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Sample records for total p2x7 protein

  1. The P2X7 ATP receptor modulates renal cyst development in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, Kate A.; Woolf, Adrian S.; Johnson, Tanya M.; Wade, Angela; Unwin, Robert J.; Winyard, Paul J.D.

    2004-01-01

    P2X 7 , a piercing receptor, is expressed in renal collecting ducts as they undergo fulminant cysto genesis in the cpk/cpk mouse model of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). Dissociated cpk/cpk kidneys generate cysts from cell aggregates within 24 h of suspension culture and we demonstrate that BzATP, a P2X 7 agonist, reduces cystogenesis. This effect is P2X 7 -specific, because: (i) equimolar concentrations of other purinergic agonists, ATP and UTP, had lesser effects and (ii) the P2X 7 inhibitor, oxidized ATP, abrogated the BzATP-mediated reduction in cystogenesis. BzATP did not significantly affect total cell number, proliferation, LDH release or caspase 3 activity, and zVAD-fmk, a caspase blocker, failed to modulate BzATP effects. In addition, this P2X 7 agonist did not significantly alter cyst size, probably excluding altered vectorial transport. In vivo, ATP was detected in cyst fluid from cpk/cpk kidneys; moreover, P2X 7 protein was also upregulated in human fetal ARPKD epithelia versus normal fetal collecting ducts. Thus, ATP may inhibit pathological renal cyst growth through P2X 7 signaling

  2. P2X7 Receptor Expression in Peripheral Blood Monocytes Is Correlated With Plasma C-Reactive Protein and Cytokine Levels in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: a Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong; Nie, Yijun; Xiong, Huangui; Liu, Shuangmei; Li, Guilin; Huang, An; Guo, Lili; Wang, Shouyu; Xue, Yun; Wu, Bing; Peng, Lichao; Song, Miaomiao; Li, Guodong; Liang, Shangdong

    2015-12-01

    Chronic inflammation plays a major role in development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). C-reactive protein (CRP) and inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) are directly involved in the occurrence of insulin resistance. Increased extracellular ATP levels can amplify the inflammatory response in vivo via the P2X7 receptor. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between P2X7 receptor expression in human peripheral blood monocytes and plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and CRP in T2DM patients. The results showed the association of increased P2X7 receptor expression of monocytes with high serum CRP, TNF-α, and IL-1β levels. TNF-α and IL-1β levels were lowest in healthy subjects; in T2DM patients, these inflammatory markers were less abundant in individuals with normal CRP levels compared to those with high CRP contents. In contrast, IL-10 levels in T2DM patients with high CRP levels were dramatically decreased. P2X7 receptor expression in monocytes from T2DM patients with high CRP levels was significantly increased in comparison with healthy individuals and T2DM patients with normal CRP levels. These findings indicated that P2X7 receptor in peripheral blood monocytes may be involved in the pathological changes of T2DM, particularly affecting patients with high CRP levels.

  3. Targeting of the P2X7 receptor in pancreatic cancer and stellate cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannuzzo, Andrea; Saccomano, Mara; Napp, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    of PDAC. In the in vitro studies we show that human PDAC cells with luciferase gene (PancTu-1 Luc cells) express high levels of P2X7R protein. Allosteric P2X7R antagonist AZ10606120 inhibited cell proliferation in basal conditions, indicating that P2X7R was tonically active. Extracellular ATP and Bz......ATP, to which the P2X7R is more sensitive, further affected cell survival and confirmed complex functionality of P2X7R. PancTu-1 Luc migration and invasion was reduced by AZ10606120, and it was stimulated by PSCs, but not by PSCs from P2X7(-/-) animals. PancTu-1 Luc cells were orthotopically transplanted...

  4. Functional polymorphisms in the P2X7 receptor gene are associated with osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, L B; Harsløf, T; Stenkjær, L

    2013-01-01

    variant allele, which has been associated with increased receptor function in monocytes, was associated with increased total hip BMD in women. With the exception of His155Tyr for which we found conflicting results in men and women, our results are consistent with the phenotype of the knockout mouse......UNLABELLED: The P2X(7) receptor is an ATP-gated cation channel. We investigated the effect of both loss-of-function and gain-of-function polymorphisms in the P2X(7) receptor gene on BMD and risk of vertebral fractures and found that five polymorphisms and haplotypes containing three...... of these polymorphisms were associated with BMD and fracture risk. INTRODUCTION: The P2X(7) receptor is an ATP-gated cation channel. P2X(7) receptor knockout mice have reduced total bone mineral content, and because several functional polymorphisms have been identified in the human P2X(7) receptor gene, we wanted...

  5. Blockade of human P2X7 receptor function with a monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, G; Chessell, I P; Michel, A D; Collo, G; Salazzo, M; Herren, S; Gretener, D; Grahames, C; Kaur, R; Kosco-Vilbois, M H; Humphrey, P P

    1998-11-15

    A monoclonal antibody (MoAb) specific for the human P2X7 receptor was generated in mice. As assessed by flow cytometry, the MoAb labeled human blood-derived macrophage cells natively expressing P2X7 receptors and cells transfected with human P2X7 but not other P2X receptor types. The MoAb was used to immunoprecipitate the human P2X7 receptor protein, and in immunohistochemical studies on human lymphoid tissue, P2X7 receptor labeling was observed within discrete areas of the marginal zone of human tonsil sections. The antibody also acted as a selective antagonist of human P2X7 receptors in several functional studies. Thus, whole cell currents, elicited by the brief application of 2',3'-(4-benzoyl)-benzoyl-ATP in cells expressing human P2X7, were reduced in amplitude by the presence of the MoAb. Furthermore, preincubation of human monocytic THP-1 cells with the MoAb antagonized the ability of P2X7 agonists to induce the release of interleukin-1beta.

  6. Hyperglycemia-induced Renal P2X7 Receptor Activation Enhances Diabetes-related Injury

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    Robert I. Menzies

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a leading cause of renal disease. Glomerular mesangial expansion and fibrosis are hallmarks of diabetic nephropathy and this is thought to be promoted by infiltration of circulating macrophages. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 has been shown to attract macrophages in kidney diseases. P2X7 receptors (P2X7R are highly expressed on macrophages and are essential components of pro-inflammatory signaling in multiple tissues. Here we show that in diabetic patients, renal P2X7R expression is associated with severe mesangial expansion, impaired glomerular filtration (≤40 ml/min/1.73 sq. m., and increased interstitial fibrosis. P2X7R activation enhanced the release of MCP-1 in human mesangial cells cultured under high glucose conditions. In mice, P2X7R-deficiency prevented glomerular macrophage attraction and collagen IV deposition; however, the more severe interstitial inflammation and fibrosis often seen in human diabetic kidney diseases was not modelled. Finally, we demonstrate that a P2X7R inhibitor (AZ11657312 can reduce renal macrophage accrual following the establishment of hyperglycemia in a model of diabetic nephropathy. Collectively these data suggest that P2X7R activation may contribute to the high prevalence of kidney disease found in diabetics.

  7. The scavenger activity of the human P2X7 receptor differs from P2X7 pore function by insensitivity to antagonists, genetic variation and sodium concentration: Relevance to inflammatory brain diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Amber; Gu, Ben J; Wiley, James S

    2018-04-01

    Activation of P2X7 receptors is widely recognised to initiate proinflammatory responses. However P2X7 also has a dual function as a scavenger receptor which is active in the absence of ATP and plasma proteins and may be important in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Here, we investigated both P2X7 pore formation and its phagocytic function in fresh human monocytes (as a model of microglia) by measuring ATP-induced ethidium dye uptake and fluorescent bead uptake respectively. This was studied in monocytes expressing various polymorphic variants as well as in the presence of different P2X7 antagonists and ionic media. P2X7-mediated phagocytosis was found to account for about half of Latrunculin (or Cytochalasin D)-sensitive bead engulfment by fresh human monocytes. Monocytes harbouring P2X7 Ala348Thr or Glu496Ala polymorphic variants showed increase or loss of ethidium uptake respectively, but these changes in pore formation did not always correspond to the changes in phagocytosis of YG beads. Unlike pore function, P2X7-mediated phagocytosis was not affected by three potent selective P2X7 antagonists and remained identical in Na + and K + media. Taken together, our results show that P2X7 is a scavenger receptor with important function in the CNS but its phagocytic function has features distinct from its pore function. Both P2X7 pore formation and P2X7-mediated phagocytosis should be considered in the design of new P2X7 antagonists for the treatment of CNS diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. P2X7 receptors regulate multiple types of membrane trafficking responses and non-classical secretion pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yan; Dubyak, George R

    2009-06-01

    Activation of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) triggers a remarkably diverse array of membrane trafficking responses in leukocytes and epithelial cells. These responses result in altered profiles of cell surface lipid and protein composition that can modulate the direct interactions of P2X7R-expressing cells with other cell types in the circulation, in blood vessels, at epithelial barriers, or within sites of immune and inflammatory activation. Additionally, these responses can result in the release of bioactive proteins, lipids, and large membrane complexes into extracellular compartments for remote communication between P2X7R-expressing cells and other cells that amplify or modulate inflammation, immunity, and responses to tissue damages. This review will discuss P2X7R-mediated effects on membrane composition and trafficking in the plasma membrane (PM) and intracellular organelles, as well as actions of P2X7R in controlling various modes of non-classical secretion. It will review P2X7R regulation of: (1) phosphatidylserine distribution in the PM outer leaflet; (2) shedding of PM surface proteins; (3) release of PM-derived microvesicles or microparticles; (4) PM blebbing; (5) cell-cell fusion resulting in formation of multinucleate cells; (6) phagosome maturation and fusion with lysosomes; (7) permeability of endosomes with internalized pathogen-associated molecular patterns; (8) permeability/integrity of mitochondria; (9) exocytosis of secretory lysosomes; and (10) release of exosomes from multivesicular bodies.

  9. Differential expression of the P2X7 receptor in ovarian surface epithelium during the oestrous cycle in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Cuevas, F G; Cruz-Rico, A; Garay, E; García-Carrancá, A; Pérez-Montiel, D; Juárez, B; Arellano, R O

    2013-01-01

    Purinergic signalling has been proposed as an intraovarian regulatory mechanism. Of the receptors responsible for purinergic transmission, the P2X7 receptor is an ATP-gated cationic channel that displays a broad spectrum of cellular functions ranging from apoptosis to cell proliferation and tumourigenesis. In the present study, we investigated the functional expression of P2X7 receptors in ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). P2X7 protein was detected in the OSE layer of the mouse, both in situ and in primary cultures. In cultures, 2'(3')-O-(4-Benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine-5'-triphosphate (BzATP) activation of P2X7 receptors increased [Ca(2+)]i and induced apoptosis. The functionality of the P2X7 receptor was investigated in situ by intrabursal injection of BzATP on each day of the oestrous cycle and evaluation of apoptosis 24h using the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay. Maximum effects of BzATP were observed during pro-oestrus, with the effects being blocked by A438079, a specific P2X7 receptor antagonist. Immunofluorescence staining for P2X7 protein revealed more robust expression during pro-oestrus and in OSE regions behind the antral follicles, strongly supporting the notion that the differences in apoptosis can be explained by increased receptor expression, which is regulated during the oestrous cycle. Finally, P2X7 receptor expression was detected in the OSE layer of human ovaries, with receptor expression maintained in human ovaries diagnosed with cancer, as well as in the human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cell line.

  10. P2X7 receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 independently of Ca2+ influx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amstrup, Jan; Novak, Ivana

    2003-01-01

    P2X7 nucleotide receptors modulate a spectrum of cellular events in various cells including epithelia, such as exocrine pancreas. Although the pharmacology and channel properties of the P2X7 receptors have been studied intensively, signal transduction pathways are relatively unknown. In this study...... we applied a heterologous expression system of rat P2X7 receptors in HEK-293 cells. We followed the receptor expression and function using the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) tag, activation of intracellular proteins and increases in cellular Ca2+. EGFP-P2X7 receptors localized...... to the plasma membrane, clusters within the membrane and intracellularly. Stimulation of P2X7 receptors in HEK-293 cells led to an activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 and this activation was seen after just 1 min of stimulation with ATP. Using C- and N-terminal P2X7-receptor...

  11. P2X7 receptor activation induces cell death and microparticle release in murine erythroleukemia cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinescu, P.; Wang, B.; Kovacevic, K.; Jalilian, I.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Wiley, J.S.; Sluyter, R.

    2010-01-01

    Extracellular ATP induces cation fluxes in and impairs the growth of murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells in a manner characteristic of the purinergic P2X7 receptor, however the presence of P2X7 in these cells is unknown. This study investigated whether MEL cells express functional P2X7. RT-PCR,

  12. Oxygen/glucose deprivation increases the integration of recombinant P2X7 receptors into the plasma membrane of HEK293 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milius, Doreen; Groeger-Arndt, Helke; Stanchev, Doychin; Lange-Dohna, Christine; Rossner, Steffen; Sperlagh, Beata; Wirkner, Kerstin; Illes, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant human P2X 7 receptors, C-terminally labelled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (P2X 7 -EGFP), were transiently expressed in HEK293 cells. Activation of these receptors by their preferential agonist 2',3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP (BzATP) induced inward currents and propidium ion uptake indicating the opening of cationic channels and of large pores permeable for dye molecules, respectively. Two mutants of P2X 7 receptors (P2X 7 -EGFP-I568N, -E496A) representing polymorphisms in the P2X 7 gene known to interfere with normal receptor-trafficking and with optimal assembly of its subunits, responded with much lower current amplitudes to BzATP than their wild-type counterpart. Similarly, the normal propidium ion uptake induced by BzATP at the wild-type P2X 7 receptor was abolished by the two mutants. Confocal laser scanning microscopy indicated that in vitro ischemia of 12 h duration increased the integration of P2X 7 -EGFP, but not of its two mutants, into the plasma membrane of HEK293 cells. Further, this ischemic stimulus facilitated the current response to BzATP in HEK293 cells permanently transfected with P2X 7 receptors. Finally, the fluorescence intensity per cell measured by flow cytometry and P2X 7 antibodies directed against an extracellular, but not an intracellular epitope of the receptor, were also increased. In conclusion, P2X 7 receptors may alter their trafficking properties during ischemia and thereby contribute to the ATP-induced damage of various cell-types including neurons

  13. P2X7 on mouse T cells: one channel, many functions

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    Björn eRissiek

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The P2X7 receptor is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP-gated cation channel that is expressed by several cells of the immune system. P2X7 is best known for its proinflammatory role in promoting inflammasome formation and release of mature IL-1β by innate immune cells. Mounting evidence indicates that P2X7 is also an important regulatory receptor of murine and human T cell functions. Murine T cells express a sensitive splice variant of P2X7 that can be activated either by non-covalent binding of ATP or, in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+, by its covalent ADP-ribosylation catalyzed by the ecto-ADP-ribosyltransferase ARTC2.2. Prolonged activation of P2X7 by either one of these pathways triggers the induction of T cell death. Conversely, lower concentrations of ATP can activate P2X7 to enhance T cell proliferation and production of IL-2. In this review we will highlight the molecular and cellular consequences of P2X7 activation on mouse T cells and its versatile role in T cell homeostasis and activation. Further, we will discuss important differences in the function of P2X7 on human and murine T cells.

  14. Non-nucleotide Agonists Triggering P2X7 Receptor Activation and Pore Formation

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    Francesco Di Virgilio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R is a ligand-gated plasma membrane ion channel belonging to the P2X receptor subfamily activated by extracellular nucleotides. General consensus holds that the physiological (and maybe the only agonist is ATP. However, scattered evidence generated over the last several years suggests that ATP might not be the only agonist, especially at inflammatory sites. Solid data show that NAD+ covalently modifies the P2X7R of mouse T lymphocytes, thus lowering the ATP threshold for activation. Other structurally unrelated agents have been reported to activate the P2X7R via a poorly understood mechanism of action: (a the antibiotic polymyxin B, possibly a positive allosteric P2X7R modulator, (b the bactericidal peptide LL-37, (c the amyloidogenic β peptide, and (d serum amyloid A. Some agents, such as Alu-RNA, have been suggested to activate the P2X7R acting on the intracellular N- or C-terminal domains. Mode of P2X7R activation by these non-nucleotide ligands is as yet unknown; however, these observations raise the intriguing question of how these different non-nucleotide ligands may co-operate with ATP at inflammatory or tumor sites. New information obtained from the cloning and characterization of the P2X7R from exotic mammalian species (e.g., giant panda and data from recent patch-clamp studies are strongly accelerating our understanding of P2X7R mode of operation, and may provide hints to the mechanism of activation of P2X7R by non-nucleotide ligands.

  15. Lack of the purinergic receptor P2X7 results in resistance to contact hypersensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Felix C.; Esser, Philipp R.; Müller, Tobias; Ganesan, Jayanthi; Pellegatti, Patrizia; Simon, Markus M.; Zeiser, Robert; Idzko, Marco; Jakob, Thilo

    2010-01-01

    Sensitization to contact allergens requires activation of the innate immune system by endogenous danger signals. However, the mechanisms through which contact allergens activate innate signaling pathways are incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate that mice lacking the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) receptor P2X7 are resistant to contact hypersensitivity (CHS). P2X7-deficient dendritic cells fail to induce sensitization to contact allergens and do not release IL-1β in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ATP. These defects are restored by pretreatment with LPS and alum in an NLRP3- and ASC-dependent manner. Whereas pretreatment of wild-type mice with P2X7 antagonists, the ATP-degrading enzyme apyrase or IL-1 receptor antagonist, prevents CHS, IL-1β injection restores CHS in P2X7-deficient mice. Thus, P2X7 is a crucial receptor for extracellular ATP released in skin in response to contact allergens. The lack of P2X7 triggering prevents IL-1β release, which is an essential step in the sensitization process. Interference with P2X7 signaling may be a promising strategy for the prevention of allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:21059855

  16. Blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels similarly attenuates postischemic damage.

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    Cisneros-Mejorado, Abraham; Gottlieb, Miroslav; Cavaliere, Fabio; Magnus, Tim; Koch-Nolte, Friederich; Scemes, Eliana; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Matute, Carlos

    2015-05-01

    The role of P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels in ischemic damage remains controversial. Here, we analyzed their contribution to postanoxic depolarization after ischemia in cultured neurons and in brain slices. We observed that pharmacological blockade of P2X7 receptors or pannexin-1 channels delayed the onset of postanoxic currents and reduced their slope, and that simultaneous inhibition did not further enhance the effects of blocking either one. These results were confirmed in acute cortical slices from P2X7 and pannexin-1 knockout mice. Oxygen-glucose deprivation in cortical organotypic cultures caused neuronal death that was reduced with P2X7 and pannexin-1 blockers as well as in organotypic cultures derived from mice lacking P2X7 and pannexin 1. Subsequently, we used transient middle cerebral artery occlusion to monitor the neuroprotective effect of those drugs in vivo. We found that P2X7 and pannexin-1 antagonists, and their ablation in knockout mice, substantially attenuated the motor symptoms and reduced the infarct volume to ~50% of that in vehicle-treated or wild-type animals. These results show that P2X7 receptors and pannexin-1 channels are major mediators of postanoxic depolarization in neurons and of brain damage after ischemia, and that they operate in the same deleterious signaling cascade leading to neuronal and tissue demise.

  17. Role of P2X7 on steroid synthesis in murine luteal cells

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    Chunping Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP regulates different cellular functions through activating purinergic receptors as a signalling molecule or neurotransmitter. P2X7 is highly expressed in murine small luteal cells. In this study, murine luteal cells were cultured in vitro and treated with P2X7 agonists – ATP and 2′(3′-O-(4-benzoyl-benzoyl-adenosine 50-triphosphate (BzATP and with P2X7 antagonist – brilliant blue G (BBG. We found that ATP and BzATP increased the production of progesterone and had no influence on the production of estradiol. BBG reversed the effect of BzATP and ATP. Further studies demonstrated that ATP and BzATP promoted the expression of CYP11A. These results revealed that P2X7 receptor activation is involved in the steroid synthesis in corpus luteum.

  18. Corneal epithelium expresses a variant of P2X(7 receptor in health and disease.

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    Courtney Mankus

    Full Text Available Improper wound repair of the corneal epithelium can alter refraction of light resulting in impaired vision. We have shown that ATP is released after injury, activates purinergic receptor signaling pathways and plays a major role in wound closure. In many cells or tissues, ATP activates P2X(7 receptors leading to cation fluxes and cytotoxicity. The corneal epithelium is an excellent model to study the expression of both the full-length P2X(7 form (defined as the canonical receptor and its truncated forms. When Ca(2+ mobilization is induced by BzATP, a P2X(7 agonist, it is attenuated in the presence of extracellular Mg(2+ or Zn(2+, negligible in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+, and inhibited by the competitive P2X7 receptor inhibitor, A438079. BzATP enhanced phosphorylation of ERK. Together these responses indicate the presence of a canonical or full-length P2X(7 receptor. In addition BzATP enhanced epithelial cell migration, and transfection with siRNA to the P2X(7 receptor reduced cell migration. Furthermore, sustained activation did not induce dye uptake indicating the presence of truncated or variant forms that lack the ability to form large pores. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analysis revealed a P2X(7 splice variant. Western blots identified a full-length and truncated form, and the expression pattern changed as cultures progressed from monolayer to stratified. Cross-linking gels demonstrated the presence of homo- and heterotrimers. We examined epithelium from age matched diabetic and non-diabetic corneas patients and detected a 4-fold increase in P2X(7 mRNA from diabetic corneal epithelium compared to non-diabetic controls and an increased trend in expression of P2X(7variant mRNA. Taken together, these data indicate that corneal epithelial cells express full-length and truncated forms of P2X(7, which ultimately allows P2X(7 to function as a multifaceted receptor that can mediate cell proliferation and

  19. P2X7 receptor-deficient mice are susceptible to bone cancer pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Rie; Nielsen, Christian K.; Nasser, Arafat

    2011-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptor is implicated in both neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and has been suggested as a possible target in pain treatment. However, the specific role of the P2X7 receptor in bone cancer pain is unknown. We demonstrated that BALB/cJ P2X7 receptor knockout (P2X7R KO) mice...... were susceptible to bone cancer pain and moreover had an earlier onset of pain-related behaviours compared with cancer-bearing, wild-type mice. Furthermore, acute treatment with the selective P2X7 receptor antagonist, A-438079, failed to alleviate pain-related behaviours in models of bone cancer pain...... with and without astrocyte activation (BALB/cJ or C3H mice inoculated with 4T1 mammary cancer cells or NCTC 2472 osteosarcoma cells, respectively), suggesting that astrocytic P2X7 receptors play a negligible role in bone cancer pain. The results support the hypothesis that bone cancer pain is a separate pain state...

  20. P2X7 receptor blockade protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice by decreasing the activities of inflammasome components, oxidative stress and caspase-3

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    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Fahuan; Cao, Xuejiao [Department of Nephrology, Xinqiao Hospital, PLA, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Zhai, Zhifang [Department of Dermatology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Gang Huang [Department of Medical Genetics, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 430038 (China); Du, Xiang; Wang, Yiqin; Zhang, Jingbo; Huang, Yunjian; Zhao, Jinghong [Department of Nephrology, Xinqiao Hospital, PLA, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Hou, Weiping, E-mail: hwp0518@aliyun.com [Department of Nephrology, Xinqiao Hospital, PLA, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Nephrotoxicity is a common complication of cisplatin chemotherapy and thus limits the use of cisplatin in clinic. The purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays important roles in inflammation and apoptosis in some inflammatory diseases; however, its roles in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remain unclear. In this study, we first assessed the expression of P2X7R in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice, and then we investigated the changes of renal function, histological injury, inflammatory response, and apoptosis in renal tissues after P2X7R blockade in vivo using an antagonist A-438079. Moreover, we measured the changes of nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing proteins (NLRP3) inflammasome components, oxidative stress, and proapoptotic genes in renal tissues in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity after treatment with A-438079. We found that the expression of P2X7R was significantly upregulated in the renal tubular epithelial cells in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity compared with that of the normal control group. Furthermore, pretreatment with A-438079 markedly attenuated the cisplatin-induced renal injury while lightening the histological damage, inflammatory response and apoptosis in renal tissue, and improved the renal function. These effects were associated with the significantly reduced levels of NLRP3 inflammasome components, oxidative stress, p53 and caspase-3 in renal tissues in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. In conclusions, our studies suggest that the upregulated activity of P2X7R might play important roles in the development of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, and P2X7R blockade might become an effective therapeutic strategy for this disease. - Highlights: • The P2X7R expression was markedly upregulated in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. • P2X7R blockade significantly attenuated the cisplatin-induced renal injury. • P2X7R blockade reduced activities of NLRP3 inflammasome components in renal tissue. • P2X7R blockade

  1. Association between NLPR1, NLPR3, and P2X7R Gene Polymorphisms with Partial Seizures

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    Haidong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Clinical and experimental evidence has clarified that the inflammatory processes within the brain play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of seizures and epilepsy. Inflammasomes and P2X7 purinergic receptor (P2X7R are important mediators during the inflammatory process. Therefore, we investigated the possible association between partial seizures and inflammasomes NLPR1, NLRP3, and P2X7R gene polymorphisms in the present study. Method. A total of 163 patients and 201 health controls were enrolled in this study and polymorphisms of NLPR1, NLRP3, and P2X7R genes were detected using polymerase chain reaction- (PCR- ligase detection reaction method. Result. The frequency of rs878329 (G>C genotype with C (CG + CC was significantly lower among patients with partial seizures relative to controls (OR = 2.033, 95% CI = 1.290–3.204, p=0.002 for GC + CC versus GG. Intriguingly, we found that the significant difference of rs878329 (G>C genotype and allele frequency only existed among males (OR = 2.542, 95% CI = 1.344–4.810, p=0.004 for GC + CC versus GG, while there was no statistically significant difference among females. However, no significant results were presented for the genotype distributions of rs8079034, rs4612666, rs10754558, rs2027432, rs3751143, and rs208294 polymorphisms between patients and controls. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated the potentially significant role of NLRP1 rs878329 (G>C in developing susceptibility to the partial seizures in a Chinese Han population.

  2. P2X7-Regulated Protection from Exacerbations and Loss of Control Is Independent of Asthma Maintenance Therapy

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    Manthei, David M.; Seibold, Max A.; Ahn, Kwangmi; Bleecker, Eugene; Boushey, Homer A.; Calhoun, William J.; Castro, Mario; Chinchili, Vernon M.; Fahy, John V.; Hawkins, Greg A.; Icitovic, Nicolina; Israel, Elliot; Jarjour, Nizar N.; King, Tonya; Kraft, Monica; Lazarus, Stephen C.; Lehman, Erik; Martin, Richard J.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Peters, Stephen P.; Sheerar, Dagna; Shi, Lei; Sutherland, E. Rand; Szefler, Stanley J.; Wechsler, Michael E.; Sorkness, Christine A.; Lemanske, Robert F.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: The function of the P2X7 nucleotide receptor protects against exacerbation in people with mild-intermittent asthma during viral illnesses, but the impact of disease severity and maintenance therapy has not been studied. Objectives: To evaluate the association between P2X7, asthma exacerbations, and incomplete symptom control in a more diverse population. Methods: A matched P2RX7 genetic case-control was performed with samples from Asthma Clinical Research Network trial participants enrolled before July 2006, and P2X7 pore activity was determined in whole blood samples as an ancillary study to two trials completed subsequently. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 187 exacerbations were studied in 742 subjects, and the change in asthma symptom burden was studied in an additional 110 subjects during a trial of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) dose optimization. African American carriers of the minor G allele of the rs2230911 loss-of-function single nucleotide polymorphism were more likely to have a history of prednisone use in the previous 12 months, with adjustment for ICS and long-acting β2-agonists use (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.2–6.2; P = 0.018). Despite medium-dose ICS, attenuated pore function predicted earlier exacerbations in incompletely controlled patients with moderate asthma (hazard ratio, 3.2; confidence interval, 1.1–9.3; P = 0.033). After establishing control with low-dose ICS in patients with mild asthma, those with attenuated pore function had more asthma symptoms, rescue albuterol use, and FEV1 reversal (P < 0.001, 0.03, and 0.03, respectively) during the ICS adjustment phase. Conclusions: P2X7 pore function protects against exacerbations of asthma and loss of control, independent of baseline severity and the maintenance therapy. PMID:23144325

  3. P2X7 Receptor Function in Bone-Related Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Adinolfi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of tumor microenvironment by different mediators is central in determining neoplastic formation and progression. Among these molecules extracellular ATP is emerging as a good candidate in promoting cell growth, neovascularization, tumor-host interactions, and metastatization. This paper summarizes recent findings on expression and function of P2X7 receptor for extracellular ATP in primary and metastatic bone cancers. Search of mRNA expression microchip databases and literature analysis demonstrate a high expression of P2X7 in primary bone tumors as well as in other malignancies such as multiple myeloma, neuroblastoma, breast, and prostate cancer. Evidence that P2X7 triggers NFATc1, PI3K/Akt, ROCK, and VEGF pathways in osteoblasts promoting either primary tumor development or osteoblastic lesions is also reported. Moreover, P2X7 receptor is involved in osteoclast differentiation, RANKL expression, matrix metalloproteases and cathepsin secretion thus promoting bone resorption and osteolytic lesions. Taken together these data point to a pivotal role for the P2X7 receptor in bone cancer biology.

  4. The P2X7 Receptor Supports Both Life and Death in Fibrogenic Pancreatic Stellate Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haanes, Kristian; Schwab, Albrecht; Novak, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    The pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) have complex roles in pancreas, including tissue repair and fibrosis. PSCs surround ATP releasing exocrine cells, but little is known about purinergic receptors and their function in PSCs. Our aim was to resolve whether PSCs express the multifunctional P2X7...... versions of the receptor. In culture, the proliferation rate of the KO PSCs was significantly lower. Inclusion of apyrase reduced the proliferation rate in both WT and KO PSCs, indicating importance of endogenous ATP. Exogenous ATP had a two-sided effect. Proliferation of both WT and KO cells...... inhibitor az10606120. The P2X7 receptor-pore inhibitor A438079 partially prevented cell death induced by millimolar ATP concentrations. This study shows that ATP and P2X7 receptors are important regulators of PSC proliferation and death, and therefore might be potential targets for treatments of pancreatic...

  5. Statins and ATP regulate nuclear pAkt via the P2X7 purinergic receptor in epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistafa, Oras; Hoegberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have documented P2X7 receptor functions in cells of mesenchymal origin. P2X7 is also expressed in epithelial cells and its role in these cells remains largely unknown. Our data indicate that P2X7 regulate nuclear pAkt in epithelial cells. We show that low concentration of atorvastatin, a drug inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol metabolism, or the natural agonist extracellular ATP rapidly decreased the level of insulin-induced phosphorylated Akt in the nucleus. This effect was seen within minutes and was inhibited by P2X7 inhibitors. Experiments employing P2X7 siRNA and HEK293 cells heterologously expressing P2X7 and in vivo experiments further supported an involvement of P2X7. These data indicate that extracellular ATP and statins via the P2X7 receptor modulate insulin-induced Akt signaling in epithelial cells

  6. Statins and ATP regulate nuclear pAkt via the P2X7 purinergic receptor in epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistafa, Oras; Hoegberg, Johan [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Stenius, Ulla [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-01-04

    Many studies have documented P2X7 receptor functions in cells of mesenchymal origin. P2X7 is also expressed in epithelial cells and its role in these cells remains largely unknown. Our data indicate that P2X7 regulate nuclear pAkt in epithelial cells. We show that low concentration of atorvastatin, a drug inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol metabolism, or the natural agonist extracellular ATP rapidly decreased the level of insulin-induced phosphorylated Akt in the nucleus. This effect was seen within minutes and was inhibited by P2X7 inhibitors. Experiments employing P2X7 siRNA and HEK293 cells heterologously expressing P2X7 and in vivo experiments further supported an involvement of P2X7. These data indicate that extracellular ATP and statins via the P2X7 receptor modulate insulin-induced Akt signaling in epithelial cells.

  7. An Improved Method for P2X7R Antagonist Screening.

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    Rômulo José Soares-Bezerra

    Full Text Available ATP physiologically activates the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R, a member of the P2X ionotropic receptor family. When activated by high concentrations of ATP (i.e., at inflammation sites, this receptor is capable of forming a pore that allows molecules of up to 900 Da to pass through. This receptor is upregulated in several diseases, particularly leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis and Alzheimer's disease. A selective antagonist of this receptor could be useful in the treatment of P2X7R activation-related diseases. In the present study, we have evaluated several parameters using in vitro protocols to validate a high-throughput screening (HTS method to identify P2X7R antagonists. We generated dose-response curves to determine the EC50 value of the known agonist ATP and the ICs50 values for the known antagonists Brilliant Blue G (BBG and oxidized ATP (OATP. The values obtained were consistent with those found in the literature (0.7 ± 0.07 mM, 1.3-2.6 μM and 173-285 μM for ATP, BBG and OATP, respectively [corrected].The Z-factor, an important statistical tool that can be used to validate the robustness and suitability of an HTS assay, was 0.635 for PI uptake and 0.867 for LY uptake. No inter-operator variation was observed, and the results obtained using our improved method were reproducible. Our data indicate that our assay is suitable for the selective and reliable evaluation of P2X7 activity in multiwell plates using spectrophotometry-based methodology. This method might improve the high-throughput screening of conventional chemical or natural product libraries for possible candidate P2X7R antagonist or agonist.

  8. Activation of P2X7-mediated apoptosis Inhibits DMBA/TPA-induced formation of skin papillomas and cancer in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Wen; Gorodeski, George I; McCormick, Tom; Qi, Xiaoping; Luo, Liping; Zhou, Lingyin; Li, Xin; Wang, Bing-Cheng; Gibbons, Heidi E; Abdul-Karim, Fadi W

    2009-01-01

    The study tested the hypothesis that apoptosis can prevent and control growth of neoplastic cells. Previous studies in-vitro have shown that the pro-apoptotic P2X 7 receptor regulates growth of epithelial cells. The specific objective of the present study was to understand to what degree the P2X 7 system controls development and growth of skin cancer in vivo, and what cellular and molecular mechanisms are involved in the P2X 7 action. Skin neoplasias in mice (papillomas, followed by squamous spindle-cell carcinomas) were induced by local application of DMBA/TPA. Experiments in-vitro utilized cultured epidermal keratinocytes generated from wild-type or from P2X 7 -null mice. Assays involved protein immunostaining and Western blots; mRNA real-time qPCR; and apoptosis (evaluated in situ by TUNEL and quantified in cultured keratinocytes as solubilized DNA or by ELISA). Changes in cytosolic calcium or in ethidium bromide influx (P2X 7 pore formation) were determined by confocal laser microscopy. (a) Co-application on the skin of the P2X 7 specific agonist BzATP inhibited formation of DMBA/TPA-induced skin papillomas and carcinomas. At the completion of study (week 28) the proportion of living animals with cancers in the DMBA/TPA group was 100% compared to 43% in the DMBA/TPA+BzATP group. (b) In the normal skin BzATP affected mainly P2X 7 -receptor – expressing proliferating keratinocytes, where it augmented apoptosis without evoking inflammatory changes. (c) In BzATP-treated mice the degree of apoptosis was lesser in cancer than in normal or papilloma keratinocytes. (d) Levels of P2X 7 receptor, protein and mRNA were 4–5 fold lower in cancer tissues than in normal mouse tissues. (e) In cultured mouse keratinocytes BzATP induced apoptosis, formation of pores in the plasma membrane, and facilitated prolonged calcium influx. (f) The BzATP-induced apoptosis, pore-formation and augmented calcium influx had similar dose-dependence for BzATP. (g) Pore formation and the

  9. Activation of P2X7-mediated apoptosis Inhibits DMBA/TPA-induced formation of skin papillomas and cancer in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Wen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study tested the hypothesis that apoptosis can prevent and control growth of neoplastic cells. Previous studies in-vitro have shown that the pro-apoptotic P2X7 receptor regulates growth of epithelial cells. The specific objective of the present study was to understand to what degree the P2X7 system controls development and growth of skin cancer in vivo, and what cellular and molecular mechanisms are involved in the P2X7 action. Methods Skin neoplasias in mice (papillomas, followed by squamous spindle-cell carcinomas were induced by local application of DMBA/TPA. Experiments in-vitro utilized cultured epidermal keratinocytes generated from wild-type or from P2X7-null mice. Assays involved protein immunostaining and Western blots; mRNA real-time qPCR; and apoptosis (evaluated in situ by TUNEL and quantified in cultured keratinocytes as solubilized DNA or by ELISA. Changes in cytosolic calcium or in ethidium bromide influx (P2X7 pore formation were determined by confocal laser microscopy. Results (a Co-application on the skin of the P2X7 specific agonist BzATP inhibited formation of DMBA/TPA-induced skin papillomas and carcinomas. At the completion of study (week 28 the proportion of living animals with cancers in the DMBA/TPA group was 100% compared to 43% in the DMBA/TPA+BzATP group. (b In the normal skin BzATP affected mainly P2X7-receptor – expressing proliferating keratinocytes, where it augmented apoptosis without evoking inflammatory changes. (c In BzATP-treated mice the degree of apoptosis was lesser in cancer than in normal or papilloma keratinocytes. (d Levels of P2X7 receptor, protein and mRNA were 4–5 fold lower in cancer tissues than in normal mouse tissues. (e In cultured mouse keratinocytes BzATP induced apoptosis, formation of pores in the plasma membrane, and facilitated prolonged calcium influx. (f The BzATP-induced apoptosis, pore-formation and augmented calcium influx had similar dose-dependence for

  10. Genetic Association for P2X7R rs3751142 and CARD8 rs2043211 Polymorphisms for Susceptibility of Gout in Korean Men: Multi-Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Won; Lee, Shin Seok; Oh, Dong Ho; Park, Dong Jin; Kim, Hyun Sook; Choi, Jung Ran; Chae, Soo Cheon; Yun, Ki Jung; Chung, Won Tae; Choe, Jung Yoon; Kim, Seong Kyu

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between P2X7R rs3751142 and CARD8 rs2043211 polymorphisms and gout susceptibility in male Korean subjects. This study enrolled a total of 242 male patients with gout and 280 healthy controls. The polymorphisms of two individual genes including rs3751142(C>A) in the P2X7R gene and rs2043211(A>T) in the CARD8 gene were assessed using Taq-Man analysis. Statistical analyses were performed using the Chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and logistic regression analyses. A difference in genotypic frequency of the P2X7R rs3751142 and CARD8 rs2043211 genes was not detected between gout and control patients. Clinical parameters including age, onset age, disease duration, body mass index, and serum uric acid levels were not different among the three genotypes for either P2X7R or CARD8 (P > 0.05 for all). A pair-wise comparison of P2X7R rs3751142 and CARD8 rs2043211 genotype combinations revealed that subjects with the CA P2X7R rs3751142 genotype and the TT CARD8 rs2043211 genotype had a trend toward a higher risk of gout compared to the CC/AA combination (P = 0.056, OR = 2.618, 95% CI 0.975 - 7.031). In conclusion, this study revealed that genetic variability of the P2X7R rs3751142 and CARD8 rs2043211 genes might, in part, be associated with susceptibility for gout.

  11. Lack of a Functioning P2X7 Receptor Leads to Increased Susceptibility to Toxoplasmic Ileitis.

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    Catherine M Miller

    Full Text Available Oral infection of C57BL/6J mice with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii leads to a lethal inflammatory ileitis.Mice lacking the purinergic receptor P2X7R are acutely susceptible to toxoplasmic ileitis, losing significantly more weight than C57BL/6J mice and exhibiting much greater intestinal inflammatory pathology in response to infection with only 10 cysts of T. gondii. This susceptibility is not dependent on the ability of P2X7R-deficient mice to control the parasite, which they accomplish just as efficiently as C57BL/6J mice. Rather, susceptibility is associated with elevated ileal concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive nitrogen intermediates and altered regulation of elements of NFκB activation in P2X7R-deficient mice.Our data support the thesis that P2X7R, a well-documented activator of pro-inflammatory cytokine production, also plays an important role in the regulation of intestinal inflammation.

  12. Structural basis for subtype-specific inhibition of the P2X7 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasawa, Akira; Kawate, Toshimitsu (Cornell)

    2016-12-09

    The P2X7 receptor is a non-selective cation channel activated by extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Chronic activation of P2X7 underlies many health problems such as pathologic pain, yet we lack effective antagonists due to poorly understood mechanisms of inhibition. Here we present crystal structures of a mammalian P2X7 receptor complexed with five structurally-unrelated antagonists. Unexpectedly, these drugs all bind to an allosteric site distinct from the ATP-binding pocket in a groove formed between two neighboring subunits. This novel drug-binding pocket accommodates a diversity of small molecules mainly through hydrophobic interactions. Functional assays propose that these compounds allosterically prevent narrowing of the drug-binding pocket and the turret-like architecture during channel opening, which is consistent with a site of action distal to the ATP-binding pocket. These novel mechanistic insights will facilitate the development of P2X7-specific drugs for treating human diseases.

  13. Dual Gating Mechanism and Function of P2X7 Receptor Channels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khadra, A.; Tomic, M.; Yan, Z.; Zemková, Hana; Sherman, A.; Stojilkovic, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 12 (2013), s. 2612-2621 ISSN 0006-3495 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : purinergic P2X7 receptors * ATP-gated channels * BzATP * dilation * Markov -state model Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.832, year: 2013

  14. P2X7 Receptors Drive Spine Synapse Plasticity in the Learned Helplessness Model of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrokocsi, Lilla; Kittel, Ágnes; Sperlágh, Beáta

    2017-10-01

    Major depressive disorder is characterized by structural and functional abnormalities of cortical and limbic brain areas, including a decrease in spine synapse number in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Recent studies highlighted that both genetic and pharmacological invalidation of the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2rx7) leads to antidepressant-like phenotype in animal experiments; however, the impact of P2rx7 on depression-related structural changes in the hippocampus is not clarified yet. Effects of genetic deletion of P2rx7s on depressive-like behavior and spine synapse density in the dentate gyrus were investigated using the learned helplessness mouse model of depression. We demonstrate that in wild-type animals, inescapable footshocks lead to learned helplessness behavior reflected in increased latency and number of escape failures to subsequent escapable footshocks. This behavior is accompanied with downregulation of mRNA encoding P2rx7 and decrease of spine synapse density in the dentate gyrus as determined by electron microscopic stereology. In addition, a decrease in synaptopodin but not in PSD95 and NR2B/GluN2B protein level was also observed under these conditions. Whereas the absence of P2rx7 was characterized by escape deficit, no learned helpless behavior is observed in these animals. Likewise, no decrease in spine synapse number and synaptopodin protein levels was detected in response to inescapable footshocks in P2rx7-deficient animals. Our findings suggest the endogenous activation of P2rx7s in the learned helplessness model of depression and decreased plasticity of spine synapses in P2rx7-deficient mice might explain the resistance of these animals to repeated stressful stimuli. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  15. P2X7 receptor mediates activation of microglial cells in prostate of chemically irritated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Zhang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Evidence shows that adenosine triphosphate (ATP is involved in the transmission of multiple chronic pain via P2X7 receptor. This study was to investigate the P2X7 and microglial cells in the chronic prostatitis pain. Materials and Methods Rats were divided into control group and chronic prostatitis group (n = 24 per group. A chronic prostatitis animal model was established by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA to the prostate of rats, and the thermal withdrawal latency (TWL was detected on days 0, 4, 12 and 24 (n = 6 at each time point in each group. Animals were sacrificed and the pathological examination of the prostate, detection of mRNA expression of P2X7 and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA-1 and measurement of content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β in the dorsal horn of L5-S2 spinal cord were performed on days 0, 4, 12 and 24. In addition, the content of TNF-α and IL-1β in the dorsal horn of L5-S2 spinal cord was measured after intrathecal injection of inhibitors of microglial cells and/or P2X7 for 5 days. Results The chronic prostatitis was confirmed by pathological examination. The expression of P2X7 and IBA-1 and the content of TNF-α and IL-1β in rats with chronic prostatitis were significantly higher than those in the control group. On day 4, the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines became to increase, reaching a maximal level on day 12 and started to reduce on day 24, but remained higher than that in the control group. Following suppression of microglial cells and P2X7 receptor, the secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β was markedly reduced. Conclusion In chronic prostatitis pain, the microglial cells and P2X7 receptor are activated resulting in the increased expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in the L5-S2 spinal cord, which might attribute to the maintenance and intensification of pain in chronic prostatitis.

  16. P2X7 Receptor Antagonism Attenuates the Intermittent Hypoxia-induced Spatial Deficits in a Murine Model of Sleep Apnea Via Inhibiting Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Guo, Xue-Ling; Yuan, Xiao; Shang, Jin; Zhu, Die; Liu, Hui-Guo

    2015-08-20

    The mechanism of the neural injury caused by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) that characterizes obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is not clearly known. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is responsible for the CIH-induced neural injury and the possible pathway it involves. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were used. For each exposure time point, eight mice divided in room air (RA) and IH group were assigned to the study of P2X7R expression. Whereas in the 21 days-Brilliant Blue G (BBG, a selective P2X7R antagonist) study, 48 mice were randomly divided into CIH group, BBG-treated CIH group, RA group and BBG-treated RA group. The hippocampus P2X7R expression was determined by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The spatial learning was analyzed by Morris water maze. The nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) expressions were analyzed by Western blotting. The expressions of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β (IL-β), IL-18, and IL-6 were measured by real-time PCR. The malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase levels were detected by colorimetric method. Cell damage was evaluated by Hematoxylin and Eosin staining and Terminal Transferase dUTP Nick-end Labeling method. The P2X7R mRNA was elevated and sustained after 3-day IH exposure and the P2X7R protein was elevated and sustained after 7-day IH exposure. In the BBG study, the CIH mice showed severer neuronal cell damage and poorer performance in the behavior test. The increased NFκB and NOX2 expressions along with the inflammation injury and oxidative stress were also observed in the CIH group. BBG alleviated CIH-induced neural injury and consequent functional deficits. The P2X7R antagonism attenuates the CIH-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and spatial deficits, demonstrating that the P2X7R is an important therapeutic target in the cognition deficits accompanied OSAS.

  17. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) disrupts blood-brain barrier integrity through a mechanism involving P2X7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Araiz, Ana; Perez-Hernandez, Mercedes; Urrutia, Andrés; Porcu, Francesca; Borcel, Erika; Gutierrez-Lopez, Maria Dolores; O'Shea, Esther; Colado, Maria Isabel

    2014-08-01

    The recreational drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy') produces a neuro-inflammatory response in rats characterized by an increase in microglial activation and IL-1β levels. The integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is important in preserving the homeostasis of the brain and has been shown to be affected by neuro-inflammatory processes. We aimed to study the effect of a single dose of MDMA on the activity of metalloproteinases (MMPs), expression of extracellular matrix proteins, BBB leakage and the role of the ionotropic purinergic receptor P2X7 (P2X7R) in the changes induced by the drug. Adult male Dark Agouti rats were treated with MDMA (10 mg/kg, i.p.) and killed at several time-points in order to evaluate MMP-9 and MMP-3 activity in the hippocampus and laminin and collagen-IV expression and IgG extravasation in the dentate gyrus. Microglial activation, P2X7R expression and localization were also determined in the dentate gyrus. Separate groups were treated with MDMA and the P2X7R antagonists Brilliant Blue G (BBG; 50 mg/kg, i.p.) or A-438079 (30 mg/kg, i.p.). MDMA increased MMP-3 and MMP-9 activity, reduced laminin and collagen-IV expression and increased IgG immunoreactivity. In addition, MDMA increased microglial activation and P2X7R immunoreactivity in these cells. BBG suppressed the increase in MMP-9 and MMP-3 activity, prevented basal lamina degradation and IgG extravasation into the brain parenchyma. A-438079 also prevented the MDMA-induced reduction in laminin and collagen-IV immunoreactivity. These results indicate that MDMA alters BBB permeability through an early P2X7R-mediated event, which in turn leads to enhancement of MMP-9 and MMP-3 activity and degradation of extracellular matrix.

  18. The P2X7 receptor regulates cell survival, migration and invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannuzzo, Andrea; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig; Novak, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    of the ATP receptors, the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) could be an important player in PDAC behaviour. METHODS: We determined the expression (real time PCR and Western blot) and localization (immunofluorescence) of P2X7R in human PDAC cell lines (AsPC-1, BxPC-3, Capan-1, MiaPaCa-2, Panc-1) and a "normal" human...

  19. Direct labelling of the human P2X7 receptor and identification of positive and negative cooperativity of binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, A D; Chambers, L J; Clay, W C; Condreay, J P; Walter, D S; Chessell, I P

    2007-05-01

    The P2X(7) receptor exhibits complex pharmacological properties. In this study, binding of a [(3)H]-labelled P2X(7) receptor antagonist to human P2X(7) receptors has been examined to further understand ligand interactions with this receptor. The P2X(7) receptor antagonist, N-[2-({2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl}amino)-5-quinolinyl]-2-tricyclo[3.3.1.1(3,7)]dec-1-ylacetamide (compound-17), was radiolabelled with tritium and binding studies were performed using membranes prepared from U-2 OS or HEK293 cells expressing human recombinant P2X(7) receptors. Binding of [(3)H]-compound-17 was higher in membranes prepared from cells expressing P2X(7) receptors than from control cells and was inhibited by ATP suggesting labelled sites represented human P2X(7) receptors. Binding was reversible, saturable and modulated by P2X(7) receptor ligands (Brilliant Blue G, KN62, ATP, decavanadate). Furthermore, ATP potency was reduced in the presence of divalent cations or NaCl. Radioligand binding exhibited both positive and negative cooperativity. Positive cooperativity was evident from bell shaped Scatchard plots, reduction in radioligand dissociation rate by unlabelled compound-17 and enhancement of radioligand binding by KN62 and unlabelled compound-17. ATP and decavanadate inhibited binding in a negative cooperative manner as they enhanced radioligand dissociation. These data demonstrate that human P2X(7) receptors can be directly labelled and provide novel insights into receptor function. The positive cooperativity observed suggests that binding of compound-17 to one subunit in the P2X(7) receptor complex enhances subsequent binding to other P2X(7) subunits in the same complex. The negative cooperative effects of ATP suggest that ATP and compound-17 bind at separate, interacting, sites on the P2X(7) receptor.

  20. Effect of P2X(7) receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-09-15

    The purinergic P2X(7) receptors are expressed in different cell types where they have varied functions, including regulation of cell survival. The P2X(7) receptors are also expressed in exocrine glands, but their integrated role in secretion is unclear. The aim of our study was to determine whether the P2X(7) receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X(7)(-/-) (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release and intracellular Ca(2+) activity using Fura-2. The data showed that pancreatic secretion and salivary secretions were reduced in P2X(7)(-/-) mice, and in contrast, tear secretion was increased in P2X(7)(-/-) mice. The secretory phenotype was also dependent on the sex of the animal, such that males were more dependent on the P2X(7) receptor expression. ATP release in all cell preparations could be elicited by carbachol and other agonists, and this was independent of the P2X(7) receptor expression. ATP and carbachol increased intracellular Ca(2+) activity, but responses depended on the gland type, presence of the P2X(7) receptor and the sex of the animal. Together, these results demonstrate that cholinergic stimulation leads to release of ATP that can via P2X(7) receptors up-regulate pancreatic and salivary secretion but down-regulate tear secretion. Our data also indicate that there is an interaction between purinergic and cholinergic receptor signalling and that function of the P2X(7) receptor is suppressed in females. We conclude that the P2X(7) receptors are important in short-term physiological regulation of exocrine gland secretion.

  1. Effect of P2X7 receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The purinergic P2X7 receptors are expressed in different cell types where they have varied functions, including regulation of cell survival. The P2X7 receptors are also expressed in exocrine glands, but their integrated role in secretion is unclear. The aim of our study was to determine whether the P2X7 receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X7−/− (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release and intracellular Ca2+ activity using Fura-2. The data showed that pancreatic secretion and salivary secretions were reduced in P2X7−/− mice, and in contrast, tear secretion was increased in P2X7−/− mice. The secretory phenotype was also dependent on the sex of the animal, such that males were more dependent on the P2X7 receptor expression. ATP release in all cell preparations could be elicited by carbachol and other agonists, and this was independent of the P2X7 receptor expression. ATP and carbachol increased intracellular Ca2+ activity, but responses depended on the gland type, presence of the P2X7 receptor and the sex of the animal. Together, these results demonstrate that cholinergic stimulation leads to release of ATP that can via P2X7 receptors up-regulate pancreatic and salivary secretion but down-regulate tear secretion. Our data also indicate that there is an interaction between purinergic and cholinergic receptor signalling and that function of the P2X7 receptor is suppressed in females. We conclude that the P2X7 receptors are important in short-term physiological regulation of exocrine gland secretion. PMID:20643770

  2. Effect of P2X(7) receptor knockout on exocrine secretion of pancreas, salivary glands and lacrimal glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Jans, Ida M; Wohlfahrt, Louise

    2010-01-01

    the P2X(7) receptors affect fluid secretion in pancreas, salivary glands and tear glands. We monitored gland secretions in in vivo preparations of wild-type and P2X(7)(-/-) (Pfizer) mice stimulated with pilocarpine. In cell preparations from pancreas, parotid and lacrimal glands we measured ATP release...... and intracellular Ca(2+) activity using Fura-2. The data showed that pancreatic secretion and salivary secretions were reduced in P2X(7)(-/-) mice, and in contrast, tear secretion was increased in P2X(7)(-/-) mice. The secretory phenotype was also dependent on the sex of the animal, such that males were more...

