors to radiation damage by high-energy (1.5 GeV) protons. The detectors were irradiated to a fluence of 10{sup 8} protons/cm{sup 2}. This fluence is equivalent to the cosmic radiation expected in a one-year period in space. The resolution of the detectors was measured as a function of the integral dose. No degradation in the response of any of the detectors or spectrometers was seen. It is clear from this data that HgI{sub 2} has extremely high radiation-damage resistance, exceeding that of most other semiconductor materials used for radiation detectors. Based on the results shown to date, HgI{sub 2} detectors are suitable for applications in which they may be exposed to high integral dose levels. (orig.).

  20. X-ray studies of synthetic radiation-counting diamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacoot, Andrew; Moore, Moreton (Royal Holloway and Bedford New Coll., Egham (UK). Dept. of Physics); Makepeace, Anthony (Bristol Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physiology)

    1990-10-01

    Synthetic diamonds with a nitrogen content less than 100 ppm may be used as radiation dosemeters in a conduction counting mode, and are especially useful in medical applications. Crystal imperfections, revealed by x-ray diffraction topography, were found to affect counting performance. The best quality diamond gave the highest photocurrent (500 nA at 50 V mm{sup -1} and 2.75 Gy min{sup -1}). Diamonds containing dislocations had lower photocurrents but had the advantage of shorter settling times (seconds rather than minutes). Placing contacts on two opposite cube {l brace}100{r brace} faces gave a higher photocurrent than on a pair of octahedral {l brace}111{r brace} faces. Higher photocurrents were also achieved when the majority of dislocations were perpendicular rather than parallel, to the electric field. Some recommendations for selecting synthetic diamonds for dosemeters are given. (author).

  1. X-ray semiotics of radiations affections of the lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinovich, R.M.; Shapiro, I.V.

    1976-01-01

    On the hasis of analysis of roentgenograms, tomograms, and bronchograms in 189 patients a repeated study was made of the X-ray semiotics of radiation affections of the lungs. The leading roentgenological symptom of radiation affections of the lungs irrespective of their primary localization, was linear deformity and intensification of the broncho-vascular patten in the peripheral zone. This was expressed on roentgenograms in the form of radially- and cross- coursing shadows from the root: tomog.raphically it was manifested in narrowed shadows of the vessels, a change of their course, their approximation and a tendency to approach the centre; analogous disturbances of topography of the bronchi with phenomena of deforming bronchitis were seen in bronchography. A significant si.gn of radiation injuries of the lung tissue is a tendency to progressive development of connective tissue, which was expressed roentgenologically in extensive pneumosclerosis, sometimes with an outcome into fibrothorax with marked topographic disturbances. Radiation injuries are accompanied by an adhesive reaction of the pleura

  2. Construction of x-ray Kβ filters to monochromatize the radiation of a conventional x-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, M.V.B.; Oliveira, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    The construction of Zr and Nb Kβ filters to produce monochromatic radiation of a conventional X-ray Mo-tube (λK a = 0.7107 A) is described. Disks of NB and Zr, 6.4 mm in diameter and 0.03 to 0.06 mm thick, were prepared. The filters performance was tested by means of NaCl powder difraction patterns. (author) [pt

  3. PATIENT RADIATION DOSE FROM CHEST X-RAY EXAMINATIONS IN THE WEST BANK-PALESTINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahham, Adnan; Issa, Ahlam; ALMasri, Hussein

    2018-02-01

    Radiation doses to patients resulting from chest X-ray examinations were evaluated in four medical centers in the West Bank and East Jerusalem-Palestine. Absorbed organ and effective doses were calculated for a total of 428 adult male and female patients by using commercially available Monte Carlo based softwares; CALDOSE-X5 and PCXMC-2.0, and hermaphrodite mathematical adult phantoms. Patients were selected randomly from medical records in the time period from November 2014 to February 2015. A database of surveyed patients and exposure factors has been established and includes: patient's height, weight, age, gender, X-ray tube voltage, electric current (mAs), examination projection (anterior posterior (AP), posterior anterior (PA), lateral), X-ray tube filtration thickness in each X-ray equipment, anode angle, focus to skin distance and X-ray beam size. The average absorbed doses in the whole body from different projections were: 0.06, 0.07 and 0.11 mGy from AP, PA and lateral projections, respectively. The average effective dose for all surveyed patients was 0.14 mSv for all chest X-ray examinations and projections in the four investigated medical centers. The effect of projection geometry was also investigated. The average effective doses for AP, PA and lateral projections were 0.14, 0.07 and 0.22 mSv, respectively. The collective effective dose estimated for the exposed population was ~60 man-mSv. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Radiation exposure to the patient during X-ray fluoroscopy and radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimov, A.; Vassileva, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study is to assess the patient doses received during conventional and digital X-ray radiography, conventional fluoroscopy of the lungs, and one of the highest dose X-ray procedures - contrast examination of the large intestine (Barium enema examination). The measured quantity is Kerma area product (KAP), registered with a clinical dosimeter DRK-1 (Doza, Russia). A total number of 89 patients are included in the study. The Organ doses and Effective doses were assessed using Monte Carlo calculation code (PCXMC 1.4 (Finland). The measurements took place at the following X-ray units: a CGR (Koch and Sterzel) with two working posts - for radiography and fluoroscopy, a Philips Telediagnost (for barium enema) and an Oldelft N800HF Digidelca (for digital radiography of the chest). The typical KAP per procedure at digital radiography, conventional X-ray radiography and fluoroscopy and Barium enema examination are: 17; 95; 928 and 3630 cGy.cm 2 respectively; the average effective doses are: 0.022; 0.053; 0.728 and 8.0 mSv respectively. Doses to the lungs at digital radiography, conventional radiography and fluoroscopy are: 0.066; 0.136 and 2.412 mSv respectively and the dose to the upper and lower large intestine are: 11.7 and 8.6 mSv respectively. Conclusion: The approach used is applicable for assessment of radiation exposure to the patient during X-ray radiography and fluoroscopy. It needs registration of KAP meter readings when this device is installed on the stationary X-ray units

  5. Radiation safety for baggage x-ray inspection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    This book is an outgrowth of a course on radiation safety aimed at technicians responsible for conducting maintenance on baggage x-ray inspection systems used in federally operated facilities. The need for a single reference book became apparent to the instructor in 1984. In an effort to provide a cohesive development of the subject, a set of lecture notes was prepared and revised annually since 1984, from which this book has evolved. This book is intended to present concepts necessary for an elementary but comprehensive knowledge of radiation safety. While some material coverage may appear somewhat detailed, it is a deliberate attempt to strengthen areas of demonstrated weaknesses observed in course attenders and to provide guidance on the numerous questions about man-made radiation asked by course attenders over the years. Numerical examples are included in most chapters for clarity and ease of understanding. The problems given at the end of most chapters provide the reader with the opportunity of applying the material presented in the chapters to situations of practical interest. It is important that these problems be considered an integral part of the course and students attempt to solve them. 36 refs., 9 tabs., 17 figs.

  6. Radiation safety for baggage x-ray inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    This book is an outgrowth of a course on radiation safety aimed at technicians responsible for conducting maintenance on baggage x-ray inspection systems used in federally operated facilities. The need for a single reference book became apparent to the instructor in 1984. In an effort to provide a cohesive development of the subject, a set of lecture notes was prepared and revised annually since 1984, from which this book has evolved. This book is intended to present concepts necessary for an elementary but comprehensive knowledge of radiation safety. While some material coverage may appear somewhat detailed, it is a deliberate attempt to strengthen areas of demonstrated weaknesses observed in course attenders and to provide guidance on the numerous questions about man-made radiation asked by course attenders over the years. Numerical examples are included in most chapters for clarity and ease of understanding. The problems given at the end of most chapters provide the reader with the opportunity of applying the material presented in the chapters to situations of practical interest. It is important that these problems be considered an integral part of the course and students attempt to solve them. 36 refs., 9 tabs., 17 figs

  7. Low energy X-ray radiation impact on coated Si constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adliene, D.; Cibulskaite, I.; Meskinis, S.

    2010-01-01

    Low energy X-ray radiation impact on the coated Si structures is discussed in this paper. Experimental sandwich structures consisting of amorphous hydrogenated a:C-H or SiO x -containing DLC films were synthesized on Si wafers using direct ion deposition method and exposed to low energy (medical diagnostic range) X-ray photons. Irradiation of samples was performed continuously or in sequences and protective characteristics of the irradiated DLC films were investigated. Experimental data were used as the input data for Monte Carlo modelling of X-ray scattering effects in the coated silicon constructions, which affect significantly the 'signal to noise ratio' in DLC-coated Si structures proposed for their application in medical radiation detectors. Modelling results obtained in the case of DLC coatings were compared to the results of calculations performed for other commonly used combinations coating-detector material. The evaluation method of coated structures for their possible application in medical radiation detector constructions has been proposed in this paper. It is based on the best achieved compatibility between the appropriate mechanical characteristics, coating's resistance against the radiation damage and the lowest estimated scattering to total dose ratio in the coated radiation sensitive volume.

  8. Sweeping total reflection X-ray fluorescence optimisation to monitor the metallic contamination into IC manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borde, Yannick; Danel, Adrien; Roche, Agnes; Veillerot, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Among the methods available on the market today to control as metallic contamination in integrated circuit manufacturing, Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence mode appears a very good method, providing fast and entire wafer mapping. With the goal of a pertinent use of Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence in advanced Integrated Circuit manufacturing this work discusses how acceptable levels of contamination specified by the production (low levels to be detected) can be taken into account. The relation between measurement results (surface coverage, throughput, low limit of detection, limit of quantification, quantification of localized contamination) and Sweeping Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence parameters (number of measurement points and integration time per point) is presented in details. In particular, a model is proposed to explain the mismatch between actual surface contamination in a localized spot on wafer and Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence reading. Both calibration and geometric issues have been taken into account

  9. Radiation detectors of PIN type for X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Jimenez, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this laboratory session, tree experiments are proposed: the measurement of X-ray energy spectra from radioactive sources with a high resolution cooled Si-Li detector, with a room temperature PIN diode and the measurement of the response of a PIN diode to the intensity of X-rays of radio-diagnostic units. The spectra obtained with the Si-Li detector help to understand the energy distribution of X-rays and are used as a reference to compare the results obtained with the PIN diode. Measurements in medical X-ray machines are proposed. Low cost, simple electronic instruments and systems are used as tools to make measurements in X-ray units used in radio-diagnostic

  10. Forensic application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for elemental characterization of ink samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhara, Sangita; Misra, N.L.; Maind, S.D.; Kumar, Sanjukta A.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The possibility of applying Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for qualitative and quantitative differentiation of documents printed with rare earth tagged and untagged inks has been explored in this paper. For qualitative differentiation, a very small amount of ink was loosened from the printed documents by smoothly rubbing with a new clean blade without destroying the manuscript. 50 μL of Milli-Q water was put on this loose powder, on the manuscript, and was agitated by sucking and releasing the suspension two to three times with the help of a micropipette. The resultant dispersion was deposited on quartz sample support for Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectrum of tagged and untagged inks could be clearly differentiated. In order to see the applicability of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for quantitative determinations of rare earths and also to countercheck such determinations in ink samples, the amounts of rare earth in painted papers with single rare earth tagged inks were determined by digesting the painted paper in HNO 3 /HClO 4 , mixing this solution with the internal standard and recording their Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectra after calibration of the instrument. The results thus obtained were compared with those obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and were found in good agreement. The average precision of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determinations was 5.5% (1σ) and the average deviation of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determined values with that of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry was 7.3%. These studies have shown that Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence offers a promising and potential application in forensic work of this nature.

  11. Forensic application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for elemental characterization of ink samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhara, Sangita [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Misra, N.L., E-mail: nlmisra@barc.gov.i [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Maind, S.D. [NAA Unit of Central Forensic Science Laboratory Hyderabad at Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kumar, Sanjukta A. [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Chattopadhyay, N. [NAA Unit of Central Forensic Science Laboratory Hyderabad at Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Aggarwal, S.K. [Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2010-02-15

    The possibility of applying Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for qualitative and quantitative differentiation of documents printed with rare earth tagged and untagged inks has been explored in this paper. For qualitative differentiation, a very small amount of ink was loosened from the printed documents by smoothly rubbing with a new clean blade without destroying the manuscript. 50 muL of Milli-Q water was put on this loose powder, on the manuscript, and was agitated by sucking and releasing the suspension two to three times with the help of a micropipette. The resultant dispersion was deposited on quartz sample support for Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectrum of tagged and untagged inks could be clearly differentiated. In order to see the applicability of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence for quantitative determinations of rare earths and also to countercheck such determinations in ink samples, the amounts of rare earth in painted papers with single rare earth tagged inks were determined by digesting the painted paper in HNO{sub 3}/HClO{sub 4}, mixing this solution with the internal standard and recording their Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence spectra after calibration of the instrument. The results thus obtained were compared with those obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and were found in good agreement. The average precision of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determinations was 5.5% (1sigma) and the average deviation of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence determined values with that of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry was 7.3%. These studies have shown that Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence offers a promising and potential application in forensic work of this nature.

  12. Metals determination in coffee sample by total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the inorganic concentration in five brands of coffee, three of them nationally marketed and the others of an exportation kind. The samples were prepared by infusion with deionized water. To carry out the calibration, standard solutions were prepared with different concentrations of Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn and Se. The measurements were carried out using a white beam of synchrotron radiation for excitation and a Si (Li) semiconductor detector for detection. By employing Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SR-TXRF) it was possible to evaluate the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Ba. The detection limits for 300 s counting time were in the range of 0.03 (Ca) to 30 ng.g -1 (Rb), respectively. (author)

  13. Metals determination in coffee sample by total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo [ Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the inorganic concentration in five brands of coffee, three of them nationally marketed and the others of an exportation kind. The samples were prepared by infusion with deionized water. To carry out the calibration, standard solutions were prepared with different concentrations of Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn and Se. The measurements were carried out using a white beam of synchrotron radiation for excitation and a Si (Li) semiconductor detector for detection. By employing Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SR-TXRF) it was possible to evaluate the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Ba. The detection limits for 300 s counting time were in the range of 0.03 (Ca) to 30 ng.g{sup -1} (Rb), respectively. (author)

  14. Practical X-ray diagnostics orthopedics and trauma surgery. Indication, adjustment technique and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flechtenmacher, Johannes; Sabo, Desiderius

    2014-01-01

    The book on X-ray diagnostics in orthopedics and trauma surgery includes the following chapters: 1. Introduction: radiation protection, equipment technology radiological diagnostics of skeleton carcinomas, specific aspects of trauma surgery, special aspects of skeleton radiology for children. 2. X-ray diagnostics of different anatomical regions: ankle joint, knee, hips and pelvis, hand and wrist joint, elbow, shoulder, spinal cord. 3. Appendix: radiation protection according to the X-ray regulations.

  15. X-ray analysis of a single aerosol particle with combination of scanning electron microscope and synchrotron radiation X-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Masatoshi; Kaibuchi, Kazuki; Nagasono, Mitsuru; Terada, Yasuko; Tanabe, Teruo; Hayakawa, Shinjiro; Kawai, Jun

    2004-01-01

    We developed a microscope by a combination of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). SR-XRF is appropriate to detect trace and micro amount of elements and sensitive to heavy elements in an analyte but it cannot observe the real time image. SEM-EDX can observe the secondary electron image of a single particle in real time and is appropriate to detect lighter elements. This combination microscope can ensure the identification of the XRF spectrum to the SEM image without transferring the sample. For aerosol analysis, it is important to analyze each particle. The present method makes feasible to analyze not only the average elemental composition as the total particles but also elemental composition of each particle, which is dependent on the particle shape and size. The microscope was applied to an individual aerosol particle study. The X-ray spectra were different among the particles, but also different between SR-XRF and SEM-EDX for the same particle, due to the difference in fluorescence yields between X-ray excitation and electron excitation

  16. The radiation protection optimisation in contrast X-ray diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, S.; Pavlovic, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the class of artificial sources, X-ray diagnostic techniques irradiate global population with more than 90 % share in total dose. At the same time this is the only area with high possibilities in collective dose reduction without important investments. Exposure of the medical team is mainly related to unnecessary irradiation. Eliminating this unnecessary irradiation quality of diagnostic information remains undisturbed. From the radiation protection point of view the most critical X-ray diagnostic method is angiography. This paper presents the radiation protection optimisation calculation of the protective lead thickness using the Cost - Benefit analysis technique. The obtained numerical results are based on calculated collective dose, the estimated prices of the lead and lead glass thickness and the adopted price for monetary value of the collective dose unit α. (author) 3 figs., 10 refs

  17. The radiation protection optimisation in contrast X-ray diagnostic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, S; Pavlovic, R [Inst. of Nuclear Science Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Radiation and Environmental Protection Lab.; Boreli, F [Fac. of Electrical Engineering, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-12-31

    In the class of artificial sources, X-ray diagnostic techniques irradiate global population with more than 90 % share in total dose. At the same time this is the only area with high possibilities in collective dose reduction without important investments. Exposure of the medical team is mainly related to unnecessary irradiation. Eliminating this unnecessary irradiation quality of diagnostic information remains undisturbed. From the radiation protection point of view the most critical X-ray diagnostic method is angiography. This paper presents the radiation protection optimisation calculation of the protective lead thickness using the Cost - Benefit analysis technique. The obtained numerical results are based on calculated collective dose, the estimated prices of the lead and lead glass thickness and the adopted price for monetary value of the collective dose unit {alpha}. (author) 3 figs., 10 refs.

  18. Quasimonochromatic x-ray source using photoabsorption-edge transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Harris, J.L.; Maruyama, X.K.; Bergstrom, J.C.; Caplan, H.S.; Silzer, R.M.; Skopik, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    By designing transition radiators to emit x rays at the foil material's K-, L-, or M-shell photoabsorption edge, the x-ray spectrum is narrowed. The source is quasimonochromatic, directional, and intense and uses an electron beam whose energy is considerably lower than that needed for synchrotron sources. Depending upon the selection of foil material, the radiation can be produced wherever there is a photoabsorption edge. In this paper we report the results of the measurement of the x-ray spectrum from a transition radiator composed of 10 foils of 2-μm titanium and exposed to low-current, 90.2-MeV electrons. The measured band of emission was from 3.2 to 5 keV. In addition, a measurment was performed of the total power from a transition radiator composed of 18 foils of 2.0-μm copper exposed to a high-average-current electron beam of 40 μA and at energies of 135, 172, and 200 MeV. The maximum measured power was 4.0 mW. The calculated band of emission was from 4 to 9 keV

  19. The influence of the solid waste disposal areas in Campinas city, Sao Paulo state (Brazil) on water quality: determination of metals using synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Bruna F.F.; Moreira, Silvana; Canteras, Felippe Benavente

    2013-01-01

    Among the many forms of waste disposal, landfills today are best suited to Brazilian conditions, this because their construction allows minimizing the negative effects of landfill gas and slurry produced. However, the confinement of pollutants from landfills is linked to its construction and operation and when the construction and/or is wrong they can endanger air, groundwater and surface waters qualities. Thus, the main objective of this study was to analyze the concentration of heavy metals in samples of groundwater, surface water and slurry coming from solid waste disposal locations in the city of Campinas, SP - Delta, Santa Barbara and Pirelli Landfills. The samples were analyzed at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory using Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence technique (SR-TXRF). In Pirelli Landfill, the highest concentrations were observed in one of the wells located to downstream of the Landfill (in relation to the groundwater flux) - the monitoring well PM04, exceeding the intervention value defined by CETESB. For Santa Barbara landfill in one upstream monitoring well the concentrations of Ni, Mn, Pb and Cr, surpassed the maximum permissive values. The manganese in Landfill Delta showed to be higher in wells located downstream and 50% of the wells analyzed exceeded the maximum permissive value for groundwater samples. In the case of surface waters located in the vicinity of landfill sites, the metals that surpassed the maximum permissive values according the legislation in most of the points analyzed were Mn, Cu and Pb. For slurry samples collected in Delta Landfill, the average concentrations for Mn, Ni, Cu and Pb not exceeded the maximum permissive values during the period studied. Moreover for Santa Barbara the average concentration of Mn, Cu and Zn surpassed the permissive limits, as was observed for Mn in the Pirelli Landfill. (author)

  20. Confocal total reflection X-ray fluorescence technology based on an elliptical monocapillary and a parallel polycapillary X-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Wang, Yabing; Sun, Tianxi; Sun, Xuepeng; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Yufei; Zhang, Fengshou

    2018-07-01

    A total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer based on an elliptical monocapillary X-ray lens (MXRL) and a parallel polycapillary X-ray lens (PPXRL) was designed. This TXRF instrument has micro focal spot, low divergence and high intensity of incident X-ray beam. The diameter of the focal spot of MXRL was 16.5 µm, and the divergence of the incident X-ray beam was 3.4 mrad. We applied this TXRF instrument to the micro analysis of a single-layer film containing Ni deposited on a Si substrate by metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiation safety and quality in diagnostic x-ray imaging 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, A.; Parviainen, T.

    2001-05-01

    The obligations of the medical exposure directive (97/43/Euratom) for hospitals dominate the current activities in radiation protection in medical radiology. The directive gives special emphasis to radiation exposure of children, to examinations with high radiation doses and to radiation exposure in health screening programmes. The most important examinations with high doses are radiological interventions, where even acute skin effects are possible, and the computed tomography where the number of CT examinations makes only about 5% from the total number of x-ray examinations but the collective effective dose about 40% from the combined collective effective dose of all x-ray examinations. In the research projects financed by the European Commission, radiation exposures to paediatric patients have been measured in radiography, fluoroscopy and CT, and various dose assessment methods have been compared to develop a method for national follow-up of patients' radiation dose. The newest research project is focused on dosimetry and quality assurance in interventional radiology and digital imaging. Other actual topics are the development of radiation protection regulations and quality systems, education and training programmes, and clinical audits. This report deals with new radiation protection guides and recommendations and the education and training of radiological staff in radiation protection. One important topic is the development of national follow-up method of radiation exposure to patients and comparison of various dose assessment methods. Quality assurance in health care and in paediatric radiology, and the acceptance test and quality assurance measurements of radiological equipment are also described. (orig.)

  2. Radiation chemical effects of X-rays on liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holroyd, R.A.; Preses, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    This review describes some of the chemical changes induced by photoelectrons which are released in liquids when X-rays are absorbed. Both experimental studies and theory are discussed. In part 1, the basic processes occurring upon absorption of X-rays are described. Parts 2 and 3 deal with hydrocarbon liquids; in part 2 the ion yields, including effects at K-edges, and in part 3, the yields of excited states. Part 4 discusses chemical effects of X-rays in aqueous solutions. The authors end with a summary of future needs and directions

  3. Measurement of the energy and power radiated by a pulsed blackbody x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, Gordon Andrew; McDaniel, Dillon Heirman; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Warne, Larry Kevin; Dropinski, Steven Clark; Hanson, Donald L.; Johnson, William Arthur; York, Mathew William; Lewis, D.F.; Korde, R.; Haslett, C.L.; Wall, D.L.; Ruggles, Laurence E.; Ramirez, L.E.; Stygar, William A.; Porter, John Larry Jr.; McKenney, John Lee; Bryce, Edwin Anthony; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Torres, Jose A.; Mills, Jerry Alan; Leeper, Ramon Joe; McGurn, John Stephen; Fehl, David Lee; Spielman, R. B.; Pyle, John H.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos; Ives III, Harry Crockett; Seamen, Johann F.; Simpson, Walter W.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a diagnostic system that measures the spectrally integrated (i.e. the total) energy and power radiated by a pulsed blackbody x-ray source. The total-energy-and-power (TEP) diagnostic system is optimized for blackbody temperatures between 50 and 350 eV. The system can view apertured sources that radiate energies and powers as high as 2 MJ and 200 TW, respectively, and has been successfully tested at 0.84 MJ and 73 TW on the Z pulsed-power accelerator. The TEP system consists of two pinhole arrays, two silicon-diode detectors, and two thin-film nickel bolometers. Each of the two pinhole arrays is paired with a single silicon diode. Each array consists of a 38 x 38 square array of 10-(micro)m-diameter pinholes in a 50-(micro)m-thick tantalum plate. The arrays achromatically attenuate the x-ray flux by a factor of ∼1800. The use of such arrays for the attenuation of soft x rays was first proposed by Turner and co-workers [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 656 (1999)RSINAK0034-674810.1063/1.1149385]. The attenuated flux from each array illuminates its associated diode; the diode's output current is recorded by a data-acquisition system with 0.6-ns time resolution. The arrays and diodes are located 19 and 24 m from the source, respectively. Because the diodes are designed to have an approximately flat spectral sensitivity, the output current from each diode is proportional to the x-ray power. The nickel bolometers are fielded at a slightly different angle from the array-diode combinations, and view (without pinhole attenuation) the same x-ray source. The bolometers measure the total x-ray energy radiated by the source and--on every shot--provide an in situ calibration of the array-diode combinations. Two array-diode pairs and two bolometers are fielded to reduce random uncertainties. An analytic model (which accounts for pinhole-diffraction effects) of the sensitivity of an array-diode combination is presented

  4. Investigation on diagnostic techniques of X-ray radiation characteristic from slit target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jinxiu; Miao Wenyong; Sun Kexu; Wang Hongbin; Cao Leifeng; Yang Jiamin; Chen Zhenglin

    2001-01-01

    On the Xingguang-II facility, X-ray transport process in a cavity target was simulated in a long cylindrical cavity with slits. High temporally and spatially resolved Microchannel Plate (MCP) gated X-ray picosecond frame camera and soft X-ray steak camera were used to investigate the temporal and spatial distribution of the soft X-ray emitted from the cavity wall through the slit. X-ray transport velocity, X-ray emission time and amount of intensity decay was obtained. X-ray CCD pinhole transmission grating spectrometer was used to investigate the spectrum change of the emitted X-ray versus its location. The change characteristic of the spectrum of X-ray absorbed and emitted again and again in transport was obtained. X-ray diodes and Dante spectrometer were used to measure X-ray flux and radiation temperature in the slit, the source and the transport end, respectively. The typical results in the experiment were given. A brief and essential analysis and discussion were made

  5. Soft X-ray diffractometer for synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Gau, T S; Liu, K Y; Chung, C H; Chen, C K; Lai, S C; Shu, C H; Huang, Y S; Chao, C H; Lee, Y R; Chen, C T; Chang, S L

    2001-01-01

    An ultra-high vacuum soft X-ray diffractometer has been constructed and commissioned at the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (SRRC) to investigate materials structures in mesoscale. The diffractometer, housed in a UHV tank, consists of a 6-circle goniometer, together with the systems for beam-collimation, signal detection, vacuum, and control panels. The kappa-phi (cursive,open) Greek-psi goniostat is adopted for the sample orientation. Crystal samples can be rotated along a given reciprocal lattice vector by using psi scan. Two orthogonal axes, gamma (or 2 theta) and delta, are used to move the detector. The detector is a semiconductor pin diode, which can be used in UHV ambient. This 6-circle goniometer allows for sample scanning of a wide range in the momentum space. The motors used for goniometer rotation and slit selection are UHV compatible. The UHV tank is placed on an XYZ table capable of positioning the center of the goniometer onto the incident beam. Test experiments have been carried on the 1-...

  6. Radiation effects for high-energy protons and X-ray in integrated circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, M.A.G.; Santos, R.B.B. [Centro Universitario da FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil); Medina, N.H.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Lima, J.A. de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Cirne, K.H. [Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Electronic circuits are strongly influenced by ionizing radiation. The necessity to develop integrated circuits (IC's) featuring radiation hardness is largely growing to meet the stringent environment in space electronics [1]. This work aims to development a test platform to qualify electronic devices under the influence of high radiation dose, for aerospace applications. To understand the physical phenomena responsible for changes in devices exposed to ionizing radiation several kinds of radiation should then be considered, among them heavy ions, alpha particles, protons, gamma and X-rays. Radiation effects on the ICs are usually divided into three categories: Total Ionizing Dose (TID), a cumulative dose that shifts the threshold voltage and increases transistor's off-state current; Single Events Effects (SEE), a transient effect which can deposit charge directly into the device and disturb the properties of electronic circuits and Displacement Damage (DD) which can change the arrangement of the atoms in the lattice [2]. In this study we are investigating the radiation effects in rectangular-gate and circular-gate MOSFETs, manufactured with standard CMOS fabrication process, using particle beams produced in electrostatic tandem accelerators and X-rays. Initial tests for TID effects were performed using the 1.7 MV 5SDH tandem Pelletron accelerator of the Instituto de Fisica da USP with a proton beam of 2.6 MeV. The devices were exposed to different doses, varying the beam current, and irradiation time with the accumulated dose reaching up to Grad. To study the effect of X-rays on the electronic devices, an XRD-7000 (Shimadzu) X-ray setup was used as a primary X-ray source. The devices were irradiated with a total dose from krad to Grad using different dose rates. The results indicate that changes of the I-V characteristic curve are strongly dependents on the geometry of the devices. [1] Duzellier, S., Aerospace Science and Technology 9, p. 93

  7. Elemental concentration analysis in prostate tissues using total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitão, R.G.; Palumbo, A.; Souza, P.A.V.R.; Pereira, G.R.; Canellas, C.G.L.; Anjos, M.J.; Nasciutti, L.E.; Lopes, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) currently represents the second most prevalent malignant neoplasia in men, representing 21% of all cancer cases. Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) is an illness prevailing in men above the age of 50, close to 90% after the age of 80. The prostate presents a high zinc concentration, about 10-fold higher than any other body tissue. In this work, samples of human prostate tissues with cancer, BPH and normal tissue were analyzed utilizing total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation technique (SR-TXRF) to investigate the differences in the elemental concentrations in these tissues. SR-TXRF analyses were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, São Paulo. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. By using Mann–Whitney U test it was observed that almost all elements presented concentrations with significant differences (α=0.05) between the groups studied. - Highlights: ► Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed form of cancer in men. ► Intracellular Zn is correlated with proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis. ► The prostate gland accumulate high concentration of Zn. ► SR-TXRF is a technique widely used in the analysis of low concentration in samples

  8. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  9. X-ray fluorescence imaging with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The micro-distribution of trace elements is of great interest in fields such as geochemistry, biology and material science. The synchrotron x-ray fluorescence microprobe provides a technique to quantitatively measure trace element compositions at individual points and to construct semiquantitative two dimensional maps of trace element compositions. This paper describes an x-ray fluorescence system used at the National Synchrotron Light Source

  10. Leakage and scattered radiation from hand-held dental x-ray unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook Univ. School of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    To compare the leakage and scattered radiation from hand-held dental X-ray unit with radiation from fixed dental X-ray unit. For evaluation we used one hand-held dental X-ray unit and Oramatic 558 (Trophy Radiologie, France), a fixed dental X-ray unit. Doses were measured with Unfors Multi-O-Meter 512L at the right and left hand levels of X-ray tube head part for the scattered and leakage radiation when human skull DXTTR {iota}{iota}{iota} was exposed to both dental X-ray units. And for the leakage radiation only, doses were measured at the immediately right, left, superior and posterior side of the tube head part when air was exposed. Exposure parameters of hand-held dental X-ray unit were 70 kVp, 3 mA , 0.1 second, and of fixed X-ray unit 70 kVp, 8 mA, 0.45 second. The mean dose at the hand level when human skull DXTTR {iota}{iota}{iota} was exposed with portable X-ray unit 6.39 {mu}Gy, and the mean dose with fixed X-ray unit 3.03 {mu}Gy (p<0.001). The mean dose at the immediate side of the tube head part when air was exposed with portable X-ray unit was 2.97 {mu}Gy and with fixed X-ray unit the mean dose was 0.68 {mu}Gy (p<0.01). The leakage and scattered radiation from hand-held dental radiography was greater than from fixed dental radiography.

  11. Leakage and scattered radiation from hand-held dental x-ray unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung

    2007-01-01

    To compare the leakage and scattered radiation from hand-held dental X-ray unit with radiation from fixed dental X-ray unit. For evaluation we used one hand-held dental X-ray unit and Oramatic 558 (Trophy Radiologie, France), a fixed dental X-ray unit. Doses were measured with Unfors Multi-O-Meter 512L at the right and left hand levels of X-ray tube head part for the scattered and leakage radiation when human skull DXTTR ΙΙΙ was exposed to both dental X-ray units. And for the leakage radiation only, doses were measured at the immediately right, left, superior and posterior side of the tube head part when air was exposed. Exposure parameters of hand-held dental X-ray unit were 70 kVp, 3 mA , 0.1 second, and of fixed X-ray unit 70 kVp, 8 mA, 0.45 second. The mean dose at the hand level when human skull DXTTR ΙΙΙ was exposed with portable X-ray unit 6.39 μGy, and the mean dose with fixed X-ray unit 3.03 μGy (p<0.001). The mean dose at the immediate side of the tube head part when air was exposed with portable X-ray unit was 2.97 μGy and with fixed X-ray unit the mean dose was 0.68 μGy (p<0.01). The leakage and scattered radiation from hand-held dental radiography was greater than from fixed dental radiography

  12. Starspot variability as an X-ray radiation proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhypov, Oleksiy V.; Khodachenko, Maxim L.; Lammer, Helmut; Güdel, Manuel; Lüftinger, Teresa; Johnstone, Colin P.

    2018-05-01

    Stellar X-ray emission plays an important role in the study of exoplanets as a proxy for stellar winds and as a basis for the prediction of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flux, unavailable for direct measurements, which in their turn are important factors for the mass-loss of planetary atmospheres. Unfortunately, the detection thresholds limit the number of stars with the directly measured X-ray fluxes. At the same time, the known connection between the sunspots and X-ray sources allows using of the starspot variability as an accessible proxy for the stellar X-ray emission. To realize this approach, we analysed the light curves of 1729 main-sequence stars with rotation periods 0.5 X-ray to bolometric luminosity ratio Rx. As a result, the regressions for stellar X-ray luminosity Lx(P, Teff) and its related EUV analogue LEUV were obtained for the main-sequence stars. It was shown that these regressions allow prediction of average (over the considered stars) values of log (Lx) and log (LEUV) with typical errors of 0.26 and 0.22 dex, respectively. This, however, does not include the activity variations in particular stars related to their individual magnetic activity cycles.

  13. X-ray microscopy using collimated and focussed synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Gordon, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray microscopy is a field that has developed rapidly in recent years. Two different approaches have been used. Zone plates have been employed to produce focused beams with sizes as low as 0.07 μm for x-ray energies below 1 keV. Images of biological materials and elemental maps for major and minor low Z have been produced using above and below absorption edge differences. At higher energies collimators and focusing mirrors have been used to make small diameter beams for excitation of characteristic K- or L-x rays of all elements in the periodic table. The practicality of a single instrument combining all the features of these two approaches is unclear. The use of high-energy x rays for x-ray microscopy has intrinsic value for characterization of thick samples and determination of trace amounts of most elements. A summary of work done on the X-26 beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) with collimated and focused x rays with energies above 4 keV is given here. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  14. Device for monitoring X-ray radiation and method of using same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    Each of a plurality of thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's) is secured to one of a plurality of slides, which are removably mounted in a like plurality of pockets formed in a generally wallet-sized carrier to open on one edge thereof. One additional TLD is secured in a recess in one corner of the carrier to be exposed to all X-ray radiation which falls upon the carrier. Each slide is releasably secured in its associated pocket by means which prevents accidental removal of the side from the pocket. Whenever the owner of the carrier is subjected to an X-ray examination, he or she removes from the carrier one of the slides having thereon an unused TLD, and by a means of adhesive on the back of the slide adheres the associated TLD directly in the path of the X-ray radiation to which the patient is subjected during the examination. After the examination the slide is returned to its pocket in the carrier. Periodically the used TLD elements, as well as the non-removable TLD element, can be processed in a conventional manner to determine the total amount of radiation recorded by the respective elements. In one embodiment the removable slides are housed in lead-lined pockets and beneath a lead-lined, hinged cover member

  15. Additional radiation dose to population due to X-ray diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chougule, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Discovery of X rays has revolutionised the medical diagnosis but the fact that the diagnostic radiological procedures contribute about 80 to 90 % of the radiation dose to population as compared to other man made radiation sources cannot be ignored especially when X ray diagnostic facilities are being made available to larger section of the society. The estimated frequency of radiological procedures in India is 12,000 procedures/ year/100,000 population, though it is quite less as compared to developed countries, its increasing day by day. As part of the project, a radiation protection survey of X ray installations and patient radiation dose measurement during various radiological procedures was undertaken. 193 X ray installations were surveyed and the radiation doses received by the patient during various radiological procedure was measured. For measurement of radiation doses, CaSO 4 : Dy thermoluminescence (T.L.) discs of size 13.3 mm diameter and 0.8 mm thickness were used. Pre annealed T.L. discs were fixed by adhesive tape on the patient skin at the center of entrance beam before the exposure. After exposure the T.L. discs were estimated f or entrance skin dose during that particular projection/ examination. 10,000 measurements at different centers during various radiological procedures were done. It was found that chest radiography accounts for 37 % of all radiological procedures and further it was observed that 70 % of the chest X rays were normal with out any pathology indicating scope for curtailing the unwarranted radiological procedures. The special investigations like barium swallow, barium meal and fallow through accounts for about 1.5 % of the total radiological procedures. The entrance skin dose [E.S.D.] during chest radiography was 0.3 + 0.1 mGy where as during K.U.B. and cervical spine radiography it was 6.2 + 1.1 mGy and 5.1 + 0.9 mGy respectively. The details of frequency of various radiological procedures and the

  16. Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) of brachiopod shell interiors for taxonomy: Preliminary report

    OpenAIRE

    Motchurova-Dekova Neda; Harper David A.T.

    2010-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) is a non-destructive technique for the investigation and visualization of the internal features of solid opaque objects, which allows reconstruction of a complete three-dimensional image of internal structures by recording of the differences in the effects on the passage of waves of energy reacting with those structures. Contrary to X-rays, produced in a conventional X-ray tube, the intense synchrot...

  17. Radiation protection and safety guide no. GRPB-G-5: safe use of x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schandorf, C.; Darko, O.; Yeboah, J.; Osei, E.K.; Asiamah, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    If properly utilized, the use of x-rays can be instrumental in the improvement of the health and welfare of the public. This regulatory guide was developed to assist and encourage registrants in the safe and constructive use of x-rays and to prohibit and prevent exposure to ionizing radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental to health. The present guide applies to the use of x-rays for diagnostic, therapeutic, and non medical purposes

  18. Exposure to Low-Dose X-Ray Radiation Alters Bone Progenitor Cells and Bone Microarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Florence; Swift, Joshua M; Greene, Elisabeth S; Allen, Matthew R; Cunningham, David A; Braby, Leslie A; Bloomfield, Susan A

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation during medical treatment exerts well-documented deleterious effects on bone health, reducing bone density and contributing to bone growth retardation in young patients and spontaneous fracture in postmenopausal women. However, the majority of human radiation exposures occur in a much lower dose range than that used in the radiation oncology clinic. Furthermore, very few studies have examined the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation on bone integrity and results have been inconsistent. In this study, mice were irradiated with a total-body dose of 0.17, 0.5 or 1 Gy to quantify the early (day 3 postirradiation) and delayed (day 21 postirradiation) effects of radiation on bone microarchitecture and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Female BALBc mice (4 months old) were divided into four groups: irradiated (0.17, 0.5 and 1 Gy) and sham-irradiated controls (0 Gy). Micro-computed tomography analysis of distal femur trabecular bone from animals at day 21 after exposure to 1 Gy of X-ray radiation revealed a 21% smaller bone volume (BV/TV), 22% decrease in trabecular numbers (Tb.N) and 9% greater trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) compared to sham-irradiated controls (P X-rays, whereas osteoclastogenesis was enhanced. A better understanding of the effects of radiation on osteoprogenitor cell populations could lead to more effective therapeutic interventions that protect bone integrity for individuals exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation.

  19. Recent trends in total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for biological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoboszlai, Norbert; Polgari, Zsofia; Mihucz, Victor G.; Zaray, Gyula

    2009-01-01

    This review is focused on the application of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry in the field of biological research. In the last decade, most papers were published by authors who applied laboratory-scale TXRF equipments. The application of synchrotron radiation as excitation source (SR-TXRF) shows a slowly increasing tendency. In the cited papers the micro-, trace and multielement capability of these TXRF techniques was demonstrated in the clinical and medical laboratory practice, as well as in various plant physiological studies. For speciation of elements in biological matrices, the TXRF was used as element specific detector following an off-line separation step (e.g., thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography), however, these off-line methods are not competitive with the on-line coupled HPLC-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

  20. Slow scan sit detector for x-ray diffraction studies using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milch, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A TV-type x-ray detector using a SIT vidicon has been used for biological diffraction studies at the EMBL outstation at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. The detector converts the two-dimensional diffraction pattern to a charge pattern on the vidicon target, which is read out in the slow-scan mode. This detector has high DOE, no count-rate limit, and is simple and inexpensive to construct. Radiation from the storage ring DORIS was used to study the structure of live muscle at various phases of contraction. Typically the count-rate on the detector was 10 6 x-rays/sec and a total exposure of a few seconds was needed to record the weak diffraction from muscle. This compares with usual exposure times of several hours using a rotating anode generator and film

  1. Uranium soft x-ray total attenuation coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Grande, N.K.; Oliver, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium total attenuation coefficients were measured continuously from 0.84 to 6.0 keV and at selected higher energies using a vacuum single crystal diffractometer and flow-proportional counter. Statistical fluctuations ranged from 0.5% to 2%. The overall accuracy was 3%. Prominent structure was measured within 20 eV of the M 5 (3.552 keV) and M 4 (3.728 keV) edges. Jump ratios were determined from log-log polynomial fits to data at energies apart from the near-edge regions. These data were compared with calculations based on a relativistic HFS central potential model and with previously tabulated data

  2. Soft X-ray synchrotron radiation investigations of actinide materials systems utilizing X-ray emission spectroscopy and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuh, D.K.; Butorin, S.M.; Guo, J.-H.; Nordgren, J.

    2004-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) methods have been utilized with increasing frequency over the past several years to study topics in actinide science, ranging from those of a fundamental nature to those that address a specifically-targeted technical need. In particular, the emergence of microspectroscopic and fluorescence-based techniques have permitted investigations of actinide materials at sources of soft x-ray SR. Spectroscopic techniques with fluorescence-based detection are useful for actinide investigations since they are sensitive to small amounts of material and the information sampling depth may be varied. These characteristics also serve to simplify both sample preparation and safety considerations. Examples of investigations using these fluorescence techniques will be described along with their results, as well as the prospects for future investigations utilizing these methodologies

  3. Study of hard braking x-ray radiation on the radiation-beam complex ''TEMP''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batrakov, A.B.; Glushko, E.G.; Egorov, A.M.; Zinchenko, A.A.; Litvinenko, V.V.; Lonin, Yu.F.; Ponomarev, A.G.; Rybka, A.V.; Fedotov, S.I.; Uvarov, V.T.

    2015-01-01

    A calculation over of basic parameters of the hard brake x-rayed radiation for the microsecond accelerating of relativistic electronic beam T EMP . Optimization of converters is conducted for these aims. Maximal doses are experimentally got brake x-rayed radiation on beam-radiation complex T EMP . The diagrams of orientation of the brake x-rayed radiation are taken off depending on energies of bunches and forms of electrodes.