  3. MBL, P2X7, and SLC11A1 gene polymorphisms in patients with oropharyngeal tularemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somuk, Battal Tahsin; Koc, Sema; Ates, Omer; Göktas, Göksel; Soyalic, Harun; Uysal, Ismail Onder; Gurbuzler, Levent; Sapmaz, Emrah; Sezer, Saime; Eyibilen, Ahmet

    2016-11-01

    A significant association was found of oropharyngeal tularemia with SLC11A1 allele polymorphism (INT4 G/C) and MBL2 C + 4T (P/Q). These results indicate C allele and Q allele might be a risk factor for the development of oropharyngeal tularemia. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of SLC11A1, MBL, and P2X 7 gene polymorphism with oropharyngeal tularemia. The study included totally 120 patients who were diagnosed with oropharyngeal tularemia. Frequencies of polymorphisms in the following genes were analyzed both in the patient and control groups in the study: SLC11A1 (5'(GT) n Allele 2/3, Int4 G/C, 3' UTR, D543N G/A), MBL (MBL2 C + 4T (P/Q), and P2X 7 (-762 C/T and 1513 A/C). Among all polymorphisms that were investigated in this study, SLC11A1 gene showed a significance in the distriburtion of polymorphism allelle frequency at the INT4 region. Frequency of C allele was 54 (28%) in patients with oropharyngeal tularemia, and 31 (13%) in the control group (p = 0.006 and OR = 1.96 (1.21-3.20)). An association was detected between MBL2 C + 4T (P/Q) gene polymorphism and oropharyngeal tularemia (p tularemia in this study (p > 0.05).

  4. Inflammatory early events associated to the role of P2X7 receptor in acute murine toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Gladys; Almeida Lindenberg, Carolina de; Moreira-Souza, Aline Cristina de Abreu; Savio, Luiz Eduardo Baggio; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Marques-da-Silva, Camila; Vommaro, Rossiane Claudia; Coutinho-Silva, Robson

    2017-04-01

    Activation of the purinergic P2X7 receptor by extracellular ATP (eATP) potentiates proinflammatory responses during infections by intracellular pathogens. Extracellular ATP triggers an antimicrobial response in macrophages infected with Toxoplasma gondii in vitro, suggesting that purinergic signaling may stimulate host defense mechanisms against toxoplasmosis. Here, we provide in vivo evidence in support of this hypothesis, by showing that P2X7 -/- mice are more susceptible than P2X7 +/+ mice to acute infection by the RH strain of T. gondii, and that this phenomenon is associated with a deficient proinflammatory response. Four days post-infection, peritoneal washes from infected P2X7 -/- mice had no or little increase in the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-12, IL-1β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α, whose levels increased markedly in samples from infected P2X7 +/+ mice. Infected P2X7 -/- mice displayed an increase in organ weight and histological alterations in some of the 'shock organs' in toxoplasmosis - the liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. The liver of infected P2X7 -/- mice had smaller granulomas, but increased parasite load/granuloma. Our results confirm that the P2X7 receptor is involved in containing T. gondii spread in vivo, by stimulating inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. P2X7 receptor-mediated PARP1 activity regulates astroglial death in the rat hippocampus following status epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yang eKim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP1 plays a regulatory role in apoptosis, necrosis, and other cellular processes after injury. Recently, we revealed that PARP1 regulates the differential neuronal/astroglial responses to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE in the distinct brain regions. In addition, P2X7 receptor (P2X7R, an ATP-gated ion channel, activation accelerates astroglial apoptosis, while it attenuates clasmatodendrosis (lysosome-derived autophagic astroglial death. Therefore, we investigated whether P2X7R regulates regional specific astroglial PARP1 expression/activation in response to SE. In the present study, P2X7R activation exacerbates SE-induced astroglial apoptosis, while P2X7R inhibition attenuates it accompanied by increasing PARP1 activity in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus following SE. In the CA1 region, however, P2X7R inhibition deteriorates SE-induced clasmatodendrosis via PARP1 activation following SE. Taken together, our findings suggest that P2X7R function may affect SE-induced astroglial death by regulating PARP1 activation/expression in regional-specific manner. Therefore, the selective modulation of P2X7R-mediated PARP1 functions may be a considerable strategy for controls in various types of cell deaths.

  6. P2X7 receptor-mediated calcium dynamics in HEK293 cells: experimental characterization and modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Garbo, A; Alloisio, S; Nobile, M

    2012-01-01

    The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) induces ionotropic Ca 2+  signalling in different cell types. It plays an important role in the immune response and in the nervous system. Here, the mechanisms underlying intracellular Ca 2+  variations evoked by 3′-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl-ATP (BzATP), a potent agonist of the P2X7R, in transfected HEK293 cells, are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. We propose a minimal model of P2X7R that is capable of reproducing, qualitatively and quantitatively, the experimental data. This approach was also adopted for the P2X7R variant, which lacks the entire C-terminus tail (trP2X7R). Then we introduce a biophysical model describing the Ca 2+  dynamics in HEK293. Our model gives an account of the ionotropic Ca 2+  influx evoked by BzATP on the basis of the kinetics model of P2X7R. To explain the complex Ca 2+  responses evoked by BzATP, the model predicted that an impairment in Ca 2+  extrusion flux through the plasma membrane is a key factor for Ca 2+ homeostasis in HEK293 cells. (paper)

  7. P2X7 receptor-mediated calcium dynamics in HEK293 cells: experimental characterization and modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Garbo, A.; Alloisio, S.; Nobile, M.

    2012-04-01

    The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) induces ionotropic Ca2 + signalling in different cell types. It plays an important role in the immune response and in the nervous system. Here, the mechanisms underlying intracellular Ca2 + variations evoked by 3‧-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl-ATP (BzATP), a potent agonist of the P2X7R, in transfected HEK293 cells, are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. We propose a minimal model of P2X7R that is capable of reproducing, qualitatively and quantitatively, the experimental data. This approach was also adopted for the P2X7R variant, which lacks the entire C-terminus tail (trP2X7R). Then we introduce a biophysical model describing the Ca2 + dynamics in HEK293. Our model gives an account of the ionotropic Ca2 + influx evoked by BzATP on the basis of the kinetics model of P2X7R. To explain the complex Ca2 + responses evoked by BzATP, the model predicted that an impairment in Ca2 + extrusion flux through the plasma membrane is a key factor for Ca2 + homeostasis in HEK293 cells.

  8. P2X7 receptor regulates osteoclast function and bone loss in a mouse model of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Agrawal, Ankita; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Gartland, Alison

    2018-02-22

    Post-menopausal osteoporosis is a condition that affects millions worldwide and places a huge socio-economic burden on society. Previous research has shown an association of loss of function SNPs in the gene for the purinergic receptor P2X7R with low bone mineral density, increased rates of bone loss and vertebral fractures in post-menopausal women. In this study we use a mouse model of oestrogen deficiency-induced bone loss and the BALB/cJ P2X7R -/- to show that absence of the P2X7R resulted in increased bone loss. Osteoclast precursors were isolated from both BALB/cJ P2X7R -/- and BALB/cJ P2X7R +/+ mice and then cultured in vitro to form mature resorbing osteoclasts. The BALB/cJ P2X7R -/- derived precursors generated slightly more osteoclasts but with a significant reduction in the amount of resorption per osteoclast. Furthermore, when using modified culture conditions osteoclast activity was additionally increased in the absence of the P2X7R suggest that P2X7R may regulate the lifespan and activity of osteoclasts. Finally using mechanical loading as an anabolic stimulus for bone formation, we demonstrated that the increased oestrogen-deficient bone loss could be rescued, even in the absence of P2X7R. This study paves the way for clinical intervention for women with post-menopausal osteoporosis and P2XR7 loss of function polymorphisms.

  9. P2X7 receptor regulates osteoclast function and bone loss in a mouse model of osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ning; Agrawal, Ankita; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2018-01-01

    Post-menopausal osteoporosis is a condition that affects millions worldwide and places a huge socio-economic burden on society. Previous research has shown an association of loss of function SNPs in the gene for the purinergic receptor P2X7R with low bone mineral density, increased rates of bone...... loss and vertebral fractures in post-menopausal women. In this study we use a mouse model of oestrogen deficiency-induced bone loss and the BALB/cJ P2X7R-/- to show that absence of the P2X7R resulted in increased bone loss. Osteoclast precursors were isolated from both BALB/cJ P2X7R-/- and BALB/cJ P2X7......R+/+ mice and then cultured in vitro to form mature resorbing osteoclasts. The BALB/cJ P2X7R-/- derived precursors generated slightly more osteoclasts but with a significant reduction in the amount of resorption per osteoclast. Furthermore, when using modified culture conditions osteoclast activity...

  10. Understanding the role of P2X7 in affective disorders – are glial cells the major players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanne eStokes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The pathophysiology of several psychiatric disorders has been linked to biomarkers of inflammation generating a theory of major depressive disorder as an inflammatory disease and infection and autoimmunity as major risk factors for schizophrenia. The idea of pro-inflammatory cytokines altering behavior is now well accepted however many questions remain. Microglia can produce a plethora of inflammatory cytokines and these cells appear to be critical in the link between inflammatory changes and depressive disorders. Microglia play a known role in sickness behavior which has many components of depressive-like behavior such as social withdrawal, sleep alterations, and anorexia. Numerous candidate genes have been identified for psychiatric disorders in the last decade. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human P2X7 gene have been linked to bipolar disorder, depression, and to the severity of depressive symptoms. P2X7 is a ligand-gated cation channel expressed on microglia with lower levels found on astrocytes and on some neuronal populations. In microglia P2X7 is a major regulator of pro-inflammatory cytokines of the interleukin-1 family. Genetic deletion of P2X7 in mice is protective for depressive behavior in addition to inflammatory responses. P2X7-/- mice have been shown to demonstrate anti-depressive-like behavior in forced swim and tail suspension behavioral tests and stressor-induced behavioral responses were blunted. Both neurochemical (norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine and inflammatory changes have been observed in the brains of P2X7-/- mice. This review will discuss the recent evidence for involvement of P2X7 in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and propose mechanisms by which altered signaling through this ion channel may affect the inflammatory state of the brain.

  11. Effect of electroacupuncture on the cervicospinal P2X7 receptor/fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling pathway in a rat neck-incision pain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y H; Li, C W; Wang, J Y; Tan, L H; Duanmu, C L; Jing, X H; Chang, X R; Liu, J L

    2017-06-01

    Increasing evidence supports that acupuncture intervention is an effective approach for intraoperative and postoperative pain. Neuron-microglia crosstalk, mediated by the purinergic P2X7 receptor (R)/fractalkine/CX3CR1 cascade in the spinal cord dorsal horn, plays a pivotal role in pain processing. However, its involvement in the analgesic effect of electroacupuncture (EA) remains unclear. In this study, a rat neck-incision pain model was established by making a longitudinal incision along the midline of the neck and subsequent repeated mechanical stimulation. EA stimulation was applied to bilateral LI18, LI4-PC6, or ST36-GB34. The thermal pain threshold, cervicospinal ATP concentration, expression levels of purinergic P2XR and P2YR subunits mRNAs, and fractalkine, CX3CR1 and p38 MAPK proteins, were detected separately. The neck incision induced strong thermal hyperalgesia and upregulation of spinal ATP within 48 h. No significant change was found in thermal hyperalgesia after a single session of EA intervention. However, a single session of EA dramatically enhanced the neck incision-induced upregulation of ATP and upregulated the expression of P2X7R, which was reversed by two sessions of EA. Two sessions of EA at bilateral LI18 or LI4-PC6 attenuated hyperalgesia significantly, accompanied with downregulation of P2X7R/fractalkine/ CX3CR1 signaling after three sessions of EA. EA stimulation of LI18 or LI4-PC6 alleviates thermal hyperalgesia in neck-incision pain rats, which may be associated with its effects in regulating the neck incision-induced increase of ATP and P2X7R and subsequently suppressing fractalkine/CX3CR1 signaling in the cervical spinal cord.

  12. P2X7 signaling promotes microsphere embolism-triggered microglia activation by maintaining elevation of Fas ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ying-mei

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cerebral microvascular occlusion elicits microvascular injury which mimics the different degrees of stroke severity observed in patients, but the mechanisms underlying these embolic injuries are far from understood. The Fas ligand (FasL-Fas system has been implicated in a number of pathogenic states. Here, we examined the contribution of microglia-derived FasL to brain inflammatory injury, with a focus on the potential to suppress the FasL increase by inhibition of the P2X7-FasL signaling with pharmacological or genetic approaches during ischemia. Methods The cerebral microvascular occlusion was induced by microsphere injection in experimental animals. Morphological changes in microglial cells were studied immunohistochemically. The biochemical analyses were used to examine the intracellular changes of P2X7/FasL signaling. The BV-2 cells and primary microglia from mice genetically deficient in P2X7 were used to further establish a linkage between microglia activation and FasL overproduction. Results The FasL expression was continuously elevated and was spatiotemporally related to microglia activation following microsphere embolism. Notably, P2X7 expression concomitantly increased in microglia and presented a distribution pattern that was similar to that of FasL in ED1-positive cells at pathological process of microsphere embolism. Interestingly, FasL generation in cultured microglia cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation-treated neuron-conditioned medium was prevented by the silencing of P2X7. Furthermore, FasL induced the migration of BV-2 microglia, whereas the neutralization of FasL with a blocking antibody was highly effective in inhibiting ischemia-induced microglial mobility. Similar results were observed in primary microglia from wild-type mice or mice genetically deficient in P2X7. Finally, the degrees of FasL overproduction and neuronal death were consistently reduced in P2X7−/− mice compared with wild

  13. Towards a Novel Class of Multitarget-Directed Ligands: Dual P2X7–NMDA Receptor Antagonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Karoutzou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-target-directed ligands (MTDLs offer new hope for the treatment of multifactorial complex diseases such as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. Herein, we present compounds aimed at targeting the NMDA and the P2X7 receptors, which embody a different approach to AD therapy. On one hand, we are seeking to delay neurodegeneration targeting the glutamatergic NMDA receptors; on the other hand, we also aim to reduce neuroinflammation, targeting P2X7 receptors. Although the NMDA receptor is a widely recognized therapeutic target in treating AD, the P2X7 receptor remains largely unexplored for this purpose; therefore, the dual inhibitor presented herein—which is open to further optimization—represents the first member of a new class of MTDLs.

  14. P2X7 Receptor Antagonism Attenuates the Intermittent Hypoxia-induced Spatial Deficits in a Murine Model of Sleep Apnea Via Inhibiting Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Deng

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The P2X7R antagonism attenuates the CIH-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and spatial deficits, demonstrating that the P2X7R is an important therapeutic target in the cognition deficits accompanied OSAS.

  15. ATP/P2X7 axis modulates myeloid-derived suppressor cell functions in neuroblastoma microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, G; Vuerich, M; Pellegatti, P; Marimpietri, D; Emionite, L; Marigo, I; Bronte, V; Di Virgilio, F; Pistoia, V; Raffaghello, L

    2014-03-20

    Tumor microenvironment of solid tumors is characterized by a strikingly high concentration of adenosine and ATP. Physiological significance of this biochemical feature is unknown, but it has been suggested that it may affect infiltrating immune cell responses and tumor progression. There is increasing awareness that many of the effects of extracellular ATP on tumor and inflammatory cells are mediated by the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). Aim of this study was to investigate whether: (i) extracellular ATP is a component of neuroblastoma (NB) microenvironment, (ii) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) express functional P2X7R and (iii) the ATP/P2X7R axis modulates MDSC functions. Our results show that extracellular ATP was detected in NB microenvironment in amounts that increased in parallel with tumor progression. The percentage of CD11b(+)/Gr-1(+) cells was higher in NB-bearing mice compared with healthy animals. Within the CD11b/Gr-1(+) population, monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSCs) produced higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), arginase-1 (ARG-1), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and stimulated more potently in vivo tumor growth, as compared with granulocytic MDSCs (G-MDSCs). P2X7R of M-MDSCs was localized at the plasma membrane, coupled to increased functionality, upregulation of ARG-1, TGF-β1 and ROS. Quite surprisingly, the P2X7R in primary MDSCs as well as in the MSC-1 and MSC-2 lines was uncoupled from cytotoxicity. This study describes a novel scenario in which MDSC immunosuppressive functions are modulated by the ATP-enriched tumor microenvironment.

  16. Paracrine stimulation of P2X7 receptor by ATP activates a proliferative pathway in ovarian carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Cuevas, Francisco G; Martínez-Ramírez, Angélica S; Robles-Martínez, Leticia; Garay, Edith; García-Carrancá, Alejandro; Pérez-Montiel, Delia; Castañeda-García, Carolina; Arellano, Rogelio O

    2014-11-01

    P2X7 is a purinergic receptor-channel; its activation by ATP elicits a broad set of cellular actions, from apoptosis to signals for survival. Here, P2X7 expression and function was studied in human ovarian carcinoma (OCA) cells, and biopsies from non-cancerous and cancer patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Ovarian surface epithelium in healthy tissue expressed P2X7 at a high level that was maintained throughout the cancer. The cell lines SKOV-3 and CAOV-3 were used to investigate P2X7 functions in OCA. In SKOV-3 cells, selective stimulation of P2X7 by 2'(3')-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl) adenosine-5'-triphosphate (BzATP) induced a dose-dependent increase of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) but not cell death. Instead, BzATP increased the levels of phosphorylated ERK and AKT (pERK and pAKT), with an EC(50) of 44 ± 2 and 1.27 ± 0.5 μM, respectively; 10 μM BzATP evoked a maximum effect within 15 min that lasted for 120 min. Interestingly, basal levels of pERK and pAKT were decreased in the presence of apyrase in the medium, strongly suggesting an endogenous, ATP-mediated phenomenon. Accordingly: (i) mechanically stimulated cells generated a [Ca(2+)](i) increase that was abolished by apyrase; (ii) apyrase induced a decrease in culture viability, as measured by the MTS assay for mitochondrial activity; and (iii) incubation with 10 μM AZ10606120, a specific P2X7 antagonist and transfection with the dominant negative P2X7 mutant E496A, both reduced cell viability to 70.1 ± 8.9% and to 76.5 ± 5%, respectively, of control cultures. These observations suggested that P2X7 activity was auto-induced through ATP efflux; this increased pERK and pAKT levels that generated a positive feedback on cell viability. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Purinergní P2X rodina a specifické vlastnosti P2X7 podtypu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindřichová, Marie; Zemková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2013), s. 40-46 ISSN 1210-6313 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP304/12/P371 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : extracellular ATP * purinergic P2X family * P2X7 receptor * cell proliferation and apoptosis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  18. Intercellular calcium signaling occurs between human osteoblasts and osteoclasts and requires activation of osteoclast P2X7 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas R; Henriksen, Zanne; Sørensen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    that human osteoclasts expressed functional P2Y1 receptors, but, unexpectedly, desensitization of P2Y1 did not block calcium signaling to osteoclasts. We also found that osteoclasts expressed functional P2X7 receptors and showed that pharmacological inhibition of these receptors blocked calcium signaling...

  19. P2X7 receptor inhibition interrupts the progression of seizures in immature rats and reduces hippocampal damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesuret, G.; Engel, T.G.P.; Hessel, E.V.; Sanz-Rodriguez, A.; Jimenez-Pacheco, A.; Miras-Portugal, M.T.; Diaz-Hernandez, M.; Henshall, D.C.

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Early-life seizures, particularly when prolonged, may be harmful to the brain. Current pharmacotherapy is often ineffective; therefore, novel neuro- and/or glio-transmitter systems should be explored for targeting. The P2X7 receptor is a cation-permeable channel with trophic and excitability

  20. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the P2X7 receptor gene are associated with post-menopausal bone loss and vertebral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rye Jørgensen, Niklas; Husted, Lise Bjerre; Skarratt, Kristen K

    2012-01-01

    to bone mass and fracture incidence in post-menopausal women. A total of 1694 women (aged 45-58) participating in the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study were genotyped for 12 functional P2X7 receptor variants. Bone mineral density was determined at baseline and after 10 years. In addition, vertebral...... had increased bone loss. In contrast, the Gln460Arg polymorphism was associated with protection against bone loss. The Ala348Thr polymorphism was associated with a lower vertebral fracture incidence 10 years after menopause. Finally, we developed a risk model, which integrated P2RX7 genotypes. Using...

  1. Possible role of pannexin 1/P2x7 purinoceptor in neuroprotective mechanism of ischemic postconditioning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahi, Namarta; Kumar, Amit; Jaggi, Amteshwar S; Singh, Nirmal; Dhawan, Ravi

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested a significant role of pannexin 1 (Panx1)/P2X7 receptor complex in cardioprotective mechanism of ischemic preconditioning and postconditioning (IPC). The present study has been undertaken to investigate whether Panx1/P2X7 purinoceptors are also involved in the neuroprotective mechanism of IPC in mice. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) for 12 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h was used to produce ischemia-reperfusion-induced cerebral injury in Swiss albino mice. For IPC immediately after BCAO of 12 min, three cycles of 10-s ischemia and reperfusion each were given and then prolonged reperfusion of 24 h was used. Cerebral infarct size was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Memory was evaluated using a Morris water maze test. Rotarod test, inclined beam walking test, and neurologic severity score (NSS) were used to assess motor dysfunction. Acetylcholine esterase levels, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, and glutathione level were also estimated. BCAO followed by reperfusion produced a significant increase in cerebral infarct size, NSS along with impairment of memory and motor dysfunction. It also increased brain acetylcholine esterase, thiobarbituric acid reactive species levels, and decreased the glutathione level. IPC produced a significant decrease in the cerebral infarct size and NSS along with reversal of ischemia-reperfusion-induced impairment of memory, motor dysfunction, and altered biochemical levels in the brain. IPC-induced neuroprotective effects were significantly abolished by pretreatment of mefloquine (15.0 mg/kg orally; 30.0 mg/kg orally), blocker of Panx1/P2X7 purinoceptor. Therefore, activation of Panx1/P2X7 purinoceptors appears to play a significant role in the neuroprotective mechanism of IPC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Submucosal neurons and enteric glial cells expressing the P2X7 receptor in rat experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Marosti, Aline Rosa; Mendes, Cristina Eusébio; Palombit, Kelly; Castelucci, Patricia

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ulcerative colitis on the submucosal neurons and glial cells of the submucosal ganglia of rats. 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS; colitis group) was administered in the colon to induce ulcerative colitis, and distal colons were collected after 24h. The colitis rats were compared with those in the sham and control groups. Double labelling of the P2X7 receptor with calbindin (marker for intrinsic primary afferent neurons, IPANs, submucosal plexus), calretinin (marker for secretory and vasodilator neurons of the submucosal plexus), HuC/D and S100β was performed in the submucosal plexus. The density (neurons per area) of submucosal neurons positive for the P2X7 receptor, calbindin, calretinin and HuC/D decreased by 21%, 34%, 8.2% and 28%, respectively, in the treated group. In addition, the density of enteric glial cells in the submucosal plexus decreased by 33%. The profile areas of calbindin-immunoreactive neurons decreased by 25%. Histological analysis revealed increased lamina propria and decreased collagen in the colitis group. This study demonstrated that ulcerative colitis affected secretory and vasodilatory neurons, IPANs and enteric glia of the submucosal plexus expressing the P2X7 receptor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. P2X7, NMDA and BDNF receptors converge on GSK3 phosphorylation and cooperate to promote survival in cerebellar granule neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Felipe; Pérez-Sen, Raquel; Morente, Verónica; Delicado, Esmerilda G; Miras-Portugal, Maria Teresa

    2010-05-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is a key player in the regulation of neuronal survival. Herein, we report evidence of an interaction between P2X7 receptors with NMDA and BDNF receptors at the level of GSK3 signalling and neuroprotection. The activation of these receptors in granule neurons led to a sustained pattern of GSK3 phosphorylation that was mainly PKC-dependent. BDNF was the most potent at inducing GSK3 phosphorylation, which was also dependent on PI3K. The P2X7 agonist, BzATP, exhibited additive effects with both NMDA and BDNF to rescue granule neurons from cell death induced by PI3K inhibition. This survival effect was mediated by the PKC-dependent GSK3 pathway. In addition, ERK1/2 proteins were also involved in BDNF protective effect. These results show the function of ATP in amplifying neuroprotective actions of glutamate and neurotrophins, and support the role of GSK3 as an important convergence point for these survival promoting factors in granule neurons.

  4. P2X7 mRNA expression in non-small cell lung cancer: MicroRNA regulation and prognostic value

    OpenAIRE

    BOLDRINI, LAURA; GIORDANO, MIRELLA; ALÌ, GRETA; MELFI, FRANCA; ROMANO, GAETANO; LUCCHI, MARCO; FONTANINI, GABRIELLA

    2014-01-01

    The human P2X7 receptor is significant and exhibits several functions in neoplasia. At present, little is known with regard to its regulation. P2X7 expression may be regulated post-transcriptionally and putative microRNA (miRNA) binding sites are considered to be involved. The aim of this study was to determine whether miRNAs (miR-21, let-7 g and miR-205) regulate P2X7 mRNA stability. In addition, the impact of P2X7 expression in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was investigat...

  5. Association of P2X7 gene common polymorphisms with pulmonary tuberculosis in Lur population of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Amiri

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different genetic and environmental factors are associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB in different individuals of different populations. Based on previous studies role of P2X7 gene common polymorphisms in susceptibility to pulmonary TB was associated with ethnicities. Aim: We intend to perform this study on genetic reservoir (gene pool of Lur population of western Iran. Methods: For the present case-control study, 100 unrelated pulmonary TB patients and 100 unrelated controls were enrolled through convenient sampling. TB confirmation was through smear and culture of sputum. Polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP was used for molecular assay. This study has been approved in the ethic committee of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences with registration number LUMS.REC.1396.253. Results: Among the genotypes of polymorphism 1513A/C, AA genotype was associated with susceptibility to pulmonary TB (P = .0001; OR = 4.750 whereas AC genotype was a protecting factor (P = .0001; OR = 0.192. Higher genetic reservoir of A allele was associated with more susceptibility to pulmonary TB (P = .0001; OR = 2.879 whereas C allele was a protecting factor (P = .0001; OR = 0.347. No significant result was found for −762T/C polymorphism. Conclusion: In Lur population of Iran, 1513A/C polymorphism of P2X7 is associated with susceptibility to pulmonary TB. It is suggested that bio-information banks should be established and developed in countries. Keywords: Pulmonary tuberculosis, Immunogenetics, P2X7, Population genetics

  6. Association of P2X7 receptor polymorphisms with bone mineral density and osteoporosis risk in a cohort of Dutch fracture patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesselius, A; Bours, M J L; Henriksen, Z

    2013-01-01

    The P2X(7) receptor is thought to be involved in bone physiology in a pro-osteogenic manner. Therefore, we examined associations between genetic variations in the P2X(7) receptor gene and bone mineral density (BMD). We found an association between four non-synonymous polymorphism of the human P2X...

  7. P2X7 receptors in satellite glial cells mediate high functional expression of P2X3 receptors in immature dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purinergic P2X3 receptor (P2X3R expressed in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG sensory neuron and the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R expressed in the surrounding satellite glial cell (SGC are two major receptors participating in neuron-SGC communication in adult DRGs. Activation of P2X7Rs was found to tonically reduce the expression of P2X3Rs in DRGs, thus inhibiting the abnormal pain behaviors in adult rats. P2X receptors are also actively involved in sensory signaling in developing rodents. However, very little is known about the developmental change of P2X7Rs in DRGs and the interaction between P2X7Rs and P2X3Rs in those animals. We therefore examined the expression of P2X3Rs and P2X7Rs in postnatal rats and determined if P2X7R-P2X3R control exists in developing rats. Findings We immunostained DRGs of immature rats and found that P2X3Rs were expressed only in neurons and P2X7Rs were expressed only in SGCs. Western blot analyses indicated that P2X3R expression decreased while P2X7R expression increased with the age of rats. Electrophysiological studies showed that the number of DRG neurons responding to the stimulation of the P2XR agonist, α,β-meATP, was higher and the amplitudes of α,β-meATP-induced depolarizations were larger in immature DRG neurons. As a result, P2X3R-mediated flinching responses were much more pronounced in immature rats than those found in adult rats. When we reduced P2X7R expression with P2X7R-siRNA in postnatal and adult rats, P2X3R-mediated flinch responses were greatly enhanced in both rat populations. Conclusions These results show that the P2X7R expression increases as rats age. In addition, P2X7Rs in SGCs exert inhibitory control on the P2X3R expression and function in sensory neurons of immature rats, just as observed in adult rats. Regulation of P2X7R expression is likely an effective way to control P2X3R activity and manage pain relief in infants.

  8. Subfailure overstretch injury leads to reversible functional impairment and purinergic P2X7 receptor activation in intact vascular tissue

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    Weifeng Luo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vascular stretch injury is associated with blunt trauma, vascular surgical procedures, and harvest of human saphenous vein for use in vascular bypass grafting. A model of subfailure overstretch in rat abdominal aorta was developed to characterize surgical vascular stretch injury. Longitudinal stretch of rat aorta was characterized ex vivo. Stretch to the haptic endpoint where the tissues would no longer lengthen, occurred at twice the resting length. The stress produced at this length was greater than physiologic mechanical forces but well below the level of mechanical disruption. Functional responses were determined in a muscle bath and this subfailure overstretch injury led to impaired smooth muscle function that was partially reversed by treatment with purinergic receptor (P2X7R antagonists. These data suggest that vasomotor dysfunction caused by subfailure overstretch injury may be due to activation of P2X7R. These studies have implications for our understanding of mechanical stretch injury of blood vessels and offer novel therapeutic opportunities.

  9. Heterozygosity for the Mood Disorder-Associated Variant Gln460Arg Alters P2X7 Receptor Function and Sleep Quality.

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    Metzger, Michael W; Walser, Sandra M; Dedic, Nina; Aprile-Garcia, Fernando; Jakubcakova, Vladimira; Adamczyk, Marek; Webb, Katharine J; Uhr, Manfred; Refojo, Damian; Schmidt, Mathias V; Friess, Elisabeth; Steiger, Axel; Kimura, Mayumi; Chen, Alon; Holsboer, Florian; Arzt, Eduardo; Wurst, Wolfgang; Deussing, Jan M

    2017-11-29

    A single nucleotide polymorphism substitution from glutamine (Gln, Q) to arginine (Arg, R) at codon 460 of the purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) has repeatedly been associated with mood disorders. The P2X7R-Gln460Arg variant per se is not compromised in its function. However, heterologous expression of P2X7R-Gln460Arg together with wild-type P2X7R has recently been demonstrated to impair receptor function. Here we show that this also applies to humanized mice coexpressing both human P2X7R variants. Primary hippocampal cells derived from heterozygous mice showed an attenuated calcium uptake upon agonist stimulation. While humanized mice were unaffected in their behavioral repertoire under basal housing conditions, mice that harbor both P2X7R variants showed alterations in their sleep quality resembling signs of a prodromal disease stage. Also healthy heterozygous human subjects showed mild changes in sleep parameters. These results indicate that heterozygosity for the wild-type P2X7R and its mood disorder-associated variant P2X7R-Gln460Arg represents a genetic risk factor, which is potentially able to convey susceptibility to mood disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Depression and bipolar disorder are the most common mood disorders. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) regulates many cellular functions. Its polymorphic variant Gln460Arg has repeatedly been associated with mood disorders. Genetically engineered mice, with human P2X7R, revealed that heterozygous mice (i.e., they coexpress the disease-associated Gln460Arg variant together with its normal version) have impaired receptor function and showed sleep disturbances. Human participants with the heterozygote genotype also had subtle alterations in their sleep profile. Our findings suggest that altered P2X7R function in heterozygote individuals disturbs sleep and might increase the risk for developing mood disorders. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/3711688-13$15.00/0.

  10. The purinergic P2X7 ion channel receptor — a ‘repair’ receptor in bone

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    Jørgensen, Niklas Rye

    2018-01-01

    A strong skeleton relies on adaptation to varying physical demands and on maintenance of the bone tissue in order to avoid accumulation of micro-damage. In bone, the purinergic P2X7 ion channel receptor is expressed on both cells of the stromal lineage such as the bone forming osteoblasts...... and the mechano-sensing osteocytes and on cells belonging to the immune-related monocyte–macrophage lineage, the bone resorbing osteoclasts. Recent studies have demonstrated that the receptor plays important roles in the anabolic responses to mechanical loading on bone and, together with the pannexin1 hemi......-channel, in the process of initiating bone remodeling in response to micro-damage. Thus, the receptor is crucial in skeletal mechano-transduction and in the continuous repair process. However, under pathophysiological conditions such as diabetes with high glucose concentrations or glucocorticoid-treatment the receptor...

  11. Lack of neuroprotection in the absence of P2X7 receptors in toxin-induced animal models of Parkinson's disease

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    Kittel Ágnes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies indicate a role of P2X7 receptors in processes that lead to neuronal death. The main objective of our study was to examine whether genetic deletion or pharmacological blockade of P2X7 receptors influenced dopaminergic cell death in various models of Parkinson's disease (PD. Results mRNA encoding P2X7 and P2X4 receptors was up-regulated after treatment of PC12 cells with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine (MPTP. P2X7 antagonists protected against MPTP and rotenone induced toxicity in the LDH assay, but failed to protect after rotenone treatment in the MTT assay in PC12 cells and in primary midbrain culture. In vivo MPTP and in vitro rotenone pretreatments increased the mRNA expression of P2X7 receptors in the striatum and substantia nigra of wild-type mice. Basal mRNA expression of P2X4 receptors was higher in P2X7 knockout mice and was further up-regulated by MPTP treatment. Genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of P2X7 receptors did not change survival rate or depletion of striatal endogenous dopamine (DA content after in vivo MPTP or in vitro rotenone treatment. However, depletion of norepinephrine was significant after MPTP treatment only in P2X7 knockout mice. The basal ATP content was higher in the substantia nigra of wild-type mice, but the ADP level was lower. Rotenone treatment elicited a similar reduction in ATP content in the substantia nigra of both genotypes, whereas reduction of ATP was more pronounced after rotenone treatment in striatal slices of P2X7 deficient mice. Although the endogenous amino acid content remained unchanged, the level of the endocannabinoid, 2-AG, was elevated by rotenone in the striatum of wild-type mice, an effect that was absent in mice deficient in P2X7 receptors. Conclusions We conclude that P2X7 receptor deficiency or inhibition does not support the survival of dopaminergic neurons in an in vivo or in vitro models of PD.

  12. P2X7 receptor drives Th1 cell differentiation and controls the follicular helper T cell population to protect against Plasmodium chabaudi malaria.

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    Érika Machado de Salles

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A complete understanding of the mechanisms underlying the acquisition of protective immunity is crucial to improve vaccine strategies to eradicate malaria. However, it is still unclear whether recognition of damage signals influences the immune response to Plasmodium infection. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP accumulates in infected erythrocytes and is released into the extracellular milieu through ion channels in the erythrocyte membrane or upon erythrocyte rupture. The P2X7 receptor senses extracellular ATP and induces CD4 T cell activation and death. Here we show that P2X7 receptor promotes T helper 1 (Th1 cell differentiation to the detriment of follicular T helper (Tfh cells during blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi malaria. The P2X7 receptor was activated in CD4 T cells following the rupture of infected erythrocytes and these cells became highly responsive to ATP during acute infection. Moreover, mice lacking the P2X7 receptor had increased susceptibility to infection, which correlated with impaired Th1 cell differentiation. Accordingly, IL-2 and IFNγ secretion, as well as T-bet expression, critically depended on P2X7 signaling in CD4 T cells. Additionally, P2X7 receptor controlled the splenic Tfh cell population in infected mice by promoting apoptotic-like cell death. Finally, the P2X7 receptor was required to generate a balanced Th1/Tfh cell population with an improved ability to transfer parasite protection to CD4-deficient mice. This study provides a new insight into malaria immunology by showing the importance of P2X7 receptor in controlling the fine-tuning between Th1 and Tfh cell differentiation during P. chabaudi infection and thus in disease outcome.

  13. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  14. ATP induces NO production in hippocampal neurons by P2X(7 receptor activation independent of glutamate signaling.

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    Juan Francisco Codocedo

    Full Text Available To assess the putative role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP upon nitric oxide (NO production in the hippocampus, we used as a model both rat hippocampal slices and isolated hippocampal neurons in culture, lacking glial cells. In hippocampal slices, additions of exogenous ATP or 2'(3'-O-(4-Benzoylbenzoyl ATP (Bz-ATP elicited concentration-dependent NO production, which increased linearly within the first 15 min and plateaued thereafter; agonist EC50 values were 50 and 15 µM, respectively. The NO increase evoked by ATP was antagonized in a concentration-dependent manner by Coomassie brilliant blue G (BBG or by N(ω-propyl-L-arginine, suggesting the involvement of P2X7Rs and neuronal NOS, respectively. The ATP induced NO production was independent of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA receptor activity as effects were not alleviated by DL-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV, but antagonized by BBG. In sum, exogenous ATP elicited NO production in hippocampal neurons independently of NMDA receptor activity.

  15. Loss of Function of P2X7 Receptor Scavenger Activity in Aging Mice: A Novel Model for Investigating the Early Pathogenesis of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, Kirstan A; Gu, Ben J; Jobling, Andrew I; Phipps, Joanna A; Greferath, Ursula; Tran, Mai X; Dixon, Michael A; Baird, Paul N; Guymer, Robyn H; Wiley, James S; Fletcher, Erica L

    2017-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of irreversible, severe vision loss in Western countries. Recently, we identified a novel pathway involving P2X7 receptor scavenger function expressed on ocular immune cells as a risk factor for advanced AMD. In this study, we investigate the effect of loss of P2X7 receptor function on retinal structure and function during aging. P2X7-null and wild-type C57bl6J mice were investigated at 4, 12, and 18 months of age for macrophage phagocytosis activity, ocular histological changes, and retinal function. Phagocytosis activity of blood-borne macrophages decreased with age at 18 months in the wild-type mouse. Lack of P2X7 receptor function reduced phagocytosis at all ages compared to wild-type mice. At 12 months of age, P2X7-null mice had thickening of Bruchs membrane and retinal pigment epithelium dysfunction. By 18 months of age, P2X7-null mice displayed phenotypic characteristics consistent with early AMD, including Bruchs membrane thickening, retinal pigment epithelium cell loss, retinal functional deficits, and signs of subretinal inflammation. Our present study shows that loss of function of the P2X7 receptor in mice induces retinal changes representing characteristics of early AMD, providing a valuable model for investigating the role of scavenger receptor function and the immune system in the development of this age-related disease. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pulmonary infection with hypervirulent Mycobacteria reveals a crucial role for the P2X7 receptor in aggressive forms of tuberculosis.

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    Eduardo P Amaral

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R is a sensor of extracellular ATP, a damage-associated molecule that is released from necrotic cells and that induces pro-inflammatory cytokine production and cell death. To investigate whether the innate immune response to damage signals could contribute to the development of pulmonary necrotic lesions in severe forms of tuberculosis, disease progression was examined in C57BL/6 and P2X7R-/- mice that were intratracheally infected with highly virulent mycobacterial strains (Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain 1471 of the Beijing genotype family and Mycobacterium bovis strain MP287/03. The low-dose infection of C57BL/6 mice with bacteria of these strains caused the rapid development of extensive granulomatous pneumonia with necrotic areas, intense bacillus dissemination and anticipated animal death. In contrast, in P2X7R-/- mice, the lung pathology presented with moderate infiltrates of mononuclear leukocytes without visible signs of necrosis; the disease attenuation was accompanied by a delay in mortality. In vitro, the hypervirulent mycobacteria grew rapidly inside macrophages and induced death by a P2X7R-dependent mechanism that facilitated the release of bacilli. Furthermore, these bacteria were resistant to the protective mechanisms elicited in macrophages following extracellular ATP stimulation. Based on this study, we propose that the rapid intracellular growth of hypervirulent mycobacteria results in massive macrophage damage. The ATP released by damaged cells engages P2X7R and accelerates the necrotic death of infected macrophages and the release of bacilli. This vicious cycle exacerbates pneumonia and lung necrosis by promoting widespread cell destruction and bacillus dissemination. These findings suggest the use of drugs that have been designed to inhibit the P2X7R as a new therapeutic approach to treat the aggressive forms of tuberculosis.

  17. Spinal cord pathology is ameliorated by P2X7 antagonism in a SOD1-mutant mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

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    Savina Apolloni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the role of P2X7, a receptor for extracellular ATP, in modulating physiopathological mechanisms in the central nervous system. In particular, P2X7 has been shown to be implicated in neuropsychiatry, chronic pain, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Remarkably, P2X7 has also been shown to be a ‘gene modifier’ in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS: the receptor is upregulated in spinal cord microglia in human and rat at advanced stages of the disease; in vitro, activation of P2X7 exacerbates pro-inflammatory responses in microglia that have an ALS phenotype, as well as toxicity towards neuronal cells. Despite this detrimental in vitro role of P2X7, in SOD1-G93A mice lacking P2X7, the clinical onset of ALS was significantly accelerated and disease progression worsened, thus indicating that the receptor might have some beneficial effects, at least at certain stages of disease. In order to clarify this dual action of P2X7 in ALS pathogenesis, in the present work we used the antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG, a blood-brain barrier permeable and safe drug that has already been proven to reduce neuroinflammation in traumatic brain injury, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, neuropathic pain and experimental autoimmune encephalitis. We tested BBG in the SOD1-G93A ALS mouse model at asymptomatic, pre-symptomatic and late pre-symptomatic phases of disease. BBG at late pre-onset significantly enhanced motor neuron survival and reduced microgliosis in lumbar spinal cord, modulating inflammatory markers such as NF-κB, NADPH oxidase 2, interleukin-1β, interleukin-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. This was accompanied by delayed onset and improved general conditions and motor performance, in both male and female mice, although survival appeared unaffected. Our results prove the twofold role of P2X7 in the course of ALS and establish that P2X7 modulation might represent a promising

  18. Inhibition of P2X7 receptor ameliorates transient global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via modulating inflammatory responses in the rat hippocampus

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    Chu Ketan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroinflammation plays an important role in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R has been reported to be involved in the inflammatory response of many central nervous system diseases. However, the role of P2X7Rs in transient global cerebral I/R injury remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of inhibiting the P2X7R in a rat model of transient global cerebral I/R injury, and then to explore the association between the P2X7R and neuroinflammation after transient global cerebral I/R injury. Methods Immediately after infusion with the P2X7R antagonists Brilliant blue G (BBG, adenosine 5′-triphosphate-2′,3′-dialdehyde (OxATP or A-438079, 20 minutes of transient global cerebral I/R was induced using the four-vessel occlusion (4-VO method in rats. Survival rate was calculated, neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region was observed using H & E staining, and DNA cleavage was observed by deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated UTP nick end labeling TUNEL. In addition, behavioral deficits were measured using the Morris water maze, and RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining were performed to measure the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6, and to identify activated microglia and astrocytes. Results The P2X7R antagonists protected against transient global cerebral I/R injury in a dosage-dependent manner. A high dosage of BBG (10 μg and A-0438079 (3 μg, and a low dosage of OxATP (1 μg significantly increased survival rates, reduced I/R-induced learning memory deficit, and reduced I/R-induced neuronal death, DNA cleavage, and glial activation and inflammatory cytokine overexpression in the hippocampus. Conclusions Our study indicates that inhibiting P2X7Rs protects against transient global cerebral I/R injury by reducing the I/R-induced inflammatory response, which suggests inhibition of P2X7Rs may be a promising therapeutic strategy for clinical treatment of

  19. Chronic restraint stress exacerbates nociception and inflammatory response induced by bee venom in rats: the role of the P2X7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Qiu; Li, Man; Zhou, Zhong-He; Liu, Bao-Jun; Chen, Hui-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Chronic restraint stress exacerbates pain and inflammation. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chronic restraint stress on inflammatory pain induced by subcutaneous injection of bee venom (BV). First, we investigated: (1) the effect of two-week restraint stress with daily 2 or 8 h on the baseline paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT), paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL) and paw circumference (PC); (2) the effect of chronic stress on the spontaneous paw-flinching reflex (SPFR), decrease in PWM, PWTL and increase in PC of the injected paw induced by BV. The results showed that (1) chronic restraint decreased significantly the PWMT and inhibited significantly the increase in PC, but had no effect on PWTL, compared with control group; (2) chronic restraint enhanced significantly BV-induced SPFR and inflammatory swelling of the injected paw. In a second series of experiments, the role of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) in the enhancement of BV-induced inflammatory pain produced by chronic restraint stress was determined. Systemic pretreatment with P2X7R antagonist completely reversed the decrease in PWMT produced by chronic restraint, inhibited significantly the enhancement of BV-induced inflammatory pain produced by chronic restraint stress. Taken together, our data indicate that chronic restraint stress-enhanced nociception and inflammation in the BV pain model, possibly involving the P2X7R.

  20. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the P2X7 gene are associated to fracture risk and to effect of estrogen treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlendorff, Stine D; Tofteng, Charlotte L; Jensen, Jens-Erik B

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purinergic P2RX7 receptor (P2RX7) has been shown to play a role in the regulation of osteoblast and osteoclast activity. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of polymorphisms in exon 13 of the P2X7 gene and the association with osteoclast apoptosis in vitro and bone...

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the P2X7 gene are associated to fracture risk and to effect of estrogen treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlendorff, Stine D; Tofteng, Charlotte L; Jensen, Jens-Erik B

    2007-01-01

    The purinergic P2RX7 receptor (P2RX7) has been shown to play a role in the regulation of osteoblast and osteoclast activity. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of polymorphisms in exon 13 of the P2X7 gene and the association with osteoclast apoptosis in vitro and bone status in v...

  2. Propensity of red blood cells to undergo P2X7 receptor-mediated phosphatidylserine exposure does not alter during in vivo or ex vivo aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, Reece A; Mullany, Phillip R F; Winter, Kelly M; Marks, Denese C; Sluyter, Ronald

    2015-08-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure facilitates the removal of red blood cells (RBCs) from the circulation, potentially contributing to the loss of stored RBCs after transfusion, as well as senescent RBCs. Activation of the P2X7 receptor by extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) can induce PS exposure on freshly isolated human RBCs, but whether this process occurs in stored RBCs or changes during RBC aging is unknown. RBCs were processed and stored according to Australian blood banking guidelines. PS exposure was determined by annexin V binding and flow cytometry. Efficacy of P2X antagonists was assessed by flow cytometric measurements of ATP-induced ethidium+ uptake in RPMI 8226 cells. Osmotic fragility was assessed by lysis in hypotonic saline. RBCs were fractionated by discontinuous density centrifugation. ATP (1 mmol/L) induced PS exposure on RBCs stored for less than 1 week. This process was near-completely inhibited by the P2X7 antagonists A438079 and AZ10606120 and the P2X1/P2X7 antagonist MRS2159 but not the P2X1 antagonist NF499. ATP-induced PS exposure on RBCs was not dependent on K+, Na+, or Cl- fluxes. ATP did not alter the osmotic fragility of stored RBCs. ATP-induced PS exposure was similar between RBCs of different densities. ATP-induced PS exposure was also similar between RBCs stored for less than 1 week or for 6 weeks. The propensity of RBCs to undergo P2X7-mediated PS exposure does not alter during in vivo and ex vivo aging. Thus, P2X7 activation is unlikely to be involved in the removal of senescent RBCs or stored RBCs after transfusion. © 2015 AABB.

  3. P2X(7 receptor in the kidneys of diabetic rats submitted to aerobic training or to N-acetylcysteine supplementation [corrected].

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    Adelson M Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Previous studies in our laboratory showed that N-acetylcysteine supplementation or aerobic training reduced oxidative stress and the progression of diabetic nephropathy in rats. The P2X(7 receptor is up-regulated in pathological conditions, such as diabetes mellitus. This up-regulation is related to oxidative stress and induces tissue apoptosis or necrosis. The aim of the present study is to assess the role of P2X(7 receptor in the kidneys of diabetic rats submitted to aerobic training or N-acetylcysteine supplementation. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.v. and the training was done on a treadmill; N-acetylcysteine was given in the drinking water (600 mg/L. By confocal microscopy, as compared to control, the kidneys of diabetic rats showed increased P2 × 7 receptor expression and a higher activation in response to 2'(3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl adenosine5'-triphosphate (specific agonist and adenosine triphosphate (nonspecific agonist (all p<0.05. All these alterations were reduced in diabetic rats treated with N-acetylcysteine, exercise or both. We also observed measured proteinuria and albuminuria (early marker of diabetic nephropathy in DM groups. Lipoperoxidation was strongly correlated with P2X(7 receptor expression, which was also correlated to NO•, thus associating this receptor to oxidative stress and kidney lesion. We suggest that P2X(7 receptor inhibition associated with the maintenance of redox homeostasis could be useful as coadjuvant treatment to delay the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  4. P2X(7) receptor in the kidneys of diabetic rats submitted to aerobic training or to N-acetylcysteine supplementation [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Adelson M; Bergamaschi, Cassia T; Fernandes, Maria Jose S; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; Buri, Marcus V; Curi, Marcus V; Ferreira, Alice T; Araujo, Sergio R R; Punaro, Giovana R; Maciel, Fabiane R; Nogueira, Guilherme B; Higa, Elisa M S

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory showed that N-acetylcysteine supplementation or aerobic training reduced oxidative stress and the progression of diabetic nephropathy in rats. The P2X(7 receptor is up-regulated in pathological conditions, such as diabetes mellitus. This up-regulation is related to oxidative stress and induces tissue apoptosis or necrosis. The aim of the present study is to assess the role of P2X(7) receptor in the kidneys of diabetic rats submitted to aerobic training or N-acetylcysteine supplementation. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.v.) and the training was done on a treadmill; N-acetylcysteine was given in the drinking water (600 mg/L). By confocal microscopy, as compared to control, the kidneys of diabetic rats showed increased P2 × 7 receptor expression and a higher activation in response to 2'(3')-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl) adenosine5'-triphosphate (specific agonist) and adenosine triphosphate (nonspecific agonist) (all p<0.05). All these alterations were reduced in diabetic rats treated with N-acetylcysteine, exercise or both. We also observed measured proteinuria and albuminuria (early marker of diabetic nephropathy) in DM groups. Lipoperoxidation was strongly correlated with P2X(7) receptor expression, which was also correlated to NO•, thus associating this receptor to oxidative stress and kidney lesion. We suggest that P2X(7) receptor inhibition associated with the maintenance of redox homeostasis could be useful as coadjuvant treatment to delay the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  5. P2X7 receptor inhibition increases CNTF in the subventricular zone, but not neurogenesis or neuroprotection after stroke in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seong Su; Keasey, Matthew Phillip; Hagg, Theo

    2013-10-01

    Increasing endogenous ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) expression with a pharmacological agent might be beneficial after stroke as CNTF both promotes neurogenesis and, separately, is neuroprotective. P2X7 purinergic receptor inhibition is neuroprotective in rats and increases CNTF release in rat CMT1A Schwann cells. We, first, investigated the role of P2X7 in regulating CNTF and neurogenesis in adult mouse subventricular zone (SVZ). CNTF expression was increased by daily intravenous injections of the P2X7 antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG) in naïve C57BL/6 or Balb/c mice over 3 days. Despite the ∼40-60 % increase or decrease in CNTF with BBG or the agonist BzATP, respectively, the number of proliferated BrdU+SVZ nuclei did not change. BBG failed to increase FGF2, which is involved in CNTF-regulated neurogenesis, but induced IL-6, LIF, and EGF, which are known to reduce SVZ proliferation. Injections of IL-6 next to the SVZ induced CNTF and FGF2, but not proliferation, suggesting that IL-6 counteracts their neurogenesis-inducing effects. Following ischemic injury of the striatum by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), a 3-day BBG treatment increased CNTF in the medial penumbra containing the SVZ. BBG also induced CNTF and LIF, which are known to be protective following stroke, in the whole striatum after MCAO, but not GDNF or BDNF. However, BBG treatment did not reduce the lesion area or apoptosis in the penumbra. Even so, this study shows that P2X7 can be targeted with systemic drug treatments to differentially regulate neurotrophic factors in the brain following stroke.