  4. Practice for dosimetry in an X-ray (bremsstrahlung) facility for radiation processing. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This practice covers dosimetric procedures to be followed in facility characterization, process qualification, and routine processing using X rays (bremsstrahlung) to ensure that the entire product has been treated within an acceptable range of absorbed doses. Other procedures related to facility characterization, process qualification, and routine processing that may influence absorbed dose in the product are also discussed. The establishment of effective or regulatory dose and X-ray energy limits are not within the scope of this practice. In contrast to monoenergetic gamma rays, the bremsstrahlung energy spectrum extends from low values up to the maximum energy of the electrons incident on the X-ray target (see Section 5 and Annex A1). Dosimetry is only one component of a total quality assurance program for an irradiation facility. Other controls besides dosimetry may be required for specific applications such as medical device sterilization and food preservation. For the irradiation of food and the radiation sterilization of health care products, other specific ISO standards exist. For food irradiation, see ISO/ASTM Practice 51431. For the radiation sterilization of health care products, see ISO 11137:1995. In those areas covered by ISO 11137, that standard takes precedence

  5. An x-ray microprobe using focussing optics with a synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.C.; Underwood, J.H.; Wu, Y.; Giauque, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray microprobe can be used to produce maps of the concentration of elements in a sample. Synchrotron radiation provides x-ray beams with enough intensity and collimation to make possible elemental images with femtogram sensitivity. The use of focussing x-ray mirrors made from synthetic multilayers with a synchrotron x-ray beam allows beam spot sizes of less than 10 μm /times/ 10 μm to be produced. Since minimal sample preparation is required and a vacuum environment is not necessary, there will be a wide variety of applications for such microprobes. 8 refs., 6 figs

  6. Measurement of spherical compound refractive X-ray lens at ANKA synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudchik, Yu.I.; Simon, R.; Baumbach, T.

    2007-01-01

    Parameters of compound refractive X-ray lens were measured at ANKA synchrotron radiation source. The lens consists of 224 spherical concave epoxy microlenses formed inside glass capillary. The curvature radius of individual microlens is equal to 100 microns. Measured were: X-ray focal spot, lens focal length and gain in intensity. The energy of X-ray beam was equal to 12 keV and 14 keV. It is shown that when X-ray lens is used, the gain in intensity of the X-ray beam in some cases may exceed value of 100. Tested lens is suitable to focus X-rays into, at least, 2-microns in size spot. (authors)

  7. Synchrotron radiation sources and condensers for projection x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.B.; MacDowell, A.A.; White, D.L.; Wood, O.R. II

    1992-01-01

    The design requirements for a compact electron storage ring that could be used as a soft x-ray source for projection lithography are discussed. The design concepts of the x-ray optics that are required to collect and condition the radiation in divergence, uniformity and direction to properly illuminate the mask and the particular x-ray projection camera used are discussed. Preliminary designs for an entire soft x-ray projection lithography system using an electron storage ring as a soft X-ray source are presented. It is shown that by combining the existing technology of storage rings with large collection angle condensers, a powerful and reliable source of 130 Angstrom photons for production line projection x-ray lithography is possible

  8. Observation of parametric X-ray radiation by an imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takabayashi, Y.; Shchagin, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated experimentally the application of an imaging plate for registering the angular distribution of parametric X-ray radiation. The imaging plate was used as a two-dimensional position-sensitive X-ray detector. High-quality images of the fine structure in the angular distributions of the yield around the reflection of the parametric X-ray radiation produced in a silicon crystal by a 255-MeV electron beam from a linear accelerator have been observed in the Laue geometry. A fairly good agreement between results of measurements and calculations by the kinematic theory of parametric X-ray radiation is shown. Applications of the imaging plates for the observation of the angular distribution of X-rays produced by accelerated particles in a crystal are also discussed.

  9. Relationship between radiation dose and changes of blood cells in medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Wenzheng

    1984-01-01

    The hematological changes of 2867 cases of medical X-ray workers and 1152 cases of non-X-ray medical workers were compared. It was shown that the total number of leukocytes, the numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets were significantly lower in X-ray workers than those in controls. However, the percentages of monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and the concentration of hemoglobin were higher in the irradiated group. the difference between the two groups was statistically significant. The degree of changes in the number of blood cells was dose-dependent. A negative correlation could be found between the changes of leukocyte and neutrophil counts and cumulative dose (<250 mGy), annual dose (<15 mGy/a) and length of service of the X-ray workers; and a positive correlation existed between the percentages of basophils, eosinophils and monocytes, and the radiation dose. The abnormality rate of blood picture in the irradiated group was higher than that in the control group. Most X-ray workers with abnormal blood picture were distributed in low-dose group. The data also showed that radiation effect on male X-ray workers was greater than that on female workers. (Author)

  10. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of Austrian wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, X. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Kregsamer, P. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Wobrauschek, P. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Streli, C. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: streli@ati.ac.at

    2006-11-15

    The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in Austrian wine was determined by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using gallium as internal standard. A multi-elemental analysis was possible by pipetting 6 {mu}l of wine directly on the reflector and drying. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed with Atomika EXTRA II A (Cameca) X-rays from a Mo tube with a high-energy cut-off at 20 keV in total-reflection geometry. The results showed that it was possible to identify only by the elemental analysis as fingerprint the vineyards and year of vintage among 11 different wines.

  11. Analysis of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence: Quantitative approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Ruiz, R.; Garcia-Heras, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the quantitative methodologies developed for the compositional characterization of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence at two levels. A first quantitative level which comprises an acid leaching procedure, and a second selective level, which seeks to increase the number of detectable elements by eliminating the iron present in the acid leaching procedure. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been compared, at a quantitative level, with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in order to test its applicability to the study of this kind of materials. The combination of a solid chemical homogenization procedure previously reported with the quantitative methodologies here presented allows the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence to analyze 29 elements with acceptable analytical recoveries and accuracies

  12. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of Austrian wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, X.; Kregsamer, P.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in Austrian wine was determined by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using gallium as internal standard. A multi-elemental analysis was possible by pipetting 6 μl of wine directly on the reflector and drying. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed with Atomika EXTRA II A (Cameca) X-rays from a Mo tube with a high-energy cut-off at 20 keV in total-reflection geometry. The results showed that it was possible to identify only by the elemental analysis as fingerprint the vineyards and year of vintage among 11 different wines

  13. Analysis of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence: Quantitative approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ruiz, R. [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Modulo C-9, Laboratorio de TXRF, Crta. Colmenar, Km 15, Cantoblanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: ramon.fernandez@uam.es; Garcia-Heras, M. [Grupo de Arqueometria de Vidrios y Materiales Ceramicos, Instituto de Historia, Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C/ Albasanz, 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    This paper reports the quantitative methodologies developed for the compositional characterization of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence at two levels. A first quantitative level which comprises an acid leaching procedure, and a second selective level, which seeks to increase the number of detectable elements by eliminating the iron present in the acid leaching procedure. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been compared, at a quantitative level, with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in order to test its applicability to the study of this kind of materials. The combination of a solid chemical homogenization procedure previously reported with the quantitative methodologies here presented allows the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence to analyze 29 elements with acceptable analytical recoveries and accuracies.

  14. Surface characterization of selected polymer thin films by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and x-ray reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innis, Vallerie Ann A.

    2006-01-01

    Development of available x-ray characterizations tools for grazing incidence techniques was done to be able to probe nano-size thin films. Alignment of a Philips x-ray powder diffractometer was improved to let it perform as an x-ray reflectometer. X-ray reflectometry was coupled with total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Evaluation of the performance of this grazing incidence techniques was done by preparing polymer thin films of carboxymethylcellulose, carrageenan and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The thickness of the films were varied by varying the process parameters such as concentration, spin speed and spin time. Angle-dispersive total-reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy profiles of three films showed film formation only in carrageenan and PVP. For both carrageenan and PVP, an increase in concentration yielded a corresponding increase in intensity of the fluorescent or scattered peaks. XRR profiles of carrageenan thin films yielded a mean value for the critical angle close to quartz substrate. Thickness measurements of the prepared carrageenan thin films showed that concentration was the main determinant for final film thickness over the other process parameters. Sulfur fluorescent intensity derived from the TXRF measurement showed a linear relationship with the measured thickness by XRR. For PVP, measured critical angle is lower than quartz. Poor adhesion of the polymer onto the substrate yielded a limited number of thickness measurements made from the XRR profiles. (Author)

  15. Possibilities for x-ray holography using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1983-11-01

    Since the theoretical and experimental demonstrations of the effectiveness of soft x-rays in imaging biological material there has been considerable study given to the prospects for further development of the presently existing techniques. This has been motivated to a large extent by advances in source technology, particularly the use of undulators on electron storage rings and recent improvements in short wavelength lasers. The present author has carried out theoretical evaluations of the possibilities of holographic imaging and has also recorded a number of holograms using the U15 soft x-ray beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) 750 MeV storage ring at Brookhaven. Some of these have been successfully reconstructed using He:Cd laser light. In this paper we first review the physical processes which generate information containing wavefronts when soft x-rays interact with matter. We then briefly describe the holographic method which has been highly developed using visible light lasers and identify holographic geometries which are promising for x-ray applications. We discuss some of the practical and theoretical limitations involved in making holographic images and then give the results of our own experiments

  16. Determination of solid surface composition by the X-ray fluorescence method under total external reflection with angular scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnolutskij, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    Possibilities of determination of composition of surface layers by X-ray fluorescence analysis under total reflection of incident radiation with angular scanning of a target are investigated. For the case of the GaAs target it is shown that the sensibility of this method is sufficient for a control of element composition in layer of thickness 1 nm. A simple method for solution of inverse task of analysis of a two component medium is considered [ru

  17. Radiation exposure of the UK population from medical and dental x-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.; Wall, B.F.

    2002-03-01

    Knowledge of recent trends in the radiation doses from x-ray examinations and their distribution for the UK population provides useful guidance on where best to concentrate efforts on patient dose reduction in order to optimise the protection of the population in a cost-effective manner. In this report, the results of a recent survey of the frequency of medical and dental x-ray examinations in the UK and contemporary data on the radiation doses typically received by patients, are used to assess trends in the extent and the pattern of the population exposure. Individual patient doses, expressed in terms of the effective dose, range from a few microsieverts for simple radiographic examinations of the teeth, limbs or chest to tens of millisieverts for prolonged fluoroscopic procedures or some computed tomography (CT) examinations. A total of about 41.5 million medical and dental x-ray examinations are now conducted each year in the UK (0.70 examination per head of population) resulting in an annual per caput effective dose of 330 μSv. This is not significantly different from the previous rough estimate of 350 μSv for 1991. However, over the last ten years CT has more than doubled its contribution and is now responsible for 40% of the total dose to the population from medical x-rays. In contrast, the contribution from conventional radiographic and fluoroscopic examinations has nearly halved to about 44%. Interventional and angiographic procedures together contribute the remaining 16%. The annual per caput dose of 330 μSv is low in comparison with other countries having similarly developed systems of health care. This is due to both a lower frequency of x-ray examinations per head of population and generally lower doses in the UK than in other developed countries. However, the much increased contributions of CT, angiography and interventional procedures to the UK population dose indicate an urgent need to develop radiation protection and optimisation activities for

  18. A tunable x-ray microprobe using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.; Thompson, A.C.; Underwood, J.H.; Giauque, R.D.; Chapman, K.; Rivers, M.L.; Jones, K.W.

    1989-08-01

    We describe an x-ray microprobe using multilayer mirrors. Previously, we had demonstrated a Kirkpatrick-Baez type focusing system working at both 8 and 10 keV and successfully applied it to a variety of applications, including the determination of elemental contents in fluid inclusions. In this paper, we show that the usable excitation energy for this microprobe is not restricted to between 8 and 10 keV, and furthermore, it can be simply tuned in operation. A 10-keV x-ray fluorescence microprobe can be used to measure the concentration of the elements form potassium (Z = 19) to zinc (Z = 30) using K x-ray lines, and from cadmium (Z = 48) to erbium (Z = 68) using L x-ray lines. There are a number of geologically important elements in the gap between gallium (Z = 31) and silver(Z = 47) and also with Z > 68. In order to cover this range, a higher excitation energy is required. On the other hand, for samples that contain major elements with absorption edges lower than the excitation energy, it would be hard to detect other mirror elements because of the strong signal from the major elements and the background they produce. In this case, a tunable x-ray source can be used to avoid the excitation of the major elements. We demonstrate that, with the existing setup, it is possible to tune the excitation energy from 6 keV to 14 keV, in this range, the intensity does not decrease by more than one order of magnitude. As an illustration, a geological sample was examined by using two different excitation energy range as well as the possibility of improving the intensity. 11 refs., 5 figs

  19. Radiation exposure and image quality in x-Ray diagnostic radiology physical principles and clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Aichinger, Horst; Joite-Barfuß, Sigrid; Säbel, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    The largest contribution to radiation exposure to the population as a whole arises from diagnostic X-rays. Protecting the patient from radiation is a major aim of modern health policy, and an understanding of the relationship between radiation dose and image quality is of pivotal importance in optimising medical diagnostic radiology. In this volume the data provided for exploring these concerns are partly based on X-ray spectra, measured on diagnostic X-ray tube assemblies, and are supplemented by the results of measurements on phantoms and simulation calculations.

  20. Development of a total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    design and use of a peltier cooled solid state detector for energy dispersive detection. Alignment and ... X-ray beam at a glancing angle less than the critical angle at which total ... materials is < 1 so that external total reflection takes place at an ...

  1. Parametric X-rays and diffracted transition radiation in perfect and mosaic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artru, X.; Rullhusen, P.

    1998-01-01

    The amplitude of X-ray emission by relativistic electrons in a single crystal, calculated in the kinematical approach, is decomposed unambiguously in Diffracted Transition Radiation (DTR) and Parametric X-rays (PXR). DTR becomes significant for γ > or similar to ω P ,γ being the Lorentz factor and ω P the plasma frequency. It is more collimated than PXR and, above threshold, its flux increases logarithmically with γ. However, it saturates with thickness at the Bragg primary extinction length l e . This saturation is accounted for only in the dynamical approach, the formulas of which are compared to the kinematical ones. The respective contributions of DTR and PXR are calculated for a simple model of mosaic crystal, taking into account saturation of DTR with thickness. The PXR flux is basically the same as in a perfect crystal. If the size of the domains is larger than l e , the DTR flux is multiplied by the number of domains crossed by the electron. For domains smaller than l e and γ > or similar to ω P , the DTR and PXR fluxes are of the same order of magnitude, up to logarithmic factors. In any case, mosaicity increases the total yield of X-ray photons. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  2. Design And Measurement Of Radiation Exposure Rates At An X-Ray Diagnostic Radiological Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tito-Sutjipto

    2003-01-01

    Every radiation employees suffers radiation exposure risk while doing his job. It is important therefore to investigate the occupational health and safety of radiation employees on its relationship with the design and measurement of radiation exposure rates at an X-ray diagnostic radiological unit in this work, a case study was held on the radiological unit at BP-4 Yogyakarta for patient diagnostics, This research armed to investigate the relationship between the design of radiological unit for X-ray diagnostics and the location of the X-ray machine, based on the distance variable and radiation exposure rate during patient diagnostics. This was performed using radiological unit design data for X-ray diagnostics and the measurement of radiation exposure rates throughout patient diagnostics. The design data can then be used for determining the requirement of primary and secondary shielding materials for radiological unit as well as a calculation basis of radiation exposure rates during patient diagnostics. From the result of the research, it can be concluded that from the occupational health and safety point of view, radiation exposure around the X-ray machines are fairly good, both for the shielding materials in each X-ray room and the radiation exposures received by the workers, because they are far beyond the maximum permittable average limit (16.67 m R/days). (author)

  3. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometers for multielemental analysis: status of commercial equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala Jimenez, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Multi-elemental analysis by total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry has evolved during two decades. At the present there are commercial equipment available for the chemical analysis in all kind of biological and mineral samples. The electronic industry has also been benefited from the scientific and technological developments in the field of TXRF. The basic components of the spectrometers can be summarized as follow: a) excitation source; b) geometric arrangement (optics) for collimation and monochromatization of the primary radiation; c) x-ray detector; d) hardware and software for operation of the instrument, data acquisition and spectral deconvolution to determine the concentrations of the element present in the sample (quantitative analysis). As optional there are manufacturers offering the conventional 45 degrees geometry for direct excitation of bulky liquid or solid samples. Personal communications of the author and the commercial brochures available at the moment of writing this presentation have allowed to list the following type of components used in the TXRF spectrometers for multi-elemental analysis (the devices used in the electronic industry to analyze silicon wafers are excluded). Excitation: high power x-ray tube, output from 1300 to 2000 watts; metal ceramic low power-ray tube, output up to 50 watts. Different anodes are used but molybdenum, tungsten and copper are frequent. The excitation systems can be customized according to the requirements of the laboratory. Detector: Si-Li semi-conductor liquid nitrogen cooled; silicon solid state thermoelectrically cooled (silicon drift detector SDD and Si-PIN diode). Optics: multilayer monochromator of Si-W or Ni-C; double multilayer monochromator. Electronics: spectroscopy amplifier, analog to digital converter adapted to a PC compatible computer with software in Windows environment for the whole operation of the spectrometer and for qualy/quantitative analysis of samples are standards in the

  4. Constancy of radiation output during diagnostic X-ray exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardran, G.M.; Crooks, H.E.; Birch, R.

    1978-01-01

    Variation in X-ray output and quality during a diagnostic exposure can be undesirable and may result in unnecessary dose to the patient. When significant build-up or decay periods are present errors will arise if factors obtained under steady-state conditions are employed to estimate the exposure. These parameters must be taken into account when calibrating X-ray generators. A variable speed spinning film device and a spectrometry system have been used to measure the variations under fluoroscopic and radiographic conditions for a number of generators. Variations in output due to filament heating, voltage supply and rectification, cable capacity and target pitting have been demonstrated. At low fluoroscopic currents, large surges and long decays have been observed; the significance of these effects is considered. (author)

  5. Radiation safety and quality in diagnostic x-ray imaging 2001; Saeteilyturvallisuus ja laatu roentgendiagnostiikassa 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servomaa, A.; Parviainen, T. (eds.)

    2001-05-01

    The obligations of the medical exposure directive (97/43/Euratom) for hospitals dominate the current activities in radiation protection in medical radiology. The directive gives special emphasis to radiation exposure of children, to examinations with high radiation doses and to radiation exposure in health screening programmes. The most important examinations with high doses are radiological interventions, where even acute skin effects are possible, and the computed tomography where the number of CT examinations makes only about 5% from the total number of x-ray examinations but the collective effective dose about 40% from the combined collective effective dose of all x-ray examinations. In the research projects financed by the European Commission, radiation exposures to paediatric patients have been measured in radiography, fluoroscopy and CT, and various dose assessment methods have been compared to develop a method for national follow-up of patients' radiation dose. The newest research project is focused on dosimetry and quality assurance in interventional radiology and digital imaging. Other actual topics are the development of radiation protection regulations and quality systems, education and training programmes, and clinical audits. This report deals with new radiation protection guides and recommendations and the education and training of radiological staff in radiation protection. One important topic is the development of national follow-up method of radiation exposure to patients and comparison of various dose assessment methods. Quality assurance in health care and in paediatric radiology, and the acceptance test and quality assurance measurements of radiological equipment are also described. (orig.)

  6. [Standards and guidelines of radiation protection and safety in dental X-ray examinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X L; Li, G; Cheng, Y; Yu, Q; Wang, H; Zhang, Z Y

    2017-12-09

    With the rapid development of imaging technology, the application of dental imaging in diagnosis, treatment planning, intraoperative surgical navigation, monitoring of treatment or lesion development and assessment of treatment outcomes is playing an essential role in oral healthcare. The increased total number of dental X-ray examinations is accompanied by a relatively significant increase in collective dose to patients as well as to dental healthcare workers, which is harmful to human bodies to a certain degree. Some radiation protection standards and guidelines in dental radiology have been published in European countries, US, Canada and Australia, etc. Adherence to these standards and guidelines helps to achieve images with diagnostic quality and avoid unnecessary and repeated exposures. However, no radiation protection standard or guideline with regard to dental X-ray examinations has been put in force so far in mainland China. Therefore, a literature review on available radiation protection standards and guidelines was conducted to provide reference to the development of radiation protection standards or guidelines in mainland China.

  7. Statistical and coherence properties of radiation from X-ray free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldin, E.L.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2009-12-01

    We describe statistical and coherence properties of the radiation from X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL). It is shown that the X-ray FEL radiation before saturation is described with gaussian statistics. Particularly important is the case of the optimized X-ray FEL, studied in detail. Applying similarity techniques to the results of numerical simulations allowed us to find universal scaling relations for the main characteristics of an X-ray FEL operating in the saturation regime: efficiency, coherence time and degree of transverse coherence. We find that with an appropriate normalization of these quantities, they are functions of only the ratio of the geometrical emittance of the electron beam to the radiation wavelength. Statistical and coherence properties of the higher harmonics of the radiation are highlighted as well. (orig.)

  8. Advanced Nanoscale Characterization of Cement Based Materials Using X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Chae, Sejung R.; Moon, Juhyuk; Yoon, Seyoon; Bae, Sungchul; Levitz, Pierre; Winarski, Robert; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report various synchrotron radiation laboratory based techniques used to characterize cement based materials in nanometer scale. High resolution X-ray transmission imaging combined with a rotational axis allows for rendering of samples in three

  9. [X-ray endoscopic semiotics and diagnostic algorithm of radiation studies of preneoplastic gastric mucosa changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akberov, R F; Gorshkov, A N

    1997-01-01

    The X-ray endoscopic semiotics of precancerous gastric mucosal changes (epithelial dysplasia, intestinal epithelial rearrangement) was examined by the results of 1574 gastric examination. A diagnostic algorithm was developed for radiation studies in the diagnosis of the above pathology.

  10. Statistical and coherence properties of radiation from X-ray free electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldin, E L; Schneidmiller, E A; Yurkov, M V

    2009-12-15

    We describe statistical and coherence properties of the radiation from X-ray free electron lasers (XFEL). It is shown that the X-ray FEL radiation before saturation is described with gaussian statistics. Particularly important is the case of the optimized X-ray FEL, studied in detail. Applying similarity techniques to the results of numerical simulations allowed us to find universal scaling relations for the main characteristics of an X-ray FEL operating in the saturation regime: efficiency, coherence time and degree of transverse coherence. We find that with an appropriate normalization of these quantities, they are functions of only the ratio of the geometrical emittance of the electron beam to the radiation wavelength. Statistical and coherence properties of the higher harmonics of the radiation are highlighted as well. (orig.)

  11. The dress and the cloud. Stories about X-rays, radioactivity and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques; Repussard, Jacques; Tabare, Mireille

    2013-01-01

    This bibliographical note presents a book in which the authors recall the history of X-rays, of radioactivity and of radiation protection. It describes the almost simultaneous discovery of X-rays and radioactivity, the concern created by the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the importance given back to civil society by the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents. They comment the various applications of X-rays and radioactivity in the fields of research, medicine, energy, weapons. They describe the progressive development of radiation protection in a context of large political, economic and social evolutions during the past century

  12. The influence of x-ray energy on lung dose uniformity in total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstrand, Kenneth; Greven, Kathryn; Wu Qingrong

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we examine the influence of x-ray energy on the uniformity of the dose within the lung in total-body irradiation treatments in which partial transmission blocks are used to control the lung dose. Methods and Materials: A solid water phantom with a cork insert to simulate a lung was irradiated by x-rays with energies of either 6, 10, or 18 MV. The source to phantom distance was 3.9 meters. The cork insert was either 10 cm wide or 6 cm wide. Partial transmission blocks with transmission factors of 50% were placed anterior to the cork insert. The blocks were either 8 or 4 cm in width. Kodak XV-2 film was placed in the midline of the phantom to record the dose. Midplane dose profiles were measured with a densitometer. Results: For the 10 cm wide cork insert the uniformity of the dose over 80% of the block width varied from 6.6% for the 6 MV x-rays to 12.2% for the 18 MV x-rays. For the 6 cm wide cork insert the uniformity was comparable for all three x-ray energies, but for 18 MV the central dose increased by 9.4% compared to the 10 cm wide insert. Conclusion: Many factors must be considered in optimizing the dose for total-body irradiation. This study suggests that for AP/PA techniques lung dose uniformity is superior with 6 MV irradiation. The blanket recommendation that the highest x-ray energy be used in TBI is not valid for all situations

  13. Microanalysis of old violin varnishes by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bohlen, Alex; Meyer, Friedrich

    1997-07-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence was used to characterize elements (with Z>13) contained in varnishes applied by prominent violin makers during the last five centuries. Direct analyses of small flakes with masses varnish. Higher amounts of Fe, As and Pb were found in old products, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn and Pb were used in more recent varnishes.

  14. The X-ray fluorescent method for determination of total sulphur in bituminous coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widowska-Kusmierska, J.; Siess, K.

    1979-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescent technique for the determination of total sulphur covering concentrations from 0,1 to 10% has been applied for bituminous coals showing a great variability in qualitative and quantitative composition of mineral matter (ash). The described method is a quick one giving results during one hour. The obtained good accuracy of determinations gives prospects for wide industrial application. (author)

  15. Dosimetry for total body irradiation of rhesus monkeys with 300 kV X- rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetelief, J.; Wagemaker, G.; Broerse, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain more accurate information on the dose distribution in rhesus monkeys for total body irradiation with orthovoltage X-rays. Materials and methods: Dose measurements were performed with an ionization chamber inside homogeneous cylindrical and rectangular phantoms of various

  16. Total chemical synthesis and X-ray structure of kaliotoxin by racemic protein crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentelute, Brad L; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Gates, Zachary P; Sawaya, Michael R; Yeates, Todd O; Kent, Stephen B H

    2010-11-21

    Here we report the total synthesis of kaliotoxin by 'one pot' native chemical ligation of three synthetic peptides. A racemic mixture of D- and L-kaliotoxin synthetic protein molecules gave crystals in the centrosymmetric space group P1 that diffracted to atomic-resolution (0.95 Å), enabling the X-ray structure of kaliotoxin to be determined by direct methods.

  17. Design of a bolometer for total-energy measurement of the linear coherent light source pulsed X-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, S.; Li, L.; Ott, L.L.; Kolgani, Rajeswari M.; Yong, G.J.; Ali, Z.A.; Drury, O.B.; Ables, E.; Bionta, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    We are developing a cryogenic bolometer to measure the total energy of the linear coherent light source (LCLS) free electron X-ray laser to be built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The laser will produce ultrabright X-ray pulses in the energy range between 0.8 and 8 keV with ∼10 12 photons per ∼200 fs pulse at a repeat interval of 8 ms, and will be accompanied by a halo of spontaneous undulator radiation. The bolometer is designed to determine the total energy of each laser pulse to within (1- x ) Sr x MnO 3 sensor array at the metal-insulator transition, where the composition x is adjusted to produce the desired transition temperature. We discuss design considerations and material choices, and present numerical simulations of the thermal response

  18. Generation of linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Kazuaki; Awata, Takaaki; Ikeda, Mitsuharu; Ikeda, Kenichi; Yogo, Akifumi; Itoh, Akio; Imanishi, Nobutsugu

    2000-01-01

    We have proposed a method to generate almost linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X rays by using a rectangular slit placed on an electron beam axis. Our calculation predicted that the linearity is 93.5% for the resonant transition radiation X-ray beam extracted through a slit of 0.5 mrad long and 0.2 mrad wide in case of 1-GeV electron beam irradiating a 7.5-μm thick Kapton foil stack. (author)

  19. Generation of linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X-ray beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yajima, Kazuaki; Awata, Takaaki; Ikeda, Mitsuharu; Ikeda, Kenichi; Yogo, Akifumi; Itoh, Akio; Imanishi, Nobutsugu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2000-03-01

    We have proposed a method to generate almost linearly polarized resonant transition radiation X rays by using a rectangular slit placed on an electron beam axis. Our calculation predicted that the linearity is 93.5% for the resonant transition radiation X-ray beam extracted through a slit of 0.5 mrad long and 0.2 mrad wide in case of 1-GeV electron beam irradiating a 7.5-{mu}m thick Kapton foil stack. (author)

  20. Time-resolved X-ray studies using third generation synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1991-10-01

    The third generation, high-brilliance, hard x-ray, synchrotron radiation (SR) sources currently under construction (ESRF at Grenoble, France; APS at Argonne, Illinois; and SPring-8 at Harima, Japan) will usher in a new era of x-ray experimentation for both physical and biological sciences. One of the most exciting areas of experimentation will be the extension of x-ray scattering and diffraction techniques to the study of transient or time-evolving systems. The high repetition rate, short-pulse duration, high brilliance, and variable spectral bandwidth of these sources make them ideal for x-ray time-resolved studies. The temporal properties (bunch length, interpulse period, etc.) of these new sources will be summarized. Finally, the scientific potential and the technological challenges of time-resolved x-ray scattering from these new sources will be described. 13 refs., 4 figs

  1. Patient size and x-ray technique factors in head computed tomography examinations. I. Radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Walter; Lieberman, Kristin A.; Chang, Jack; Roskopf, Marsha L.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated how patient age, size and composition, together with the choice of x-ray technique factors, affect radiation doses in head computed tomography (CT) examinations. Head size dimensions, cross-sectional areas, and mean Hounsfield unit (HU) values were obtained from head CT images of 127 patients. For radiation dosimetry purposes patients were modeled as uniform cylinders of water. Dose computations were performed for 18x7 mm sections, scanned at a constant 340 mAs, for x-ray tube voltages ranging from 80 to 140 kV. Values of mean section dose, energy imparted, and effective dose were computed for patients ranging from the newborn to adults. There was a rapid growth of head size over the first two years, followed by a more modest increase of head size until the age of 18 or so. Newborns have a mean HU value of about 50 that monotonically increases with age over the first two decades of life. Average adult A-P and lateral dimensions were 186±8 mm and 147±8 mm, respectively, with an average HU value of 209±40. An infant head was found to be equivalent to a water cylinder with a radius of ∼60 mm, whereas an adult head had an equivalent radius 50% greater. Adult males head dimensions are about 5% larger than for females, and their average x-ray attenuation is ∼20 HU greater. For adult examinations performed at 120 kV, typical values were 32 mGy for the mean section dose, 105 mJ for the total energy imparted, and 0.64 mSv for the effective dose. Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV increases patient doses by about a factor of 5. For the same technique factors, mean section doses in infants are 35% higher than in adults. Energy imparted for adults is 50% higher than for infants, but infant effective doses are four times higher than for adults. CT doses need to take into account patient age, head size, and composition as well as the selected x-ray technique factors

  2. X-ray radiation damage of organic semiconductor thin films during grazing incidence diffraction experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhold, A., E-mail: alfred.neuhold@tugraz.at [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Novak, J.; Flesch, H.-G.; Moser, A.; Djuric, T. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria); Grodd, L.; Grigorian, S.; Pietsch, U. [Institute of Physics, University Siegen (Germany); Resel, R. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Graz (Austria)

    2012-08-01

    Since modern synchrotrons with highly intense X-ray beams are in use to investigate organic materials, the stability of soft matter materials during beam exposure is a crucial issue. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and specular X-ray reflectivity measurements were performed on thin films of organic semiconducting materials, like poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), sexithiophene and pentacene. These films were irradiated with an average flux density between 10{sup 15} and 10{sup 16} photons/(s mm{sup 2}) and evidenced a different stability in synchrotron X-ray radiation. The semi-crystalline P3HT showed a clear intensity decrease of the 1 0 0 Bragg peak and 0 2 0 Bragg peak compared to the rather stable diffraction features of the molecular crystals sexithiophene and pentacene. The difference in synchrotron X-ray radiation stability is explained by the interaction of the X-ray beam with the individual chemical components in the molecules as well as by the different crystallinities of the materials. Furthermore, the semi-crystalline P3HT film exhibited an increase of film thickness after irradiation and the surface roughness slightly decreased. To summarize, this study shows a strong influence of synchrotron X-ray radiation to specific organic thin films like e.g. P3HT, while others like pentacene and sexithiophene are observed as quite stable.

  3. Evaluation of radiation protection in x rays room design in diagnostic radiography department in Omdurman locality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Ahmed yusif Abdelrahman

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study is conducted in order to evaluate the application of radiation protection in x-ray rooms design in diagnosis radiology department, evaluate personal monitoring devices, to assess primary scatter and leakage radiation dose, to assess monitoring devices if available, in period from March 2013 to August 2013. The design data included room size, control room size, manufacture of equipment, room surrounding areas, workload of all equipment rooms, type of x-ray equipment, radiation worker's in all hospital, number of patient in each shift, structural material and shielding, K vp and m As used in x-ray room department during examination testing. The results of this study show that there is x-ray room design, the design of x-ray equipment is accepted according to the radiation safety institute team of quality control. Also the study shows that the radiation protection devices are available and in a good condition and enough in number. The study shows that there are not personal monitoring devices and services. the radiological technologist are well trained. Also the study investigation the radiation protection in x-ray room in diagnostic department in Omdurman locality. Finally the study shows that there is compact able to ICRP recommended and National quality control in Sudan Atomic Energy Council exception, Alwedad, Abusied and Blue Nile there are have not control room concludes that there is only in relationship hospital have a window without shield.(Author)

  4. A model of parametric X-ray radiation for application to diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Domenico, G.; Cardarelli, P.; Gambaccini, M.; Marziani, M.; Taibi, A.; Comandini, A.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric X-ray Radiation (PXR) is well known as an intense, tunable and quasi-monochromatic X-ray source. From the very first work of Ter-Mikaelian, who proposed the interaction phenomenon for Parametric X-rays many theoretical and experimental studies have investigated the characteristics of such a novel X-ray source. Within the framework of classical electrodynamics, we have thoroughly studied the physical implications of electrons moving through a medium at relativistic speed and then developed an analytical model of X-ray diffraction based on the PXR phenomenon. The model has been used to obtain information on the characteristics of PXR diffracted beam in terms of X-ray intensity, energy spectrum and angular distribution. Several crystals have been studied both in Bragg and Laue geometry and their relative yield has been compared. Preliminary results on the diagnostic potential of PXR have shown that, at a distance from the crystal which produces a size of the X-ray field useful for an imaging application, the photon yield of PXR is higher than that produced by a conventional X-ray tube, provided that a similar electron current is available.

  5. Developments in gas detectors for synchrotron x-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Radeka, V.; Smith, G.C.

    1985-09-01

    New results on the physical limitations to position resolution in gas detectors for x-rays (approx. =3 to 20 keV) due to the range of photoelectrons and Auger electrons are discussed. These results were obtained with a small gap detector in which position readout was accomplished by using a very low noise centroid finding technique. A description is given of position sensitive detectors for medium rates (a few x 10 5 photons per second), using delay line readout, and for very high rates (approx. =10 8 photons per second), using fast signal shaping on the output of each anode wire

  6. The reduction methods of operator's radiation dose for portable dental X-ray machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeong-Yeon; Han, Won-Jeong

    2012-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the methods to reduce operator's radiation dose when taking intraoral radiographs with portable dental X-ray machines. Two kinds of portable dental X-ray machines (DX3000, Dexcowin and Rextar, Posdion) were used. Operator's radiation dose was measured with an 1,800 cc ionization chamber (RadCal Corp.) at the hand level of X-ray tubehead and at the operator's chest and waist levels with and without the backscatter shield. The operator's radiation dose at the hand level was measured with and without lead gloves and with long and short cones. The backscatter shield reduced operator's radiation dose at the hand level of X-ray tubehead to 23 - 32%, the lead gloves to 26 - 31%, and long cone to 48 - 52%. And the backscatter shield reduced operator's radiation dose at the operator's chest and waist levels to 0.1 - 37%. When portable dental X-ray systems are used, it is recommended to select X-ray machine attached with a backscatter shield and a long cone and to wear the lead gloves.

  7. Macrophage and tumor cell responses to repetitive pulsed X-ray radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldakov, M. A.; Tretyakova, M. S.; Ryabov, V. B.; Klimov, I. A.; Kutenkov, O. P.; Kzhyshkowska, J.; Bol'shakov, M. A.; Rostov, V. V.; Cherdyntseva, N. V.

    2017-05-01

    To study a response of tumor cells and macrophages to the repetitive pulsed low-dose X-ray radiation. Methods. Tumor growth and lung metastasis of mice with an injected Lewis lung carcinoma were analysed, using C57Bl6. Monocytes were isolated from a human blood, using CD14+ magnetic beads. IL6, IL1-betta, and TNF-alpha were determined by ELISA. For macrophage phenotyping, a confocal microscopy was applied. “Sinus-150” was used for the generation of pulsed X-ray radiation (the absorbed dose was below 0.1 Gy, the pulse repetition frequency was 10 pulse/sec). The irradiation of mice by 0.1 Gy pulsed X-rays significantly inhibited the growth of primary tumor and reduced the number of metastatic colonies in the lung. Furthermore, the changes in macrophage phenotype and cytokine secretion were observed after repetitive pulsed X-ray radiation. Conclusion. Macrophages and tumor cells had a different response to a low-dose pulsed X-ray radiation. An activation of the immune system through changes of a macrophage phenotype can result in a significant antitumor effect of the low-dose repetitive pulsed X-ray radiation.

  8. Estimate of X-ray radiation for patient during uterine artery embolization to uterine leiomyomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shengli; Zhu Dongliang; Huang Qihao; Chen Guodong; Huang Zicheng; Zou Rongzhu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the X-ray radiation of patients during uterine artery embolization (UAE) for leiomyomas. Methods: Radiation dose was measured in 90 patients who underwent UAE for leiomyomas. Measurements were obtained by a dosimeters system (Diamentor K1 and Diamentor ED) equipped in DSA setting Angiostar-Plus (Siemens, Germany), dose-area product (DAP) and entrance surface dose (ESD) were recorded on line, effect dose (ED) was estimated by Monte-Carlo conversion coefficient from DAP. Results: the mean fluoroscopic time was 28.60 ± 23.73 minutes, and the mean number of angiographic exposures was 87 ± 38. The mean DAP dose was (6178 ± 3802) cGycm 2 , and the mean ESD was 378 ± 245) mGy, ED was (9.89 ± 6.08) mSv. The contribution of pulsed fluoroscopy (PF) dose to the total DAP (34.05% ± 10.65%) was smaller than that of radiography (R) (65.94% ± 10.65%), and the contribution of PF for total ESD (61.09% ± 12.88%) was bigger than that of R(65.94% ± 10.65%). Conclusion: The leiomyoma patient suffered a large dose X-ray exposure from a UAE procedure. (authors)

  9. An optimised set-up for total reflection particle induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.A. van; Vis, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    MeV proton beams at small angles of incidence (0-35 mrad) are used to analyse trace elements on flat surfaces such as Si wafers or quartz substrates. In these experiments, the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) signal is used in a new optimized set-up. This set-up is constructed in such a way that the X-ray detector can reach very large solid angles, larger than 1 sr. Use of these large detector solid angles, combined with the reduction of bremsstrahlung background, affords limits of detection (LOD) of the order of 10 10 at cm -2 using total reflection particle induced X-ray emission (TPIXE). The LODs from earlier TPIXE measurements in a non-optimized set-up are used to estimate LODs in the new TPIXE set-up. Si wafers with low surface concentrations of V, Ni, Cu and Ag are used as standards to calibrate the LODs found with this set-up. The metal concentrations are determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). The TPIXE measurements are compared with TXRF measurements on the same wafers. (Author)

  10. Terrestrial Sources of X-Ray Radiation and Their Effects on NASA Flight Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniffin, Scott

    2016-01-01

    X-rays are an energetic and penetrating form of ionizing electromagnetic radiation, which can degrade NASA flight hardware. The main concern posed by such radiation is degradation of active electronic devices and, in some cases, diodes. Non-electronic components are only damaged at doses that far exceed the point where any electronic device would be destroyed. For the purposes of this document, flight hardware can be taken to mean an entire instrument, the flight electronics within the instrument or the individual microelectronic devices in the flight electronics. This document will discuss and describe the ways in which NASA flight hardware might be exposed to x-rays, what is and isn't a concern, and how to tell the difference. First, we must understand what components in flight hardware may be vulnerable to degradation or failure as a result of being exposed to ionizing radiation, such as x-rays. As stated above, bulk materials (structural metals, plastics, etc.) are generally only affected by ionizing radiation at very high dose levels. Likewise, passive electronic components (e.g. resistors, capacitors, most diodes) are strongly resistant to exposure to x-rays, except at very high doses. The main concerns arise when active components, that is, components like discrete transistors and microelectronic devices, are exposed to ionizing radiation. Active components are designed to respond to minute changes in currents and voltages in the circuit. As such, it is not surprising that exposure to ionizing radiation, which creates ionized and therefore electrically active particles, may degrade the way the hardware performs. For the most part, the mechanism for this degradation is trapping of the charges generated by ionizing radiation by defects in dielectric materials in the hardware. As such, the degree of damage is a function of both the quantity of ionizing radiation exposure and the physical characteristics of the hardware itself. The metric that describes the

  11. Characteristics of X ray calibration fields for performance test of radiation measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Shigeru; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Sawahata, Tadahiro; Tohnami, Kohichi; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Murayama, Takashi

    1999-02-01

    Performance test and calibration of the radiation measuring instruments for low energy photons are made using the X ray calibration fields which are monochromatically characterized by filtration of continuous X ray spectrum. The X ray calibration field needs to be characterized by some quality conditions such as quality index and homogeneity coefficient. The present report describes quality conditions, spectrum and some characteristics of X ray irradiation fields in the Facility of Radiation Standard of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (FRS-JAERI). Fifty nine X ray qualities with the quality index of 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9 were set for the tube voltages between 10 kV and 350 kV. Estimation of X ray spectrum measured with a Ge detector was made in terms of exposure, ambient dose equivalent and fluence for all the obtained qualities. Practical irradiation field was determined as the dose distribution uniformity is within ±3%. The obtained results improve the quality of X ray calibration fields and calibration accuracy. (author)

  12. Ultraviolet radiation from stellar flares and the coronal X-ray emission for dwarf-Me stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, J.G.; Butler, C.J. (Armagh Observatory, Northern Ireland (UK))

    1985-01-31

    The authors correlate Einstein observations of the X-ray flux of quiescent dMe stars with the time-averaged energy emitted by flares in the Johnson-U band, showing that the X-ray energy emitted by the coronae of these stars is about an order of magnitude greater than the U-band flare energy. From the estimate of the ratio of the total radiation emitted to the U-band flux, it is possible that, if a similar amount of energy were dissipated in the stellar atmosphere, then the observed flare events could heat the coronae of these stars.

  13. Optimum power of radiation dose in X ray television systems of flaw inspection in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denbnovetskii, S.V.; Troitskii, V.A.; Belyi, N.G.; Grom, V.S.; Kuz'micheva, N.V.; Leshchishin, A.V.; Mikhailov, V.N.; Shutenko, O.V.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present the experimental dose characteristics of a x ray television system based on x ray vidicons with the diameter of the working field of 900 mm which operate in the continuous and pulsed conditions with the longer time of cumulation of radiation images on the target of the x ray vidicon. For each type of the inspected material, its thickness, and cumulation time, the dose characteristics were used to determine the optimum power of the exposure dose ensuring the maximum signal/noise ratio and detectability of the defects at the output of the system. (author)

  14. Abstracts of the 8th Conference on total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis and related methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobrauschek, P.

    2000-01-01

    The 8. conference on total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis and related methods held from 25.9 to 29.9.2000 contains 79 abstracts about x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) as a powerful tool used for industrial production, geological prospecting and for environmental control. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is also a tool used for chemical analysis in medicine, industry and research. (E.B.)

  15. Instantaneous x-ray radiation energy from laser produced polystyrene plasmas for shock ignition conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Wanli; Wei, Huiyue; Li, Zhichao; Yi, Rongqing; Zhu, Tuo; Song, Tianmin; Huang, Chengwu; Yang, Jiamin

    2013-01-01

    Laser target energy coupling mechanism is crucial in the shock ignition (SI) scheme, and x-ray radiation energy is a non-negligible portion of the laser produced plasma energy. To evaluate the x-ray radiation energy amount at conditions relevant to SI scheme, instantaneous x-ray radiation energy is investigated experimentally with continuum phase plates smoothed lasers irradiating layer polystyrene targets. Comparative laser pulses without and with shock spike are employed. With the measured x-ray angular distribution, full space x-ray radiation energy and conversion efficiency are observed. Instantaneous scaling law of x-ray conversion efficiency is obtained as a function of laser intensity and time. It should be pointed out that the scaling law is available for any laser pulse shape and intensity, with which irradiates polystyrene planar target with intensity from 2 × 10 14 to 1.8 × 10 15 W/cm 2 . Numerical analysis of the laser energy transformation is performed, and the simulation results agree with the experimental data

  16. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (TXRF) using the high flux SAXS camera

    CERN Document Server

    Wobrauschek, P; Pepponi, G; Bergmann, A; Glatter, O

    2002-01-01

    Combining the high photon flux from a rotating anode X-ray tube with an X-ray optical component to focus and monochromatize the X-ray beam is the most promising instrumentation for best detection limits in the modern XRF laboratory. This is realized by using the design of a high flux SAXS camera in combination with a 4 kW high brilliant rotating Cu anode X-ray tube with a graded elliptically bent multilayer and including a new designed module for excitation in total reflection geometry within the beam path. The system can be evacuated thus reducing absorption and scattering of air and removing the argon peak in the spectra. Another novelty is the use of a Peltier cooled drift detector with an energy resolution of 148 eV at 5.9 keV and 5 mm sup 2 area. For Co detection limits of about 300 fg determined by a single element standard have been achieved. Testing a real sample NIST 1643d led to detection limits in the range of 300 ng/l for the medium Z.

  17. A gas microstrip wide angle X-ray detector for application in synchrotron radiation experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Lipp, J; Mir, J A; Simmons, J E; Spill, E J; Stephenson, R; Dobson, B R; Farrow, R C; Helsby, W I; Mutikainen, R; Suni, I

    2002-01-01

    The Gas Microstrip Detector has counting rate capabilities several orders of magnitude higher than conventional wire proportional counters while providing the same (or better) energy resolution for X-rays. In addition the geometric flexibility provided by the lithographic process combined with the self-supporting properties of the substrate offers many exciting possibilities for X-ray detectors, particularly for the demanding experiments carried out on Synchrotron Radiation Sources. Using experience obtained in designing detectors for Particle Physics we have developed a detector for Wide Angle X-ray Scattering studies. The detector has a fan geometry which makes possible a gas detector with high detection efficiency, sub-millimetre spatial resolution and good energy resolution over a wide range of X-ray energy. The detector is described together with results of experiments carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source.

  18. Metal ions diffusion through polymeric matrices: A total reflection X-ray fluorescence study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeykens, S.; Caracciolo, N.; D'Angelo, M.V.; Vazquez, C.

    2006-01-01

    This work proposes the use of X-ray fluorescence with total reflection geometry to explore the metal ions transport in aqueous hydrophilic polymer solutions. It is centered in the study of polymer concentration influence on ion diffusion. This subject is relevant to various and diverse applications, such as drug controlled release, microbiologic corrosion protection and enhanced oil recovery. It is anticipated that diffusion is influenced by various factors in these systems, including those specific to the diffusing species, such as charge, shape, molecular size, and those related to the structural complexity of the matrix as well as any specific interaction between the diffusing species and the matrix. The diffusion of nitrate salts of Ba and Mn (same charge, different hydrodynamic radii) through water-swollen polymeric solutions and gels in the 0.01% to 1% concentration ranges was investigated. The measurements of the metal concentration were performed by TXRF analysis using the scattered radiation by the sample as internal standard. Results are discussed according to different physical models for solute diffusion in polymeric solutions

  19. Radiation-shielded double crystal X-ray monochromator for JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnsley, R.; Morsi, H.W.; Rupprecht, G.; Kaellne, E.

    1989-01-01

    A double crystal X-ray monochromator for absolute wavelength and intensity measurements with very effective shielding of its detector against neutrons and hard X-rays was brought into operation at JET. Fast wavelength scans were taken of impurity line radiation in the wavelength region from about 0.1 nm to 2.3 nm, and monochromatic as well as spectral line scans, for different operational modes of JET. (author) 5 refs., 4 figs

  20. Performances of synchrotron radiation microbeam focused by monolithic half focusing polycapillary X-ray lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Tianxi; Liu Zhiguo; He Bo; Wei Shiqiang; Xie Yaning; Liu Tao; Hu Tiandou; Ding Xunliang

    2007-01-01

    A monolithic half focusing polycapillary X-ray lens (MHFPXRL) composed of 289,000 capillaries is used to produce a synchrotron radiation microbeam. The energy dependence of the output focal distance, focal spot size, transmission efficiency, vertical beam position, and gain in flux density of this microbeam is studied in detail. There is a slight change in the output focal distance of the MHFPXRL when the X-ray energies change

  1. Inquiry on the radiation exposure of the Swiss population by X-ray diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poretti, G.G.; Bern Univ.; Jonesco-Farca, F.; Lanz, W.

    1976-01-01

    The genetic load on a population is usually expressed in terms of the so-called 'Genetically Significant Dose' (GSD), i.e. the dose which, averaged over the total population, produces the same results as the varying amounts of radiation received in reality by the individuals making up the population. It may be calculated taking into account the following parameters: 1) total number of male and female persons in the population per age group, including the foetuses, 2) average expectation of children per person, 3) number of persons having received a certain type of X-ray examination, and 4) experimental gonadal dose for this examination (for men, women and foetuses - not to be confused with the GSD). The GSD of the Swiss population for the year 1971 was calculated per age group on the basis of physicians' data on some 60,000 patients. The gonadal dose was determined experimentally in various hospitals by means of TLD dosimeters, sensitive high-pressure ionization chambers and normal chambers. The computer programme to calculate the GSD (PL/1 language) is very time-consuming, but its structure allows a new selective investigation to be made later on by merely changing the input. The results show that in Switzerland as in other countries there is a 3-4% increase per year in X-ray examinations for diagnostic purposes. The GSD for 1971 is 42-43 mrad per person in Switzerland as compared to 22 mrad for 1957. The GSD percentage is about 57% for men, about 35% for women and about 8% for foetuses. The number of X-ray examinations is almost equal for general practitioners (53.8%) and hospitals (46.2%). (orig.) [de

  2. Radiation Protection Control Area Around Baggage Control X-ray Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prlic, I.; Radalj, Z.; Milkovic-Kraus, S.; Cerovac, Z.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of prompt occupational dose reporting rises when dose is received within a short-time interval or when the radiation source suffers any technical failures. Radiation exposure is to be recognized as a private/or group hazard of each person alone. Actual radiation quality of the source is to be taken into account. To optimize the radiological radiation protection Quality Control measurements of the source are done. We have developed digital dosemeters of type ALARA OD2 for external dosimetry to be used for establishing the real pattern of occupational dose delivered to the workers or/and as the (Ort) professional environmental measuring station. We are using dosemeter to define the control areas and areas of concern - point (Ort) around the source. This upgrade to legal obligatory external (film badge) dosimetry will help us to ease defining the professional stuff and working places which are actually exposed to ionising radiation of concern and for which it is necessary to provide legally required, or even additional, occupational health care programme. This means the analysis of exposure situations for specific jobs near the X-ray equipment used for baggage control in the context of carrying out a detailed study for the optimisation of radiation protection. PC data readout from device forms a real time exposure dose rate pattern that proves that any worker or other employee working nearby the baggage X-ray unit is not obliged to undergo any legal occupational monitoring (dosimetry or health) hence the total dose per year will not exceed 1 mSv under the worst working conditions. (author)

  3. Short review on contemporary state of X-ray transition radiation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibyan, G.M.

    1977-01-01

    The main properties of the X-ray transition radiation and the prehistory of the development of this phenomenon are given. The radiation produced when a charged particle passes through a regular and irregular stack of plates, the influence of the multiple scattering on the radiation as well as the microscopic theory of this phenomenon are considered

  4. The Swedish radiation protection institute's regulations on x-ray diagnostics; issued on April 28, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-04-01

    These regulations are applicable to practices with ionising radiation with respect to medical and dental diagnostics by means of external radiation sources like x-rays or radioactive substances. The regulations are also applicable to medical or dental use of such radiation sources for planning and guidance, for research and for legal and insurance related examinations

  5. A new miniature microchannel plate X-ray detector for synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosemeier, R.G.; Green, R.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A state-of-the-art microchannel plate detector has been developed which allows real time X-ray imaging of X-ray diffraction as well as radiographic phenomenon. Advantages of the device include a 50 mm X-ray input, length less than 4'', and a weight of less than 1 lb. Since the use of synchrotron radiation is greatly facilitated by the capability of remote viewing of X-ray diffraction or radiographic images in real time, a prototype electro-optical system has been designed which couples the X-ray microchannel plate detector with a solid state television camera. Advantages of the miniature, lightweight, X-ray synchrotron camera include a large 50 mm X-ray input window, an output signal that is available in both analog format for display on a television monitor and in digital format for computer processing, and a completely modular design which allows all the components to be exchanged for other components optimally suited for the desired applications. (orig.)

  6. Radiation hygiene supervision of X-ray units in veterinary establishments of the South Bohemian Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truelle, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The number of X-ray examinations increased after 1971 with the launching of the nation-wide screening of breeding boars and sows for rhinitis. For this purpose the Regional Hygiene Officer permitted the use of CHIRAX X-ray apparatus in field-work. Blood sampling and medical check-ups are carried out of all workers by the Department of Occupational Diseases of the Regional Health Centre in Ceske Budejovice. All X-ray operators are equipped with film dosemeters. Hygienic inspection is regularly carried out by the Department of Radiation Hygiene of the Regional Hygiene Centre in Ceske Budejovice. The screenings are carried out in the pigsty or in the preparation room. The X-ray operators operate behind a Pb shield. The animal is tied up and the plate is inserted into its oral cavity. The auxiliary staff keeps as far away as possible from the X-ray apparatus. At a distance of 6 m from the X-ray apparatus the radiation intensity of 3 mR/h was measured. The harmful radiation dose is far below permissible values (5 rem/year). (O.Y.)

  7. Soft X-ray radiation power characteristics of tungsten wire arrays on Yang accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Siqun; Ouyang Kai; Huang Xianbin; Dan Jiakun; Zhou Rongguo; Yang Liang

    2013-01-01

    A series of experiments were carried out to research the X-ray radiation characteristics of tungsten wire arrays on Yang accelerator. In those experiments, we charged the Marx generator of 60 kV, and the load current of 0.85-1.00 MA, the rise time of 75-90 ns (10%-90%). A soft X-ray scintillator powermeter which responded flatly to 50-1800 eV X-rays was used to measure the power of soft X-ray emitted from implosion plasma. In this paper, we present the measuring results of time-resolved soft X-ray radiation power, and discuss the radiation characteristics of implosion plasma by analyzing the correlations of soft X-ray radiant power and the diameter, length, wire number of the tungsten wire arrays. The optimizing wire array configuration parameters on Yang are as follows: 8 mm array diameter, 15 mm wire length, and 24 wire number. We also present the radiant power difference in radial and axial directions of the wire arrays. (authors)

  8. Radiation safety and quality control assurance in X-ray diagnostics 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, A.

    1998-03-01

    The report is based on a seminar course of lectures 'Radiation safety and quality assurance in X-ray diagnostics 1998' organized by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) in Finland. The lectures included actual information on X-ray examinations: methods of quality assurance, methods of measuring and calculating patient doses, examination frequencies, patient doses, occupational doses, and radiation risks. Paediatric X-ray examinations and interventional procedures were the most specific topics. The new Council Directive 97/43/Euratom on medical exposure, and the European Guidelines on quality criteria for diagnostic radiographic images, were discussed in several lectures. Lectures on general radiation threats and preparedness, examples of radiation accidents, and emergency preparedness in hospitals were also included. (editor)

  9. Medical management of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushmanov, A.; Nadezhina, N.; Kretov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Medical management during acute period in a case of severe local radiation injury after acute X-ray exposure includes 3 stages. During the fist stage patient got conservative treatment according to the common pathogenetic mechanisms of LRI (dis aggregating therapy, stimulation of regeneration, dis intoxication therapy, antibiotic therapy, pain relief therapy, Local anti-burn therapy-specific non-adhesive bandage with antiseptic and anti-burn medicaments); estimation of severity, deepness and area of injury by clinical picture and dates of instrumental methods of examining; defining necessity and volume of surgical treatment; preparing arrangements for surgical treatment. This stage ends with forming of demarcation line of a very hard severity of a Local Radiation Injure. The second stage includes necrectomy of the area of a very hard severity with microsurgical plastic by re vascularized flap and auto dermoplastic. The third stage - adaptation of re vascularized flap and total epithelization of injured area. (author)

  10. Parameter study of self-absorption effects in Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure analysis of arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meirer, F.; Pepponi, G.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Kregsamer, P.; Zoeger, N.; Falkenberg, G.

    2008-01-01

    Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) analysis in combination with X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) analysis is a powerful method to perform chemical speciation studies at trace element levels. However, when measuring samples with higher concentrations and in particular standards, damping of the oscillations is observed. In this study the influence of self-absorption effects on TXRF-XANES measurements was investigated by comparing measurements with theoretical calculations. As(V) standard solutions were prepared at various concentrations and dried on flat substrates. The measurements showed a correlation between the damping of the oscillations and the As mass deposited. A Monte-Carlo simulation was developed using data of the samples shapes obtained from confocal white light microscopy. The results showed good agreement with the measurements; they confirmed that the key parameters are the density of the investigated atom in the dried residues and the shape of the residue, parameters that combined define the total mass crossed by a certain portion of the incident beam. The study presents a simple approach for an a priori evaluation of the self-absorption in TXRF X-ray absorption studies. The consequences for Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and XANES measurements under grazing incidence conditions are discussed, leading to the conclusion that the damping of the oscillations seems to make EXAFS of concentrated samples non feasible. For XANES 'fingerprint' analysis samples should be prepared with a deposited mass and sample shape leading to an acceptable absorption for the actual investigation

  11. Application of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique to trace elements determination in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Zarazua, G.; Avila-Perez, P.; Navarrete, M.; Tejeda, S.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have identified an important number of toxic elements along with organic carcinogen molecules and radioactive isotopes in tobacco. In this work we have analyzed by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence 9 brands of cigarettes being manufactured and distributed in the Mexican market. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology standards and a blank were equally treated at the same time. Results show the presence of some toxic elements such as Pb and Ni. These results are compared with available data for some foreign brands, while their implications for health are discussed. It can be confirmed that the Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence method provides precise (reproducible) and accuracy (trueness) data for 15 elements concentration in tobacco samples

  12. Application of the Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique to trace elements determination in tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Zarazua, G.; Avila-Perez, P.; Navarrete, M.; Tejeda, S.

    2008-12-01

    Many studies have identified an important number of toxic elements along with organic carcinogen molecules and radioactive isotopes in tobacco. In this work we have analyzed by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence 9 brands of cigarettes being manufactured and distributed in the Mexican market. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology standards and a blank were equally treated at the same time. Results show the presence of some toxic elements such as Pb and Ni. These results are compared with available data for some foreign brands, while their implications for health are discussed. It can be confirmed that the Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence method provides precise (reproducible) and accuracy (trueness) data for 15 elements concentration in tobacco samples.

  13. Applications of total reflection X-ray fluorescence in multi-element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, W.; Prange, A.; Knoth, J.

    1985-01-01

    Although Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (TXRF) became available for practical applications and routine measurements only few years ago, the number of programmes that make use of this method is increasing rapidly. The scope of work is widespread over environmental research and monitoring, mineralogy, mineral exploration, oceanography, biology, medicine and biochemistry. The present paper gives a brief survey of these applications and summarizes some of them which are typical for quite different matrices. (orig.)

  14. Top layer's thickness dependence on total electron-yield X-ray standing-wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejima, Takeo; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Banse, Takanori; Hatano, Tadashi

    2005-01-01

    A Mo single-layer film with a stepwise thickness distribution was fabricated on the same Mo/Si reflection multilayer film. Total electron-yield X-ray standing-wave (TEY-XSW) spectra of the aperiodic multilayer were measured with reflection spectra. The peak positions of the standing waves in the TEY-XSW spectra changed as the film thickness of the top Mo-layer increased

  15. X-ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, M.; Koubsky, P.

    1977-01-01

    The history is described of the discoveries of X-ray sources in the sky. The individual X-ray detectors are described in more detail, i.e., gas counters, scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and the principles of X-ray spectrometry and of radiation collimation aimed at increased resolution are discussed. Currently, over 200 celestial X-ray sources are known. Some were identified as nebulae, in some pulsations were found or the source was identified as a binary star. X-ray bursts of novae were also observed. The X-ray radiation is briefly mentioned of spherical star clusters and of extragalactic X-ray sources. (Oy)

  16. Integrated image presentation of transmission and fluorescent X-ray CT using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeniya, T.; Takeda, T. E-mail: ttakeda@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Yu, Q.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hyodo, K.; Yuasa, T.; Hiranaka, Y.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T

    2001-07-21

    We have developed a computed tomography (CT) system with synchrotron radiation (SR) to detect fluorescent X-rays and transmitted X-rays simultaneously. Both SR transmission X-ray CT (SR-TXCT) and SR fluorescent X-ray CT (SR-FXCT) can describe cross-sectional images with high spatial and contrast resolutions as compared to conventional CT. TXCT gives morphological information and FXCT gives functional information of organs. So, superposed display system for SR-FXCT and SR-TXCT images has been developed for clinical diagnosis with higher reliability. Preliminary experiment with brain phantom was carried out and the superposition of both images was performed. The superposed SR-CT image gave us both functional and morphological information easily with high reliability, thus demonstrating the usefulness of this system.

  17. Integrated image presentation of transmission and fluorescent X-ray CT using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeniya, T.; Takeda, T.; Yu, Q.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hyodo, K.; Yuasa, T.; Hiranaka, Y.; Itai, Y.; Akatsuka, T.

    2001-07-01

    We have developed a computed tomography (CT) system with synchrotron radiation (SR) to detect fluorescent X-rays and transmitted X-rays simultaneously. Both SR transmission X-ray CT (SR-TXCT) and SR fluorescent X-ray CT (SR-FXCT) can describe cross-sectional images with high spatial and contrast resolutions as compared to conventional CT. TXCT gives morphological information and FXCT gives functional information of organs. So, superposed display system for SR-FXCT and SR-TXCT images has been developed for clinical diagnosis with higher reliability. Preliminary experiment with brain phantom was carried out and the superposition of both images was performed. The superposed SR-CT image gave us both functional and morphological information easily with high reliability, thus demonstrating the usefulness of this system.

  18. X-ray transport and radiation response assessment (XTRRA) experiments at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, K. B., E-mail: fournier2@llnl.gov; Brown, C. G.; Yeoman, M. F.; Compton, S.; Holdener, F. R.; Kemp, G. E.; Blue, B. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Fisher, J. H.; Newlander, C. D.; Gilliam, R. P.; Froula, N. [Fifth Gait Technologies, Inc., 14040 Camden Circle, Huntsville, Alabama 35803 (United States); Seiler, S. W.; Davis, J. F.; Lerch, MAJ. A. [Defense Threat Reduction Agency, 8725 John J. Kingman Road, Fort Belvoir, Virginia 22060-6201 (United States); Hinshelwood, D. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Lilly, M. [Dynasen, Inc., 20 Arnold Pl., Goleta, California 93117 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Our team has developed an experimental platform to evaluate the x-ray-generated stress and impulse in materials. Experimental activities include x-ray source development, design of the sample mounting hardware and sensors interfaced to the National Ignition Facility’s diagnostics insertion system, and system integration into the facility. This paper focuses on the X-ray Transport and Radiation Response Assessment (XTRRA) test cassettes built for these experiments. The test cassette is designed to position six samples at three predetermined distances from the source, each known to within ±1% accuracy. Built-in calorimeters give in situ measurements of the x-ray environment along the sample lines of sight. The measured accuracy of sample responses as well as planned modifications to the XTRRA cassette is discussed.

  19. Development of Object Simulator for Radiation Field of Dental X-Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L F; Ferreira, F C L; Sousa, F F; Cardoso, L X; Vasconcelos, E D S; Brasil, L M

    2013-01-01

    In dentistry radiography is of fundamental importance to the dentist can make an accurate diagnosis. For this it is necessary to pay attention to the radiological protection of both the professional and the patient and control image quality for an accurate diagnosis. In this work, quality control tests were performed on X-ray machines in private dental intraoral in the municipality of Marabá, where they measured the diameters of the radiation field to see if these machines are in accordance with the recommendations, thus preventing the patient is exposed to a radiation field higher than necessary. We will study the results of each X-ray machine evaluated. For this we created a phantom to assess the size of the radiation field of X-ray dental, where we measure the radiation field of each device to see if they are in accordance with the recommendations of the ordinance No. 453/98 – MS

  20. Deconvolving the temporal response of photoelectric x-ray detectors for the diagnosis of pulsed radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Shiyang; Song, Peng; Pei, Wenbing; Guo, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the conjugate gradient method, a simple algorithm is presented for deconvolving the temporal response of photoelectric x-ray detectors (XRDs) to reconstruct the resolved time-dependent x-ray fluxes. With this algorithm, we have studied the impact of temporal response of XRD on the radiation diagnosis of hohlraum heated by a short intense laser pulse. It is found that the limiting temporal response of XRD not only postpones the rising edge and peak position of x-ray pulses but also smoothes the possible fluctuations of radiation fluxes. Without a proper consideration of the temporal response of XRD, the measured radiation flux can be largely misinterpreted for radiation pulses of a hohlraum heated by short or shaped laser pulses

  1. Measurements of the radiation energy distribution in the soft X-ray region in the Wendelstein VII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, A.

    1985-10-01

    The soft X-ray radiation power with 400 eV <= E <= 100 eV originating from resonance lines of C-, O-, Fe-, Cr-, Mo-impurities contributes the major part of the total radiation losses from the plasma centre. A coarse discrimination between the most important impurity species can be obtained by using an array of filters consisting of different material. Different energy windows are defined by the energies of the corresponding L-line absorption edges of the filter materials. The radiation power of each energy band is monitored by a set of surface barrier diodes during the plasma discharges. Information about the energy spectrum is also provided by a two filter method giving an estimation of the mean radiation energy. In addition, X-ray pulse height analysis measurements are presented. The results are correlated with spectroscopic measurements. (orig.)

  2. Level of compliance with the radiation protection regulation-A survey among Norwegian hospitals and X-ray institutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friberg, E. G.; Widmark, A.; Solberg, M.; Woehni, T.

    2011-01-01

    To identify the level of compliance with the new radiation protection regulation among Norwegian health care enterprises (HCEs). Totally, 41 HCEs were authorised to use advanced X-ray equipment for medical purposes during 2005-07. Follow-up inspections with 14 HCEs were carried out during 2007-09. Main topics for the inspections were those requirements identified as most challenging to implement in the authorisation process. Totally, 192 non-conformities with the regulation were revealed during the authorisation process. The inspections revealed that 93 % of the inspected HCEs had non-conformities with the regulation. Most common non-conformities dealt with skills in radiation protection, establishment of local diagnostic reference levels, access to medical physicists and performance of quality control of X-ray equipment. Inspections are an effective tool for implementation of regulation the requirements at the HCEs, thus improving radiation protection awareness. (authors)

  3. Dose fractionation in synchrotron radiation x-ray phase micro-tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frachon, Thibaut; Weber, Loriane; Hesse, Bernhard; Rit, Simon; Dong, Pei; Olivier, Cecile; Peyrin, Françoise; Langer, Max

    2015-01-01

    Phase sensitive x-ray imaging expands the applicability of standard attenuation based techniques by offering several orders of magnitude of increase in sensitivity. Due to the short wavelength, x-ray phase is not directly measurable, but has to be put in evidence by the use of phase contrast techniques. The phase can then be reconstructed from one or several phase contrast images. In this study, we consider synchrotron x-ray phase micro-computed tomography (μCT) based on free space propagation for heterogeneous and strongly absorbing objects. This technique generally relies on acquiring several scans of the sample at different detector distances. It is also generally believed that multi-distance phase μCT needs a higher dose input than single distance phase μCT. The purpose of this work is to study the impact of different means of dose fractionation on the reconstructed image quality. We define different acquistion schemes in multi-distance in-line phase μCT. Previously, the exposure time at each sample-to-detector distance was usually kept the same. Here, we let not only the number of distances vary but also the fraction of exposure time at each distance, the total exposure time being kept constant. Phase retrieval is performed with the mixed approach algorithm. The reconstructed μCT images are compared in terms of accuracy, precision and resolution. In addition, we also compare the result of dose fractionated multi distance phase μCT to single distance phase μCT using the same total radiation dose. In the multi-distance approach, we find that using different exposure times on each distance improves the image quality in the reconstructed image. Further, we show that, despite having the same total dose delivery, the multi distance imaging method gives better image quality than the single distance method, at the cost of an additional overhead from camera displacements and reference images. We show that by optimizing the acquistion parameters in terms of

  4. Ordinance on the Protection against X-Radiation Hazards (X-Ray Ordinance)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The ordinance refers to X-ray equipment and to stray radiation sources which generate X-radiation of at least 5 keV by means of accelerated electrons, and for this purpose apply an acceleration energy not exceeding 3 MeV. The ordinance does not apply to stray radiation sources which are used for the generation of ionizing particle radiation and thus are subject to the provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./PW) [de

  5. Single particle transfer for quantitative analysis with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Esaka, Konomi T.; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The technique of single particle transfer was applied to quantitative analysis with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry. The technique was evaluated by performing quantitative analysis of individual Cu particles with diameters between 3.9 and 13.2 μm. The direct quantitative analysis of the Cu particle transferred onto a Si carrier gave a discrepancy between measured and calculated Cu amounts due to the absorption effects of incident and fluorescent X-rays within the particle. By the correction for the absorption effects, the Cu amounts in individual particles could be determined with the deviation within 10.5%. When the Cu particles were dissolved with HNO 3 solution prior to the TXRF analysis, the deviation was improved to be within 3.8%. In this case, no correction for the absorption effects was needed for quantification

  6. Radiation doses from some common paediatric X-ray examinations in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, I.I.; Elshiekh, E.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation doses to patients from some common paediatric X-ray examinations were studied in three hospitals in Khartoum state (Sudan)). Entrance surface dose (ESD) was determined from exposure settings using DosCal software. Totally, 459 patients were included in this study. Mean ESDs obtained from anteroposterior projection for chest, skull, abdomen and pelvis for neonates falls in the range of 52-100, 115-169, 145-183, 204-242 μGy, respectively. For a 1-y-old infant, mean ESD range was 80-114, 153-202, 204-209, 181-264 μGy, respectively. Some doses for neonates and infants were exceeding the reference doses by >20%. The results highlighted that a good technique has to adhere to guidelines necessarily. As demonstrated elsewhere, patients' doses were high in departments using single-phase generators compared with those using constant potential. The results presented will serve as a baseline data needed for deriving reference doses for paediatric X-ray examinations in Sudan. (authors)

  7. TX 2000: total reflection and 45o energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasti, F.; Torboli, A.; Valdes, M.

    2000-01-01

    This equipment, developed by Ital Structures, combines two kinds of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence techniques, the first using total reflection geometry and the second conventional 45 o geometry. The equipment is completely controlled by a PC and to reach the condition of total reflection is very easy because it is enough to load the file with the right position for the corresponding energy. In this apparatus we used an x-ray tube with an alloy anode of Mo/W with a long fine focus at 2200 W. To monochromatize the x-ray beam while choosing, for example, the Mo K alpha or W L alpha or a piece of white spectrum of 33 keV, we use a highly reflective multilayer made of Si/W with 2d = 45.5 A o . The detector used in the equipment is a lithium drifted silicon detector (Si(Li)) with an excellent energy resolution of 135 eV at 5.9 keV and 1000 cps. We developed two programs written in Windows 95, 98 and NT for a 32 bit microprocessor. The first one is called TYACQ32 and has the following functions: first, complete control of the hardware, second automatic alignment of the TX 2000 spectrometer and third acquisition of spectra. The second program is EDXRF32. This is a program to accomplish spectrum and quantitative analysis for TXRF and EDXRF 45 o degrees analysis. (author)

  8. X-ray radiation and development inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Junheon; Jung, Soon-Oh; Jang, Sin Ae; Kim, Jeongmin; Park, Chung Gyoo

    2015-01-01

    Effect of X-ray radiation on the development inhibition was evaluated for all stages of the life cycle of Helicoverpa armigera to determine a radiation dose for potential quarantine treatment against the insect. ED 99 values for inhibition of hatching, pupation, and adult emergence from irradiated eggs were 413, 210, and 154 Gy, respectively. ED 99 values for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence from irradiated larvae were 221 and 167 Gy, respectively. Pupa was the most tolerant to X-ray radiation. ED 99 value for inhibition of adult emergence from irradiated pupae was as high as 2310 Gy, whereas that for inhibition of F 1 egg hatching was only 66 Gy. ED 99 value for inhibition of hatching of F 1 eggs which were laid by irradiated adults was estimated to 194 Gy. X-ray irradiation against H. armigera is recommended as an alternative method to methyl bromide fumigation for phytosanitary treatments during quarantine. X-ray radiation dose of 200 Gy is proposed as a potential quarantine treatment dose for H. armigera eggs and larvae. - Highlights: • X-ray irradiation induced abnormal development of Helicoverpa armigera. • ED 99 value for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence of irradiated egg was estimated at 210 and 154 Gy, respectively. • ED 99 value for inhibition of pupation and adult emergence of irradiated larva was estimated at 221 and 167 Gy, respectively

  9. Reliability of an x-ray system for calibrating and testing personal radiation dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimarães, M.C.; Silva, C.R.E.; Silva, T.A. da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Rosado, P.H.G.; Cunha, P.G. [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Metrology laboratories are expected to maintain standardized radiation beams and traceable standard dosimeters to provide reliable calibrations or testing of detectors. Results of the characterization of an x-ray system for performing calibration and testing of radiation dosimeters used for individual monitoring are shown in this work. (author)

  10. Reliability of an x-ray system for calibrating and testing personal radiation dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, M. C.; Silva, C. R. E.; Rosado, P. H. G.; Cunha, P. G.; Da Silva, T. A.

    2018-03-01

    Metrology laboratories are expected to maintain standardized radiation beams and traceable standard dosimeters to provide reliable calibrations or testing of detectors. Results of the characterization of an x-ray system for performing calibration and testing of radiation dosimeters used for individual monitoring are shown in this work.

  11. Reliability of an x-ray system for calibrating and testing personal radiation dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimarães, M.C.; Silva, C.R.E.; Silva, T.A. da; Rosado, P.H.G.; Cunha, P.G.

    2017-01-01

    Metrology laboratories are expected to maintain standardized radiation beams and traceable standard dosimeters to provide reliable calibrations or testing of detectors. Results of the characterization of an x-ray system for performing calibration and testing of radiation dosimeters used for individual monitoring are shown in this work. (author)

  12. Degradation of 4-Chloro phenol by gamma radiation of 137Cs and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez J, J. C.; Jimenez B, J.; Cejudo A, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of radiolytic degradation of 4-chloro phenol in the presence of TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 , using different radiation sources than 60 Co, which is so common in this type of experiment. The radiation sources used were X-rays with energy of 100 keV and radiation from 137 Cs (662 keV). After irradiation with a dose of 50 c Gy X-ray and TiO 2 obtained a degradation of about 5%, no degradation was obtained with 137 Cs source and other oxides. This may be due to the fact that X-rays have a linear energy transfer greater value, and in the case of TiO 2 present a crystalline structure, whereas the other two oxides are amorphous. Both characteristics result in better formation of a reactive species that allows the degradation of the compound. (Author)

  13. X-ray stress measurement by use of synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Yasuo; Matsui, Hisaaki; Moro-oka, Toshimasa; Hasegawa, Ken-ichi; Nakajima, Tetsuo.

    1986-01-01

    In the field of X-ray stress measurement of polycrystalline materials, a diffraction plane at higher Bragg angle has to be selected in order to obtain the precise value of stress. However, the stress measurement on an optional (hkl) plane desired is not always possible because the X-ray beam exited from a metal target has a dispersive wave length. Recently, we have been able to use the synchrotron radiation source (SR) as an excellent X-ray source. In Japan, the facility of synchrotron radiation (Photon Factory, PF) was constructed in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK) at Tsukuba academic city. The use of this SR enables the stress measurements on many (hkl) planes with high accuracy in the higher Bragg angle region by providing an X-ray beam having an optional wave length. We have started the X-ray stress analysis by use of the synchrotron radiation source. This paper reports the system of measurement and some results of preliminaly experiments. Since a monochromatic X-ray beam is required for the stress measurement, we used a beam line which consists of a double crystal monochrometer and a focusing mirror. X-rays between 4 KeV (λ = 0.31 nm) and 10 KeV (λ = 0.12 nm) are available with this optical system. We adopted a constant Bragg angle of 2θ = 154 deg for all the diffraction planes. A PSPC having a carbon fiber anode is made and used as a detector with the use of a fast digital signal processor. We could observe the diffraction profiles from (200), (211), (220), (310) and (321) crystal plane of alpha iron, respectively, and the residual stresses in these planes except the (200) plane were measured with high accuracy in a short time. Such feature especially suits the stress analysis of the material which has preferred orientation or stress gradient. (author)

  14. Advanced Nanoscale Characterization of Cement Based Materials Using X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation: A Review

    KAUST Repository

    Chae, Sejung R.

    2013-05-22

    We report various synchrotron radiation laboratory based techniques used to characterize cement based materials in nanometer scale. High resolution X-ray transmission imaging combined with a rotational axis allows for rendering of samples in three dimensions revealing volumetric details. Scanning transmission X-ray microscope combines high spatial resolution imaging with high spectral resolution of the incident beam to reveal X-ray absorption near edge structure variations in the material nanostructure. Microdiffraction scans the surface of a sample to map its high order reflection or crystallographic variations with a micron-sized incident beam. High pressure X-ray diffraction measures compressibility of pure phase materials. Unique results of studies using the above tools are discussed-a study of pores, connectivity, and morphology of a 2,000 year old concrete using nanotomography; detection of localized and varying silicate chain depolymerization in Al-substituted tobermorite, and quantification of monosulfate distribution in tricalcium aluminate hydration using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy; detection and mapping of hydration products in high volume fly ash paste using microdiffraction; and determination of mechanical properties of various AFm phases using high pressure X-ray diffraction. © 2013 The Author(s).

  15. Characteristic 8 keV X rays possess radiobiological properties of higher-LET radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridhar, Ravi; Estabrook, William; Yudelev, Mark; Rakowski, Joseph; Burmeister, Jay; Wilson, George D; Joiner, Michael C

    2010-03-01

    Electronic brachytherapy systems are being developed that can deliver X rays of varying energy depending on the material of a secondary target. A copper target produces characteristic 8 keV X rays. Our aim was to determine whether 8 keV X rays might deliver greater biological effectiveness than megavoltage photons. Cells of the U251 human glioma cell line were used to compare the biological effects of 8 keV X rays and (60)Co gamma rays in terms of relative biological effectiveness (RBE), oxygen enhancement ratio (OER), and DNA damage. The RBE at 50% and 10% survival was 2.6 and 1.9, respectively. At 50% survival, the OER for cells treated with 8 keV X rays was 1.6 compared with 3.0 for (60)Co gamma rays. The numbers of H2AX foci per Gy after treatment with 8 keV X rays and (60)Co gamma rays were similar; however, the size of the foci generated at 8 keV was significantly larger, possibly indicating more complex DNA damage. The mean area of H2AX foci generated by 8 keV X rays was 0.785 microm(2) (95% CI: 0.756-0.814) compared with 0.491 microm(2) (95% CI: 0.462-0.520) for (60)Co gamma rays (P X rays produce two to three times the biological effectiveness of megavoltage photons, with a radiobiological profile similar to higher-LET radiations.

  16. Preliminary study on X-ray phase contrast imaging using synchrotron radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Zhuang; Wang Jianhua; Yu Yongqiang; Jiang Shiping; Chen Yang; Tian Yulian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the methodology of X-ray phase contrast imaging using synchrotron radiation, and evaluate the quality of phase contrast images. Methods: Several experiments to obtain phase contrast images and absorption contrast images of various biological samples were conducted in Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF), and then these images were interpreted to find out the difference between the two kinds of imaging methods. Results: Satisfactory phase contrast images of these various samples were obtained, and the quality of these images was superior to that obtained with absorption contrast imaging. The phase contrast formation is based on the phenomenon of fresnel diffraction which transforms phase shifts into intensity variations upon a simple act of free-space propagation, so it requires highly coherent X-rays and appropriate distance between sample and detector. This method of imaging is very useful in imaging of low-absorption objects or objects with little absorption variation, and its resolution is far higher than that of the conventional X-ray imaging. The photographs obtained showed very fine inner microstructure of the biological samples, and the smallest microstructure to be distinguished is within 30-40 μm. There is no doubt that phase contrast imaging has a practical applicability in medicine. Moreover, it improves greatly the efficiency and the resolution of the existing X-ray diagnostic techniques. Conclusions: X-ray phase contrast imaging can be performed with synchrotron radiation source and has some advantages over the conventional absorption contrast imaging. (authors)

  17. Magnetic x-ray scattering studies of holmium using synchro- tron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, D.; Moncton, D.E.; D'Amico, K.L.; Bohr, J.; Grier, B.H.

    1985-01-01

    We present the results of magnetic x-ray scattering experiments on the rare-earth metal holmium using synchrotron radiation. Direct high-resolution measurements of the nominally incommensurate magnetic satellite reflections reveal new lock-in behavior which we explain within a simple spin-discommensuration model. As a result of magnetoelastic coupling, the spin-discommensuration array produces additional x-ray diffraction satellites. Their observation further substantiates the model and demonstrates additional advantages of synchrotron radiation for magnetic-structure studies

  18. Observations of several disruptions in PLT using soft and ultra-soft x-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eames, D.R.; von Goeler, S.; Sauthoff, N.R.; Stodiek, W.

    1979-03-01

    The evolution of ultra-soft x-ray radiation (USX, hν approx. > 100 eV) is compared to that of the soft x-ray radiation (SX, hν approx. > 1000 eV) during several disruptions in PLT. Spatial resolution is obtained in both cases by arrays of silicon surface barrier detectors viewing along different chords. During some disruptions the USX behaves quite differently from the SX, and a classification is made based on the USX behavior. Different interpretations of the data are discussed, along with the possibility that these measurements may distinguish between the roles of temperature and impurity density changes during disruptions

  19. Effects of radiation pressure on the equipotential surfaces in X-ray binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Y.; Mccluskey, G. E., Jr.; Gulden, S. L.

    1976-01-01

    Equipotential surfaces incorporating the effect of radiation pressure were computed for the X-ray binaries Cen X-3, Cyg X-1 = HDE 226868, Vela XR-1 = 3U 0900-40 = HD 77581, and 3U 1700-37 = HD 153919. The topology of the equipotential surfaces is significantly affected by radiation pressure. In particular, the so-called critical Roche (Jacobian) lobes, the traditional figure 8's, do not exist. The effects of these results on modeling X-ray binaries are discussed.

  20. Effects of radiation pressure on the equipotential surfaces in x-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Y.; McCluskey, G.E. Jr.; Gulden, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    Equipotential surfaces incorporating the effect of radiation pressure were computed for the x-ray binaries Cen X-3, Cyg X-1 = HDE 226868, Vela XR-1 = 3U 0900-40 = HD 77581, and 3U 1700-37 = HD 153919. The topology of the equipotential surfaces is significantly affected by radiation pressure. In particular, the so-called critical Roche (Jacobian) lobes, the traditional figure 8's, do not exist. The effects of these results on modeling x-ray binaries are discussed

  1. Synchrotron radiation sources: their properties and applications for VUV and X-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E.E.

    1976-09-01

    Synchrotron radiation from accelerators and storage rings offers far reaching possibilities for many fields of basic and applied physics. The properties of synchrotron radiation, existing and planned synchrotron radiation facilities, as well as instrumental aspects are discussed. In order to illustrate the usefulness of the synchrotron radiation sources a few highlights from atomic, molelucar, and solid state spectroscopy are presented and examples from x-ray experiments and from the field of applied physics are given. (orig.) [de

  2. Study on quantities of radiation protection in medical X-rays radiation field with polyhedron phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Shuyu; Dai Guangfu; Zhang Liangan

    1997-01-01

    The author have studied tissue-equivalent material with the elemental composition recommended by report No.44 of ICRU. Three different calibration phantoms in shape have been prepared with the tissue-equivalent material in order to study the influence of the angular dependence factor R(d,α) in the radiation field of X-rays on the calibration of individual dose equivalent Hp(d). The requirement of mono-genous radiation field to calibrate several dosimeters on one phantom at the same time can be met by application of dodecahedron phantom, which is difficult on ICRU sphere. Angular dependence factor R(d,α) of 0 degree∼90 degree and conversion coefficients between individual dose equivalent Hp(0.07, α) and the exposure of radiation of different energies and different angles have been established by taking advantage of the dodecahedron. Besides, the authors have studied the variation relation between the individual dose equivalent Hp (10,α) and Hp(0.07,α) in the medical X-rays radiation field

  3. Radiation protection of patients in X-ray diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhardt, P.

    1975-01-01

    The author states as a result that the care taken by the physician and the technical assistant is the most important factor in reducing the radiation exposure of patients. A fair relation between efficiency and possible unnecessary exposure is provided by careful and conscientious work which has to be based on sound knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation on the organism and of the possibilities of reducing the doses responsible for these effects. (orig./AK) [de

  4. Photoacoustical and pyroelectric dosimetry of X-ray radiation in diagnostic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A.A. de.