  6. Ginsenoside 25-OCH3-PPD promotes activity of LXRs to ameliorate P2X7R-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome in the development of hepatic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xin; Song, Jian; Lian, Li-Hua; Yao, You-Li; Shao, Dan-Yang; Fan, Ying; Hou, Li-Shuang; Wang, Ge; Zheng, Shuang; Wu, Yan-Ling; Nan, Ji-Xing

    2018-06-22

    Ginseng is widely used in energy drinks, dietary supplements and herbal medicines, and its pharmacological actions are related with energy metabolism. As an important modulating energy metabolism pathway, liver X receptors (LXRs) can promote the resolving of hepatic fibrosis and inflammation. The present study aims to evaluate the regulation of 25-OCH3-PPD, a ginsenoside isolated from Panax ginseng, against hepatic fibrosis and inflammation in thioacetamide (TAA)-stimulated mice by activating LXRs pathway. 25-OCH3-PPD decreases serum ALT/AST levels and improves the histological pathology of liver in TAA-induced mice; attenuates transcripts of pro-fibrogenic markers associated with hepatic stellate cell activation; attenuates the levels of pro-Inflammatory cytokines and blocks apoptosis happened in liver; inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome by affecting P2X7R activation; regulates PI3K/Akt and LKB1/AMPK-SIRT1. 25-OCH3-PPD also facilitates LX25Rs and FXR activities decreased by TAA stimulation. 25-OCH3-PPD also decreases α-SMA via regulation of LXRs and P2X7R-NLRP3 in vitro. Our data suggest the possibility that 25-OCH3-PPD promotes activity of LXRs to ameliorate P2X7R-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome in the development of hepatic fibrosis.

  7. P2X7 receptor activation ameliorates CA3 neuronal damage via a tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated pathway in the rat hippocampus following status epilepticus

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    Ryu Hea Jin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α appears depend on the P2X7 receptor, a purinergic receptor. In the present study, we addressed the question of whether P2X7 receptor-mediated TNF-α regulation is involved in pathogenesis and outcome of status epilepticus (SE. Methods SE was induced by pilocarpine in rats that were intracerebroventricularly infused with saline-, 2',3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BzATP, adenosine 5'-triphosphate-2',3'-dialdehyde (OxATP, A-438079, or A-740003 prior to SE induction. Thereafter, we performed Fluoro-Jade B staining and immunohistochemical studies for TNF-α and NF-κB subunit phosphorylations. Results Following SE, P2X7 receptor agonist (BzATP infusion increased TNF-α immunoreactivity in dentate granule cells as compared with that in saline-infused animals. In addition, TNF-α immunoreactivity was readily apparent in the mossy fibers, while TNF-α immunoreactivity in CA1-3 pyramidal cells was unaltered. However, P2X7 receptor antagonist (OxATP-, A-438079, and A-740003 infusion reduced SE-induced TNF-α expression in dentate granule cells. In the CA3 region, BzATP infusion attenuated SE-induced neuronal damage, accompanied by enhancement of p65-Ser276 and p65-Ser311 NF-κB subunit phosphorylations. In contrast, OxATP-, A-438079, and A-740003 infusions increased SE-induced neuronal death. Soluble TNF p55 receptor (sTNFp55R, and cotreatment with BzATP and sTNFp55R infusion also increased SE-induced neuronal damage in CA3 region. However, OxATP-, sTNFp55R or BzATP+sTNFp55R infusions could not exacerbate SE-induced neuronal damages in the dentate gyrus and the CA1 region, as compared to BzATP infusion. Conclusions These findings suggest that TNF-α induction by P2X7 receptor activation may ameliorate SE-induced CA3 neuronal damage via enhancing NF-κB p65-Ser276 and p65-Ser311 phosphorylations.

  8. Development of a Small Molecule P2X7R Antagonist as a Treatment for Acute SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    for glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP, SMI21, 1:000, overnight; Covance ) or III-tubulin/TUJ1 (1:1000, overnight), fol- lowed by isotype-specific...CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION : University of Rochester Rochester, NY 14611...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9

  9. Circadian ATP Release in Organotypic Cultures of the Rat Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Is Dependent on P2X7 and P2Y Receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svobodová, Irena; Bhattacharya, Anirban; Ivetic, Milorad; Bendová, Z.; Zemková, Hana

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 9, Mar 6 (2018), č. článku 192. ISSN 1663-9812 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-12695S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : suprachiasmatic nucleus * organotypic cultures * astrocytes * P2X7 receptor * P2Y1 receptor * P2Y2 receptor * pannexin-1 hemichannel * ATP release Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 4.400, year: 2016

  10. Polymorphisms in the P2X7 receptor gene are associated with low lumbar spine bone mineral density and accelerated bone loss in post-menopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gartland, Alison; Skarratt, Kristen K; Hocking, Lynne J

    2012-01-01

    The P2X7 receptor gene (P2RX7) is highly polymorphic with five previously described loss-of-function (LOF) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; c.151+1G>T, c.946G>A, c.1096C>G, c.1513A>C and c.1729T>A) and one gain-of-function SNP (c.489C>T). The purpose of this study was to determine whether th...... publication, 11 January 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2011.245....

  11. Functional characterization of mutants in the transmembrane domains of the rat P2X7 receptor that regulate pore conductivity and agonist sensitivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindřichová, Marie; Bhattacharya, Anirban; Rupert, Marian; Škopek, Petr; Obšil, T.; Zemková, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 6 (2015), s. 815-827 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP304/12/P371; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0025; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ATP * purinergic receptor channel * P2X7 * pore dilation * YO-PRO-1 uptake Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.842, year: 2015

  12. P2X7 Cell Death Receptor Activation and Mitochondrial Impairment in Oxaliplatin-Induced Apoptosis and Neuronal Injury: Cellular Mechanisms and In Vivo Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    France Massicot

    Full Text Available Limited information is available regarding the cellular mechanisms of oxaliplatin-induced painful neuropathy during exposure of patients to this drug. We therefore determined oxidative stress in cultured cells and evaluated its occurrence in C57BL/6 mice. Using both cultured neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y and macrophage (RAW 264.7 cell lines and also brain tissues of oxaliplatin-treated mice, we investigated whether oxaliplatin (OXA induces oxidative stress and apoptosis. Cultured cells were treated with 2-200 µM OXA for 24 h. The effects of pharmacological inhibitors of oxidative stress or inflammation (N-acetyl cysteine, ibuprofen, acetaminophen were also tested. Inhibitors were added 30 min before OXA treatment and then in combination with OXA for 24 h. In SH-SY5Y cells, OXA caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in viability, a large increase in ROS and NO production, lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial impairment as assessed by a drop in mitochondrial membrane potential, which are deleterious for the cell. An increase in levels of negatively charged phospholipids such as cardiolipin but also phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol, was also observed. Additionally, OXA caused concentration-dependent P2X7 receptor activation, increased chromatin condensation and caspase-3 activation associated with TNF-α and IL-6 release. The majority of these toxic effects were equally observed in Raw 264.7 which also presented high levels of PGE2. Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with pharmacological inhibitors significantly reduced or blocked all the neurotoxic OXA effects. In OXA-treated mice (28 mg/kg cumulated dose significant cold hyperalgesia and oxidative stress in the tested brain areas were shown. Our study suggests that targeting P2X7 receptor activation and mitochondrial impairment might be a potential therapeutic strategy against OXA-induced neuropathic pain.

  13. Low-Level Laser Therapy Reduces Lung Inflammation in an Experimental Model of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Involving P2X7 Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel da Cunha Moraes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a progressive disease characterized by irreversible airflow limitation, airway inflammation and remodeling, and enlargement of alveolar spaces. COPD is in the top five leading causes of deaths worldwide and presents a high economic cost. However, there are some preventive measures to lower the risk of developing COPD. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT is a new effective therapy, with very low cost and no side effects. So, our objective was to investigate if LLLT reduces pulmonary alterations in an experimental model of COPD. C57BL/6 mice were submitted to cigarette smoke for 75 days (2x/day. After 60 days to smoke exposure, the treated group was submitted to LLLT (diode laser, 660 nm, 30 mW, and 3 J/cm2 for 15 days and euthanized for morphologic and functional analysis of the lungs. Our results showed that LLLT significantly reduced the number of inflammatory cells and the proinflammatory cytokine secretion such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. We also observed that LLLT decreased collagen deposition as well as the expression of purinergic P2X7 receptor. On the other hand, LLLT increased the IL-10 release. Thus, LLLT can be pointed as a promising therapeutic approach for lung inflammatory diseases as COPD.

  14. Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus Increases the Sensitivity of P2X7 and P2Y1 Receptors to Nucleotides at Neural Progenitor Cells of the Juvenile Rodent Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozmer, Katalin; Gao, Po; Araújo, Michelle G L; Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Liu, Juan; Rong, Weifang; Tang, Yong; Franke, Heike; Krügel, Ute; Fernandes, Maria José S; Illes, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Patch-clamp recordings indicated the presence of P2X7 receptors at neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in hippocampal brain slices prepared from transgenic nestin reporter mice. The activation of these receptors caused inward current near the resting membrane potential of the NPCs, while P2Y1 receptor activation initiated outward current near the reversal potential of the P2X7 receptor current. Both receptors were identified by biophysical/pharmacological methods. When the brain slices were prepared from mice which underwent a pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus or when brain slices were incubated in pilocarpine-containing external medium, the sensitivity of P2X7 and P2Y1 receptors was invariably increased. Confocal microscopy confirmed the localization of P2X7 and P2Y1 receptor-immunopositivity at nestin-positive NPCs. A one-time status epilepticus in rats caused after a latency of about 5 days recurrent epileptic fits. The blockade of central P2X7 receptors increased the number of seizures and their severity. It is hypothesized that P2Y1 receptors after a status epilepticus may increase the ATP-induced proliferation/ectopic migration of NPCs; the P2X7 receptor-mediated necrosis/apoptosis might counteract these effects, which would otherwise lead to a chronic manifestation of recurrent epileptic fits. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Regulation of Hippocampal 5-HT Release by P2X7 Receptors in Response to Optogenetic Stimulation of Median Raphe Terminals of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flóra Gölöncsér

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Serotonergic and glutamatergic neurons of median raphe region (MRR play a pivotal role in the modulation of affective and cognitive functions. These neurons synapse both onto themselves and remote cortical areas. P2X7 receptors (P2rx7 are ligand gated ion channels expressed by central presynaptic excitatory nerve terminals and involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. P2rx7s are implicated in various neuropsychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and depression. Here we investigated whether 5-HT release released from the hippocampal terminals of MRR is subject to modulation by P2rx7s. To achieve this goal, an optogenetic approach was used to selectively activate subpopulation of serotonergic terminals derived from the MRR locally, and one of its target area, the hippocampus. Optogenetic activation of neurons in the MRR with 20 Hz was correlated with freezing and enhanced locomotor activity of freely moving mice and elevated extracellular levels of 5-HT, glutamate but not GABA in vivo. Similar optical stimulation (OS significantly increased [3H]5-HT and [3H]glutamate release in acute MRR and hippocampal slices. We examined spatial and temporal patterns of [3H]5-HT release and the interaction between the serotonin and glutamate systems. Whilst [3H]5-HT release from MRR neurons was [Ca2+]o-dependent and sensitive to TTX, CNQX and DL-AP-5, release from hippocampal terminals was not affected by the latter drugs. Hippocampal [3H]5-HT released by electrical but not OS was subject to modulation by 5- HT1B/D receptors agonist sumatriptan (1 μM, whereas the selective 5-HT1A agonist buspirone (0.1 μM was without effect. [3H]5-HT released by electrical and optical stimulation was decreased in mice genetically deficient in P2rx7s, and after perfusion with selective P2rx7 antagonists, JNJ-47965567 (0.1 μM, and AZ-10606120 (0.1 μM. Optical and electrical stimulation elevated the extracellular level of ATP. Our results demonstrate for the

  16. CD40 in Retinal Müller Cells Induces P2X7-Dependent Cytokine Expression in Macrophages/Microglia in Diabetic Mice and Development of Early Experimental Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Jose-Andres C; Lopez Corcino, Yalitza; Miao, Yanling; Tang, Jie; Sheibani, Nader; Kern, Timothy S; Dubyak, George R; Subauste, Carlos S

    2017-02-01

    Müller cells and macrophages/microglia are likely important for the development of diabetic retinopathy; however, the interplay between these cells in this disease is not well understood. An inflammatory process is linked to the onset of experimental diabetic retinopathy. CD40 deficiency impairs this process and prevents diabetic retinopathy. Using mice with CD40 expression restricted to Müller cells, we identified a mechanism by which Müller cells trigger proinflammatory cytokine expression in myeloid cells. During diabetes, mice with CD40 expressed in Müller cells upregulated retinal tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), developed leukostasis and capillary degeneration. However, CD40 did not cause TNF-α or IL-1β secretion in Müller cells. TNF-α was not detected in Müller cells from diabetic mice with CD40 + Müller cells. Rather, TNF-α was upregulated in macrophages/microglia. CD40 ligation in Müller cells triggered phospholipase C-dependent ATP release that caused P2X 7 -dependent production of TNF-α and IL-1β by macrophages. P2X 7 -/- mice and mice treated with a P2X 7 inhibitor were protected from diabetes-induced TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, and NOS2 upregulation. Our studies indicate that CD40 in Müller cells is sufficient to upregulate retinal inflammatory markers and appears to promote experimental diabetic retinopathy and that Müller cells orchestrate inflammatory responses in myeloid cells through a CD40-ATP-P2X 7 pathway. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  17. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  18. The selective antagonism of P2X7 and P2Y1 receptors prevents synaptic failure and affects cell proliferation induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation in rat dentate gyrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Maraula

    Full Text Available Purinergic P2X and P2Y receptors are broadly expressed on both neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS, including dentate gyrus (DG. The aim of this research was to determine the synaptic and proliferative response of the DG to severe oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD in acute rat hippocampal slices and to investigate the contribution of P2X7 and P2Y1 receptor antagonism to recovery of synaptic activity after OGD. Extracellular field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSPs in granule cells of the DG were recorded from rat hippocampal slices. Nine-min OGD elicited an irreversible loss of fEPSP and was invariably followed by the appearance of anoxic depolarization (AD. Application of MRS2179 (selective antagonist of P2Y1 receptor and BBG (selective antagonist of P2X7 receptor, before and during OGD, prevented AD appearance and allowed a significant recovery of neurotransmission after 9-min OGD. The effects of 9-min OGD on proliferation and maturation of cells localized in the subgranular zone (SGZ of slices prepared from rats treated with 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU were investigated. Slices were further incubated with an immature neuron marker, doublecortin (DCX. The number of BrdU+ cells in the SGZ was significantly decreased 6 hours after OGD. This effect was antagonized by BBG, but not by MRS2179. Twenty-four hours after 9-min OGD, the number of BrdU+ cells returned to control values and a significant increase of DCX immunofluorescence was observed. This phenomenon was still evident when BBG, but not MRS2179, was applied during OGD. Furthermore, the P2Y1 antagonist reduced the number of BrdU+ cells at this time. The data demonstrate that P2X7 and P2Y1 activation contributes to early damage induced by OGD in the DG. At later stages after the insult, P2Y1 receptors might play an additional and different role in promoting cell proliferation and maturation in the DG.

  19. Therapeutic Targeting of P2X7 after TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    brain. Brain Behav Immun, 22(2), 234-244. Mitka, M. (2010). Reports of concussions from youth sports rise along with awareness of the problem. JAMA...E. (1998). The epidemiology of sports - related traumatic brain injuries in the United States: recent developments. J Head Trauma Rehabil, 13(2), 1-8...hemorrhage in mice. Antioxid Redox Signal, 11(1), 35-45. Wakade, C., Sukumari-Ramesh, S., Laird, M. D., Dhandapani, K. M., & Vender, J. R. Delayed

  20. Refractometric total protein concentrations in icteric serum from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aradhana; Stockham, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether high serum bilirubin concentrations interfere with the measurement of serum total protein concentration by refractometry and to assess potential biases among refractometer measurements. Evaluation study. Sera from 2 healthy Greyhounds. Bilirubin was dissolved in 0.1M NaOH, and the resulting solution was mixed with sera from 2 dogs from which food had been withheld to achieve various bilirubin concentrations up to 40 mg/dL. Refractometric total protein concentrations were estimated with 3 clinical refractometers. A biochemical analyzer was used to measure biuret assay-based total protein and bilirubin concentrations with spectrophotometric assays. No interference with refractometric measurement of total protein concentrations was detected with bilirubin concentrations up to 41.5 mg/dL. Biases in refractometric total protein concentrations were detected and were related to the conversion of refractive index values to total protein concentrations. Hyperbilirubinemia did not interfere with the refractometric estimation of serum total protein concentration. The agreement among total protein concentrations estimated by 3 refractometers was dependent on the method of conversion of refractive index to total protein concentration and was independent of hyperbilirubinemia.

  1. Total protein and cholesterol concentrations in brain regions of male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed similarities (P>0.05) between the treatments in total protein concentrations in the cerebral cortex, medulla, hypothalamus, amygdala, mesencephalon and hippocampus. Total protein concentrations however differed significantly between diets (P<0.05) in the cerebellum and pons varoli with the lowest ...

  2. A modified gelatin zymography technique incorporating total protein normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykin, Julia; Snider, Eric; Bheri, Sruti; Mulvihill, John; Ethier, C Ross

    2017-03-15

    Gelatinase zymography is a commonly used laboratory procedure; however, variability in sample loading and concentration reduce the accuracy of quantitative results obtained from this technique. To facilitate normalization of gelatinase activity by loaded protein amount, we developed a protocol using the trihalocompound 2,2,2-trichloroethanol to allow for gelatin zymography and total protein labeling within the same gel. We showed that detected protein levels increased linearly with loading, and describe a loading concentration range over which normalized gelatinase activity was constant. We conclude that in-gel total protein detection is feasible in gelatin zymography and greatly improves comparison of gelatinase activity between samples. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Quantitative genetic analysis of total glucosinolate, oil and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative genetic analysis of total glucosinolate, oil and protein contents in Ethiopian mustard ( Brassica carinata A. Braun) ... Seeds were analyzed using HPLC (glucosinolates), NMR (oil) and NIRS (protein). Analyses of variance, Hayman's method of diallel analysis and a mixed linear model of genetic analysis were ...

  4. P2X7 receptor-mediated analgesia in cancer-induced bone pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; D. Schwab, Samantha; Frøsig-Jørgensen, Majbrit

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a common and debilitating complication for cancer patients significantly compromising their quality of life. Cancer-induced bone pain involves a complex interplay of molecular events, including mechanisms observed in inflammatory and neuropathic pain states, but also changes unique for ca...

  5. Spectrophotometric and Refractometric Determination of Total Protein in Avian Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriță

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the total protein values obtained in heparin plasma of chickens by a spectrophotometric technique (biuret method, and the values obtained on the same day in the same samples by refractometry. The results obtained by refractometry (average value 2.638±0.153g% were higher than those obtained by the spectrophotometric method (average value 2.441±0.181g%. There was a low correlation (r = 0.6709 between the total protein values, determined with both methods. Protein is the major determinant of plasma refractive index, but glucose contributes too. The refractometric method is not recommended in chickens for the determination of total protein, because avian blood glucose concentration averages about twice than in mammalian blood.

  6. Cy5 total protein normalization in Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner-McWhirter, Åsa; Laurin, Ylva; Larsson, Anita; Bjerneld, Erik J; Rönn, Ola

    2015-10-01

    Western blotting is a widely used method for analyzing specific target proteins in complex protein samples. Housekeeping proteins are often used for normalization to correct for uneven sample loads, but these require careful validation since expression levels may vary with cell type and treatment. We present a new, more reliable method for normalization using Cy5-prelabeled total protein as a loading control. We used a prelabeling protocol based on Cy5 N-hydroxysuccinimide ester labeling that produces a linear signal response. We obtained a low coefficient of variation (CV) of 7% between the ratio of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) target to Cy5 total protein control signals over the whole loading range from 2.5 to 20.0μg of Chinese hamster ovary cell lysate protein. Corresponding experiments using actin or tubulin as controls for normalization resulted in CVs of 13 and 18%, respectively. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase did not produce a proportional signal and was not suitable for normalization in these cells. A comparison of ERK1/2 signals from labeled and unlabeled samples showed that Cy5 prelabeling did not affect antibody binding. By using total protein normalization we analyzed PP2A and Smad2/3 levels with high confidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Serum total proteins and creatinine levels in experimental gambian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attempt was therefore made to evaluate the effect of two strains of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense on total proteins and other serum biochemical parameters using vervet monkeys as a model. The outcome of both strains in vervet monkeys was traumatic as the monkeys died from infection 12 – 15 weeks post infection while ...

  8. Serum total protein, albumin and globulin levels in Trypanosoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of orally administered Scoparia dulcis on Trypanosoma brucei-induced changes in serum total protein, albumin and globulin were investigated in rabbits over a period of twenty eight days. Results obtained show that infection resulted in hyperproteinaemia, hyperglobulinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia. However ...

  9. Comparative changes in monthly blood urea nitrogen, total protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the comparative changes in the monthly blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration, total protein (TP) concentration in blood serum and the body condition score of Nguni cows and heifers raised on sweetveld. Twenty-four clinically healthy animals in different parities, namely Parity ...

  10. Truly Absorbed Microbial Protein Synthesis, Rumen Bypass Protein, Endogenous Protein, and Total Metabolizable Protein from Starchy and Protein-Rich Raw Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parand, Ehsan; Vakili, Alireza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh; Duinkerken, Van Gert; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to measure truly absorbed microbial protein synthesis, rumen bypass protein, and endogenous protein loss, as well as total metabolizable protein, from starchy and protein-rich raw feed materials with model comparisons. Predictions by the DVE2010 system as a more

  11. Total proteins and protein fractions levels in pregnant rats subjected to whole-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.A.; Roushdy, H.M.; Mazhar, F.M.; Abu-Gabal, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    A total number of 180 mature rats (120 females and 60 males) weighing from 120-140 g were used to study the effect of two doses (2 and 4 Gy) whole-body gamma irradiation on the level of total protein and protein fractions in serum of pregnant rats during the period of organogenesis. It was found that the levels of total protein, albumin and gamma globulins significantly decreased according to the doses of exposure. The levels of alpha and beta globulins significantly increased more in the serum of rats exposed to 2 Gy than in rats exposed to 4 Gy. The level of A/G ratio significantly decreased more in the serum of rats exposed to 2Gy than in those exposed to 4 Gy

  12. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  13. Radiation induced changes in plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen in desert rodent and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.; El-Husseini, M.; Saleh, F.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen was studied in the desert rodent, psammomy obesus obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats kept on high protein diet, the radiation syndrome resulted in urine retention, while in those kept on non-protein diet, such phenomenon was recorded only with the high radiation level of 1170r. Radiation exposure to 780 and 1170r caused remarkable diuresis in psammomys obesus obesus whereas they induced significant urine retention in albino rats. The levels of plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen were higher in albino rats maintained on high protein diet than in those kept on non-protein diet. Radiation exposure caused an initial drop in plasma total protein nitrogen concentration, concomitant with an initial rise in total urinary nitrogen, radiation exposure of psammomys obesus obesus caused significant increase in the levels of plasma protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen. Psammomys obesus obesus seemed to be more affected by radiation exposure than did the albino rats

  14. Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin Ratio Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... of the various types of proteins in the liquid ( serum or plasma ) portion of the blood. Two ...

  15. Comparative changes in monthly blood urea nitrogen, total protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sibanda M

    2015-03-29

    Mar 29, 2015 ... Twenty-four clinically healthy animals in different parities, namely Parity 1 ..... In the dry spell there is low protein intake because of high fibrous diets from dry forage materials. (MacDonald .... Prentice Hall, Malaysia. Mapekula ...

  16. Total protein, albumin and low-molecular-weight protein excretion in HIV-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Lucy J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease is common in HIV positive patients and renal tubular dysfunction has been reported in those receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. Tenofovir (TFV in particular has been linked to severe renal tubular disease as well as proximal tubular dysfunction. Markedly elevated urinary concentrations of retinal-binding protein (RBP have been reported in patients with severe renal tubular disease, and low-molecular-weight proteins (LMWP such as RBP may be useful in clinical practice to assess renal tubular function in patients receiving TFV. We analysed 3 LMWP as well as protein and albumin in the urine of a sample of HIV positive patients. Methods In a cross-sectional fashion, total protein, albumin, RBP, cystatin C, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL were quantified in random urine samples of 317 HIV positive outpatients and expressed as the ratio-to-creatinine (RBPCR, CCR and NGALCR. Exposure to cART was categorised as none, cART without TFV, and cART containing TFV and a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor (TFV/NNRTI or TFV and a protease-inhibitor (TFV/PI. Results Proteinuria was present in 10.4 % and microalbuminuria in 16.7 % of patients. Albumin accounted for approximately 10 % of total urinary protein. RBPCR was within the reference range in 95 % of patients while NGALCR was elevated in 67 % of patients. No overall differences in urine protein, albumin, and LMWP levels were observed among patients stratified by cART exposure, although a greater proportion of patients exposed to TFV/PI had RBPCR >38.8 μg/mmol (343 μg/g (p = 0.003. In multivariate analyses, black ethnicity (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.24, 0.77 and eGFR 2 (OR 3.54, 95 % CI 1.61, 7.80 were independently associated with upper quartile (UQ RBPCR. RBPCR correlated well to CCR (r2 = 0.71, but not to NGALCR, PCR or ACR. Conclusions In HIV positive patients, proteinuria was predominantly of

  17. Effect of ATP on intracellular pH in pancreatic ducts involves P2X7 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Katerine L; Novak, Ivana

    2003-01-01

    which P2 receptors might be involved. Ducts were obtained from rat pancreas, and the pH sensitive fluorophore BCECF was used to measure pHi and recovery rates from cellular acidosis induced by ammonium pre-pulses. In order to reveal Na+/H+ exchange, Cl-/HCO3- exchange or a Na+-HCO3- cotransport...

  18. Development of a Small Molecule P2X7R Antagonist as a Treatment for Acute SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    increases during seizures, and it has been proposed that status epilepticus is a result of loss of adenosine signaling (4). Conversely, mice lacking A1...adenosine regulates excitability in the in vitro hippocampus. Epilepsia 21:541–548. 4. Young D, Dragunow M (1994) Status epilepticus may be caused by

  19. Development of a Small Molecule P2X7R Antagonist as a Treatment for Acute SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    cord tissue was dissociated with papain . A Percoll gradient was performed to remove myelin, debris and blood cells. The cells were then immunostained...live for GLT1 and CD11b, and flow cytometry with FACS was performed. Dissociate with papain Purified population: GLT1+ astrocytes or CD11b

  20. Analisis Kadar Protein Total Dan Non Protein Nitrogen Pada Air Dan Daging Buah Kelapa (Cocos Nucifera L.) Dengan Metode Kjeldahl

    OpenAIRE

    Margata, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In Indonesia, coconut palm is one of the big contributors for the economy of the people and nation. As food, coconut water and coconut meat contain some nutrients such as carbohydrates, fats, and also proteins. During maturation, changes in protein content of coconut water and coconut meat may happen. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration of total protein and non protein nitrogen (NPN) in coconut water and coconut meat, and their changes in young and mature coconuts....

  1. Serum protein concentration in low-dose total body irradiation of normal and malnourished rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, W.C.M.; Lambertz, D.; Borges, E.S.; Neto, A.M.O.; Lambertz, K.M.F.T.; Amaral, A.

    2016-01-01

    Among the radiotherapeutics' modalities, total body irradiation (TBI) is used as treatment for certain hematological, oncological and immunological diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of low-dose TBI on plasma concentration of total protein and albumin using prematurely and undernourished rats as animal model. For this, four groups with 9 animals each were formed: Normal nourished (N); Malnourished (M); Irradiated Normal nourished (IN); Irradiated Malnourished (IM). At the age of 28 days, rats of the IN and IM groups underwent total body gamma irradiation with a source of cobalt-60. Total protein and Albumin in the blood serum was quantified by colorimetry. This research indicates that procedures involving low-dose total body irradiation in children have repercussions in the reduction in body-mass as well as in the plasma levels of total protein and albumin. Our findings reinforce the periodic monitoring of total serum protein and albumin levels as an important tool in long-term follow-up of pediatric patients in treatments associated to total body irradiation. - Highlights: • Low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) in children have repercussions in their body-mass. • Long-term total protein and albumin levels are affected by TBI. • The monitoring of total protein and albumin levels are useful in the follow-up of TBI pediatric patients.

  2. GLUCOSE AND TOTAL PROTEIN LEVEL IN LABORATORY RATS UNDER CONDITIONS OF SHORT-TERM FASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Suljević

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Glucose level (UV enzymatic method and total protein level (Biuret method were measured in the blood samples of the rats exposed to short-term starvation. We found a statistically significant increase in the glucose level in experimental animals during starvation, which is also evident in males and females in the experimental group (p <0.05, while decrease in the total protein level was not statistically significant. During starvation, more significant weight loss was observed in females compared to males.Key words: glucose, total protein, serum, Rattus

  3. Effects of gamma irradiation on chickpea seeds vis-a-vis total seed storage proteins, antioxidant activity and protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagyawant, S S; Gupta, N; Shrivastava, N

    2015-10-23

    The present work describes radiation—induced effects on seed composition vis—à—vis total seed proteins, antioxidant levels and protein profiling employing two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D—GE) in kabuli and desi chickpea varities. Seeds were exposed to the radiation doses of 1,2,3,4 and 5 kGy. The total protein concentrations decreased and antioxidant levels were increased with increasing dose compared to control seed samples. Radiation induced effects were dose dependent to these seed parameters while it showed tolerance to 1 kGy dose. Increase in the dose was complimented with increase in antioxidant levels, like 5 kGy enhanced % scavenging activities in all the seed extracts. Precisely, the investigations reflected that the dose range from 2 to 5 kGy was effective for total seed storage proteins, as depicted quantitatively and qualitative 2D—GE means enhance antioxidant activities in vitro.

  4. Total Protein Content Determination of Microalgal Biomass by Elemental Nitrogen Analysis and a Dedicated Nitrogen-to-Protein Conversion Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurens, Lieve M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olstad-Thompson, Jessica L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Templeton, David W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-02

    Accurately determining protein content is important in the valorization of algal biomass in food, feed, and fuel markets, where these values are used for component balance calculations. Conversion of elemental nitrogen to protein is a well-accepted and widely practiced method, but depends on developing an applicable nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor. The methodology reported here covers the quantitative assessment of the total nitrogen content of algal biomass and a description of the methodology that underpins the accurate de novo calculation of a dedicated nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor.

  5. Age-dependent changes in the total protein concentrations in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related changes in total protein concentrations in ten regions of the pig brain and hypophyses from birth to 36 months of age. Age-related changes in protein concentrations in all the brain regions except the pons and cerebral cortex were not ...

  6. [Analysis of total proteins in the seed of almond (Prunus dulcis) by two-dimensional electrophoresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-dong; He, Shao-heng

    2004-07-01

    To analyse the total proteins in the seeds of almond (Prunus dulcis), one of the popular ingestent allergens in China, by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The total proteins of the seeds were extracted by trichloracetic acid (TCA) method, and then separated by isoelectric focusing as first dimension and SDS-PAGE as the second dimension. The spots of proteins were visualized by staining with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250. After analysis with software (ImageMaster 2D), 188 different proteins were detected. The isoelectric points (pI) for approximately 28% of total proteins were between 4.5-5.5, and the relative molecular mass (M(r)) of approximately 62% total proteins were between (20-25)x10(3). This was the first high-resolution, two-dimensional protein map of the seed of almond (Prunus dulcis) in China. Our finding has laid a solid foundation for further identification, characterization, gene cloning and standardization of allergenic proteins in the seed of almond (Prunus dulcis).

  7. Total protein and lipid contents of canned fish on the Serbian market

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Goran; Mladenović Jelena; Cvijović Milica; Miljković Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Total protein and lipid contents were analysed in 5 samples of canned fish (sardines, Atlantic mackerel fillets, tuna in olive oil, smoked Baltic sprat and herring fillets) available on the Serbian market. Standard methods for the determination of protein (Kjeldahl method) and lipid (Soxhlet method) contents were used on drained samples. The protein content was 21.31% on average, with a range of 18.59% - 24.17%. Total lipids showed considerably large variations (5.49% - 35.20%), and averaged ...

  8. Comparison of biuret and refractometry methods for the serum total proteins measurement in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoulos, Panagiotis D; Athanasiou, Labrini V; Karatzia, Maria A; Giadinis, Nektarios; Karatzias, Harilaos; Boscos, Constantin; Polizopoulou, Zoe S

    2017-12-01

    Determination of serum total protein concentration is commonly performed by the biuret method. Refractometric measurement is a faster and less expensive alternative but its accuracy has not been determined in ruminants. The purpose of the study was to compare the serum total protein concentrations in cattle, sheep, and goats measured by the biuret method with those obtained by refractometry. Serum total protein concentration was determined in 120 cattle, 67 sheep, and 58 goat blood samples refractometrically and with the biuret method. The data were analyzed with a paired samples t-test, and Passing and Bablok regression equations and Bland and Altman plots were generated. There was a strong linear relationship between the total protein values determined with the refractometer and the biuret method in cattle, sheep, and goats. The statistical accuracy, which represents a bias correction factor that measures the deviation of the best-fit line from the 45° line through the origin, was 90.63% for cattle, 93.05% for sheep, and 91.76% for goats. The mean protein values determined with the refractometer were significantly lower than those measured with the biuret method in cattle and goats (P  .05). The evaluated refractometer was sufficiently accurate for the determination of serum total proteins in cattle, sheep, and goats, although it cannot be used interchangeably with the biuret method. The RIs should be corrected for negative bias based on the created equations. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  9. Profile of total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin globulin ratio in bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Zahidah Irfan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of serum total protein concentration and main fractions (albumin and globulin can be used as an important diagnostic tool in clinical biochemistry. Several factors can affect the concentration of total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin globulin ratio (A/G. The aim of this study is to obtain serum protein profiles, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio based on breed, age and BCS (body condition score. Blood samples from 160 bulls were collected. Blood chemistry were analyzed by photometer principle using a commercial kit. There were significant (P<0.001 breed variation on total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin globulin ratio. Significant age differences were observed on total protein and albumin concentration (P<0.001, while globulin concentration and A/G ratio were also significant (P<0.05. Amongs groups of BCS, significant difference was verified only in the albumin concentration (P<0.05. The concentration of total proteins, albumins and globulins in the serum of the bulls are higher than standard values for cattle, while A/G ratio is lower.

  10. Comparison of total protein concentration in skeletal muscle as measured by the Bradford and Lowry assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seevaratnam, Rajini; Patel, Barkha P; Hamadeh, Mazen J

    2009-06-01

    The Lowry and Bradford assays are the most commonly used methods of total protein quantification, yet vary in several aspects. To date, no comparisons have been made in skeletal muscle. We compared total protein concentrations of mouse red and white gastrocnemius, reagent stability, protein stability and range of linearity using both assays. The Lowry averaged protein concentrations 15% higher than the Bradford with a moderate correlation (r = 0.36, P = 0.01). However, Bland-Altman analysis revealed considerable bias (15.8 +/- 29.7%). Both Lowry reagents and its protein-reagent interactions were less stable over time than the Bradford. The linear range of concentration was smaller for the Lowry (0.05-0.50 mg/ml) than the Bradford (0-2.0 mg/ml). We conclude that the Bradford and Lowry measures of total protein concentration in skeletal muscle are not interchangeable. The Bradford and Lowry assays have various strengths and weaknesses in terms of substance interference and protein size. However, the Bradford provides greater reagent stability, protein-reagent stability and range of linearity, and requires less time to analyse compared to the Lowry assay.

  11. Intestinal mucosa in diabetes: synthesis of total proteins and sucrase-isomaltase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, W.A.; Perchellet, E.; Malinowski, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of insulin deficiency on nitrogen metabolism in muscle and liver have been extensively studied with recent in vivo demonstration of impaired protein synthesis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Despite the significant contribution of small intestinal mucosa to overall protein metabolism, the effect of insulin deficiency on intestinal protein synthesis have not been completely defined. The authors studied the effects of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on total protein synthesis by small intestinal mucosa and on synthesis of a single enzyme protein of the enterocyte brush-border membrane sucrase-isomaltase. They used the flood-dose technique to minimize the difficulties of measuring specific radioactivity of precursor phenylalanine and determined incorporation into mucosal proteins and sucrase-isomaltase 20 min after injection of the labeled amino acid. Diabetes did not alter mucosal mass as determined by weight and content of protein and DNA during the 5 days after injection of streptozotocin. Increased rates of sucrase-isomaltase synthesis developed beginning on day 3, and those of total protein developed on day 5. Thus intestinal mucosal protein synthesis is not an insulin-sensitive process

  12. High dietary protein intake is associated with an increased body weight and total death risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Alonso, Pablo; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Saiz, Carmen; Bulló, Mònica

    2016-04-01

    High dietary protein diets are widely used to manage overweight and obesity. However, there is a lack of consensus about their long-term efficacy and safety. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of long-term high-protein consumption on body weight changes and death outcomes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. A secondary analysis of the PREDIMED trial was conducted. Dietary protein was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire during the follow-up. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for protein intake in relation to the risk of body weight and waist circumference changes, cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular death, cancer death and total death. Higher total protein intake, expressed as percentage of energy, was significantly associated with a greater risk of weight gain when protein replaced carbohydrates (HR: 1.90; 95%CI: 1.05, 3.46) but not when replaced fat (HR: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.94, 3.03). However, no association was found between protein intake and waist circumference. Contrary, higher total protein intake was associated with a greater risk of all-cause death in both carbohydrate and fat substitution models (HR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.08, 2.35; and HR: 1.66; 95%CI: 1.13, 2.43, respectively). A higher consumption of animal protein was associated with an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal outcomes when protein substituted carbohydrates or fat. Higher dietary protein intake is associated with long-term increased risk of body weight gain and overall death in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Total Protein of Whole Saliva as a Biomarker of Anaerobic Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolini, Miguel Junior Sordi; De Agostini, Guilherme Gularte; Reis, Ismair Teodoro; Lamounier, Romeu Paulo Martins Silva; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2009-01-01

    Saliva provides a convenient and noninvasive matrix for assessing specific physiological parameters, including some biomarkers of exercise. We investigated whether the total protein concentration of whole saliva (TPWS) would reflect the anaerobic threshold during an incremental exercise test. After a warm-up period, 13 nonsmoking men performed a…

  14. The effects of maternal total protein, albumin and hemoglobin levels on birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Haliloglu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the influence of third trimester maternal total protein, albumin, hemoglobin levels on birth weight.\tMATERIAL-METHOD: Between January 2005 and July 2005, 750 pregnant women applied for delivery at Zeynep Kamil Women’s and Children Education and Research Hospital at 37-40 week’s gestation were examined. Maternal total protein, albumin and hemoglobin levels were measured. Data included maternal age, gravidity, parity, gestational age, birth weight, gender, presence of iron supplementation and its duration.\tRESULTS: The birth weight was significantly higher in anemic and hypoproteinemic groups compared those with normal levels. After adjusting for counfounding factors, significance of both findings lost. The cases received iron supplementation had infants with higher birth weight, however, it was not statistically significant (p: 0.055. A significant positive relation was observed between birth weight and maternal age, gravidity, parity and gestational age. No relation found between maternal total protein, albumin, hemoglobin levels and birth weight.\tCONCLUSION: The last trimester maternal total protein, albumin, hemoglobin levels seem not to be a determining factor on infant's birth weight.

  15. Total chemical synthesis and X-ray structure of kaliotoxin by racemic protein crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentelute, Brad L; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Gates, Zachary P; Sawaya, Michael R; Yeates, Todd O; Kent, Stephen B H

    2010-11-21

    Here we report the total synthesis of kaliotoxin by 'one pot' native chemical ligation of three synthetic peptides. A racemic mixture of D- and L-kaliotoxin synthetic protein molecules gave crystals in the centrosymmetric space group P1 that diffracted to atomic-resolution (0.95 Å), enabling the X-ray structure of kaliotoxin to be determined by direct methods.

  16. Protein Losses and Urea Nitrogen Underestimate Total Nitrogen Losses in Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salame, Clara; Eaton, Simon; Grimble, George; Davenport, Andrew

    2018-04-28

    Muscle wasting is associated with increased mortality and is commonly reported in dialysis patients. Hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) treatments lead to protein losses in effluent dialysate. We wished to determine whether changes in current dialysis practice had increased therapy-associated nitrogen losses. Cross-sectional cohort study. Measurement of total protein, urea and total nitrogen in effluent dialysate from 24-hour collections from PD patients, and during haemodiafiltration (HDF) and haemodialysis (HD) sessions. One hundred eight adult dialysis patients. Peritoneal dialysis, high-flux haemodialysis and haemodiafiltration. Total nitrogen and protein losses. Dialysate protein losses were measured in 68 PD and 40 HD patients. Sessional losses of urea (13.9 [9.2-21.1] vs. 4.8 [2.8-7.8] g); protein (8.6 [7.2-11.1] vs. 6.7 [3.9-11.1] g); and nitrogen (11.5 [8.7-17.7] vs. 4.9 [2.6-9.5] g) were all greater for HD than PD, P losses were lower with HD 25.9 (21.5-33.4) versus 46.6 (27-77.6) g/week, but nitrogen losses were similar. We found no difference between high-flux HD and HDF: urea (13.5 [8.8-20.6] vs. 15.3 [10.5-25.5] g); protein (8.8 [7.3-12.2] vs. 7.6 [5.8-9.0] g); and total nitrogen (11.6 [8.3-17.3] vs. 10.8 [8.9-22.5] g). Urea nitrogen (UN) only accounted for 45.1 (38.3-51.0)% PD and 63.0 (55.3-62.4)% HD of total nitrogen losses. Although sessional losses of protein and UN were greater with HD, weekly losses were similar between modalities. We found no differences between HD and HDF. However, total nitrogen losses were much greater than the combination of protein and UN, suggesting greater nutritional losses with dialysis than previously reported. Copyright © 2018 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Associations of total, dairy, and meat protein with markers for bone turnover in healthy, prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Hoppe, Camilla; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2007-01-01

    intake was estimated from a 3-d weighed food record. sIGF-I and its binding protein-3 were assessed (immunoassay) in a subgroup of 56 boys. All statistical models included effects of age, BMI, and energy intake. Dairy protein was negatively associated with sOC (P ¼ 0.05) but not significantly associated......We previously reported that high intake of milk, but not meat, equal in protein content, increased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) in prepubertal boys. sIGF-I plays a key role in bone metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations of total.......04) but not significantly associated with sOC and sCTX. Free sIGF-I was positively associated with total (P , 0.01) and dairy (P ¼ 0.06) protein but not with meat protein. Our results indicate that dairy and meat protein may exhibit a distinct regulatory effect on different markers for bone turnover. Future studies should...

  18. Study of molasses / vinasse waste ratio for single cell protein and total microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Luciana Cazetta

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Different molasses/ vinasse ratio were used as substrate to investigate single cell protein and total lipids production by five microorganisms: four yeasts strains: Candida lipolytica, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast isolated from vinasse lake (denominated LLV98 and a bacterium strain, Corynebacterium glutamicum. The media utilized were: a 50% molasses and 50% vinasse; b 25% molasses and 75% vinasse and c 75% molasses and 25% vinasse. The objective of this work was to study the growth of microorganisms and also evaluate protein and lipids content in the biomass obtained from these by-products. The highest single cell protein production was obtained by S. cerevisiae, 50.35%, followed by R. mucilaginosa, 41.96%. The lowest productions were obtained by C. glutamicum. The higher total lipids productions, more than 26%, were founded in molasses plus vinasse at 50%/50% by S. cerevisiae and C. glutamicum.

  19. Isolated total RNA and protein are preserved after thawing for more than twenty-four hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ivone Braga; Ramos, Débora Rothstein; Lopes, Karen Lucasechi; de Souza, Regiane Machado; Heimann, Joel Claudio; Furukawa, Luzia Naôko Shinohara

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The preservation of biological samples at a low temperature is important for later biochemical and/or histological analyses. However, the molecular viability of thawed samples has not been studied sufficiently in depth. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the viability of intact tissues, tissue homogenates, and isolated total RNA after defrosting for more than twenty-four hours. METHODS: The molecular viability of the thawed samples (n = 82) was assessed using the A260/A280 ratio, the RNA concentration, the RNA integrity, the level of intact mRNA determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, the protein level determined by Western blotting, and an examination of the histological structure. RESULTS: The integrity of the total RNA was not preserved in the thawed intact tissue, but the RNA integrity and level of mRNA were perfectly preserved in isolated defrosted samples of total RNA. Additionally, the level of β-actin protein was preserved in both thawed intact tissue and homogenates. CONCLUSION: Isolated total RNA does not undergo degradation due to thawing for at least 24 hours, and it is recommended to isolate the total RNA as soon as possible after tissue collection. Moreover, the protein level is preserved in defrosted tissues. PMID:22473407

  20. Why do total-body decay curves of iodine-labeled proteins begin with a delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regoeczi, E.

    1987-01-01

    The initial delay that occurs in total-body radiation curves reaching their single-exponential slopes was analyzed from 106 experiments involving several mammalian species (guinea pig, mouse, rabbit, and rat) and plasma proteins (alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, antithrombin III, fibrinogen, immunoglobulin G, and transferrin) in 14 different combinations. The time interval (Td) between injection and the intercept of the slope with the full-dose value was adopted as a measure of curve nonideality. The overall mean Td was 6.6 h, but individual values showed a significant correlation to protein half-lives, whereby proteins of unequal metabolic properties exhibited different mean Td values. Targeting protein to the liver abolished delay. Choice of the isotope ( 125 I or 131 I) and size of the labeled protein had no influence on the magnitude of delay. Whole-body radiation curves of animals that received [ 125 I]iodotyrosines, Na 131 I, or 131 I-polyvinylpyrrolidone exhibited no initial delays. These results do not support the earlier notion that delay is caused by a redistribution of the labeled protein in the body to radiometrically more favorable sites. However, they are compatible with the assumption that delayed passage of a protein dose through the extracellular matrix and/or retarded transfer of proteolytic products from extravascular catabolic sites to plasma may be responsible for the phenomenon

  1. Interspecific variation of total seed protein in wild rice germplasm using SDS-Page

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.M.A.; Hidayat-ur-Rahman; Abbasi, F.M.; Ashiq, M.; Rabbani, A.M.; Khan, I.A.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Shah, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Variation in seed protein of 14 wild rice species (Oryza spp.) along with cultivated rice species (O. sativa) was studied using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to assess genetic diversity in the rice germplasm. SDS bands were scored as present (1) or absent (0) for protein sample of each genotype. On the basis of cluster analysis, four clusters were identified at a similarity level of 0.85. O. nivara, O. rufipogon and O. sativa with AA genomes constituted the first cluster. The second cluster comprised O. punctata of BB genome and wild rice species of CC genome i.e., O. rhizomatis and O. officinalis. However, it also contained O. barthii and O. glumaepatula of AA genome. O. australiensis with EE genome, and O. latifolia, O. alta and O. grandiglumis having CCDD genomes comprised the third cluster. The fourth cluster consisted of wild rice species, O. brachyantha with EE genome along with two other wild rice species, O. longistaminata and O. meridionalis of AA genome. Overall, on the basis of total seed protein, the grouping pattern of rice genotypes was mostly compatible with their genome status. The results of the present work depicted considerable interspecific genetic variation in the investigated germplasm for total seed protein. Moreover, the results obtained in this study also suggest that analysis of seed protein can also provide a better understanding of genetic affinity of the germplasm. (author)

  2. Normal values of urine total protein- and albumin-to-creatinine ratios in term newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hamel, Chahrazed; Chianea, Thierry; Thon, Séverine; Lepichoux, Anne; Yardin, Catherine; Guigonis, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    It is important to have an accurate assessment of urinary protein when glomerulopathy or kidney injury is suspected. Currently available normal values for the neonate population have limited value, in part because they are based on small populations and obsolete creatinine assays. We have performed a prospective study with the aim to update the normal upper values of the urinary total protein-to-creatinine and albumin-to-creatinine ratios in term newborns. Urine samples were collected from 277 healthy, full-term newborns within the first 48 hours (D0-1) and between 72 and 120 h of life (D3-4). Total protein, albumin, creatinine and osmolality were measured and the upper limit of normal (upper-limit) values determined. At D0-1 and D3-4, the upper-limit values for the total protein-to-creatinine ratio were 1431 and 1205 mg/g (162 and 136 g/mol) and those for the albumin-to-creatinine ratio were 746 and 301 mg/g (84 and 34 g/mol), respectively. The upper-limit values were significantly higher at D0-1 than at D3-4 only for the albumin-to-creatinine ratio. This study determined the upper limit of normal values for urinary total protein-to-creatinine and albumin-to-creatinine ratios in the largest population of newborns studied to date. These values can therefore be considered as the most clinically relevant data currently available for the detection and diagnosis of glomerular injury in daily clinical practice in this population.

  3. Determination of fat and total protein content in milk using conventional digital imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    into account spatial distribution of light, diffusely transmitted through a sample. The proposed method has been tested on two sample sets prepared from industrial raw milk standards, with variable fat and protein content. Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression on the features calculated from images......The applicability of conventional digital imaging to quantitative determination of fat and total protein in cow’s milk, based on the phenomenon of light scatter, has been proved. A new algorithm for extracting features from digital images of milk samples has been developed. The algorithm takes...... of monochromatically illuminated milk samples resulted in models with high prediction performance when analysed the sets separately (best models with cross-validated R2=0.974 for protein and R2=0.973 for fat content). However when analysed the sets jointly the obtained results were significantly worse (best models...

  4. Effect of feed supplement on Milk Production, Fat % Total Serum Protein and Minerals in Lactating Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Verma

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to see the effect of feed supplement “Khurak” on milk yielding buffalo. The buffaloes were divided in two group. One group was offered “Khurak” as feed supplement for 7 days. Significant increase was observed in milk production, Total serum protein and calcium in khurak supplemented group (Treatment group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000: 193-194

  5. Isotopomer distributions in amino acids from a highly expressed protein as a proxy for those from total protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, Afshan; Shaikh, Afshan S.; Tang, Yinjie; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Keasling, Jay D.

    2008-06-27

    {sup 13}C-based metabolic flux analysis provides valuable information about bacterial physiology. Though many biological processes rely on the synergistic functions of microbial communities, study of individual organisms in a mixed culture using existing flux analysis methods is difficult. Isotopomer-based flux analysis typically relies on hydrolyzed amino acids from a homogeneous biomass. Thus metabolic flux analysis of a given organism in a mixed culture requires its separation from the mixed culture. Swift and efficient cell separation is difficult and a major hurdle for isotopomer-based flux analysis of mixed cultures. Here we demonstrate the use of a single highly-expressed protein to analyze the isotopomer distribution of amino acids from one organism. Using the model organism E. coli expressing a plasmid-borne, his-tagged Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP), we show that induction of GFP does not affect E. coli growth kinetics or the isotopomer distribution in nine key metabolites. Further, the isotopomer labeling patterns of amino acids derived from purified GFP and total cell protein are indistinguishable, indicating that amino acids from a purified protein can be used to infer metabolic fluxes of targeted organisms in a mixed culture. This study provides the foundation to extend isotopomer-based flux analysis to study metabolism of individual strains in microbial communities.

  6. Clinical performance evaluation of total protein measurement by digital refractometry and characterization of non-protein solute interferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J.H. Hunsaker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Refractometric methods to measure total protein (TP in serum and plasma specimens have been replaced by automated biuret methods in virtually all routine clinical testing. A subset of laboratories, however, still report using refractometry to measure TP in conjunction with serum protein electrophoresis. The objective of this study was therefore to conduct a modern performance evaluation of a digital refractometer for TP measurement. Design and methods: Performance evaluation of a MISCO Palm Abbe™ digital refractometer was conducted through device familiarization, carryover, precision, accuracy, linearity, analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, and reference interval verification. Comparison assays included a manual refractometer and an automated biuret assay. Results: Carryover risk was eliminated using a demineralized distilled water (ddH2O wash step. Precision studies demonstrated overall imprecision of 2.2% CV (low TP pool and 0.5% CV (high TP pool. Accuracy studies demonstrated correlation to both manual refractometry and the biuret method. An overall positive bias (+5.0% was observed versus the biuret method. On average, outlier specimens had an increased triglyceride concentration. Linearity was verified using mixed dilutions of: a low and high concentration patient pools, or b albumin-spiked ddH2O and high concentration patient pool. Decreased recovery was observed using ddH2O dilutions at low TP concentrations. Significant interference was detected at high concentrations of glucose (>267 mg/dL and triglycerides (>580 mg/dL. Current laboratory reference intervals for TP were verified. Conclusions: Performance characteristics of this digital refractometer were validated in a clinical laboratory setting. Biuret method remains the preferred assay for TP measurement in routine clinical analyses. Keywords: Refractometry, Digital refractometry, Total protein, Biuret, Serum protein electrophoresis, Monoclonal

  7. [Determination of total protein content in soya-bean milk via visual moving reaction boundary titration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chengye; Wang, Houyu; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Liuyin; Cao, Chengxi

    2013-11-01

    A visual, rapid and accurate moving reaction boundary titration (MRBT) method was used for the determination of the total protein in soya-bean milk. During the process, moving reaction boundary (MRB) was formed by hydroxyl ions in the catholyte and soya-bean milk proteins immobilized in polyacrylamide gel (PAG), and an acid-base indicator was used to denote the boundary motion. The velocity of MRB has a relationship with protein concentration, which was used to obtain a standard curve. By paired t-test, there was no significant difference of the protein content between MRBT and Kjeldahl method at 95% confidence interval. The procedure of MRBT method required about 10 min, and it had linearity in the range of 2.0-14.0 g/L, low limit of detection (0.05 g/L), good precision (RSD of intra-day < 1.90% and inter-day < 4.39%), and high recoveries (97.41%-99.91%). In addition, non-protein nitrogen (NPN) such as melamine added into the soya-bean milk had weak influence on MRBT results.

  8. Estimation of salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries severity, age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pallavi; Reddy, N Venugopal; Rao, V Arun Prasad; Saxena, Aditya; Chaudhary, C P

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries, age and gender. The study population consisted of 120 healthy children aged 7-15 years that was further divided into two groups: 7-10 years and 11-15 years. In this 60 children with DMFS/dfs = 0 and 60 children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 were included. The subjects were divided into two groups; Group A: Children with DMFS/dfs = 0 (caries-free) Group B: Children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 (caries active). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from all groups. Flow rates were determined, and samples analyzed for pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein and total antioxidant status. Salivary antioxidant activity is measured with spectrophotometer by an adaptation of 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) assays. The mean difference of the two groups; caries-free and caries active were proved to be statistically significant (P salivary calcium, total protein and total antioxidant level for both the sexes in the age group 7-10 years and for the age 11-15 years the mean difference of the two groups were proved to be statistically significant (P salivary calcium level for both the sexes. Salivary total protein and total antioxidant level were proved to be statistically significant for male children only. In general, total protein and total antioxidants in saliva were increased with caries activity. Calcium content of saliva was found to be more in caries-free group and increased with age.

  9. Seasonal changes in amino acids, protein and total nitrogen in needles of fertilized Scots pine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsholm, T; Ericsson, A

    1990-09-01

    Seasonal changes in amino acids, protein and total nitrogen in needles of 30-year-old, fertilized Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees growing in Northern Sweden were investigated over two years in field experiments. The studied plots had been fertilized annually for 17 years with (i) a high level of N, (ii) a medium level of N, or (iii) a medium level of N, P and K. Trees growing on unfertilized plots served as controls. In control trees, glutamine, glutamic acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid, aspartic acid and proline represented 50-70% of the total free amino acids determined. Arginine was present only in low concentrations in control trees throughout the year, but it was usually the most abundant amino acid in fertilized trees. Glutamine concentrations were high during the spring and summer in both years of study, whereas proline concentrations were high in the spring but otherwise low throughout the year. In the first year of study, glutamic acid concentrations were high during the spring and summer, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid was present in high concentrations during the winter months. This pattern was less pronounced in the second year of investigation. The concentrations of most amino acids, except glutamic acid, increased in response to fertilization. Nitrogen fertilization increased the foliar concentration of arginine from trees to a maximum of 110 micromol g(dw) (-1). Trees fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium had significantly lower arginine concentrations than trees fertilized with the same amount of nitrogen only. Protein concentrations were similar in all fertilized trees but higher than those in control trees. For all treatments, protein concentrations were high in winter and at a minimum in early spring. In summer, the protein concentration remained almost constant except for a temporary decrease which coincided with the expansion of new shoots. Apart from arginine, the amino acid composition of proteins was similar in all

  10. Total protein analysis as a reliable loading control for quantitative fluorescent Western blotting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L Eaton

    that normalisation using total protein analysis on samples run in parallel with stains such as Coomassie blue provides a more robust approach.

  11. Determination of fat and total protein content in milk using conventional digital imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    The applicability of conventional digital imaging to quantitative determination of fat and total protein in cow's milk, based on the phenomenon of light scatter, has been proved. A new algorithm for extracting features from digital images of milk samples has been developed. The algorithm takes into account spatial distribution of light, diffusely transmitted through a sample. The proposed method has been tested on two sample sets prepared from industrial raw milk standards, with variable fat and protein content. Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression on the features calculated from images of monochromatically illuminated milk samples resulted in models with high prediction performance when analysed the sets separately (best models with cross-validated R(2)=0.974 for protein and R(2)=0.973 for fat content). However when analysed the sets jointly with the obtained results were significantly worse (best models with cross-validated R(2)=0.890 for fat content and R(2)=0.720 for protein content). The results have been compared with previously published Vis/SW-NIR spectroscopic study of similar samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Brillouin spectroscopy as a new method of screening for increased CSF total protein during bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Zachary; Meng, Zhaokai; Traverso, Andrew J; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a disease of pronounced clinical significance, especially in the developing world. Immediate treatment with antibiotics is essential, and no single test can provide a conclusive diagnosis. It is well established that elevated total protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with bacterial meningitis. Brillouin spectroscopy is a widely used optical technique for noninvasive determination of the elastic moduli of materials. We found that elevated protein levels in CSF alter the fluid elasticity sufficiently to be measurable by Brillouin spectroscopy, with model healthy and diseased fluids distinguishable to marked significance (P = 0.014), which increases with sample concentration by dialysis. Typical raw output of a 2-stage VIPA Brillouin spectrometer: inelastically scattered Brillouin peaks (arrows) and elastically scattered incident radiation (center cross). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The Association between Total Protein and Vegetable Protein Intake and Low Muscle Mass among the Community-Dwelling Elderly Population in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Yi Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, highly linked with fall, frailty, and disease burden, is an emerging problem in aging society. Higher protein intake has been suggested to maintain nitrogen balance. Our objective was to investigate whether pre-sarcopenia status was associated with lower protein intake. A total of 327 community-dwelling elderly people were recruited for a cross-sectional study. We adopted the multivariate nutrient density model to identify associations between low muscle mass and dietary protein intake. The general linear regression models were applied to estimate skeletal muscle mass index across the quartiles of total protein and vegetable protein density. Participants with diets in the lowest quartile of total protein density (<13.2% were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (odds ratio (OR 3.03, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.37–6.72 than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥17.2%. Similarly, participants with diets in the lowest quartile of vegetable protein density (<5.8% were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.14–4.83 than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥9.4%. Furthermore, the estimated skeletal muscle mass index increased significantly across the quartiles of total protein density (p = 0.023 and vegetable protein density (p = 0.025. Increasing daily intakes of total protein and vegetable protein densities appears to confer protection against pre-sarcopenia status.

  14. Clinical performance evaluation of total protein measurement by digital refractometry and characterization of non-protein solute interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Joshua J H; Wyness, Sara P; Snow, Taylor M; Genzen, Jonathan R

    2016-12-01

    Refractometric methods to measure total protein (TP) in serum and plasma specimens have been replaced by automated biuret methods in virtually all routine clinical testing. A subset of laboratories, however, still report using refractometry to measure TP in conjunction with serum protein electrophoresis. The objective of this study was therefore to conduct a modern performance evaluation of a digital refractometer for TP measurement. Performance evaluation of a MISCO Palm Abbe™ digital refractometer was conducted through device familiarization, carryover, precision, accuracy, linearity, analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity, and reference interval verification. Comparison assays included a manual refractometer and an automated biuret assay. Carryover risk was eliminated using a demineralized distilled water (ddH 2 O) wash step. Precision studies demonstrated overall imprecision of 2.2% CV (low TP pool) and 0.5% CV (high TP pool). Accuracy studies demonstrated correlation to both manual refractometry and the biuret method. An overall positive bias (+5.0%) was observed versus the biuret method. On average, outlier specimens had an increased triglyceride concentration. Linearity was verified using mixed dilutions of: a) low and high concentration patient pools, or b) albumin-spiked ddH 2 O and high concentration patient pool. Decreased recovery was observed using ddH 2 O dilutions at low TP concentrations. Significant interference was detected at high concentrations of glucose (>267 mg/dL) and triglycerides (>580 mg/dL). Current laboratory reference intervals for TP were verified. Performance characteristics of this digital refractometer were validated in a clinical laboratory setting. Biuret method remains the preferred assay for TP measurement in routine clinical analyses.

  15. Carvacrol attenuates serum levels of total protein, phospholipase A2 and histamine in asthmatic guinea pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pharmacological effects of carvacrol such as its anti-inflammatory activities have been shows. In this study the effects of carvacrol on serum levels of total protein (TP, phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and histamine in sensitized guinea pigs was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Sensitized guinea pigs were given drinking water alone (group S, drinking water containing three concentrations of carvacrol (40, 80 and 160 µg/ml or dexamethasone. Serum levels of TP, PLA2 and histamine were examined I all sensitized groups as well as a non-sensitized control group (n=6 for each group. Results: In sensitized animals, serum levels of TP, PLA2 and histamine were significantly increased compared to control animals (p

  16. Kinetic Properties of α-Galactosidase and the Localization of Total Proteins in Erwinia chrysanthemi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Morgan Brand

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Erwinia chrysanthemi is an enterobacterium that causes soft-rot in plants in general, resulting in enormous economic losses annually. For the pathogen to survive in the host plant, it has to use the readily assimilable compounds from the host fluids and degrade the host tissue. To accomplish this, E. chrysanthemi produces several extracellular and intracellular enzymes. Among the intracellular enzymes there is a special digestive class, the galactosidases, which can be either periplasmic or cytoplasmic. α-Galactosidase is known to degrade melibiose and raffinose into glucose and galactose, and into galactose and sucrose respectively. The aim of the present study was to investigate the kinetic properties of α-galactosidase in E. chrysanthemi, and the localization of total proteins, after culturing it in the presence of raffinose and melibiose. The α-galactosidase that degrades melibiose seems to be the same enzyme that is also responsible for the breakdown of raffinose in E. chrysanthemi. It is localized mainly in the cytoplasm with a fraction of between 2.4 and 5.4 % localized in the periplasm. The majority of E. chrysanthemi proteins have cytoplasmic localization.

  17. Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoudi, Abdeljlil; Aarab, Lotfi; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2013-04-01

    Herbal and traditional medicines are being widely used in practice in many countries for their benefits of treating different ailments. A large number of plants in Morocco were used in folk medicine to treat immune-related disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants. This activity was tested on the proliferation of immune cells. The prepared total and PEs of the plant samples were tested using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the splenocytes with or without stimulation by concanavalin-A (Con-A), a mitogenic agent used as positive control. The results of this study indicated different activity spectra. Three groups of activities were observed. The first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata. The rest of the plant extracts did not alter the proliferation induced by Con-A. This result was more important for the PE than for the total extract. In conclusion, this study revealed an interesting immunomodulating action of certain PEs, which could explain their traditional use. The results of this study may also have implications in therapeutic treatment of infections, such as prophylactic and adjuvant with cancer chemotherapy.

  18. Polymorphisms of genes encoding P2X7R, IL-1B, OPG and RANK in orthodontic-induced apical root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S; Lavado, N; Nogueira, L; Lopez, M; Abreu, J; Silva, H

    2014-10-01

    Orthodontic-induced external apical root resorption (EARR) is a complex phenotype determined by poorly defined mechanical and patient intrinsic factors. The aim of this work was to construct a multifactorial integrative model, including clinical and genetic susceptibility factors, to analyze the risk of developing this common orthodontic complication. This retrospective study included 195 orthodontic patients. Using a multiple-linear regression model, where the dependent variable was the maximum% of root resorption (%EARRmax) for each patient, we assessed the contribution of nine clinical variables and four polymorphisms of genes involved in bone and tooth root remodeling (rs1718119 from P2RX7, rs1143634 from IL1B, rs3102735 from TNFRSF11B, encoding OPG, and rs1805034 from TNFRSF11A, encoding RANK). Clinical and genetic variables explained 30% of%EARRmax variability. The variables with the most significant unique contribution to the model were: gender (P < 0.05), treatment duration (P < 0.001), premolar extractions (P < 0.01), Hyrax appliance (P < 0.001) and GG genotype of rs1718119 from P2RX7 gene (P < 0.01). Age, overjet, tongue thrust, skeletal class II and the other polymorphisms made minor contributions. This study highlights the P2RX7 gene as a possible factor of susceptibility to EARR. A more extensive genetic profile may improve this model. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Involvement of the chemokine CCL3 and the purinoceptor P2X7 in the spinal cord in paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia

    OpenAIRE

    Ochi-ishi, Ryutaro; Nagata, Kenichiro; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Tsuda, Makoto; Inoue, Kazuhide

    2014-01-01

    Background Paclitaxel is an effective chemotherapeutic agent widely used for the treatment of solid tumors. The major dose-limiting toxicity of paclitaxel is peripheral neuropathy. The mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy are still unclear, and there are no currently established effective treatments. Accumulating evidence in models of neuropathic pain in which peripheral nerves are lesioned has implicated spinal microglia and chemok...

  20. Effects of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: a single blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Til, A J; Naumann, E; Cox-Claessens, I J H M; Kremer, S; Boelsma, E; de van der Schueren, M A E

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults. A single blind randomised controlled trial. Rehabilitation centre. Older adults (≥ 55 years) admitted to a rehabilitation centre after hospital discharge (n=34). Participants received a high protein diet (protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt; n=17) or a regular diet (regular bread and regular drinking yoghurt; n=17) for three consecutive weeks. Total protein intake and protein intake per meal, measured twice weekly over a three weeks period (six measurements per participant). Compared with controls, patients who received the protein enriched products had a significantly higher protein intake (115.3 g/d vs 72.5 g/d, Pconsumption of protein enriched products improves protein distribution over the day.

  1. Synthesis of total protein (TP) and myosin heavy chain (HC) isozymes in pressure overloaded rabbit hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, R.; Martin, B.J.; Pritzl, N.; Zak, R.; Low, R.B.; Stirewalt, W.S.; Alpert, N.R.; Litten, R.Z.

    1986-01-01

    Pulmonary artery banding (PO) leads to a rapid increase in right ventricular (RV) weight as well as a shift toward β myosin isozyme. They determined: (1) the contributions of changes in the capacity (RNA content) and efficiency of total protein synthesis to the increase in RV weight; and (2) the relative contributions of translational and pretranslational mechanisms to the shift in myosin HC isotypes. The rates of synthesis in vivo of TP, α- and β-HC were measured by a constant infusion technique using 3 H-leucine. TP synthesis was 7 +/- 2(SD) mg/day in control (RV:367 +/- 70 mg) and was increased by 2.6 fold at day 2 and 2.9 fold at day 4 following PO (p < 0.01). RV RNA content was increased by 83% at day 2 and 103% at day 4 PO (p < 0.05). The efficiency of synthesis (rate/RNA) was also significantly higher at these time points (1.4- and 1.3-fold). β-HC synthesis was 0.6 +/- 0.2 mg/day in control and increased by 2.6 fold at day 2 and 3.5 fold at day 4 following PO. In contrast, the rate of synthesis of α-HC was unchanged. The relative rates of β-HC to total HC synthesis was correlated linearly with the relative levels of β-myosin mRNA as measured by S1 nuclease mapping. They conclude that increases in the proportion of β-HC myosin following PO is due to increases in the relative amount of β-myosin mRNA and therefore involves modulation of a pretranslational mechanism

  2. Quantification of protein based on single-molecule counting by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with adsorption equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Xu Guang; Shi Zhikun; Jiang Wei; Jin Wenrui

    2007-01-01

    We developed a sensitive single-molecule imaging method for quantification of protein by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with adsorption equilibrium. In this method, the adsorption equilibrium of protein was achieved between solution and glass substrate. Then, fluorescence images of protein molecules in a evanescent wave field were taken by a highly sensitive electron multiplying charge coupled device. Finally, the number of fluorescent spots corresponding to the protein molecules in the images was counted. Alexa Fluor 488-labeled goat anti-rat IgG(H + L) was chosen as the model protein. The spot number showed an excellent linear relationship with protein concentration. The concentration linear range was 5.4 x 10 -11 to 8.1 x 10 -10 mol L -1

  3. Ruminal, Intestinal, and Total Digestibilities of Nutrients in Cows Fed Diets High in Fat and Undegradable Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmquist, D.L.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1993-01-01

    To study relationships of high undegradable intake protein and dietary fat on intestinal AA supply, the ruminal, intestinal, and total digestibilities of diets with or without added fat (5% of DM) and animal protein (blood meal: hydrolyzed feather meal, 1:1; 8% of DM) were examined with four cows...... with cows cannulated 100-cm distal to the pylorus, but only when cows were fed protein-supplemented diets; the estimates from those diets caused calculated microbial protein efficiency to exceed theoretical values. We postulated that blood meal and feather meal segregated near the pylorus, yielding high...... estimates of duodenal AA N flow. Removal of data for protein-supplemented diets obtained from cows cannulated at the pylorus yielded estimates of microbial protein synthetic efficiency consistent with literature values. Microbial synthesis of AA N was related linearly to ruminal digestion of carbohydrate...

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on the total nitrogen and protein content in body during different stages of silkworm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, N.; Malinova, K.; Binkh, N.T.

    1996-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation of eggs of silk moth in B 2 stage in doses of 1.00, 2.00 and 3.00 Gy on the changes of total nitrogen and protein content during different stages of Bombyx mori L. development. Highest levels of total nitrogen and protein were found in silk gland 14.032-14.355 mg%, followed by pupae - 7.448-8.092 and 46.550-48.906 mg%, moths after egg laying - 6.650-7.825 and 41.563-48.906 mg% and silkworm hemolymph - 6.920-6.980 and 43.250-43.625 mg%, respectively. The irradiation of eggs with 2.00 and 3,00 Gy gamma rays stimulated the increase of total nitrogen and protein content in silk gland by 6.66-7.3% compared to non-irradiated eggs of the same breed. 14 refs., 3 tabs. (author)

  5. Fast and selective determination of total protein in milk powder via titration of moving reaction boundary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Cheng-ye; Wang, Hou-yu; Liu, Xiao-ping; Fan, Liu-yin; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Cheng-xi

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, moving reaction boundary titration (MRBT) was developed for rapid and accurate quantification of total protein in infant milk powder, from the concept of moving reaction boundary (MRB) electrophoresis. In the method, the MRB was formed by the hydroxide ions and the acidic residues of milk proteins immobilized via cross-linked polyacrylamide gel (PAG), an acid-base indicator was used to denote the boundary motion. As a proof of concept, we chose five brands of infant milk powders to study the feasibility of MRBT method. The calibration curve of MRB velocity versus logarithmic total protein content of infant milk powder sample was established based on the visual signal of MRB motion as a function of logarithmic milk protein content. Weak influence of nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) reagents (e.g., melamine and urea) on MRBT method was observed, due to the fact that MRB was formed with hydroxide ions and the acidic residues of captured milk proteins, rather than the alkaline residues or the NPN reagents added. The total protein contents in infant milk powder samples detected via the MRBT method were in good agreement with those achieved by the classic Kjeldahl method. In addition, the developed method had much faster measuring speed compared with the Kjeldahl method. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Quantification of protein and total nitrogen in some plant foods of Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are consumed as fruits and vegetables. The study involved the comparison of these plant protein values by selecting them and subjecting them to heat processing and to preparation of canned vegetables. The estimated protein values estimated are 57.0% for Arum, 44.86% for Portulaca, 28.47% for Chlorophytum, 22.69% ...

  7. Study on N-Amino, Protein and Total Glucose of Etawah Crossbreed Goat and Boer Crossbreed Goat Meat Sauce

    OpenAIRE

    Khothibul Umam Al Awwaly; Aris Sri Widati; Vina Rahmadani

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to know the difference between Etawah crossbreed goat meat sauce and Boer crossbreed goat meat sauce evaluated on N-amino, protein, and total glucose.The material used in the research were meat sauce from Etawah crossbreed goat and Boer crossbreed goat. The result showed that the different species of goat statistically gave  no significant  effect (P>0.05) on N-amino, protein and total glucose of goat meat sauce. Boer crossbreed meat sauce tend higher than Etawah cro...

  8. Determination of protein concentration in raw milk by mid-infrared fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzion, Y; Linker, R; Cogan, U; Shmulevich, I

    2004-09-01

    This study investigates the potential use of attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy in the mid-infrared range for determining protein concentration in raw cow milk. The determination of protein concentration is based on the characteristic absorbance of milk proteins, which includes 2 absorbance bands in the 1500 to 1700 cm(-1) range, known as the amide I and amide II bands, and absorbance in the 1060 to 1100 cm(-1) range, which is associated with phosphate groups covalently bound to casein proteins. To minimize the influence of the strong water band (centered around 1640 cm(-1)) that overlaps with the amide I and amide II bands, an optimized automatic procedure for accurate water subtraction was applied. Following water subtraction, the spectra were analyzed by 3 methods, namely simple band integration, partial least squares (PLS) and neural networks. For the neural network models, the spectra were first decomposed by principal component analysis (PCA), and the neural network inputs were the spectra principal components scores. In addition, the concentrations of 2 constituents expected to interact with the protein (i.e., fat and lactose) were also used as inputs. These approaches were tested with 235 spectra of standardized raw milk samples, corresponding to 26 protein concentrations in the 2.47 to 3.90% (weight per volume) range. The simple integration method led to very poor results, whereas PLS resulted in prediction errors of about 0.22% protein. The neural network approach led to prediction errors of 0.20% protein when based on PCA scores only, and 0.08% protein when lactose and fat concentrations were also included in the model. These results indicate the potential usefulness of Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy for rapid, possibly online, determination of protein concentration in raw milk.

  9. Determination of the X-ray structure of the snake venom protein omwaprin by total chemical synthesis and racemic protein crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banigan, James R; Mandal, Kalyaneswar; Sawaya, Michael R; Thammavongsa, Vilasak; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Schneewind, Olaf; Yeates, Todd O; Kent, Stephen B H

    2010-10-01

    The 50-residue snake venom protein L-omwaprin and its enantiomer D-omwaprin were prepared by total chemical synthesis. Radial diffusion assays were performed against Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus anthracis; both L- and D-omwaprin showed antibacterial activity against B. megaterium. The native protein enantiomer, made of L-amino acids, failed to crystallize readily. However, when a racemic mixture containing equal amounts of L- and D-omwaprin was used, diffraction quality crystals were obtained. The racemic protein sample crystallized in the centrosymmetric space group P2(1)/c and its structure was determined at atomic resolution (1.33 A) by a combination of Patterson and direct methods based on the strong scattering from the sulfur atoms in the eight cysteine residues per protein. Racemic crystallography once again proved to be a valuable method for obtaining crystals of recalcitrant proteins and for determining high-resolution X-ray structures by direct methods.

  10. Effects of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: A single blind randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Til, A.J.; Naumann, E.; Cox-Claessens, I.J.H.M.; Kremer, S.; Boelsma, E.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults.Design: A single blind randomised controlled trial.Setting: Rehabilitation

  11. Effect of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: a single blind randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Til, van A.J.; Naumann, E.; Cox-Claessens, I.J.H.M.; Kremer, S.; Boelsma, E.; Schueren, van der D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults. Design A single blind randomised controlled trial. Setting Rehabilitation centre.

  12. Concentration of total proteins in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs with low dose gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilic, M.; Kraljevic, P.; Miljanic, S.; Simpraga, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that low-dose ionising radiation may have stimulating effects on chickens. Low doses may also cause changes in the concentration of blood plasma total proteins, glucose and cholesterol in chickens. This study investigates the effects of low dose gamma-radiation on the concentration of total proteins in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy on incubation days 7 and 19. Results were compared with the control group (chickens hatched from non-irradiated eggs). After hatching, all other conditions were the same for both groups. Blood samples were drawn from the heart, and later from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7,10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of total proteins was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimised kits. The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 7 showed a statistically significant decrease on the sampling day 3 (P less than 0.05) and 7 (P less than 0.01). The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 19 showed a statistically significant increase only on sampling day 1 (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that exposure of eggs to 0.15 Gy of gamma-radiation on the 7th and 19th day of incubation could produce different effects on the protein metabolism in chickens.(author)

  13. Concentration of total protein and degree of acidity (pH of saliva when fasting and after breakfasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemella Nur Illahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: While fasting, the mouth does not work to eat and drink so that the salivary glands become less active so saliva production decreased and there was a change in eating timewhich is relation to the mastication process that impact on changes in the degree of acidity (pH Objectives: To determine the concentration of total protein and the degree of acidity (pH of saliva when fasting and after breakfasting. Materials and Methods: The study was observational analytic design with longitudinal (follow up study conducted in the Hj. Halima Dg. Sikati Dental Hospital inKandea in July 2015, the sampling method was purposive sampling. Population was 35 clinical students at the Department of Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dentistry Hasanuddin University with a total sample of 16 students who fit the criteria of the study subjects. To calculate the total protein of saliva concentration using Kyltecautoanalyzerand pH meter to measure the acidity of saliva. Data was analyzed was using SPSS version 17.0 (paired t-test, p <0.05. Results: The mean of total protein (% while fasting by 0135% ± 0.026 and the mean total protein (% after breakfasting at 0.179% ± 0.035, while the average degree of acidity (pH during fasting at 7.26 ± 0:24 and the average degree of acidity (pH after breakfasting at 7.66 ± 0.23 with p-value (0.000. Conclusions: An increase in the total protein concentration and acidity (pH after breakfasting.

  14. Evaluation of velvet antler total protein effect on bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Xiang; Li, Lin; Xu, Shuqiang; Mao, Min; Pan, Ruiyan; Li, Yanjun; Wu, Jiayun; Huang, Li; Zheng, Xiaoyun

    2017-01-01

    Lu Rong, velvet antler (VA), is a traditional Chinese medicine, which is used as a food supplement and therapeutic drug in China, Japan, Russia, New Zealand and Southeast Asia. The regenerative characteristics of VA have resulted in great research interest, particularly regarding the fields of organ grafting and stem cell differentiation. Various VA proteomic studies verified that proteins act as the primary bioactive components of VA. The present study aimed to investigate if VA proteins (VA...

  15. Investigation of total seed storage proteins of pakistani and japanese maize (zea mays l.) through sds-page markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinwari, Z.K.

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of genetic diversity among the members of a species is of vital importance for successful breeding and adaptability. In the present study 83 genotypes of maize of Pakistani and Japanese origin were evaluated for the total seed storage proteins using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) through vertical slab unit. The total protein subunits were separated on 12% polyacrylamide gel using standard protocols. A total of 18 protein subunits were noted out of which 7 (39%) were monomorphic and 11 (61%) were polymorphic, with molecular weight ranging from 10 to 122 kDa. Coefficients of similarity among the accessions ranged between 0.89 and 1.00. The dendrogram obtained through UPGMA clustering method showed two main clusters: 1 and 2. First cluster comprised of 9 genotypes including Sahiwal-2002, while second cluster contained 74 genotypes including Aaiti-2002 and Sadaf. Over all a low level of polymorphism was observed in total seed storage protein patterns of maize genotypes from Pakistan as well as Japan. It is inferred from the present study that more genotypes of maize could be brought under study and more advanced biochemical techniques with more reliable results could be followed to bring assessment of genetic diversity of maize for planning breeding programs. (author)

  16. Association of total-mixed-ration chemical composition with milk, fat, and protein yield lactation curves at the individual level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccamo, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Licitra, G.; Petriglieri, R.; Terra, La F.; Pozzebon, A.; Ferguson, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the chemical composition of a total mixed ration (TMR) tested quarterly from March 2006 through December 2008 for milk, fat, and protein yield curves for 27 herds in Ragusa, Sicily. Before this study, standard yield curves were generated on

  17. Total protein concentration and diagnostic test results for gray wolf (Canis lupus) serum using Nobuto filter paper strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Rocio F.; Sepúlveda, Carolina; Ip, Hon S.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Nobuto filter paper strips are widely used for storing blood-serum samples, but the recovery of proteins from these strips following rehydration is unknown. Poor recovery of proteins could reduce the concentration of antibodies and antigens and reduce the sensitivity of diagnostic assays. We compared the protein concentration, and its association with test sensitivity, of eluted Nobuto strip samples with paired sera. We collected and froze serum from five gray wolves (Canis lupus) for 8 mo. When thawed, we used a spectrophotometer (absorbance 280 nm) to determine the serum protein concentration for paired sera and Nobuto eluates for each animal in 2-fold serial dilutions. Total protein concentration was similar for both sample storage methods (Nobuto eluates and control sera), except for the undiluted samples in which Nobuto eluates had higher total protein concentrations. Both sample storage methods appear to produce similar results using the SNAP® 4Dx® Test to detect antibodies against pathogens causing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and ehrlichiosis as well as antigen for canine heartworm disease.

  18. Immobilization methods for the rapid total chemical synthesis of proteins on microtiter plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitterbart, Robert; Krumrey, Michael; Seitz, Oliver

    2017-07-01

    The chemical synthesis of proteins typically involves the solid-phase peptide synthesis of unprotected peptide fragments that are stitched together in solution by native chemical ligation (NCL). The process is slow, and throughput is limited because of the need for repeated high performance liquid chromatography purification steps after both solid-phase peptide synthesis and NCL. With an aim to provide faster access to functional proteins and to accelerate the functional analysis of synthetic proteins by parallelization, we developed a method for the high performance liquid chromatography-free synthesis of proteins on the surface of microtiter plates. The method relies on solid-phase synthesis of unprotected peptide fragments, immobilization of the C-terminal fragment and on-surface NCL with an unprotected peptide thioester in crude form. Herein, we describe the development of a suitable immobilization chemistry. We compared (i) formation of nickel(II)-oligohistidine complexes, (ii) Cu-based [2 + 3] alkine-azide cycloaddition and (iii) hydrazone ligation. The comparative study identified the hydrazone ligation as most suitable. The sequence of immobilization via hydrazone ligation, on-surface NCL and radical desulfurization furnished the targeted SH3 domains in near quantitative yield. The synthetic proteins were functional as demonstrated by an on-surface fluorescence-based saturation binding analysis. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Intake of total protein, plant protein and animal protein in relation to blood pressure : a meta-analysis of observational and intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S. M. A. J.; Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Engberink, M. F.; Brink, E. J.; van Baak, M. A.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Geleijnse, J. M.

    There is growing evidence from epidemiological studies that dietary protein may beneficially influence blood pressure (BP), but findings are inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis of 29 observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary protein and types of protein in

  20. Intake of total protein, plant protein and animal protein in relation to blood pressure: a meta-analysis of observatinoal and intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S.M.A.J.; Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, van M.A.; Bakker, S.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence from epidemiological studies that dietary protein may beneficially influence blood pressure (BP), but findings are inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis of 29 observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary protein and types of protein in

  1. Bringing the science of proteins into the realm of organic chemistry: total chemical synthesis of SEP (synthetic erythropoiesis protein).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Stephen B H

    2013-11-11

    Erythropoietin, commonly known as EPO, is a glycoprotein hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells. Recombinant EPO has been described as "arguably the most successful drug spawned by the revolution in recombinant DNA technology". Recently, the EPO glycoprotein molecule has re-emerged as a major target of synthetic organic chemistry. In this article I will give an account of an important body of earlier work on the chemical synthesis of a designed EPO analogue that had full biological activity and improved pharmacokinetic properties. The design and synthesis of this "synthetic erythropoiesis protein" was ahead of its time, but has gained new relevance in recent months. Here I will document the story of one of the major accomplishments of synthetic chemistry in a more complete way than is possible in the primary literature, and put the work in its contemporaneous context. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Konsentrasi Protein Total, Albumin, dan Globulin Anak Kambing Peranakan Etawah Setelah Pemberian Berbagai Sediaan Kolostrum* (TOTAL PROTEIN, ALBUMIN, AND GLOBULIN CONCENTRATIONS ON ETTAWAH CROSSBREED NEONATES FOLLOWING THE ADMINISTRATION OF VARIOUS FORM O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Esfandiari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the profile of total protein, albumin, and globulin concentrationson Ettawah crossbreed neonates after consuming various colostrums. Twenty four healthy neonatal kidswere used in this study. The neonates were divided into four groups. Each group received fresh maternal(goat colostrum, frozen-thawed bovine colostrum, bovine spray dried colostrum, and bovine powdercommercial colostrum, respectively. Colostrums were given at 10% of body weight directly after birth andfollowed by the same amount every 12 hours, for three days. The blood was taken from jugular vein at 0, 12,24, 48, 72, and 168 hours after birth to determine total protein, albumin, and globulin concentrations.Results of this study indicated that the serum total protein and globulin concentration increased andreached the peak at 24 hours after birth. Compared to the concentration at birth, the increase of totalprotein concentration were 62.77%, 59.26%, 48.05%, and 66.67% in fresh maternal (goat, frozen-thawedbovine, bovine spray dried, and commercial bovine colostrum, respectively. Serum globulin concentrationincreased 4.9, 4.4, 4.8, and 14.6 times in fresh matermnal goat, frozen-thawed bovine, spray dried, andcommercial bovine colostrums respectively, compared to the concentration at birth. In conclusion, theconsumption of various colostrums i.e. fresh maternal goat colostrums, bovine colostrums (frozen-thawed,spray dried and commercial colostrums would increase the concentration of blood total protein and globulin,which both reached the highest concentration at 24 h after birth.

  3. Effects of colchicine treatment on the microtubule cytoskeleton and total protein during microsporogenesis in ginkgo biloba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Q.J.; Mei, F.F.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of colchicine treatment on the microtubule cytoskeleton and the expression of proteins during microsporogenesis in G. biloba, as observed by immunofluorescence and 2-DE analysis in microsporangia treated with colchicine. The results showed the microtubule structures were affected by the colchicine in Ginkgo biloba, but the treatment effect of the colchicine had certain limitation in G. biloba. The percentage of microsporocytes whose microtubule structures were affected by the colchicine treatment was less than that observed in other plant species, not higher than 10 %. It was also found that the expression level of several endogenous proteins were changed in G. biloba when the microsporangia were treated with colchicine. Although we only tested colchicines was only tested in the present study, G. biloba appeared to possess factors that restricted the effect of such chemical agents. Our observations led us to speculate that the endogenous proteins are possibly responsible for the reduced effects of colchicine treatment in G. biloba. (author)

  4. Evaluation of lysozyme, complement C3, and total protein in different developmental stages of Caspian kutum (Rutilus frisii kutum K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Razieh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, non–specific immune parameters in fertilized eggs, eyed embryos, larvae 10, 25, 50, 60, and 70 days post hatch (DPH, and female broodstock of Caspian kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum (Kamensky, were evaluated. The lysozyme activity, complement C3, and total protein levels were measured with the turbidimetric, immunoturbidimetric, and Bradford methods, respectively. The results showed that lysozyme levels decreased from levels noted in the fertilized eggs until the larvae were 10 days old. Subsequently, significant increases in lysozyme levels were observed until 70 DPH. An increasing trend of complement component C3 was noted from the levels in fertilized eggs to 10 DPH, following which it decreased significantly. Total protein levels differed significantly in early developmental stages of Caspian kutum. The higher values of complement component C3 than of lysozyme in the early life stages could be indicative of the former’s more fundamental role.

  5. Total working period and other risk factors related to eating protein foods habits among civil pilots in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Imelda Hutabarat

    2017-07-01

    pilots in Indonesia. Methods: A cross-sectional study using secondary data from the survey of eating, drinking and physical exercise habits among civilian pilots in Indonesia 2016. Data collected were demographic characteristics, physical exercise habits, smoking habits, knowledge, body mass index and flight characteristics. Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the dominant factors associated with protein eating habits. Results: Among 528 pilots aged 19-64 years, 194 (36.74% pilots had excessive protein eating habits . Long working period and body mass index were the dominant risk factors associated with protein eating habit in pilots. Compared to pilots with 1-9 years working period, pilots with 10-40 years working period had 35% lower risk of excessive protein eating habits (RRA = 0.65; 95% CI 0:49 - 0.87. Compared to pilots with normal body mass index, overweight pilots had 34% lower risk of excessive protein eating habits (RRA = 0.66; 95% CI 0:47 - 0.93. Conclusion: Long working period and overweight were protective factors from the risk of excessive protein eating habits Keywords: protein eating habits, total working periode, body mass index, civilian pilots Indonesia

  6. Studies on amino acid absorption and protein metabolism in the rat following total gastrectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, F.; Czarnetzki, H.D.; Albert, H.; Schwokowski, C.; Junghans, P.; Jung, K.; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Leipzig. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung)

    1982-01-01

    Rats were gastrectomized according to Graham and Longmire/Guetgemann, resp. 6 to 12 weeks after gastrectomy the animals received a single dose of 15 N-glycine with the food. 15 N excretion has been determined every 12 hours for 5 days. All rats revealed a positive N balance. Urinary excretion of 15 N was significantly less in rats operated according to Graham (missing duodenal passage) than in the controls and those operated according to Longmire. The differences seem to be caused by differently fast absorption, but the disturbances in the amino acid absorption are not aggravating and N balance and protein synthesis are normal

  7. Total removal of intact blood plasma proteins deposited on surface-grafted polymer brushes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Riedel, Tomáš; Májek, P.; Riedelová-Reicheltová, Zuzana; Vorobii, Mariia; Houska, Milan; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 34 (2016), s. 6415-6419 ISSN 1759-9660 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP205/12/G118; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21545 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer brushes * antifouling * protein deposit Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.900, year: 2016

  8. The intake of total protein, natural protein and protein substitute and growth of height and head circumference in Dutch infants with phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, M.; van Rijn, M. [=Margreet; Verkerk, P. H.; Bosch, A. M.; Mulder, M. F.; de Klerk, J. B. C.; de Koning, T. J.; Rubio-Gozalbo, E.; de Vries, M.; Sauer, P. J. J.; van Spronsen, F. J.

    2005-01-01

    In a previous study, Dutch children with phenylketonuria (PKU) were found to be slightly shorter than their healthy counterparts. In the literature, it has been hypothesized that a higher protein intake is necessary to optimize growth in PKU patients. The study aimed to investigate whether protein

  9. PROFIL PROTEIN TOTAL, ALBUMIN DAN GLOBULIN PADA AYAM BROILER YANG DIBERI KUNGIY, BAWANG PUTIH DAN ZINC (ZN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sus Derthi Widhyari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effectiveness of turmeric, garlic and zinc supplementation on protein, albumin and globulin concentration of broiler. One hundred DOC were divided into five treatments, four replications, consist of five chicks in each replicate. The treatments were R0 (basal diet as a control, R1 (R0 + 1,5% turmeric powder +2,5 % garlic powder, R2 (R0 + 2,5% garlic powder + 120 ppm zinc, R3 (R0 +1,5% turmeric powder + 120ppm zinc and R4 (R0 +1,5 turmeric powder + 2,5% garlic powder + 120 ppm zinc. The diet contain 23,5% crude protein and 3215 kcal metabolizable energy. Blood samples were taken from axillary veins at the three and six weeks of age. The results showed that total protein and globulin concentration at 6 weeks slightly higher than 3 weeks old chicks but not significantly different (P>0.05. Albumin concentration were highest on R3 treatment. Total protein and globulin concentration was highest on the R2 treatment. In conclusion, the supplementation of garlic (2.5% and ZnO (120 ppm showed the best combination to improve immune response in broiler

  10. Speed associated with plasma pH, oxygen content, total protein and urea in an 80 km race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R M; Hess, T M; Williams, C A; Kronfeld, D S; Griewe-Crandell, K M; Waldron, J E; Graham-Thiers, P M; Gay, L S; Splan, R K; Saker, K E; Harris, P A

    2002-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that endurance performance may be related quantitatively to changes in blood, we measured selected blood variables then determined their reference ranges and associations with speed during an 80 km race. The plan had 46 horses in a 2 x 2 factorial design testing a potassium-free electrolyte mix and a vitamin supplement. Blood samples were collected before the race, at 21, 37, 56 and 80 km, and 20 min after finishing, for assay of haematocrit, plasma pH, pO2, pCO2, [Na+], [K+], [Ca++], [Mg++], [Cl-], lactate, glucose, urea, cortisol, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbate, creatine kinase, aspartate amino transferase, lipid hydroperoxides, total protein, albumin and creatinine, and erythrocyte glutathione and glutathione peroxidase. Data from 34 finishers were analysed statistically. Reference ranges for resting and running horses were wide and overlapping and, therefore, limiting with respect to evaluation of individual horses. Speed correlations were most repeatable, with variables reflecting blood oxygen transport (enabling exercise), acidity and electrolytes (limiting exercise) and total protein (enabling then, perhaps, limiting). Stepwise regressions also included plasma urea concentration (limiting). The association of speed with less plasma acidity and urea suggests the potential for fat adaptation and protein restriction in endurance horses, as found previously in Arabians performing repeated sprints. Conditioning horses fed fat-fortified and protein-restricted diets may not only improve performance but also avoid grain-associated disorders.

  11. Aligator: A computational tool for optimizing total chemical synthesis of large proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Michael T; Erickson, Patrick W; Kay, Michael S

    2017-09-15

    The scope of chemical protein synthesis (CPS) continues to expand, driven primarily by advances in chemical ligation tools (e.g., reversible solubilizing groups and novel ligation chemistries). However, the design of an optimal synthesis route can be an arduous and fickle task due to the large number of theoretically possible, and in many cases problematic, synthetic strategies. In this perspective, we highlight recent CPS tool advances and then introduce a new and easy-to-use program, Aligator (Automated Ligator), for analyzing and designing the most efficient strategies for constructing large targets using CPS. As a model set, we selected the E. coli ribosomal proteins and associated factors for computational analysis. Aligator systematically scores and ranks all feasible synthetic strategies for a particular CPS target. The Aligator script methodically evaluates potential peptide segments for a target using a scoring function that includes solubility, ligation site quality, segment lengths, and number of ligations to provide a ranked list of potential synthetic strategies. We demonstrate the utility of Aligator by analyzing three recent CPS projects from our lab: TNFα (157 aa), GroES (97 aa), and DapA (312 aa). As the limits of CPS are extended, we expect that computational tools will play an increasingly important role in the efficient execution of ambitious CPS projects such as production of a mirror-image ribosome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of yeast β-glucan on the amount of albumin, globulin, urea and total protein of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali kargarirezapour

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Glucans derived from yeast cell wall are promising alternatives to antibiotics, as they have been shown to improve growth performance and stimulate the immune system of immature broilers. In this study we evaluated the effect of different levels of yeast beta-glucan (YBG on some blood parametrs of broiler chickens. In a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design (the first factor: YBG levels: 0, 0.04 and 0.08% of basal diet and sex as a second factor 144 day old chicks (72 male and 72 female were selected and allocated to different treatments (three replicates of each treatment. The overall experimental period was 34 days. At the end of study, two birds from each pen were randomly selected as a sample. The level of albumin, globulin, urea and total protein was measured on blood samples. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the YBG had no significant effect on albumin, globulin, urea and total protein level. But the amount of plasma albumin and total protein in female chicks was significantly higher than male chicks (p

  13. Effect of dietary protein quality on the resistance of rats to total body radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bounous, G.; Pageau, R.

    1983-02-01

    Young rats have been fed four defined-formula diets before and after ..gamma..-irradiation (700 rd (7.0 Gy), 75 rd/min (750 mGy), 80 cm from the source, total body). Animals eating a diet containing lactalbumin hydrolyzate (20 g/100 g diet) exhibited less anorexia and weight loss following ..gamma..-rays than a corresponding group eating casein hydrolyzate (20 g/100 g diet).

  14. Combined nitrogen limitation and cadmium stress stimulate total carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chia, Mathias Ahii, E-mail: chia28us@yahoo.com [Department of Botany, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Lombardi, Ana Teresa [Department of Botany, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Graça Gama Melão, Maria da [Department of Hydrobiology, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, São Carlos, SP Cep 13565905 (Brazil); Parrish, Christopher C. [Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Newfoundland A1C 5S7 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to Cd under varying N concentrations. • Growth rate and cell density decreased with increasing Cd stress and N limitation. • Dry weight, chlorophyll a, total lipid, carbohydrate and protein were accumulated. • Amino acids like proline and glutamine were accumulated under N and Cd stress. • Changes in amino acid composition are sensitive biomarkers for Cd and N stress. - Abstract: Metals have interactive effects on the uptake and metabolism of nutrients in microalgae. However, the effect of trace metal toxicity on amino acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris as a function of varying nitrogen concentrations is not known. In this research, C. vulgaris was used to investigate the influence of cadmium (10{sup −7} and 2.0 × 10{sup −8} mol L{sup −1} Cd) under varying nitrogen (2.9 × 10{sup −6}, 1.1 × 10{sup −5} and 1.1 × 10{sup −3} mol L{sup −1} N) concentrations on its growth rate, biomass and biochemical composition. Total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, as well as individual amino acid proportions were determined. The combination of Cd stress and N limitation significantly inhibited growth rate and cell density of C. vulgaris. However, increasing N limitation and Cd stress stimulated higher dry weight and chlorophyll a production per cell. Furthermore, biomolecules like total proteins, carbohydrates and lipids increased with increasing N limitation and Cd stress. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids were accumulated under the stress conditions investigated in the present study. Amino acids involved in metal chelation like proline, histidine and glutamine were significantly increased after exposure to combined Cd stress and N limitation. We conclude that N limitation and Cd stress affects the physiology of C. vulgaris by not only decreasing its growth but also stimulating biomolecule production.

  15. The Evaluation of Protein C Activity and Some Inflammatory Markers in Synovia of Patients Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ata Alturfan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a major risk factor for thrombosis in patients over 40 years of age and this risk persists for several weeks after the surgery. Since inflammatory mechanisms affect coagulation and the natural anticoagulant system, we aimed to investigate protein C activities and inflammatory markers in patients undergoing TKA surgery.Material and Methods: We included 20 osteoarthritis patients and 20 healthy controls. Protein C activity and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α levels in plasma and synovia were evaluated by ELISA technique. Results: In the patient group, protein C activities decreased and TNF-α levels increased significantly both in synovia and plasma when compared with the controls. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate of the patient group was found to be significantly elevated in comparison to the controls. On the other hand, serum C reactive protein values increased insignificantly when compared to controls.Conclusion: The decreased activity of protein C and increased levels of inflammatory markers in preoperative plasma and synovia of the patient group may enhance the risk for developing thrombosis.

  16. BAG3 regulates total MAP1LC3B protein levels through a translational but not transcriptional mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Andrea E; López-Crisosto, Camila; Peña-Oyarzún, Daniel; Salas, Daniela; Parra, Valentina; Quiroga, Clara; Morawe, Tobias; Chiong, Mario; Behl, Christian; Lavandero, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is mainly regulated by post-translational and lipid modifications of ATG proteins. In some scenarios, the induction of autophagy is accompanied by increased levels of certain ATG mRNAs such as MAP1LC3B/LC3B, ATG5 or ATG12. However, little is known about the regulation of ATG protein synthesis at the translational level. The cochaperone of the HSP70 system BAG3 (BCL2-associated athanogene 3) has been associated to LC3B lipidation through an unknown mechanism. In the present work, we studied how BAG3 controls autophagy in HeLa and HEK293 cells. Our results showed that BAG3 regulates the basal amount of total cellular LC3B protein by controlling its mRNA translation. This effect was apparently specific to LC3B because other ATG protein levels were not affected. BAG3 knockdown did not affect LC3B lipidation induced by nutrient deprivation or proteasome inhibition. We concluded that BAG3 maintains the basal amount of LC3B protein by controlling the translation of its mRNA in HeLa and HEK293 cells.

  17. Determination of total antioxidant capacity of milk by CUPRAC and ABTS methods with separate characterisation of milk protein fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çekiç, Sema Demirci; Demir, Aslı; Başkan, Kevser Sözgen; Tütem, Esma; Apak, Reşat

    2015-05-01

    Most milk-applied antioxidant assays in literature are based on the isolation and quantification of individual antioxidative compounds, whereas total antioxidant capacity (TAC) gives a more holistic picture due to cooperative action of antioxidants. Recently, the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method has been modified to measure the antioxidant capacities of thiol-containing proteins, where the classical ammonium acetate buffer - that may otherwise precipitate proteins- was replaced with concentrated urea buffer (able to expose embedded thiol groups of proteins to oxidative attack) adjusted to pH 7.0. Thus, antioxidant capacity of milk was investigated with two competing TAC assays, namely CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid))/persulphate, because only these assays were capable of evaluating protein contribution to the observed TAC value. As milk fat caused turbidity, experiments were carried out with skim milk or defatted milk samples. To determine TAC, modified CUPRAC method was applied to whole milk, separated and redissolved protein fractions, and the remaining liquid phase after necessary operations. Both TAC methods were investigated for their dilution sensitivity and antioxidant power assessment of separate milk fractions such as casein and whey. Proteins like β-lactoglobulin and casein (but not simple thiols) exhibited enhanced CUPRAC reactivity with surfactant (SDS) addition. Addition of milk protein fractions to whole skim milk produced significant 'negative-biased' deviations (up to -26% relative standard error) from TAC absorbance additivity in the application of the ABTS method, as opposed to that of the CUPRAC method less affected by chemical deviations from Beer's law thereby producing much smaller deviations from additivity (i.e. the property of additivity is valid when the measured TAC of a mixture is equal to the sum of individual antioxidant capacities of its constituents).

  18. Combined nitrogen limitation and cadmium stress stimulate total carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acid accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Mathias Ahii; Lombardi, Ana Teresa; da Graça Gama Melão, Maria; Parrish, Christopher C

    2015-03-01

    Metals have interactive effects on the uptake and metabolism of nutrients in microalgae. However, the effect of trace metal toxicity on amino acid composition of Chlorella vulgaris as a function of varying nitrogen concentrations is not known. In this research, C. vulgaris was used to investigate the influence of cadmium (10(-7) and 2.0×10(-8)molL(-1) Cd) under varying nitrogen (2.9×10(-6), 1.1×10(-5) and 1.1×10(-3)molL(-1)N) concentrations on its growth rate, biomass and biochemical composition. Total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, as well as individual amino acid proportions were determined. The combination of Cd stress and N limitation significantly inhibited growth rate and cell density of C. vulgaris. However, increasing N limitation and Cd stress stimulated higher dry weight and chlorophyll a production per cell. Furthermore, biomolecules like total proteins, carbohydrates and lipids increased with increasing N limitation and Cd stress. Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids were accumulated under the stress conditions investigated in the present study. Amino acids involved in metal chelation like proline, histidine and glutamine were significantly increased after exposure to combined Cd stress and N limitation. We conclude that N limitation and Cd stress affects the physiology of C. vulgaris by not only decreasing its growth but also stimulating biomolecule production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Higher Total Protein Intake and Change in Total Protein Intake Affect Body Composition but Not Metabolic Syndrome Indexes in Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults Who Perform Resistance and Aerobic Exercise for 36 Weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Wayne W; Kim, Jung Eun; Amankwaah, Akua F; Gordon, Susannah L; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M

    2015-09-01

    Studies assessing the effects of protein supplementation on changes in body composition (BC) and health rarely consider the impact of total protein intake (TPro) or the change in TPro (CTPro) from participants' usual diets. This secondary data analysis assessed the impact of TPro and CTPro on changes in BC and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults who participated in an exercise training program. Men and women [n = 117; age: 50 ± 0.7 y, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 30.1 ± 0.3; means ± SEs] performed resistance exercise 2 d/wk and aerobic exercise 1 d/wk and consumed an unrestricted diet along with 200-kcal supplements (0, 10, 20, or 30 g whey protein) twice daily for 36 wk. Protein intake was assessed via 4-d food records. Multiple linear regression model and stratified analysis were applied for data analyses. Among all subjects, TPro and CTPro were inversely associated (P exercise training, higher TPro promoted positive changes in BC but not in MetS indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults. Changes in TPro from before to during the intervention also influenced BC responses and should be considered in future research when different TPro is achieved via diet or supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00812409. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Investigation of Catalase, Proxidase and Total Protein Level in Some Cold Treated Grapevine Cultivars Cold Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karimi Alavijeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chilling is an important environmental stress that influences the yield and quality of many agricultural crops. Different plants use different systems to endure this stress and minimize its effects. One of these systems is enzymatic reaction. To find out more about responses of different grapevine species and cultivars to the low temperature conditions, their enzymatic changes were evaluated in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete design with 3 replication during different periods after chilling stress. Leaf samples of plants under cold stress had been taken and maintained in -80 °C until enzyme extraction. Low temperature around 4 °C is sufficient to induce genes that produce chilling acclimatization proteins. In the present study, leaf samples were collected from the plants that were kept at 4 °C during different time intervals, and then total proteins as well as two main antioxidant enzymes (catalase and guaiacolperoxidase activities were measured. Results showed that as temperature decreased, enzymatic activities were increased in six Iranian grapevine cultivars (‘Atabaki’, ‘Khalili-Danedar’, ‘Shahroodi’, ‘Rajabi-Siah’, ‘Askari’ and ‘Bidane-Sefid’ as well as ‘Riparia’, an American species. The highest enzymatic activities of catalase and ceroxidase were recorded in ‘Khalili-Danedar’ and ‘Riparia’. However,the lowest activities were recorded in ‘Rajabi-Siah’, ‘Bidane-Sefid’ and ‘Shahroodi’. For all studied cultivars, peroxidase showed its highest activity at 12 h after chilling stress, then remained constant, while, the highest activity of catalase were recorded at 8 h. In addition, cold stress increased the total protein content for all studied cultivars, in which ‘Khalili-Danedar’ had the highest protein content amongstudied cultivars. Also, the highest proteins content were recorded at 12 h after exposing plants to cold.