    1987-01-01

    Three new types of radiation dosimeters, designed to measure X rays in its diagnostic region are described: the pulsed photoacoustical radiation dosimeter, the pyroelectric radiation dosimeter and the pulsed pyroelectric radiation dosimeter. The photoacoustical radiation dosimeter with the scope of to compare its carachteristics with the carachteristics of the new developed dosimeters is also studied. A methodology for calibration of a photoacoustical dosimeter which doesn't require the calibration of its response in a known field of ionizing radiation is proposed. A theoretical model to explain the results produced by the pulsed pyroelectric radiation dosimeter is presented. The obtained results show that the developed dosimeters are of calorimetric type, being linear its response with the X ray energy fluence rate. (author) [pt

  5. Three-dimensional monochromatic x-ray computed tomography using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tsuneo; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji; Tokumori, Kenji; Toyofuku, Fukai; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Ando, Masami; Nishimura, Katsuyuki; Uyama, Chikao

    1998-08-01

    We describe a technique of 3D computed tomography (3D CT) using monochromatic x rays generated by synchrotron radiation, which performs a direct reconstruction of a 3D volume image of an object from its cone-beam projections. For the development, we propose a practical scanning orbit of the x-ray source to obtain complete 3D information on an object, and its corresponding 3D image reconstruction algorithm. The validity and usefulness of the proposed scanning orbit and reconstruction algorithm were confirmed by computer simulation studies. Based on these investigations, we have developed a prototype 3D monochromatic x-ray CT using synchrotron radiation, which provides exact 3D reconstruction and material-selective imaging by using the K-edge energy subtraction technique.

  6. Image processing techniques for thermal, x-rays and nuclear radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadda, V.K.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes image acquisition techniques for the non-visible range of electromagnetic spectrum especially thermal, x-rays and nuclear radiations. Thermal imaging systems are valuable tools used for applications ranging from PCB inspection, hot spot studies, fire identification, satellite imaging to defense applications. Penetrating radiations like x-rays and gamma rays are used in NDT, baggage inspection, CAT scan, cardiology, radiography, nuclear medicine etc. Neutron radiography compliments conventional x-rays and gamma radiography. For these applications, image processing and computed tomography are employed for 2-D and 3-D image interpretation respectively. The paper also covers main features of image processing systems for quantitative evaluation of gray level and binary images. (author)

  7. X-ray diffraction on nanoparticles chromium and nickel oxides obtained by gelatin using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Alan Silva de; Medeiros, Angela Maria de Lemos; Miranda, Marcus Aurelio Ribeiro; Almeida, Juliana Marcela Abraao; Remedios, Claudio Marcio Rocha; Silva, Lindomar R.D. da; Gouveia, S.T.; Sasaki, Jose Marcos; Jardim, P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Cr 2 O 3 nanoparticles has many applications like green pigments, wear resistance, and coating materials for thermal protection. Several methods to produce chromium oxide nanoparticles have already been studied, gas condensation, laser induced pyrolysis, microwave plasma, sol-gel and gamma radiation methods. Many applications for this kind of material can be provide concerning the particle size. For instance, particle size approximately of 200 nm are preferable as pigment due to its opacity and below 50 nm can be used as transparent pigment. In this work we have demonstrated that chromium and nickel oxide nanoparticles can be prepared by gelatin method. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) show that mean particle size for chromium oxide of 15-150 nm and nickel oxide of 90 nm were obtained for several temperature of sintering. The X-Ray powder diffraction pattern were performed using Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray source at XRD1 beamline in National Laboratory of Light Synchrotron (LNLS). (author)

  8. X-ray spectral determination by detection of radiation scattered at different angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrea, Raul; Mainardi, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    A precise knowledge of the spectral content of an X-ray beam is of fundamental importance in areas such as X-ray fluorescence analysis by absolute methods, radiodiagnosis, radiotherapy, computed tomography, etc. A simple practical method was developed to determine X-ray spectra emitted by X-ray tubes. It is based on the scattering of the beam on a solid target and detection of this radiation at different angles. This methodology can easily be adapted to the successive attenuation of the beam procedure. Numerical parameter values of a proposed analytical function for the energy spectrum are found measuring the radiation intensity with a suitable detector (ionization chamber or plastic scintillation detector) and equating it with the convolution integral of the proposed spectrum with the incoherent scattering function. This procedure of spectra determination is enclosed in the same group of those generically referred as successive modifications of the irradiation set up used in absolute methods of X-ray fluorescence analysis. (Author) [es

  9. Radiation and their deleterious effects: special respect to X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Joshi, Pankaj Kumar; Basu, Arindam; Chakarwati, Aruna; Agarwal, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    Radiation have been influencing the living and non living systems on earth, since their evolution from simple, humble beginnings to diversely complex system of the present day biological world. Most of the radiations have been the basis for conduction and completion of vital life processes like photosynthesis which form the base and initiation point of flow of energy within the biological world. However there are some radiation called as ionizing radiation with energy content of more then 124 eV, which have the capacity to cause deleterious effects in livings system ranging from simple unicellular organisms to the large and complex animals and plants. The discovery of X-ray by William Conrad Roentgen in 1898 provided the originating point for radiation biology as a well defined discipline. Together with the discovery of X-ray radioactivity and new radioactive elements the biological effects of ionizing radiation began to be studied immediately after the discovery of X-ray. By the year 1896 press reports regarding the skin injuries involved skin erythemas and ulceration in persons who experienced the frequent and prolonged action of X-ray had appeared. By 1959, 359 radiologists were known to have died of X-ray induced cancer of skin or of leukemia. The deleterious effects of radiation on a large scale became evident when a large number of deaths, approximately 10,300 had occurred when USA dropped atom bomb on the Japanese towns of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, leaving about 80,000 persons injured. The effects of these two explosions are still evident in generation of today and also these twin incidents evoked awareness among the researchers to investigate the nature and effects of radiation which they cause in living beings. (author)

  10. Problematic radiation protective devices for X-ray diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, A.; Nanko, N.; Bruggmoser, G.; Eble, M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report experimental test results of radiation safety glasses with a lead equivalence of 0.5 mm Pb. The glasses were tested on a phantom, with various radiation projections, for their shielding effect with regard to the eye lens. The protective effect at AP projection was 90%, which corresponds to the data given by the manufacturer. But in most cases of interventional radiology, the examiner's eyes are exposed to lateral radiation, due to the positioning of the monitor. In these cases, reflected radiation at the side of the glasses facing the eye may induce a dose to the lens that can be fourfold the dose received without wearing the glasses, so that wearing these glasses may enhance the hazard. Another protective device tested was lead-coated gloves. The manufacturer promises a protective effect of 50% at 100 kV. The experimental test data, obtained by taking into account technical characteristics of angiographic components, confirm a radiation shielding of about 20%. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Transition radiation in metal-metal multilayer nanostructures as a medical source of hard x-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovsky, A. L.; Kaplan, A. E.; Shkolnikov, P. L.

    2006-01-01

    We show that a periodic metal-metal multilayer nanostructure can serve as an efficient source of hard x-ray transition radiation. Our research effort is aimed at developing an x-ray source for medical applications, which is based on using low-energy relativistic electrons. The approach toward choosing radiator-spacer couples for the generation of hard x-ray resonant transition radiation by few-MeV electrons traversing solid multilayer structures for the energies of interest to medicine (30-50 keV) changes dramatically compared with that for soft x-ray radiation. We show that one of the main factors in achieving the required resonant line is the absence of the contrast of the refractive indices between the spacer and the radiator at the far wings of the radiation line; for that purpose, the optimal spacer, as a rule, should have a higher atomic number than the radiator. Having experimental goals in mind, we have considered also the unwanted effects due to bremsstrahlung radiation, absorption and scattering of radiated photons, detector-related issues, and inhibited coherence of transition radiation due to random deviation of spacing between the layers. Choosing as a model example a Mo-Ag radiator-spacer pair of materials, we demonstrate that the x-ray transition radiation line can be well resolved with the use of spatial and frequency filtering

  12. Influence of multiple scattering of a relativistic electron in a periodic layered medium on coherent X-ray radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazhevich, S. V.; Kos’kova, T. V.; Noskov, A. V., E-mail: noskovbupk@mail.ru [Belgorod State National Research University (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    A dynamic theory of coherent X-ray radiation generated in a periodic layered medium by a relativistic electron multiply scattered by target atoms has been developed. The expressions describing the spectral–angular characteristics of parametric X-ray radiation and diffracted transition radiation are derived. Numerical calculations based on the derived expressions have been performed.

  13. CCD detectors for X-ray synchrotron radiation application

    CERN Document Server

    Fedotov, M G

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the possibility of the application of some types of CCDs for the study of fast processes (by recording an image formed by a short flash of synchrotron radiation) is considered. The first results of model experiments are also described.

  14. Establishment of radiation doses for pediatric X-ray examinations in a large pediatric hospital in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olgar, T.; Sahmaran, T.

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric patients are more sensitive to ionizing radiation when compared with adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation doses for some common pediatric x-ray examinations performed with various digital radiography systems. Quality control tests of the digital radiography systems were carried out according to international published protocols before the pediatric dose measurements. Radiation dose measurement was performed by using the x-ray tube outputs and thermoluminescent dosimeter dose measurement methods. In the present study, radiation doses were assessed for 247 chest, 230 pelvis, 194 skull and 73 abdomen x-ray examinations and in total 744 pediatric patients doses were measured. Pediatric patients were classified into four age groups 0-1, 1-5, 5-10 and 10-15 years as given by European Commission guidance. Effective doses were determined for each examination using a PCXMC 2.0 Monte Carlo program. The mean measured entrance skin doses for the age interval 1-5 years and AP projection by using tube output measurement methods were 149 μGy for chest, 304 μGy for pelvis, 387 μGy for skull and 199 μGy for abdomen examinations. The radiation dose results obtained in this study were in the range of the published results in the literature. (authors)

  15. Information from the National Institute of Radiation Protection about radiation doses and radiation risks at x-ray screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-05-01

    This report gives a specification of data concerning radiation doses and risks at x-ray investigations of lungs. The dose estimations are principally based on measurements performed in 1974 by the National Institute of Radiation Protection. The radiation doses at x-ray screening are of that magnitude that the risk for acute radiation injuries is non-existent. At these low doses it has not either been able to prove that the radiation gives long-range effects as changes in the genes or cancer of late appearance. At considerable higher doses, more than tens of thousands of millirads, a risk of cancer appearance at a small part of all irradiated persons has been proved, based on the assumption that the cancer risk is proportional to the radiation dose. Cancer can thus occure at low radiation doses too. Because of the mass radiography in Sweden 1974 about twenty cases of cancer may appear in the future. (M.S.)

  16. Promoting radiation protection and safety for X-ray inspection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharaj, Harri P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to present a regulatory perspective on radiation protection and safety relevant to facilities utilizing baggage X-ray inspection systems. Over the past several years there has been rapid growth in the acquisition and utilization of X-ray tube based inspection systems for security screening purposes worldwide. In addition to ensuring compliance with prescribed standards applicable to such X-ray systems, facilities subject to federal jurisdiction in Canada are required to comply with established codes of practice, which, not only are in accordance with occupational health and safety legislation but also are consistent with international guidance. Overall, these measures are aimed at reducing radiation risks and adverse health effects. Data, acquired in the past several years in a number of facilities through various instruments, namely, monitoring and surveillance, radiation safety audits, onsite evaluations, device registration processes and information developed, were considered in conjunction with detrimental traits. Changes are necessary to reduce radiation and safety risks from both an ALARA point of view and an accountability perspective. Establishing, developing, implementing and following a radiation protection program is warranted and advocated. Minimally, such a program shall be managed by a radiation safety officer. It shall promote and sustain a radiation safety culture in the workplace; shall ensure properly qualified individuals operate and service the X-ray systems in accordance with established and authorized procedures; and shall incorporate data recording and life cycle management principles. Such a program should be the norm for a facility that utilizes baggage X-ray inspection systems for security purposes, and it shall be subject to continuous regulatory oversight. (author)

  17. The capabilities of total reflection X-ray fluorescence in the polymeric analytical field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Cristina

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the capabilities of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) as analytical technique specially focused in high-viscosity polymer dispersions. Appropriate sample preparation procedures are described taking into account the time stability of these dispersions. Special remarks considering different ways for drying samples in order to obtain the most uniform deposited film are investigated focusing on the behavior of aqueous and viscous systems. Due to the difficulty found for obtaining a homogeneous mixture between sample and internal standard in such systems, the use of Compton incoherent scattering is discussed as an alternative procedure for trace quantification in high viscous systems without any mixing processes

  18. The capabilities of total reflection X-ray fluorescence in the polymeric analytical field*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Cristina

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents the capabilities of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) as analytical technique specially focused in high-viscosity polymer dispersions. Appropriate sample preparation procedures are described taking into account the time stability of these dispersions. Special remarks considering different ways for drying samples in order to obtain the most uniform deposited film are investigated focusing on the behavior of aqueous and viscous systems. Due to the difficulty found for obtaining a homogeneous mixture between sample and internal standard in such systems, the use of Compton incoherent scattering is discussed as an alternative procedure for trace quantification in high viscous systems without any mixing processes.

  19. Determination of heavy metals in Damascus drinking water using total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakraji, E. H.; Karajo, J.

    2000-01-01

    Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry and chemical preconcentration have applied for multi-elemental analysis of Damascus drinking water. Water was taken directly from taps of several city sectors and analyzed for the following trace elements: Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se and Pb. The detection limits were found to be in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 μg/l. The mean levels of trace elements in the Damascus drinking water were below the World Health Organization drinking water quality guidelines. (author)

  20. Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence at BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, M. K., E-mail: mktiwari@rrcat.gov.in; Singh, A. K., E-mail: mktiwari@rrcat.gov.in; Das, Gangadhar, E-mail: mktiwari@rrcat.gov.in; Chowdhury, Anupam, E-mail: mktiwari@rrcat.gov.in; Lodha, G. S., E-mail: mktiwari@rrcat.gov.in [Indus Synchrotrons Utilisation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Determination of ultra trace elements is important in many disciplines both in basic and applied sciences. Numerous applications show their importance in medical science, environmental science, materials science, food processing and semiconductor industries and in maintaining the quality control of ultra pure chemicals and reagents. We report commissioning of a synchrotron based total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) facility on the BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2. This paper describes the performance of the BL-16 TXRF spectrometer and the detailed description of its capabilities through examples of measured results.

  1. Modeling Radiation Effects of Ultrasoft X Rays on the Basis of Amorphous Track Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Tamara; Scifoni, Emanuele; Krämer, Michael; Durante, Marco; Scholz, Michael; Friedrich, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    There is experimental evidence that ultrasoft X rays (0.1-5 keV) show a higher biological effectiveness than high-energy photons. Similar to high-LET radiation, this is attributed to a rather localized dose distribution associated with a considerably smaller range of secondary electrons, which results in an increasing yield of double-strand breaks (DSBs) and potentially more complex lesions. We previously reported on the application of the Giant LOop Binary LEsion (GLOBLE) model to ultrasoft X rays, in which experimental values of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for DSB induction were used to show that this increasing DSB yield was sufficient to explain the enhanced effectiveness in the cell inactivation potential of ultrasoft X rays. Complementary to GLOBLE, we report here on a modeling approach to predict the increased DSB yield of ultrasoft X rays on the basis of amorphous track structure formed by secondary electrons, which was derived from Monte Carlo track structure simulations. This procedure is associated with increased production of single-strand break (SSB) clusters, which are caused by the highly localized energy deposition pattern induced by low-energy photons. From this, the RBE of ultrasoft X rays can be determined and compared to experimental data, showing that the inhomogeneity of the energy deposition pattern represents the key variable to describe the increased biological effectiveness of ultrasoft X rays. Thus, this work demonstrates an extended applicability of the amorphous track structure concept and tests its limits with respect to its predictive power. The employed model mechanism offers a possible explanation for how the cellular response to ultrasoft X rays is directly linked to the energy deposition properties on the nanometric scale.

  2. Fabrication of nested elliptical KB mirrors using profile coating for synchrotron radiation X-ray focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chian; Ice, G.E.; Liu, W.; Assoufid, L.; Qian, J.; Shi, B.; Khachatryan, R.; Wieczorek, M.; Zschack, P.; Tischler, J.Z.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes fabrication methods used to demonstrate the advantages of nested or Montel optics for micro/nanofocusing of synchrotron X-ray beams. A standard Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror system uses two separated elliptical mirrors at glancing angles to the X-ray beam and sequentially arranged at 90° to each other to focus X-rays successively in the vertical and horizontal directions. A nested KB mirror system has the two mirrors positioned perpendicular and side-by-side to each other. Compared to a standard KB mirror system, Montel optics can focus a larger divergence and the mirrors can have a shorter focal length. As a result, nested mirrors can be fabricated with improved demagnification factor and ultimately smaller focal spot, than with a standard KB arrangement. The nested system is also more compact with an increased working distance, and is more stable, with reduced complexity of mirror stages. However, although Montel optics is commercially available for laboratory X-ray sources, due to technical difficulties they have not been used to microfocus synchrotron radiation X-rays, where ultra-precise mirror surfaces are essential. The main challenge in adapting nested optics for synchrotron microfocusing is to fabricate mirrors with a precise elliptical surface profile at the very edge where the two mirrors meet and where X-rays scatter. For example, in our application to achieve a sub-micron focus with high efficiency, a surface figure root-mean-square (rms) error on the order of 1 nm is required in the useable area along the X-ray footprint with a ∼0.1 mm-diameter cross section. In this paper we describe promising ways to fabricate precise nested KB mirrors using our profile coating technique and inexpensive flat Si substrates.

  3. Photographic recording material for X-ray and γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsner, G.; Legler, R.

    1976-01-01

    It is proposed to increase the sensitivity of photographic recording material to X-ray- and γ-radiation by adding 2-naphthol in a concentration of 0.1 to 10 g per mol silver halogenides as a fluorescent material. (ORU/AK) [de

  4. X-ray Radiation Mechanisms and the Beaming Effect of Hot Spots ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Astr. (2011) 32, 193–196 c Indian Academy of Sciences. X-ray Radiation Mechanisms and the Beaming Effect of Hot Spots and Knots in AGN Jets. Jin Zhang1,∗. , Jin-Ming Bai2, Liang Chen2 & Enwei Liang3. 1College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Guangxi Teachers Education University,. Nanning 530001, China.

  5. Development of a guinea pig cutaneous radiation injury model using low penetrating X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kathleen E; Tan, Alick; Kim, Lila; Espinoza, Theresa; Meeks, Christopher; Johnston, William; Maulhardt, Holly; Donald, Melissa; Hill, Colin; diZerega, Gere S

    2016-08-01

    A guinea pig skin model was developed to determine the dose-dependent response to soft X-ray radiation into the dermis. X-ray exposure (50 kVp) was defined to a 4.0 × 4.0 cm area on the lateral surface of a guinea pig using lead shielding. Guinea pigs were exposed to a single fraction of X-ray irradiation ranging from 25-79 Gy via an XRAD320ix Biological Irradiator with the collimator removed. Gross skin changes were measured using clinical assessments defined by the Kumar scale. Skin contracture was assessed, as well as histological evaluations. Loss of dermal integrity was shown after a single dose of soft X-ray radiation at or above 32 Gy with the central 2.0 × 2.0 cm of the exposed site being the most affected. Hallmarks of the skin injury included moist desquamation, ulceration and wound contracture, as well as alterations in epithelium, dermis, muscle and adipose. Changes in the skin were time- and radiation dose-dependent. Full-thickness injury occurred without animal mortality or gross changes in the underlying organs. The guinea pig is an appropriate small animal model for the short-term screening of countermeasures for cutaneous radiation injury (CRI).

  6. X-ray diffraction studies of sucrose and sucrose irradiated with γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Mahendra

    1981-01-01

    In order to understand and solve numerous problems related to sugar quality and its storage life, X-ray diffraction studies of sucrose and sucrose irradiated with γ-radiation have been made. It is observed that the interplanar spacing 'd' in irradiated sucrose is reduced indicating the partial damage of sucrose lattice. (author)

  7. Collective radiation dose from diagnostic x-ray examination in nine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medical x-ray exposures have the largest man made source of population exposure to ionizing radiation in different countries. Recent developments in medical imaging have led to rapid increases in a number of high dose xray examinations performed with significant consequences for individual patient doses ...

  8. Radiative defluorination of poly (vinylidene fluoride) under soft X-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebotaryov, S.S.; Baitinger, E.M.; Volegov, A.A.; Margamov, I.G.; Gribov, I.V.; Moskvina, N.A.; Kuznetsov, V.L.; Evsyukov, S.E.; Pesin, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    The rates of poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) degradation under synchrotron (SR) and conventional X-ray radiation have been measured and compared. NEXAFS spectra of fluorine show significant changes in their shape and intensity with elevation of radiation dose (or duration of SR exposure). Non-monochromatic AlK α radiation and the flow of secondary electrons accompanying it also cause surface degradation of PVDF. XPS allows one to measure relative content of fluorine by three ways: via relative intensities of F2s/C1s, F1s/C1s, spectra and using the features arising due to of C1s peaks in CF 2 and CF groups

  9. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence and archaeometry: Application in the Argentinean cultural heritage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Cristina [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Laboratorio de Quimica de Sistemas Heterogeneos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, P. Colon 850 (C1063ACU), Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: Cristina.Vazquez@cnea.gov.ar; Albornoz, Ana [Agencia Rio Negro Cultura, Museo de la Patagonia F.P.Moreno, Centro Civico s/n Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Hajduk, Adam [CONICET, Museo de la Patagonia F.P.Moreno, Centro Civico s/n Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Elkin, Dolores [CONICET Instituto Nacional de Antropologia y Pensamiento Latinoamericano, 3 de febrero 1378 (C1426AEL) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Custo, Graciela; Obrustky, Alba [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA) San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2008-12-15

    Archaeometry is an interdisciplinary research area involved in the development and use of scientific methods in order to answer questions concerned with the human history. In this way the knowledge of archaeological objects through advanced chemical and physical analyses permits a better preservation and conservation of the cultural heritage and also reveals materials and technologies used in the past. In this sense, analytical techniques play an important role in order to provide chemical information about cultural objects. Considering the non destructive characteristic of this study, analytical techniques must be adequate in order to prevent any alteration or damage and in addition to allow the conservation of their integrity. Taking into account the irreplaceable character of the archaeological and artistic materials considered in this study, analytical techniques must be adequate in order to prevent any alteration or damage and in addition to allow the conservation of their integrity. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry as a geometric variant of conventional X-ray fluorescence is a proved microanalytical technique considering the small amount of sample required for the analysis. A few micrograms are enough in order to reveal valuable information about elemental composition and in this context it is highly recommended for artwork studies. In this paper a case study is presented in which Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry has been successfully employed in the archaeometry field. Examples from Argentinean cultural heritage sites related with the determination of pigments in paintings on canvas and in rock sites as well as in underwater archaeology research are shown.

  10. The recent development of an X-ray grating interferometer at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Haohua; Kou Bingquan; Xi Yan; Qi Juncheng; Sun Jianqi; Mohr, Juergen; Boerner, Martin; Zhao Jun; Xu, Lisa X.; Xiao Tiqiao; Wang Yujie [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China) and Med-X Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200040 (China); Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Microstructure Technology (IMT), Hermannvon-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-07-31

    An X-ray grating interferometer has been installed at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). Three sets of phase gratings were designed to cover the wide X-ray energy range needed for biological and soft material imaging capabilities. The performance of the grating interferometer has been evaluated by a tomography study of a PMMA particle packing and a new born mouse chest. In the mouse chest study, the carotid artery and carotid vein inside the mouse can be identified in situ without contrast agents.

  11. The recent development of an X-ray grating interferometer at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Haohua; Kou Bingquan; Xi Yan; Qi Juncheng; Sun Jianqi; Mohr, Jürgen; Börner, Martin; Zhao Jun; Xu, Lisa X.; Xiao Tiqiao; Wang Yujie

    2012-01-01

    An X-ray grating interferometer has been installed at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). Three sets of phase gratings were designed to cover the wide X-ray energy range needed for biological and soft material imaging capabilities. The performance of the grating interferometer has been evaluated by a tomography study of a PMMA particle packing and a new born mouse chest. In the mouse chest study, the carotid artery and carotid vein inside the mouse can be identified in situ without contrast agents.

  12. Radiation exposure in X-ray angiography and comparisons between digital and conventional methods of imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaberg, J.

    1987-01-01

    The more recent developments and techniques in the field of angiography are examined for associated radiation exposure risks for patients and investigators and then compared to the conventional methods of angiography. It could be shown that digital subtraction angiography is generally associated with a lesser risk of somatic exposure of the patient, provided that the equipment used offers an adjustable useful-beam range and focus. The fact that above-table X-ray tubes are now generally replaced with X-ray systems installed under the examination table permits the relatively high doses, to which investigators are exposed during angiography, to be reduced by a factor of 3. (DG) [de

  13. Radiation hormesis of radish using an X-ray photography device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Atsushi [Asahikawa Kousei Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Radiation hormesis was studied at an X-ray photography room. Seed of radish (Kaiwaredaikon) was irradiated by X-ray, from 10 to 3000 mGy. Since the growth of plant was the highest around 500 mGy, 100 seeds were irradiated at a dose of 500 mGy. Fifty seeds were selected and the growth rate was measured after 1 and 2 weeks. After 2 weeks, the growth of the seeds irradiated (129{+-}5 mm) was found to be higher than those without irradiation (115{+-}5 mm). (author)

  14. Source of X-ray radiation based on back compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Bulyak, E V; Karnaukhov, I M; Kononenko, S G; Lapshin, V G; Mytsykov, A O; Telegin, Yu P; Shcherbakov, A A; Zelinsky, Andrey Yurij

    2000-01-01

    Applicability was studied and previous estimation was done of power X-ray beams generation by backward Compton scattering of a laser photon beam on a cooled down electron beam. The few MeV electron beam circulating in a compact storage ring can be cooled down by interaction of that beam with powerful laser radiation of micrometer wavelength to achieve normalized emittance of 10 sup - sup 7 m. A tunable X-ray source of photons of energy ranging from few keV up to a hundred keV could result from the interaction of the laser beam with a dense electron beam.

  15. Source of X-ray radiation based on back compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulyak, E.V.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kononenko, S.G.; Lapshin, V.I.; Mytsykov, A.O.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Shcherbakov, A.A. E-mail: shcherbakov@kipt.kharkov.ua; Zelinsky, A.Yu

    2000-06-21

    Applicability was studied and previous estimation was done of power X-ray beams generation by backward Compton scattering of a laser photon beam on a cooled down electron beam. The few MeV electron beam circulating in a compact storage ring can be cooled down by interaction of that beam with powerful laser radiation of micrometer wavelength to achieve normalized emittance of 10{sup -7} m. A tunable X-ray source of photons of energy ranging from few keV up to a hundred keV could result from the interaction of the laser beam with a dense electron beam.

  16. Source of X-ray radiation based on back compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulyak, E.V.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kononenko, S.G.; Lapshin, V.I.; Mytsykov, A.O.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Shcherbakov, A.A.; Zelinsky, A.Yu.

    2000-01-01

    Applicability was studied and previous estimation was done of power X-ray beams generation by backward Compton scattering of a laser photon beam on a cooled down electron beam. The few MeV electron beam circulating in a compact storage ring can be cooled down by interaction of that beam with powerful laser radiation of micrometer wavelength to achieve normalized emittance of 10 -7 m. A tunable X-ray source of photons of energy ranging from few keV up to a hundred keV could result from the interaction of the laser beam with a dense electron beam

  17. Measurement of x-ray scattering cross sections of hydrogen and helium with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    Total x-ray scattering is a two-electron expectation value. The prominence of the electron correlation effect was demonstrated in recent theoretical work. Only one measurement of x-ray scattering from H 2 has been reported heretofore, nearly fifty years ago. New measurements were carried out using the virtually monochromatic, intense flux of synchrotron radiation in the SSRP EXAFS line. The targets, at 1 atm pressure, were UHP He and ultrapure H 2 that had been passed through a hot Pd--Ag alloy diffusion purifier. The scattered-photon spectra were measured with a Xe-filled proportional counter and fast multichannel analyzer. The incident flux was monitored with a parallel-plate ion chamber, calibrated by direct counting of the absorber-attenuated beam. Measurements were performed at 5, 6, and 7 keV photon energy, as a function of scattering angle (60, 90, and 135 deg) and azimuthal angle (i.e., polarization). The relative total differential photon scattering cross sections for H 2 over the range 3.0 less than or equal to x = 4πsin (theta/2)lambda less than or equal to 5.6 A -1 agree to within approx. 1% with the correlated calculations of Bentley and Stewart. The ratios of measured cross sections for H 2 to those for He at x = 3.0 and 5.6 A -1 agree to within 1% with the ratios of the Bentley--Stewart H 2 cross sections to the correlated wave-function calculations of Brown for He

  18. Low Dose X-Ray Speckle Visibility Spectroscopy Reveals Nanoscale Dynamics in Radiation Sensitive Ionic Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwohlt, Jan; Reiser, Mario; Randolph, Lisa; Matic, Aleksandar; Medina, Luis Aguilera; Madsen, Anders; Sprung, Michael; Zozulya, Alexey; Gutt, Christian

    2018-04-01

    X-ray radiation damage provides a serious bottleneck for investigating microsecond to second dynamics on nanometer length scales employing x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. This limitation hinders the investigation of real time dynamics in most soft matter and biological materials which can tolerate only x-ray doses of kGy and below. Here, we show that this bottleneck can be overcome by low dose x-ray speckle visibility spectroscopy. Employing x-ray doses of 22-438 kGy and analyzing the sparse speckle pattern of count rates as low as 6.7 ×10-3 per pixel, we follow the slow nanoscale dynamics of an ionic liquid (IL) at the glass transition. At the prepeak of nanoscale order in the IL, we observe complex dynamics upon approaching the glass transition temperature TG with a freezing in of the alpha relaxation and a multitude of millisecond local relaxations existing well below TG . We identify this fast relaxation as being responsible for the increasing development of nanoscale order observed in ILs at temperatures below TG .

  19. Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM of brachiopod shell interiors for taxonomy: Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motchurova-Dekova Neda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM is a non-destructive technique for the investigation and visualization of the internal features of solid opaque objects, which allows reconstruction of a complete three-dimensional image of internal structures by recording of the differences in the effects on the passage of waves of energy reacting with those structures. Contrary to X-rays, produced in a conventional X-ray tube, the intense synchrotron light beams are sharply focused like a laser beam. We report encouraging results from the use of SRXTM for purely taxonomic purposes in brachiopods: an attempt to find a non-destructive and more efficient alternative to serial sectioning and several other methods of dissection together with the non-destructive method of X-ray computerised micro-tomography. Two brachiopod samples were investigated using SRXTM. In “Rhynchonella” flustracea it was possible to visualise the 3D shape of the crura and dental plates. In Terebratulina imbricata it was possible to reveal the form of the brachidium. It is encouraging that we have obtained such promising results using SRXTM with our very first two fortuitous samples, which had respectively fine-grained limestone and marl as infilling sediment, in contrast to the discouraging results communicated to us by some colleagues who have tested specimens with such infillings using X-ray micro-tomography. In future the holotypes, rare museum specimens or delicate Recent material may be preferentially subjected to this mode of analysis.

  20. [Evaluation of dental X-ray apparatus in terms of patient exposure to ionizing radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Jerzy; Wrzesień, Małgorzata

    2017-06-27

    The use of X-ray in dental procedures causes exposure of the patient to ionizing radiation. This exposure depends primarily on the parameters used in tooth examination. The aim of the study was to determine the patients exposure and to assess the technical condition of X-ray tubes. Seventeen hundred dental offices were covered by the questionnaire survey and 740 questionnaires were sent back. Direct measurements were performed in 100 units by using the thermoluminescent detectors and X-ray films. The results showed that the most commonly used exposure time is 0.22±0.16 s. The average entrance dose for the parameters used most commonly by dentists is 1.7±1.4 mGy. The average efficiency of X-ray tube estimated on the basis of exposures is 46.5±23.7 μGy/mAs. The study results indicate that the vast majority of X-ray tubes meet the requirements specified in the binding regulations. Med Pr 2017;67(4):491-496. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  1. High-energy synchrotron radiation x-ray microscopy: Present status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Spanne, P.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    High-energy radiation synchrotron x-ray microscopy is used to characterize materials of importance to the chemical and materials sciences and chemical engineering. The x-ray microscope (XRM) forms images of elemental distributions fluorescent x rays or images of mass distributions by measurement of the linear attenuation coefficient of the material. Distributions of sections through materials are obtained non-destructively using the technique of computed microtomography. The energy range of the x rays used for the XRM ranges from a few keV at the minimum value to more than 100 keV, which is sufficient to excite the K-edge of all naturally occurring elements. The work in progress at the Brookhaven NSLS X26 and X17 XRM is described in order to show the current status of the XRM. While there are many possible approaches to the XRM instrumentation, this instrument gives state-of-the-art performance in most respects and serves as a reasonable example of the present status of the instrumentation in terms of the spatial resolution and minimum detection limits obtainable. The examples of applications cited give an idea of the types of research fields that are currently under investigation. They can be used to illustrate how the field of x-ray microscopy will benefit from the use of bending magnets and insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source. 8 refs., 5 figs

  2. High-energy synchrotron radiation x-ray microscopy: Present status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Spanne, P.; Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    High-energy radiation synchrotron x-ray microscopy is used to characterize materials of importance to the chemical and materials sciences and chemical engineering. The x-ray microscope (XRM) forms images of elemental distributions fluorescent x rays or images of mass distributions by measurement of the linear attenuation coefficient of the material. Distributions of sections through materials are obtained non-destructively using the technique of computed microtomography (CMT). The energy range of the x rays used for the XRM ranges from a few keV at the minimum value to more than 100 keV, which is sufficient to excite the K-edge of all naturally occurring elements. The work in progress at the Brookhaven NSLS X26 and X17 XRM is described in order to show the current status of the XRM. While there are many possible approaches to the XRM instrumentation, this instrument gives state-of-the-art performance in most respects and serves as a reasonable example of the present status of the instrumentation in terms of the spatial resolution and minimum detection limits (MDLs) obtainable. The examples of applications cited give an idea of the types of research fields that are currently under investigation. They can be used to illustrate how the field of x-ray microscopy will benefit from the use of bending magnets and insertion devices at the Advanced Photon Source (APS)

  3. X-ray optics, a vital aspect of work with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilderback, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    The kind of optical components that have been developed over the centuries to make use of visible light won't work for x-rays. New ways must be found to manipulate the much shorter-wavelength x-ray beams to produce effects similar to those achieved with such familiar devices as mirrors, lenses, prisms, and gratings. This is the province of the field of x-ray optics. One challenge is to design optical elements that can focus, disperse, or reflect beams in the x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, where wavelengths are about a thousand times shorter than those in the region of visible light. A second problem is encountered in using the intense, high-energy x-radiation from a synchrotron: how to make the desired beam accessible to a user who is conducting an experiment in a shielded enclosure many meters away from the synchrotron storage ring. Depending on the application, one might want to pick out a single wavelength from the broad spectrum available from the synchrotron, or isolate a narrow band of wavelengths. Then the beam must be collimated. When samples to be exposed are of millimeter dimension or smaller, it may be desirable to increase the intensity by focusing the x-ray beam horizontally and vertically. All these manipulations are analogous to those done with visible light, but the shape and form of the optical components can be quite different

  4. Revisiting Bragg's X-ray microscope: Scatter based optical transient grating detection of pulsed ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullagar, Wilfred K.; Paganin, David M.; Hall, Chris J.

    2011-01-01

    Transient optical gratings for detecting ultrafast signals are routine for temporally resolved photochemical investigations. Many processes can contribute to the formation of such gratings; we indicate use of optically scattering centres that can be formed with highly variable latencies in different materials and devices using ionising radiation. Coherent light scattered by these centres can form the short-wavelength-to-optical-wavelength, incoherent-to-coherent basis of a Bragg X-ray microscope, with inherent scope for optical phasing. Depending on the dynamics of the medium chosen, the way is open to both ultrafast pulsed and integrating measurements. For experiments employing brief pulses, we discuss high-dynamic-range short-wavelength diffraction measurements with real-time optical reconstructions. Applications to optical real-time X-ray phase-retrieval are considered. -- Research highlights: → It is timely that the concept of Bragg's X-ray microscope be revisited. → Transient gratings can be used for X-ray all-optical information processing. → Applications to optical real-time X-ray phase-retrieval are considered.

  5. Development of a hardened X-ray imager for the Megajoule Laser radiative environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, A.

    2014-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion experiments are led on Megajoule class laser facility by imploding a capsule filled with Deuterium and Tritium. In this context, it is necessary to diagnose the core size and the shape of the compressed target in order to provide valuable information and identify reasons for failure. State of the art X-ray imaging diagnostics cannot realize measurements without being perturbed by the nuclear background. The diagnostic that has been designed in this thesis combine high spatial resolution X-ray imaging at high energy and radiation tolerance to nuclear background. We have first guaranteed, theoretically and experimentally, survivability of X ray multilayer coating to energetic neutrons irradiation. Consequently, we have design the X-ray imaging system in order to achieve 5 μm resolution in a spectral range up to 95 keV. The X-ray image has then been converted into visible light in order to be easily transferred through a hardened optical relay to a protected area where the optical analyser is set. This analyser, combining light amplifier and pixelised detector, has also been studied and a novel method has been developed to reduce nuclear related transient perturbations on the device. This by parts design associated with Monte-Carlo Simulation (GEANT4) and experimental campaign on FCI facility (OMEGA) led to a coherent diagnostic architecture which will sustain high level of nuclear perturbation. (author) [fr

  6. X-ray - skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003381.htm X-ray - skeleton To use the sharing features on this ... Degenerative bone conditions Osteomyelitis Risks There is low radiation exposure. X-rays machines are set to provide the smallest ...

  7. Synchrotron radiation and free-electron lasers principles of coherent X-ray generation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kwang-Je; Lindberg, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Learn about the latest advances in high-brightness X-ray physics and technology with this authoritative text. Drawing upon the most recent theoretical developments, pre-eminent leaders in the field guide readers through the fundamental principles and techniques of high-brightness X-ray generation from both synchrotron and free-electron laser sources. A wide range of topics is covered, including high-brightness synchrotron radiation from undulators, self-amplified spontaneous emission, seeded high-gain amplifiers with harmonic generation, ultra-short pulses, tapering for higher power, free-electron laser oscillators, and X-ray oscillator and amplifier configuration. Novel mathematical approaches and numerous figures accompanied by intuitive explanations enable easy understanding of key concepts, whilst practical considerations of performance-improving techniques and discussion of recent experimental results provide the tools and knowledge needed to address current research problems in the field. This is a comp...

  8. Synchrotron-Radiation X-Ray Investigation of Li+/Na+ Intercalation into Prussian Blue Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Moritomo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prussian blue analogies (PBAs are promising cathode materials for lithium ion (LIB and sodium ion (SIB secondary batteries, reflecting their covalent and nanoporous host structure. With use of synchrotron-radiation (SR X-ray source, we investigated the structural and electronic responses of the host framework of PBAs against Li+ and Na+ intercalation by means of the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS. The structural investigation reveals a robust nature of the host framework against Li+ and Na+ intercalation, which is advantageous for the stability and lifetime of the batteries. The spectroscopic investigation identifies the redox processes in respective plateaus in the discharge curves. We further compare these characteristics with those of the conventional cathode materials, such as, LiCoO2, LiFePO4, and LiMn2O4.

  9. Radiation Backgrounds at Cosmic Dawn: X-Rays from Compact Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madau, Piero; Fragos, Tassos

    2017-05-01

    We compute the expected X-ray diffuse background and radiative feedback on the intergalactic medium (IGM) from X-ray binaries prior to and during the epoch of reionization. The cosmic evolution of compact binaries is followed using a population synthesis technique that treats separately neutron stars and black hole binaries in different spectral states and is calibrated to reproduce the observed X-ray properties of galaxies at z ≲ 4. Together with an updated empirical determination of the cosmic history of star formation, recent modeling of the stellar mass-metallicity relation, and a scheme for absorption by the IGM that accounts for the presence of ionized H II bubbles during the epoch of reionization, our detailed calculations provide refined predictions of the X-ray volume emissivity and filtered radiation background from “normal” galaxies at z ≳ 6. Radiative transfer effects modulate the background spectrum, which shows a characteristic peak between 1 and 2 keV. Because of the energy dependence of photoabsorption, soft X-ray photons are produced by local sources, while more energetic radiation arrives unattenuated from larger cosmological volumes. While the filtering of X-ray radiation through the IGM slightly increases the mean excess energy per photoionization, it also weakens the radiation intensity below 1 keV, lowering the mean photoionization and heating rates. Numerical integration of the rate and energy equations shows that the contribution of X-ray binaries to the ionization of the bulk IGM is negligible, with the electron fraction never exceeding 1%. Direct He I photoionizations are the main source of IGM heating, and the temperature of the largely neutral medium in between H II cavities increases above the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) only at z ≲ 10, when the volume filling factor of H II bubbles is already ≳0.1. Therefore, in this scenario, it is only at relatively late epochs that neutral intergalactic hydrogen

  10. Radiation Backgrounds at Cosmic Dawn: X-Rays from Compact Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madau, Piero [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Fragos, Tassos [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Maillettes 51, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland)

    2017-05-01

    We compute the expected X-ray diffuse background and radiative feedback on the intergalactic medium (IGM) from X-ray binaries prior to and during the epoch of reionization. The cosmic evolution of compact binaries is followed using a population synthesis technique that treats separately neutron stars and black hole binaries in different spectral states and is calibrated to reproduce the observed X-ray properties of galaxies at z ≲ 4. Together with an updated empirical determination of the cosmic history of star formation, recent modeling of the stellar mass–metallicity relation, and a scheme for absorption by the IGM that accounts for the presence of ionized H ii bubbles during the epoch of reionization, our detailed calculations provide refined predictions of the X-ray volume emissivity and filtered radiation background from “normal” galaxies at z ≳ 6. Radiative transfer effects modulate the background spectrum, which shows a characteristic peak between 1 and 2 keV. Because of the energy dependence of photoabsorption, soft X-ray photons are produced by local sources, while more energetic radiation arrives unattenuated from larger cosmological volumes. While the filtering of X-ray radiation through the IGM slightly increases the mean excess energy per photoionization, it also weakens the radiation intensity below 1 keV, lowering the mean photoionization and heating rates. Numerical integration of the rate and energy equations shows that the contribution of X-ray binaries to the ionization of the bulk IGM is negligible, with the electron fraction never exceeding 1%. Direct He i photoionizations are the main source of IGM heating, and the temperature of the largely neutral medium in between H ii cavities increases above the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) only at z ≲ 10, when the volume filling factor of H ii bubbles is already ≳0.1. Therefore, in this scenario, it is only at relatively late epochs that neutral intergalactic

  11. Plasma focus as an x-ray source for tailoring of radiation in different energy windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaullah, M.; Alamgir, K.; Shafiq, M.; Sharif, M.

    2001-01-01

    A low energy (2.3 kj) plasma focus energized by a single 32 micro f capacitor charged at 12 kv with filling gases hydrogen, neon and argon is investigated as an X-ray source. Experiments are conducted with a copper and an aluminum anode. Specifically, attention in given to tailoring the radiation in different windows, e. g. 1.2-1.3 keV, 1.3-1.5 keV, 2.5-5 keV and Cu-Ka line radiation. The highest X-ray emission is observed with neon filling and the copper anode in the 1.2-1.3 keV window, which speculated to be generated due to recombination of hydrogen like neon ions with a few eV to a few 10s of eV electrons. The wall-plug efficiency of the device is found to be 4%. The other significant emission occurs with Hydrogen filling, which exhibits wall plug efficiency of 1.7% for over all x-ray emission and 0.35% for Cu- Ka line radiation. The emission is dominated by the interaction of electrons in the current sheath with the anode tip. The emission with the aluminum anode and hydrogen filling is up to 10 j, which corresponds to wall-plug efficiency of 0.4%. The X-ray emission with argon filling is less significant. (author)

  12. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence attachment module modified for analysis in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.; Kregsamer, P.; Meirer, F.; Jokubonis, C.; Markowicz, A.; Wegrzynek, D.; Chinea-Cano, E.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the design of the low cost Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence attachment module available since 1986 from Atominstitut (WOBRAUSCHEK-module) which can be attached to existing X-ray equipment, a new version was developed which allows the analysis of samples in vacuum. This design was in particular possible as the Peltier cooled light weight Silicon Drift Detector is following all adjustment procedures for total reflection as angle rotation and linear motion. The detector is mounted through a vacuum feed and O-ring tightening to the small vacuum chamber. The standard 30 mm round quartz, Si-wafer or Plexiglas reflectors are used to carry the samples. The reflectors are placed on the reference plane with the dried sample down looking facing in about 0.5 mm distance the up looking detector window. The reflectors are resting on 3 steel balls defining precisely the reference plane for the adjustment procedure. As the rotation axis of the module is in the plane of the reflector surface, angle dependent experiments can be made to distinguish between film and particulate type contamination of samples. Operating with a Mo anode at 50 kV and 40 mA with a closely attached multilayer monochromator and using a 10 mm 2 KETEK silicon drift detector with 8 μm Be window, a sensitivity of 70 cps/ng for Rb was measured and detection limits of 2 pg were obtained

  13. Revisiting the total ion yield x-ray absorption spectra of liquid water microjets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saykally, Richard J; Cappa, Chris D.; Smith, Jared D.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of the total ion yield (TIY) x-ray absorption spectrum (XAS) of liquid water by Wilson et al. (2002 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14 L221 and 2001 J. Phys. Chem. B 105 3346) have been revisited in light of new experimental and theoretical efforts by our group. Previously, the TIY spectrum was interpreted as a distinct measure of the electronic structure of the liquid water surface. However, our new results indicate that the previously obtained spectrum may have suffered from as yet unidentified experimental artifacts. Although computational results indicate that the liquid water surface should exhibit a TIY-XAS that is fundamentally distinguishable from the bulk liquid XAS, the new experimental results suggest that the observable TIY-XAS is actually nearly identical in appearance to the total electron yield (TEY-)XAS, which is a bulk probe. This surprising similarity between the observed TIY-XAS and TEY-XAS likely results from large contributions from x-ray induced electron stimulated desorption of ions, and does not necessarily indicate that the electronic structure of the bulk liquid and liquid surface are identical

  14. Direct analysis of biological samples by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue M, Marco P.; Hernandez-Caraballo, Edwin A.

    2004-01-01

    The technique of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is well suited for the direct analysis of biological samples due to the low matrix interferences and simultaneous multi-element nature. Nevertheless, biological organic samples are frequently analysed after digestion procedures. The direct determination of analytes requires shorter analysis time, low reactive consumption and simplifies the whole analysis process. On the other hand, the biological/clinical samples are often available in minimal amounts and routine studies require the analysis of large number of samples. To overcome the difficulties associated with the analysis of organic samples, particularly of solid ones, different procedures of sample preparation and calibration to approach the direct analysis have been evaluated: (1) slurry sampling, (2) Compton peak standardization, (3) in situ microwave digestion, (4) in situ chemical modification and (5) direct analysis with internal standardization. Examples of analytical methods developed by our research group are discussed. Some of them have not been previously published, illustrating alternative strategies for coping with various problems that may be encountered in the direct analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

  15. Determination of carbon in natural freshwater biofilms with total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovari, M.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Zaray, Gy.

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing interest in determination of low Z elements, i.e., carbon to phosphorus, in biological samples. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been already established as suitable trace element analytical method with low sample demand and quite good quantification limits. Recently, the determinable element range was extended towards Z = 6 (carbon). Biofilms can be used for biomonioring purposes in the aquatic environment. Besides the trace metals, especially the determination of the carbon content is important for the better understanding of the early stage of biofilm formation. For this, an ATI low Z spectrometer equipped with Cr-anode X-ray tube, multilayer monochromator, vacuum chamber, and a Si(Li) detector with ultra thin window was used. Biofilms were grown on two different artificial supports (granite and plexiglass), freeze dried, suspended in high purity water and analyzed. As an internal standard the natural titanium content of the biofilms was used. The accuracy of the method was checked by total carbon measurement using a combusting carbon analyzer.

  16. Determination of carbon in natural freshwater biofilms with total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovari, M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Eoetvoes University, Budapest, H-1117, Budapest, Pazmany Peter stny. 1/a. (Hungary)], E-mail: ovari@chem.elte.hu; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P. [Atominstitut of the Austrian Universities, TU-Wien, Stadionallee 2, A-1020, Wien (Austria); Zaray, Gy. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Eoetvoes University, Budapest, H-1117, Budapest, Pazmany Peter stny. 1/a. (Hungary); Cooperative Research Centre of Environmental Chemistry, Eoetvoes University, Budapest, H-1117, Budapest, Pazmany Peter stny. 1/a. (Hungary)

    2009-08-15

    There is a growing interest in determination of low Z elements, i.e., carbon to phosphorus, in biological samples. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been already established as suitable trace element analytical method with low sample demand and quite good quantification limits. Recently, the determinable element range was extended towards Z = 6 (carbon). Biofilms can be used for biomonioring purposes in the aquatic environment. Besides the trace metals, especially the determination of the carbon content is important for the better understanding of the early stage of biofilm formation. For this, an ATI low Z spectrometer equipped with Cr-anode X-ray tube, multilayer monochromator, vacuum chamber, and a Si(Li) detector with ultra thin window was used. Biofilms were grown on two different artificial supports (granite and plexiglass), freeze dried, suspended in high purity water and analyzed. As an internal standard the natural titanium content of the biofilms was used. The accuracy of the method was checked by total carbon measurement using a combusting carbon analyzer.

  17. Chlorine determination in (U, Pu)C fuel by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Nand Lal; Dhara, Sangita; Mudher, Khush Dev Singh; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Thakur, Uday Kumar; Shah, Dipti; Sawant, R.M.; Ramakumar, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    A Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) method for the determination of chlorine in (U,Pu)C has been developed. The method involves calibration of the instrument with standard solutions and validation of TXRF determination of chlorine using synthetic standard solutions. Cl K α line excited with W L α source was used for TXRF determinations of chlorine. Chlorine present in trace amounts in (U,Pu)C samples was first separated by pyro hydrolysis. The evolved chlorine, in form of HCl, was collected in 5 mM NaOH solution. This solution was analyzed for chlorine by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry using cobalt as an internal standard. The TXRF detection limit of chlorine was found to be 3.6 pg with sample size of 30 μL. In order to assess the applicability of TXRF method for chlorine determinations in other nuclear materials, one U 3 O 8 trace element standard was also analyzed for chlorine in similar way. The precision of the method was found to be 25% (1 σ) at ng level in most of the cases. (author)

  18. Fine features of parametric X-ray radiation by relativistic electrons and ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Korotchenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In present work within the frame of dynamic theory for parametric X-ray radiation in two-beam approximation we have presented detailed studies on parametric radiation emitted by relativistic both electrons and ions at channeling in crystals that is highly requested at planned experiments. The analysis done has shown that the intensity of radiation at relativistic electron channeling in Si (110 with respect to the conventional parametric radiation intensity has up to 5% uncertainty, while the error of approximate formulas for calculating parametric X-ray radiation maxima does not exceed 1.2%. We have demonstrated that simple expressions for the Fourier components of Si crystal susceptibility χ0 and χgσ could be reduced, as well as the temperature dependence for radiation maxima in Si crystal (diffraction plane (110 within Debye model. Moreover, for any types of channeled ions it is shown that the parametric X-ray radiation intensity is proportional to z2−b(Z,z/z with the function b(Z,z depending on the screening parameter and the ion charge number z=Z−Ze.

  19. Design of a bolometer for total-energy measurement of the linear coherent light source pulsed X-ray laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States)]. E-mail: Friedrich1@llnl.gov; Li, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Ott, L.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Kolgani, Rajeswari M. [Department of Physics, Geosciences and Astronomy, Towson University, 8000 York Avenue, Towson MD 21252 (United States); Yong, G.J. [Department of Physics, Geosciences and Astronomy, Towson University, 8000 York Avenue, Towson MD 21252 (United States); Ali, Z.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Drury, O.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Ables, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Bionta, R.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore CA 94550 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We are developing a cryogenic bolometer to measure the total energy of the linear coherent light source (LCLS) free electron X-ray laser to be built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The laser will produce ultrabright X-ray pulses in the energy range between 0.8 and 8 keV with {approx}10{sup 12} photons per {approx}200 fs pulse at a repeat interval of 8 ms, and will be accompanied by a halo of spontaneous undulator radiation. The bolometer is designed to determine the total energy of each laser pulse to within <0.1%, taking into account thermal and mechanical stress to prevent melting in the LCLS beam due to its high energy density. We propose to use a magnetoresistive Nd{sub (1-} {sub x} {sub )}Sr {sub x} MnO{sub 3} sensor array at the metal-insulator transition, where the composition x is adjusted to produce the desired transition temperature. We discuss design considerations and material choices, and present numerical simulations of the thermal response.

  20. Laboratory Calibration of X-ray Velocimeters for Radiation Driven Winds and Outflows Surrounding X-ray Binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Graf, A.; Hell, N.; Liedahl, D.; Magee, E. W.; Träbert, E.; Beilmann, C.; Bernitt, S.; Crespo-Lopez-Urritiua, J.; Eberle, S.; Kubicek, K.; Mäckel, V.; Rudolph, J.; Steinbrügge, R.; Ullrich, J.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M.; Porter, F. S.; Rasmussen, A.; Simon, M.; Epp, S.

    2011-09-01

    High resolution measurements of X-ray absorption and fluorescence by radiation driven winds and outflows surrounding X-ray binaries and AGN provide a powerful means for measuring wind velocities. The accuracy of these X-ray velocimeters is limited by the accuracy of atomic data. For example, in the case of the high mass X-ray binary Vela X-1 the uncertainty in the calculated transition wavelengths of the K alpha lines produced by photoionization and photoexcitation of Si L-shell ions is comparable to the likely Doppler shifts, making it impossible to determine a reliable velocity. Similar problems also exist in the case of absorption of X-rays by M-shell Fe ions, which produces in some AGN the so-called unresolved transition array across the 15-17 angstrom band. In this case, there is a 15-45 milliangstrom variation among different wavelength calculations. The uncertainty in the calculations makes it impossible to reliably determine the true velocity structure of the outflow, and in turn, prevents a reliable determination of the mass-loss rate of the AGN. We present results of a recent series of laboratory experiments conducted using an electron beam ion trap coupled with the LCLS X-ray free electron laser and the BESSY-II synchrotron and designed to calibrate the velocimeters provided by high resolution instruments on Chandra and XMM-Newton. We also present results of resonant photoexcitation measurements of the transition wavelength of an Fe XVI satellite line 'coincident' with the 2p-3d Fe XVII line 3D at 15.26 angstroms. This line has never been resolved using emission spectroscopy and its measurement confirms the intensity of line 3D is sensitive to the relative abundance of Fe XVI and XVII and thus temperature. Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of DOE under contract DE-AC53-07NA27344 and supported by NASA's APRA program.

  1. Measurement of X-ray mass attenuation coefficient of nickel around the K-edge using synchrotron radiation based X-ray absorption study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Bunty Rani; Rajput, Parasmani; Jha, S.N.; Nageswara Rao, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    The work presents the X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) technique for measuring the X-ray mass attenuation coefficient of nickel metal foil in the X-ray energy range of 8271.2–8849.4 eV using scanning XAFS beam line (BL-09) at Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source facility, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) at Indore, India. The result represents the X-ray mass attenuation coefficient data for 0.02 mm thick Ni metal foil in the XAFS region of Ni K-edge. However, the results are compared to theoretical values using X-COM. There is a maximum deviation which is found exactly near the K-edge jump and decreases as we move away from the absorption edge. Oscillatory structure appears just above the observed absorption edge i.e., 8348.7 eV and is confined to around 250 eV above the edge. - Highlights: • Mass attenuation coefficient measurements of nickel using synchrotron radiation. • The measurements were taken exactly near the Ni K-edge at an energy step of 1 eV. • A maximum deviation is found near the K-edge

  2. A guide to radiation protection in the use of X-ray optics equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bines, W.P.

    1986-01-01

    A booklet has been produced by a Working Group convened by the Health and Safety Executive to provide practical guidance for all who might be involved in work with X-ray optics equipment, such as designers, manufacturers, users, maintenance workers, inspectors, radiation protection advisers and supervisors. The particular radiation protection aspects described include those in connection with enclosure design and inspection, inter locks, tube shields, shutters and cover plates, administrative controls, monitoring and repair and maintenance of equipment. (UK)

  3. [Experimental model of severe local radiation injuries of the skin after X-rays].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenko, K V; Moroz, B B; Nasonova, T A; Dobrynina, O A; LIpengolz, A A; Gimadova, T I; Deshevoy, Yu B; Lebedev, V G; Lyrschikova, A V; Eremin, I I

    2013-01-01

    The experimental model of severe local radiation injuries skin under the influence of a relatively soft X-rays on a modified device RAP 100-10 produced by "Diagnostica-M" (Russia) was proposed. The model can be used as pre-clinical studies in small experimental animals in order to improve the treatment of local radiation injuries, especially in the conditions of application of cellular therapy.

  4. Calibration technique for radiation measurements in vacuum ultraviolet - soft x-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizui, Jun-ichi

    1986-05-01

    This is a collection of the papers presented at the workshop on ''Calibration Technique for Radiation Measurements in Vacuum Ultraviolet - Soft X-ray Region'' held at the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, on December 19 - 20, 1985, under the Collaborating Research Program at the Institute. The following topics were discussed at the workshop: the needs for the calibration of plasma diagnostic devices, present status of the calibration technique, use of the Synchrotron Orbit Radiations for radiometry, and others. (author)

  5. Radiation protection type testing and licensing of diagnostic X-ray equipment in the GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taschner, P.; Poulheim, K.F.; Feldheim, W.

    1987-01-01

    The results of more than 10 years experience in type testing and type licensing of diagnostic X-ray equipment with respect to meeting radiation protection requirements as well as the implications for the conduct of these procedures resulting from the introduction of new radiation protection legislation in 1983 and 1984, are described. At present an updated version of the 'Regulation of 16 December 1977 concerning radiation protection type testing and licensing of sealed radiation sources and equipment emitting ionizing radiation' is being prepared. (author)

  6. Beryllium window flange for synchrotron radiation X-ray beamline fabricated by hot isostatic press method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaoka, Seiji; Maezawa, Hideki; Nishida, Kiyotoshi; Sakamoto, Naoki.

    1995-01-01

    The synchrotron radiation experimental facilities in National Laboratory for High Energy Physics are the experimental facilities for joint utilization, that possess the positron storage ring of 2.5 GeV exclusively used for synchrotron radiation. Synchrotron radiation is led through a mainstay beam channel to the laboratory, and in the beam line of X-ray, it is used for experiment through the taking-out window made of beryllium. At this time, the function of the taking-out window is to shut off between the ultrahigh vacuum in the mainstay beam channel and the atmosphere, and to cut the low energy component of synchrotron radiation spectra. The experiment using X-ray is carried out mostly in the atmosphere. The design of the efficient cooling water channel which is compatible with the flange construction is important under the high thermal load of synchrotron radiation. The beryllium window flange for synchrotron radiation X-ray was made by HIP method, and the ultrahigh vacuum test, the high pressure water flow test and the actual machine test were carried out by heat cycle. The properties required for the window material, the requirement of the construction, the new development of HIP method, and the experiments for evaluating the manufactured beryllium window are described. (K.I.)

  7. Time-resolved hard x-ray studies using third-generation synchrotron radiation sources (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The third-generation, high-brilliance, synchrotron radiation sources currently under construction will usher in a new era of x-ray research in the physical, chemical, and biological sciences. One of the most exciting areas of experimentation will be the extension of static x-ray scattering and diffraction techniques to the study of transient or time-evolving systems. The high repetition rate, short-pulse duration, high-brilliance, variable spectral bandwidth, and large particle beam energies of these sources make them ideal for hard x-ray, time-resolved studies. The primary focus of this presentation will be on the novel instrumentation required for time-resolved studies such as optics which can increase the flux on the sample or disperse the x-ray beam, detectors and electronics for parallel data collection, and methods for altering the natural time structure of the radiation. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, BES-Materials Science, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38

  8. X-ray diffraction characteristics of curved monochromators for sychrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeuf, A.; Rustichelli, F.; Mazkedian, S.; Puliti, P.; Melone, S.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented concerning the diffraction characteristics of curved monochromators for X-ray synchrotron radiation used at the laboratories of Hamburg, Orsay and Stanford. The investigation was performed by extending to the X-ray case a simple model recently developed and fruitfully employed to describe the neutron diffraction properties of curved monochromators. Several diffraction patterns were obtained corresponding to different monochromator materials (Ge, Si) used by the different laboratories, for different reflecting planes (111), (220), asymmetry angles, X-ray wave-lengths (Mo Kα, Cu Kα, Cr Kα) and curvature radii. The results are discussed in physical terms and their implications on the design of curved monochromators for synchrotron radiation are presented. In particular, the study shows that all the monochromators used in the different laboratories should behave practically as perfect crystals and therefore should have a very low integrated reflectivity corresponding to an optimized wavelength passband Δlambda/lambda approximately 10 -4 . The gain that can be obtained by increasing the curvature, by introducing a gradient in the lattice spacing or by any other kind of imperfection is quite limited and much lower than the desirable value. The adopted model can help in obtaining a possible moderate gain in intensity by also taking into consideration other parameters, such as crystal material, reflecting plane, asymmetry of the reflection and X-ray wavelength. (Auth.)

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is a compact apparatus that can be taken ... of the body being examined, an x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their physician or x-ray ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ray examination. X-rays usually have no side effects in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. ... x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken during x-ray examinations to ...

  12. Radiation chemistry of polymeric X-ray resists; Zur Strahlenchemie polymerer Roentgenresists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollersheim, O.

    1995-03-01

    In this study, the radiation chemical reactions in poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) and homo- and copolymers of lactide and glycollide during X-ray exposure with synchrotron radiation from the Bonn ELSA electron storage ring are quantitatively analyzed. In situ studies of the irradiated PMMA and lactide/glycollide polymers with mass spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and ESR spectroscopy combined with ex situ methods as size exclusion chromatography and titration lead to a complete and quantitative understanding of the radiation chemical reactions in both polymer classes. The implications for the application of the polymers in the X-ray deep etch lithography, which is the appropriate process for the production of microsystem components, are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Radiation exposure of holding personnel involved in veterinary X-ray diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, W.

    1977-01-01

    An account is given of radiation protection in the context of X-ray examination of small and big animals on the premises of seven reviewed veterinary centres. Also reported are the dosimetric results obtained from holding personnel involved in X-ray diagnosis of 319 big and 4,047 small animals. Infringement of valid regulations was quite often observed, in that animals are held in position in an inadequate way and by unauthorised persons. The measured results, however, have shown that the radiation exposure of vocationally exposed persons can be kept far below the maximum permissible equivalent doses, provided that all applicable rules of radiation protection are observed by those on duty. (author)

  14. Design of a radiation hard silicon pixel sensor for X-ray science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwandt, Joern

    2014-06-15

    At DESY Hamburg the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (EuXFEL) is presently under construction. The EuXFEL has unique properties with respect to X-ray energy, instantaneous intensity, pulse length, coherence and number of pulses/sec. These properties of the EuXFEL pose very demanding requirements for imaging detectors. One of the detector systems which is currently under development to meet these challenges is the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector, AGIPD. It is a hybrid pixel-detector system with 1024 x 1024 p{sup +} pixels of dimensions 200 μm x 200 μm, made of 16 p{sup +}nn{sup +}- silicon sensors, each with 10.52 cm x 2.56 cm sensitive area and 500 μm thickness. The particular requirements for the AGIPD are a separation between noise and single photons down to energies of 5 keV, more than 10{sup 4} photons per pixel for a pulse duration of less than 100 fs, negligible pile-up at the EuXFEL repetition rate of 4.5 MHz, operation for X-ray doses up to 1 GGy, good efficiency for X-rays with energies between 5 and 20 keV, and minimal inactive regions at the edges. The main challenge in the sensor design is the required radiation tolerance and high operational voltage, which is required to reduce the so-called plasma effect. This requires a specially optimized sensor. The X-ray radiation damage results in a build-up of oxide charges and interface traps which lead to a reduction of the breakdown voltage, increased leakage current, increased interpixel capacitances and charge losses. Extensive TCAD simulations have been performed to understand the impact of X-ray radiation damage on the detector performance and optimize the sensor design. To take radiation damage into account in the simulation, radiation damage parameters have been determined on MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes as function of dose. The optimized sensor design was fabricated by SINTEF. Irradiation tests on test structures and sensors show that the sensor design is radiation hard and

  15. Measurements of Bremsstrahlung radiation and X-ray heat load to cryostat on SECRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H.Y.; Cao, Y.; Lu, W.; Zhang, W.H.; Zhao, H.W.; Zhang, X.Z.; Zhu, Y.H.; Li, X.X.; Xie, D.Z.

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of Bremsstrahlung radiation from ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) plasma can yield certain information about the ECR heating process and the plasma confinement, and more important it can give a plausible estimate of the X-ray heat load to the cryostat of a superconducting ECR source. To better understand the additional heat load to the cryostat due to Bremsstrahlung radiation, the axial Bremsstrahlung measurements have been conducted on SECRAL (Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou) with different source parameters. In addition, the heat load induced by intense X-ray or even γ-ray was estimated in terms of liquid helium consumption. The relationship between these two parameters is presented here. Thick-target Bremsstrahlung, induced by the collision of hot electrons with the wall or the source electrode, is much more intensive compared with the radiation produced in the plasma and, consequently, much more difficult to shield off. In this paper the presence of the thick-target Bremsstrahlung is correlated with the magnetic confinement configuration, specifically, the ratio of B(last) to B(ext). And possible solutions to reduce the X-ray heat load induced by Bremsstrahlung radiation are proposed and discussed. It appears that by choosing an appropriate ratio of B(last) to B(ext) the thick-target Bremsstrahlung radiation can be avoided effectively. The paper is followed by the associated poster

  16. A history of radiation shielding of x-ray therapy rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinley, P.H.; Miner, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    In this report the history of shielding for radiation treatment rooms is traced from the time of the discovery of x rays to the present. During the early part of the twentieth century the hazards from ionizing radiation were recognized and the use of lead and other materials became common place for shielding against x rays. Techniques for the calculation of the shield thickness needed for x ray protection were developed in the 1920's, and shielding materials were characterized in terms of the half value layer or simple exponential factors. At the same time, better knowledge of the interaction between radiation and matter was acquired. With the development of high energy medical accelerators after 1940, new and more complex shielding problems had to be addressed. Recently, shielding requirements have become more stringent as standards for exposure of personnel and the general public have been reduced. The art of shielding of radiation treatment facilities is still being developed, and the need for a revision of the reports on shielding of medical accelerators from the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements is emphasized in this article. (author). 61 Refs., 3 Tabs

  17. Dose inspection and risk assessment on radiation safety for the use of non-medical X-ray machines in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fang-Yuh; Hsu, Shih-Ming; Chao, Jiunn-Hsing

    2017-11-01

    The subject of this study is the on-site visits and inspections of facilities commissioned by the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) in Taiwan. This research was conducted to evaluate the possible dose and dose rate of cabinet-type X-ray equipment with nominal voltages of 30-150 kV and open-beam (portable or handheld) equipment, taking both normal operation and possibly abnormal operation conditions into account. Doses and dose rates were measured using a plastic scintillation survey meter and an electronic personal dosimeter. In total, 401 X-ray machines were inspected, including 139 units with nominal voltages of 30-50 kV X-ray equipment, 140 units with nominal voltages of 50-150 kV, and 122 open-beam (portable or handheld) X-ray equipment. The investigated doses for radiation workers and non-radiation workers operating cabinet-type X-ray equipment under normal safety conditions were all at the background dose level. Several investigated dose rates at the position of 10 cm away from the surface of open-beam (portable or handheld) X-ray equipment were very high, such X-ray machines are used by aeronautical police for the detection of suspected explosives, radiation workers are far away (at least 10 m away) from the X-ray machine during its operation. The doses per operation in X-ray equipment with a 30-50 kV nominal voltage were less than 1 mSv in all cases of abnormal use. Some doses were higher than 1 mSv per operation for X-ray equipment of 50-150 kV nominal voltage X-ray. The maximum dose rates at the beam exit have a very wide range, mostly less than 100 μSv/s and the largest value is about 3.92 mSv/s for open-beam (portable or handheld) X-ray devices. The risk induced by operating X-ray devices with nominal voltages of 30-50 kV is extremely low. The 11.5 mSv dose due to one operation at nominal voltage of 50-150 kV X-ray device is equivalent to the exposure of taking 575 chest X-rays. In the abnormal use of open-beam (portable or handheld) X-ray equipment, the

  18. Total reflection x-ray analysis of metals in blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takuya; Matsui, Hiroshi; Kawamata, Masaya

    2009-01-01

    The sample preparation for TXRF (total reflection X-ray fluorescence) quantitative analysis of trace elements in human blood samples was investigated. In the TXRF analysis, a solution sample is dropped and dried on a flat substrate, and then the dried residue is measured. In this case, the dried residue should be flat not to disturb X-ray total reflection on the substrate. In addition, it is required to simply measure the whole blood sample by TXRF method, although a serum is analyzed in many cases. Thus, we studied the optimum conditions of the sample preparation of the whole blood by adding the pure water to apply Hemolysis phenomenon, where blood cells are destroyed due to different of the osmotic pressure, leading to flat residue. It was found that the best S/B ratio was obtained when the whole blood was diluted 8 times with pure water. Moreover, it was investigated the influence of the surface chemical condition of the glass substrate on the shape of the dried reside of the blood sample. When the surface of the glass substrate was hydrophilic, the shape of the dried residues was not uniform, as a result, the quantitative data of TXRF analysis gave a large deviation. On the other hand, when the surface of the glass was hydrophobic, the shape of the residue was almost uniform, as a result, a good reproducibility was obtained. Another problem was an outer ring of the dried residue of the blood. This uneven ring absorbs the primary X-rays, caused to low determined quantitative data. Thus, we tried the heating way of the dropped blood sample at a high temperature of 200 degrees. In this case, the blood sample was dried immediately, and a flat homogeneous dried residue was obtained without the outer ring. Using the optimized conditions for sample preparation, human blood sample was quantitatively measured by TXRF and ICP-AES. A good agreement was obtained in TXRF and ICP-AES determinations; however, the measurement of Cl and Br will be an advantage of TXRF, because

  19. Radiation parameters of the x-ray binary A 0535 + 26 = HDE 245770 based on polarization and photometric data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larionov, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of the observations of Shakhovskaya et al. has led to the identification in the radiation of the x-ray binary system A 0535 + 26 = HDE 245770 of two components associated with an optical 09 III star and an accretion disk around a neutron star. The parameters of the interstellar polarization agree with Serkowski's formula and the observations of neighboring stars. The variability of the brightness of the system observed in the optical and infrared ranges can be explained by changes in the contribution of the accretion disk to the total emission of the system. The values obtained for the parameters of the intrinsic polarization, interpreted in the framework of the proposed model, suggest directions of the polarization vectors in the infrared and x-ray range

  20. Trends in Radiation Doses to Patients from Medical X-ray Examinations in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olga Iacob; Irina Anca Popescu [Institute of Public Health, Iassy (Romania); Mihai Radu Iacob [University ' Al. I. Cuza' Iassy (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    Even if the doses received by patients during 2005 survey are lower than those estimated in the 2000 national survey on diagnostic medical radiation exposure by 27 percent, on average, their values still indicate an urgent need to develop radiation protection and optimization activities for X ray examinations, especially in pediatrics radiology. The increasing attention given in last years to radiation protection for conventional examinations, with development of national patient dosimetry protocols and reference doses, new radiation protection legislation and norms have played a significant part in this substantial reduction in effective doses. (N.C.)

  1. Influence of beam divergence on form-factor in X-ray diffraction radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeeva, D.Yu.; Tishchenko, A.A.; Strikhanov, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Diffraction radiation from divergent beam is considered in terms of radiation in UV and X-ray range. Scedastic form of Gaussian distribution of the particle in the bunch, i.e. Gaussian distribution with changing dispersion has been used, which is more adequate for description of divergent beams than often used Gaussian distribution with constant dispersion. Both coherent and incoherent form-factors are taken into account. The conical diffraction effect in diffraction radiation is proved to make essential contribution in spectral-angular characteristics of radiation from a divergent beam

  2. Absorption spectra response of XRQA radiochromic film to x-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnawaf, Hani; Cheung, Tsang; Butson, Martin J.; Yu, Peter K.N.

    2010-01-01

    Gafchromic XRQA, radiochromic film is a high sensitivity auto developing x-ray analysis films designed and available for kilovoltage x-ray, dose and QA assessment applications. The film is designed for reflective analysis with a yellow transparent top filter and white opaque backing materials. This allows the film to be visually inspected for colour changes with a higher level of contrast than clear coated radiochromic films such as Gafchromic EBT version 1. The spectral absorption properties in the visible wavelengths have been investigated and results show two main peaks in absorption located at 636 nm and 585 nm. These peaks are located in the same position as EBT Gafchromic film highlighting a similar chemical monomer/polymer for radiation sensitivity. A much higher sensitivity however is found at kilovoltage energies with an average 1.55 OD units per 20 cGy irradiation variation measured at 636 nm using 150 kVp x-rays. This is compared to approximately 0.12 OD units per 20 cGy measured at 636 nm for EBT film at 6 MV x-ray energy. That is, the XRQA film is more than 10 times more sensitive than EBT1 film. The visual colour change is enhanced by the yellow polyester coating. However this does not affect the absorption spectra properties in the red region of analysis which is the main area for use using desktop scanners in reflection mode.

  3. Synchrotron radiation microbeam X-ray fluorescence analysis of zinc concentration in remineralized enamel in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Tsunenori; Ishizaki, Hidetaka; Tanabe, Shuji; Hayashi, Yoshihiko

    2009-05-01

    Remineralization is an indispensable phenomenon during the natural healing process of enamel decay. The incorporation of zinc (Zn) into enamel crystal could accelerate this remineralization. The present study was designed to investigate the concentration and distribution of Zn in remineralized enamel after gum chewing. The experiment was performed at the Photon Factory. Synchrotron radiation was monochromatized and X-rays were focused into a small beam spot. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) from the sample was detected with a silicon (Si) (lithium (Li)) detector. X-ray beam energy was tuned to detect Zn. The examined samples were small enamel fragments remineralized after chewing calcium phosphate-containing gum in situ. The incorporation of Zn atom into hydroxyapatite (OHAP), the main component of enamel, was measured using Zn K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) with fluorescence mode at the SPring-8. A high concentration of Zn was detected in a superficial area 10-microm deep of the sectioned enamel after gum chewing. This concentration increased over that in the intact enamel. The atomic distance between Zn and O in the enamel was calculated using the EXAFS data. The analyzed atomic distances between Zn and O in two sections were 0.237 and 0.240 nm. The present experiments suggest that Zn is effectively incorporated into remineralized enamel through the physiological processes of mineral deposition in the oral cavity through gum-chewing and that Zn substitution probably occurred at the calcium position in enamel hydroxyapatite.

  4. Synthesis of nanoparticles through x-ray radiolysis using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Okada, I.; Fukuoka, T.; Ishihara, M.; Sakurai, I.; Utsumi, Y.

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis and deposition of nanoparticles consisting of Cu and Au in a CuSO4 solution with some kinds of alcohol and electroplating solution containing gold (I) trisodium disulphite under synchrotron X-ray radiation was investigated. The functional group of alcohol plays an important in nucleation, growth and aggregation process of copper and cupric oxide particles. We found that the laboratory X-ray source also enables us to synthesize the NPs from the metallic solution. As increasing X-ray exposure time, the full length at half width of particle size distribution is broader and higher-order nanostructure containing NPs clusters is formed. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of 4, 4'-bipyridine (4bpy) in aqueous solution was measured using higher-order nanostructure immobilized on silicon substrates under systematically-varied X-ray exposure. This demonstration provide a clue to develop a three-dimensional printing and sensor for environmental analyses and molecular detection through simple SERS measurements.

  5. Study on x-ray spectroscopic analysis by the use of nuclear radiations from radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Hiroshi

    1977-02-01

    The basis and practice of analytical application of the characteristic X rays of low atomic number elements excited by mainly alpha rays from radioisotopes were studied. Some alpha emitters were proved to be advantageously usable to those elements, in particular, very low atomic number elements, despite their accompanying radiations. Operating characteristics of gas flow proportional counters were fully investigated, and besides, the characteristics of pulse-height distribution continuum in those counters and semiconductor detectors were comparatively studied as the detector for the low energy X rays. For calibration in quantitative analysis by the X-ray spectroscopy, a new simple semitheoretical method for thin specimens is proposed and on the other hand general formulae for matrix correction in thick specimens was derived. An industrial X-ray analyzer to simultaneously analyze four main elements of cement raw material mixtures was constructed with the use of a 210 Po alpha-ray source and gain-controlled proportional counters. Problems in practical analysis for the process control were solved and the analyzer has been used routinely in the process for more than ten years. Another analytical application to airborne dust is described as a typical example of application of the proposed calibration method for thin specimens. (auth.)

  6. Radiation exposure to chest X-rays in the neonatal nursery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Toshio; Itabashi, Kazuo; Kawaguchi, Shigeru; Suzuka, Takahisa; Okuyama, Kazuo

    1989-01-01

    To measure how much very low birth-weight infants are exposed to chest X-rays during nursery, skin doses were calculated using phantoms under the same condition as that used in chest X-rays. Skin doses obtained were multiplied by the number of X-rays performed in 86 very low birth-weight infants (mean birth weight+-SD, 1163.0+-232.8 g; mean gestational age+-SD, 29.3+-3.0 week). Exposure doses per film ranged from 4.9 to 14.4 mR, with a mean dose of 6.1+-2.0 mR. Exposure doses per neonate ranged from 6.3 to 794.3 mR, with a mean dose of 170.4+-151.5 mR. The number of films per neonate ranged from one to 107, with a mean of 28.0+-24.9. Eighty-seven percent of X-rays were performed when the body weight was 1,500 g or less. Fourteen patients received 300 mR or more that may be the potential dose of radiation effects. (Namekawa, K)

  7. X-ray and γ-radiation personnel monitoring by means of ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilovskij, L.P.; Nikitin, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    Several sets of condensator ionization chambers for measuring a dose of short-wave X-ray and gamma radiations within the limits of 0.005-50 R is described in short. In particular the following sets for personnel monitoring are described: the KID-2 set intended for determining an exposure dose of roentgen and gamma radiations of 150 keV - 2 MeV energy within the limits of 0.005-1R; the DK-02 set providing the measurement of personnel exposure doses of X-ray and gamma radiations within the limits of 0.02-200 mR in the energy range of 100 keV-2 MeV; the DP-22 V, DP-24 sets providing the measurement of an exposure dose of X-ray and gamma radiations within the limits of 1-50 R at a power of 0.5-200 R/h in the energy range of 0.1-2 MeV. An order of work with the sets is described [ru

  8. A study on enforcement effects of radiation safety control regulations for diagnostic X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Mo IL; Park, Myeong Hwan; Kwon, Duk Moon; Lee, Joon IL

    1999-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to analyze the realities after enforcements of safety control regulations for diagnostic X-ray equipment and to suggest means for an improvement of low radiation safety control. A questionnaire survey for medical radiologic technologists was carried out to determine enforcement effects of the safety control regulations. The results of analysis from the survey are as follows. That is, most of he respondents realized the importance of the radiation safety control system, but about a half of them revealed that regulations were not well observed in accordance with their purposes. Only 43.9 percent of the respondents took an active part in quality control of radiation. And responsibility, sex, age, and knowledge for safety control were important indicators for observations of the regulations. Training for the safety control regulations are needed to ensure safety control and proper usage of diagnostic X-ray equipment. And management of organizations using diagnostic X-ray equipment have to understand and stress the importance of radiation safety control system. (author)

  9. Survey of radiation doses and health effects in medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jixian; Zhang Liangan; Liu Jinzhong; Zhang Jingyuan

    1984-01-01

    The results of a nationwide survey of radiation doses and health effects in 26983 medical diagnostic X-ray workers in 28 provinces of China were reported. The control group was composed of 25785 non-X-ray medical workers in the same hospitals where the investigated X-ray workers worked. Of the radiological workers surveyed 75.3% received cumulative radiation doses below 50 mGy, only 2.7% received doses greater than 500 mGy, the average cumulative dose being 45.0 mGy. The average length of service was 11 years. The main radiation effects relating to radiation doses were the increase of frequencies of both chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes, which were 0.362% and 0.0358% in the irradiated group, and 0.122% and 0.0138% in the control group, respectively. The incidence and mortality rate of leukemias increased significantly in the irradiated group. The incidence and standardized incidence of leukemias were 9.61 . 10 -5 and 9.67 . 10 -5 in the irradiated group and 2.74 . 10 -5 and 2.77 . 10 -5 in the control group. The leukemia mortality rates in the two groups were 8.60 . 10 -5 and 1.24 . 10 -5 respectively, and the standardized mortality rates were 8.60 . 10 -5 and 1.27 . 10 -5 respectively. (Author)

  10. Colouration of medieval glass bracelets studied by total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detcheva, Albena; Velinova, Ralitsa; Ivanova, Elisaveta; Jordanov, Juri; Karadjov, Metody

    2014-01-01

    The contents of 3d-transition metals (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) in fragments of medieval glass bracelets, found in the necropolis of Stambolovo and the castle of Mezek, Bulgaria, were determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis using gallium as internal standard. The samples were analysed as slurries in Triton X 114. The experimental parameters: grain size of the glass sample, concentrations of glass sample, Triton X114 and internal standard in the slurry, volume of the slurry aliquot taken for analysis, as well as the excitation time, were optimised. For method validation the certified reference material BAM-S005 Type A soda-lime glass was used. It was proven that the elements Co, Mn and Fe are responsible for colour generation in the investigated glass samples. The precision of the determinations is characterised by an RSD in the range 3–11%

  11. Impurities determination in uranium eluates by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Cristina; Bellavigna, Horacio J.; Eppis, Maria R.; Ramella, Jose L.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical control of impurities in nuclear materials is indispensable in order to assure an efficient operation of the reactors. The maximum concentration admitted depends of the elements and in most cases are in the parts per billion range. Conventional analytical methods require a pre-concentration treatment of the sample and a previous separation of the matrix (uranium). This paper investigates the use of the total reflection X-ray fluorescence as an alternative methodology for the determination of impurities in nuclear materials, namely K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and As. The detection limits obtained were in the range of 0.1 to 20 ng/ml for a 1000 seconds counting time. (author)

  12. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence: An alternative tool for the analysis of magnetic ferrofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ruiz, R. [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion (SIdI), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: ramon.fernandez@uam.es; Costo, R.; Morales, M.P.; Bomati-Miguel, O.; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    This work presents the first application of the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to the compositional study of magnetic ferrofluids. With the aims of validating the best analytical conditions and also, limitations of the TXRF in the compositional study of these materials, an alternative empirical method, based in the use of angle-dependence TXRF (AD-TXRF) measurements, is proposed. Three kinds of ferromagnetic nanoparticles, with different morphologies, have been studied. The techniques of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) have been used to validate the TXRF results. In contrast with the plasma techniques, the developed TXRF procedure need not of previous chemical acid digestion. Additionally, two procedures of magnetic nanoparticles synthesis, co-precipitation and laser-pyrolysis, have been checked for the contaminants trace metals Zn, Mn and Cr. It has been found that the method of laser-pyrolysis produces nanoparticles of higher purity.

  13. Fundamental quantification procedure for total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectra analysis and elements determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzynek, D.; Holynska, B.

    1997-01-01

    A method for the determination of the concentrations of elements in particulate-like samples measured in total reflection geometry is proposed. In the proposed method the fundamental parameters are utilized for calculating the sensitivities of elements and an internal standard is used to account for the unknown mass per unit area of a sample and geometrical constant of the spectrometer. The modification of the primary excitation spectrum on its way to a sample has been taken into consideration. The concentrations of the elements to be determined are calculated simultaneously with the spectra deconvolution procedure. In the process of quantitative analysis the intensities of all X-ray peaks corresponding to K and L-series lines present in the analyzed spectrum are taken into account. (Author)

  14. First Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence round-robin test of water samples: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Tsuji, Kouichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigación (SIdI), Laboratorio de TXRF, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Margui, Eva [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Girona (Spain); Streli, Christina [TU Wien, Atominstitut,Radiation Physics, Vienna (Austria); Pepponi, Giancarlo [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Povo, Trento (Italy); Stosnach, Hagen [Bruker Nano GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Yamada, Takashi [Rigaku Corporation, Takatsuki, Osaka (Japan); Vandenabeele, Peter [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Maina, David M.; Gatari, Michael [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi (Kenya); Shepherd, Keith D.; Towett, Erick K. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi (Kenya); Bennun, Leonardo [Laboratorio de Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción (Chile); Custo, Graciela; Vasquez, Cristina [Gerencia Química, Laboratorio B025, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, San Martín (Argentina); Depero, Laura E., E-mail: laura.depero@unibs.it [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a mature technique to evaluate quantitatively the elemental composition of liquid samples deposited on clean and well polished reflectors. In this paper the results of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples, involving 18 laboratories in 10 countries are presented and discussed. The test was performed within the framework of the VAMAS project, interlaboratory comparison of TXRF spectroscopy for environmental analysis, whose aim is to develop guidelines and a standard methodology for biological and environmental analysis by means of the TXRF analytical technique. - Highlights: • The discussion of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples (18 laboratories of 10 countries) is reported. • Drinking, waste, and desalinated water samples were tested. • Data dispersion sources were identified: sample concentration, preparation, fitting procedure, and quantification. • The protocol for TXRF analysis of drinking water is proposed.