  1. Total and phosphorylated tau protein as biological markers of Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hampel, Harald

    2012-02-01

    Advances in our understanding of tau-mediated neurodegeneration in Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) are moving this disease pathway to center stage for the development of biomarkers and disease modifying drug discovery efforts. Immunoassays were developed detecting total (t-tau) and tau phosphorylated at specific epitopes (p-tauX) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), methods to analyse tau in blood are at the experimental beginning. Clinical research consistently demonstrated CSF t- and p-tau increased in AD compared to controls. Measuring these tau species proved informative for classifying AD from relevant differential diagnoses. Tau phosphorylated at threonine 231 (p-tau231) differentiated between AD and frontotemporal dementia, tau phosphorylated at serine 181 (p-tau181) enhanced classification between AD and dementia with Lewy bodies. T- and p-tau are considered "core" AD biomarkers that have been successfully validated by controlled large-scale multi-center studies. Tau biomarkers are implemented in clinical trials to reflect biological activity, mechanisms of action of compounds, support enrichment of target populations, provide endpoints for proof-of-concept and confirmatory trials on disease modification. World-wide quality control initiatives are underway to set required methodological and protocol standards. Discussions with regulatory authorities gain momentum defining the role of tau biomarkers for trial designs and how they may be further qualified for surrogate marker status.

  2. Effect of urdbean leaf crinkle virus infection on total soluble protein and antioxidant enzymes in blackgram plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, M.; Mughal, S.M.; Khan, A.; Javed, N.; Sahi, S.T.; Shahid, M.

    2010-01-01

    Urdbean leaf crinkle virus (ULCV) is a common, wide spread, destructive and economically important disease causing systemic infection in blackgram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), resulting in extreme crinkling, curling, puckering and rugosity of leaves, and yield reductions. Effect of viral infection was investigated on total soluble proteins and antioxidant enzymes activity in two genotypes viz., Mash-88-susceptible and CM-2002-resistant, at different growth stages under both the inoculated and un-inoculated conditions. ULCV infection resulted in significant increase in total soluble protein contents of the leaves in both genotypes. In healthy plant, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (PO) showed similar activity levels. In inoculated plants of Mash-88, SOD and PO activities decreased and increased non-significantly at all growth stages, respectively. The activities of PO and SOD increased and decreased significantly after 15 and 30 days of inoculation in resistant genotype, respectively. No significant changes in catalase (CAT) activity were detected in ULCV-infected leaves over the control. It was concluded that the super oxide dismutase and peroxidases might be associated with resistance/susceptibility to ULCV infection. (author)

  3. TOTAL AND FRACTIONAL CONTENTS OF PROTEINS IN BEAN SEEDS UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF VARIED FERTILISATION WITH MICROELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech KOZERA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over 2003-2005 at the Experiment Station at Wierzchucinek at the University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz, there was performed a strict one-factor micro-plot experiment in split-splot design. The factor tested was a type of microelements [n=5: Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, B]. The microelements were foliar sprayed in a chelated form, as the series of Symfonia fertilizers. The study aimed at comparing the effect of five agricultural-engineering basic microelements on the contents and protein composition of the seeds of Aura cultivar. The fertilization applied, boron and manganese in particular, showed an effect on the increase in the contents of total protein in bean seeds. It also modified the fractional composition of the bean seed protein. There was observed a clear increase in the fraction of albumins and globulins in seeds as a result of the microelements applied, except for boron. The fertilization with molybdenum, boron, copper and zinc reduced the content of glutelins, and the sum of glulelins and prolamines in the bean seeds.

  4. Testing and analysis on total protein, albumin and A/G of salivary in radiation exposure persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Zhang Yan; Li Guangwen; Li Gang; Guo Jing; Li Hui; Wang Yuxin; Li Cuixia

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the oral health effect of long term low dose radiation on exposure personnel and to provide a basis for further improving the protection ability. Methods: Testing method, which was based on APT and HSA interactions induced by synchronous fluorescence specific changes, and intensity and concentrations of HSA in the solution in the system of synchronous fluorescence showed a good linear relations. the establishment of a APT as a molecular probe was used to test concentration of salivary total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), globulin (GLO) and albumin by synchronous fluorescence spectrum analysis. The information was analyzed in Foxpro 6.0 and SPSS 16.0 software. Result: Protein (TP) Mean Value was 3.904 ±1.369 g/L, Minimum Value was 0.30 g/L and Maximum Value was 7.50 g/L. Albumin (ALB) Mean Value was 0.965±0.665 g/L, Minimum Value was 0.09 g/L and Maximum Value was 3.98 g/L. Globulin (GLO) Mean Value was 2.895±0.947 g/L, Minimum Value was 0.01 g/L and Maximum Value was 5.81 g/L. A/G Mean Value was 0.327. Conclusion: Long term and low dose of radiation would break the chronic physiological balance and concentration of salivary total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), globulin (GLO) and albumin and globulin ratio (A/G) changed obviously. It was necessary to do more special oral health care, further improve the individual protection consciousness, strengthen the radiation monitoring and protection measures, improve the regulation system, and reduce radiation damage on special personnel health significantly. (authors)

  5. Study on furundu, a traditional Sudanese fermented roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed: effect on in vitro protein digestibility, chemical composition, and functional properties of the total proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagoub, Abu El-Gasim A; Mohamed, Babiker E; Ahmed, Abdel Halim R; El Tinay, Abdullahi H

    2004-10-06

    Furundu, a meat substitute, is traditionally prepared by cooking the karkade (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) seed and then fermenting it for 9 days. Physicochemical and functional properties of raw and cooked seed and of furundu ferments were analyzed. Furundu preparation resulted in significant changes in karkade seed major nutrients. Total polyphenols and phytic acid were also reduced. The increase in total acidity and fat acidity coupled with a decrease in pH indicates microbial hydrolysis of the major nutrients; proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. In vitro digestibility of the seed proteins reached the maximum value (82.7%) at the sixth day of fermentation, but thereafter it significantly decreased. The effect of furundu preparation on N solubility profiles and functional properties, such as emulsification and foaming properties and other related parameters, is investigated in water and in 1 M NaCl extracts from defatted flour samples. The results show that cooking followed by fermentation affects proteins solubility in water and 1 M NaCl. The foaming capacity (FC) from the flour of raw seed decreased as a result of cooking. Fermentation for 9 days significantly increased the FC of the cooked seed, restoring the inherent value. Foam from fermented samples collapsed more rapidly during a period of 120 min as compared to the foam from raw and cooked karkade seeds; stability in 1 M NaCl was lower as compared to those in water. In water, the emulsion stability (ES) from the fermented samples was significantly higher than that of the raw seed flour. Addition of 1 M NaCl significantly decreased the ES of the fermented samples.

  6. Use of the Vettest 8008 and refractometry for determination of total protein, albumin, and globulin concentrations in feline effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasouliotis, Kostas; Murphy, Kate; Dodkin, Steve; Torrance, Andy G

    2002-01-01

    Pleural and peritoneal effusion is a common clinical finding in feline practice. Determination of fluid albumin (ALB) and globulin (GLOB) concentrations in addition to total protein (TP) concentration can be helpful in diagnosing or ruling out certain diseases in cats, especially feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). The objective of this study was to compare effusion TP, ALB, and GLOB results obtained by a refractometer and a bench-top dry chemistry analyzer with those results obtained by a reference method. Twenty-six pleural and 14 peritoneal effusion samples were analyzed from 40 cats with various diseases. TP and ALB concentrations were determined by a reference automated wet chemistry analyzer (Kone Specific, Kone Instruments, Espoo, Finland), a bench-top dry chemistry analyzer (Vettest 8008, IDEXX Laboratories Ltd, Chalfont St Peter, UK), and a refractometer (Atago SPR-T2, Atago Co, Tokyo, Japan). GLOB, albumin to globulin (A/G) ratio, and globulins as a percentage of total proteins (GLOB%) were calculated. Results were analyzed by paired t tests, difference plots, and Deming s regression analysis. Correlation coefficients (r) for TP with Vettest versus Kone and refractometer versus Kone methods were.97 and.94, respectively. GLOB and GLOB% values were significantly higher and A/G ratios were significantly lower with Vettest versus Kone methods. Correlation coefficients for ALB, GLOB, GLOB% and A/G ratio with Vettest versus Kone methods were.86,.93,.82, and.73, respectively. Although correlation with other methods was good, the refractometer underestimated TP concentrations in 3 samples. The refractometer is an acceptable method for determination of TP concentration in feline effusions. The Vettest 8008 also is an acceptable method for the determination of TP and ALB concentrations, however, calculated A/G ratios obtained with the Vettest are unacceptable.

  7. [Influence of extremely low frequency magnetic field on total protein and -sh groups concentrations in liver homogenates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciejka, Elżbieta; Kowalczyk, Agata; Gorąca, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals are atoms, molecules or their fragments, whose excess leads to the development of oxidative stress, the cause of many neoplastic, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases, as well as aging of organisms. Industrial pollution, tobacco smoke, ionizing radiation, ultrasound and magnetic fields are the major exogenous sources of free radicals. The low frequency mag- netic field is commonly applied in physiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of extremely low frequency magnetic field (1L.F-MF) on the concentration ofsullhydryl groups (-SH) and proteins in liver tissues of experimental animals de- pending on the time of exposure to the field. Twenty one Sprague-D)awley male rats, aged 3-4 months were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (each containing 7 animals): controls (group I), the rats exposed to IEI.F-MF of 40 Hz, 7 mT (this kind of the ELF-MF is mostly used in magnetotherapy), 30 min/day for 2 weeks (group II) and the rats exposed to 40 Hz, 7 mT for 60 min/day for 2 weeks (group III). The concentrations of proteins and sulfhydryl groups in the liver tissues were determined after exposure to magnetic fields. Exposure to low magnetic field: 40 Hz, 7 mT for 30 min/day and 60 min/day for 2 weeks caused a significant increase in the concentration of-SH groups and total protein levels in the liver tissues. The study results suggest that exposure to magnetic fields leads to the development of adaptive mechanisms to maintain the balance in the body oxidation-reduction and in the case of the studied parameters does not depend on the time of exposure.

  8. Influence of extremely low frequency magnetic field on total protein and –SH groups concentrations in liver homogenates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ciejka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free radicals are atoms, molecules or their fragments, whose excess leads to the development of oxidative stress, the cause of many neoplastic, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases, as well as aging of organisms. Industrial pollution, tobacco smoke, ionizing radiation, ultrasound and magnetic fields are the major exogenous sources of free radicals. The low frequency magnetic field is commonly applied in physiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF on the concentration of sulfhydryl groups (–SH and proteins in liver tissues of experimental animals depending on the time of exposure to the field. Material and Methods: Twenty one Sprague-Dawley male rats, aged 3–4 months were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (each containing 7 animals: controls (group I, the rats exposed to ELF-MF of 40 Hz, 7 mT (this kind of the ELF-MF is mostly used in magnetotherapy, 30 min/day for 2 weeks (group II and the rats exposed to 40 Hz, 7 mT for 60 min/day for 2 weeks (group III. The concentrations of proteins and sulfhydryl groups in the liver tissues were determined after exposure to magnetic fields. Results: Exposure to low magnetic field: 40 Hz, 7 mT for 30 min/day and 60 min/day for 2 weeks caused a significant increase in the concentration of –SH groups and total protein levels in the liver tissues. Conclusions: The study results suggest that exposure to magnetic fields leads to the development of adaptive mechanisms to maintain the balance in the body oxidation-reduction and in the case of the studied parameters does not depend on the time of exposure. Med Pr 2014;65(5:639–644

  9. Rapid changes in the serum total protein and globulin levels in complications caused by facultatively pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrás, G; Kiss, S; Juraszek, J; Merétey, K

    1978-01-01

    The changes in the levels of total protein and four globulin fractions were followed up throughout the entire course of complications caused by Gram-negative facultative pathogens in 37 acute cases of respiratory insufficiency accompanying different underlying illnesses and in 9 chronic, bedridden patients given artificial ventilation. At the onset of the infectious complications, in the first place in septic shock, the levels of various globulin fractions showed a decrease corresponding to a half-life of 2 to 4 days. Neither the increased catabolism, nor the protein losses by the urine and tracheal secretions offer a sufficient explanation for the escape of globulins of this extent from the plasma. It seems that this is a consequence of the increase in capillary permeability due to the effect of antigen-antibody reactions and that of endotoxin. As a result, in the critical phase of the infectious complications, at the point of culmination, e.g. in septic shock, diminished amount of different globulins is transported to the site of utilization, that is, to the inflammatory area.

  10. Estimation of salivary glucose, salivary amylase, salivary total protein and salivary flow rate in diabetics in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchbhai, Arati S; Degwekar, Shirish S; Bhowte, Rahul R

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes is known to influence salivary composition and function, eventually affecting the oral cavity. We thus evaluated saliva samples for levels of glucose, amylase and total protein, and assessed salivary flow rate in diabetics and healthy non-diabetics. We also analyzed these parameters with regard to duration and type of diabetes mellitus and gender, and aimed to assess the interrelationships among the variables included in the study. A total of 120 age- and sex-matched participants were divided into 3 groups of 40 each; the uncontrolled diabetic group, the controlled diabetic group and the healthy non-diabetic group. Salivary investigations were performed using unstimulated whole saliva. Mean salivary glucose levels were found to be significantly elevated in both uncontrolled and controlled diabetics, as compared to healthy non-diabetics. There were significant decreases in mean salivary amylase levels in controlled diabetics when compared to healthy non-diabetics. Other than salivary glucose, no other parameters were found to be markedly affected in diabetes mellitus. Further research is needed to explore the clinical implications of these study results.

  11. THE CHANGE OF TOTAL PROTEIN FRACTION OF MUSCLE TISSUE OF PORK WITH BIO- AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL SPECIFIC IN THE PROCESS OF COOKING AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Shalimova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The character of changes in total protein fraction of muscle tissue of pork with PSE defects in the process of cooking at temperatures ranging from 40 to 72 g.C in steps of 2 g.C is investigated. Our studies have revealed differences in the change of state the total fraction of muscle proteins with defects PSE pork during cooking.

  12. Label-Free Quantitative Analysis of Mitochondrial Proteomes Using the Multienzyme Digestion-Filter Aided Sample Preparation (MED-FASP) and "Total Protein Approach".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewski, Jacek R

    2017-01-01

    Determination of proteome composition and measuring of changes in protein titers provide important information with a substantial value for studying mitochondria.This chapter describes a workflow for the quantitative analysis of mitochondrial proteome with a focus on sample preparation and quantitative analysis of the data. The workflow involves the multienzyme digestion-filter aided sample preparation (MED-FASP) protocol enabling efficient extraction of proteins and high rate of protein-to-peptide conversion. Consecutive protein digestion with Lys C and trypsin enables generation of peptide fractions with minimal overlap, largely increases the number of identified proteins, and extends their sequence coverage. Abundances of proteins identified by multiple peptides can be assessed by the "Total Protein Approach."

  13. Biological variation and reference intervals for circulating osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, H P; Jacobsen, Søren; Jensen, T

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Monitoring inflammatory diseases and osteoclastogenesis with osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (total sRANKL) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) has recently attracted increased interest. The purpose...

  14. The association of 83 plasma proteins with CHD mortality, BMI, HDL-, and total-cholesterol in men: applying multivariate statistics to identify proteins with prognostic value and biological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidema, A Geert; Thissen, Uwe; Boer, Jolanda M A; Bouwman, Freek G; Feskens, Edith J M; Mariman, Edwin C M

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we applied the multivariate statistical tool Partial Least Squares (PLS) to analyze the relative importance of 83 plasma proteins in relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and the intermediate end points body mass index, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol. From a Dutch monitoring project for cardiovascular disease risk factors, men who died of CHD between initial participation (1987-1991) and end of follow-up (January 1, 2000) (N = 44) and matched controls (N = 44) were selected. Baseline plasma concentrations of proteins were measured by a multiplex immunoassay. With the use of PLS, we identified 15 proteins with prognostic value for CHD mortality and sets of proteins associated with the intermediate end points. Subsequently, sets of proteins and intermediate end points were analyzed together by Principal Components Analysis, indicating that proteins involved in inflammation explained most of the variance, followed by proteins involved in metabolism and proteins associated with total-C. This study is one of the first in which the association of a large number of plasma proteins with CHD mortality and intermediate end points is investigated by applying multivariate statistics, providing insight in the relationships among proteins, intermediate end points and CHD mortality, and a set of proteins with prognostic value.

  15. Comparison of refractometry and biuret assay for measurement of total protein concentration in canine abdominal and pleural fluid specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Alexandra; Funk, Deborah; Neiger, Reto

    2016-04-01

    To compare total protein (TP) concentrations in canine pleural and abdominal fluid specimens as measured by refractometry and biuret assay. Diagnostic test evaluation. Data regarding 92 pleural and 148 abdominal fluid specimens from dogs with various diseases. TP concentrations in fluid specimens as measured by refractometry and biuret assay were recorded. Strength of association between sets of measurements was assessed by Spearman rank correlations and Bland-Altman plots. Optimal concentration cutoff for diagnostic discrimination between exudate and nonexudate was identified by construction of receiver operating characteristic curves. Median TP concentration in pleural fluid specimens was 2.7 g/dL (range, 0.3 to 4.8 g/dL) for refractometry and 2.9 g/dL (range, 0.7 to 5.8 g/dL) for biuret assay. Median TP concentration in abdominal fluid specimens was 3.5 g/dL (range, 0.1 to 6.0 g/dL) for refractometry and 3.5 g/dL (range, 0.6 to 5.7 g/dL) for biuret assay. Correlation was significant between refractometric and biuret results for pleural (ρ = 0.921) and abdominal (ρ = 0.908) fluid. Bland-Altman plots revealed bias of -0.18 g/dL for pleural fluid and -0.03 g/dL for abdominal fluid for refractometry versus biuret assay. With a TP concentration of ≥ 3 g/dL used to distinguish exudate from nonexudate, sensitivity of refractometry was 77% for pleural fluid and 80% for abdominal fluid. Specificity was 100% and 94%, respectively. Refractometry yielded acceptable results for measurement of TP concentration in canine pleural and abdominal fluid specimens, providing a more rapid and convenient method than biuret assay.

  16. Total external reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of protein-metal ion interactions in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, N. N.; Kovalchuk, M. V.; Yur'eva, E. A.; Konovalov, O. V.; Rogachev, A. V.; Stepina, N. D.; Sukhorukov, V. S.; Tsaregorodtsev, A. D.; Chukhrai, E. S.; Yakunin, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into hemoglobin-based protein films that were formed on a liquid surface. X-ray standing wave measurements were performed at the ID 10 beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and at the Langmuir station of the Kurchatov Synchrotron Radiation Source. It was found that the ability of the protein to bind metal ions is substantially increased due to the conformational rearrangements of protein macromolecules caused by various damaging effects. The elemental composition of protein preparations, which were isolated from children and adults with chronic metabolic diseases accompanied by endogenous intoxication, was analyzed. The results of the investigations offer evidence that an increase in the ligand-binding properties of the protein molecules, which was observed in model experiments using protein films, is a common trait and corresponds to in vivo processes accompanying metabolic disturbances in the body.

  17. Association of translocator protein total distribution volume with duration of untreated major depressive disorder: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Elaine; Attwells, Sophia; Wilson, Alan A; Mizrahi, Romina; Rusjan, Pablo M; Miler, Laura; Xu, Cynthia; Sharma, Sarita; Kish, Stephen; Houle, Sylvain; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2018-04-01

    People with major depressive disorder frequently exhibit increasing persistence of major depressive episodes. However, evidence for neuroprogression (ie, increasing brain pathology with longer duration of illness) is scarce. Microglial activation, which is an important component of neuroinflammation, is implicated in neuroprogression. We examined the relationship of translocator protein (TSPO) total distribution volume (V T ), a marker of microglial activation, with duration of untreated major depressive disorder, and with total illness duration and antidepressant exposure. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited participants aged 18-75 years from the Toronto area and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (Toronto, ON, Canada). Participants either had major depressive episodes secondary to major depressive disorder or were healthy, as confirmed with a structured clinical interview and consultation with a study psychiatrist. To be enrolled, participants with major depressive episodes had to score a minimum of 17 on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and had to be medication free or taking a stable dose of medication for at least 4 weeks before PET scanning. Eligible participants were non-smokers; had no history of or concurrent alcohol or substance dependence, neurological illness, autoimmune disorder, or severe medical problems; and were free from acute medical illnesses for the previous 2 weeks before PET scanning. Participants were excluded if they had used brain stimulation treatments within the 6 months before scanning, had used anti-inflammatory drugs lasting at least 1 week within the past month, were taking hormone replacement therapy, had psychotic symptoms, had bipolar disorder (type I or II) or borderline antisocial personality disorder, or were pregnant or breastfeeding. We scanned three primary grey-matter regions of interest (prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and insula) and 12 additional regions and subregions using 18

  18. Intake of total, animal and plant proteins, and their food sources in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halkjaer, J; Olsen, A; Bjerregaard, L J; Deharveng, G; Tjønneland, A; Welch, A A; Crowe, F L; Wirfält, E; Hellstrom, V; Niravong, M; Touvier, M; Linseisen, J; Steffen, A; Ocké, M C; Peeters, P H M; Chirlaque, M D; Larrañaga, N; Ferrari, P; Contiero, P; Frasca, G; Engeset, D; Lund, E; Misirli, G; Kosti, M; Riboli, E; Slimani, N; Bingham, S

    2009-11-01

    To describe dietary protein intakes and their food sources among 27 redefined centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons, aged between 35 and 74 years, were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes (g/day) of total, animal and plant proteins were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB). Mean intakes were adjusted for age, and weighted by season and day of recall. Mean total and animal protein intakes were highest in the Spanish centres among men, and in the Spanish and French centres among women; the lowest mean intakes were observed in the UK health-conscious group, in Greek men and women, and in women in Potsdam. Intake of plant protein was highest among the UK health-conscious group, followed by some of the Italian centres and Murcia, whereas Sweden and Potsdam had the lowest intake. Cereals contributed to the highest proportion of plant protein in all centres. The combined intake of legumes, vegetables and fruit contributed to a greater proportion of plant protein in the southern than in the northern centres. Total meat intake (with some heterogeneity across subtypes of meat) was, with few exceptions, the most important contributor to animal protein in all centres, followed by dairy and fish products. This study shows that intake of protein, especially of animal origin, differs across the 10 European countries, and also shows some differences in food sources of protein across Europe.

  19. Examination of the relation between periodontal health status and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T; Trevisan, M; Genco, R J; Falkner, K L; Dorn, J P; Sempos, C T

    2000-02-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), the authors examined the relation between periodontal health and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen. A total of 10,146 participants were included in the analyses of cholesterol and C-reactive protein and 4,461 in the analyses of fibrinogen. Periodontal health indicators included the gingival bleeding index, calculus index, and periodontal disease status (defined by pocket depth and attachment loss). While cholesterol and fibrinogen were analyzed as continuous variables, C-reactive protein was dichotomized into two levels. The results show a significant relation between indicators of poor periodontal status and increased C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. The association between periodontal status and total cholesterol level is much weaker. No consistent association between periodontal status and high density lipoprotein cholesterol was detectable. Similar patterns of association were observed for participants aged 17-54 years and those 55 years and older. In conclusion, this study suggests that total cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen are possible intermediate factors that may link periodontal disease to elevated cardiovascular risk.

  20. A comparison of two colorimetric assays, based upon Lowry and Bradford techniques, to estimate total protein in soil extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Redmile-Gordon, M.A.; Armenise, E.; White, R.P.; Hirsch, P.R.; Goulding, K.W.T.

    2013-01-01

    Soil extracts usually contain large quantities of dissolved humified organic material, typically reflected by high polyphenolic content. Since polyphenols seriously confound quantification of extracted protein, minimising this interference is important to ensure measurements are representative. Although the Bradford colorimetric assay is used routinely in soil science for rapid quantification protein in soil-extracts, it has several limitations. We therefore investigated an alternative colori...

  1. Intake of total, animal and plant protein and subsequent changes in weight or waist circumference in European men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Jytte; Olsen, A; Overvad, Kim

    2011-01-01

    As protein is considered to increase thermogenesis and satiety more than other macronutrients, it may have beneficial effects on prevention of weight gain and weight maintenance.......As protein is considered to increase thermogenesis and satiety more than other macronutrients, it may have beneficial effects on prevention of weight gain and weight maintenance....

  2. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence measurements of S and P in proteins using a vacuum chamber specially designed for low Z elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauwolf, M.; Vanhoof, C.; Tirez, K.; Maes, E.; Ingerle, D.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

    2014-01-01

    As the ratio of phosphorus and sulfur in proteins allows the determination of the phosphorylation degree in proteins, the absolute determination of phosphorus and sulfur in organic samples is of growing interest. While it takes some effort to quantify phosphorus and sulfur with inductively coupled quadrupole plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS), total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) allows easy quantification. In the presented work, the low Z TXRF spectrometer at the Atominstitut was used to analyze phosphorus and sulfur in proteins. Although the preparation of the protein samples proved to be more difficult than originally expected, it could be shown that TXRF is well suited for the determination of P and S in proteins. The obtained lower limits of detection (LLD) for P and S in proteins were extrapolated for 1000s and were 34 pg and 19 pg, respectively. The importance of height scans for each sample to exclude heterogeneities was demonstrated. - Highlights: • Low Z TXRF spectrometry was used to analyze phosphorus and sulfur in proteins. • TXRF is well suited for the determination of P and S in proteins. • Good detection limits for P (34 pg) and S (19 pg) were achieved. • Due to the detection limits, we propose that TXRF is a suitable method to analyze protein fractions

  3. Quantitation of yeast total proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis sample buffer for uniform loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Hyukho

    2016-04-01

    Proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) sample buffer are difficult to quantitate due to SDS and reducing agents being in the buffer. Although acetone precipitation has long been used to clean up proteins from detergents and salts, previous studies showed that protein recovery from acetone precipitation varies from 50 to 100% depending on the samples tested. Here, this article shows that acetone precipitates proteins highly efficiently from SDS-PAGE sample buffer and that quantitative recovery is achieved in 5 min at room temperature. Moreover, precipitated proteins are resolubilized with urea/guanidine, rather than with SDS. Thus, the resolubilized samples are readily quantifiable with Bradford reagent without using SDS-compatible assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparison of two colorimetric assays, based upon Lowry and Bradford techniques, to estimate total protein in soil extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmile-Gordon, M A; Armenise, E; White, R P; Hirsch, P R; Goulding, K W T

    2013-12-01

    Soil extracts usually contain large quantities of dissolved humified organic material, typically reflected by high polyphenolic content. Since polyphenols seriously confound quantification of extracted protein, minimising this interference is important to ensure measurements are representative. Although the Bradford colorimetric assay is used routinely in soil science for rapid quantification protein in soil-extracts, it has several limitations. We therefore investigated an alternative colorimetric technique based on the Lowry assay (frequently used to measure protein and humic substances as distinct pools in microbial biofilms). The accuracies of both the Bradford assay and a modified Lowry microplate method were compared in factorial combination. Protein was quantified in soil-extracts (extracted with citrate), including standard additions of model protein (BSA) and polyphenol (Sigma H1675-2). Using the Lowry microplate assay described, no interfering effects of citrate were detected even with concentrations up to 5 times greater than are typically used to extract soil protein. Moreover, the Bradford assay was found to be highly susceptible to two simultaneous and confounding artefacts: 1) the colour development due to added protein was greatly inhibited by polyphenol concentration, and 2) substantial colour development was caused directly by the polyphenol addition. In contrast, the Lowry method enabled distinction between colour development from protein and non-protein origin, providing a more accurate quantitative analysis. These results suggest that the modified-Lowry method is a more suitable measure of extract protein (defined by standard equivalents) because it is less confounded by the high polyphenolic content which is so typical of soil extracts.

  5. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: a dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, van T.; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine¿the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine¿may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  6. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, T. van; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  7. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations : A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Petra; Van Vliet, Trinette; Olthof, Margreet R.; Katan, Martijn B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  8. Estimation of Serum Triglycerides, Serum Cholesterol, Total Protein, IgG Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Affected Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, A. V.; Ravishankar, P. L.; Kumar, Pradeep; Rajapandian, K.; Kalaivani, V.; Rajula, M. Prem Blaisie

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and IgG levels in elderly patients who were affected by periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at the Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital in the periodontics division. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. This study is a prospective analytical study. Sixty individuals who were systemically healthy in the age group of 50 and above were included in this study. Control and experimental groups of 30 participants each were included. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were also evaluated and correlated with the periodontal parameters. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The relationship between periodontal status and the biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: There was no significant difference in the plaque and gingival scores between the experimental and control group. It was observed that serum cholesterol level and total protein level was lower in participants suffering from chronic periodontitis. Triglycerides level was significantly elevated in the experimental group. IgG, a level which is not significant, concluded that there is no difference in control and experimental group. Conclusion: It was concluded from the results obtained from the study that there is an association between serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and periodontal disease. However, further longitudinal and well-controlled studies are required to evaluate the relationship between these biochemical parameters and periodontal disease. PMID:28462181

  9. Estimation of Serum Triglycerides, Serum Cholesterol, Total Protein, IgG Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Affected Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, A V; Ravishankar, P L; Kumar, Pradeep; Rajapandian, K; Kalaivani, V; Rajula, M Prem Blaisie

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and IgG levels in elderly patients who were affected by periodontal disease. This study was conducted at the Rajah Muthiah Dental College and Hospital in the periodontics division. The study was conducted for a period of 3 months. This study is a prospective analytical study. Sixty individuals who were systemically healthy in the age group of 50 and above were included in this study. Control and experimental groups of 30 participants each were included. Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were also evaluated and correlated with the periodontal parameters. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). The relationship between periodontal status and the biochemical parameters such as serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, total protein, and IgG levels were evaluated by Student's t-test. There was no significant difference in the plaque and gingival scores between the experimental and control group. It was observed that serum cholesterol level and total protein level was lower in participants suffering from chronic periodontitis. Triglycerides level was significantly elevated in the experimental group. IgG, a level which is not significant, concluded that there is no difference in control and experimental group. It was concluded from the results obtained from the study that there is an association between serum triglycerides, serum cholesterol, total protein, and periodontal disease. However, further longitudinal and well-controlled studies are required to evaluate the relationship between these biochemical parameters and periodontal disease.

  10. Optimizing total reflection X-ray fluorescence for direct trace element quantification in proteins I: Influence of sample homogeneity and reflector type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenreuther, G.; Fittschen, U. E. A.; Achard, M. E. S.; Faust, A.; Kreplin, X.; Meyer-Klaucke, W.

    2008-12-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a very promising method for the direct, quick and reliable multi-elemental quantification of trace elements in protein samples. With the introduction of an internal standard consisting of two reference elements, scandium and gallium, a wide range of proteins can be analyzed, regardless of their salt content, buffer composition, additives and amino acid composition. This strategy also enables quantification of matrix effects. Two potential issues associated with drying have been considered in this study: (1) Formation of heterogeneous residues of varying thickness and/or density; and (2) separation of the internal standard and protein during drying (which has to be prevented to allow accurate quantification). These issues were investigated by microbeam X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) with special emphasis on (I) the influence of sample support and (II) the protein / buffer system used. In the first part, a model protein was studied on well established sample supports used in TXRF, PIXE and XRF (Mylar, siliconized quartz, Plexiglas and silicon). In the second part we imaged proteins of different molecular weight, oligomerization state, bound metals and solubility. A partial separation of protein and internal standard was only observed with untreated silicon, suggesting it may not be an adequate support material. Siliconized quartz proved to be the least prone to heterogeneous drying of the sample and yielded the most reliable results.

  11. Interrelationships among seed yield, total protein and amino acid composition of ten quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) cultivars from two different agroecological regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan A; Konishi, Yotaro; Bruno, Marcela; Valoy, Mariana; Prado, Fernando E

    2012-04-01

    Quinoa is a good source of protein and can be used as a nutritional ingredient in food products. This study analyses how much growing region and/or seasonal climate might affect grain yield and nutritional quality of quinoa seeds. Seeds of ten quinoa cultivars from the Andean highlands (Bolivia/Argentina site) and Argentinean Northwest (Encalilla site) were analysed for seed yield, protein content and amino acid composition. Grain yields of five cultivars growing at Encalilla were higher, and four were lower, compared with data from the Bolivia/Argentina site. Protein contents ranged from 91.5 to 155.3 and from 96.2 to 154.6 g kg(-1) dry mass for Encalilla and Bolivia/Argentina seeds respectively, while essential amino acid concentrations ranged from 179.9 to 357.2 and from 233.7 to 374.5 g kg(-1) protein respectively. Significant positive correlations were found between the content of essential amino acids and protein percentage. It appears that there are clear variations in seed yield, total protein content and amino acid composition among cultivars from the two sites. Essential amino acid composition was more affected than grain yield and protein level. The study revealed that both environmental and climatic factors influence the nutritional composition of quinoa cultivars growing in different agroecological regions. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Optimizing total reflection X-ray fluorescence for direct trace element quantification in proteins I: Influence of sample homogeneity and reflector type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellenreuther, G. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Fittschen, U.E.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Achard, M.E.S.; Faust, A.; Kreplin, X. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Meyer-Klaucke, W. [European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Notkestr. 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: Wolfram@embl-hamburg.de

    2008-12-15

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is a very promising method for the direct, quick and reliable multi-elemental quantification of trace elements in protein samples. With the introduction of an internal standard consisting of two reference elements, scandium and gallium, a wide range of proteins can be analyzed, regardless of their salt content, buffer composition, additives and amino acid composition. This strategy also enables quantification of matrix effects. Two potential issues associated with drying have been considered in this study: (1) Formation of heterogeneous residues of varying thickness and/or density; and (2) separation of the internal standard and protein during drying (which has to be prevented to allow accurate quantification). These issues were investigated by microbeam X-ray fluorescence ({mu}XRF) with special emphasis on (I) the influence of sample support and (II) the protein / buffer system used. In the first part, a model protein was studied on well established sample supports used in TXRF, PIXE and XRF (Mylar, siliconized quartz, Plexiglas and silicon). In the second part we imaged proteins of different molecular weight, oligomerization state, bound metals and solubility. A partial separation of protein and internal standard was only observed with untreated silicon, suggesting it may not be an adequate support material. Siliconized quartz proved to be the least prone to heterogeneous drying of the sample and yielded the most reliable results.

  13. Study of total seed proteins pattern of sesame (sesamum indicum l.) landraces via sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbar, F.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2012-01-01

    The sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) germplasm, comprising of 105 accessions was characterized for total seed storage proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The germplasm was collected from diverse agro-ecological regions of Pakistan. To our information, no studies have yet been carried out in Pakistan on the genetic evaluation of sesame genotypes based on total seed protein. Total seed proteins were electrophoretically separated on 12% polyacrylamide gels by standard protocols. A total of 20 polypeptide bands were observed, of which 14 (70%) were polymorphic and 6 (30%) were monomorphic, with molecular weight ranging from 13.5 to 100 kDa. Six bands i.e., 7, 11, 12, 15, 16 and 18 were common in all genotypes. Similarity coefficients varied fro m 0.50 to 1.00. The dendrogram based on dissimilarity matrix using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) separated all sesame accessions into three main groups i.e., A, B, C, comprising 89, 14 and 2 genotypes, respectively. Overall a low to medium level of genetic variability was observed for SDS-PAGE (single dimension). As SDS-PAGE alone did not reveal high level of genetic variability, hence 2-D gel electrophoresis along with other advanced type DNA markers and more number of sesame accessions from all over the country are recommended for the future genetic evaluation. Our investigation will significantly support the classification, development, genetic evaluation and conservation of sesame germplasm in Pakistan. (author)

  14. Study of total seed proteins pattern of sesame (sesamum indicum l.) landraces via sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbar, F; Shinwari, Z K [Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Biotechnology; Yousif, N; Masood, M S [Institute of Agri-Biotechnology and Genetic Resources, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2012-11-15

    The sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) germplasm, comprising of 105 accessions was characterized for total seed storage proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The germplasm was collected from diverse agro-ecological regions of Pakistan. To our information, no studies have yet been carried out in Pakistan on the genetic evaluation of sesame genotypes based on total seed protein. Total seed proteins were electrophoretically separated on 12% polyacrylamide gels by standard protocols. A total of 20 polypeptide bands were observed, of which 14 (70%) were polymorphic and 6 (30%) were monomorphic, with molecular weight ranging from 13.5 to 100 kDa. Six bands i.e., 7, 11, 12, 15, 16 and 18 were common in all genotypes. Similarity coefficients varied fro m 0.50 to 1.00. The dendrogram based on dissimilarity matrix using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) separated all sesame accessions into three main groups i.e., A, B, C, comprising 89, 14 and 2 genotypes, respectively. Overall a low to medium level of genetic variability was observed for SDS-PAGE (single dimension). As SDS-PAGE alone did not reveal high level of genetic variability, hence 2-D gel electrophoresis along with other advanced type DNA markers and more number of sesame accessions from all over the country are recommended for the future genetic evaluation. Our investigation will significantly support the classification, development, genetic evaluation and conservation of sesame germplasm in Pakistan. (author)

  15. Evaluation of five commercially available assays and measurement of serum total protein concentration via refractometry for the diagnosis of failure of passive transfer of immunity in foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel; Giguère, Steeve

    2005-11-15

    To determine and compare sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and predictive values of measurement of serum total protein concentration by refractometry as well as 5 commercially available kits for the diagnosis of failure of passive transfer (FPT) of immunity in foals. Prospective study. 65 foals with various medical problems and 35 clinically normal foals. IgG concentration in serum was assessed by use of zinc sulfate turbidity (assay C), glutaraldehyde coagulation (assay D), 2 semiquantitative immunoassays (assays F and G), and a quantitative immunoassay (assay H). Serum total protein concentration was assessed by refractometry. Radial immunodiffusion (assays A and B) was used as the reference method. For detection of IgG or = 6.0 g/dL indicated adequate IgG concentrations. Most assays were adequate as initial screening tests. However, their use as a definitive test would result in unnecessary treatment of foals with adequate IgG concentrations.

  16. A comparison of the effects of 2 doses of soy protein or casein on serum lipids, serum lipoproteins, and plasma total homocysteine in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, Serena; Smerud, Knut; Høie, Lars

    2002-07-01

    Studies have shown that soy protein reduces some atherogenic lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, although lipoprotein(a) concentrations may be increased. The dose response of soy protein has not been established; neither has its effect on plasma total homocysteine. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of 2 doses of soy protein on lipid, lipoprotein, and homocysteine concentrations. Four to 24 wk after being instructed to consume a lipid-lowering diet, 130 men and women with LDL-cholesterol concentrations > or = 4 mmol/L were studied during a parallel group trial in which 4 interventions were assigned randomly. Thirty grams isolated soy protein (ISP) and 10 g cotyledon fiber or 50 g ISP and 16.6 g cotyledon fiber or equivalent doses of casein and cellulose were consumed daily as a beverage for 16 wk. When the 2 groups who consumed ISP were compared with the 2 groups who consumed casein, the differences in the net changes from baseline to week 16 in the concentrations of LDL cholesterol and plasma total homocysteine were -0.26 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.43, -0.09 mmol/L; P = 0.01) and -0.8 micromol/L (-1.4, -0.2 micromol/L; P = 0.005), respectively. The effect of the ISP dose was not significant. There were no significant differences between the 2 ISP and the 2 casein groups in changes in lipoprotein(a), HDL-cholesterol, or triacylglycerol concentrations. Adding 30-50 g soy protein/d to a lipid-lowering diet significantly reduced LDL-cholesterol concentrations without increasing lipoprotein(a) concentrations. Plasma total homocysteine concentrations also decreased, suggesting a novel, possibly antiatherosclerotic effect.

  17. Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates airway inflammation in murine asthma model by inducing regulatory T cells and modulating dendritic cell functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young-Il; Kim, Seung Hyun; Ju, Jung Won; Cho, Shin Hyeong; Lee, Won Ja; Park, Jin Wook; Park, Yeong-Min; Lee, Sang Eun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Treatment with Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates OVA-induced airway inflammation and AHR to methacholine. → Induction of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + T cells and IL-10 along with suppression of splenocyte proliferation by C. sinensis-derived total protein. → C. sinensis-derived total protein interferes with the expression of co-stimulatory molecules in DCs. -- Abstract: Asthma is characterized by Th2-mediated inflammation, resulting in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) through airway remodeling. Recent epidemiological and experimental reports have suggested an inverse relationship between the development of allergy and helminth infections. Infection by Clonorchis sinensis, a liver fluke that resides in the bile duct of humans, is endemic predominantly in Asia including Korea and China. Using a murine model for asthma, we investigated the effects of C. sinensis-derived total protein (Cs-TP) on allergen-induced airway inflammation and the mechanism underlying the protective effects of Cs-TP administration on asthma. Treatment with Cs-TP attenuated OVA-induced airway inflammation and methacholine-induced AHR, as well as eosinophilia development, lymphocyte infiltration into the lung, and goblet cell metaplasia. This protective effect of Cs-TP is associated with markedly reduced OVA-specific IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokine production. Moreover, Cs-TP increased the number of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells as well as their suppressive activity. In fact, proliferation of OVA-restimulated splenocytes was suppressed significantly. Cs-TP also inhibited the expression of such co-stimulatory molecules as CD80, CD86, and CD40 in LPS- or OVA-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that Cs-TP could interfere with the capacity of airway DCs to prime naive T cells. These data demonstrate the capacity of C. sinensis to ameliorate allergic asthma and broaden our understanding of the paradoxical relationship between the allergic immune

  18. The association of 83 plasma proteins with CHD mortality, BMI, HDL-, and total-cholesterol in men: Applying multivariate statistics to identify proteins with prognostic value and biological relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geert Heidema, A.; Thissen, U.; Boer, J.M.A.; Bouwman, F.G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Mariman, E.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we applied the multivariate statistical tool Partial Least Squares (PLS) to analyze the relative importance of 83 plasma proteins in relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and the intermediate end points body mass index, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol. From a Dutch

  19. Intake of branched-chain amino acids influences the levels of MAFbx mRNA and MuRF-1 total protein in resting and exercising human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgenvik, Marcus; Apró, William; Blomstrand, Eva

    2012-03-01

    Resistance exercise and amino acids are two major factors that influence muscle protein turnover. Here, we examined the effects of resistance exercise and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), individually and in combination, on the expression of anabolic and catabolic genes in human skeletal muscle. Seven subjects performed two sessions of unilateral leg press exercise with randomized supplementation with BCAA or flavored water. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the resting and exercising legs before and repeatedly after exercise to determine levels of mRNA, protein phosphorylation, and amino acid concentrations. Intake of BCAA reduced (P exercising legs, respectively. The level of MuRF-1 mRNA was elevated (P exercising leg two- and threefold under the placebo and BCAA conditions, respectively, whereas MuRF-1 total protein increased by 20% (P exercising muscle. In conclusion, BCAA ingestion reduced MAFbx mRNA and prevented the exercise-induced increase in MuRF-1 total protein in both resting and exercising leg. Further-more, resistance exercise differently influenced MAFbx and MuRF-1 mRNA expression, suggesting both common and divergent regulation of these two ubiquitin ligases.

  20. Analgesic effect of continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia after total knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Guo Tan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the analgesic effect of continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia after total knee replacement. Methods: Patients who received unilateral total knee replacement in our hospital from May 2012 to August 2015 were included for study and randomly divided into experimental group who received continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia and control group who received continuous femoral nerve block, and then the contents of postoperative serum pain-promoting-related mediators, painsuppressing-related mediators and pain-related signal molecules were detected. Results: Serum CGRP, PS, Hist, 5-HT, AM and BK contents of experimental group were significantly lower than those of control group, AEA, β-EP, RvE1, LXA4 and LXB4 contents were significantly higher than those of control group, and P2X2, P2X7, P2X3, P2X4, P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, P2Y 13, P2Y14, p38MAPK and PI3K contents were significantly lower than those of control group. Conclusions: Continuous femoral nerve block combined with infiltration anesthesia after total knee replacement can increase the generation of pain-suppressing mediators, decrease the generation of pain-promoting mediators and achieve more exact analgesic effect.

  1. The Addition of White Turmeric (Curcuma zedoaria Concentrated Base on Quality Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenol, Protein Content and Salt Content of Salted Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu’addimah Mu’addimah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research was to determine the effect of Curcuma zedoaria concentrated addition on quality antioxidant activity, total phenols, protein content and salt content of salted egg. The materials were duck’s egg, water, salt, and essence of white turmeric. The method was experiment using Complete Randomized Design (CRD with five treatments and three for replications. The Curcuma zedoaria juice research were divided into P0 (0%, P1 (10%, P2 (20%, P3 (30% and P4 (40%. Data was analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and then continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT, if it was found significant effect among treatmeants. The result showed that the addition of Curcuma zedoaria juice indicated highly significant different effect (P<0.01 on antioxidant activity, protein content and salt content, but significantly effect (P<0.05 on total phenol. The best treatment was the addition of Curcuma zedoaria juice 40% were indicated of antioxidant activity, total phenol, protein content and the salt content was 99.80 mg/g, 0.16%, 9.96%, 2.43% respectively.

  2. Serum Levels Of Free And Total Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-1 And IGF Binding Protein-3 In Normal And Growth Hormone Deficient Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shousha, M.A.; Soliman, S.E.T.; Hafez, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect the endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 pre-pubertal GH deficient (GHD) children to study the correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97-1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the pre-pubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD were decreased significantly with increasing the degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

  3. Serum levels of free and total insulin-link growth factor (IGF)-1 and (IGF) binding protein-3 in normal and growth hormone deficient children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shousha, M.A.; Soliman, S.E.T.; Hafez, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor- 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening GH deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 prepubertal GH. deficient (GHD) children to study correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97. 1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the prepubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD decreased significantly with increasing degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

  4. Determination of sulfur in human hair using high resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry and its correlation with total protein and albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Baysal, Asli

    2017-04-01

    Human hair is a valuable contributor for biological monitoring. It is an information storage point to assess the effects of environmental, nutritional or occupational sources on the body. Human proteins, amino acids or other compounds are among the key components to find the sources of different effects or disorders in the human body. Sulfur is a significant one of these compounds, and it has great affinity to some metals and compounds. This property of the sulfur affects the human health positively or negatively. In this manuscript, sulfur was determined in hair samples of autistic and age-match control group children via molecular absorption of CS using a high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. For this purpose, hair samples were appropriately washed and dried at 75 °C. Then samples were dissolved in microwave digestion using HNO3 for sulfur determination. Extraction was performed with HCl hydrolysation by incubation for 24 h at 110 °C for total protein and albumin determination. The validity of the method for the sulfur determination was tested using hair standard reference materials. The results were in the uncertainty limits of the certified values at 95% confidence level. Finally correlation of sulfur levels of autistic children's hair with their total protein and albumin levels were done.

  5. Total protein synthesis in elderly people; a comparison of results with (/sup 15/N)glycine and (/sup 14/C)leucine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golden, M H.N.; Waterlow, J C [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK)

    1977-09-01

    Total body protein turnover was studied in six elderly patients. During the study they were fed by continuous infusion of a liquid formula through a nasogastric tube. L-(1-/sup 14/C)leucine and (/sup 15/N)-glycine were infused at a constant rate for 30 h. The labelled glycine was infused into the intragastric line; the labelled leucine was given either by this route or intravenously. The specific radioactivity of free leucine in plasma and the rate of output of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in expired air both reached a plateau at 10 h, and remained constant until the end of the infusion at 30 h. The /sup 15/N abundance in urinary urea and total N was very similar. In neither was a plateau reached by 30 h but in four out of the six patients the abundance in urinary NH/sub 4//sup +/ had attained a plateau by the end of the infusion. Flux rates and rates of protein synthesis were calculated in four ways and a comparison of methods was used to examine the validity of the assumptions on which the different methods depended. The results suggest that the rate of protein turnover is reduced in the elderly, compared with younger subjects.

  6. Effects of radiation and α-tocopherol on saliva flow rate, amylase activity, total protein and electrolyte levels in oral cavity cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate early and late effects of radiation and a-tocopherol on the secretion rate of saliva and on selected saliva salivary parameters in oral cavity cancer patients. Patients & Methods: Eighty-nine histologically confirmed oral cavity cancer patients (OCC were enrolled in the study. Resting whole saliva was collected before, during and at the end of the radiation therapy (RT and simultaneous supplementation with α - tocopherol to the radiation treated patients (RT + AT. Results: Salivary flow rate, pH, amylase activity, total protein, sodium and potassium were analyzed. Increased pH, potassium and decreased flow rate, amylase activity, protein content and sodium were observed in 6 weeks of radiation treated patients when compared to OCC patients. A significant improvement of those parameters was observed on α - tocopherol supplementation in RT + AT patients. Conclusion: Supplementation with α - tocopherol improves the salivary flow rate thereby, maintains salivary parameters.

  7. Influence of dietary protein and fructooligosaccharides on fecal fermentative end-products, fecal bacterial populations and apparent total tract digestibility in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Carlo; Vecchiato, Carla Giuditta; Bolduan, Carmen; Grandi, Monica; Stefanelli, Claudio; Windisch, Wilhelm; Zaghini, Giuliano; Biagi, Giacomo

    2018-03-20

    Feeding dogs with diets rich in protein may favor putrefactive fermentations in the hindgut, negatively affecting the animal's intestinal environment. Conversely, prebiotics may improve the activity of health-promoting bacteria and prevent bacterial proteolysis in the colon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on fecal microbiota and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) in dogs fed kibbles differing in protein content. Twelve healthy adult dogs were used in a 4 × 4 replicated Latin Square design to determine the effects of four diets: 1) Low protein diet (LP, crude protein (CP) 229 g/kg dry matter (DM)); 2) High protein diet (HP, CP 304 g/kg DM); 3) Diet 1 + 1.5 g of FOS/kg; 4) Diet 2 + 1.5 g of FOS/kg. The diets contained silica at 5 g/kg as a digestion marker. Differences in protein content were obtained using different amounts of a highly digestible swine greaves meal. Each feeding period lasted 28 d, with a 12 d wash-out in between periods. Fecal samples were collected from dogs at 0, 21 and 28 d of each feeding period. Feces excreted during the last five days of each feeding period were collected and pooled in order to evaluate ATTD. Higher fecal ammonia concentrations were observed both when dogs received the HP diets (p < 0.001) and the supplementation with FOS (p < 0.05). The diets containing FOS resulted in greater ATTD of DM, Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, and Fe (p < 0.05) while HP diets were characterized by lower crude ash ATTD (p < 0.05). Significant interactions were observed between FOS and protein concentration in regards to fecal pH (p < 0.05), propionic acid (p < 0.05), acetic to propionic acid and acetic + n-butyric to propionic acid ratios (p < 0.01), bifidobacteria (p < 0.05) and ATTD of CP (p < 0.05) and Mn (p < 0.001). A relatively moderate increase of dietary protein resulted in higher concentrations of ammonia in

  8. Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates airway inflammation in murine asthma model by inducing regulatory T cells and modulating dendritic cell functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young-Il [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyun [Div. of AIDS, National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of); Ju, Jung Won; Cho, Shin Hyeong; Lee, Won Ja [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Wook; Park, Yeong-Min [Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yang-San (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Eun, E-mail: ondalgl@cdc.go.kr [Div. of Malaria and Parasitic Diseases, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Osong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Clonorchis sinensis-derived total protein attenuates OVA-induced airway inflammation and AHR to methacholine. {yields} Induction of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} T cells and IL-10 along with suppression of splenocyte proliferation by C. sinensis-derived total protein. {yields} C. sinensis-derived total protein interferes with the expression of co-stimulatory molecules in DCs. -- Abstract: Asthma is characterized by Th2-mediated inflammation, resulting in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) through airway remodeling. Recent epidemiological and experimental reports have suggested an inverse relationship between the development of allergy and helminth infections. Infection by Clonorchis sinensis, a liver fluke that resides in the bile duct of humans, is endemic predominantly in Asia including Korea and China. Using a murine model for asthma, we investigated the effects of C. sinensis-derived total protein (Cs-TP) on allergen-induced airway inflammation and the mechanism underlying the protective effects of Cs-TP administration on asthma. Treatment with Cs-TP attenuated OVA-induced airway inflammation and methacholine-induced AHR, as well as eosinophilia development, lymphocyte infiltration into the lung, and goblet cell metaplasia. This protective effect of Cs-TP is associated with markedly reduced OVA-specific IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokine production. Moreover, Cs-TP increased the number of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T (Treg) cells as well as their suppressive activity. In fact, proliferation of OVA-restimulated splenocytes was suppressed significantly. Cs-TP also inhibited the expression of such co-stimulatory molecules as CD80, CD86, and CD40 in LPS- or OVA-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), suggesting that Cs-TP could interfere with the capacity of airway DCs to prime naive T cells. These data demonstrate the capacity of C. sinensis to ameliorate allergic asthma and broaden our understanding of the paradoxical

  9. Total and free insulin-like growth factor I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 and acid-labile subunit reflect clinical activity in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Lange, Merete Wolder; Pedersen, L M

    2001-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate, markers of disease activity in acromegaly in relation to perceived disease activity. Thirty-seven consecutively treated, acromegalic patients, classified by clinical symptoms as inactive (n=16), slightly active (n=10) and active (n=11), entered the study. When evaluating......-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) with PV(pos) of 0.69 and 0.71 and PV(neg) of 0.91 and 0.92 respectively. We conclude that free IGF-I is more closely related than total IGF-I to perceived disease activity and is as such useful when evaluating previously treated acromegaly for disease activity...

  10. Fermented dairy products consumption is associated with attenuated cortical bone loss independently of total calcium, protein, and energy intakes in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, E; Durosier-Izart, C; Merminod, F; Chevalley, T; van Rietbergen, B; Ferrari, S L; Rizzoli, R

    2018-05-03

    A longitudinal analysis of bone microstructure in postmenopausal women of the Geneva Retirees Cohort indicates that age-related cortical bone loss is attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in fermented dairy products consumers, not in milk or ripened cheese consumers, independently of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. Fermented dairy products (FDP), including yogurts, provide calcium, phosphorus, and proteins together with prebiotics and probiotics, all being potentially beneficial for bone. In this prospective cohort study, we investigated whether FDP, milk, or ripened cheese consumptions influence age-related changes of bone mineral density (BMD) and microstructure. Dietary intakes were assessed at baseline and after 3.0 ± 0.5 years with a food frequency questionnaire in 482 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Geneva Retirees Cohort. Cortical (Ct) and trabecular (Tb) volumetric (v) BMD and microstructure at the distal radius and tibia were assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography, in addition to areal (a) BMD and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, at the same time points. At baseline, FDP consumers had lower abdominal fat mass and larger bone size at the radius and tibia. Parathyroid hormone and β-carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen levels were inversely correlated with FDP consumption. In the longitudinal analysis, FDP consumption (mean of the two assessments) was associated with attenuated loss of radius total vBMD and of Ct vBMD, area, and thickness. There was no difference in aBMD and at the tibia. These associations were independent of total energy, calcium, or protein intakes. For other dairy products categories, only milk consumption was associated with lower decrease of aBMD and of failure load at the radius. In this prospective cohort of healthy postmenopausal women, age-related Ct bone loss was attenuated at non-bearing bone sites in FDP consumers, not in milk

  11. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  12. Building global models for fat and total protein content in raw milk based on historical spectroscopic data in the visible and short-wave near infrared range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenteva, Anastasiia; Galyanin, Vladislav; Savenkova, Elena; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2016-07-15

    A large set of fresh cow milk samples collected from many suppliers over a large geographical area in Russia during a year has been analyzed by optical spectroscopy in the range 400-1100 nm in accordance with previously developed scatter-based technique. The global (i.e. resistant to seasonal, genetic, regional and other variations of the milk composition) models for fat and total protein content, which were built using partial least-squares (PLS) regression, exhibit satisfactory prediction performances enabling their practical application in the dairy. The root mean-square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.09 and 0.10 for fat and total protein content, respectively. The issues of raw milk analysis and multivariate modelling based on the historical spectroscopic data have been considered and approaches to the creation of global models and their transfer between the instruments have been proposed. Availability of global models should significantly facilitate the dissemination of optical spectroscopic methods for the laboratory and in-line quantitative milk analysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Development of a Univariate Membrane-Based Mid-Infrared Method for Protein Quantitation and Total Lipid Content Analysis of Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Strug

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological samples present a range of complexities from homogeneous purified protein to multicomponent mixtures. Accurate qualification of such samples is paramount to downstream applications. We describe the development of an MIR spectroscopy-based analytical method offering simultaneous protein quantitation (0.25–5 mg/mL and analysis of total lipid or detergent species, as well as the identification of other biomolecules present in biological samples. The method utilizes a hydrophilic PTFE membrane engineered for presentation of aqueous samples in a dried format compatible with fast infrared analysis. Unlike classical quantification techniques, the reported method is amino acid sequence independent and thus applicable to complex samples of unknown composition. By comparison to existing platforms, this MIR-based method enables direct quantification using minimal sample volume (2 µL; it is well-suited where repeat access and limited sample size are critical parameters. Further, accurate results can be derived without specialized training or knowledge of IR spectroscopy. Overall, the simplified application and analysis system provides a more cost-effective alternative to high-throughput IR systems for research laboratories with minimal throughput demands. In summary, the MIR-based system provides a viable alternative to current protein quantitation methods; it also uniquely offers simultaneous qualification of other components, notably lipids and detergents.

  14. Apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations of healthy adult dogs fed bioprocessed soy protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, A N; de Godoy, M R C; Detweiler, K B; Newcomb, M; Ellegård, K H; Fahey, G C; Swanson, K S

    2016-09-01

    Animal proteins are commonly used in extruded dog foods. Plant-based proteins have a more consistent nutrient profile than animal sources but may contain antinutritional factors, including trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. Bioprocessed soy protein (SP; HP-300; Hamlet Protein, Inc., Findlay, OH) is a processed soy-based product with low antinutritional factor concentrations and high protein quality. The objective was to evaluate the effects of SP on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end products. Furthermore, this study aimed to identify if SP can be a replacement for poultry byproduct meal (PBPM) in dog food and determine if there are practical limits to its use. Three palatability experiments were conducted to evaluate 1) 0 vs. 12% SP, 2) 0 vs. 48% SP, and 3) 12 vs. 48% SP. For digestibility, 48 healthy adult Beagle dogs (20 females and 28 males; 3.4 yr mean age and 10.0 kg mean BW) were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments, 0 (control), 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48% SP, in a completely randomized design. All diets were formulated to meet Association of American Feed Control Officials nutrient profiles and contained approximately 30% CP and 16% fat. The treatment period consisted of a 10-d diet adaptation phase followed by a 4-d fresh and total fecal collection phase. The palatability results suggest that of the 3 inclusion levels tested (0, 12, or 48% SP), the best inclusion of SP is 12%, which was preferred over 0 and 48% SP. Digestibility and fecal data were evaluated for linear and quadratic effects using SAS. Stool output (on both an as-is and a DM basis) did not differ from the control except for the 48% SP treatment ( dogs fed 24 and 48% SP compared with the control. Conversely, branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were lower ( dogs fed 8 to 48% SP compared with the control. These data suggest that SP is a suitable replacement for PBPM in dog diets up to a 24% inclusion level.

  15. Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO BANDERAS-TARABAY

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gravimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU; se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales.Objective. To determine the average salivary flow rates and total protein concentrations in a population of the State of Mexico. Material and methods. A gravimetric and spectrophotometric analysis was applied to 120 subjects in total resting and stimulated whole saliva and results were correlated with the DMFT and CPITN indexes. Results. Subjects allowed average salivary flow rate (ml/min ± SD in non-stimulated human whole saliva (HWS of 0.397±.26 and in stimulated HWS of 0.973±.53. Average protein concentration was (mg/ml ± SD 1.374±.45 in non

  16. Spot Urine Protein-to-Creatinine Ratio to Predict the Magnitude of 24-Hour Total Proteinuria in Preeclampsia of Varying Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukgoz Gulec, Umran; Sucu, Mete; Ozgunen, Fatma Tuncay; Buyukkurt, Selim; Guzel, Ahmet Baris; Paydas, Saime

    2017-10-01

    The predictive value of spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (PCR) for estimating total 24-hour proteinuria in severe preeclampsia is unclear. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of spot urine PCR for ascertaining the magnitude of proteinuria in women with preeclampsia of varying severity. A total of 205 patients with prediagnosed preeclampsia were included in this prospective cohort study. Patients were allocated into one of the three groups categorized by severity of disease, as follows: gestational hypertension, group 1 (n = 41); preeclampsia, group 2 (n = 88); and severe preeclampsia, group 3 (n = 76). We assessed the spot urine PCRs to determine significant proteinuria and the magnitude of proteinuria in these groups. The spot urine PCR was 0.53, with 81% sensitivity and 93% specificity to detect significant proteinuria. A significant correlation was found between PCR and 24-hour total proteinuria in group 1 (r = 0.473, P = 0.002). There were also significant correlations in group 2 (r = 0.814, P spot urine PCR to estimate 24-hour total proteinuria in severe preeclampsia was Y = 832.02X + 378.74 mg (r 2  = 0.8304). Although 24-hour urine collection remains a merely reliable test to determine the degree of total proteinuria, our findings suggest that it is likely to assess the magnitude of proteinuria by the spot urine PCR, especially in severe preeclampsia. www.clinicaltrials.govNCT01623791. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Kjeldahl method as a primary reference procedure for total protein in certified reference materials used in clinical chemistry. II. Selection of direct Kjeldahl analysis and its preliminary performance parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinklárková, Bára; Chromý, Vratislav; Šprongl, Luděk; Bittová, Miroslava; Rikanová, Milena; Ohnútková, Ivana; Žaludová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    To select a Kjeldahl procedure suitable for the determination of total protein in reference materials used in laboratory medicine, we reviewed in our previous article Kjeldahl methods adopted by clinical chemistry and found an indirect two-step analysis by total Kjeldahl nitrogen corrected for its nonprotein nitrogen and a direct analysis made on isolated protein precipitates. In this article, we compare both procedures on various reference materials. An indirect Kjeldahl method gave falsely lower results than a direct analysis. Preliminary performance parameters qualify the direct Kjeldahl analysis as a suitable primary reference procedure for the certification of total protein in reference laboratories.

  18. Effect of Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Total Cholesterol and High-Sensitivity C-reactive Protein in High-Risk Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming Yu; Xue, Feng Hua; Teng, Shi Chao; Jiang, Li; Zhu, Jing; Yin, Feng; Gu, Hong Yue

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of atorvastatin on serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and total cholesterol in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients in Asia. By searching English and Chinese language-based electronic databases (ie, PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, SpringerLink, Wiley, Web of Science, Wanfang database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP database), we identified 13 studies relevant to our topic of interest. Data were collected from the 13 studies and analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (version 2.0, Biostat Inc., Englewood, New Jersey). Initially, our database searches retrieved 356 studies (45 in English, 311 in Chinese). Thirteen studies were selected for the meta-analysis following stringent criteria. The data included 1239 patients with AF, of whom 634 were treated with atorvastatin and included in the treatment group, and 605 patients were treated with conventional treatment and included in the control group. The results of our meta-analysis suggested that the serum levels of hs-CRP (mg/L) and total cholesterol (mmol/L) in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group (hs-CRP: standardized mean difference = 0.962; 95% CI, 0.629-1.295, P < 0.001; total cholesterol: standardized mean difference = 1.400; 95% CI, 0.653-2.146, P < 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that atorvastatin may be very effective in decreasing serum levels of hs-CRP and total cholesterol to prevent cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vitality Improvement of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied 2- Measured by using ME and At Pase Enzyme Activities and Total Protein Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, M.S.; Shoman, A.A.; Elbermawy, S.M.; Abul Yazid, I.

    2000-01-01

    The present investigation aims at producing sterile adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied. Having the best possible vitality through the use of irradiation and /or a mutagenic substances to be used in a sterile insect technique program. Several types of mutagenic that were thought to cause mutations were used as IGR's, temperature, formaldehyde, colchicine, alcohols, serve ral types of larval rearing media and gamma-rays. In a common pathway, malic enzyme (ME) activity, adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity and the total protein contents are studied as direct parameters for measuring vitality of the insect. It was found that there is an increment at levels of these parameters due to the treatment of egg stage by the previously mentioned treatments specially the usage of the rice hulls as a bulking component in the larval rearing media alone or followed by irradiation of the pupal stage with 90 Gy

  20. Total replacement of corn by mesquite pod meal considering nutritional value, performance, feeding behavior, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis of Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Moraes, Gláucia Sabrine; de Souza, Evaristo Jorge Oliveira; Véras, Antonia Sherlânea Chaves; de Paula Almeida, Marina; da Cunha, Márcio Vieira; Torres, Thaysa Rodrigues; da Silva, Camila Sousa; Pereira, Gerfesson Felipe Cavalcanti

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study to assess the effects of mesquite pod addition replacing corn (0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g/kg in the dry matter basis) on nutrient intake, animal performance, feeding behavior, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis. Twenty-five Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers at 219 ± 22 kg initial body weight and 18 months of age were used. The experiment lasted 84 days, divided into three periods of 28 days. A completely randomized design was used, and data were submitted to analysis using PROC GLM for analysis of variance and PROC REG for regression analysis using the software Statistical Analysis Systems version 9.1. Experimental diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay, soybean meal, ground corn, mesquite pod meal, and mineral salt. Samples of food offered were collected during the last 3 days of each period, and the leftovers were collected daily, with samples bulked per week. At the end of each 28-day period, the remaining animals were weighed to determine total weight gain and average daily gain. The assessment of behavioral patterns was performed through instantaneous scans in 5-min intervals for three consecutive 12-h days. A single urine sample from each animal was collected on the last day of each collection period at about 4 h after the first feeding. The replacement of corn by mesquite pod meal did not significantly influence treatments regarding nutrients intake, animal performance, and feeding behavior. Retained and consumed nitrogen ratio did not statistically differ between replacement levels. Likewise, there were no statistical differences regarding microbial protein synthesis and efficiency between replacement levels. Mesquite pod meal can be used in Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers' diet with total corn replacement.

  1. Total and Envelope Protein-Specific Antibody-Secreting Cell Response in Pediatric Dengue Is Highly Modulated by Age and Subsequent Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica F Toro

    Full Text Available The response of antibody-secreting cells (ASC induced by dengue has only recently started to be characterized. We propose that young age and previous infections could be simple factors that affect this response. Here, we evaluated the primary and secondary responses of circulating ASC in infants (6-12 months old and children (1-14 years old infected with dengue showing different degrees of clinical severity. The ASC response was delayed and of lower magnitude in infants, compared with older children. In primary infection (PI, the total and envelope (E protein-specific IgM ASC were dominant in infants but not in children, and a negative correlation was found between age and the number of IgM ASC (rho = -0.59, P = 0.03. However, infants with plasma dengue-specific IgG detectable in the acute phase developed an intense ASC response largely dominated by IgG and comparable to that of children with secondary infection (SI. IgM and IgG produced by ASC circulating in PI or SI were highly cross-reactive among the four serotypes. Dengue infection caused the disturbance of B cell subsets, particularly a decrease in the relative frequency of naïve B cells. Higher frequencies of total and E protein-specific IgM ASC in the infants and IgG in the children were associated with clinically severe forms of infection. Therefore, the ASC response induced by dengue is highly influenced by the age at which infection occurs and previous immune status, and its magnitude is a relevant element in the clinical outcome. These results are important in the search for correlates of protection and for determining the ideal age for vaccinating against dengue.

  2. Amino acid profiles of rumen undegradable protein: a comparison between forages including cereal straws and alfalfa and their respective total mixed rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Jiang, L S; Liu, J X

    2018-06-01

    Optimizing the amino acid (AA) profile of rumen undegradable protein (RUP) can positively affect the amount of milk protein. This study was conducted to improve knowledge regarding the AA profile of rumen undegradable protein from corn stover, rice straw and alfalfa hay as well as the total mixed ratio diets (TMR) based on one of them as forage source [forage-to-concentrate ratio of 45:55 (30% of corn stover (CS), 30% of rice straw (RS), 23% of alfalfa hay (AH) and dry matter basis)]. The other ingredients in the three TMR diets were similar. The RUP of all the forages and diets was estimated by incubation for 16 hr in the rumen of three ruminally cannulated lactating cows. All residues were corrected for microbial colonization, which was necessary in determining the AA composition of RUP from feed samples using in situ method. Compared with their original AA composition, the AA pattern of forages and forage-based diets changed drastically after rumen exposure. In addition, the extent of ruminal degradation of analysed AA was not constant among the forages. The greatest individual AA degradability of alfalfa hay and corn stover was Pro, but was His of rice straw. A remarkable difference was observed between microbial attachment corrected and uncorrected AA profiles of RUP, except for alfalfa hay and His in the three forages and TMR diets. The ruminal AA degradability of cereal straws was altered compared with alfalfa hay but not for the TMR diets. In summary, the AA composition of forages and TMR-based diets changed significantly after ruminal exposure, indicating that the original AA profiles of the feed cannot represent its AA composition of RUP. The AA profile of RUP and ruminal AA degradability for corn stover and rice straw contributed to missing information in the field. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Total glucosides of paeony inhibit the proliferation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes through the regulation of G proteins in rats with collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiao-Yi; Chang, Yan; Sun, Xiao-Jing; Wu, Hua-Xun; Wang, Chun; Xu, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Zheng, Yong-Qiu; Song, Li-Hua; Wei, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of G proteins in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) from rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and to determine the effect of total glucosides of paeony (TGP). CIA rats were induced with chicken type II collagen (CCII) in Freund's complete adjuvant. The rats with experimental arthritis were randomly separated into five groups and then treated with TGP (25, 50, and 100mg/kg) from days 14 to 35 after immunization. The secondary inflammatory reactions were evaluated through the polyarthritis index and histopathological changes. The level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was measured by radioimmunoassay. The FLS proliferation response was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of G proteins was performed through autoradiography. The results show that TGP (25, 50, and 100mg/kg) significantly decreased the arthritis scores of CIA rats and improved the histopathological changes. TGP inhibited the proliferation of FLSs and increased the level of cAMP. Moreover, the FLS proliferation and the level of Gαi expression were significantly increased, but the level of Gαs expression was decreased after stimulation with IL-1β (10ng/ml) in vitro. TGP (12.5 and 62.5μg/ml) significantly inhibited the FLS proliferation and regulated the balance between Gαi and Gαs. These results demonstrate that TGP may exert its anti-inflammatory effects through the suppression of FLS proliferation, which may be associated with its ability to regulate the balance of G proteins. Thus, TGP may have potential as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. © 2013.

  4. Detecting early kidney damage in horses with colic by measuring matrix metalloproteinase -9 and -2, other enzymes, urinary glucose and total proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salonen Hanna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to investigate urine matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9 activity, alkaline phosphatase/creatinine (U-AP/Cr and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase/creatinine (U-GGT/Cr ratios, glucose concentration, and urine protein/creatinine (U-Prot/Cr ratio and to compare data with plasma MMP-2 and -9 activity, cystatin-C and creatinine concentrations in colic horses and healthy controls. Horses with surgical colic (n = 5 were compared to healthy stallions (n = 7 that came for castration. Blood and urine samples were collected. MMP gelatinolytic activity was measured by zymography. Results We found out that horses with colic had significantly higher urinary MMP-9 complex and proMMP-9 activities than horses in the control group. Colic horses also had higher plasma MMP-2 activity than the control horses. Serum creatinine, although within reference range, was significantly higher in the colic horses than in the control group. There was no significant increase in urinary alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase or total proteins in the colic horses compared to the control group. A human cystatin-C test (Dako Cytomation latex immunoassay® based on turbidimetry did not cross react with equine cystatin-C. Conclusion The results indicate that plasma MMP-2 may play a role in the pathogenesis of equine colic and urinary MMP-9 in equine kidney damage.

  5. Calyculins and Related Marine Natural Products as Serine- Threonine Protein Phosphatase PP1 and PP2A Inhibitors and Total Syntheses of Calyculin A, B, and C

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    Ari M. P. Koskinen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Calyculins, highly cytotoxic polyketides, originally isolated from the marine sponge Discodermia calyx by Fusetani and co-workers, belong to the lithistid sponges group. These molecules have become interesting targets for cell biologists and synthetic organic chemists. The serine/threonine protein phosphatases play an essential role in the cellular signalling, metabolism, and cell cycle control. Calyculins express potent protein phosphatase 1 and 2A inhibitory activity, and have therefore become valuable tools for cellular biologists studying intracellular processes and their control by reversible phosphorylation. Calyculins might also play an important role in the development of several diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and type 2-diabetes mellitus. The fascinating structures of calyculins have inspired various groups of synthetic organic chemists to develop total syntheses of the most abundant calyculins A and C. However, with fifteen chiral centres, a cyano-capped tetraene unit, a phosphate-bearing spiroketal, an anti, anti, anti dipropionate segment, an α-chiral oxazole, and a trihydroxylated γ-amino acid, calyculins reach versatility that only few natural products can surpass, and truly challenge modern chemists’ asymmetric synthesis skills.

  6. Application of fiber-optic attenuated total reflection-FT-IR methods for in situ characterization of protein delivery systems in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFearin, Cathryn L; Sankaranarayanan, Jagadis; Almutairi, Adah

    2011-05-15

    A fiber-optic coupled attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FT-IR spectroscopy technique was applied to the study of two different therapeutic delivery systems, acid degradable hydrogels and nanoparticles. Real time exponential release of a model protein, human serum albumin (HSA), was observed from two different polymeric hydrogels formulated with a pH sensitive cross-linker. Spectroscopic examination of nanoparticles formulated with an acid degradable polymer shell and encapsulated HSA exhibited vibrational signatures characteristic of both particle and payload when exposed to lowered pH conditions, demonstrating the ability of this methodology to simultaneously measure phenomena arising from a system with a mixture of components. In addition, thorough characterization of these pH sensitive delivery vehicles without encapsulated protein was also accomplished in order to separate the effects of the payload during degradation. When in situ, real time detection in combination with the ability to specifically identify different components in a mixture without involved sample preparation and minimal sample disturbance is provided, the versatility and suitability of this type of experiment for research in the pharmaceutical field is demonstrated.

  7. Variabilidade genética para teor de proteína bruta em grãos de aveia Genetic variability for total grain protein in oat

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    Rodrigo Rodrigues Matiello

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da utilização dos grãos de aveia na alimentação humana tem estimulado os melhoristas a selecionar genótipos com alta qualidade de grãos. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar e caracterizar a variabilidade genética para o caráter teor de proteína bruta de grãos em genótipos cultivados de aveia, introduções silvestres de A. fatua L., A. sterilis L. e em populações híbridas de A. sativa L. x A. sterilis L. Os resultados revelaram uma ampla variabilidade genética para o caráter dentro dos grupos estudados. As diferenças observadas entre os genótipos cultivados parecem ocorrer devido a constituição genotípica diferenciada. O grupo silvestre de A. sterilis L. foi, em média, superior aos demais, sendo que a introdução I-325 se destacou pelo alto teor de proteína. O comportamento similar entre as introduções de A. fatua L. pode ser atribuído a coleta de introduções de apenas uma região, o que reduziu a variabilidade genética. Foram encontrados híbridos artificiais entre A. sativa L. x A. sterilis L. com alto teor de proteína e características desejáveis do grupo cultivado.The increased use of oat grains as human food has stimulated plant breeders to select genotypes with high grain quality. This work aimed to identify and characterize genetic variability for total grain protein in cultivated oat and introductions of A. fatua L., A. sterilis L. and hybrid populations from A. sativa L. x A. sterilis L.. The results showed a large genetic variability for the trait in the studied groups. Differences among cultivated oat genotypes may be attributed to different genetic constitution. A. sterilis L. group showed high protein content specially with the introduction of I-325. Genotypes from A. fatua L. showed similar low levels of protein probably because the narrow range of regions sampled in this study. Some hybrids from A. sativa L. x A. sterilis L. showed high protein content and

  8. Effects of nonstructural carbohydrates and protein sources on intake, apparent total tract digestibility, and ruminal metabolism in vivo and in vitro with high-concentrate beef cattle diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotger, A; Ferret, A; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the effects of synchronizing nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) and protein degradation on intake and rumen microbial fermentation, four ruminally fistulated Holstein heifers (BW = 132.3 +/- 1.61 kg) fed high-concentrate diets were assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments studied in vivo and in vitro with a dual-flow continuous culture system. Two NSC sources (barley and corn) and 2 protein sources [soybean meal (SBM) and sunflower meal (SFM)] differing in their rate and extent of ruminal degradation were combined resulting in a synchronized rapid fermentation diet (barley-SFM), a synchronized slow fermentation diet (corn-SBM), and 2 unsynchronized diets with a rapidly and a slowly fermenting component (barley-SBM, and corn-SFM). In vitro, the fermentation profile was studied at a constant pH of 6.2, and at a variable pH with 12 h at pH 6.4 and 12 h at pH 5.8. Synchronization tended to result in greater true OM digestion (P = 0.072), VFA concentration (P = 0.067), and microbial N flow (P = 0.092) in vitro, but had no effects on in vivo fermentation pattern or on apparent total tract digestibility. The NSC source affected the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in vitro, tending to be greater (P = 0.07) for barley-based diets, and in vivo, the NSC source tended to affect intake. Dry matter and OM intake tended to be greater (P > or = 0.06) for corn- than barley-based diets. Ammonia N concentration was lower in vitro (P = 0.006) and tended to be lower in vivo (P = 0.07) for corn- than barley-based diets. In vitro, pH could be reduced from 6.4 to 5.8 for 12 h/d without any effect on ruminal fermentation or microbial protein synthesis. In summary, ruminal synchronization seemed to have positive effects on in vitro fermentation, but in vivo recycling of endogenous N or intake differences could compensate for these effects.

  9. The Kjeldahl method as a primary reference procedure for total protein in certified reference materials used in clinical chemistry. I. A review of Kjeldahl methods adopted by laboratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromý, Vratislav; Vinklárková, Bára; Šprongl, Luděk; Bittová, Miroslava

    2015-01-01

    We found previously that albumin-calibrated total protein in certified reference materials causes unacceptable positive bias in analysis of human sera. The simplest way to cure this defect is the use of human-based serum/plasma standards calibrated by the Kjeldahl method. Such standards, commutative with serum samples, will compensate for bias caused by lipids and bilirubin in most human sera. To find a suitable primary reference procedure for total protein in reference materials, we reviewed Kjeldahl methods adopted by laboratory medicine. We found two methods recommended for total protein in human samples: an indirect analysis based on total Kjeldahl nitrogen corrected for its nonprotein nitrogen and a direct analysis made on isolated protein precipitates. The methods found will be assessed in a subsequent article.

  10. Determinação de proteínas totais via espectrofometria: vantagens e desvantagens dos métodos existentes Determination of total protein by spectrophotometry: advantages and disadvantages of proposed methods

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    Dimas A. M. Zaia

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Spectrophotometric determination of total protein is used in several areas such as clinical analysis, food science and technology, biochemistry, protein chemistry, physiology. Five spectrophotometric methods are mostly used: biuret, Lowry, Bradford, Smith and UV absorption. In this review a general overview of these methods is presented (interferences, applications; other methodologies are also discussed.

  11. Effects of Synchronization of Carbohydrate and Protein Supply in Total Mixed Ration with Korean Rice Wine Residue on Ruminal Fermentation, Nitrogen Metabolism and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Holstein Steers

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    Min Yu Piao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Three Holstein steers in the growing phase, each with a ruminal cannula, were used to test the hypothesis that the synchronization of the hourly rate of carbohydrate and nitrogen (N released in the rumen would increase the amount of retained nitrogen for growth and thus improve the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS. In Experiment 1, in situ degradability coefficients of carbohydrate and N in feeds including Korean rice wine residue (RWR were determined. In Experiment 2, three total mixed ration (TMR diets having different rates of carbohydrate and N release in the rumen were formulated using the in situ degradability of the feeds. All diets were made to contain similar contents of crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF but varied in their hourly pattern of nutrient release. The synchrony index of the three TMRs was 0.51 (LS, 0.77 (MS and 0.95 (HS, respectively. The diets were fed at a restricted level (2% of the animal’s body weight in a 3×3 Latin-square design. Synchronizing the hourly supply of energy and N in the rumen did not significantly alter the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, NDF or acid detergent fiber (ADF (p>0.05. The ruminal NH3-N content of the LS group at three hours after feeding was significantly higher (p0.05. In addition, the purine derivative (PD excretion in urine and microbial-N production (MN among the three groups were not significantly different (p>0.05. In conclusion, synchronizing dietary energy and N supply to the rumen did not have a major effect on nutrient digestion or microbial protein synthesis (MPS in Holstein steers.

  12. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A as early-phase and prognostic indicators of acute radiation exposure in nonhuman primate total-body irradiation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossetrova, N.I., E-mail: ossetrova@afrri.usuhs.mil [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States); Sandgren, D.J.; Blakely, W.F. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, 8901 Wisconsin Avenue, Bldg. 42, Bethesda, MD 20889-5603 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Terrorist radiological attacks or nuclear accidents could expose large numbers of people to ionizing radiation. In mass-casualty radiological incidents early medical-management requires triage tools for first-responders to quantitatively identify individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and for early initiation (i.e., within one day after radiation exposure) of cytokine therapy for treatment of bone marrow acute radiation syndrome. Herein, we present results from 30 rhesus macaques total-body irradiated (TBI) to a broad dose range of 1-8.5 Gy with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays (0.55 Gy min{sup -1}) and demonstrate dose- and time-dependent changes in blood of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CRP and SAA dose-response results are consistent with {approx}1 Gy and {approx}0.2 Gy thresholds for photon-exposure at 24 h after TBI, respectively. Highly significant elevations of CRP and SAA (p = 0.00017 and p = 0.0024, respectively) were found in animal plasma at 6 h after all TBI doses suggesting their potential use as early-phase biodosimeters. Results also show that the dynamics and content of CRP and SAA levels reflect the course and severity of the acute radiation sickness (ARS) and may function as prognostic indicators of ARS outcome. These results demonstrate proof-of-concept that these radiation-responsive proteins show promise as a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposures and may also contribute as diagnostic indices in the medical management of radiation accidents.

  13. Evaluation of four commercial biuret reagent kits of serum total protein by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry reference measurement procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meilin; Zhang, Jie

    2011-06-01

    In China, the traceability of clinical chemistry methods is still immature. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a reference measurement procedure and evaluate commercial reagent kits using such established procedures. We reproduced the reference measurement procedure for serum total protein, as recommended by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC). We evaluated the performance by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) guidelines EP15-A and EP6-A. Subsequently, four commercial reagent kits were evaluated by the reproduced reference procedure following CLSI guideline EP9-A2. The performance of the reproduced reference procedure was as follows: CVs ranged from 0.47% to 0.85% at medical decision levels (X(c)) of 45 g/L, 60 g/L and 80 g/L. Linearity was Y=1.0022X-0.2121 (r=0.9999), and recovery ranged from 100.2% to 102.4%. The External Quality Assessment Scheme for Reference Laboratories in Laboratory Medicine (RELA) was applied, and the result was within the limit of equivalence. The linear relationships of four commercial reagent kits, Merit Choice, KHB, Leadman, and Olympus, were, respectively: Y=0.9922X+0.5776 (r=0.9961); Y=0.9936X+0.4316 (r=0.9992); Y=0.9949X+0.9129 (r=0.9987) and Y=0.9923X+0.8876 (r=0.9989). KHB showed slight negative bias, and the mean±SD was -0.03±0.60 g/L. Merit Choice, Leadman, and Olympus all showed positive bias, and the mean±SDs were 0.02±0.63 g/L, 0.55±0.77 g/L and 0.34±0.71 g/L, respectively. The correlation and bias of four commercial reagent kits for serum total protein were found to be acceptable. Thus, these reagent kits can be used reliably in China.

  14. Total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution and surrogate markers for health related to adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Magnus; Danielson, Anton; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess possible relationships between adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) and total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, cardiac dimensions and the increase in body fat over 2 years in a community sample of children. A cross-sectional study was used in a community sample of 170 (92 boys and 78 girls) children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat (AFM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). TBF was also expressed as percentage of total body mass (BF%), and body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled to body mass. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and pulse pressure (PP) were measured. Echocardiography was performed. Left atrial (LA) size was measured, and left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated. A follow-up DXA scan was available in 152 children (84 boys and 68 girls). Frozen serum samples were analyzed for FABP4. Partial correlations, with adjustment for sex, between FABP4 vs. ln TBF, ln BF%, ln AFM, AFM/TBF and VO2PEAK were (r=0.69, 0.68, 0.69, 0.49 and -0.39, pfat or change in fat distribution were not correlated.) Conclusions: Findings from this community-based cohort of young children show that increased body fat and abdominal fat, more abdominal body fat distribution, low fitness, more LVM and increased LA, increased SBP and PP were all associated with increased levels of FABP4. Increase in TBF and abdominal fat over 2 years were also associated with increased levels of FABP4.

  15. Comparative evaluation of serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A levels with total serum protein in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study

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    M Kandasamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A (IgG, IgA levels in various stages of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF patients and relate it to total serum protein (TSP and hemoglobin (Hb levels. Materials and Methods: The sample for the present study comprised a total of 20 healthy controls, 20 OSMF patients. About 5 ml of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethemoglobin methods, respectively. Results: Serum and salivary IgA and IgG levels were statistically significantly increased (P < 0.001 in OSMF patients when compared to controls. Also serum and salivary IgG and IgA levels showed significantly increased (P < 0.01 in all the three staging of OSMF when compared to control group. Hb levels and TSP levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.001 in OSMF patients when compared to controls. One-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and unpaired t -test were used for statistical analysis. Conclusion: The elevated levels of IgG and IgA are also in favor of polygammapathy, which are nonspecific and nondiagnostic objective reflections of an underlying disease. Decreased TSP is a result of host response and Hb, acts as an indicator of nutritional status plays an important role. It is also observed from the present study that the severity of OSMF was directly proportional to the estimated elevated levels of the major IgG and IgA. A need is also felt for the knowledge of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis that would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of this condition.

  16. Comparative evaluation of serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A levels with total serum protein in oral submucous fibrosis patients: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, M; Jaisanghar, N; Austin, Ravi David; Srivastava, Kumar Chandan; Anusuya, G Sai; Anisa, N

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate and compare the serum and salivary immunoglobulin G and A (IgG, IgA) levels in various stages of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and relate it to total serum protein (TSP) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. The sample for the present study comprised a total of 20 healthy controls, 20 OSMF patients. About 5 ml of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethemoglobin methods, respectively. Serum and salivary IgA and IgG levels were statistically significantly increased ( P < 0.001) in OSMF patients when compared to controls. Also serum and salivary IgG and IgA levels showed significantly increased ( P < 0.01) in all the three staging of OSMF when compared to control group. Hb levels and TSP levels were significantly decreased ( P < 0.001) in OSMF patients when compared to controls. One-way ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and unpaired t -test were used for statistical analysis. The elevated levels of IgG and IgA are also in favor of polygammapathy, which are nonspecific and nondiagnostic objective reflections of an underlying disease. Decreased TSP is a result of host response and Hb, acts as an indicator of nutritional status plays an important role. It is also observed from the present study that the severity of OSMF was directly proportional to the estimated elevated levels of the major IgG and IgA. A need is also felt for the knowledge of immunoprofile estimation in etiology and pathogenesis that would prove a great asset in the proper assessment of this condition.

  17. [Effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase, total protein, salivary flow rate and pH value in Pi deficiency children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ze-min; Chen, Long-hui; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiao-rong; Chen, Wei-wen

    2015-02-01

    To compare the effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), total protein (TP), salivary flow rate, and pH value between Pi deficiency (PD) children and healthy children, thereby providing evidence for Pi controlling saliva theory. Twenty PD children were recruited, and 29 healthy children were also recruited at the same time. Saliva samples from all subjects were collected before and after citric acid stimulation. The sAA activity and amount, TP contents, salivary flow rate, and pH value were determined and compared. (1) Citric acid stimulation was able to significantly increase salivary flow rate, pH value, sAA activities, sAA specific activity and sAA amount (including glycosylated and non-glycosylated sAA amount) in healthy children (Psalivary flow rate, pH value, and glycosylated sAA levels in PD children (Psalivary indices between the two groups (P>0.05), salivary indices except salivary flow rate and glycosylated sAA levels decreased more in PD children. There was statistical difference in sAA activity ratio, sAA specific activity ratio, and the ratio of glycosylated sAA levels between PD children and healthy children (P<0.05). PD children had decreased response to citric acid stimulation.

  18. Brix refractometry in serum as a measure of failure of passive transfer compared to measured immunoglobulin G and total protein by refractometry in serum from dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, D; Nydam, D V; Godden, S M; Bristol, L S; Kryzer, A; Ranum, J; Schaefer, D

    2016-05-01

    A series of trials were conducted to evaluate Brix refractometry (Brix %) for the assessment of failure of passive transfer (FPT) in dairy calves compared to: (1) serum IgG (reference standard) when measured by radial immunodiffusion (RID) or a turbidometric immunoassay (TIA), and (2) serum total protein refractometry (STP). For the serum samples tested with TIA, STP, and Brix % (n = 310; Holstein calves), the median concentrations were 21.3 g/L IgG, 58 g/L STP, and 9.2%, respectively. For the serum samples tested with RID, STP and Brix % (n = 112; Jersey calves), the mean concentrations were 38 g/L IgG, 68 g/L STP, and 10.2%, respectively. For samples tested with only Brix % and STP (n = 265; Holstein calves), median STP and Brix % were 50 g/L STP and 8.5%, respectively. Correlations between Brix % and RID, and between Brix % and TIA were equal (r = 0.79, respectively). Brix % and STP were positively correlated (r = 0.99). Brix % estimated serum IgG concentrations determined by TIA and RID (r(2) = 0.63, 0.62, respectively). When FPT was defined as serum IgG refractometry predicted successful transfer of passive immunity in dairy calves, but further evaluation as a diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of FPT is warranted. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Simultaneous determination of glucose, triglycerides, urea, cholesterol, albumin and total protein in human plasma by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: direct clinical biochemistry without reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Torben E; Höskuldsson, Agnar T; Bjerrum, Poul J; Verder, Henrik; Sørensen, Lars; Bratholm, Palle S; Christensen, Bo; Jensen, Lene S; Jensen, Maria A B

    2014-09-01

    Direct measurement of chemical constituents in complex biologic matrices without the use of analyte specific reagents could be a step forward toward the simplification of clinical biochemistry. Problems related to reagents such as production errors, improper handling, and lot-to-lot variations would be eliminated as well as errors occurring during assay execution. We describe and validate a reagent free method for direct measurement of six analytes in human plasma based on Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Blood plasma is analyzed without any sample preparation. FTIR spectrum of the raw plasma is recorded in a sampling cuvette specially designed for measurement of aqueous solutions. For each analyte, a mathematical calibration process is performed by a stepwise selection of wavelengths giving the optimal least-squares correlation between the measured FTIR signal and the analyte concentration measured by conventional clinical reference methods. The developed calibration algorithms are subsequently evaluated for their capability to predict the concentration of the six analytes in blinded patient samples. The correlation between the six FTIR methods and corresponding reference methods were 0.87albumin and total protein in human plasma. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hematologic and Total Plasma Protein Values in Free-Living Red-tailed Amazon Parrot Nestlings (Amazona brasiliensis) in Paraná State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Frederico F; Locatelli-Dittrich, Rosangela; Sipinski, Elenise A B; Abbud, Maria C; Sezerban, Rafael M; Schmidt, Elizabeth M S; Dittrich, Jaqueline; Cavalheiro, Maria L

    2015-09-01

    The red-tailed Amazon parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) is an endangered psittacid species that is endemic in the south and southeast Brazilian Atlantic coastal region. Hematologic evaluation is important to monitor the health of these birds, and information about laboratory values for this species is scarce. Hematologic and total plasma protein profiles were determined for 33 free-living nestling parrots in Paraná state, Brazil. Parrots were temporarily removed from the nest and manually restrained to record body weight and collect blood samples. Mean body weight was 400 g in 20 birds (group 2). Significantly higher levels of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts, monocytes, and basophils were observed in younger birds (group 1). A stress leukogram (high white blood cell and heterophil count) was found in all nestlings, suggesting stress induced by capture and restraint. Parameters obtained in this study will be essential to assess the physiologic and pathologic condition of wild parrots, to evaluate the effects of environmental changes on their health, and to contribute to conservation efforts of this endangered species.

  1. Diet with a combination of high protein and high total antioxidant capacity is strongly associated with low prevalence of frailty among old Japanese women: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-05-12

    The intake of protein and antioxidants has been inversely associated with frailty, individually. However, to our knowledge, no study has evaluated these associations in considering antioxidants or protein intakes as respective confounders. Further, the cooperative effect of dietary protein and antioxidants on frailty has not been investigated. Therefore, we examined the association of high protein and high dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) with frailty under the adjustment for dietary TAC or protein intake, respectively. The association between the combination of high dietary protein and high dietary TAC and frailty was also investigated. A total of 2108 grandmothers or acquaintances of dietetic students aged 65 years and older participated in this cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 85 dietetic schools in Japan. Dietary variables, including protein intake, and dietary TAC were estimated from a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. Frailty was defined as a score of three or more points obtained from the following four components: slowness and weakness (two points), exhaustion, low physical activity, and unintentional weight loss. Median (interquartile range) age of the present subjects was 74 (71-78) years. Multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for frailty in the highest compared to the lowest tertile were 0.66 (0.49, 0.87) for total protein intake (P for trend = 0.003) and 0.51 (0.37, 0.69) for dietary TAC (P for trend protein intake, respectively. The OR of frailty for the group with both the highest tertiles of total protein intake and dietary TAC was markedly lower (multivariate adjusted OR [95% CIs]: 0.27 [0.16, 0.44]; P protein intake and the lowest tertile of dietary TAC. Both protein intake and dietary TAC were independently inversely associated with frailty among old Japanese women. Further, a diet with the combination of high dietary protein and high dietary TAC was strongly inversely associated with the

  2. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  3. TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF FISHMEAL WITH AN ORGANICALLY CERTIFIED YEAST–BASED PROTEIN IN PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP (Litopenaeus Vannamei DIETS: LABORATORY AND FIELD TRIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen McLean

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of totally replacing the fishmeal component of marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei diets was examined both in the laboratory setting and during a full–scale commercial trial. Animals were fed either a traditional fishmeal–based diet or one in which complete replacement of fishmeal, on a per protein basis, was manufactured using a yeast–based product, NuPro®. Laboratory studies determined that irrespective of diet fed, no difference in shrimp performance (weight gain, survival and SGR occurred. A field trial was thus activated to determine whether lab–scale studies were transferable to the commercial setting. Trials were conducted in earthen ponds from mid–June to early November 2005. Ponds were initially stocked with PL12–16 shrimp at a rate of 100,000 per hectare. At trial end, ponds receiving the NuPro®–based feed had equivalent growth to that of shrimp fed the traditional, fishmeal–based diet. Percent increase in weight from initial values and survival for the NuPro® ponds was 296, 269 and 275%, and 78, 76 and 85% respectively, whereas that for the fishmeal–based diet was 305% and 80% respectively. Noteworthy was that within pond size variation of L. vannamei was lower in NuPro® fed animals (±2.3 g when compared against animals receiving the traditional feed (±4.1 g. Overall observations from the field trial indicate the importance of the »bioreactor« pond with respect to the supply of energy to sustain shrimp growth potential.

  4. Estimation of serum, salivary immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A levels and total protein, hemoglobin in smokeless tobacco chewers and oral submucous fibrosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakanth Balakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF is a debilitating, potentially cancerous oral condition. Although areca nut is the most important causative agent, it is also considered that the disease is immunologically mediated. Aim of the Study: To establish that autoimmunity and nutritional deficiency play a role in the etiopathogenesis of OSMF. Objectives of the Study: To show that serum immunoglobulin markers (immunoglobulin-G [IgG], immunoglobulin-A [IgA] and nutritional parameters such as total serum protein (TSP, Hemoglobin (Hb play a role in causing OSMF and also to correlate serum, salivary IgG, IgA levels in OSMF patients. Settings and Design: A case-control study was done with 50 patients (25 patients who were provisionally diagnosed as OSMF - Group I, and 25 patients who were chronic smokeless tobacco chewers and who did not have any intraoral lesion - Group II. Materials and Methods: Five milliliters of blood and saliva were collected from both the groups. Quantitative analysis of serum, and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hemoglobin (Hb were estimated by spectrophotometry. Statistical Analysis: Results were analyzed by independent samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: All patients of OSMF showed significant (P < 0.01 increase in serum IgG, IgA, and salivary IgG levels as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. The salivary IgA levels showed a significant decrease in OSMF patients (P < 0.05. TSP and Hb levels showed significant (P < 0.01 decrease in OSMF patients as compared to smokeless tobacco chewers. Conclusion: The elevation of immunoglobulin levels supports the concept of autoimmunity. The decrease in TSP and Hb suggests that nutritional deficiency plays a defined role in the occurrence as well as a further progression of OSMF.

  5. Prospective associations of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and CRP genetic risk scores with risk of total knee and hip replacement for osteoarthritis in a diverse cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadyab, A H; Terkeltaub, R; Kooperberg, C; Reiner, A; Eaton, C B; Jackson, R D; Krok-Schoen, J L; Salem, R M; LaCroix, A Z

    2018-05-22

    To examine associations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and polygenic CRP genetic risk scores (GRS) with risk of end-stage hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA), defined as incident total hip (THR) or knee replacement (TKR) for OA. This study included a cohort of postmenopausal white, African American, and Hispanic women from the Women's Health Initiative. Women were followed from baseline to date of THR or TKR, death, or December 31, 2014. Medicare claims data identified THR and TKR. Hs-CRP and genotyping data were collected at baseline. Three CRP GRS were constructed: 1) a 4-SNP GRS comprised of genetic variants representing variation in the CRP gene among European populations; 2) a multilocus 18-SNP GRS of genetic variants significantly associated with CRP levels in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies; and 3) a 5-SNP GRS of genetic variants significantly associated with CRP levels among African American women. In analyses conducted separately among each race and ethnic group, there were no significant associations of ln hs-CRP with risk of THR or TKR, after adjusting for age, body mass index, lifestyle characteristics, chronic diseases, hormone therapy use, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. CRP GRS were not associated with risk of THR or TKR in any ethnic group. Serum levels of ln hs-CRP and genetically-predicted CRP levels were not associated with risk of THR or TKR for OA among a diverse cohort of women. Copyright © 2018 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Two novel variants of human medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD). K364R, a folding mutation, and R256T, a catalytic-site mutation resulting in a well-folded but totally inactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Reilly, Linda P; Andresen, Brage S; Engel, Paul C

    2005-01-01

    was again totally inactive. Neither mutant showed marked depletion of FAD. The pure K364R protein was considerably less thermostable than wild-type MCAD. Western blots indicated that, although the R256T mutant protein is less thermostable than normal MCAD, it is much more stable than K364R. Though......Two novel rare mutations, MCAD approximately 842G-->C (R256T) and MCAD approximately 1166A-->G (K364R), have been investigated to assess how far the biochemical properties of the mutant proteins correlate with the clinical phenotype of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency. When...... the gene for K364R was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, the synthesized mutant protein only exhibited activity when the gene for chaperonin GroELS was co-overexpressed. Levels of activity correlated with the amounts of native MCAD protein visible in western blots. The R256T mutant, by contrast, displayed...

  7. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  8. A clinical trial examining the effect of increased total CRM(197) carrier protein dose on the antibody response to Haemophilus influenzae type b CRM(197) conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usonis, Vytautas; Bakasenas, Vytautas; Lockhart, Stephen; Baker, Sherryl; Gruber, William; Laudat, France

    2008-08-18

    CRM(197) is a carrier protein in certain conjugate vaccines. When multiple conjugate vaccines with the same carrier protein are administered simultaneously, reduced response to vaccines and/or antigens related to the carrier protein may occur. This study examined responses of infants who, in addition to diphtheria toxoid/tetanus toxoid/acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) received either diphtheria CRM(197)-based Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (HbOC) or HbOC and a diphtheria CRM(197)-based combination 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine/meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine. Administration of conjugate vaccines with CRM(197) carrier protein load >50 microg did not reduce response to CRM(197) conjugate vaccines or immunogenicity to immunologically cross-reactive diphtheria toxoid.

  9. Low serum levels of free and total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in patients with anorexia nervosa are not associated with increased IGF-binding protein-3 proteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Flyvbjerg, A; Frystyk, J

    1999-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are GH resistant, with elevated GH levels and low serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). IGF-I action is modulated by IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), and a variety of catabolic states has been characterized by the presence of increased IGFBP-3...

  10. Low serum levels of free and total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in patients with anorexia nervosa are not associated with increased IGF-binding protein-3 proteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Flyvbjerg, A; Frystyk, J

    1999-01-01

    by centrifugation. In addition, GH, GH-binding protein, total IGFs, IGFBP-1 to -4, and IGFBP-3 proteolytic activity were measured. The IGFBPs were measured by both immunoassays and Western ligand blotting. Twelve of the patients were restudied 3 months after a minor increase in body mass index. In AN, the levels...

  11. Intake of total, animal and plant proteins, and their food sources in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halkjaer, J.; Olsen, A.; Bjerregaard, L. J.; Deharveng, G.; Tjonneland, A.; Welch, A. A.; Crowe, F. L.; Wirfalt, E.; Hellstrom, V.; Niravong, M.; Touvier, M.; Linseisen, J.; Steffen, A.; Ocke, M. C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Chirlaque, M. D.; Larranaga, N.; Ferrari, P.; Contiero, P.; Frasca, G.; Engeset, D.; Lund, E.; Misirli, G.; Kosti, M.; Riboli, E.; Slimani, N.; Bingham, S.

    Objective: To describe dietary protein intakes and their food sources among 27 redefined centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons, aged between 35 and 74 years, were administered a

  12. A hybrid total internal reflection fluorescence and optical tweezers microscope to study cell adhesion and membrane protein dynamics of single living cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder-van As, M.I.; Rieger, B.; Joosten, B.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Figdor, Carl; Kanger, Johannes S.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of cell surface membrane proteins plays an important role in cell–cell interactions. The onset of the interaction is typically not precisely controlled by current techniques, making especially difficult the visualization of early-stage dynamics. We have developed a novel method where

  13. Intake of total, animal and plant protein and subsequent changes in weight or waist circumference in European men and women: the Diogenes project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halkjaer, J.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Jakobsen, M.U.; Boeing, H.; Buijsse, B.; Palli, D.; Tognon, G.; Du, H.; A, van der D.L.; Forouhi, N.G.; Wareham, N.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Sorensen, T.I.A.; Tjonneland, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: As protein is considered to increase thermogenesis and satiety more than other macronutrients, it may have beneficial effects on prevention of weight gain and weight maintenance. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the association between the amount and type of dietary

  14. Low ascitic fluid total protein levels is not associated to the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in a cohort of 274 patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Silje; Bendtsen, Flemming; Wiese, Signe Skovgaard

    2018-01-01

    Background: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a complication to decompensated cirrhosis. Fluoroquinolones may prevent SBP. However, predictive markers for SBP are wanted. Guidelines suggest that patients with ascitic fluid protein below 15 g/l receive fluoroquinolones to prevent SBP...

  15. Nasal secretions from patients with polyps and healthy individuals, collected with a new aspiration system: evaluation of total protein and immunoglobulin concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biewenga, J.; Stoop, A. E.; Baker, H. E.; Swart, S. J.; Nauta, J. J.; van Kamp, G. J.; van der Baan, S.

    1991-01-01

    This study was designed, first, to test a new system for aspiration of human nasal secretions and, secondly, to evaluate protein and immunoglobulin concentrations in these secretions at different levels of secretory activity. The direct aspiration system combines the advantages of minimal irritation

  16. Níveis de proteína na dieta de bovinos Nelore de três condições sexuais: consumo, digestibilidades total e parcial, produção microbiana e parâmetros ruminais Increasing crude protein levels in diets of Nellore cattle: intake, ruminal and total tract digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and ruminal metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Magno Liberal Véras

    2007-08-01

    .Twelve Nellore cattle fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to investigate the effects of increasing dietary crude protein level (7, 10, 13, and 15% on intake, ruminal and total tract digestibility of nutrients, microbial protein synthesis, degradabilities of corn silage, corn starch, and cottonseed meal, and ruminal metabolism. Animals were blocked by sexual category (heifers, bulls and steers averaging 254.8, 285.1, and 265.6 kg of body weight, respectively and then assigned to one out of three Latin squares. Samples were incubated in the rumen of one animal of each sexual category to estimate ingredient degradability after determination of DM, CP and NDF in the incubation residues. Ruminal fluid was collected before and after-feeding to determine pH and concentration of ammonia while ruminal samples for bacterial isolation were taken 6 hours post-feeding. Blood (BUN and urine (UU were also collected for measurement of urea concentration. The degradation rates of DM and CP were both lower in corn silage than on corn starch and cottonseed meal. The interaction sexual condition x dietary crude protein level was not significant for nutrient intake. With the exception of EE and NFC, no other significant effect of dietary CP level was observed for daily intake of nutrients. Increasing dietary CP level affected total tract digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and NFC and also resulted in higher concentrations of BUN and UU. A significant dietary crude protein level x collection time interaction was observed for ruminal NH3 but not for ruminal pH. It was concluded that increasing dietary CP levels affected intake and total tract digestibility of most nutrients.