  15. Superluminescence of cadmium sulfide crystals under pulse X-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovskaya, N.G.; Tarasov, M.D.; Balakin, V.A.; Varava, V.P.; Lobov, S.I.; Surskij, O.K.; Tsukerman, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies were made to elucidate luminescence properties of CdS crystal radiated by short pulses of braking x-ray radiation. Such a radiation causes the appearance of superluminescence. The radiation was carried out at 295 and 170 K, the radiation dose being changed from 3600 to 1600 r/pulse. At the temperature of 295 K light luminescence was registered at the wave length of 528 nm and half-width of 15 nm. While the temperature lowers, the radiation shifts to the range of shorter wave lengths, and a decrease of the spectrum half-width is observed. With the increase of radiation dose the decrease of radiation spectrum half-width is observed. Approximate calculations show that to achieve the spectrum narrowing to 1 nm at room temperature it is necessary to increase radiation dose per pulse 5-6 times

  16. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation: lecture 4. Soft x-ray imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1986-04-01

    The history and present techniques of soft x-ray imaging are reviewed briefly. The physics of x-ray imaging is described, including the temporal and spatial coherence of x-ray sources. Particular technologies described are: contact x-ray microscopy, zone plate imaging, scanned image zone plate microscopy, scanned image reflection microscopy, and soft x-ray holography and diffraction

  17. Characterization of the adaptive response to ionizing radiation induced by low doses of X-rays to Vibrio cholerae cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, Jayasri

    1996-01-01

    Pretreatment with sublethal doses of X-rays induced an adaptive response in Vibrio cholerae cells as indicated by their greater resistance to the subsequent challenging doses of X-irradiation. The adaptive response was maximum following a pre-exposure dose of 1.7 Gy X-rays and an optimum incubation period of 40 min at 37C. Pre-exposure to a sublethal dose of 1.7 Gy X-rays made the Vibrio cholerae cells 3.38-fold more resistant to the subsequent challenge by X-rays. Pretreatment with a sublethal dose of hydrogen peroxide offered a similar degree of protection to the bacterial cells against subsequent treatment with challenging doses of X-ray radiation. However, exposure of Vibrio cholerae cells to mild heat (42C for 10 min) before X-ray irradiation decreased their survival following X-irradiation

  18. Radiation Detection and Dual-Energy X-Ray Imaging for Port Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashby, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Divin, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-09

    Millions of cargo containers are transported across the United States border annually and are inspected for illicit radioactive material and contraband using a combination of passive radiation portal monitors (RPM) and high energy X-ray non-intrusive inspection (NII) systems. As detection performance is expected to vary with the material composition of cargo, characterizing the types of material present in cargo is important to national security. This work analyzes the passive radiation and dual energy radiography signatures from on RPM and two NII system, respectively. First, the cargos were analyzed to determine their ability to attenuate emissions from an embedded radioactive source. Secondly, dual-energy X-ray discrimination was used to determine the material composition and density of the cargos.

  19. Nondestructive analysis of silver in gold foil using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Masaaki; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Nakanishi, Toshio; Shimoda, Osamu; Nishiwaki, Yoshinori; Miyamoto, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    Small particles of gold foil detached from an indoor decoration might be important evidence to associate a suspect with a crime scene. We have investigated the application of elemental analysis using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to discriminate small particles of gold foil. Eight kinds of gold foil samples collected in Japan were used in the experiments. As a result of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, only two elements, gold and silver, were detected from all gold foil samples. The intensity ratios of AgK α /AuL α showed good correlation with the content ratios of Ag/Au. The variation of intensity ratio within a same sample was sufficiently small compared with those of different samples. Therefore the comparison of this intensity ratio can be an effective method to discriminate small particles originating from different types of gold foil. (author)

  20. Undulator commissioning by characterization of radiation in x-ray free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Tanaka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs where a long undulator composed of many segments is installed, there exist a number of error sources to reduce the FEL gain such as the trajectory error, K value discrepancy, and phase mismatch, which are related to the segmented-undulator structure. Undulator commissioning, which refers to the tuning and alignment processes to eliminate the possible error sources, is thus an important step toward realization of lasing. In the SPring-8 angstrom compact free electron laser (SACLA facility, the undulator commissioning has been carried out by means of characterization of x-ray radiation, i.e., measurements of the spatial and spectral profiles of monochromatized spontaneous undulator radiation as well as by probing the FEL intensity. The achieved tuning and alignment accuracies estimated from the statistics of actual measurements in SACLA show the effectiveness of this commissioning scheme.

  1. Production of High Harmonic X-Ray Radiation from Non-linear Thomson at LLNL PLEIADES

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Jae; Betts, Shawn; Crane, John; Doyuran, Adnan; Frigola, Pedro; Gibson, David J; Hartemann, Fred V; Rosenzweig, James E; Travish, Gil; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    We describe an experiment for production of high harmonic x-ray radiation from Thomson backscattering of an ultra-short high power density laser by a relativistic electron beam at the PLEIADES facility at LLNL. In this scenario, electrons execute a “figure-8” motion under the influence of the high-intensity laser field, where the constant characterizing the field strength is expected to exceed unity: $aL=e*EL/m*c*ωL ≥ 1$. With large $aL$ this motion produces high harmonic x-ray radiation and significant broadening of the spectral peaks. This paper is intended to give a layout of the PLEIADES experiment, along with progress towards experimental goals.

  2. Synchrotron radiation phase-contrast X-ray CT imaging of acupuncture points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dongming; Yan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xinyi [Fudan University, Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Liu, Chenglin [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng (China); Dang, Ruishan [The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Xiao, Tiqiao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Peiping [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2011-08-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using synchrotron radiation in-line X-ray phase contrast computerized tomography. Two acupuncture points, named Zhongji (RN3) and Zusanli (ST36), were studied. We found an accumulation of microvessels at each acupuncture point region. Images of the tissues surrounding the acupuncture points do not show such kinds of structure. This is the first time that 3D images have revealed the specific structures of acupuncture points. (orig.)

  3. Synchrotron radiation phase-contrast X-ray CT imaging of acupuncture points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dongming; Yan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xinyi; Liu, Chenglin; Dang, Ruishan; Xiao, Tiqiao; Zhu, Peiping

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) topographic structures of acupuncture points were investigated by using synchrotron radiation in-line X-ray phase contrast computerized tomography. Two acupuncture points, named Zhongji (RN3) and Zusanli (ST36), were studied. We found an accumulation of microvessels at each acupuncture point region. Images of the tissues surrounding the acupuncture points do not show such kinds of structure. This is the first time that 3D images have revealed the specific structures of acupuncture points. (orig.)

  4. Hard synchrotron radiation scattering from a nonideal surface grating from multilayer X-ray mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punegov, V.I.; Nesterets, Ya.I.; Mytnichenko, S.V.; Kovalenko, N.V.; Chernov, V.A.

    2003-01-01

    The hard synchrotron radiation scattering from a multilayer surface grating is theoretically and experimentally investigated. The numerical calculations of angular distribution of scattering intensity from X-ray mirror Ni/C are executed with use of recurrence formulae and statistical dynamical theory of diffraction. It is shown, that the essential role in formation of a diffraction pattern plays a diffuse scattering caused by structure imperfection of a multilayer grating [ru

  5. Parallel beam microradiography of dental hard tissue using synchrotron radiation and X-ray image magnification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, S.; Chow, L.C.; Brown, W.E.; Dobbyn, R.C.; Kuriyama, M.

    1984-01-01

    A novel technique utilizing a highly parallel beam of monochromatic synchrotron radiation combined with X-ray image magnification has been used to obtain microradiographs of caries lesions in relatively thick tooth sections. Preliminary results reveal structural features not previously reported. This technique holds the promise of allowing one to follow the structural changes accompanying the formation, destruction and chemical repair of mineralized tissue in real time. (orig.)

  6. Degradation of 4-Chloro phenol by gamma radiation of {sup 137}Cs and X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez J, J. C. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Jimenez B, J.; Cejudo A, J., E-mail: jaime.jimenez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents results of radiolytic degradation of 4-chloro phenol in the presence of TiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}, using different radiation sources than {sup 60}Co, which is so common in this type of experiment. The radiation sources used were X-rays with energy of 100 keV and radiation from {sup 137}Cs (662 keV). After irradiation with a dose of 50 c Gy X-ray and TiO{sub 2} obtained a degradation of about 5%, no degradation was obtained with {sup 137}Cs source and other oxides. This may be due to the fact that X-rays have a linear energy transfer greater value, and in the case of TiO{sub 2} present a crystalline structure, whereas the other two oxides are amorphous. Both characteristics result in better formation of a reactive species that allows the degradation of the compound. (Author)

  7. The influence of x-rays radiation on the kinetic electrocrystallization of nickel and cobalt alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anishchik, V.M.; Val'ko, N.G.; Moroz, N.I.; Vorontsov, A.S.; Vojna, V.V.

    2009-01-01

    In the work research kinetic electrocrystallization of nickel and cobalt coatings of coverings from sulfate electrolyte under the influence of x-ray radiation. It has been revealed that under the influence of radiation the thickness coatings alloy and the alloy exit on a current increases in comparison with control samples. It is caused by increase in streams diffusion ions of restored metal to cathodes and formation intermediate Co xN i 1-1 in irradiated electrolytes. Thus, on the above stated processes essential influence is rendered by length of a wave of operating radiation. (authors)

  8. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of airborne silver nanoparticles from fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Magnus; Fittschen, Ursula Elisabeth Adriane

    2014-03-18

    Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are usually applied to consumer products because of their antimicrobial properties, which are desired in fabrics for sportswear as well as cloth used for cleaning. Hazards to human health from airborne Ag NPs may occur when the NPs are inhaled. NPs are comparable in size to macromolecules and viruses and able to penetrate deep into the lungs, e.g., the alveoli, where they may cause damage to cells and tissue due to their large surface area. In this study, aerosols released form fabrics treated with Ag NPs were collected using a low pressure Berner impactor and analyzed with total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). We found that the Ag NPs are released primarily in the form of larger particles, mainly 0.13-2 μm, probably attached to fiber material. Using an electron micro probe, single particles could be identified. The detection of backscattered electrons suggests small spots on the particle consist of a heavier element, which most likely is Ag, although the signal in energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) was below the lower limit of detection (LOD). To achieve LODs necessary for Ag determination, Ar peaks were eliminated by a nitrogen atmosphere provided by the "Picofox-box". This enables linear calibration and quantification of Ag. The LOD was calculated at 0.2 ng (2.0 ppb). Following the TXRF and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/EDX analysis, the aerosol samples were dissolved in nitric acid and analyzed with ICPMS to successfully confirm the results obtained by the TXRF measurements.

  9. Radiation genetic effects among medical diagnostic X-ray workers in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jixian

    1984-01-01

    A survey of the birth status and offspring's congenital malformations and hereditary diseases of medical diagnostic X-ray workers during 1950-1980 was carried out in 25 provinces of China. The physicians and surgeons in the same hospitals, not exposed to X-rays, were observed as the control group. Analysis was made of the data of 13056 persons and 32348 pregnancies in the irradiated group, and 16925 persons and 41120 pregnancies in the control group. The results show that the main factors which influence the fertility in the irradiated group are much the same as in the control group. The differences of fertility and infertility rate and sex ratio of live births between the two groups are not statistically significant. The spontaneous abortion rate, multiple pregnancy rate and neonatal mortality rate are significantly higher in the irradiated group than those in the control group. The total incidence of 20 kinds of congenital malformations and hereditary diseases among the children of X-ray workers is significantly higher than that among the children of non-X-ray workers (9.19% for the formers and 4.27% for the latters). (Author)

  10. Comparison of conventional and total reflection excitation geometry for fluorescence X-ray absorption spectroscopy on droplet samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkenberg, G.; Pepponi, G.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.

    2003-01-01

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) experiments in fluorescence mode have been performed in total reflection excitation geometry and conventional 45 deg. /45 deg. excitation/detection geometry for comparison. The experimental results have shown that XAFS measurements are feasible under normal total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) conditions, i.e. on droplet samples, with excitation in grazing incidence and using a TXRF experimental chamber. The application of the total reflection excitation geometry for XAFS measurements increases the sensitivity compared to the conventional geometry leading to lower accessible concentration ranges. However, XAFS under total reflection excitation condition fails for highly concentrated samples because of the self-absorption effect

  11. Modeling and design of radiative hydrodynamic experiments with X-ray Thomson Scattering measurements on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, K. H.; Lefevre, H. J.; Belancourt, P. X.; MacDonald, M. J.; Doeppner, T.; Keiter, P. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Johnsen, E.

    2017-10-01

    Recent experiments at the National Ignition Facility studied the effect of radiation on shock-driven hydrodynamic instability growth. X-ray radiography images from these experiments indicate that perturbation growth is lower in highly radiative shocks compared to shocks with negligible radiation flux. The reduction in instability growth is attributed to ablation from higher temperatures in the foam for highly radiative shocks. The proposed design implements the X-ray Thomson Scattering (XRTS) technique in the radiative shock tube platform to measure electron temperatures and densities in the shocked foam. We model these experiments with CRASH, an Eulerian radiation hydrodynamics code with block-adaptive mesh refinement, multi-group radiation transport and electron heat conduction. Simulations are presented with SiO2 and carbon foams for both the high temperature, radiative shock and the low-temperature, hydrodynamic shock cases. Calculations from CRASH give estimations for shock speed, electron temperature, effective ionization, and other quantities necessary for designing the XRTS diagnostic measurement. This work is funded by the LLNL under subcontract B614207, and was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Neutron Radiation Shielding For The NIF Streaked X-Ray Detector (SXD) Diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, P; Holder, J; Young, B; Kalantar, D; Eder, D; Kimbrough, J

    2006-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is preparing for the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) scheduled in 2010. The NIC is comprised of several ''tuning'' physics subcampaigns leading up to a demonstration of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition. In some of these experiments, time-resolved x-ray imaging of the imploding capsule may be required to measure capsule trajectory (shock timing) or x-ray ''bang-time''. A capsule fueled with pure tritium (T) instead of a deutriun-tritium (DT) mixture is thought to offer useful physics surrogacy, with reduced yields of up to 5e14 neutrons. These measurements will require the use of the NIF streak x-ray detector (SXD). The resulting prompt neutron fluence at the planned SXD location (∼1.7 m from the target) would be ∼1.4e9/cm 2 . Previous measurements suggest the onset of significant background at a neutron fluence of ∼ 1e8/cm 2 . The radiation damage and operational upsets which starts at ∼1e8 rad-Si/sec must be factored into an integrated experimental campaign plan. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to predict the neutron and gamma/x-ray fluences and radiation doses for the proposed diagnostic configuration. A possible shielding configuration is proposed to mitigate radiation effects. The primary component of this shielding is an 80 cm thickness of Polyethylene (PE) between target chamber center (TCC) and the SXD diagnostic. Additionally, 6-8 cm of PE around the detector provide from the large number of neutrons that scatter off the inside of the target chamber. This proposed shielding configuration reduces the high-energy neutron fluence at the SXD by approximately a factor ∼50

  13. Neutron Radiation Shielding For The NIF Streaked X-Ray Detector (SXD) Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, P; Holder, J; Young, B; Kalantar, D; Eder, D; Kimbrough, J

    2006-11-02

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is preparing for the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) scheduled in 2010. The NIC is comprised of several ''tuning'' physics subcampaigns leading up to a demonstration of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition. In some of these experiments, time-resolved x-ray imaging of the imploding capsule may be required to measure capsule trajectory (shock timing) or x-ray ''bang-time''. A capsule fueled with pure tritium (T) instead of a deutriun-tritium (DT) mixture is thought to offer useful physics surrogacy, with reduced yields of up to 5e14 neutrons. These measurements will require the use of the NIF streak x-ray detector (SXD). The resulting prompt neutron fluence at the planned SXD location ({approx}1.7 m from the target) would be {approx}1.4e9/cm{sup 2}. Previous measurements suggest the onset of significant background at a neutron fluence of {approx} 1e8/cm{sup 2}. The radiation damage and operational upsets which starts at {approx}1e8 rad-Si/sec must be factored into an integrated experimental campaign plan. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to predict the neutron and gamma/x-ray fluences and radiation doses for the proposed diagnostic configuration. A possible shielding configuration is proposed to mitigate radiation effects. The primary component of this shielding is an 80 cm thickness of Polyethylene (PE) between target chamber center (TCC) and the SXD diagnostic. Additionally, 6-8 cm of PE around the detector provide from the large number of neutrons that scatter off the inside of the target chamber. This proposed shielding configuration reduces the high-energy neutron fluence at the SXD by approximately a factor {approx}50.

  14. Reconstruction of surface morphology from coherent scattering of white x-ray radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant, Tushar; Pietsch, Ullrich [Solid State Physics Group, University of Siegen, 57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Static speckle experiments were performed using coherent white X-ray radiation from a bending magnet at BESSYII. Semiconductor and polymer surfaces were investigated under incidence condition smaller than the critical angle of total external reflection. The scattering pattern of the sample results from the illumination function modified by the surface roughness. The periodic oscillations are caused by the illumination function whereas other irregular features are associated with sample surface. The speckle map of reflection from a laterally periodic structure like GaAs grating is studied. Under coherent illumination the grating peaks split into speckles because of fluctuations on the sample surface. The surface morphology can be reconstructed using phase retrieval algorithms. In case of 1D problem, these algorithms rarely yield a unique and converging solution. The algorithm is modified to contain additional propagator term and the phase of illumination function in the real space constraint. The modified algorithm converges faster than conventional algorithms. A detailed surface profiles from the real measurements of the sample are reconstructed using this algorithm.

  15. X-ray imaging with monochromatic synchrotron radiation. Fluorescent and phase-contrast method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2002-05-01

    To obtain the high sensitive x-ray images of biomedical object, new x-ray imaging techniques using fluorescent x-ray and phase-contrast x-ray are being developed in Japan. Fluorescent x-ray CT can detect very small amounts of specific elements in the order of ppm at one pixel, whereas phase-contrast x-ray imaging with interferometer can detect minute differences of biological object. Here, our recent experimental results are presented. (author)

  16. Investigations of the phase transition in V3O5 using energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation white beam X-ray topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbrink, S.; Gerward, L.; Staun Olsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    The reversible first order phase transition in V 3 O 5 at T t =155 0 C has been studied using a specially constructed oven, where the temperature can be kept constant within a few hundredths of a degree for several hours. Energy dispersive diffraction measurements have beem made in a temperature region around the phase transition with the fixed crystal method and the θ/2θ scanning method. White beam X-ray topographs have been obtained from the same crystal in the same temperature region using synchrotron radiation. The integrated intensities of the strong h 0 0 reflections show anomalies that are correlated with the corresponding X-ray topographs. Thus, an unexpected increase of crystal perfection is observed a few hundredths of a degree below T t . The energy dependence of the intensity maximum at T t for strong reflections has been determined and semi-quantitatively explained on the basis of extinction theory. (orig.)

  17. A portable organic plastic scintillator dosimetry system for low energy X-rays: a feasibility study using an intraoperative X-ray unit as the radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Kerry; Robinson, Neil; Trapp, Jamie; Geso, Moshi; Ackerly, Trevor; Das, Ram; Kemp, Penny

    2007-01-01

    The effective use of near water equivalent organic plastic scintillators (OPS) for radiation dosimetry with high-energy sources under laboratory conditions is recognized. In this work, an OPS-based dosimeter using a photodiode combined with improved solid state detection and signal processing techniques has been developed; it offers the potential for the construction of a stable and fully portable dosimeter which will extend the useful range of measurement beyond the usual MeV area and provide reliable readings down to sub-100 keV X-ray energy levels. In these experiments, the instrument described has been used for the dosimetry of INTRABEAM intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) equipment at distances as low as 1.8 mm from the effective source, i.e., 0.2 mm from the X-ray probe surface. Comparison is shown with dosimetry measurements made using the calibrated reference ion chamber supplied by the IORT equipment manufacturer. (author)

  18. Sizes of X-ray radiation coherent domains in thin SmS films and their visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharenkova, N. V.; Kaminskii, V. V.; Petrov, S. N.

    2011-09-01

    The size of X-ray radiation coherent domains (250 ± 20 Å) is determined in a thin polycrystalline SmS film using X-ray diffraction patterns (θ-2θ scanning, DRON-2 diffractometer, Cu K α radiation) and the Selyakov-Scherrer formula with allowance for the effect of microstrains. An image of this film is taken with a transmission electron microscope, and regions with a characteristic size of 240 Å are clearly visible in it. It is concluded that X-ray radiation coherent domains are visualized.

  19. Radiation protection and the safe use of X-ray equipment: Laws, regulations and responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Petrus Herbst

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lately, South Africa’s regulatory framework for electromagnetic medical devices has come under considerable pressure. In this article the legislative framework and regulatory infrastructure are scrutinized, by looking at how the legislature has given form to protective measures against ionizing radiation. Although the Hazardous Substances Act provides for effective protection against radiation, poor administration led to insufficient staffing levels, uncertainty about Regulations and licensing conditions and therefore undermines a sound radiation protection infrastructure. The legal basis of enforcing licensing conditions through a website without proper consultation with interested and affected parties is questionable and ineffective in controlling radiation levels. Effective and legal radiation control is possible by activating the National Advisory Committee on Electronic Products provided for in Regulation R326 published in 1979, but never implemented. The possible impact of annual quality assurance tests currently enforced through licensing conditions on the radiation dose of the population is not cost effective as new training and accreditation structures had to be created. The fact that generally more than 80% of overexposures are caused by human error is a clear indication that training of the daily users of X-ray equipment should be emphasized and not the training and accreditation of the technicians responsible for a single quality assurance test per year. Constructive engagement with the professional bodies involved in the medical use of X-rays through a National Advisory Committee on Electronic Products may be a cost effective solution for lowering radiation dose to the population.

  20. On the radiation exposure dose and health management history during 50 years of x-ray working

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tomihiro

    1981-01-01

    My X-ray working history has become 50 years at the end of April, 1980. At this chance, the following data were summarized; the case numbers of X-ray photographs (517,132 cases), total amounts of radiation exposure dose (66.85 roentgen) and the results of blood test, which were experienced during past 50 years. The amounts of exposure dose during 35 years till 1965 were measured using my own method, which measured the film blackening as 30 milli-roentgen per week by certain standard method. After 1966 till 1980, the exposure dose were recorded using that of the film-badge service of Nippon Hoan Yohin Kyokai. The total amounts of exposure dose during 50 years were about 1/4 of D = 5 (N - 18). The results of blood test during last 27 years were found to be normal values. Then, it is happy to say that my body has been protected completely, from radiation hazard as a result of taking radiation protection and checking blood test always at my daily radiation works. The data of my own experiences during 50 years are summarized and reported in this paper. (author)

  1. Measurement of the energy distribution of parametric X-ray radiation from a double-crystal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Akira; Hayakawa, Yasushi; Kidokoro, Akio; Sato, Isamu; Tanaka, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Ken; Kobayashi, Kouji; Ohshima, Hisashi

    2006-01-01

    A parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) generator system was developed at the Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Applications (LEBRA) at Nihon University; this PXR generator system is a tunable wavelength and quasi-monochromatic X-ray source constructed as one of the advanced applications of the LEBRA 125-MeV electron linear accelerator. The PXR beam which has characteristic of energy distribution. The theoretical values of energy distribution obtained at the output port were calculated to be approximately 300 eV and 2 keV at the central X-ray energies of 7 keV and 20 keV, respectively. In order to investigate the energy distribution, several measurements of the X-ray energy were carried out. The X-ray absorption of known materials and that of thin aluminum has been evaluated based on analyses of images taken using an imaging plate. The X-ray energy was deduced base on the identification of the absorption edges, and the energy distribution was estimated based on measurements using aluminum step method. In addition, an X-ray diffraction method using a perfect silicon crystal was employed, and spectra were measured using a solid state detector (SSD). The results of these experiments agreed with the calculated results. In particular, the well-defined absorption edges in the X-ray images and the typical rocking curves obtained by the measurement of the X-ray diffraction indicated that the distribution has a high-energy resolution

  2. Design of a New Collimation System to Prevent Interference between X-ray Machines and Radiation Portal Monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzardo, Tyler; Livesay, Jake

    2012-01-01

    Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a new collimation system that allows radiation portal monitors (RPMs) installed near x-ray machines to operate with a negligible false-positive alarm rate. RPMs are usually installed as far as possible from x-ray machines because false alarms are triggered by escaping x-rays; however, constraints at the installation site sometimes make it necessary that RPMs be installed near x-ray machines. Such RPMs are often plagued by high alarm rates resulting from the simultaneous operation of the RPMs and x-ray machines. Limitations on pedestrian flow, x-ray machine orientation, and RPM location often preclude a simple solution for lowering the alarm rate. Adding additional collimation to the x-ray machines to stop the x-rays at the source can reduce the alarm rate without interfering with site operations or adversely affecting the minimum detectable quantity of material (MDQ). A collimation design has been verified by measurements conducted at a RPM installation site and is applicable to all new and existing RPM installations near x-ray machines.

  3. A synchrotron-based X-ray exposure station for radiation biology experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.C.; Blakely, E.A.; Bjornstad, K.A.; Chang, P.Y.; Rosen, C.J.; Schwarz, R.I.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray sources enable radiation biology experiments that are difficult with conventional sources. A synchrotron source can easily deliver a monochromatic, tunable energy, highly collimated X-ray beam of well-calibrated intensity. An exposure station at beamline 10.3.1 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) has been developed which delivers a variable energy (5-20 keV) X-ray fan beam with very sharp edges (10-90% in less than 3 μm). A series of experiments have been done with a four-well slide where a stripe (100 μm widex18 mm long) of cells in each well has been irradiated and the dose varied from well to well. With this facility we have begun a series of experiments to study cells adjacent to irradiated cells and how they respond to the damage of their neighbors. Initial results have demonstrated the advantages of using synchrotron radiation for these experiments

  4. A synchrotron-based X-ray exposure station for radiation biology experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, A.C. [Division of Life Sciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Bld. 50A-6120, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: acthompson@lbl.gov; Blakely, E.A.; Bjornstad, K.A. [Division of Life Sciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Bld. 50A-6120, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chang, P.Y. [Division of Life Sciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Bld. 50A-6120, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Rosen, C.J.; Schwarz, R.I. [Division of Life Sciences, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Bld. 50A-6120, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2007-11-11

    Synchrotron X-ray sources enable radiation biology experiments that are difficult with conventional sources. A synchrotron source can easily deliver a monochromatic, tunable energy, highly collimated X-ray beam of well-calibrated intensity. An exposure station at beamline 10.3.1 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) has been developed which delivers a variable energy (5-20 keV) X-ray fan beam with very sharp edges (10-90% in less than 3 {mu}m). A series of experiments have been done with a four-well slide where a stripe (100 {mu}m widex18 mm long) of cells in each well has been irradiated and the dose varied from well to well. With this facility we have begun a series of experiments to study cells adjacent to irradiated cells and how they respond to the damage of their neighbors. Initial results have demonstrated the advantages of using synchrotron radiation for these experiments.

  5. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  6. X-ray ‘ghost images’ could cut radiation doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sophia

    2018-03-01

    On its own, a single-pixel camera captures pictures that are pretty dull: squares that are completely black, completely white, or some shade of gray in between. All it does, after all, is detect brightness. Yet by connecting a single-pixel camera to a patterned light source, a team of physicists in China has made detailed x-ray images using a statistical technique called ghost imaging, first pioneered 20 years ago in infrared and visible light. Researchers in the field say future versions of this system could take clear x-ray photographs with cheap cameras—no need for lenses and multipixel detectors—and less cancer-causing radiation than conventional techniques.

  7. Assessment of patient radiation doses in chest X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsini, S.; Scribano, V.S.; Merluzzi, F.; Tosca, L.

    1987-01-01

    The paper reports the initial results of a radioprotection programme for diagnostic radiology carried out in a major hospital in Milan. The data cover chest X-ray examinations. The dose values were obtained using different techniques, according to the specific diagnostic requirements in each departement. A wide radiation dose range was observed between the different techniques, with a ratio between maximum and minimum dose > 30 for the skin and the spine. The doses were however lower than those capable of inducing non-stochastic effects by about 10000 and were so low that the probability of a stochastics effect is minimal. Nevertheless, because chest X-rays are performed so frequently, it is recommended that radiologists take greater account of patient dose, as far as compatible with diagnostic requirements. Radiology technicians must strictly observe the regulations for radioprotection of the patient

  8. Development of X-ray tracer diagnostics for radiatively-driven ablator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, J.J.; Cohen, D.H.; Wang, P.; Moses, G.A.; Peterson, R.R.; Jaanimagi, P.A.; Langen, O.L.; Olson, R.E.; Murphy, T.J.; Magelssen, G.R.; Delamater, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report covers fiscal year 1998 of our ongoing project to develop tracer X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics for hohlraum environments. This effort focused on an experimental campaign carried out at OMEGA on 25--27 August 1998. This phase of the project heavily emphasized experimental design, diagnostic development, and target fabrication, as well as building up numerical models for the experiments. The spectral diagnostic under development involves using two thin (few 1000 Angstroem) mid-Z tracers in two witness plates mounted on the side of a hohlraum with the tracers' K a absorption features seen against an X-ray backlighter. The absorption data are used to sample the time-dependent, localized properties of each witness plate as a radiation wave ablates it. The experiments represented the first application of this diagnostic, in this case to side-by-side doped and undoped plastic to investigate the effects of capsule ablator dopants

  9. Metals determination in wood treated by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel da Silva; Tomazello Filho, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the use of X-Ray fluorescence analysis for distribution and quantification of metals in the hardwood (Eucalyptus sp) and softwood (Pinus sp) treated with CCA (copper-chromium-arsenic). The sapwood/heartwood for hardwood sample and the growth-rings for softwood sample were analyzed. The samples were scanned in 320 mm steps in the vertical direction. For excitation of the elements a white beam synchrotron radiation of ∼ 320 x 180 mm was employed and for the X-ray detection a Si(Li) semiconductor detector. The elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn and As were determined. Fundamental parameters were used to quantify the elements concentrations. (author)

  10. Report of the second workshop on synchrotron radiation sources for x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, M.Q.; Craft, B.; Williams, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    The reported workshop is part of an effort to implement a US-based x-ray lithography program. Presentations include designs for three storage rings (one superconducting and two conventional) and an overview of a complete lithography program. The background of the effort described, the need for synchrotron radiation, and the international competition in the area are discussed briefly. The technical feasibility of x-ray lithography is discussed, and synchrotron performance specifications and construction options are given, as well as a near-term plan. It is recommended that a prototype synchrotron source be built as soon as possible, and that a research and development plan on critical technologies which could improve cost effectiveness of the synchrotron source be established. It is further recommended that a small number of second generation prototype synchrotrons be distributed to IC manufacturing centers to expedite commercialization

  11. Effects of UV, sunlight and X-ray radiation on quiescent human cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Nondividing human diploid fibroblasts (HDF) in culture have been used to study the effect on cell lethality of ultraviolet light, natural sunlight and X-rays. A lethal effect is defined as cellular degeneration, loss from the culture and inability to exclude vital strains. Far- and mid-UV have a readily observable lethal effect (cell loss), with DNA and DNA damage as the critical target and critical damage respectively. In part, natural sunlight kills cells by a similar mechanism but has an additional lethal effect at longer exposure times. This additional effect is expressed by the retention of the dead cells in culture, in contrast to the UV-induced promotion of cell degeneration and loss. Relatively large doses of X-rays that destroy proliferative capacity, have no detectable lethal effect on the maintenance of non-dividing cells. The biological response of nondividing HDF to radiations from different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum is dissimilar. (author)

  12. Revisiting Bragg's X-ray microscope: scatter based optical transient grating detection of pulsed ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullagar, Wilfred K; Paganin, David M; Hall, Chris J

    2011-06-01

    Transient optical gratings for detecting ultrafast signals are routine for temporally resolved photochemical investigations. Many processes can contribute to the formation of such gratings; we indicate use of optically scattering centres that can be formed with highly variable latencies in different materials and devices using ionising radiation. Coherent light scattered by these centres can form the short-wavelength-to-optical-wavelength, incoherent-to-coherent basis of a Bragg X-ray microscope, with inherent scope for optical phasing. Depending on the dynamics of the medium chosen, the way is open to both ultrafast pulsed and integrating measurements. For experiments employing brief pulses, we discuss high-dynamic-range short-wavelength diffraction measurements with real-time optical reconstructions. Applications to optical real-time X-ray phase-retrieval are considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nanostructure of protective rust layer on weathering steel examined using synchrotron radiation x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Masato; Uchida, Hitoshi; Konishi, Hiroyuki; Mizuki, Jun'ichiro

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectrum of pure goethite around the Fe K absorption edge and that of the protective rust layer formed on weathering steel exposed for 17 years in an atmospheric environment around the Cr K edge, have been examined using synchrotron radiation X-rays. It was found that the rust layer on the weathering steel mainly consisted of Cr-goethite. By examining the fine structure at the Cr K edge and the Fe K edge, we concluded that Cr 3+ in the rust layer is coordinated with O 2- and is positioned in the double chains of vacant sites in the network of FeO 3 (OH) 3 octahedra in the goethite crystal. This Cr 3+ site indicates that the protective effect of the rust layer is due to the dense aggregation of fine crystals of Cr-goethite with cation selectivity. (author)

  14. Metals determination in wood treated by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Silva, Richard Maximiliano da Cunha [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: maxcunha@cena.usp.br; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel da Silva; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]. E-mail: jeangm@esalq.usp.br; mtomazel@esalq.usp.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Barroso, Regina Cely [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: cely@uerj.br

    2005-07-01

    The paper describes the use of X-Ray fluorescence analysis for distribution and quantification of metals in the hardwood (Eucalyptus sp) and softwood (Pinus sp) treated with CCA (copper-chromium-arsenic). The sapwood/heartwood for hardwood sample and the growth-rings for softwood sample were analyzed. The samples were scanned in 320 mm steps in the vertical direction. For excitation of the elements a white beam synchrotron radiation of {approx} 320 x 180 mm was employed and for the X-ray detection a Si(Li) semiconductor detector. The elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn and As were determined. Fundamental parameters were used to quantify the elements concentrations. (author)

  15. The Role of Human Factor in Radiation Protection of Children During Chest X Ray Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, N.; Knezevic, Z.; Miljanic, S.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Milkovic, Dj.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation protection depends on many factors. Our study deals with the human factor, the radiology technicians' routine work. If all technical malfunctions are excluded they are responsible for the patient dose. Depending on their education and experience, technicians perform X ray examinations with various end results: image quality, entrance surface dose, patient interaction etc. In hospital setting we have consecutively chosen the study group of 20 children that had a clinical indication for a chest X ray examination (standard PA radiogram), for each of three technicians working at the radiology ward. A Shimadzu X ray machine was used in all cases. 60 children were from 6 to 12 years old and all parents were informed about the aim and the experimental details of the study. All of them gave their informed consent. Radiophotoluminescent (RPL) and thermoluminescent (TLD) dosimeters were applied at the entrance of the beam in the center of the X ray field to measure the entrance surface dose (ESD). Three differently experienced technicians were unaware of the objective of the study. Parameters that were noted were the kV, mAs and the size of the radiation field. The results show a good correlation in ESD between two technicians. Doses were significantly higher for the third one. After the results were known, protocols were designed and after educational interference, we continued to measure ESD again on a group of 40 children. The doses were reduced and there was a good correlation between all three technicians. With this work we want to clarify and show the importance of continuous education and good teamwork for dose reduction. In a sequel study, with the same three technicians, we hope to have results that would show a better dose reduction. (author)

  16. Direct observations of cracks and voids in structural materials by X-ray imaging using ultra-bright synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Takenori; Yuse, Fumio; Tsubokawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsui, Junji

    2003-01-01

    Refraction contrast X-ray imaging experiments were conducted on acrylic resin with an artificial cylindrical hole, A7075 aluminum alloy, A6063 aluminum castings, mild steel with cracks or voids, and low alloy steel with inclusions, using a ultra-bright synchrotron radiation X-ray beam in BL24XU hutch C of SPring-8. Conventional absorption contrast X-ray imaging experiments were also done for the comparison. The X-ray beam was controlled to be monochromatic by Si double-crystals and collimated by a slit. The distance between the sample and the detector was changed from 0 to 3 m, and the X-ray energy was 15 to 25 keV. Photographs were taken by X-ray film and/or X-ray CCD camera. As a result, the refraction imaging method gave a much more distinct image of the artificial cylindrical hole in acrylic resin as compared with the absorption method. The fatigue cracks in aluminum alloy and mild steel were also distinctly observed. The X-ray imaging revealed the presence of MnS nonmetallic inclusions in low alloy steel. Void defects in aluminum castings were clearly detected by the imaging. In addition, in-situ observation of tensile fracture of aluminum alloys using a high resolution X-ray CCD camera system wa successfully conducted. The observations by use of asymmetric reflection technique for X-ray imaging experiment were also well performed. From above, the X-ray imaging method using ultra-bright synchrotron radiation is concluded to be very useful for fracture research of materials. (author)

  17. Direct observations of cracks and voids in structural materials by X-ray imaging using ultra-bright synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Takenori; Yuse, Fumio [Kobe Steel, Ltd., Materials Research Laboratory, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Tsubokawa, Yoshiyuki [Kobelco Research Inst., Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Matsui, Junji [Himeji Inst. of Technology, Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan)

    2003-04-01

    Refraction contrast X-ray imaging experiments were conducted on acrylic resin with an artificial cylindrical hole, A7075 aluminum alloy, A6063 aluminum castings, mild steel with cracks or voids, and low alloy steel with inclusions, using a ultra-bright synchrotron radiation X-ray beam in BL24XU hutch C of SPring-8. Conventional absorption contrast X-ray imaging experiments were also done for the comparison. The X-ray beam was controlled to be monochromatic by Si double-crystals and collimated by a slit. The distance between the sample and the detector was changed from 0 to 3 m, and the X-ray energy was 15 to 25 keV. Photographs were taken by X-ray film and/or X-ray CCD camera. As a result, the refraction imaging method gave a much more distinct image of the artificial cylindrical hole in acrylic resin as compared with the absorption method. The fatigue cracks in aluminum alloy and mild steel were also distinctly observed. The X-ray imaging revealed the presence of MnS nonmetallic inclusions in low alloy steel. Void defects in aluminum castings were clearly detected by the imaging. In addition, in-situ observation of tensile fracture of aluminum alloys using a high resolution X-ray CCD camera system wa successfully conducted. The observations by use of asymmetric reflection technique for X-ray imaging experiment were also well performed. From above, the X-ray imaging method using ultra-bright synchrotron radiation is concluded to be very useful for fracture research of materials. (author)

  18. Crystal glass used for X ray and gamma radiation shielding - Part two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio Filho, Joao

    2007-01-01

    Crystal glass has been widely used as shielding material in gamma radiation sources as well as x-ray generating equipment to replace the plumbiferous glass, in order to minimize exposure to individuals. However, properties of the radiation attenuation of crystal glass commercially available in Brazil, for the different types of energy are not known. For this reason, this work was carried out aiming to determine the radiation attenuation, transmission curves and Half Value Layer. In this work, ten plates of crystal glass, with dimensions of 20 cm x 20 cm and range of thicknesses from 0.5 to 2.0 cm, were used. The plates were X-ray irradiated with potential constants of 60, 80, 110, 150 kV and gamma radiation of 60 Co. Analysis in the properties of the 60 Co radiation attenuation of barite plaster and barite concrete commercially available in Brazil were also carried out. The curves of attenuation and of transmission were obtained for crystal glass, barite plaster and barite concrete (mGy/mA.min) at 1 meter as a function of thickness. The thickness equivalent of a half value layer and deci value layer of crystal glass for all types of radiation and energies studied was also determined. (author)

  19. Radiation protection in dental X-ray surgeries--still rooms for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, G; Dugdale, M

    2013-03-01

    To illustrate the authors' experience in the provision of radiation protection adviser (RPA)/medical physics expert (MPE) services and critical examination/radiation quality assurance (QA) testing, to demonstrate any continuing variability of the compliance of X-ray sets with existing guidance and of compliance of dental practices with existing legislation. Data was collected from a series of critical examination and routine three-yearly radiation QA tests on 915 intra-oral X-ray sets and 124 panoramic sets. Data are the result of direct measurements on the sets, made using a traceably calibrated Unfors Xi meter. The testing covered the measurement of peak kilovoltage (kVp); filtration; timer accuracy and consistency; X-ray beam size; and radiation output, measured as the entrance surface dose in milliGray (mGy) for intra-oral sets and dose-area product (DAP), measured in mGy.cm(2) for panoramic sets. Physical checks, including mechanical stability, were also included as part of the testing process. The Health and Safety Executive has expressed concern about the poor standards of compliance with the regulations during inspections at dental practices. Thirty-five percent of intra-oral sets exceeded the UK adult diagnostic reference level on at least one setting, as did 61% of those with child dose settings. There is a clear advantage of digital radiography and rectangular collimation in dose terms, with the mean dose from digital sets 59% that of film-based sets and a rectangular collimator 76% that of circular collimators. The data shows the unrealised potential for dose saving in many digital sets and also marked differences in dose between sets. Provision of radiation protection advice to over 150 general dental practitioners raised a number of issues on the design of surgeries with X-ray equipment and critical examination testing. There is also considerable variation in advice given on the need (or lack of need) for room shielding. Where no radiation protection

  20. Summary of: radiation protection in dental X-ray surgeries--still rooms for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Anne

    2013-03-01

    To illustrate the authors' experience in the provision of radiation protection adviser (RPA)/medical physics expert (MPE) services and critical examination/radiation quality assurance (QA) testing, to demonstrate any continuing variability of the compliance of X-ray sets with existing guidance and of compliance of dental practices with existing legislation. Data was collected from a series of critical examination and routine three-yearly radiation QA tests on 915 intra-oral X-ray sets and 124 panoramic sets. Data are the result of direct measurements on the sets, made using a traceably calibrated Unfors Xi meter. The testing covered the measurement of peak kilovoltage (kVp); filtration; timer accuracy and consistency; X-ray beam size; and radiation output, measured as the entrance surface dose in milliGray (mGy) for intra-oral sets and dose-area product (DAP), measured in mGy.cm(2) for panoramic sets. Physical checks, including mechanical stability, were also included as part of the testing process. The Health and Safety Executive has expressed concern about the poor standards of compliance with the regulations during inspections at dental practices. Thirty-five percent of intra-oral sets exceeded the UK adult diagnostic reference level on at least one setting, as did 61% of those with child dose settings. There is a clear advantage of digital radiography and rectangular collimation in dose terms, with the mean dose from digital sets 59% that of film-based sets and a rectangular collimator 76% that of circular collimators. The data shows the unrealised potential for dose saving in many digital sets and also marked differences in dose between sets. Provision of radiation protection advice to over 150 general dental practitioners raised a number of issues on the design of surgeries with X-ray equipment and critical examination testing. There is also considerable variation in advice given on the need (or lack of need) for room shielding. Where no radiation protection

  1. Comparison of x-ray diagnosis associated radiation exposures in Puerto Rico: 1973 vs. 1968

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gileadi, M.; Gileadi, A.E.; Musalem, A.

    1975-01-01

    In general, it can be concluded that comparison of 1973 results obtained to date with parallel values for 1968 show a significant improvement in radiation protection practices in Puerto Rico. This improvement, which concerns the whole of society, is not only a result of technical upgrading of the diagnostic equipment, but also and perhaps more significantly, a result of the utmost efforts of professionals: doctors, radiologists and those in radiation protection, to use diagnostic x-rays judiciously, and to reduce the unavoidable doses to a minimum compatible with the diagnostic objective. (U.S.)