  17. A method of radiocompetitive assay of total thyroxine in the serum by means of enzymatic release of thyroxine from the transporting proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snarski, A.; Wyrwinski, J.

    1978-01-01

    Pepsin causes denaturation of the transporting proteins and liberates thyroxine which can be assayed by the radiocompetitive method. Change of the pH of the medium from acid to alkaline inactivates irreveribly pepsin. The enzymatic release of thyroxine is much simpler that the method of ethanol extraction and thermal denaturation of the transporting proteins applied up to now. The new technique of thyroxine release has been introduced for radiocompetitive determination of thyroxine using dextran coated charcoal for adsorption of the free hormone. A new method has been elaborated for preparation of working standards of thyroxine in a mixture of pepsin solution with hormone-free serum. The method is efficient and rapid. The normal range is from 50 to 130 nanomol/l. Over 7 000 determinations were done as yet in patients with suspected thyroid function disturbances. (author)

  18. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  19. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy as an Analytical Method to Investigate the Secondary Structure of a Model Protein Embedded in Solid Lipid Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeshan, Farrukh; Tabbassum, Misbah; Jorgensen, Lene; Medlicott, Natalie J

    2018-02-01

    Protein drugs may encounter conformational perturbations during the formulation processing of lipid-based solid dosage forms. In aqueous protein solutions, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy can investigate these conformational changes following the subtraction of spectral interference of solvent with protein amide I bands. However, in solid dosage forms, the possible spectral contribution of lipid carriers to protein amide I band may be an obstacle to determine conformational alterations. The objective of this study was to develop an ATR FT-IR spectroscopic method for the analysis of protein secondary structure embedded in solid lipid matrices. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was chosen as a model protein, while Precirol AT05 (glycerol palmitostearate, melting point 58 ℃) was employed as the model lipid matrix. Bovine serum albumin was incorporated into lipid using physical mixing, melting and mixing, or wet granulation mixing methods. Attenuated total reflection FT-IR spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) were performed for the analysis of BSA secondary structure and its dissolution in aqueous media, respectively. The results showed significant interference of Precirol ATO5 with BSA amide I band which was subtracted up to 90% w/w lipid content to analyze BSA secondary structure. In addition, ATR FT-IR spectroscopy also detected thermally denatured BSA solid alone and in the presence of lipid matrix indicating its suitability for the detection of denatured protein solids in lipid matrices. Despite being in the solid state, conformational changes occurred to BSA upon incorporation into solid lipid matrices. However, the extent of these conformational alterations was found to be dependent on the mixing method employed as indicated by area overlap calculations. For instance, the melting and mixing method imparted negligible effect on BSA secondary structure, whereas the wet granulation mixing method promoted

  20. Determination of the separate lipid and protein profile structures derived from the total membrane profile structure or isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum via x-ray and neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbette, L.; Blasie, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes were prepared to contain biosynthetically deuterated SR phospholipids utilizing specific and general phospholipid exchange proteins (PLEP). Functional measurements and freeze fracture on SR dispersions and x-ray diffraction of hydrated oriented membrane multilayers revealed that the exchanged SR membranes were very similar to unexchanged SR membranes. Low resolution (28-A) neutron diffraction studies utilizing SR membranes exchanged with either protonated or perdeuterated SR phospholipids allowed direct determination of the lipid profile within the isolated SR membrane at two different unit cell repeat distances. These lipid profile structures were found to be highly asymmetric regarding the conformation of the fatty acid chain extents and compositional distribution of phospholipid molecules in the inner vs. outer monolayer of the SR membrane bilayer. The relatively high resolution (11-A) electron-density profile from x-ray diffraction was decomposed by utilizing the asymmetry in the number of phospholipid molecules residing in the inner vs. outer monolayer of the SR lipid bilayer as obtained from the neutron diffraction study. To our knowledge, this represents the first direct determination of a lipid bilayer profile structure within an isolated membrane system

  1. Temporal Change of Interleukin-6, C-Reactive Protein, and Skin Temperature after Total Knee Arthroplasty Using Triclosan-Coated Sutures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jie Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of surgical site infections (SSIs after total knee arthroplasty (TKA can never be eliminated. Antimicrobial sutures containing triclosan have been used to decrease SSIs, but whether triclosan-coated sutures are effective with TKA is unclear. Between 2011 and 2012, 102 patients randomly assigned to a triclosan or a control group were prospectively assessed. The incidence of SSI within 3 months of surgery, length of hospital stay, pain scale, functional scores, wound condition, and serum inflammatory markers during hospitalization and within 3 months postoperatively were compared. At the final follow-up, there were 2 patients with superficial infections (3.9% in the control group but none in the triclosan group. Lower serum IL-6 was detected in the triclosan group at 4 weeks and 3 months. The local skin temperature of the knees—recorded at 3 months using infrared thermography—was lower in the triclosan group than in the control group. More precise analytical measurements are needed to investigate local and systemic complications, especially in the early subclinical stage. This prospective, randomized, open-label clinical trial is in the public registry: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02533492.

  2. Protein-stabilized fluorescent nanocrystals consisting of a gold core and a silver shell for detecting the total amount of cysteine and homocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui, Rijun; Wang, Yanfeng; Sun, Jie

    2014-01-01

    We report on a simple and sensitive method for the determination of the total amount of cysteine (Cys) and homocysteine (hCys), [Cys plus hCys], by exploiting the effect of Cys and hCys on the photoluminescence of human serum albumin-stabilized gold-core silver-shell nanocrystals (NCs). If Cys (or hCys) are added to these NCs, Cys (or hCys) will be adsorbed on the surface due to ligand exchange with human serum albumin, and this results in the quenching of the luminescence of the NCs. The addition of mixtures of Cys and hCys in different molar ratios also induces a decrease in luminescence whose intensity is linearly related to the concentration of [Cys plus hCys] in the range from 0.1 – 5.0 μM, with a correlation coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.9953 and a detection limit of 15 nM. The method is highly selective and sensitive over other α-amino acids, water-soluble thiols, and biomolecules. It has been successfully applied to the determination of the concentration of [Cys plus hCys] in spiked solutions of biomolecules and in real biological samples (author)

  3. Analytical Validation of a Highly Quantitative, Sensitive, Accurate, and Reproducible Assay (HERmark® for the Measurement of HER2 Total Protein and HER2 Homodimers in FFPE Breast Cancer Tumor Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Larson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the results of the analytical validation of assays that measure HER2 total protein (H2T and HER2 homodimer (H2D expression in Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE breast cancer tumors as well as cell line controls. The assays are based on the VeraTag technology platform and are commercially available through a central CAP-accredited clinical reference laboratory. The accuracy of H2T measurements spans a broad dynamic range (2-3 logs as evaluated by comparison with cross-validating technologies. The measurement of H2T expression demonstrates a sensitivity that is approximately 7–10 times greater than conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC (HercepTest. The HERmark assay is a quantitative assay that sensitively and reproducibly measures continuous H2T and H2D protein expression levels and therefore may have the potential to stratify patients more accurately with respect to response to HER2-targeted therapies than current methods which rely on semiquantitative protein measurements (IHC or on indirect assessments of gene amplification (FISH.

  4. Proteína degradável no rúmen na dieta de bovinos: digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes e parâmetros ruminais Rumen degradable protein on bovine diet: total and partial nutrient digestibility and ruminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Ferreira Caldas Neto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Quatro novilhos da raça Holandesa (450 kg portadores de cânula ruminal e duodenal, recebendo dietas com níveis de proteína degradável no rúmen (PDR de 50, 60, 65 e 70%, associadas a uma fonte de amido de alta degradabilidade ruminal (farinha de varredura de mandioca, foram distribuídos em quadrado latino 4 × 4 para se avaliarem as digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes, a concentração de amônia e o pH ruminal. Foi utilizada, como indicador do fluxo duodenal e fecal, a cinza insolúvel em ácido. Não foi observado efeito do nível de PDR sobre o coeficiente de digestibilidade total, digestibilidade ruminal e digestibilidade intestinal da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, fibra em detergente neutro, carboidratos não-estruturais e energia bruta. O aumento do nível de PDR na dieta elevou o coeficiente de digestibilidade total e ruminal da proteína bruta e reduziu a digestibilidade intestinal desse nutriente como porcentagem do digerido. Não houve efeito dos níveis de PDR no pH ruminal, no entanto, maior concentração ruminal de amônia foi observada para as dietas com maior teor de PDR. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o aumento no teor de PDR acarretou maior produção de nitrogênio na forma de amônia, independentemente da presença da fonte de amido de alta degradabilidade ruminal, contudo, o aporte de proteína intestinal foi semelhante para todas as dietas.Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein steers (450 kg were fed diets with rumen degradable protein (RDP levels of 50.0 60.0 65.0 and 70.0% associated with a high ruminal degradability starch (cassava by-product meal were allotted to a 4 × 4 Latin square design for the evaluation of total and partial digestibility of the nutrients, ruminal ammonia concentration and pH. The acid insoluble ash was used as a marker of the duodenal and fecal flow. No effects were observed on the level of RDP on total digestibility coefficient, ruminal digestibility and

  5. Ginseng Total Saponins Reverse Corticosterone-Induced Changes in Depression-Like Behavior and Hippocampal Plasticity-Related Proteins by Interfering with GSK-3β-CREB Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the antidepressant mechanisms of ginseng total saponins (GTS in the corticosterone-induced mouse depression model. In Experiment 1, GTS (50, 25, and 12.5 mg kg−1 d−1, intragastrically were given for 3 weeks. In Experiment 2, the same doses of GTS were administrated after each corticosterone (20 mg kg−1 d−1, subcutaneously injection for 22 days. In both experiments, mice underwent a forced swimming test and a tail suspension test on day 20 and day 21, respectively, and were sacrificed on day 22. Results of Experiment 1 revealed that GTS (50 and 25 mg kg−1 d−1 exhibited antidepressant activity and not statistically altered hippocampal protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and neurofilament light chain (NF-L. Results of Experiment 2 showed that GTS (50 and 25 mg kg−1 d−1 ameliorated depression-like behavior without normalizing hypercortisolism. The GTS treatments reversed the corticosterone-induced changes in mRNA levels of BDNF and NF-L, and protein levels of BDNF NF-L, phosphor-cAMP response element-binding protein (Ser133, and phosphor-glycogen synthase kinase-3β (Ser9 in the hippocampus. These findings imply that the effect of GTS on corticosterone-induced depression-like behavior may be mediated partly through interfering with hippocampal GSK-3β-CREB signaling pathway and reversing decrease of some plasticity-related proteins.

  6. Determination of blood concentrations of main active compounds in Zi-Cao-Cheng-Qi decoction and their total plasma protein binding rates based on hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miaomiao; Chen, Xuan; Hu, Shuang; Wang, Runqin; Peng, Xiaoli; Bai, Xiaohong

    2018-01-01

    Oil-in-salt hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was developed for determination of the blood concentrations of the main active compounds, hesperidin, honokiol, shikonin, magnolol, emodin and β,β'-dimethylacrylshikonin, after oral administration of Zi-Cao-Cheng-Qi decoction (ZCCQD) and their total plasma protein binding rates. In the procedure, a hollow fiber segment was immersed in organic solvent to fill the solvent in the fiber lumen and wall pore, and then the fiber was immersed into sodium chloride solution to cover a thin salt membrane on the fiber wall pore filling organic solvent. Various factors affecting the procedure, such as extraction solvent, sample phase pH, stirring rate, extraction time, NaCl concentration and fiber immersion time in the NaCl solution, were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, good linearities (r 2 ≥0.9905), low limits of detection (0.7-2.5ng/mL) or quantitation (1.2-12ng/mL), satisfactory precision (2.6%-12.8%) and accuracy (81.0%-114.2%) of this method, were observed. The results showed that, after oral administration of a 25g/kg dose, (1) the blood concentrations (at 0.5h) of hesperidin, honokiol, shikonin, magnolol, emodin and β,β'-dimethylacrylshikonin were 0.45, 0.40, 0.48, 0.74, 0.11 and 1.11μg/mL, respectively; (2) the total plasma protein binding rates of the six active compounds were 42.0% (hesperidin), 71.8% (honokiol), 64.6% (shikonin), 77.7% (magnolol), 75.3% (emodin) and 75.7% (β,β'-dimethylacrylshikonin), respectively. The proposed procedure coupled with HPLC shows obvious advantages, such as low solvent consumption, simple operation, high sensitivity and strong purifying and can be used for the determination of both the blood concentrations and total plasma protein binding rates of active compounds in traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Whole-cell protein profiles are useful for distinguishing enterococcal species recovered from clinical specimens Los perfiles de proteínas totales son útiles para distinguir especies de enterococos recuperados de muestras clínicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Massa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Whole-cell protein analysis was performed for differentiating 150 enterococcal isolates to the species level, which had previously been identified by extended phenotypic conventional tests. Whole-cell protein profile (WCPP showed a high degree of similarity within species and comparison between species revealed important differences in band profiles. All Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates were properly located into their corresponding species, regardless of their clinical source and susceptibility pattern. Moreover, WCPP allowed relocation of some isolates that had erroneously been identified by the usual conventional scheme (i.e. two atypical arginine-negative E. faecalis isolates. WCPP proved to be a simple method to ascertain the various enterococcal species, especially those other than E. faecalis, and may be a suitable tool for high-complexity or reference clinical laboratories.La comparación del perfil de proteínas totales permitió agrupar 150 aislamientos de enterococos dentro de la especie en la que habían sido ubicados por el esquema convencional de pruebas bioquímicas. Los patrones de proteínas totales, comparados visualmente, se mantuvieron con alto grado de similitud intraespecie y revelaron diferencias notorias en la comparación interespecie. Todos los aislamientos de Enterococcus faecalis y Enterococcus faecium, independientemente de los sitios de aislamiento, cuadro clínico del paciente, biotipo o antibiotipo, fueron fácilmente encuadrados en su especie. Asimismo, el estudio del perfil de proteínas totales de enterococos permitió reubicar taxonómicamente aislamientos que habían sido incorrectamente identificados por los métodos bioquímicos convencionales, como por ejemplo dos aislamientos atípicos de E. faecalis arginina negativos. Dado que la metodología empleada es económica y rápida, la comparación de perfiles de proteínas totales en SDS-PAGE podría ser considerada una herramienta

  8. Proteínas totais do liquido cefalorraqueano obtido por punção da cisterna magna: valores normais. Variações ligadas ao sexo Total protein content of normal cisternal cerebrospinal fluid: Variations related to sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Singer Vermes

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available Aplicando o método de Lowry, determinamos as proteínas totais do LCR considerado normal de 98 pessoas: 58 do sexo masculino e 40 do feminino. Todas as amostras de LCR foram obtidas por punção da cisterna magna (LCR-SO. Mediante tratamento estatístico dos valores obtidos, estabelecemos as taxas normais de proteinorraquia cisternal para a população mista: limite superior de 40,36 mg/100 ml, valor médio de 26,78 mg/100 e limite inferior de 13,20 mg/100 ml. Estes valores são superiores àqueles referidos na literatura. Foi verificado que a proteinorraquia total é, em média, significantemente maior nos indivíduos do sexo masculino, que nos de feminino. Consequentemente estabelecemos em separado os níveis normais de proteínas totais do LCR-SO para pessoas do sexo masculino e feminino. As taxas médias de proteínas totais do LCR-SO de pessoas do sexo masculino e feminino são de 28,76 e 23,91 mg/100 ml, respectivamente; os limites normais vão de 16,96 a 47,13 mg/100 ml para o sexo masculino e de 14,76 a 42,76 mg/100 ml para o sexo feminino.The total protein content of CSF collected from the cisterna magna (cisternal fluid of 98 patients (58 males and 40 females with no neurological diseases was determined by the colorimetric method devised by Lowry and co-workers. This method has been previously chosen based mainly on it's sensitivity, accuracy and low fluid consumption. The CSF samples were normal with regard to pressure, color, citology and it's content in glucose, chloride and urea. Complement fixation tests for syphilis and cisticercosis, as well as the globulin tests (Pandy, Nonne — Appelt and Takata-Ara were negative. The average value and the normal range of cisternal fluid total protein was calculated for the mixed population (males and females. The mean protein value was 26.78 mg/100 ml, the lower and upper limits were respectively 13.20 and 40.36 mg/100 ml. These data are higher than those stated in some publications, and

  9. Changes in body weight, C-reactive protein, and total adiponectin in non-obese women after 12 months of a small-volume, home-based exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix; Neves, Fabiana Alves; Cunha, Alessandra Cordeiro de Souza Rodrigues; Souza, Erica Patricia Garcia de; Moura, Anibal Sanchez; Sichieri, Rosely

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of small-volume, home-based exercise combined with slight caloric restriction on the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein and adiponectin. In total, 54 women were randomly assigned to one of two groups for exercise intervention: the control or home-based exercise groups. Weight, waist and hip circumferences, and inflammatory markers were measured at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Women allocated to the home-based exercise group received a booklet explaining the physical exercises to be practiced at home at least 3 times per week, 40 minutes per session, at low-to-moderate intensity. All participants received dietary counseling aimed at reducing caloric intake by 100-300 calories per day, with a normal distribution of macro-nutrients (26-28% of energy as fat). Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01206413 RESULTS: The home-based exercise group showed a significantly greater reduction in weight and body mass index at six months, but no difference between groups was observed thereafter. With regard to the inflammatory markers, a greater but non-statistically significant reduction was found for C-reactive protein in the home-based exercise group at six months; however, this difference disappeared after adjusting for weight change. No differences in adiponectin were found at the 6- or 12-month follow-up. Small-volume, home-based exercise did not promote changes in inflammatory markers independent of weight change.

  10. Esterase, Total Protein and Seed Storage Protein Diversity in Okra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    leaves were thoroughly washed in distilled water and then macerated in ceramic mortar using pestles in 800 ml of extraction buffer. ... filter paper and washed two times with fresh petroleum ether at 5 min intervals. The samples were folded within the filter paper, clipped and dried in an oven at 50 oC for about 18 h.

  11. Effect of sepsis on calcium uptake and content in skeletal muscle and regulation in vitro by calcium of total and myofibrillar protein breakdown in control and septic muscle: Results from a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, D.W.; Hasselgren, P.O.; Hiyama, D.T.; James, J.H.; Li, S.; Rigel, D.F.; Fischer, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Because high calcium concentration in vitro stimulates muscle proteolysis, calcium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of increased muscle breakdown in different catabolic conditions. Protein breakdown in skeletal muscle is increased during sepsis, but the effect of sepsis on muscle calcium uptake and content is not known. In this study the influence of sepsis, induced in rats by cecal ligation and puncture, on muscle calcium uptake and content was studied. Sixteen hours after cecal ligation and puncture or sham operation, calcium content of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles was determined with an atomic absorption spectrometer. Calcium uptake was measured in intact SOL muscles incubated in the presence of calcium 45 (45Ca) for between 1 and 120 minutes. Total and myofibrillar protein breakdown was determined in SOL muscles, incubated in the presence of different calcium concentrations (0; 2.5; 5.0 mmol/L), and measured as release into the incubation medium of tyrosine and 3-methylhistidine (3-MH), respectively. Calcium content was increased by 51% (p less than 0.001) during sepsis in SOL and by 10% (p less than 0.05) in EDL muscle. There was no difference in 45Ca uptake between control and septic muscles during the early phase (1 to 5 minutes) of incubation. During more extended incubation (30 to 120 minutes), muscles from septic rats took up significantly more 45Ca than control muscles (p less than 0.05). Tyrosine release by incubated SOL muscles from control and septic rats was increased when calcium was added to the incubation medium, and at a calcium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L, the increase in tyrosine release was greater in septic than in control muscle. Addition of calcium to the incubation medium did not affect 3-MH release in control or septic muscle

  12. Consumo, digestibilidade total, produção de proteína microbiana e balanço de nitrogênio em dietas com subprodutos de frutas para ruminantes Intake, total digestibility, microbial protein production and the nitrogen balance in diets with fruit by-products for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Gomes Azevêdo

    2011-05-01

    -product of fresh fruit (pineapple, guava, papaya, mango and passion fruit used in the diet for bovines partly replacing corn silage on intake and total nutrient digestibility, on the production of microbial protein and the nitrogen balance and on prediction of digestible fractions and total digestible nutrients (TDN of these by-products. All animals received corn silage and the urea/ammonium sulfate (9:1 mixture so diets would remain isonitrogenous. The intakes of dry matter (DM (kg/day, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and TDN, and the digestibility of CP, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC and ether extract (EE were affected by the source of the by-product. There was an effect for the level of inclusion of products in the digestibility of CP and EE. The by-products of papaya, mango and pineapple showed energy values of 23.1, 18.0 and 7.1% respectively, higher than corn silage. The source of the by-product influenced urinary excretion of derived from total purine, purine absorbed and production of microbial protein, in addition to the intake (g/day, the excretion in feces and urine (g/day of nitrogen compounds and nitrogen balance (g/day. The level of inclusion of the by-product in the diet affect the urinary excretion of derived from total purine, purine absorbed and microbial protein production. The by-products of pineapple, papaya and mango have energy value higher than corn silage and they can partly replace energy concentrates in diets for ruminants. The by-product of passion fruit has the potential to partly replace roughage in the diets of ruminants. The by-product of guava has use limitations in diets of ruminants.

  13. Low Dose Total Body Irradiation Combined With Recombinant CD19-Ligand × Soluble TRAIL Fusion Protein is Highly Effective Against Radiation-resistant B-precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih M. Uckun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In high-risk remission B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BPL patients, relapse rates have remained high post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT even after the use of very intensive total body irradiation (TBI-based conditioning regimens, especially in patients with a high “minimal residual disease” (MRD burden. New agents capable of killing radiation-resistant BPL cells and selectively augmenting their radiation sensitivity are therefore urgently needed. We report preclinical proof-of-principle that the potency of radiation therapy against BPL can be augmented by combining radiation with recombinant human CD19-Ligand × soluble TRAIL (“CD19L–sTRAIL” fusion protein. CD19L–sTRAIL consistently killed radiation-resistant primary leukemia cells from BPL patients as well as BPL xenograft cells and their leukemia-initiating in vivo clonogenic fraction. Low dose total body irradiation (TBI combined with CD19L–sTRAIL was highly effective against (1 xenografted CD19+ radiochemotherapy-resistant human BPL in NOD/SCID (NS mice challenged with an otherwise invariably fatal dose of xenograft cells derived from relapsed BPL patients as well as (2 radiation-resistant advanced stage CD19+ murine BPL with lymphomatous features in CD22ΔE12xBCR-ABL double transgenic mice. We hypothesize that the incorporation of CD19L–sTRAIL into the pre-transplant TBI regimens of patients with very high-risk BPL will improve their survival outcome after HSCT.

  14. Níveis de proteína bruta em dietas para bovinos de corte: consumo e digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes Crude protein levels in diets of beef cattle: intake and apparent total tract, intestinal, and ruminal digestibilities of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Andréa Borges Cavalcante

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os consumos e as digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes em novilhos Holandês x Zebu recebendo dietas contendo quatro níveis de proteína bruta (10,5; 12; 13,5 e 15% de PB na matéria seca, constituídas de 65% de feno de capim-tifton 85 e 35% de concentrado. Foram utilizados quatro animais castrados, fistulados no rúmen e abomaso, com peso vivo médio inicial de 487,3 kg, distribuídos em um quadrado latino 4 x 4. Cada período experimental teve duração de 20 dias - 10 para adaptação às dietas, seis para coletas de amostras de fezes e digestas de abomaso, um para a coleta de líquido ruminal, um para a coleta total de urina, em 24 horas, e dois para a coleta de conteúdo ruminal. Para determinação da excreção fecal, utilizou-se o óxido crômico como indicador. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT não foram influenciados pelos níveis de proteína bruta (PB das dietas, mas os consumos de PB aumentaram e os de extrato etéreo (EE e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF reduziram com o incremento de PB das dietas. As digestibilidades aparentes totais da MS, MO e PB aumentaram linearmente com a concentração protéica das dietas. As digestibilidades aparentes ruminal e intestinal dos nutrientes não foram afetadas pelos níveis de PB das dietas, com exceção à digestibilidade intestinal da PB, que aumentou 2,77 unidades para cada percentual de PB acrescentado à dieta.The objective of this trial was to study the effects of different dietary levels of crude protein (CP on intake and apparent total tract, intestinal, and ruminal digestibilities of nutrients in Holstein x Zebu steers. The diets contained [dry matter (DM basis]: 10.5, 12, 13.5, or 15% of CP and a forage (Tifton 85:concentrate ratio of 65:35. Four castrated animals averaging 487.3 kg of body weight at the beginning of the trial and fitted with both abomasum and

  15. Estimation of benchmark dose as the threshold levels of urinary cadmium, based on excretion of total protein, β 2-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase in cadmium nonpolluted regions in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Etsuko; Suwazono, Yasushi; Uetani, Mirei; Inaba, Takeya; Oishi, Mitsuhiro; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nogawa, Koji

    2006-01-01

    Previously, we investigated the association between urinary cadmium (Cd) concentration and indicators of renal dysfunction, including total protein, β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -MG), and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG). In 2778 inhabitants ≥50 years of age (1114 men, 1664 women) in three different Cd nonpolluted areas in Japan, we showed that a dose-response relationship existed between renal effects and Cd exposure in the general environment without any known Cd pollution. However, we could not estimate the threshold levels of urinary Cd at that time. In the present study, we estimated the threshold levels of urinary Cd as the benchmark dose low (BMDL) using the benchmark dose (BMD) approach. Urinary Cd excretion was divided into 10 categories, and an abnormality rate was calculated for each. Cut-off values for urinary substances were defined as corresponding to the 84% and 95% upper limit values of the target population who have not smoked. Then we calculated the BMD and BMDL using a log-logistic model. The values of BMD and BMDL for all urinary substances could be calculated. The BMDL for the 84% cut-off value of β 2 -MG, setting an abnormal value at 5%, was 2.4 μg/g creatinine (cr) in men and 3.3 μg/g cr in women. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the threshold level of urinary Cd could be estimated in people living in the general environment without any known Cd-pollution in Japan, and the value was inferred to be almost the same as that in Belgium, Sweden, and China

  16. Tau protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini; Kristensen, Kim; Bahl, Jmc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tau protein has been proposed as biomarker of axonal damage leading to irreversible neurological impairment in MS. CSF concentrations may be useful when determining risk of progression from ON to MS. Objective: To investigate the association between tau protein concentration and 14......-3-3 protein in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis (ON) versus patients with monosymptomatic onset who progressed to multiple sclerosis (MS). To evaluate results against data found in a complete literature review. Methods: A total of 66 patients with MS and/or ON from...... the Department of Neurology of Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, were included. CSF samples were analysed for tau protein and 14-3-3 protein, and clinical and paraclinical information was obtained from medical records. Results: The study shows a significantly increased concentration of tau...

  17. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  18. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  19. Technique of total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy

  20. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  1. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  2. Determination of the total concentration of highly protein-bound drugs in plasma by on-line dialysis and column liquid chromatography: application to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herraez-Hernandez, R.; van de Merbel, N.C.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1995-01-01

    The potential of on-line dialysis as a sample preparation procedure for compounds highly bound to plasma proteins is evaluated, using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as model compounds and column liquid chromatography as the separation technique. Different strategies to reduce the degree of

  3. Determination of the total concentration of highly protein-bound drugs in plasma by on-line dialysis and column liquid chromatography : application to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herráez-Hernández, R; van de Merbel, N C; Brinkman, U A

    1995-01-01

    The potential of on-line dialysis as a sample preparation procedure for compounds highly bound to plasma proteins is evaluated, using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as model compounds and column liquid chromatography as the separation technique. Different strategies to reduce the degree of

  4. Serum concentrations of free and total insulin-like growth factor-I, IGF binding proteins -1 and -3 and IGFBP-3 protease activity in boys with normal or precocious puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Frystyk, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Circulating IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels both increase in puberty where growth velocity is high. The amount of free IGF-I is dependent on the IGF-I level and on the concentrations of the specific IGFBPs. Furthermore, IGFBP-3 proteolysis regulates the bioavailability of IGF......-I. However, the concentration of free IGF-I and possible IGFBP-3 proteolytic activity in puberty has not previously been studied....

  5. Substituição parcial e total da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína dos farelos de canola e algodão em dietas para alevinos de piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, 1988 Partial and total replacement of soybean meal protein by canola or cottonseed meal protein in diets of Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, 1988 fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Christina Esper Amaro de Faria

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela proteína do farelo de canola (FC e farelo de algodão (FA, em dietas para alevinos de piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Characiformes, Anostomidae, realizou-se um experimento com duração de 60 dias, utilizando-se 300 alevinos, com peso inicial médio de 0,10 g distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. As dietas isoprotéicas foram formuladas de forma a terem o FS, FC, FA, FS+FC, FS+FA e FC+FA como fonte protéica. Os alevinos, alimentados com dietas contendo FS e FS+FA, apresentaram valores de peso final e taxa de eficiência protéica superiores (p 0,05 pelo uso das diferentes dietas. Observou-se redução linear dos valores de peso final, da taxa de eficiência protéica e aumento linear (p The effects of soybean meal (SB protein replacement by canola meal (CN or cottonseed meal (CT protein in diets of Leporinus macrocephalus (Characiformes, Anostomidae fingerlings are provided. Assay was carried out during 60 days. Three hundred fingerlings with mean initial weight of 1.00g were distributed in a block randomized design with six treatments and five replicates. Isoprotein diets contained SB, CN, CT, SB+CN, SB+CT and CN+CT as protein source. Fingerlings fed on diets with SB, SB+CN, SB+CT showed better final mean weight and protein efficiency rate values (p 0.05 by different diets linear reduction (p macrocephalus fingerlings, replacing 50.00% of SB protein.

  6. Total Quality Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  7. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...

  8. Free and total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), and IGFBP-3 and their relationships to the presence of diabetic retinopathy and glomerular hyperfiltration in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); M.L. Jacobs (Marloes); F.H.M. Derkx (Frans); R.F.A. Weber (Rob); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe existing literature on serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is conflicting. Free IGF-I may have greater physiological and clinical relevance than total IGF- I. Recently, a validated method has been developed to measure free

  9. Free and total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), and IGFBP-3 and their relationships to the presence of diabetic retinopathy and glomerular hyperfiltration in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); M.L. Jacobs (Marloes); F.H.M. Derkx (Frans); R.F.A. Weber (Robert); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe existing literature on serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is conflicting. Free IGF-I may have greater physiological and clinical relevance than total IGF-I. Recently, a validated method has

  10. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  11. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  12. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  13. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  14. Total 2004 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  15. Total synthesis of ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Akinari; Isobe, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Something fishy: Ciguatoxin (see structure) is one of the principal toxins involved in ciguatera poisoning and the target of a total synthesis involving the coupling of three segments. The key transformations in this synthesis feature acetylene-dicobalthexacarbonyl complexation.

  16. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  17. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty....

  18. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Feb-23...

  19. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    There has been a decline in the rate of hysterectomies in Denmark in general over the last thirteen years, together with a rise in the number of supravaginal operations over the last two years. The literature concerning the relative merits of the supravaginal and the total abdominal operation is ...... indicate a reduced frequency of orgasm after the total hysterectomy compared with the supravaginal operation. When there are technical problems peroperatively with an increased urologic risk the supravaginal operation is recommended....

  20. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  1. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  2. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  3. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  4. Análise dialélica de genótipos de milho doce e comum para caracteres agronômicos e proteína total Diallel analysis of sweet and regular corn genotypes for agronomic characters and total protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia do N. Bordallo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar a capacidade combinatória, bem como o efeito recíproco em dialelo envolvendo genótipos de milho doce e comum, avaliaram-se seis caracteres de interesse agronômico e industrial: altura de plantas, estande, porcentagem de espigas atacadas por pragas, teor de proteína no grão, peso médio de espiga sem palha e comprimento médio de espiga sem palha. Os valores dos quadrados médios referentes à capacidade geral de combinação ( e capacidade específica de combinação (Sij foram significativos para as características altura de planta, peso médio de espiga sem palha, comprimento médio de espiga sem palha e teor de proteína no grão, indicando a presença de efeitos gênicos aditivos e não aditivos no controle dos caracteres. Para peso médio de espiga sem palha e comprimento médio de espiga sem palha, as médias dos quadrados dos efeitos não diferiram, sugerindo a utilização de métodos intrapopulacionais ou interpopulacionais de melhoramento. Os genótipos Doce 13 e Sol da Manhã são os mais indicados para programas de melhoramento pelo comportamento dos valores de . Com base nos efeitos de Sij, o melhor híbrido foi Doce 13 X Sol da Manhã.The combining ability as well as reciprocal effect in diallel of sweet and regular corn genotypes was investigated for six agronomic and industrial characters: plant height, stand, percentage of ears attacked by insects, grain protein content, and average (mean dehusked ear length and weight. General Combining Ability ( and Specific Combining Ability (Sij mean square values were statistically significant when evaluating the following characters: plant height, average (mean dehusked ear length and weight, and grain protein content, indicating that additive and non-additive genetic effects control these characters. There was no statistical difference regarding mean square effects of average (mean dehusked ear length and weight characters suggesting the utilization of

  5. Total versus subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Anna Birthe

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications, with regard to urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, quality of life (SF-36), constipation, prolapse, satisfaction with sexual life, and pelvic pain at 1-year postoperative. Eighty...... women chose total and 105 women chose subtotal abdominal hysterectomy. No significant differences were found between the 2 operation methods in any of the outcome measures at 12 months. Fourteen women (15%) from the subtotal abdominal hysterectomy group experienced vaginal bleeding and three women had...

  6. Qualità totale e mobilità totale Total Quality and Total Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission’s White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on

  7. Hematologic examination and total protein values of sea turtles of species Caretta caretta (Linnaeus, 1758, in captivity, from Praia do Forte, Mata de São João - Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Torres Pires

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de obter valores dos parâmetros do hemograma e de proteína plasmática total, de tartarugas marinhas da espécie Caretta caretta criadas em cativeiro, foram coletados cinco mililitros de sangue através de venopunção do seio venoso cervical dorsal de oito animais daquela espécie, utilizando como anticoagulante a heparina de sódio. Os achados hematológicos mostraram valores médios de eritrócitos de 275.000/µl (±28.030,59, volume globular de 33,12% (±2,35, concentração de hemoglobina de 8,65 g/dl (±0,80, enquanto que os índices hematimétricos encontrados foram de 725 fl (± 131,99 para volume globular médio (VGM, 198,18 pg (± 38,66 para hemoglobina globular média (HGM e de 26,10% (± 1,21 para concentração de hemoglobina globular média (CHGM. No leucograma a média do número total de leucócitos foi de 3.656/µl (±963,04, e os valores médios relativos da contagem diferencial de leucócitos foram de 59,38% (±16.27 para heterófilos, 10,38% (±6,32 para eosinófilos, 0,13% (±0.35 para basófilos, 29,25% (±17,12 para linfócitos e 0,88% (±2,10 para monócitos, sendo os valores absolutos de 2.156,87/µl (±703,49; 366,88/µl (±216,44; 2,50/µl (±7,07; 1.110,94/µl (±783,61 e 19,06/µl (± 42,34, respectivamente. O valor médio de trombócitos encontrado foi igual a 10.968,13/µl (±3.109,19 e a determinação de proteína total teve uma média de 6,5 g/dl (±0,83. Das variáveis analisadas, a contagem de eritrócitos, o volume globular médio, a hemoglobina globular média e as contagens total e diferencial de leucócitos apresentaram valores diferentes para a espécie em questão, quando comparadas com a literatura consultada.

  8. Total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novack, D.H.; Kiley, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The multitude of papers and conferences in recent years on the use of very large megavoltage radiation fields indicates an increased interest in total body, hemibody, and total nodal radiotherapy for various clinical situations. These include high dose total body irradiation (TBI) to destroy the bone marrow and leukemic cells and provide immunosuppression prior to a bone marrow transplant, high dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) prior to bone marrow transplantation in severe aplastic anemia, low dose TBI in the treatment of lymphocytic leukemias or lymphomas, and hemibody irradiation (HBI) in the treatment of advanced multiple myeloma. Although accurate provision of a specific dose and the desired degree of dose homogeneity are two of the physicist's major considerations for all radiotherapy techniques, these tasks are even more demanding for large field radiotherapy. Because most large field radiotherapy is done at an extended distance for complex patient geometries, basic dosimetry data measured at the standard distance (isocenter) must be verified or supplemented. This paper discusses some of the special dosimetric problems of large field radiotherapy, with specific examples given of the dosimetry of the TBI program for bone marrow transplant at the authors' hospital

  9. Total design of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of design as an art made not only for the people, but also by the people is an old dream going back at least to William Morris. It is, however, reappearing vigoriously in many kinds of design activism and grows out of the visions of a Total Design of society. The ideas of participation b...

  10. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  11. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  12. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental methods using real photon beams for measurements of total photonuclear absorption cross section σ(Tot : E/sub γ/) are recalled. Most recent σ(Tot : E/sub γ/)results for complex nuclei and in the nucleon resonance region are presented

  13. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  14. Total Water Management - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  15. Bazı Meşe ve Gül Türlerinde Galli ve Galsiz Bireylerdeki, Total Protein İçeriğinin Farklı Yöntemler Kullanılarak Araştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Daştan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Özet. Parazit veya simbiyoz olarak bitki üzerinde yaşayan böcek, nematod, akar, bakteri ya da mantarların neden olduğu tahriş ve beslenme fizyolojisinden doğan olumsuzluklara karşı bitkilerin savunma tepkimesi olarak oluşturdukları anormal büyüme şekli gal olarak tanımlanmaktadır. En kompleks, en iyi organize olmuş gallerin birçoğu, gal arıları (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae tarafından meydana getirilirler. En çok tanınan cynipid galleri gül ve meşelerde yer almaktadır. Bu çalışmada; Sivas çevresinde yetişen, bazı meşe ve gül türlerinin, gal oluşturmayan ve yoğun olarak sürgün ve meyva gali oluşturan bireylerinden yaprak, meyva ve sürgün gal örnekleri toplanmıştır. Yaprak, meyva ve gallerdeki total protein miktarları, Bradford Mikro Assay, Biüret, Lowry yöntemleri ve ayrıca Ultraviyole (UV spektrofotometresi kullanılarak 280 nm de ölçümleri yapılmak suretiyle hesaplanmıştır. Bu şekilde elde edilen veriler üzerinden hem galli ve galsiz bireyler arasındaki protein miktarları açısından farklılıklar hem de kullanılan dört farklı yöntem arasındaki farklılıklar karşılaştırılmıştır. Yapılan deneyler sonucunda; galli bireylerdeki total protein miktarının galsiz bireylere göre anlamlı şekilde fazla olduğu saptanmıştır. Yine meşelerdeki protein içeriğinin güllerdeki protein içeriğine göre yaklaşık 2 katı değerlerde olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Aylara göre protein içeriğindeki farklılıklara baktığımızda ise, meşeler için eylül ayında, kuşburnu bitkisi için ise ağustos ayında daha fazla protein içeriği tespit edilmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Gal, Rosa sp., Quercus sp., Cynipidae, Total protein içeriği Abstract. Plant galls are an abnormal growth pattern that plants develop as a defense reaction to irritations and negative nutritional physiology caused by insects, nematodes, mites, bacteria and fungi living in a parasitic or symbiotic

  16. Influence of physical and chemical properties of HTSXT-FTIR samples on the quality of prediction models developed to determine absolute concentrations of total proteins, carbohydrates and triglycerides: a preliminary study on the determination of their absolute concentrations in fresh microalgal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano León, Esteban; Coat, Rémy; Moutel, Benjamin; Pruvost, Jérémy; Legrand, Jack; Gonçalves, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    Absolute concentrations of total macromolecules (triglycerides, proteins and carbohydrates) in microorganisms can be rapidly measured by FTIR spectroscopy, but caution is needed to avoid non-specific experimental bias. Here, we assess the limits within which this approach can be used on model solutions of macromolecules of interest. We used the Bruker HTSXT-FTIR system. Our results show that the solid deposits obtained after the sampling procedure present physical and chemical properties that influence the quality of the absolute concentration prediction models (univariate and multivariate). The accuracy of the models was degraded by a factor of 2 or 3 outside the recommended concentration interval of 0.5-35 µg spot(-1). Change occurred notably in the sample hydrogen bond network, which could, however, be controlled using an internal probe (pseudohalide anion). We also demonstrate that for aqueous solutions, accurate prediction of total carbohydrate quantities (in glucose equivalent) could not be made unless a constant amount of protein was added to the model solution (BSA). The results of the prediction model for more complex solutions, here with two components: glucose and BSA, were very encouraging, suggesting that this FTIR approach could be used as a rapid quantification method for mixtures of molecules of interest, provided the limits of use of the HTSXT-FTIR method are precisely known and respected. This last finding opens the way to direct quantification of total molecules of interest in more complex matrices.

  17. Total 2003 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the 2003 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, 4. quarter 2003 results, full year 2003 results, upstream (key figures, proved reserves), downstream key figures, chemicals key figures, parent company accounts and proposed dividends, 2004 sensitivities, summary and outlook, operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2003: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refinery throughput by region, refined product sales by region, chemicals), impact of allocating contribution of Cepsa to net operating income by business segment: equity in income (loss) and affiliates and other items, Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  18. TOTAL PERFORMANCE SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca ȘERBAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of the Balanced Scorecard from a measurement instrument to a strategic performance management tool and to highlight the advantages of implementing the Total Performance Scorecard, especially for Human Resource Management. The study has been accomplished using the methodology of bibliographic study and various secondary sources. Implementing the classical Balanced Scorecard indicated over the years, repeatedly failure. It can be indicated that the crucial level is determined by the learning and growth perspective. It has been developed from a human perspective, which focused on staff satisfaction, innovation perspective with focus on future developments. Integrating the Total Performance Scorecard in an overall framework assures the company’s success, by keeping track of the individual goals, the company’s objectives and strategic directions. Like this, individual identity can be linked to corporate brand, individual aspirations to business goals and individual learning objectives to needed organizational capabilities.

  19. Totally parallel multilevel algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1988-01-01

    Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.

  20. Total space in resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonacina, I.; Galesi, N.; Thapen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2016), s. 1894-1909 ISSN 0097-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : total space * resolution random CNFs * proof complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/15M1023269

  1. MFTF TOTAL benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, J.H.

    1979-06-01

    A benchmark of the TOTAL data base management system as applied to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) data base was implemented and run in February and March of 1979. The benchmark was run on an Interdata 8/32 and involved the following tasks: (1) data base design, (2) data base generation, (3) data base load, and (4) develop and implement programs to simulate MFTF usage of the data base

  2. Total - annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities and results of TOTAL S.A., french society on oil and gas. It deals with statistics, the managers, key information on financial data and risk factors, information on the Company, unresolved Staff Comments, employees, major Shareholders, consolidated statements, markets, security, financial risks, defaults dividend arrearages and delinquencies, controls and procedures, code of ethics and financial statements. (A.L.B.)

  3. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  4. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  5. Total Synthesis of Hyperforin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chi P; Maimone, Thomas J

    2015-08-26

    A 10-step total synthesis of the polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol (PPAP) natural product hyperforin from 2-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is reported. This route was enabled by a diketene annulation reaction and an oxidative ring expansion strategy designed to complement the presumed biosynthesis of this complex meroterpene. The described work enables the preparation of a highly substituted bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-1,3,5-trione motif in only six steps and thus serves as a platform for the construction of easily synthesized, highly diverse PPAPs modifiable at every position.

  6. Total quality is people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Confronted by changing market conditions and increased global competition, in 1983 the Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division (CNFD) of Westinghouse Electric embarked on an ambitious plan to make total quality the centerpiece of its long-term business strategy. Five years later, the division's efforts in making continuous quality improvement a way of life among its more than 2,000 employees gained national recognition when it was named a charter recipient of the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award. What CNFD achieved during the 1980s was a cultural transformation, characterized by an empowered work force committed to a common vision. The company's quality program development strategy is described

  7. Total quality accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijašević Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of competitive "battle" shifted from the price towards non-price instruments, above all, towards quality that became the key variable for profitability increase and achievement of better comparative position of a company. Under such conditions, management of a company, which, according to the established and certified system of total quality, strives towards achieving of a better market position, faces the problem of quality cost measurement and determination. Management, above all, cost accounting can help in solving of this problem, but the question is how much of its potential is being used for that purpose.

  8. Total_Aktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2008-01-01

    digitale medier er registreringen og muligheden for at opbevare og håndtere digital data uden begrænsninger. Oplevelse, registrering og bevaring knyttes sammen i en ny museal virkelighed, hvor samlingens særlige dokumentariske karakter og fokus, som er unikt for Museet for Samtidskunst, er i centrum...... at mikse deres personlige drinks. TOTAL_AKTION viser Hørbar#3, som er en videreudvikling af den første version. METASYN af Carl Emil Carlsen: Metadata er centralt for Carl Emil Carlsens projekt, der betragter museets samling som et ”univers” af værker (analoge og digitale), beskrivelser og relationer. I...

  9. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  10. Total Factbook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2003. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  11. Total 2004 fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2004. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  12. TOTAL annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2003 annual report of the Group Total provides economical results and information of the society on the following topics: keys data, the corporate governance (Directors charter, board of directors, audit committee, nomination and remuneration committee, internal control procedures, compensation of directors and executive officers), the corporate social responsibility (environmental stewardship, the future of energy management, the safety enhancement, the human resources, ethics and local development), the investor relations, the management report, the upstream exploration and production, the downstream refining, marketing, trading and shipping, the chemicals and financial and legal information. (A.L.B.)

  13. Total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik M.; Petersen, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful treatment of the osteoarthritic knee, which has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. The indication is a painful osteoarthritic knee with relevant radiographic findings and failure of conservative measures like painkillers and exercise...... surgeon seems to positively influence the rate of surgical complications and implant survival. The painful TKA knee should be thoroughly evaluated, but not revised except if a relevant indication can be established. The most frequent indications for revision are: aseptic loosening, instability, infection...

  14. TOTAL user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  15. Total process surveillance: (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical reduncancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. (orig.)

  16. Total and EDF invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, St.

    2008-01-01

    So as to prepare the future of their industrial sector,the Total company plans to invest (14 billion Euros in 2008) to increase its production capacities and strengthen in of other activities as the liquefied natural gas and the renewable energies; EDF plans to inject 35 billion Euros over three years to multiply the new projects of power plants (wind turbines, coal in Germany, gas in Great Britain and nuclear power in Flamanville). EDF wants to exploit its knowledge of leader to run more than ten E.P.R.(European pressurized water reactor) in the world before 2020, projects are in examination with China, Great Britain, South Africa and United States. (N.C.)

  17. Total quality at source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiandone, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Total Quality at Source philosophy is based on optimizing the effectiveness of people in achieving ZERO-DEFECT results. In this paper a philosophy of what, I have come to perceive, it takes to get people to perform to the very best of their abilities and thereby achieve the best results they can, is presented. In the examples I shall describe I have played an instrumental role since it has become my belief that any job can always be done better provided that the people doing it can themselves become convinced that they can do better. Clearly there are many ideas on how to do this. The philosophy that I am presenting in this paper is based on my own experience, where I have both participated and observed it being applied; its effectiveness may be judged by the results. (author)

  18. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Efeito de diferentes manejos de fornecimento prolongado de colostro sobre os níveis de proteína e albúmina séricas e desempenho de bezerras recém-nascidas Effect of different feeding programs employing supplemental colostrum on serum total protein and albumin, and performance of newborn calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Daniele

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Os níveis séricos de proteína total e albúmina e o desempenho de bezerras holandesas foram estudados utilizando-se 24 animais recém-nascidos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso em parcelas subdivididas, com três tratamentos à base de leite e colostro suplementar, a saber: tratamento 1 - colostro materno no 1° dia de vida (idem para tratamentos 2 e 3 e 2 litros de leite pela manhã e 2 litros de leite à tarde, do 2° dia de vida até o 30° dia de vida; tratamento 2 - fornecimento de 0,8 litros de leite + 1,2 litros de colostro pela manhã e 2 litros de leite à tarde, até 30 dias de idade; tratamento 3 - fornecimento de 1,4 litros de leite + 0,6 litros de colostro pela manhã e igual dieta à tarde, até 30 dias de idade. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas aos 3, 5, 10, 15,17, 20, 22, 25, 30, 40, 50 e 60 dias de vida e analisadas quanto à concentração de proteína total e albúmina séricas.Os animais foram pesados ao nascer e aos 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50 e 60 dias de idade. Os animais do tratamento 3 (colostro duas vezes/dia tiveram concentração de proteína total sérica superior (p The serum total protein and albumin concentrations and the performance under different milk feeding programs were evaluated in twenty-four female Holstein newborn calves, randomly allocated in three treatments. The animals were daily fed milk or supplemental colostrum, in different feeding programs during the first thirty days of Ufe. Blood samples were collected at 3; 5;10; 15; 17; 20; 22; 25; 30; 40; 50 and 60 days of age and analysed for serum total protein and serum albumin. Animals were weighed at 0; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30; 40; 50 and 60 days after birth. In the first sixty days, the serum total protein concentration in treatment 3 (colostrum fed twice a day was higher (p < 0.05 than in treatment 1 (milk. The concentration of serum was also different at different ages (p < 0.0001. During the experimental period the total

  20. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    An outline review notes recent work on total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as a means of preparing patients for grafts and particularly for bone-marrow transplantation. T.L.I. has proved immunosuppressive in rats, mice, dogs, monkeys and baboons; when given before bone-marrow transplantation, engraftment took place without, or with delayed rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Work with mice has indicated that the thymus needs to be included within the irradiation field, since screening of the thymus reduced skin-graft survival from 50 to 18 days, though irradiation of the thymus alone has proved ineffective. A more lasting tolerance has been observed when T.L.I. is followed by an injection of donor bone marrow. 50% of mice treated in this way accepted allogenic skin grafts for more than 100 days, the animals proving to be stable chimeras with 50% of their peripheral blood lymphocytes being of donor origin. Experiments of a similar nature with dogs and baboons were not so successful. (U.K.)

  1. The total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  2. 21 CFR 862.1635 - Total protein test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diagnosis and treatment of a variety of diseases involving the liver, kidney, or bone marrow as well as other metabolic or nutritional disorders. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is...

  3. Study of total seed storage protein in indigenous Brassica species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... Brassica napus. Acc. No Location. Acc. No Location. Acc. No Location. Acc. No Location. 500. Islamsbad. 522. Hassan Abdal. 544. Naseer abad. 566. Rawalpindi. 501. Islamsbad. 523. Bannu. 545. Jaglot. 567. Karak. 502. Rawalakot. 524. Karak. 546. Haripur North. 568. Akora Khattack. 503. Sibi. 525.

  4. Sublethal Effects of Diesel on Total Protein Levels and Cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    were handpicked at the Eagle Cement area of the New Calabar River and subjected to different levels ... groups when compared to the control in both the muscle and the viscera of the periwinkle. ... In Nigeria, oil industry operations are both offshore and onshore. ... This acts as a means of assessing the hazard or potential ...

  5. total protein, albumin and globulin levels following the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR VICTOR EKAM

    The effect of treatment with activity directed fractions of Vernonia amygdalina during acetaminophen - induced ... the active metabolite of phenacetin and is derived from .... fasted over-night. .... regulated Kinases and Human Breast cancer cells ...

  6. quantitative genetic analysis of total glucosinolate, oil and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    were field-tested in a randomized block design at two locations in Ethiopia. Seeds were ... complete block design with two replications. The plot size ...... Sci. 56:10–14. 35. Underhill, E.W. (1980). Glucosinolates. In: Secondary. Plant Products, pp. 493–511, (Bell, E.A. and. Charlwood, B.V., eds). Springler, Berlin. 36. Utz, H.F. ...

  7. Phyto-agglutinin, total proteins and amino assimilating enzymatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical studies were carried out with in vitro micropropagated plantlets of two indigenous cultivars of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), KK-1 and Hassan-2K, where extract from shoots, leaves, roots, and reproductive organs were determined for human erythrocyte agglutination (by mixing the lectin containing extract 1:1 ...