  2. Soft X-ray radiation parameters of nested tungsten wire array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Jiamin; Jiang Shilun; Xu Rongkun; Xu Zeping; Li Zhenghong; Yang Jianlun

    2011-01-01

    Implosions with nested tungsten wire array were performed at the Angara-5-1 facility in Russian Research Centre. The experimental results of nested tungsten wire array are compared with those of single array. Radiation parameters of nested array are discussed based on four different dynamic models. When the implosions of outer and inner wire arrays are synchronized,the relatively uniform distribution of inner layer plasma will improve the uniformity of outer layer plasma. As compared with single array, nested array has an increase of 32% in X-ray radiation power. (authors)

  3. Sum rules application to reflectometry of X-ray resonant radiation for magnetic multilayer investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smekhova, A.G.; Andreeva, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    One elaborated the general formalism on the basis of which one derived the clear expressions for reflection factors of X-ray radiation with a circular polarization from medium magnetized both within surface plane and within reflection plane both for grazing angles and for high grazing angles. The asymmetry of reflection spectra for right- and left-polarized radiation is shown to depend both on nondiagonal components of a susceptibility tensor and on other components in contrast to absorption spectra, so the sum rule to determine the orbital and the spin magnetic moments can not be applied directly to the experimental spectra of reflection [ru

  4. Two cases of subungual radiation keratosis after treatment by superfical X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Yoshihiro; Yasuno, Kayoko; Shin, Yoko; Nogami, Reiko.

    1996-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin rarely develops under the nail. However, among the subungual malignant tumors, squamous cell carcinoma is most common. In the present study, a 79 year-old male and a 65-year-old female with subungual radiation keratoses are reported. As for these two patients, the keratoses may have been caused by long-term superficial X-ray irradiation therapy for rigworms. When a patient has a history of irradiation therapy, and he complains the pain or flare of their nails, biopsy should be done immediately. Because the diagnosis of radiation keratosis should be suspected and treatment should be started before invasive carcinoma develops. (author)

  5. Two cases of subungual radiation keratosis after treatment by superfical X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Yoshihiro; Yasuno, Kayoko; Shin, Yoko [Kumamoto National Hospital (Japan); Nogami, Reiko

    1996-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin rarely develops under the nail. However, among the subungual malignant tumors, squamous cell carcinoma is most common. In the present study, a 79 year-old male and a 65-year-old female with subungual radiation keratoses are reported. As for these two patients, the keratoses may have been caused by long-term superficial X-ray irradiation therapy for rigworms. When a patient has a history of irradiation therapy, and he complains the pain or flare of their nails, biopsy should be done immediately. Because the diagnosis of radiation keratosis should be suspected and treatment should be started before invasive carcinoma develops. (author)

  6. X-ray radiation source based on a plasma filled diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popkov, N F; Kargin, V I; Ryaslov, E A; Pikar, A S [All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation). Russian Federal Nuclear Center

    1997-12-31

    The results are given of studies on a plasma X-ray source providing 2.5 krad of radiation dose per pulse over an area of 100 cm{sup 2} in the quantum energy range between 20 and 500 keV. The pulse duration was 100 ns. The spectral radiation distribution was obtained under various operating conditions of plasma and diode. A Marx generator served as the starting power source of 120 kJ with a discharge time of T/4=10{sup -6} s. A short electromagnetic pulse (10{sup -7} s) was shaped using plasma erosion opening switches. (author). 5 figs., 4 refs.

  7. Examination for optimization of synchrotron radiation spectrum for the x ray depth lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dany, Raimund

    1992-06-01

    The effect of reducing the vertical distribution of synchrotron radiation on its spectral distribution is examined through resin irradiation. The resulting filter effect is compared to that of absorption filters. Transmission coefficients of titanium, gold, and polyamide were calculated from linear absorption coefficients with the Beer law. The use of a diaphragm in X-ray depth lithography, which is the first step of the LIGA (Lithography Galvanoforming Molding) process, is discussed. A calorimetric device for determining the synchrotron radiation power and distribution was developed and tested. Measurements at the ELSA storage ring show a strong dependence of the vertical emittance on the electron current.

  8. Synchrotron radiation spectroscopy including X-ray absorption spectroscopy and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    Recent trends of synchrotron radiation spectroscopy, especially X-ray absorption spectroscopy for industrial applications are introduced based on our latest results for energy efficient devices such as magnetic RAM, LSI and organic FET, power generation devices such as fuel cells, and energy storage devices such as Li ion batteries. Furthermore, future prospects of spectroscopy with higher energy resolution, higher spatial resolution, higher temporal resolution and operando spectroscopy taking advantage of much brighter synchrotron radiation beam at low emittance SR rings are discussed from the view point of practical applications. (author)

  9. X-rays utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebigan, F.

    1979-03-01

    The modality of X-ray utilization in different activities and economy is given. One presents firstly quantities and units used in radiation dosimetry and other fields. One gives the generation of X-rays, their properties as well as the elements of radiation protection. The utilization characteristics of these radiations in different fields are finally given. (author)

  10. Influence of X-ray scatter radiation on image quality in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (DBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M.J.; Di Maria, S.; Baptista, M.; Belchior, A.; Afonso, J.; Venâncio, J.; Vaz, P.

    2017-01-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a quasi-three-dimensional imaging technique that was developed to solve the principal limitation of mammography, namely the overlapping tissue effect. This issue in standard mammography (SM) leads to two main problems: low sensitivity (difficulty to detect lesions) and low specificity (non-negligible percentage of false positives). Although DBT is now being introduced in clinical practice the features of this technique have not yet been fully and accurately assessed. Consequently, optimization studies in terms of choosing the most suitable parameters which maximize image quality according to the known limits of breast dosimetry are currently performing. In DBT, scatter radiation can lead to a loss of contrast and to an increase of image noise by reducing the signal-to-difference-noise ratio (SDNR) of a lesion. Moreover the use of an anti-scatter grid is a concern due to the low exposure of the photon flux available per projection. For this reason the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of the scatter radiation on image quality and the dose delivered to the breast. In particular a detailed analysis of the scatter radiation on the optimal energy that maximizes the SDNR was performed for different monochromatic energies and voltages. To reach this objective the PenEasy Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tool imbedded in the general-purpose main program PENELOPE, was used. After a successful validation of the MC model with measurements, 2D projection images of primary, coherent and incoherent photons were obtained. For that, a homogeneous breast phantom (2, 4, 6, 8 cm) with 25%, 50% and 75% glandular compositions was used, including a 5 mm thick tumor. The images were generated for each monochromatic X-ray energies in the range from 16 keV to 32 keV. For each angular projection considered (25 angular projections covering an arc of 50°) the scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR), the mean glandular dose (MGD) and the signal

  11. Direct EUV/X-Ray Modulation of the Ionosphere During the August 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrak, Sebastijan; Semeter, Joshua; Drob, Douglas; Huba, J. D.

    2018-05-01

    The great American total solar eclipse of 21 August 2017 offered a fortuitous opportunity to study the response of the atmosphere and ionosphere using a myriad of ground instruments. We have used the network of U.S. Global Positioning System receivers to examine perturbations in maps of ionospheric total electron content (TEC). Coherent large-scale variations in TEC have been interpreted by others as gravity wave-induced traveling ionospheric disturbances. However, the solar disk had two active regions at that time, one near the center of the disk and one at the edge, which resulted in an irregular illumination pattern in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/X-ray bands. Using detailed EUV occultation maps calculated from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly images, we show excellent agreement between TEC perturbations and computed gradients in EUV illumination. The results strongly suggest that prominent large-scale TEC disturbances were consequences of direct EUV modulation, rather than gravity wave-induced traveling ionospheric disturbances.

  12. Collection of airborne particulate matter for a subsequent analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klockenkaemper, R.; Bayer, H.; Bohlen, A. von; Schmeling, M.; Klockow, D.

    1995-01-01

    The collection of airborne particulate matter by filtration and impaction was adapted to total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF). Cellulose nitrate filters were used for collecting in a Berner impactor. Single filter spots were punched out, placed on quartz-glass carriers, dissolved by tetrahydrofuran and re-precipitated prior to element determinations by TXRF. In a Battelle-type impactor, airborne dust was collected on Plexiglass carriers coated with medical Vaseline. The loaded carriers were directly analyzed by TXRF. In both cases, quantification was simply performed by the addition of an internal standard after sampling. Impactors were made of a suitable material in order to investigate high blank values, collection losses and memory effects. It could be shown that stainless steel, even coated with TiN, is less suitable and should be avoided as an impactor material. Although aluminum is partly recommendable, titanium and the polymer Makrolon are quite appropriate. By using an impactor made of these materials, a reliable multielement determination in airborne dust is made possible with low detection limits as low as 1 ng/m 3 and a satisfactory repeatability of a few %. Short sampling times of only 1 h or less can be realized. The total procedure is simple and time-saving, and can be recommended for routine investigations of airborne particulate matter. (author)

  13. X-ray diffraction studies on single and mixed confectionery fats using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMillan, S.C.; Roberts, K.J.; Wells, M.; Polgreen, M.; Smith, I.

    1999-01-01

    and stirring rate (shear rate). The X-rays used are from a high intensity synchrotron radiation source, enabling polymorphic phase transformations for a variety of fat mixtures to observed. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  14. X-ray diffraction studies on single and mixed confectionery fats using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacMillan, S.C.; Roberts, K.J.; Wells, M.; Polgreen, M.; Smith, I. [Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, (United Kingdom). Department of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, Centre for Molecular and Interface Engineering

    1999-12-01

    and stirring rate (shear rate). The X-rays used are from a high intensity synchrotron radiation source, enabling polymorphic phase transformations for a variety of fat mixtures to observed. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc.

  15. Ultrafast coherent diffractive imaging of nanoparticles using X-ray free-electron laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassemeyer, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Coherent diffractive imaging with X-ray free-electron lasers (X-FEL) promises high-resolution structure determination of single microscopic particles without the need for crystallization. The diffraction signal of small samples can be very weak, a difficulty that can not be countered by merely increasing the number of photons because the sample would be damaged by a high absorbed radiation dose. Traditional X-ray crystallography avoids this problem by bringing many sample particles into a periodic arrangement, which amplifies the individual signals while distributing the absorbed dose. Depending on the sample, however, crystallization can be very difficult or even impossible. This thesis presents algorithms for a new imaging approach using X-FEL radiation that works with single, non-crystalline sample particles. X-FELs can deliver X-rays with a peak brilliance many orders of magnitude higher than conventional X-ray sources, compensating for their weak interaction cross sections. At the same time, FELs can produce ultra-short pulses down to a few femtoseconds. In this way it is possible to perform ultra-fast imaging, essentially ''freezing'' the atomic positions in time and terminating the imaging process before the sample is destroyed by the absorbed radiation. This thesis primarily focuses on the three-dimensional reconstruction of single (and not necessarily crystalline) particles using coherent diffractive imaging at X-FELs: in order to extract three-dimensional information from scattering data, two-dimensional diffraction patterns from many different viewing angles must be combined. Therefore, the diffraction signal of many identical sample copies in random orientations is measured. The main result of this work is a globally optimal algorithm that can recover the sample orientations solely based on the diffraction signal, enabling three-dimensional imaging for arbitrary samples. The problem of finding three-dimensional orientations is

  16. Investigation of the radiation leakage from X ray flaw detectors and the improvement measures for the unqualified products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yiachun; Wu Yi; Pang Hu; Bai Bin

    1997-01-01

    The authors introduce investigation methods and results for radiation leakage from X ray flaw detectors, which are used in Beijing area. Total 21 sets of flaw detectors made in 8 factories in Beijing, Shanghai etc. have been tested, of which 16 sets made in Beijing, Dandong and Japan are gas cooling flaw detectors, and rest 5 sets made in Shanghai and Germany are water or oil cooling detectors. The air Kerma rate of leakage radiation at 1 m from the X ray tube target were measured by Type FJ-347A X, γ dosimeter. It can be seen from the results that, compared with the trade standard ZBY315-83, 5 sets of water or oil cooling flaw detectors are all qualified. However, only two sets of gas cooling detectors are qualified, and the radiation leakage of another 14 sets are over the values specified in the standard. The reason is analyzed, and some advices about the measures of improving radiation protection structure design and production technology for the unqualified products have been proposed

  17. Study Of Soot Growth And Nucleation By A Time-Resolved Synchrotron Radiation Based X-Ray Absorption Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Judith I

    2001-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking University of Rennes I as follows: The contractor will perform a study of soot growth and nucleation by a time-resolved synchrotron radiation based x-ray absorption method...

  18. Uncooled Radiation Hard Large Area SiC X-ray and EUV Detectors and 2D Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to design, fabricate, characterize and commercialize large area, uncooled and radiative hard 4H-SiC EUV ? soft X-ray detectors capable of ultra...

  19. Fluorescent X-ray computed tomography using synchrotron radiation for imaging nonradioactive tracer materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, Masahiro; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Uchida, Akira; Akatsuka, Takao [Yamagata Univ., Yonezawa (Japan). Electrical and Information of Engineering; Takeda, Tohoru; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Itai, Yuji

    1997-09-01

    We describe a system of fluorescent X-ray computed tomography using synchrotron radiation (SR-FXCT) to image nonradioactive contrast materials. The system operates on the basis of computed tomography (CT) scanned by the pencil beam. In the previous experiment, we have imaged an acrylic cylindrical phantom with cross-shaped channel, filled with a diluted iodine-based tracer material of 200 {mu}g/ml. This research is aimed to improve image quality, to select the optimum energy of the incident X-ray, to confirm quantitative evaluation of the image, and to demonstrate FXCT image for living body. First, we simulated output energy profile by the Monte Carlo simulation and confirmed to predetermine the incident X-ray energy at 37 keV, in order to separate the fluorescent photons from background scattering components. Next, the imaging experiment was performed by using conventional CT algorithm under the optimum parameter at the Tristan Accumulation Ring, KEK, Japan. An acrylic phantom containing five paraxial channels of 5 and 4 mm in diameter, could be imaged; where each channel was respectively filled with diluted iodine-based contrast materials of 50, 100, 200 and 500 {mu}g/ml. From the reconstructed image, we confirmed quantitativity in the FXCT image. Finally, a rat`s brain was imaged in vitro by FXCT and monochromatic transmission CT. The comparison between these results showed that the iodine-rich region in the FXCT image corresponded with that in the monochromatic transmission CT image. (author)

  20. Basic study on gamma- and X-ray imaging technology using miniature radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Naoki; Koroki, Kenro; Kurosawa, Kenji

    2000-01-01

    In order to visualize a concealed unlawful matter, visualization using X-ray perspective image is effective, which is actualized. However, it is insufficient by conventional X-ray perspective image to visualize matters and substances of light elements such as narcotics, plastic bombs, and so forth, especially those in a metal container. Then, this study aims at basic research on visualization of perspective image on a weapon such as pistol and so on or a light element substance in a metal container such as car by using gamma-ray with various wave-lengths from a small radiation source. In 1998 fiscal year, a photographing system consisting of an X-ray 2 and a cooled CCD camera was constructed to carry out some simple photographing experiments. By judging through this experimental results only, 57 Co can be said to be more suitable to gamma-ray source for the perspective image photographing than 137 Cs is, which will be a future subject because of supposed dependence of specimen amount, shielding panel thickness or detector. (G.K.)

  1. Dynamical and Radiative Properties of X-Ray Pulsar Accretion Columns: Phase-averaged Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Brent F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Wolfram, Kenneth D. [Naval Research Laboratory (retired), Washington, DC (United States); Becker, Peter A., E-mail: bwest@usna.edu, E-mail: kswolfram@gmail.com, E-mail: pbecker@gmu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The availability of the unprecedented spectral resolution provided by modern X-ray observatories is opening up new areas for study involving the coupled formation of the continuum emission and the cyclotron absorption features in accretion-powered X-ray pulsar spectra. Previous research focusing on the dynamics and the associated formation of the observed spectra has largely been confined to the single-fluid model, in which the super-Eddington luminosity inside the column decelerates the flow to rest at the stellar surface, while the dynamical effect of gas pressure is ignored. In a companion paper, we have presented a detailed analysis of the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic structure of the accretion column obtained using a new self-consistent model that includes the effects of both gas and radiation pressures. In this paper, we explore the formation of the associated X-ray spectra using a rigorous photon transport equation that is consistent with the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic structure of the column. We use the new model to obtain phase-averaged spectra and partially occulted spectra for Her X-1, Cen X-3, and LMC X-4. We also use the new model to constrain the emission geometry, and compare the resulting parameters with those obtained using previously published models. Our model sheds new light on the structure of the column, the relationship between the ionized gas and the photons, the competition between diffusive and advective transport, and the magnitude of the energy-averaged cyclotron scattering cross-section.

  2. Review: Radiation Chemists Look at Damage in Redox Proteins Induced by X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherland, Scot; Pecht, Israel

    2018-04-30

    The three-dimensional structure of proteins, especially as determined by X-ray crystallography, is critical to the understanding of their function. However, the X-ray exposure may lead to damage that must be recognized and understood to interpret the crystallographic results. This is especially relevant for proteins with transition metal ions that can be oxidized or reduced. The detailed study of proteins in aqueous solution by the technique of pulse radiolysis has provided a wealth of information on the production and fate of radicals that are the same as those produced by X-ray exposure. The results reviewed here illustrate how the products of the interaction of radiation with water or with solutes added to the crystallization medium, and with proteins themselves, are formed, and about their fate. Of particular focus is how electrons are produced and transferred through the polypeptide matrix to redox centers such as metal ions or to specific amino acid residues, e.g. disulfides, and how the hydroxyl radicals formed may be converted to reducing equivalents or scavenged. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The development of new radiation protocols for insect sterilization using long wavelength x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquidi, Jacob; Brar, Ramaninder K.; Rodriguez, Stacy; Hansen, Immo

    2015-07-01

    Control of insect species for the protection of crops, livestock, and prevention of disease such as dengue fever and malaria is a high priority in today's global economy. Traditional methods such as pesticides have fallen out of favor because its effects are indiscriminate as well as adverse and unpredictable impacts on the environment. Modern novel techniques such as genetic modification have had trouble gaining traction due to ethics concerns and the potential for unforeseen side effects. One approach that has gained traction and has proven its efficacy is the use of ionizing radiation to affect sterility in insect species in order to scale back their population. Known as Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), it has proven very effective in eradicating certain dipteran insect populations. However, when standard sterilization methods developed for dipertans are applied to mosquito populations significant complications arise, such as an inability to compete with non-irradiated males and high mortality rates. We have investigated the effect of treatment with x-rays of different wavelengths on x-ray sterilized mosquito males. Our results have demonstrated that longer wavelength x-rays have a significant effect on the outcome of the sterile males' longevity as well as an increase on the efficacy of sterilization while employing a substantially lower dose.

  4. The development of new radiation protocols for insect sterilization using long wavelength x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquidi, Jacob; Brar, Ramaninder K.; Rodriguez, Stacy; Hansen, Immo

    2015-01-01

    Control of insect species for the protection of crops, livestock, and prevention of disease such as dengue fever and malaria is a high priority in today’s global economy. Traditional methods such as pesticides have fallen out of favor because its effects are indiscriminate as well as adverse and unpredictable impacts on the environment. Modern novel techniques such as genetic modification have had trouble gaining traction due to ethics concerns and the potential for unforeseen side effects. One approach that has gained traction and has proven its efficacy is the use of ionizing radiation to affect sterility in insect species in order to scale back their population. Known as Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), it has proven very effective in eradicating certain dipteran insect populations. However, when standard sterilization methods developed for dipertans are applied to mosquito populations significant complications arise, such as an inability to compete with non-irradiated males and high mortality rates. We have investigated the effect of treatment with x-rays of different wavelengths on x-ray sterilized mosquito males. Our results have demonstrated that longer wavelength x-rays have a significant effect on the outcome of the sterile males’ longevity as well as an increase on the efficacy of sterilization while employing a substantially lower dose

  5. The development of new radiation protocols for insect sterilization using long wavelength x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquidi, Jacob, E-mail: jurquidi@nmsu.edu; Brar, Ramaninder K. [X-ray and Neutron Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Stacy; Hansen, Immo [Molecular Vector Physiology Lab, Department of Biology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    2015-07-23

    Control of insect species for the protection of crops, livestock, and prevention of disease such as dengue fever and malaria is a high priority in today’s global economy. Traditional methods such as pesticides have fallen out of favor because its effects are indiscriminate as well as adverse and unpredictable impacts on the environment. Modern novel techniques such as genetic modification have had trouble gaining traction due to ethics concerns and the potential for unforeseen side effects. One approach that has gained traction and has proven its efficacy is the use of ionizing radiation to affect sterility in insect species in order to scale back their population. Known as Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), it has proven very effective in eradicating certain dipteran insect populations. However, when standard sterilization methods developed for dipertans are applied to mosquito populations significant complications arise, such as an inability to compete with non-irradiated males and high mortality rates. We have investigated the effect of treatment with x-rays of different wavelengths on x-ray sterilized mosquito males. Our results have demonstrated that longer wavelength x-rays have a significant effect on the outcome of the sterile males’ longevity as well as an increase on the efficacy of sterilization while employing a substantially lower dose.

  6. X-ray optics developments at the APS for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1996-09-01

    High brilliance third-generation synchrotron radiation sources simultaneously provide both a need and an opportunity for the development of new x-ray optical components. The high power and power densities of the x-ray beams produced by insertion devices have forced researchers to consider novel, and what may seem like exotic, approaches to the mitigation of thermal distortions that can dilute the beam brilliance delivered to the experiment or next optical component. Once the power has been filtered by such high heat load optical elements, specialized components can be employed that take advantage of the high degree of brilliance. This presentation reviews the performance of optical components that have been designed, fabricated, and tested at the Advanced Photon Source, starting with high heat load components and followed by examples of several specialized devices such as a milli-eV resolution (in-line) monochromator, a high energy x-ray phase retarder, and a phase zone plate with submicron focusing capability

  7. Supervision of professional personnel exposed to ionizing radiation (X-rays)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalabreysse, J.

    1964-10-01

    After a short introduction giving the physical characteristics and the possible interactions of X-rays, this report considers in more detail the basis of the dosimetry and the units used. Taking into account the dangers of irradiation and the professional norms applicable, the report reviews the physical methods (collective and individual dosimetry) and the biological method (based on the systematic supervision of the hemogram) which are used to ensure that these professional norms an respected. As an example the influence is studied of repeated doses of X-rays on the hemogram of X-ray operators when the individual radiation levels are known through dosimetric films. Two processes are used: one considers the mean values (irradiation and average hemogram for each person), the other requires the use of an electronic computer and uses each haematological variable as a function of the monthly or cumulative doses; it gives correlation coefficients for the different variables. In conclusion, the results obtained are compared to those conventionally accepted, and the validity of the hemogram is estimated as a criterion for the supervision. (author) [fr

  8. Biological effects of radiation and dosimetry in X-ray diagnostics of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkovic, Durdica; Beck, Natko; Kovac, Kornelija; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Gajski, Goran

    2008-01-01

    The chest radiograms represent the basic radiological examinations of thorax. The basis for radiation protection especially in pediatrics is the exact determination of doses. The risk estimation of genome damages can be received in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using alkaline version of Comet Assay. The aim of this work was assessment and quantification of the level of DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of children during airways X-ray examinations of chest and to compare data to the dose of exposure. Doses were determined using thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry and radiophotoluminescent (RPL) glass dosimetry system. Twenty children with pulmonary diseases, ages between 5 and 14 years were assessed. Dose measurements were conducted for poster-anterior (PA) projection on the forehead, thyroid gland, gonads, chest and back. We used a 150 kV Shimadzu CH-200 M X-ray unit. Peripheral blood samples were taken from children after and prior to X-ray exposure and were examined with the alkaline Comet Assay. Comet Assay is one of the standard techniques for assessing genome damage with variety applications in genotoxicity testing as well as fundamental research in DNA damage and repair. As a measure of DNA damage tail length was used, calculated from the centre of the head and presented in micrometers (μm). Mean value of group after irradiation was 14.04 ± 1.74 as opposed to mean value of group before irradiation that was 13.15 ± 1.33. Differences between mean tail lengths were statistically significant (P<0.05, ANOVA). In addition, correlation was found between doses in primary beam (measured on the back) and the ratio of tail length (DNA damage) before and after irradiation. Doses measured with TL and RPL dosimeters showed satisfactory agreement and both dosimetry methods are suitable for dosimetric measurements in X-ray diagnostics. (author)

  9. Utilization of synchrotron radiation in analytical chemistry. Soft X-ray emission and absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Yasuji

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron soft X-ray spectroscopy includes three major types of spectroscopy such as X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). This paper takes up XAS and XES of soft X-rays, and briefly describes the principle. XAS is roughly classified into XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure), and XANES is mainly used in the analysis based on XAS of soft X-rays. As the examples of the latest soft X-ray analyses, the following are introduced: (1) bandgap of boron implantation diamond and the local structure of boron, (2) catalytic sites in solid fuel cell carbon electrode, and (3) soft X-ray analysis under atmospheric pressure. (A.O.)

  10. Radiation doses to patients from x-ray examinations - development from 2005 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitz, Wolfram; Almen, Anja

    2010-04-01

    Data has been compiled and analyzed and compared with the earlier reports. Radiation doses were tested for possible links with various parameters (eg type of x-ray equipment, image recording systems, different technique factors). In conventional x-ray examinations radiation doses were, for equipment with direct digital image receivers, in average 30% lower than for those with photo plates. Mammography doses were, with one exception, the same for all types of equipment and video receivers. The CT-examinations had a small trend for higher doses for new equipment as compared to earlier. Use of exposure automation did not affect radiation doses. Compared with 2006, the doses of conventional surveys decreased by an average of 21%. One third of this dose reduction can be attributed the introduction of direct digital system whose use grew by about 30%. Most of the dose reduction can be attributed to the actions carried out to lower the dose of the reference level. Doses for the CT scan showed only a weak downwards trend. Mammography Doses decreased by an average of just over 10% a large part dependent on increased number of Sectra equipment. The system of diagnostic reference levels have again shown to have positive influence on the radiation level at the x-ray examinations, this is most pronounced for conventional radiography. There is still a large potential for dose reduction, and a measure to achieve this is to reduce the current reference levels. Very few diagnostic Standard doses are higher than the reference level. A reduction of the reference levels corresponding to the third quartile of dose distribution could lead further dose decrease of 10-20%. The corresponding reduction in dose should be done also for the DT and mammograms when lowering the reference level, there are few standard doses higher than the current reference levels

  11. Investigation of radiation absorption and X-ray fluorescence properties of medical imaging scintillators by Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolopoulos, D.; Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.; Valais, I.; Linardatos, D.; Michail, C.; David, S.; Gaitanis, A.; Nomicos, C.; Louizi, A.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray absorption and X-ray fluorescence properties of medical imaging scintillating screens were studied by Monte Carlo methods as a function of the incident photon energy and screen-coating thickness. The scintillating materials examined were Gd 2 O 2 S (GOS) Gd 2 SiO 5 (GSO) YAlO 3 (YAP), Y 3 Al 5 O 12 (YAG), LuSiO 5 (LSO), LuAlO 3 (LuAP) and ZnS. Monoenergetic photon exposures were modeled in the range from 10 to 100 keV. The corresponding ranges of coating thicknesses of the investigated scintillating screens ranged up to 200 mg cm -2 . Results indicated that X-ray absorption and X-ray fluorescence are affected by the incident photon energy and the screen's coating thickness. Regarding incident photon energy, this X-ray absorption and fluorescence was found to exhibit very intense changes near the corresponding K edge of the heaviest element in the screen's scintillating material. Regarding coating thickness, thicker screens exhibited higher X-ray absorption and X-ray fluorescence. Results also indicated that a significant fraction of the generated X-ray fluorescent quanta escape from the scintillating screen. This fraction was found to increase with screen's coating thickness. At the energy range studied, most of the incident photons were found to be absorbed via one-hit photoelectric effect. As a result, the reabsorption of scattered radiation was found to be of rather minor importance; nevertheless this was found to increase with the screen's coating thickness. Differences in X-ray absorption and X-ray fluorescence were found among the various scintillators studied. LSO scintillator was found to be the most attractive material for use in many X-ray imaging applications, exhibiting the best absorption properties in the largest part of the energy range studied. Y-based scintillators were also found to be of significant absorption performance within the low energy ranges

  12. High-resolution imaging of coronary calcifications by intense low-energy fluoroscopic X-ray obtained from synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, S.; Sugishita, Y.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Tada, J.; Hyodo, K.; Ando, M. [Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Cardiology

    2000-07-01

    In order to obtain an intense monochromatic low-energy X-ray from synchrotron radiation (SR) and apply it to detect coronary calcifications, the SR beam was reflected with a silicon crystal to be expanded (150 mm in height and 80 mm in width) and to be monochromatized at an energy level of 37 keV. The X-ray was intermittently irradiated to obtain dynamic imaging of 30 images/s. Images were recorded by a digital fluorography system. The low-energy X-ray from SR sharply visualized calcification of coronary arteries, while conventional X-ray could not visualize coronary calcification. The intense monochromatic low-energy X-ray from SR is sensitive, has high-resolution for imaging coronary calcification and may serve as a screening method for coronary artery disease.

  13. Physiologically gated microbeam radiation using a field emission x-ray source array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chtcheprov, Pavel, E-mail: PavelC@unc.edu, E-mail: zhou@email.unc.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, 152 MacNider Hall, Campus Box 7575, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Burk, Laurel; Inscoe, Christina; Ger, Rachel; Hadsell, Michael; Lu, Jianping [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Phillips Hall, CB #3255, 120 East Cameron Avenue, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Yuan, Hong [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, 2006 Old Clinic, CB #7510, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Zhang, Lei [Department of Applied Physical Sciences, University of North Carolina, Chapman Hall, CB#3216, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Chang, Sha [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, 101 Manning Drive, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514 and UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, 101 Manning Drive, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514 (United States); Zhou, Otto, E-mail: PavelC@unc.edu, E-mail: zhou@email.unc.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Phillips Hall, CB #3255, 120 East Cameron Avenue, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 and UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, 101 Manning Drive, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27514 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) uses narrow planes of high dose radiation beams to treat cancerous tumors. This experimental therapy method based on synchrotron radiation has been shown to spare normal tissue at up to 1000 Gy of peak entrance dose while still being effective in tumor eradication and extending the lifetime of tumor-bearing small animal models. Motion during treatment can lead to significant movement of microbeam positions resulting in broader beam width and lower peak to valley dose ratio (PVDR), which reduces the effectiveness of MRT. Recently, the authors have demonstrated the feasibility of generating microbeam radiation for small animal treatment using a carbon nanotube (CNT) x-ray source array. The purpose of this study is to incorporate physiological gating to the CNT microbeam irradiator to minimize motion-induced microbeam blurring. Methods: The CNT field emission x-ray source array with a narrow line focal track was operated at 160 kVp. The x-ray radiation was collimated to a single 280 μm wide microbeam at entrance. The microbeam beam pattern was recorded using EBT2 Gafchromic{sup ©} films. For the feasibility study, a strip of EBT2 film was attached to an oscillating mechanical phantom mimicking mouse chest respiratory motion. The servo arm was put against a pressure sensor to monitor the motion. The film was irradiated with three microbeams under gated and nongated conditions and the full width at half maximums and PVDRs were compared. An in vivo study was also performed with adult male athymic mice. The liver was chosen as the target organ for proof of concept due to its large motion during respiration compared to other organs. The mouse was immobilized in a specialized mouse bed and anesthetized using isoflurane. A pressure sensor was attached to a mouse's chest to monitor its respiration. The output signal triggered the electron extraction voltage of the field emission source such that x-ray was generated only

  14. Investigation of polyelectrolytes by total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, I.; Nagy, M.

    2000-01-01

    Water soluble polyelectrolyte samples containing mono-, bi- and trivalent metal ions were investigated without any pretreatment. Acid digestion of linear polymers may lead to a product insoluble in water so the digestion has to be avoided. The aim of this paper was the determination of analytical characteristics and limitations of the total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis for poly (vinylalcohol-vinylsulphate) salts and poly (acrylic acid, acrylamide) copolymers containing the following cations: K + , Cs + , Ba 2+ , Cu 2+ and La 3+ . On the basis of our results efficiency of ion-exchange during preparation of polyelectrolytes and stoichiometry of the end-product were determined. TXRF results were compared with data gained by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) measurements except in the case of Cs + which has poor sensitivity in ICP-AES. Good agreement was found between the results of the two techniques and calculations from titrimetric data. Concentration of Li + and Mg 2+ in polymer samples was measured by ICP-AES. In majority of cases film-like dry residues of aqueous solutions of polyelectrolytes can be characterized by homogeneous spatial distribution of metal ions within the organic matrix. This is because the migration of the ions is hindered during drying process. Determination of metals in polyelectrolyte films by TXRF is quite ideal as model for analysis of plant, animal or human tissues which is a frequent task in environmental and inorganic biomedical analytical chemistry. (author)

  15. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of trace-elements in candies marketed in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Zarazua, G.; Avila-Perez, P.; Navarrete, M.; Tejeda, S.

    2010-01-01

    Trace metals concentrations in food are significant for nutrition, due either to their nature or toxicity. Sweets, including chewing gum and candies, are not exactly a food, but they usually are unwearied consumed by children, the most vulnerable age-group to any kind of metal contamination in the food chain. The presence of relatively high concentrations of heavy metals such as Lead elicits concern since children are highly susceptible to heavy metals poisoning. Trace-metals concentrations were determined for six different flavors of a Mexican candy by means of Total X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. Triplicate samples of the various candy's flavours (strawberry, pineapple, lemon, blackberry, orange and chilli) were digested in 8 mL of a mix of supra-pure HNO 3 and H 2 O 2 (6 mL: 2 mL) in a microwave oven MARS-X. Results show the presence of essential and toxic elements such as Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Pb. All metal concentrations were higher and significantly different (α = 0.05) in chilli candy, compared to other candy flavours. Lead concentration fluctuated in the range of 0.102 to 0.342 μg g -1 . A discussion about risk consumption and concentration allowed by Mexican and International Norms is made. As a part of the Quality Control Program, a NIST standard of 'Citrus Leaves' and a blank were treated in the same way.

  16. Total porosity of carbonate reservoir rocks by X-ray microtomography in two different spatial resolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Rodrigo; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Marques, Leonardo C.; Fernandes, Celso P.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonate reservoir rocks contain more than 50% of world's petroleum. To know carbonate rocks' structural properties is quite important to petroleum extraction. One of their main structural properties is the total porosity, which shows the rock's capacity to stock petroleum. In recent years, the X-ray microtomography had been used to analyze the structural parameters of reservoir rocks. Such nondestructive technique generates images of the samples' internal structure, allowing the evaluation of its properties. The spatial resolution is a measurement parameter that indicates the smallest structure size observable in a sample. It is possible to measure one sample using two or more different spatial resolutions in order to evaluate the samples' pore scale. In this work, two samples of the same sort of carbonate rock were measured, and in each measurement a different spatial resolution (17 μm and 7 μm) was applied. The obtained results showed that with the better resolution it was possible to measure 8% more pores than with the poorer resolution. Such difference provides us with good expectations about such approach to study the pore scale of carbonate rocks. (author)

  17. Multielement analysis of aerosol samples by X-ray fluorescence analysis with totally reflecting sample holders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelsen, P.; Knoechel, A.

    1984-01-01

    Aerosole samples on filter support were analyzed using the X-ray flourescence analytical method (Mo excitation) with totally reflecting sample carrier (TXFA). Wet decomposition of the sample material with HNO 3 in an enclosed system and subsequent sample preparation by evaporating an aliquot of the solution on the sample carrier yields detection limits up to 0.3 ng/cm 2 . The reproducibilities of the measurements of the elements K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb lie between 5 and 25%. Similar detection limits and reproducibilities are obtained, when low-temperature oxygen plasma is employed for the direct ashing of the homogenously covered filter on the sample carrier. For the systematic loss of elements both methods were investigated with radiotracers as well as with inactive techniques. A comparison of the results with those obtained by NAA, AAS and PIXE shows good agreement in most cases. For the bromine determination and the fast coverage of the main elements a possibility for measuring the filter membrane has been indicated, which neglects the ashing step. The corresponding detection limits are up to 3 ng/cm 2 . (orig.) [de

  18. Characterization and classification of spirituous beverages by total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila, E.G. de; Lue-Meru, M.P.; Capote, T.; Greaves, E.

    2000-01-01

    The total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique was applied for the multi-elemental analysis of spirituous beverages like rum, cocuy (typical spirituous beverage in Venezuela), whiskey and wine, in order to classify the samples by product processing and geographical origin by chemometric analysis. Special attention was paid to the cocuy samples, since there is a lack of quality control of this beverage, mainly due to the home-made product processing. The use of the Compton peak information was evaluated for the determination of organic content in samples. In the specifically case of cocuy samples the Compton peak area was correlated to the ash content for detection of adulteration with sugar syrup. Cocuy samples were also analyzed using gas chromatography, for pH, acidity, ash content and refractometry, in order to develop the recognition pattern. The TXRF analysis was carried out in a Canberra spectrometer, using the K α-line of a Motube, by a direct procedure previously developed. The analysis of the data was done by using principal components analysis and a confidence test. The results show that TXRF and chemometric analysis is a useful tool for quality control of spirituous beverages, not only concerning to metal content, but also in the evaluation of sugar and non volatile organic content. (author)

  19. Characterization and classification of spirituous beverages by total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila, E.G. de [Univerisdad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado, Decanato de Agronomia, Dpto. de Quimica y Suelos. Nucleo Tarabana, cabudare, Edo. Lara (Venezuela); Lue-Meru, M P; Capote, T [Univerisdad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado, Decanato de Agronomia, Dpto. de Quimica y Suelos. Nucleo Tarabana, Cabudare, Edo. Lara (Venezuela); Universidad Simon Bolivar, Dpto. de Quimica, Lab. Espectroscopia Atomica, Sartenejas, Baruta, Edo. Miranda (Venezuela); Greaves, E [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Dpto. de Fisica, Sartenejas, Baruta, Edo. Miranda (Venezuela)

    2000-07-01

    The total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique was applied for the multi-elemental analysis of spirituous beverages like rum, cocuy (typical spirituous beverage in Venezuela), whiskey and wine, in order to classify the samples by product processing and geographical origin by chemometric analysis. Special attention was paid to the cocuy samples, since there is a lack of quality control of this beverage, mainly due to the home-made product processing. The use of the Compton peak information was evaluated for the determination of organic content in samples. In the specifically case of cocuy samples the Compton peak area was correlated to the ash content for detection of adulteration with sugar syrup. Cocuy samples were also analyzed using gas chromatography, for pH, acidity, ash content and refractometry, in order to develop the recognition pattern. The TXRF analysis was carried out in a Canberra spectrometer, using the K {alpha}-line of a Motube, by a direct procedure previously developed. The analysis of the data was done by using principal components analysis and a confidence test. The results show that TXRF and chemometric analysis is a useful tool for quality control of spirituous beverages, not only concerning to metal content, but also in the evaluation of sugar and non volatile organic content. (author)

  20. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence as a tool for food screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola; Dalipi, Rogerta; Bontempi, Elza; Depero, Laura E.

    2015-11-01

    This review provides a comprehensive overview of the applications of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) in the field of food analysis. Elemental composition of food is of great importance, since food is the main source of essential, major and trace elements for animals and humans. Some potentially toxic elements, dangerous for human health may contaminate food, entering the food chain from the environment, processing, and storage. For this reason the elemental analysis of food is fundamental for safety assessment. Fast and sensitive analytical techniques, able to detect major and trace elements, are required as a result of the increasing demand on multi-elemental information and product screening. TXRF is suitable for elemental analysis of food, since it provides simultaneous multi-elemental identification in a wide dynamic range of concentrations. Several different matrices may be analyzed obtaining results with a good precision and accuracy. In this review, the most recent literature about the use of TXRF for the analysis of food is reported. The focus is placed on the applications within food quality monitoring of drinks, beverages, vegetables, fruits, cereals, animal derivatives and dietary supplements. Furthermore, this paper provides a critical outlook on the developments required to transfer these methods from research to the industrial and analytical laboratories contexts.

  1. Visualization of femorotibial contact in total knee arthroplasty using X-ray fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, Takaharu E-mail: yamazaki@image.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Watanabe, Tetsu; Nakajima, Yoshikazu; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Tomita, Tetsuya; Maeda, Daisuke; Sahara, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Tamura, Shinichi

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to build a visualization technique of the femorotibial contact in fixed-bearing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using X-ray fluoroscopy, and to apply this technique to a TKA patient during dynamic motion. In vivo kinametcis of the metallic knee implant was determined using a 2D/3D registration technique, which uses computer assisted design (CAD) model of the implant to estimate the 3D pose of radiopaque metallic femoral and tibial components from a single-plane fluoroscopic image. In fixed-bearing TKA, a 3D pose of radiolucent tibial polyethylene insert can be determined from the estimated pose of the tibial component. To visualize femorotibial contact, the proximity between surfaces of femoral component and tibial insert was calculated, and mapped onto the insert surface model. For the clinical application, dynamic states of contact on the tibial insert were observed including axial rotation and unilateral loading during knee flexion, and post-cam contact of posterior stabilized TKA. The present technique provided us new information and enabled us to better understand the relationship between in vivo knee kinematics and articular shape of the implant.

  2. Sample preparation for total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis using resist pattern technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, K.; Yomogita, N.; Konyuba, Y.

    2018-06-01

    A circular resist pattern layer with a diameter of 9 mm was prepared on a glass substrate (26 mm × 76 mm; 1.5 mm thick) for total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis. The parallel cross pattern was designed with a wall thickness of 10 μm, an interval of 20 μm, and a height of 1.4 or 0.8 μm. This additional resist layer did not significantly increase background intensity on the XRF peaks in TXRF spectra. Dotted residue was obtained from a standard solution (10 μL) containing Ti, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Ga, each at a final concentration of 10 ppm, on a normal glass substrate with a silicone coating layer. The height of the residue was more than 100 μm, where self-absorption in the large residue affected TXRF quantification (intensity relative standard deviation (RSD): 12-20%). In contrast, from a droplet composed of a small volume of solution dropped and cast on the resist pattern structure, the obtained residue was not completely film but a film-like residue with a thickness less than 1 μm, where self-absorption was not a serious problem. In the end, this sample preparation was demonstrated to improve TXRF quantification (intensity RSD: 2-4%).

  3. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of trace-elements in candies marketed in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, T.; Lartigue, J.; Zarazua, G.; Avila-Perez, P.; Navarrete, M.; Tejeda, S.

    2010-06-01

    Trace metals concentrations in food are significant for nutrition, due either to their nature or toxicity. Sweets, including chewing gum and candies, are not exactly a food, but they usually are unwearied consumed by children, the most vulnerable age-group to any kind of metal contamination in the food chain. The presence of relatively high concentrations of heavy metals such as Lead elicits concern since children are highly susceptible to heavy metals poisoning. Trace-metals concentrations were determined for six different flavors of a Mexican candy by means of Total X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. Triplicate samples of the various candy's flavours (strawberry, pineapple, lemon, blackberry, orange and chilli) were digested in 8 mL of a mix of supra-pure HNO 3 and H 2O 2 (6 mL: 2 mL) in a microwave oven MARS-X. Results show the presence of essential and toxic elements such as Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Pb. All metal concentrations were higher and significantly different ( α = 0.05) in chilli candy, compared to other candy flavours. Lead concentration fluctuated in the range of 0.102 to 0.342 μg g - 1 . A discussion about risk consumption and concentration allowed by Mexican and International Norms is made. As a part of the Quality Control Program, a NIST standard of "Citrus Leaves" and a blank were treated in the same way.

  4. Analysis of low Z elements in various environmental samples with total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefler, H.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Ovari, M.; Zaray, Gy.

    2006-01-01

    Recently there is a growing interest in low Z elements such as carbon, oxygen up to sulphur and phosphorus in biological specimen. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry is a suitable technique demanding only very small amounts of sample. On the other side, the detection of low Z elements is a critical point of this analytical technique. Besides other effects, self absorption may occur in the samples, because of the low energy of the fluorescence radiation. The calibration curves might be not linear any longer. To investigate this issue water samples and samples from human cerebrospinal fluid were used to examine absorption effects. The linearity of calibration curves in dependence of sample mass was investigated to verify the validity of the thin film approximation. The special requirements to the experimental setup for low Z energy dispersive fluorescence analysis were met by using the Atominstitute's TXRF vacuum chamber. This spectrometer is equipped with a Cr-anode X-ray tube, a multilayer monochromator and a SiLi detector with 30 mm 2 active area and with an ultrathin entrance window. Other object on this study are biofilms, living on all subaqueous surfaces, consisting of bacteria, algae and fungi embedded in their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Many trace elements from the water are bound in the biofilm. Thus, the biofilm is a useful indicator for polluting elements. For biomonitoring purposes not only the polluting elements but also the formation and growth rate of the biofilm are important. Biofilms were directly grown on TXRF reflectors. Their major elements and C-masses correlated to the cultivation time were investigated. These measured masses were related to the area seen by the detector, which was experimentally determined. Homogeneity of the biofilms was checked by measuring various sample positions on the reflectors

  5. Analysis of low Z elements in various environmental samples with total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefler, H. [Atominstitut of the Austrian Universities, TU-Wien, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Streli, C. [Atominstitut of the Austrian Universities, TU-Wien, A-1020 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: streli@ati.ac.at; Wobrauschek, P. [Atominstitut of the Austrian Universities, TU-Wien, A-1020 Vienna (Austria); Ovari, M. [Eoetvoes University, Institute of Chemistry, H-1117, Budapest, Pazmany P. stny 1/a. (Hungary); Zaray, Gy. [Eoetvoes University, Institute of Chemistry, H-1117, Budapest, Pazmany P. stny 1/a. (Hungary)

    2006-11-15

    Recently there is a growing interest in low Z elements such as carbon, oxygen up to sulphur and phosphorus in biological specimen. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry is a suitable technique demanding only very small amounts of sample. On the other side, the detection of low Z elements is a critical point of this analytical technique. Besides other effects, self absorption may occur in the samples, because of the low energy of the fluorescence radiation. The calibration curves might be not linear any longer. To investigate this issue water samples and samples from human cerebrospinal fluid were used to examine absorption effects. The linearity of calibration curves in dependence of sample mass was investigated to verify the validity of the thin film approximation. The special requirements to the experimental setup for low Z energy dispersive fluorescence analysis were met by using the Atominstitute's TXRF vacuum chamber. This spectrometer is equipped with a Cr-anode X-ray tube, a multilayer monochromator and a SiLi detector with 30 mm{sup 2} active area and with an ultrathin entrance window. Other object on this study are biofilms, living on all subaqueous surfaces, consisting of bacteria, algae and fungi embedded in their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Many trace elements from the water are bound in the biofilm. Thus, the biofilm is a useful indicator for polluting elements. For biomonitoring purposes not only the polluting elements but also the formation and growth rate of the biofilm are important. Biofilms were directly grown on TXRF reflectors. Their major elements and C-masses correlated to the cultivation time were investigated. These measured masses were related to the area seen by the detector, which was experimentally determined. Homogeneity of the biofilms was checked by measuring various sample positions on the reflectors.

  6. Background radiation in inelastic X-ray scattering and X-ray emission spectroscopy. A study for Johann-type spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes Mellone, O. A.; Bianco, L. M.; Ceppi, S. A.; Goncalves Honnicke, M.; Stutz, G. E.

    2018-06-01

    A study of the background radiation in inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) based on an analytical model is presented. The calculation model considers spurious radiation originated from elastic and inelastic scattering processes along the beam paths of a Johann-type spectrometer. The dependence of the background radiation intensity on the medium of the beam paths (air and helium), analysed energy and radius of the Rowland circle was studied. The present study shows that both for IXS and XES experiments the background radiation is dominated by spurious radiation owing to scattering processes along the sample-analyser beam path. For IXS experiments the spectral distribution of the main component of the background radiation shows a weak linear dependence on the energy for the most cases. In the case of XES, a strong non-linear behaviour of the background radiation intensity was predicted for energy analysis very close to the backdiffraction condition, with a rapid increase in intensity as the analyser Bragg angle approaches π / 2. The contribution of the analyser-detector beam path is significantly weaker and resembles the spectral distribution of the measured spectra. Present results show that for usual experimental conditions no appreciable structures are introduced by the background radiation into the measured spectra, both in IXS and XES experiments. The usefulness of properly calculating the background profile is demonstrated in a background subtraction procedure for a real experimental situation. The calculation model was able to simulate with high accuracy the energy dependence of the background radiation intensity measured in a particular XES experiment with air beam paths.

  7. Comptonization of low-frequency radiation in accretion disks Angular distribution and polarization of hard X-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suniaev, R.A.; Titarchuk, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    Analytical consideration is given to the comptonization of photons and its effects on the radiation emitted from accretion disks of compact X-ray sources, such as black holes and neutron stars. Attention is given to the photon distribution during escape from the disk, the angular distribution of hard radiation from the disk, the polarization of hard radiation and the electron temperature distribution over the optical depth. It is shown that the hard radiation spectrum is independent of the low-frequency photon source distribution. The angular distribution and polarization of the outgoing X-rays are a function of the optical depth. A Thomson approximation is used to estimate the angular distribution of the hard radiation and the polarization over the disk. The polarization results are compared with OSO-8 satellite data for Cyg X-1 and show good agreement at several energy levels. 17 references

  8. Methodology of ionizing radiation measurement, from x-ray equipment, for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, Katia C.S.; Borges, Jose C.

    1996-01-01

    Most of X-rays beam used for diagnostic, are short exposure time (milliseconds). Exception are those used in fluoroscopy. measuring instruments (area monitors with ionizing chambers or Geiger tubes) used in hospitals and clinics, in general, have characteristic answer time not adequate to X-rays beams length in time. Our objective was to analyse instruments available commercially, to prepare a measuring methodology for direct and secondary beams, in order to evaluate protection barriers for beams used in diagnostic radiology installations. (author)

  9. The law for radiation and x-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Law aims to define the qulifications of radiation and x-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment and to regulate so that the works are carried out properly for helping popularization and improvement of medicine and public hygiene. Persons who wish to be radiation or x-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment are required to pass the examinations for such technicians and obtain the licenes of the Minister of Health and Welfare for the former technicians and the license of a prefectural governor for the latter technicians. Mentally disordered, deaf, dumb or blind persons are excluded from licensees. Registration of such technicians, delivery of the license certificates and other related matters are provided for. The examinations are held concerning the knowledges and skills necessary for such technicians and carried out by the Minister of Health and Welfare. Persons except doctors, dentists and such technicians are prohibited to engage in the practices to apply radiation to human bodies. Restrictions on the intensity of radiation applied and the places of work are defined concerning such practices. Penal servitude of less than a year and fines less than yen 10,000 or yen 5,000 are imposed upon the violation of such prohibitions or restrictions. (Okada, K.)

  10. Paediatric x-ray radiation dose reduction and image quality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, L; Ruddlesden, R; Makepeace, C; Robinson, L; Mistry, T; Starritt, H

    2013-09-01

    Collaboration of multiple staff groups has resulted in significant reduction in the risk of radiation-induced cancer from radiographic x-ray exposure during childhood. In this study at an acute NHS hospital trust, a preliminary audit identified initial exposure factors. These were compared with European and UK guidance, leading to the introduction of new factors that were in compliance with European guidance on x-ray tube potentials. Image quality was assessed using standard anatomical criteria scoring, and visual grading characteristics analysis assessed the impact on image quality of changes in exposure factors. This analysis determined the acceptability of gradual radiation dose reduction below the European and UK guidance levels. Chest and pelvis exposures were optimised, achieving dose reduction for each age group, with 7%-55% decrease in critical organ dose. Clinicians confirmed diagnostic image quality throughout the iterative process. Analysis of images acquired with preliminary and final exposure factors indicated an average visual grading analysis result of 0.5, demonstrating equivalent image quality. The optimisation process and final radiation doses are reported for Carestream computed radiography to aid other hospitals in minimising radiation risks to children.

  11. Paediatric x-ray radiation dose reduction and image quality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L; Ruddlesden, R; Mistry, T; Starritt, H; Makepeace, C; Robinson, L

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration of multiple staff groups has resulted in significant reduction in the risk of radiation-induced cancer from radiographic x-ray exposure during childhood. In this study at an acute NHS hospital trust, a preliminary audit identified initial exposure factors. These were compared with European and UK guidance, leading to the introduction of new factors that were in compliance with European guidance on x-ray tube potentials. Image quality was assessed using standard anatomical criteria scoring, and visual grading characteristics analysis assessed the impact on image quality of changes in exposure factors. This analysis determined the acceptability of gradual radiation dose reduction below the European and UK guidance levels. Chest and pelvis exposures were optimised, achieving dose reduction for each age group, with 7%–55% decrease in critical organ dose. Clinicians confirmed diagnostic image quality throughout the iterative process. Analysis of images acquired with preliminary and final exposure factors indicated an average visual grading analysis result of 0.5, demonstrating equivalent image quality. The optimisation process and final radiation doses are reported for Carestream computed radiography to aid other hospitals in minimising radiation risks to children. (paper)

  12. Radiation dose response of N channel MOSFET submitted to filtered X-ray photon beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves Filho, Luiz C.; Monte, David S.; Barros, Fabio R.; Santos, Luiz A. P.

    2018-01-01

    MOSFET can operate as a radiation detector mainly in high-energy photon beams, which are normally used in cancer treatments. In general, such an electronic device can work as a dosimeter from threshold voltage shift measurements. The purpose of this article is to show a new way for measuring the dose-response of MOSFETs when they are under X-ray beams generated from 100kV potential range, which is normally used in diagnostic radiology. Basically, the method consists of measuring the MOSFET drain current as a function of the radiation dose. For this the type of device, it has to be biased with a high value resistor aiming to see a substantial change in the drain current after it has been irradiated with an amount of radiation dose. Two types of N channel device were used in the experiment: a signal transistor and a power transistor. The delivered dose to the device was varied and the electrical curves were plotted. Also, a sensitivity analysis of the power MOSFET response was made, by varying the tube potential of about 20%. The results show that both types of devices have responses very similar, the shift in the electrical curve is proportional to the radiation dose. Unlike the power MOSFET, the signal transistor does not provide a linear function between the dose rate and its drain current. We also have observed that the variation in the tube potential of the X-ray equipment produces a very similar dose-response.

  13. Scheme for generating and transporting THz radiation to the X-ray experimental hall at the European XFEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decking, Winfried; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Zagorodnov, Igor [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The design of a THz edge radiation source for the European XFEL is presented.We consider generation of THz radiation from the spent electron beam downstream of the SASE2 undulator in the electron beam dump area. In this way, the THz output must propagate at least for 250 meters through the photon beam tunnel to the experimental hall to reach the SASE2 X-ray hutches. We propose to use an open beam waveguide such as an iris guide as transmission line. In order to efficiently couple radiation into the iris transmission line, generation of the THz radiation pulse can be performed directly within the iris guide. The line transporting the THz radiation to the SASE2 X-ray hutches introduces a path delay of about 20 m. Since THz pump/X-ray probe experiments should be enabled, we propose to exploit the European XFEL baseline multi-bunch mode of operation, with 222 ns electron bunch separation, in order to cope with the delay between THz and X-ray pulses. We present start-to-end simulations for 1 nC bunch operation-parameters, optimized for THz pump/X-ray probe experiments.Detailed characterization of the THz and SASE X-ray radiation pulses is performed. Highly focused THz beams will approach the high field limit of 1 V/atomic size. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of radiation protection in conventional x-ray departments in diagnostic radiography (Kartoum City)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhussien, Nuha Yousif Osman

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted in a number of governmental and private hospitals in the city of Khartoum in order to evalute radiation protection in conventional X-ray departments. The number of governmental hospitals was and 4 private 69% and 31&, respectivly, and the number of X-rays rooms that have been evaluted was 19, 15 gvernmental and private by rate of 79% and 21% respectively. And found that many of the hospitals fullfilled the requirements of radiation protection, also we have been observed that all radiology rooms are built well, but their control rooms was mostly not fulfilled the requirements of radiation protection due to either were not build inclimed to reflect the scattered radiation due to either they were not build inclimed to reflect the scattered radiation from the patient or their size was small that not enable workers to exerciese their work safely, as well as some height less than recommended by the competent authorities. Also found that most hospitals have lead aprons axcept three, but some they are old that means do not protect against radiation due they were broke or not put it in the that means do not protect against radiation due they were broke or not put it in the right way. Even the good ares not used by most of the technician and co-patients. All the hoapitals have not the following radiation tools (thyroid collar, lead glasses, lead gloves. TLDs, and gonad shields). The scattered radiation (leakage) was evaluted in the control room, the door of the control room, the dark room, behind chest stand, staff office, and the waiting area. We found that the higher readings in the door of the control rooms (<10 μSv/hr) in the five control rooms from 19, also the readings exceeded the limits in three hospitals in control rooms 13 rooms. And also the readings exceeded the limits in two hospitals in the staff office, and the waiting area. (Author)

  15. A high resolution small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) with x-ray tomographic guidance capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, John; Armour, Elwood; Kazanzides, Peter; Iordachita, Iulian; Tryggestad, Erik; Deng, Hua; Matinfar, Mohammad; Kennedy, Christopher; Liu, Zejian; Chan, Timothy; Gray, Owen; Verhaegen, Frank; McNutt, Todd; Ford, Eric; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the CT imaging, conformal irradiation and treatment planning capabilities of a small animal radiation research platform (SARRP). Methods The SARRP employs a dual-focal spot, constant voltage x-ray source mounted on a gantry with a source-to-isocenter distance of 35 cm. Gantry rotation is limited to 120° from vertical. Eighty to 100 kVp x-rays from the smaller 0.4 mm focal spot are used for imaging. Both 0.4 mm and 3.0 mm focal spots operate at 225 kVp for irradiation. Robotic translate/rotate stages are used to position the animal. Cone-beam (CB) CT imaging is achieved by rotating the horizontal animal between the stationary x-ray source and a flat-panel detector. Radiation beams range from 0.5 mm in diameter to (60 × 60) mm2. Dosimetry is measured with radio-chromic films. Monte Carlo dose calculations are employed for treatment planning. The combination of gantry and robotic stage motions facilitate conformal irradiation. Results The SARRP spans 3 ft × 4 ft × 6 ft (WxLxH). Depending on filtration, the isocenter dose outputs at 1 cm depth in water range from 22 to 375 cGy/min from the smallest to the largest radiation fields. The 20% to 80% dose fall-off spans 0.16 mm. CBCT with (0.6 × 0.6 × 0.6) mm3 voxel resolution is acquired with less than 1 cGy. Treatment planning is performed at sub-mm resolution. Conclusions The capability of the SARRP to deliver highly focal beams to multiple animal model systems provides new research opportunities that more realistically bridge laboratory research and clinical translation. PMID:18640502

  16. A New Two-fluid Radiation-hydrodynamical Model for X-Ray Pulsar Accretion Columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Brent F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Wolfram, Kenneth D. [Naval Research Laboratory (retired), Washington, DC (United States); Becker, Peter A., E-mail: bwest@usna.edu, E-mail: kswolfram@gmail.com, E-mail: pbecker@gmu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA USA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Previous research centered on the hydrodynamics in X-ray pulsar accretion columns has largely focused on the single-fluid model, in which the super-Eddington luminosity inside the column decelerates the flow to rest at the stellar surface. This type of model has been relatively successful in describing the overall properties of the accretion flows, but it does not account for the possible dynamical effect of the gas pressure. On the other hand, the most successful radiative transport models for pulsars generally do not include a rigorous treatment of the dynamical structure of the column, instead assuming an ad hoc velocity profile. In this paper, we explore the structure of X-ray pulsar accretion columns using a new, self-consistent, “two-fluid” model, which incorporates the dynamical effect of the gas and radiation pressures, the dipole variation of the magnetic field, the thermodynamic effect of all of the relevant coupling and cooling processes, and a rigorous set of physical boundary conditions. The model has six free parameters, which we vary in order to approximately fit the phase-averaged spectra in Her X-1, Cen X-3, and LMC X-4. In this paper, we focus on the dynamical results, which shed new light on the surface magnetic field strength, the inclination of the magnetic field axis relative to the rotation axis, the relative importance of gas and radiation pressures, and the radial variation of the ion, electron, and inverse-Compton temperatures. The results obtained for the X-ray spectra are presented in a separate paper.

  17. Using the longitudinal space charge instability for generation of vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Schneidmiller

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal space charge (LSC driven microbunching instability in electron beam formation systems of x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs is a recently discovered effect hampering beam instrumentation and FEL operation. The instability was observed in different facilities in infrared and visible wavelength ranges. In this paper we propose to use such an instability for generation of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV and x-ray radiation. A typical longitudinal space charge amplifier (LSCA consists of few amplification cascades (drift space plus chicane with a short undulator behind the last cascade. If the amplifier starts up from the shot noise, the amplified density modulation has a wide band, on the order of unity. The bandwidth of the radiation within the central cone is given by an inverse number of undulator periods. A wavelength compression could be an attractive option for LSCA since the process is broadband, and a high compression stability is not required. LSCA can be used as a cheap addition to the existing or planned short-wavelength FELs. In particular, it can produce the second color for a pump-probe experiment. It is also possible to generate attosecond pulses in the VUV and x-ray regimes. Some user experiments can profit from a relatively large bandwidth of the radiation, and this is easy to obtain in the LSCA scheme. Finally, since the amplification mechanism is broadband and robust, LSCA can be an interesting alternative to the self-amplified spontaneous emission free-electron laser (SASE FEL in the case of using laser-plasma accelerators as drivers of light sources.

  18. Coherent Sources of XUV Radiation Soft X-Ray Lasers and High-Order Harmonic Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Jaeglé, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet radiation, also referred to as soft X-rays or XUV, offers very special optical properties. The X-UV refractive index of matter is such that normal reflection cannot take place on polished surfaces whereas beam transmission through one micrometer of almost all materials reduces to zero. Therefore, it has long been a difficult task to imagine and to implement devices designed for complex optics experiments in this wavelength range. Thanks to new sources of coherent radiation - XUV-lasers and High Order Harmonics - the use of XUV radiation, for interferometry, holography, diffractive optics, non-linear radiation-matter interaction, time-resolved study of fast and ultrafast phenomena and many other applications, including medical sciences, is ubiquitous.

  19. Nanoscale examination of microdamage in sheep cortical bone using synchrotron radiation transmission x-ray microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry R Brock

    Full Text Available Microdamage occurs in bone through repeated and excessive loading. Accumulation of microdamage weakens bone, leading to a loss of strength, stiffness and energy dissipation in the tissue. Imaging techniques used to examine microdamage have typically been limited to the microscale. In the current study microdamage was examined at the nanoscale using transmission x-ray microscopy with an x-ray negative stain, lead-uranyl acetate. Microdamage was generated in notched and unnotched beams of sheep cortical bone (2×2×20 mm, with monotonic and fatigue loading. Bulk sections were removed from beams and stained with lead-uranyl acetate to identify microdamage. Samples were sectioned to 50 microns and imaged using transmission x-ray microscopy producing projection images of microdamage with nanoscale resolution. Staining indicated microdamage occurred in both the tensile and compressive regions. A comparison between monotonic and fatigue loading indicated a statistically significant greater amount of stain present in fatigue loaded sections. Microdamage occurred in three forms: staining to existing bone structures, cross hatch damage and a single crack extending from the notch tip. Comparison to microcomputed tomography demonstrated differences in damage morphology and total damage between the microscale and nanoscale. This method has future applications for understanding the underlying mechanisms for microdamage formation as well as three-dimensional nanoscale examination of microdamage.

  20. Raphide crystal structure in agave tequilana determined by x-ray originating from synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadokoro, Makoto; Ozawa, Yoshiki; Mitsumi, Minoru; Toriumi, Kohshiro; Ogura, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The first single crystal structure of small natural raphides in an agave plant is completely determined using an intense X-ray originating from a synchrotron radiation. The SEM image shows that the tip of the crystal is approximately hundreds of nanometer in width sharply grow to stick to the tissue of herbivorous vermin. Furthermore, the crystal develops cracks that propagate at an inclination of approximately 45deg towards the direction of crystal growth such that the crystal easily splits into small pieces in the tissue. (author)

  1. A spectrometer for X-ray energy-dispersive diffraction using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, B.; Gerward, L.; Staun Olsen, J.; Steenstrup, S.

    1981-10-01

    The paper describes a white-beam X-ray energy dispersive diffractometer using the synchroton radiation from the DORIS ESR. The following features of the instrument are discussed: Horizontal or vertical scattering plane, collimators, sample environment, remote control of gonimeter, data acquisition, energy-sensitive detectors using small-area and large-area detector crystals, modes of operation, powder and single crystal diffraction. An example is given from a high-pressure study of YbH 2 using a diamond anvil cell. (orig./HP)

  2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of synchrotron radiation irradiation of a polytetrafluoroethylene surface

    CERN Document Server

    Haruyama, Y; Matsui, S; Ideta, T; Ishigaki, H

    2003-01-01

    The effect of synchrotron radiation (SR) irradiation of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface was investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After the SR irradiation, the relative intensity of the F ls peak to the C ls peak decreased markedly. The chemical composition ratio to the F atoms to C atoms was estimated to be 0.29. From the curve fitting analysis of C ls and F ls XPS spectra, the chemical components and their intensity ratio were determined. The reason for the chemical composition change by the SR irradiation was discussed. (author)

  3. Analysis of signal to background ratio in synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Kenji; Gohshi, Yohichi; Iida, Atsuo.

    1988-01-01

    The signal to background (S/B) ratio in energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SR) was quantitatively analyzed. The S/B ratio, which has been significantly improved by taking advantage of the polarized nature of SR, was found to be strongly dependent on geometrical factors of the measurement system. From the analysis on the origin of the scattered background, the dependence of the S/B ratio on the geometry was quantitatively explained, mainly by the polarization properties of SR. Experimental conditions could be optimized by adjusting the degree of polarization of the incident beam and the detector solid angle. (author)

  4. Computer simulation for synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescent microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Biao; Yu Xiaohan; Xu Hongjie

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation based fluorescent microtomography (SR-XFMT) is a nondestructive technique for detecting elemental composition and distribution inside a specimen with high spatial resolution and sensitivity, and will be an optional experimental technique at SSRF hard X-ray micro-focusing beamline now under construction. In this paper, the principles and developments of SR-XFMT are briefly introduced. Computer simulation of SR-XFMT experiment is performed. The image of the simulated sample is reconstructed using Filtered Back Projection (FBP), Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques (ART) and modified FBP with absorption correction. The qualities of the reconstructed images are analyzed and compared. The validity of these reconstruction techniques is discussed. (authors)

  5. Microscopic nonlinear relativistic quantum theory of absorption of powerful x-ray radiation in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetissian, H K; Ghazaryan, A G; Matevosyan, H H; Mkrtchian, G F

    2015-10-01

    The microscopic quantum theory of plasma nonlinear interaction with the coherent shortwave electromagnetic radiation of arbitrary intensity is developed. The Liouville-von Neumann equation for the density matrix is solved analytically considering a wave field exactly and a scattering potential of plasma ions as a perturbation. With the help of this solution we calculate the nonlinear inverse-bremsstrahlung absorption rate for a grand canonical ensemble of electrons. The latter is studied in Maxwellian, as well as in degenerate quantum plasma for x-ray lasers at superhigh intensities and it is shown that one can achieve the efficient absorption coefficient in these cases.

  6. The effect of anode surface roughness on radiation output for diagnostic x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meghzifene, K.; Nowotny, R.; Aiginger, H.

    2002-01-01

    The calculation of entrance surface dose to patients in diagnostic radiology from tube output data is determined by often-unknown sources of inherent filtration. One of these sources is the roughness of the anode surface increasing with tube ageing. This effect increases the inherent filtration of the x-ray tube noticed by a reduced radiation output and increased half-value layers (HVL). To study this effect used rotating anodes were collected and the surface profile of 8 focal tracks was measured in radial direction using an instrument with a diamond tipped stylus (90 deg. tip, 1 μm radius). Surface roughness was determined as the arithmetic mean R a of the deviation in the profile from the centre line for 200 μm reference lengths ranging from 1.32 μm (sandblasted finish without surface degradation) to 5.22 μm (a track for a small focus). The surface profiles were then used to calculate x-ray spectra using a computer code. For each surface about 40000 spectra were calculated with the electrons entering the anode at random position and spectral parameters were then determined. The simulation showed that for rough surfaces the x-rays have to penetrate an additional absorbing layer of tungsten increasing in thickness with anode roughness. The anode with the roughest focal track (R a =5.22 μm) yields a mean additional absorber thickness in direction of the x-ray beam of about 18 μm. The corresponding loss in air kerma for this anode was about 20% at 70 kVp. The effect on mean photon energy is rather small but highest at 70 kVp (+1 keV at R a =5.22 μm) and lowest at 140 kVp (∼0 keV). This is due to the K-edge in the attenuation coefficients of tungsten at 69.5 keV. Beam hardening is thus reduced for higher voltages as absorption at lower photon energies is balanced by higher absorption above the K-edge while at lower voltages beam hardening is fully effective. The pattern of changes in HVL is more complex but in essence also reflects voltage, roughness and

  7. The role of total-reflection x-ray fluorescence in atomic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelg, G.; Klockenkaemper, R.

    1993-01-01

    Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a universal and economic method for the simultaneous determination of elements with atomic numbers > 11 down to the lower pg-level. It is a microanalytical tool for the analysis of small sample amounts placed on flat carriers and for contaminations on flat sample surfaces. Analyses of stratified near-surface layers are made possible by varying the incident angle of the primary beam in the region of total-reflection. This non-destructive method is especially suitable for thin layers of a few nanometres, deposited on wafer material although not usable as a microprobe method with a high lateral resolution. Furthermore, depth profiles of biological samples can be recorded by means of microtome sectioning of only a few micrometres, as, for example in the gradient analysis of human organs. In addition to micro- and surface-layer analysis, TXRF is effectively applied to element trace analysis. Homogeneous solutions, for example aqueous solutions, high-purity acids or body fluids, are pipetted onto carriers and, after evaporation, the dry residues are analyzed directly down to the pg/ml region. Particularly advantageous is the absence of matrix effects, so that an easy calibration can be carried out by adding a single internal standard element. A digestion or separation step preceding the actual determination becomes necessary if a more complex matrix is to be analysed or especially low detection limits have to be reached. A critical evaluation of the recent developments in atomic spectroscopy places TXRF in a leading position. Its outstanding features compete with those of e.g. electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), microwave induced plasma optical emission spectroscopy (MIP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in the field of micro- and trace analysis and with Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in the surface-layer analysis. (author)

  8. Determination of lead in clay enameled by X-ray fluorescence technique in Total reflection and by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarazua O, G.; Carapia M, L.

    2000-01-01

    This work has the objective of determining lead free in the glazed commercial stewing pans using the X-ray fluorescence technique in Total reflection (FRX) and the observation and semiquantitative determination of lead by Analytical Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM). (Author)

  9. Development of off-line layer chromatographic and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometric methods for arsenic speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihucz, Victor G. [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Moricz, Agnes M. [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Chemistry, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Kroepfl, Krisztina [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Szikora, Szilvia [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Tatar, Eniko [Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Parra, Lue Meru Marco [Universidad Centro-occidental Lisandro Alvarado, Decanato de Agronomia, Departamento de Quimica y Suelos Unidad de Analisis Instrumental, Apartado Postal 4076, Cabudare 3023 (Venezuela); Zaray, Gyula [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary) and Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, P. O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary) and L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: zaray@ludens.elte.hu

    2006-11-15

    Rapid and low cost off-line thin layer chromatography-total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and overpressured thin layer chromatography-total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry methods have been developed for separation of 25 ng of each As(III), As(V), monomethyl arsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid applying a PEI cellulose stationary phase on plastic sheets and a mixture of acetone/acetic acid/water = 2:1:1 (v/v/v) as eluent system. The type of eluent systems, the amounts (25-1000 ng) of As species applied to PEI cellulose plates, injection volume, development distance, and flow rate (in case of overpressured thin layer chromatography) were taken into consideration for the development of the chromatographic separation. Moreover, a microdigestion method employing nitric acid for the As spots containing PEI cellulose scratched from the developed plates divided into segments was developed for the subsequent total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry analysis. The method was applied for analysis of root extracts of cucumber plants grown in As(III) containing modified Hoagland nutrient solution. Both As(III) and As(V) were detected by applying the proposed thin layer chromatography/overpressured thin layer chromatography-total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry methods.

  10. Development of off-line layer chromatographic and total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometric methods for arsenic speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihucz, Victor G.; Moricz, Agnes M.; Kroepfl, Krisztina; Szikora, Szilvia; Tatar, Eniko; Parra, Lue Meru Marco; Zaray, Gyula

    2006-01-01

    Rapid and low cost off-line thin layer chromatography-total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and overpressured thin layer chromatography-total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry methods have been developed for separation of 25 ng of each As(III), As(V), monomethyl arsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid applying a PEI cellulose stationary phase on plastic sheets and a mixture of acetone/acetic acid/water = 2:1:1 (v/v/v) as eluent system. The type of eluent systems, the amounts (25-1000 ng) of As species applied to PEI cellulose plates, injection volume, development distance, and flow rate (in case of overpressured thin layer chromatography) were taken into consideration for the development of the chromatographic separation. Moreover, a microdigestion method employing nitric acid for the As spots containing PEI cellulose scratched from the developed plates divided into segments was developed for the subsequent total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry analysis. The method was applied for analysis of root extracts of cucumber plants grown in As(III) containing modified Hoagland nutrient solution. Both As(III) and As(V) were detected by applying the proposed thin layer chromatography/overpressured thin layer chromatography-total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry methods

  11. Evaluation of the spectral distribution of X-ray beams from measurements on the scattered radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casnati, E.; Baraldi, C.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the phenomena activated by photons with energies below 100 keV show an apparent or real dependence on the quantum energy. Therefore, knowledge of the beam energy characteristics is of primary importance for interpretation of the irradiation results. The greatest difficulty arises from the high flux density of the beams usually employed which does not allow direct measurements of the beam. A method was developed which permits evaluation of the spectral distribution of the X-ray beam from a spectrometric measurement of the radiation scattered by a thin foil of a suitable metal. This makes possible a new and more rational approach to the measurement of X-rays in the energy range where the interaction parameters show a large photon energy dependence. The corrections required by the presence of some collateral effects, among which the most important is the coexistence of the coherent and incoherent scattering, must be evaluated. The knowledge of the spectral distribution is of immediate usefulness for studies of radiation damage in biological and other materials, for the calibration of radiation measuring instruments and for the improvement of the radiological instrumentation response which contributes to reducing the patient's dose. (H.K.)

  12. Characterizing the behavior of scattered radiation in multi-energy x-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sossin, Artur, E-mail: artur.sossin@gmail.com [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Rebuffel, V.; Tabary, J. [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Létang, J.M.; Freud, N. [Univ Lyon, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, UJM-Saint Etienne, CNRS, Inserm, Centre Léon Bérard, CREATIS UMR 5220 U1206, F-69373 Lyon (France); Verger, L. [CEA-LETI MINATEC Grenoble, F-38054 Grenoble (France)

    2017-04-01

    Scattered radiation results in various undesirable effects in medical diagnostics, non-destructive testing (NDT) and security x-ray imaging. Despite numerous studies characterizing this phenomenon and its effects, the knowledge of its behavior in the energy domain remains limited. The present study aims at summarizing some key insights on scattered radiation originating from the inspected object. In addition, various simulations and experiments with limited collimation on both simplified and realistic phantoms were conducted in order to study scatter behavior in multi-energy x-ray imaging. Results showed that the spectrum shape of the scatter component can be considered preserved in the first approximation across the image plane for various acquisition geometries and phantoms. The variations exhibited by the scatter spectrum were below 10% for most examined cases. Furthermore, the corresponding spectrum shape proved to be also relatively invariant for different experimental angular projections of one of the examined phantoms. The observed property of scattered radiation can potentially lead to the decoupling of spatial and energy scatter components, which can in turn enable speed ups in scatter simulations and reduce the complexity of scatter correction.

  13. Evaluation of radiation leaks from an installation of baggage inspection using X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAZAFINDRAMIANDRA, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    This work wase done in the framework of the collaboration between the Madagascar-INSTN and the Civil Aviation of Madagascar (ACM). Due to the importance of the use of the scanner with X-rays for detection of baggages at the International Airport of Ivato, the protection of the workers using these HI-SCAN scanners has to be studied. The work deals with evaluating the dose rate emitted by the detector of baggages (HI SCAN 6040i and HI-SCAN 100100V) with dose rate meters (Graetz and Radiagem). These dosimeters were calibrated at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of Madagascar-INSTN before carrying out the inspection. By applying the calibration factor of the dosimeters used during the inspection, it is noted that the evaluated doses during the radiation exposure with the measuring instrument are very variable for low dose, and less than the dose limit according to the regulation on radiation protection in Madagascar. The radiations emitted by the machine with x-rays can involve dangerous effects for health, in order to protect itself, the effectiveness of the means of protection must be kept or taken into account by respecting strictly the time, the distance, and the screen. [fr

  14. Detection of coherent X-ray transition radiation and its application to beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Li Qiang; Moran, M.J.; Bergstrom, J.C.; Caplan, H.S.; Silzer, R.M.; Skopik, D.M.; Rothbart, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the use of coherent X-ray transition radiation to measure the energy of ultra-relativistic charged particles. This can be used for beam diagnostics for both high-repetition-rate and single-pulse, high-current accelerators. The research also has possible applications for the detection and identification of these particles. By selecting foil thickness and spacing, it is possible to design radiators whose angle of emission varies radically over a range of charged particle energies. We have constructed three coherent radiators and tested them at two accelerators using electron beam energies ranging from 50 to 228 MeV. Soft X-ray emission (1-3 keV) was emitted in a circularly symmetrical annulus with half-angle divergence of 2.5-9.0 mrad. The angle of peak emission was found to increase with electron-beam energy, in contrast to the incoherent case for which the angle of emission varies inversely with electron-beam energy. (orig.)

  15. Crystal glass and barite used for x ray and gamma radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio Filho, Joao

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Crystal glass, barite plaster and barite concrete has been widely used as shielding material in gamma radiation sources as well as x-ray generating equipment to replace the plumbiferous glass and in the wall covering, in order to minimize exposure to individuals. However, properties of the radiation attenuation of crystal glass commercially available in Brazil, for the different types of energy are not known. For this reason, this work was carried out aiming to determine the radiation attenuation, transmission curves and Half Value Layer. In this work, ten plates of crystal glass, with dimensions of 20 cm x 20 cm and range of thicknesses from 0.5 to 2.0 cm, and ten plates of barite plaster and five plates of barite concrete, with dimensions of 20 x 20 cm 2 and range of thicknesses from 1,0 to 5,0 cm, were used. The plates were X-ray irradiated with potential constants of 60, 80, 110, 150 kV and gamma radiation of 60 Co. Analysis in the properties of the 60 Co radiation attenuation of barite plaster and barite concrete commercially available in Brazil were also carried out. The curves of attenuation and of transmission were obtained for crystal glass, barite plaster and barite concrete (mGy/m A.min) at 1 meter as a function of thickness. The thickness equivalent of a half value layer and deci value layer of crystal glass for all types of radiation and energies studied was also determined. Although their use permits the dimensioning of the armor covering for external x-radiation whit precision and safety without elevating the cost of protection. (author)

  16. Estimation of soft X-ray and EUV transition radiation power emitted from the MIRRORCLE-type tabletop synchrotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyosugi, N; Yamada, H; Minkov, D; Morita, M; Yamaguchi, T; Imai, S

    2007-03-01

    The tabletop synchrotron light sources MIRRORCLE-6X and MIRRORCLE-20SX, operating at electron energies E(el) = 6 MeV and E(el) = 20 MeV, respectively, can emit powerful transition radiation (TR) in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and the soft X-ray regions. To clarify the applicability of these soft X-ray and EUV sources, the total TR power has been determined. A TR experiment was performed using a 385 nm-thick Al foil target in MIRRORCLE-6X. The angular distribution of the emitted power was measured using a detector assembly based on an NE102 scintillator, an optical bundle and a photomultiplier. The maximal measured total TR power for MIRRORCLE-6X is P(max) approximately equal 2.95 mW at full power operation. Introduction of an analytical expression for the lifetime of the electron beam allows calculation of the emitted TR power by a tabletop synchrotron light source. Using the above measurement result, and the theoretically determined ratio between the TR power for MIRRORCLE-6X and MIRRORCLE-20SX, the total TR power for MIRRORCLE-20SX can be obtained. The one-foil TR target thickness is optimized for the 20 MeV electron energy. P(max) approximately equal 810 mW for MIRRORCLE-20SX is obtained with a single foil of 240 nm-thick Be target. The emitted bremsstrahlung is negligible with respect to the emitted TR for optimized TR targets. From a theoretically known TR spectrum it is concluded that MIRRORCLE-20SX can emit 150 mW of photons with E > 500 eV, which makes it applicable as a source for performing X-ray lithography. The average wavelength, \\overline\\lambda = 13.6 nm, of the TR emission of MIRRORCLE-20SX, with a 200 nm Al target, could provide of the order of 1 W EUV.

  17. Site specific X-ray induced changes in organic and metal organic compounds and their influence on global radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintz, Desiree Ellen

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this work was to systematically investigate the effects of specific and global X-ray radiation damage to biological samples and obtain a conclusive model to describe the underlying principles. Based on the systematic studies performed in this work, it was possible to propose two conclusive mechanisms to describe X-ray induced photoreduction and global radiation damage. The influence of chemical composition, temperature and solvent on X-ray induced photoreduction was investigated by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction of two B12 cofactors - cyano- and methylcobalamin - as well as iron(II) and iron(III) complexes. The obtained results revealed that X-ray induced photoreduction is a ligand dependent process, with a redox reaction taking place within the complex. It could further be shown that selective hydrogen abstraction plays an important role in the process of X-ray induced photoreduction. Based on the experimental results of this work, a model to describe X-ray induced photoreduction of metal organic complexes could be proposed. The process of X-ray induced hydrogen abstraction was further investigated in a combined X-ray and neutron diffraction study on the amino acids L-serine and L-alanine, which were used as model compounds for proteins, and the nucleoside deoxythymidine (thymidine) as a model for DNA. A damage mechanism for L-serine could be found. It involves the abstraction of two hydrogen atoms, one from the hydroxyl group and one from the adjacent methylene group. Such a hydrogen abstraction results in the formation of a carbonyl group. X-ray diffraction measurements on cyano- and methylcobalamin as well as on three metal amino acid complexes, containing nickel(II) and copper(II), respectively, were conducted to investigate the contribution of X-ray induced photoreduction to global radiation damage. Results from these measurements combined with the results from L-serine, L-alanine and thymidine allowed

  18. X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range with laser generated high harmonic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seres, Enikoe; Seres, Jozsef; Spielmann, Christian

    2006-01-01

    By irradiating He and Ne atoms with 3 mJ, 12 fs, near infrared laser pulses from a tabletop laser system, the authors generated spatially and temporally coherent x rays up to a photon energy of 3.5 keV. With this source it is possible to use high-harmonic radiation for x-ray absorption spectroscopy in the keV range. They were able to clearly resolve the L absorption edges of titanium and copper and the K edges of aluminum and silicon. From the fine structure of the x-ray absorption they estimated the interatomic distances

  19. Site specific X-ray induced changes in organic and metal organic compounds and their influence on global radiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, Desiree Ellen

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this work was to systematically investigate the effects of specific and global X-ray radiation damage to biological samples and obtain a conclusive model to describe the underlying principles. Based on the systematic studies performed in this work, it was possible to propose two conclusive mechanisms to describe X-ray induced photoreduction and global radiation damage. The influence of chemical composition, temperature and solvent on X-ray induced photoreduction was investigated by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction of two B12 cofactors - cyano- and methylcobalamin - as well as iron(II) and iron(III) complexes. The obtained results revealed that X-ray induced photoreduction is a ligand dependent process, with a redox reaction taking place within the complex. It could further be shown that selective hydrogen abstraction plays an important role in the process of X-ray induced photoreduction. Based on the experimental results of this work, a model to describe X-ray induced photoreduction of metal organic complexes could be proposed. The process of X-ray induced hydrogen abstraction was further investigated in a combined X-ray and neutron diffraction study on the amino acids L-serine and L-alanine, which were used as model compounds for proteins, and the nucleoside deoxythymidine (thymidine) as a model for DNA. A damage mechanism for L-serine could be found. It involves the abstraction of two hydrogen atoms, one from the hydroxyl group and one from the adjacent methylene group. Such a hydrogen abstraction results in the formation of a carbonyl group. X-ray diffraction measurements on cyano- and methylcobalamin as well as on three metal amino acid complexes, containing nickel(II) and copper(II), respectively, were conducted to investigate the contribution of X-ray induced photoreduction to global radiation damage. Results from these measurements combined with the results from L-serine, L-alanine and thymidine allowed

  20. Effects of plasma radiation on wound healing compared with X-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azorin V, E.; Pena E, R. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Azorin V, J. C., E-mail: erica.azorin@inin.gob.mx [Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus Leon, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, Blvd. Prol. Calz. de los Heroes No. 908, Col. La Martinica, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: The radiation emitted by the plasma needle has shown high efficiency in the inactivation of microorganisms and the acceleration of the healing process; apparently such effects are related to the antioxidant activity, induction of cell damage and the generation of free radicals. To take advantage of plasma clinical applications it is essential to understand the cellular mechanisms activated by the exposure of human cells to radiation emitted by cold plasma. In this work we present the results of the characterization of the responses of human skin fibroblasts exposed to the radiation emitted by a plasma by varying the magnitude of flow, electrical power, time and composition of the cell culture medium comparing it with the response of these fibroblasts to low energy X-rays. (Author)