  8. Incapacidad laboral total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz Tabares

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo y retrospectivo con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la incapacidad permanente para el trabajo en el municipio "San Cristóbal" durante el decenio 1982-1991, y se aplicó el método de encuesta por el que se recogieron datos que fueron extraídos del modelo oficial de peritaje médico laboral y de la entrevista con el peritado. Los resultados fueron plasmados en tablas de contingencias donde se relacionan las variables por cada año estudiado, y se aplicó la prueba estadística de chi cuadrado. El número de individuos dictaminados con incapacidad laboral total fue de 693; predominó en reportes el año 1988 con 114 casos y muy discretamente el sexo femenino sobre el masculino, el grupo etáreo de 45 a 54 años con 360 casos y la artrosis como entidad valorada por ortopedia, con análisis estadísticos significativos. No resultó estadísticamente significativo, el predominio de la hipertensión arterial sistémica entre las entidades valoradas por la especialidad de medicina interna como causas de incapacidad laboral. Fue muy significativa la variación del número de dictaminados por la comisión en cada uno de los años estudiados y que el porcentaje de ellos que se encontraban realizando trabajos que demandan esfuerzo físico de moderado a intenso al momento de aplicar la encuesta, ascendió al 64,9.A longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in order to know the behavior of permanent labor disability at the municipality of San Cristóbal during 1982-1991. A survey was done to collect data taken from the official model of medical inspections and from the interview with the disabled worker. The results were shown in contingency tables where the variables are related by every year studied. The chi square statistical test was applied. The number of individuals with labor disability was 693. As for reports, the year 1988 predominated with 114. There was a discreet

  9. Exceptional heat stability of high protein content dispersions containing whey protein particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saglam, D.; Venema, P.; Vries, de R.J.; Linden, van der E.

    2014-01-01

    Due to aggregation and/or gelation during thermal treatment, the amount of whey proteins that can be used in the formulation of high protein foods e.g. protein drinks, is limited. The aim of this study was to replace whey proteins with whey protein particles to increase the total protein content and

  10. Quantitative trait loci analysis of individual and total isoflavone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... 2Seed Management Station of Jilin Province, Changchun 130062, Jilin, ... daidzein (DC), genistein (GeC), glycitein (GlC) and total isoflavone contents (TIC) in ..... ing and height) and quality (oil and protein content) traits.

  11. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21–25 ... Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in South ... antioxidant-rich diet and lifestyle changes in T2DM patients would help to avert the .... glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycosylation.

  12. Comparison of Serum Concentrations of Total Cholesterol and Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most dangerous tropical diseases that complicates HIV infection in Nigeria to date. Over two million Nigerians are known to be infected with TB and many more are at risk of the infection. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol and total lipid of 117 female TB patients attending chest clinic at ...

  13. Changes in total and differential white cell counts, total lymphocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Published reports on the possible changes in the various immune cell populations, especially the total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts, during the menstrual cycle in Nigerian female subjects are relatively scarce. Aim: To determine possible changes in the total and differential white blood cell [WBC] counts, ...

  14. EFFECT OF AN ENZYMATIC COMPLEX ON EGG PRODUCTION AND QUALITY, TOTAL PLASMA PROTEIN LEVELS AND CECAL BACTERIAL COUNT OF LAYERS EFEITO DE UM COMPLEXO ENZIMÁTICO NA PRODUÇÃO E NA QUALIDADE DE OVOS, NOS NÍVEIS DE PROTEÍNAS PLASMÁTICAS E NA POPULAÇÃO BACTERIANA CECAL EM POEDEIRAS SEMIPESADAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Pereira Gentilini

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to relate the egg production with health status, expressed as cecal bacteria contamination, as well as to investigate the effect of total plasma proteins with egg quality of layers fed different diets reformulated to different metabolizable energy levels using an enzyme complex, obtained by solid state fermentation.  A total of  384 26-week old Hisex Brown layers were fed experimental diets during 280 days (10 periods of 28 days each. A total of 4 birds were allocated per cage, in a total of 64 birds/treatment. Treatments consisted in reformulating diets to different metablizable energy levels using an enzyme complex (EC obtained by  solid state fermentation:   T1 – basal diet (control; T2 –  basal diet  + EC (reformulated to  120 kcal ME/kg; T3 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 90 kcal ME/kg; T4 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 60 kcal ME/kg; T5 – basal diet + EC (reformulated to 30 kcal ME/kg and T6 – basal diet + EC ( on top. Egg production, egg weight, Haugh units, albumen weight, total plasma proteins and cecal bacteria count were evaluated.  Egg weight and albumen weight and cecal bacteria count, but not egg production, Haugh units and total plasma proteins,   were adversely affected when the EC was added on top of a diet containing a regular commercial premix. This study indicates that the health status of the gut can be improved by adding the SSF enzyme complex on top of a regular diet.

    KEY WORDS: Exogenous enzymes, Haugh units, sanitary status.
    Objetivou-se relacionar a produção de ovos com o status sanitário das aves, expresso pelo nível de contaminação bacteriana cecal, bem como os níveis plasmáticos de proteínas totais com a qualidade dos ovos de aves que receberam dietas com complexo enzimático (CE com diferentes níveis de valorização da energia metabolizável. Utilizaram-se 384 poedeiras Hisex Brown por um período de 280 dias, divididos em dez ciclos de 28

  15. Suplementação de metionina e/ou lisina em rações para juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 Reduction of protein levels and methionine and/or lysine supplementation in diets and their effects in total ammonia nitrogen excretion of tambaqui juveniles (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian V. Brandão

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito da redução dos níveis de proteína e a suplementação de metionina e/ou lisina em rações sobre a excreção de amônia em juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com esquema fatorial de duas entradas: 2 níveis protéicos (25 e 20% e 4 níveis de inclusão de aminoácidos: a 0% de suplementação, b DL-Metionina (3% da PB, c L-lisina (5% da PB e d Dl-Metionina (3% da PB + L-lisina (5% da PB, com duração de 55 dias. A coleta de água das unidades experimentais ocorreu em três momentos (1º dia, 27º dia e 55º dia durante o período experimental. Nestes dias, foram realizadas 3 coletas de amostras de água para análise de amônia de cada unidade experimental (08:00 , 14:00 e 20:00 horas. Os dados de excreção de amônia foram analisados por ANOVA com medidas repetidas no tempo a 5% do nível de significância. A redução em 5% do nível de proteína na dieta gerou uma diminuição de 28,4% na excreção de amônia. Contudo, a suplementação de lisina e metionina não influenciaram esta diminuição.It was evaluated the effect of the reduction of crude protein level (CP and the lysine and/or methionine supplementation in total ammonia nitrogen excretion on tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum juveniles. The experiment developed in a factorial and randomized design with two levels of protein contents (20% and 25% CP and four levels of amino acid supplementation: a Dl-methionine (0% of CP and L-lysine (0% of CP, b Dl-methionine (3% of CP, c L-lysine (5% of CP, d Dl-methionine (3% of CP + L-lysine (5% of CP, during 55 days. The water sampling from experimental units was done at 3 moments (1(0 day, 27(0 day e 55(0 day. In these days, 3 samples of each experimental unit were collected in elapsing of the time (08:00 a.m., 02:00 p.m. and 08:00 p.m.. The ammonia excretion data were analysed by repeated-measures ANOVA (p>0,05 with time as within effect. The

  16. Plasma proteins and proteinuria in gestational malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Fisayo, Asaolu Modupe

    2007-01-01

    The plasma concentrations of total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins IgG, IgA and IgM and urinary protein were assayed in 250 pregnant Nigerian women with malaria and compared with 250 healthy pregnant women which served as controls. The mean values of plasma total proteins, albumin, IgG and IgA were significantly lowered (P

  17. Dairy Proteins and Energy Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Line Quist

    High protein diets affect energy balance beneficially through decreased hunger, enhanced satiety and increased energy expenditure. Dairy products are a major source of protein. Dairy proteins are comprised of two classes, casein (80%) and whey proteins (20%), which are both of high quality......, but casein is absorbed slowly and whey is absorbed rapidly. The present PhD study investigated the effects of total dairy proteins, whey, and casein, on energy balance and the mechanisms behind any differences in the effects of the specific proteins. The results do not support the hypothesis that dairy...... proteins, whey or casein are more beneficial than other protein sources in the regulation of energy balance, and suggest that dairy proteins, whey or casein seem to play only a minor role, if any, in the prevention and treatment of obesity....

  18. Total hip arthroplasty in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alma Becic; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Overgaard, Søren

    2005-01-01

    The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs.......The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs....

  19. Congruences of totally geodesic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plebanski, J.F.; Rozga, K.

    1989-01-01

    A general theory of congruences of totally geodesic surfaces is presented. In particular their classification, based on the properties of induced affine connections, is provided. In the four-dimensional case canonical forms of the metric tensor admitting congruences of two-dimensional totally geodesic surfaces of rank one are given. Finally, congruences of two-dimensional extremal surfaces are studied. (author)

  20. Yeast ribosomal proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaka, E.; Kobata, K.

    1978-01-01

    The cytoplasmic 80s ribosomal proteins from the cells of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were analyzed by SDS two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Seventyfour proteins were identified and consecutively numbered from 1 to 74. Upon oxidation of the 80s proteins with performic acid, ten proteins (no. 15, 20, 35, 40, 44, 46, 49, 51, 54 and 55) were dislocated on the gel without change of the total number of protein spots. Five proteins (no. 8, 14, 16, 36 and 74) were phosphorylated in vivo as seen in 32 P-labelling experiments. The large and small subunits separated in low magnesium medium were analyzed by the above gel electrophoresis. At least forty-five and twenty-eight proteins were assumed to be in the large and small subunits, respectively. All proteins found in the 80s ribosomes, except for no. 3, were detected in either subunit without appearance of new spots. The acidic protein no. 3 seems to be lost during subunit dissociation. (orig.) [de

  1. Total parenteral nutrition in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norcross, E.D.; Stein, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    Parenteral Nutrition with hypertonic glucose is frequently given to diabetic patients. Large amounts of insulin can be required. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a totally parenterally nourished diabetic rat model. 200 g Female Sprague Dawley rats were made diabetic by i.v. injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Rats were then allowed to recover for at least 1 week before undergoing surgical insertion of a central venous catheter for parenteral feeding. TPN was begun 3 days after surgery. Prior to this they were allowed unlimited access to food and water. Control (non-streptozotocin treated) rats were run at the same time. Protein turnover was investigated by using 15 N glycine. Preliminary results: diabetic rats given mostly fat as a calorie source survived well in the absence of exogenous insulin whereas those that were given glucose only as their non-protein calorie source showed poor survival even with exogenous insulin. N balance and protein turnover in the lipid treated diabetic rats were comparable to the non-diabetic control rats

  2. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  3. Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC) database integrates premarket and postmarket data about medical devices. It includes information pulled from CDRH databases...

  4. Nutritional management after total laryngectomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    28 September 2010 with a known diagnosis of cancer of the larynx. The patient, who underwent a total laryngectomy on 13 October, had a tracheostomy inserted .... status, leading to improved quality of life and better response to treatment.4.

  5. Transmandibular approach to total maxillectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Total Maxillectomy through transfacial approach has been practiced in the treatment of Cancer for more than a decade. Its role in T3 - T4 tumors extending posteriorly through gthe bony wall is questionable, since an oncological radical procedure is often not possible. Recurrences in the infratemporal fossa are common. Despite the addition of radiotherapy five year survivals have not significantly improved. Transmandibular approach to Total Maxillectomy overcomes this shortcoming by including ...

  6. Leadership and Total Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    leadership and management skills yields increased productivity. This paper will focus on the skills required of senior level leaders (leaders at the...publication until it has been cleared by the appropriate mii..-, service or government agency. Leadership and Total Quality Management An Individual Study...llty Codes fAvti1 and/or DltISpecial Abstract AUTHOR: Harry D. Gatanas, LTC, USA TITLE: Leadership and Total Quality Management FORMAT- Individual

  7. Collagen synthesis in CBA mouse heart after total thoracic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.C.; Parkins, C.S.; Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton

    1988-01-01

    CBA mice were irradiated to the whole thorax with single doses of 240 kVp X-rays in the dose range 8-16 Gy. Collagen and total protein synthesis rates in the heart were measured at 2-monthly intervals using a radio-isotope incorporation techniques. Doses of 10 Gy or greater caused a slight increase in collagen synthesis, followed by significantly reduced collagen synthesis by 16 weeks or longer after treatment. The depression in synthesis appeared correspondingly earlier with increasing dose. Total protein synthesis in heart followed similar patterns although changes were not statistically significant, indicating that the changes reflected alterations to collagen synthesis specifally, and not protein synthesis in geneal. Total hydroxyproline measurements showed no significant changes in heart collagen at any time as a result of X-irradiation. 18 refs.; 7 figs

  8. Proteins engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    At the - Departement d'Ingenierie et d'etudes de proteines (Deip) of the CEA more than seventy researchers are working hard to understand the function of proteins. For that they use the molecular labelling technique (F.M.)

  9. Whey Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reliable information about the safety of taking whey protein if you are pregnant or breast feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use. Milk allergy: If you are allergic to cow's milk, avoid using whey protein.

  10. Andrographolide Inhibits Mechanical and Thermal Hyperalgesia in a Rat Model of HIV-Induced Neuropathic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Yi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we investigated whether andrographolide (Andro can alleviate neuropathic pain induced by HIV gp120 plus ddC treatment and the mechanism of its action.Methods: The paw withdrawal threshold and the paw withdrawal latency were observed to assess pain behaviors in all groups of the rats, including control group, control combined with Andro treatment group, sham group, gp120 combined with ddC treatment group, gp120 plus ddC combined with A438079 treatment group, and gp120 plus ddC combined with Andro treatment by intrathecally injecting at a dose of 25 μg/20 μl group. The protein expression levels of the P2X7 receptor, tumor necrosis factor-α-receptor (TNFα-R, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-10, phospho-extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK (p-ERK in the L4–L6 dorsal root ganglia (DRG were measured by western blotting. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to test the mRNA expression level of the P2X7 receptor. Double-labeling immunofluorescence was used to identify the co-localization of the P2X7 receptor with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in DRG. Molecular docking was performed to identify whether the Andro interacted perfectly with the rat P2X7 (rP2X7 receptor.Results: Andro attenuated the mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in gp120+ddC-treated rats and down-regulated the P2X7 receptor mRNA and protein expression in the L4–L6 DRGs of gp120+ddC-treated rats. Additionally, Andro simultaneously decreased the expression of TNFα-R and IL-1β protein, increased the expression of IL-10 protein in L4–L6 DRGs, and inhibited the activation of ERK signaling pathways. Moreover, Andro decreased the co-expression of GFAP and the P2X7 receptor in the SGCs of L4–L6 DRG on 14th day after surgery.Conclusion: Andro decreased the hyperalgesia induced by gp120 plus ddC.

  11. Concentrações séricas de proteína total, albumina e gamaglobulinas em gatos infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência felina Serum protein, albumin and gamaglobulin concentrations in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Manetti Armentano Rodrigues

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência dos felinos (VIF apresenta um curso prolongado, caracterizado por uma fase aguda, em que ocorre a replicação viral no organismo hospedeiro, seguida de um período de menor replicação, no qual o animal é praticamente assintomático. Anos depois, no estádio final da infecção, desenvolve-se a síndrome da imunodeficiência dos felinos. Alguns animais infectados podem desenvolver hipergamaglobulinemia do tipo policlonal, principalmente na fase crônica ou final da infecção. Este fato tem sido atribuído a um distúrbio na produção de citocinas, causado pela infecção viral de linfócitos T CD4+. Não obstante, pouco se sabe a respeito das concentrações de proteínas séricas, especificamente gamaglobulinas, na fase aguda da infecção pelo VIF. Objetivando esclarecer isto, procedeu-se à determinação das proteínas séricas de dez felinos, SRD de ambos os sexos, infectados aos 7 meses de idade com o VIF (clade B, antes da infecção e 4, 8 e 12 meses após. A infecção pelo VIF foi confirmada pela soroconversão, com a presença de anticorpos específicos, pesquisados por meio da técnica de imunoadsorção enzimática (ELISA e pela demonstração de material genético do vírus (PCR. Outros dez felinos VIF-, da mesma faixa etária foram mantidos como controle. Previamente à infecção experimental, todos os felinos eram negativos ao VIF, fato comprovado pela ausência de anticorpos específicos. A proteína sérica total foi determinada pelo método do buireto e as frações protéicas foram obtidas por eletroforese em tiras de acetato de celulose lidas por densitometria. Verificou-se aumento de gamaglobulinas (2,01 ±0,27g dL-1, PFeline immunodeficiency virus (FIV infection is known as a lifelong infection of cats. The acute phase corresponds to the period of viral replication in the host organism, followed by a period of lower replication when the animal is asymptomatic. Some years

  12. Total renin after gonadotropin stimulation in polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matinlauri, I; Anttila, L; Jaatinen, T A; Koskinen, P; Aalto, M; Irjala, K; Nikkanen, V

    1995-02-01

    To examine the influence of polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) on the levels of total renin in plasma and follicular fluid (FF) after stimulation with hMG. Comparative study of the plasma and FF concentrations of total renin in women with and without PCOD after stimulation with hMG. In vitro fertilization-embryo transfer program at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the University Central Hospital of Turku, Finland. Thirty-six women undergoing IVF-ET for infertility with (n = 10) or without (n = 26) ultrasonographically diagnosed PCOD. Of the latter group, 15 women had tubal infertility, and the rest suffered from an anovulatory infertility and reacted with PCO-like ovarian response to stimulation. The concentrations of total renin in plasma and FF, serum E2, and protein in FF. The concentrations of plasma total renin after the gonadotropin stimulation were significantly higher in the PCOD and PCO-like groups when compared with the tubal group. The concentration of total renin in FF and the ratio of total renin per protein in FF were higher in the PCOD and PCO-like groups than in the tubal group, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Positive correlations were found between the plasma total renin and serum E2 concentrations in the PCO-like and in the tubal group and between plasma total renin concentrations and the number of mature follicles in all groups. Follicular fluid total renin did not correlate with FF protein in any group. All findings were independent of the total hMG dosage used and the body mass index of the patients. In the present study the concentrations of total renin in plasma were enhanced markedly after gonadotropin stimulation in women with PCOD compared with women having tubal infertility. The pattern of the hormonal secretions revealed a group of infertile patients reacting biochemically like women with PCOD.

  13. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  14. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation

  15. Total 2004 annual report; TOTAL 2004 rapport annuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  16. Human Serum Protein-Bound iodine and Protein Fractions at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iodine profile of Nigerians at different ages in both sexes and in pregnant women, and under narcotic influence, such as alcoholism, cigarette smoking and marijuana addiction were studied. Their serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were also determined. Results of the study showed that serum protein ...

  17. Calidad total en el ICESI

    OpenAIRE

    González Zamora, José Hipólito

    2010-01-01

    En primer lugar deseo dar la bienvenida esta reunión al ingeniero Francisco Gensini, director ejecutivo de INCOLDA, quien ha sido fuente constante de inspiración para el trabajo relacionado con Control Total de Calidad (C.T.C.) que se ha venido desarrollando en el ICESI. El ingeniero Gensini ha logrado aglutinar alrededor de INCOLDA al grupo de seis empresas de la región, líderes en el estudio y aplicación de los principios del Control Total de Calidad , es decir Rica Rondo S.A., Banco de Oc...

  18. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ortíz" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  19. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in selected Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, C T; Balachandran, Indira

    2012-05-01

    Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia nilotica: 80.63 mg gallic acid equivalents, Acacia catechu 78.12 mg gallic acid equivalents, Albizia lebbeck 66.23 mg gallic acid equivalents). The highest total flavonoid content was revealed in Senna tora which belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The present study also shows the ratio of flavonoids to the phenolics in each sample for their specificity.

  20. P2X₇ receptor of rat dorsal root ganglia is involved in the effect of moxibustion on visceral hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuangmei; Shi, Qingming; Zhu, Qicheng; Zou, Ting; Li, Guilin; Huang, An; Wu, Bing; Peng, Lichao; Song, Miaomiao; Wu, Qin; Xie, Qiuyu; Lin, Weijian; Xie, Wei; Wen, Shiyao; Zhang, Zhedong; Lv, Qiulan; Zou, Lifang; Zhang, Xi; Ying, Mofeng; Li, Guodong; Liang, Shangdong

    2015-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease often display visceral hypersensitivity. Visceral nociceptors after inflammatory stimulation generate afferent nerve impulses through dorsal root ganglia (DRG) transmitting to the central nervous system. ATP and its activated-purinergic 2X7 (P2X7) receptor play an important role in the transmission of nociceptive signal. Purinergic signaling is involved in the sensory transmission of visceral pain. Moxibustion is a therapy applying ignited mugwort directly or indirectly at acupuncture points or other specific parts of the body to treat diseases. Heat-sensitive acupoints are the corresponding points extremely sensitive to moxa heat in disease conditions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the analgesic effect of moxibustion on a heat-sensitive acupoint "Dachangshu" and the expression levels of P2X7 receptor in rat DRG after chronic inflammatory stimulation of colorectal distension. Heat-sensitive moxibustion at Dachangshu acupoint inhibited the nociceptive signal transmission by decreasing the upregulated expression levels of P2X7 mRNA and protein in DRG induced by visceral pain, and reversed the abnormal expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, a marker of satellite glial cells) in DRG. Consequently, abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) score in a visceral pain model was reduced, and the pain threshold was elevated. Therefore, heat-sensitive moxibustion at Dachangshu acupoint can produce a therapeutic effect on IBS via inhibiting the nociceptive transmission mediated by upregulated P2X7 receptor.

  1. Markers of protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Headlam, Henrietta A; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Exposure of proteins to radicals in the presence of O2 gives both side-chain oxidation and backbone fragmentation. These processes can be interrelated, with initial side-chain oxidation giving rise to backbone damage via transfer reactions. We have shown previously that alkoxyl radicals formed...... of this process depends on the extent of oxidation at C-3 compared with other sites. HO*, generated by gamma radiolysis, gave the highest total carbonyl yield, with protein-bound carbonyls predominating over released. In contrast, metal ion/H2O2 systems, gave more released than bound carbonyls, with this ratio...... modulated by EDTA. This is ascribed to metal ion-protein interactions affecting the sites of initial oxidation. Hypochlorous acid gave low concentrations of released carbonyls, but high yields of protein-bound material. The peroxyl radical generator 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride...

  2. Total Synthesis of Adunctin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethe, Dattatraya H; Dherange, Balu D

    2018-03-16

    Total synthesis of (±)-adunctin B, a natural product isolated from Piper aduncum (Piperaceae), has been achieved using two different strategies, in seven and three steps. The efficient approach features highly atom economical and diastereoselective Friedel-Crafts acylation, alkylation reaction and palladium catalyzed Wacker type oxidative cyclization.

  3. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...

  4. What is Total Quality Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, William A.

    1996-01-01

    Provides a general overview of Total Quality Management (TQM) and explains why there is pressure for change in higher education institutions. Defines TQM and the various themes, tools, and beliefs that make it different from other management approaches. Presents 14 principles and how they might be applied to student affairs. (RJM)

  5. A totally diverting loop colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, N. D.; Gartell, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    A technique is described where the distal limb of a loop colostomy is tied with nylon or polydioxanone. This ensures total faecal diversion and dispenses with the supporting rod, enabling early application of stoma appliances. The technique does not interfere with the traditional transverse closure of a loop colostomy. PMID:8379632

  6. A generalization of total graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Afkhami

    2018-04-12

    Apr 12, 2018 ... product of any lower triangular matrix with the transpose of any element of U belongs to U. The ... total graph of R, which is denoted by T( (R)), is a simple graph with all elements of R as vertices, and ...... [9] Badawi A, On dot-product graph of a commutative ring, Communications in Algebra 43 (2015). 43–50.

  7. Total synthesis of nepetoidin B

    Science.gov (United States)

    The total synthesis of nepetoidin B (the 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethenyl ester of 3-(3,4-dihydroxy¬phenyl)-2-propenoic acid) has been achieved in two steps from commercially available 1,5-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadien-3-one. Tetramethylated nepetoidin B was prepared directly by Baeyer-Villig...

  8. The "Total Immersion" Meeting Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Coleman

    1980-01-01

    The designing of intelligently planned meeting facilities can aid management communication and learning. The author examines the psychology of meeting attendance; architectural considerations (lighting, windows, color, etc.); design elements and learning modes (furniture, walls, audiovisuals, materials); and the idea of "total immersion meeting…

  9. First total synthesis of Boehmenan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The first total synthesis of dilignan Boehmenan has been achieved. A biomimetic oxidative coupling of the ferulic acid methyl ester in the presence of silver oxide is the crucial step in the synthesis sequence, generating the dihydrobenzofuran skeleton. Hydroxyl group was protected with DHP and reducted with LiAlH4 to ...

  10. MODIFIED TECHNIQUE OF TOTAL LARYNGECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Spirić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical technique of total laryngectomy is well presented in many surgical textbooks. Essentially, it has remained the same since Gluck an Soerensen in 1922 described all its details. Generally, it stresses the U shape skin incision with releasing laryngeal structures and removing larynx from up to down. Further, pharyngeal reconstruction is performed with different kinds of sutures in two or more layers and is finished with skin suture and suction drainage. One of worst complications following this surgery is pharyngocutaneous fistula (PF. Modifications proposed in this this article suggests vertical skin incision with larynx removal from below upwards. In pharyngeal reconstruction we used the running locked suture in submucosal plan with „tobacco sac“ at the end on the tongue base instead of traditional T shaped suture. Suction drains were not used.The aim of study was to present the modified surgical technique of total laryingectomy and its impact on hospital stay duration and pharyngocutanous fistula formation. In this randomized study we analyzed 49 patients operated with modified surgical technique compared to 49 patient operated with traditional surgical technique of total laryngectomy. The modified technique of total laryngectomy was presented. Using modified technique we managed to decrease the PF percentage from previous 20,41% to acceptable 8,16% (p=0,0334. Also, the average hospital stay was shortened from 14,96 to 10,63 days (t =-2.9850; p=0.0358.The modified technique of total laryngectomy is safe, short and efficient surgical intervention which decreases the number of pharyngocutaneos fistulas and shortens the hospital stay.

  11. Raw mechanically separated chicken meat and salmon protein hydrolysate as protein sources in extruded dog food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, M. T.; Tauson, A. H.; Kraugerud, O. F.

    2017-01-01

    Protein quality was evaluated for mechanically separated chicken meat (MSC) and salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH), and for extruded dog foods where MSC or SPH partially replaced poultry meal (PM). Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in the protein...

  12. Subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Ottesen, Bent; Alling Møller, Lars Mikael

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare long-term results of subtotal vs total abdominal hysterectomy for benign uterine diseases 14 years after hysterectomy, with urinary incontinence as the primary outcome measure. STUDY DESIGN: This was a long-term follow-up of a multicenter......, randomized clinical trial without blinding. Eleven gynecological departments in Denmark contributed participants to the trial. Women referred for benign uterine diseases who did not have contraindications to subtotal abdominal hysterectomy were randomized to subtotal (n = 161) vs total (n = 158) abdominal...... from discharge summaries from all public hospitals in Denmark. The results were analyzed as intention to treat and per protocol. Possible bias caused by missing data was handled by multiple imputation. The primary outcome was urinary incontinence; the secondary outcomes were pelvic organ prolapse...

  13. Institutional total energy case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulfinghoff, D.

    1979-07-01

    Profiles of three total energy systems in institutional settings are provided in this report. The plants are those of Franciscan Hospital, a 384-bed facility in Rock Island, Illinois; Franklin Foundation Hospital, a 100-bed hospital in Franklin, Louisiana; and the North American Air Defense Command Cheyenne Mountain Complex, a military installation near Colorado Springs, Colorado. The case studies include descriptions of plant components and configurations, operation and maintenance procedures, reliability, relationships to public utilities, staffing, economic efficiency, and factors contributing to success.

  14. Total synthesis of (-)- and (+)-tedanalactam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Majik, M.S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Tilve, S.G.

    : The Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol.74(16); 6378-6381 1 Total Synthesis of (-) and (+)-Tedanalactam Mahesh S. Majik, † Peruninakulath S. Parameswaran, ‡ and Santosh G. Tilve* ,† Department of Chemistry, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Goa 403..., displaying a wide range of biological activities. 1 Piperidones are key synthetic intermediates 2 for the synthesis of piperidine ring due to the presence of keto function which allows the introduction of other groups. Piperidones are also known...

  15. Intrathoracic Hernia after Total Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Tashiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic hernias after total gastrectomy are rare. We report the case of a 78-year-old man who underwent total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction for residual gastric cancer. He had alcoholic liver cirrhosis and received radical laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy for gastric cancer 3 years ago. Early gastric cancer in the remnant stomach was found by routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We initially performed endoscopic submucosal dissection, but the vertical margin was positive in a pathological result. We performed total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction by laparotomy. For adhesion of the esophageal hiatus, the left chest was connected with the abdominal cavity. A pleural defect was not repaired. Two days after the operation, the patient was suspected of having intrathoracic hernia by chest X-rays. Computed tomography showed that the transverse colon and Roux limb were incarcerated in the left thoracic cavity. He was diagnosed with intrathoracic hernia, and emergency reduction and repair were performed. Operative findings showed that the Roux limb and transverse colon were incarcerated in the thoracic cavity. After reduction, the orifice of the hernia was closed by suturing the crus of the diaphragm with the ligament of the jejunum and omentum. After the second operation, he experienced anastomotic leakage and left pyothorax. Anastomotic leakage was improved with conservative therapy and he was discharged 76 days after the second operation.

  16. NIF total neutron yield diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Gary W.; Ruiz, Carlos L.

    2001-01-01

    We have designed a total neutron yield diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which is based on the activation of In and Cu samples. The particular approach that we have chosen is one in which we calibrate the entire counting system and which we call the ''F factor'' method. In this method, In and/or Cu samples are exposed to known sources of DD and DT neutrons. The activated samples are then counted with an appropriate system: a high purity Ge detector for In and a NaI coincidence system for Cu. We can then calculate a calibration factor, which relates measured activity to total neutron yield. The advantage of this approach is that specific knowledge of such quantities as cross sections and detector efficiencies is not needed. Unless the actual scattering environment of the NIF can be mocked up in the calibration experiment, the F factor will have to be modified using the results of a numerical simulation of the NIF scattering environment. In this article, the calibration factor methodology will be discussed and experimental results for the calibration factors will be presented. Total NIF neutron yields of 10 9 --10 19 can be measured with this method assuming a 50 cm stand-off distance can be employed for the lower yields

  17. Whole blood coagulation time, haematocrit, haemoglobin and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the values of whole blood coagulation time (WBCT), haematocrit (HM), haemaglobin (HB) and total protein (TP) of one hundred and eighteen apparently healthy turkeys reared under an extensive management system in Zaria. The mean values for WBCT, HM, HB and TP were 1.12 ...

  18. METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic matter in soils and sediments is widely distributed over the earth's surface occurring in almost all terrestrial and aquatic environments (Schnitzer, 1978). Soils and sediments contain a large variety of organic materials ranging from simple sugars and carbohydrates to the more complex proteins, fats, waxes, and organic acids. Important characteristics of the organic matter include their ability to: form water-soluble and water- insoluble complexes with metal ions and hydrous oxides; interact with clay minerals and bind particles together; sorb and desorb both naturally-occurring and anthropogenically-introduced organic compounds; absorb and release plant nutrients; and hold water in the soil environment. As a result of these characteristics, the determination of total organic carbon (a measure of one of the chemical components of organic matter that is often used as an indicator of its presence in a soil or sediment) is an essential part of any site characterization since its presence or absence can markedly influence how chemicals will react in the soil or sediment. Soil and sediment total organic carbon (TOC) determinations are typically requested with contaminant analyses as part of an ecological risk assessment data package. TOC contents may be used qualitatively to assess the nature of the sampling location (e.g., was it a depositional area) or may be used to normalize portions of the analytical chemistry data set (e.g., equilibrium partitioning).

  19. Urinary Protein Biomarker Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    silica emitter via a Valco stainless steel union. Four μL of individual peptide fractions (total volume 20 μL) following PRISM were injected for LC...secreted cement gland protein XAG-2 homolog, AGR2 belongs to the protein disulfide 5 isomerase (PDI) family. The strongest AGR2 expression has...µm C18 column (75 µm i.d. × 10 cm), which was connected to a chemically etched 20 µm i.d. fused-silica emitter via a Valco stainless steel union

  20. Total eclipses of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Zirker, Jack B

    2014-01-01

    Eclipses have captured attention and sparked curiosity about the cosmos since the first appearance of humankind. Having been blamed for everything from natural disasters to the fall of kings, they are now invaluable tools for understanding many celestial as well as terrestrial phenomena. This clear, easy-to-understand guide explains what causes total eclipses and how they can be used in experiments to examine everything from the dust between the planets to general relativity. A new chapter has been added on the eclipse of July 11, 1991 (the great Hawaiian eclipse). Originally published in 19

  1. Reverse hybrid total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangen, Helge; Havelin, Leif I.; Fenstad, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose - The use of a cemented cup together with an uncemented stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become popular in Norway and Sweden during the last decade. The results of this prosthetic concept, reverse hybrid THA, have been sparsely described. The Nordic Arthroplasty....... Patients and methods - From the NARA, we extracted data on reverse hybrid THAs from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2013. 38,415 such hips were studied and compared with cemented THAs. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the prosthesis survival and the relative risk...

  2. Total knee arthroplasty in ochronosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav G. Patel, MBBS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkaptonuria is disorder of tyrosine metabolism due to deficiency of homogentisic oxidase characterized by excretion of homogentisic acid in urine, deposition of oxidized homogensitate pigments in connective tissues and articular cartilages (ochronosis. The result is dark pigmentation and weakening of the tissues resulting in chronic inflammation and osteoarthritis. Management of alkaptonuric ochronic osteoarthritis is usually symptomatic and replacements have comparable outcomes to osteoarthritis in patients without ochronosis. I report a case of a patient with ochronosis of knee treated with total knee replacement and report operative pearls for surgery in this rare disorder.

  3. Total filmless digital radiology service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, S.K.; Goeringer, F.; Benson, H.; Horii, S.C.

    1989-01-01

    The completion of a comprehensive picture archiving and communication system (PACS) at Georgetown University Hospital has allowed us to identify a number of technical, administrative, personnel, and operational issues that will affect a total digital radiology service. With a hospital-wide digital imaging network system, computer simulation of communications and storage options, and economic modeling, we have developed a feasibility study and implementation strategy for the smooth transition to a nearly filmless radiology service over the next several years. This paper describes the technical and operational requirements for various database operations, workstations (used in diagnosis, review, and education), and communications. Site and installation planning, personnel training, and transition operations are discussed

  4. Protein politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, Marike

    2005-01-01

    This study is part of the program of the interdisciplinary research group Profetas (protein foods, environment, technology and society). Profetas consists of technological, environmental and socio-economic research projects on protein food systems which result in the development of scenarios and

  5. Protein adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Linda F. Lorenz

    2018-01-01

    Nature uses a wide variety of chemicals for providing adhesion internally (e.g., cell to cell) and externally (e.g., mussels to ships and piers). This adhesive bonding is chemically and mechanically complex, involving a variety of proteins, carbohydrates, and other compounds.Consequently,the effect of protein structures on adhesive properties is only partially...

  6. Anti-prion activity of Brilliant Blue G.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Iwamaru

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders with no effective therapy currently available. Accumulating evidence has implicated over-activation of P2X7 ionotropic purinergic receptor (P2X7R in the progression of neuronal loss in several neurodegenerative diseases. This has led to the speculation that simultaneous blockade of this receptor and prion replication can be an effective therapeutic strategy for prion diseases. We have focused on Brilliant Blue G (BBG, a well-known P2X7R antagonist, possessing a chemical structure expected to confer anti-prion activity and examined its inhibitory effect on the accumulation of pathogenic isoforms of prion protein (PrPres in a cellular and a mouse model of prion disease in order to determine its therapeutic potential. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BBG prevented PrPres accumulation in infected MG20 microglial and N2a neural cells at 50% inhibitory concentrations of 14.6 and 3.2 µM, respectively. Administration of BBG in vivo also reduced PrPres accumulation in the brains of mice with prion disease. However, it did not appear to alleviate the disease progression compared to the vehicle-treated controls, implying a complex role of P2X7R on the neuronal degeneration in prion diseases. SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of prion diseases and have important implications for the treatment.

  7. [Nutritional value of the proteins of carboxydobacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volova, T G; Vlasova, N V; Barashkov, V A

    1980-01-01

    The biological value of proteins from 3 carboxidobacterial strains was assessed on the basis of the protein amino acid content, consumption by the test-organism T. pyriformis and protein susceptibility to proteolytic enzymes in vitro. Carboxidobacterial proteins are characterized by a full-value amino acid composition and contain large amounts of all indispensable amino acids. This indicates that on the whole these proteins are quality ones. Experiments with the test-organisms have shown, however, that the relative biological value of the protein samples significantly yields to casein. The total digestibility of carboxidobacterial proteins by pepsin and trypsin in vitro is close to that of wheat vegetable proteins and lower as compared with that of casein. Carboxidobacterial proteins may be thus attributed to a protein group being an intermediate one between casein and wheat vegetable proteins.

  8. Qualidade total: Um novo paradigma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana da Rosa Tolfo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, o movimento para a implantação da Gestão da Qualidade Total vem crescendo ao redor do mundo. Em razão disso, há uma diversidade de ações realizadas com o nome de "Qualidade Total'. Uma revisão da teoria é complexa, porque existem muitos autores que tratam da questão. Eles escolhem diferentes perspectivas de análises (teóricas e empíricas e há dificuldades em se identificar um corpo conceitual. Há uma ampla difusão de modelos, ferramentas, técnicas, mercado e consultores. Essa popularidade, muitas vezes, faz com que determinadas organizações adotem essa forma de gestão do trabalho sem o conhecimento necessário das implicações que um modelo dessa ordem representa; especialmente no caso brasileiro, suscetível a proposições importadas. O presente artigo propõe um exame daquilo que os fundadores têm articulado sobre TQM, as principais críticas nesta direção e a avaliação de como vem sendo aplicadono nosso país.

  9. Testing EDM of Total Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirbus Ján

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to testing electrooptical distance measuring devices (EDM built in total stations, than can be used for various tasks in the contemporary geodetic works. A rich market offer and availability of these universal measuring systems with satisfying distance range, excellent accuracy and other parameters, make total stations as dominant terrestrial geodetic instruments.For succesfully applying these instruments, above all for relliable distance measurements, the stability of the modulation frequency is the most important pre-condition. In the article, therefore, there are given some methods to verify the modulation frequency stability. In addition, some ways for determining the EDM distance constant and periodical corrections of the phase measuring unit are introduced for 4 types of EDM : LEICA 1700L, TOPCON GTS6A, TOPCON GTS2, C.ZEISS ELTA50. It were also investigated their possibilities for precise distance survey. Values of the determined constants and periodical corrections are presented in Tab. 2.Based on the investigation results of the 4 EDM types and using the values m obtained for different distances S, equations of the a posteriori standard deviations in form : m = (a+b.S were derived too.

  10. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-05

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  11. Total employment effect of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stridsberg, S.

    1998-08-01

    The study examined the total employment effect of both direct production of biofuel and energy conversion to heat and electricity, as well as the indirect employment effect arising from investments and other activities in conjunction with the production organization. A secondary effect depending on the increased capital flow is also included in the final result. The scenarios are based on two periods, 1993-2005 and 2005-2020. In the present study, the different fuels and the different applications have been analyzed individually with regard to direct and indirect employment within each separate sector. The greatest employment effect in the production chain is shown for logging residues with 290 full-time jobs/TWh, whereas other biofuels range between 80 and 280 full-time jobs/TWh. In the processing chain, the corresponding range is 200-300 full-time jobs per each additional TWh. Additionally and finally, there are secondary effects that give a total of 650 full-time jobs/TWh. Together with the predicted increase, this suggests that unprocessed fuel will provide an additional 16 000 annual full-time jobs, and that fuel processing will contribute with a further 5 000 full-time jobs. The energy production from the fuels will provide an additional 13 000 full-time jobs. The total figure of 34 000 annual full-time jobs must then be reduced by about 4000 on account of lost jobs, mainly in the oil sector and to some extent in imports of biofuel. In addition, the anticipated increase in capital turnover that occurs within the biofuel sector, will increase full-time jobs up to year 2020. Finally, a discussion is given of the accomplishment of the programmes anticipated by the scenario, where it is noted that processing of biofuel to wafers, pellets or powder places major demands on access to raw material of good quality and that agrarian fuels must be given priority if they are to enter the system sufficiently fast. Straw is already a resource but is still not accepted by

  12. Conversion total hip arthroplasty: Primary or revision total hip arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, Ran; Baghoolizadeh, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is an increasingly common procedure among elderly individuals. Although conversion THA is currently bundled in a diagnosis related group (DRG) with primary THA, there is a lack of literature supporting this classification and it has yet to be identified whether conversion THA better resembles primary or revision THA. This editorial analyzed the intraoperative and postoperative factors and functional outcomes following conversion THA, primary THA, and revision THA to understand whether the characteristics of conversion THA resemble one procedure or the other, or are possibly somewhere in between. The analysis revealed that conversion THA requires more resources both intraoperatively and postoperatively than primary THA. Furthermore, patients undergoing conversion THA present with poorer functional outcomes in the long run. Patients undergoing conversion THA better resemble revision THA patients than primary THA patients. As such, patients undergoing conversion THA should not be likened to patients undergoing primary THA when determining risk stratification and reimbursement rates. Conversion THA procedures should be planned accordingly with proper anticipation of the greater needs both in the operating room, and for in-patient and follow-up care. We suggest that conversion THA be reclassified in the same DRG with revision THA as opposed to primary THA as a step towards better allocation of healthcare resources for conversion hip arthroplasties. PMID:26601055

  13. Instability after total hip arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Brown, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    Instability following total hip arthroplasty (THA) is an unfortunately frequent and serious problem that requires thorough evaluation and preoperative planning before surgical intervention. Prevention through optimal index surgery is of great importance, as the management of an unstable THA is challenging even for an experienced joints surgeon. However, even after well-planned surgery, a significant incidence of recurrent instability still exists. Non-operative management is often successful if the components are well-fixed and correctly positioned in the absence of neurocognitive disorders. If conservative management fails, surgical options include revision of malpositioned components; exchange of modular components such as the femoral head and acetabular liner; bipolar arthroplasty; tripolar arthroplasty; use of a larger femoral head; use of a constrained liner; soft tissue reinforcement and advancement of the greater trochanter. PMID:22919568

  14. A total safety management model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obadia, I.J.; Vidal, M.C.R.; Melo, P.F.F.F.

    2002-01-01

    In nuclear organizations, quality and safety are inextricably linked. Therefore, the search for excellence means reaching excellence in nuclear safety. The International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, developed, after the Chernobyl accident, the organizational approach for improving nuclear safety based on the safety culture, which requires a framework necessary to provide modifications in personnel attitudes and behaviors in situations related to safety. This work presents a Total Safety Management Model, based on the Model of Excellence of the Brazilian Quality Award and on the safety culture approach, which represents an alternative to this framework. The Model is currently under validation at the Nuclear Engineering Institute, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the results of its initial safety culture self assessment are also presented and discussed. (author)

  15. Demand: a total nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessel, Stephane; Jacquard, Albert

    2012-01-01

    This bibliographical note presents a book, in which the authors make a plea for a total nuclear disarmament. They think that humanity cannot be found in competition, but in emulation, and examine how we can get rid of the nuclear bomb. They discuss the background of nuclear energy, state that nuclear weapons have always been useless and extremely dangerous, consider arms race as crazy and as a crime against humanity, recall that nuclear weapons already made numerous victims (Hiroshima, Nagasaki, nuclear tests), that they are a sword of Damocles over 7 billions human beings, that nuclear winter would be an apocalypse, that the Non Proliferation Treaty is a decoy. They discuss the political role of nuclear weapons, and outline that the only solution is their abolition. They discuss what has already been done and what is still to be done, and formulate a strategy for the future

  16. Total synthesis of mycalamide A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jeong-Hun; Waizumi, Nobuaki; Zhong, H Marlon; Rawal, Viresh H

    2005-05-25

    This communication describes a concise and efficient total synthesis of mycalamide A by the convergent coupling of pederic acid unit with the mycalamine unit. The left-half, (+)-7-benzoylpederic acid, was synthesized from (2R,3R)-3-methylpent-4-en-2-ol in seven steps and 34.6% overall yield through a route that features a one-step Pd(II)-catalyzed tandem Wacker/Heck cyclization reaction to prepare the tetrahydropyran ring system. The right-half, the mycalamine unit, was synthesized in 21 steps and 10.5% overall yield from diethyl d-tartrate. Effective, stereoselective methods were developed for the assembly of the two parts to yield either mycalamide A or C(10)-epi-mycalamide A.

  17. Total quality management implementation guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    These Guidelines were designed by the Energy Quality Council to help managers and supervisors in the Department of Energy Complex bring Total Quality Management to their organizations. Because the Department is composed of a rich mixture of diverse organizations, each with its own distinctive culture and quality history, these Guidelines are intended to be adapted by users to meet the particular needs of their organizations. For example, for organizations that are well along on their quality journeys and may already have achieved quality results, these Guidelines will provide a consistent methodology and terminology reference to foster their alignment with the overall Energy quality initiative. For organizations that are just beginning their quality journeys, these Guidelines will serve as a startup manual on quality principles applied in the Energy context.

  18. Total quality management program planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, P.T.; Spence, K.

    1994-05-01

    As government funding grows scarce, competition between the national laboratories is increasing dramatically. In this era of tougher competition, there is no for resistance to change. There must instead be a uniform commitment to improving the overall quality of our products (research and technology) and an increased focus on our customers` needs. There has been an ongoing effort to bring the principles of total quality management (TQM) to all Energy Systems employees to help them better prepare for future changes while responding to the pressures on federal budgets. The need exists for instituting a vigorous program of education and training to an understanding of the techniques needed to improve and initiate a change in organizational culture. The TQM facilitator is responsible for educating the work force on the benefits of self-managed work teams, designing a program of instruction for implementation, and thus getting TQM off the ground at the worker and first-line supervisory levels so that the benefits can flow back up. This program plan presents a conceptual model for TQM in the form of a hot air balloon. In this model, there are numerous factors which can individually and collectively impede the progress of TQM within the division and the Laboratory. When these factors are addressed and corrected, the benefits of TQM become more visible. As this occurs, it is hoped that workers and management alike will grasp the ``total quality`` concept as an acceptable agent for change and continual improvement. TQM can then rise to the occasion and take its rightful place as an integral and valid step in the Laboratory`s formula for survival.

  19. Instability following total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos

    2011-10-01

    Background Knee prosthesis instability (KPI) is a frequent cause of failure of total knee arthroplasty. Moreover, the degree of constraint required to achieve immediate and long-term stability in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is frequently debated. Questions This review aims to define the problem, analyze risk factors, and review strategies for prevention and treatment of KPI. Methods A PubMed (MEDLINE) search of the years 2000 to 2010 was performed using two key words: TKA and instability. One hundred and sixty-five initial articles were identified. The most important (17) articles as judged by the author were selected for this review. The main criteria for selection were that the articles addressed and provided solutions to the diagnosis and treatment of KPI. Results Patient-related risk factors predisposing to post-operative instability include deformity requiring a large surgical correction and aggressive ligament release, general or regional neuromuscular pathology, and hip or foot deformities. KPI can be prevented in most cases with appropriate selection of implants and good surgical technique. When ligament instability is anticipated post-operatively, the need for implants with a greater degree of constraint should be anticipated. In patients without significant varus or valgus malalignment and without significant flexion contracture, the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) can be retained. However, the PCL should be sacrificed when deformity exists particularly in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, previous patellectomy, previous high tibial osteotomy or distal femoral osteotomy, and posttraumatic osteoarthritis with disruption of the PCL. In most cases, KPI requires revision surgery. Successful outcomes can only be obtained if the cause of KPI is identified and addressed. Conclusions Instability following TKA is a common cause of the need for revision. Typically, knees with deformity, rheumatoid arthritis, previous patellectomy or high tibial osteotomy, and

  20. DROUGHT AFFECTS PROTEIN AND PHENOLIC CONTENT IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ABSTRACT. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.) is a legume crop, which has long been recognised as a protein-rich and drought-tolerant crop, used extensively in sub-Saharan. Africa. This study evaluates the effect of experimental water deficit stress on total protein concentration, secondary protein structure ...

  1. Dietary protein and blood pressure : epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.

    2012-01-01


    Background
    Elevated blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Diet and lifestyle have a substantial impact on blood pressure, but the role of protein intake is not yet clear. This thesis focuses on total dietary protein, types of protein (i.e. plant and

  2. Tuber Storage Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    SHEWRY, PETER R.

    2003-01-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits act...

  3. Total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity and ischemia modified albumin levels in children with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Ersin; Özdem, Sebahat; Uzun, Gülbahar; İşlek, Ali; Yılmaz, Aygen; Artan, Reha

    2015-01-01

    In our study, we aimed to investigate ischemia modified albumin (IMA) as an oxidative stress marker, as well as other oxidant and antioxidant markers that have not been evaluated in children with celiac disease. A total of 37 pediatric patients who were diagnosed with celiac disease (CD) and 29 healthy children were enrolled in this prospective study. We evaluated the IMA, total oxidant status, total antioxidant capacity, sulfhydryl, and advanced oxidation protein products in all of the subjects. We also compared the levels at the time of the diagnosis, and following a gluten-free diet (GFD) in the children with CD. While the IMA and the other oxidant marker levels were significantly higher in the patient group compared to the control group, the antioxidant marker levels were found to be significantly lower in the patient group, compared to the control group. We also determined that the tissue transglutaminase IgA showed a highly positive correlation, and that the IMA showed a moderately positive correlation with the Marsh-Oberhuber histopathological stage. Additionally, the IMA and other oxidant marker levels were significantly lower, while the antioxidant marker levels were significantly higher after the GFD, compared to the pre-diet period. We detected that oxidative stress played a role in the pathogenesis of CD, and that this could be evaluated using oxidative stress markers, which would regress after the GFD. We also detected that IMA is a marker that shows a correlation with the histopathological stage, and may be used in the diagnosis.

  4. Hepatitis C virus infection protein network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chassey, B; Navratil, V; Tafforeau, L; Hiet, M S; Aublin-Gex, A; Agaugué, S; Meiffren, G; Pradezynski, F; Faria, B F; Chantier, T; Le Breton, M; Pellet, J; Davoust, N; Mangeot, P E; Chaboud, A; Penin, F; Jacob, Y; Vidalain, P O; Vidal, M; André, P; Rabourdin-Combe, C; Lotteau, V

    2008-01-01

    A proteome-wide mapping of interactions between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human proteins was performed to provide a comprehensive view of the cellular infection. A total of 314 protein-protein interactions between HCV and human proteins was identified by yeast two-hybrid and 170 by literature mining. Integration of this data set into a reconstructed human interactome showed that cellular proteins interacting with HCV are enriched in highly central and interconnected proteins. A global analysis on the basis of functional annotation highlighted the enrichment of cellular pathways targeted by HCV. A network of proteins associated with frequent clinical disorders of chronically infected patients was constructed by connecting the insulin, Jak/STAT and TGFbeta pathways with cellular proteins targeted by HCV. CORE protein appeared as a major perturbator of this network. Focal adhesion was identified as a new function affected by HCV, mainly by NS3 and NS5A proteins.

  5. Single tag for total carbohydrate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumula, Kalyan Rao

    2014-07-15

    Anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-AA) has the remarkable property of reacting rapidly with every type of reducing carbohydrate. Reactivity of 2-AA with carbohydrates in aqueous solutions surpasses all other tags reported to date. This unique capability is attributed to the strategically located -COOH which accelerates Schiff base formation. Monosaccharides, oligosaccharides (N-, O-, and lipid linked and glycans in secretory fluids), glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides can be easily labeled with 2-AA. With 2-AA, labeling is simple in aqueous solutions containing proteins, peptides, buffer salts, and other ingredients (e.g., PNGase F, glycosidase, and transferase reaction mixtures). In contrast, other tags require relatively pure glycans for labeling in anhydrous dimethyl sulfoxide-acetic acid medium. Acidic conditions are known to cause desialylation, thus requiring a great deal of attention to sample preparation. Simpler labeling is achieved with 2-AA within 30-60 min in mild acetate-borate buffered solution. 2-AA provides the highest sensitivity and resolution in chromatographic methods for carbohydrate analysis in a simple manner. Additionally, 2-AA is uniquely qualified for quantitative analysis by mass spectrometry in the negative mode. Analyses of 2-AA-labeled carbohydrates by electrophoresis and other techniques have been reported. Examples cited here demonstrate that 2-AA is the universal tag for total carbohydrate analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of total, and bound Se in sera by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spate, V.L.; Mason, M.M.; Reams, C.L.; Baskett, C.K.; Morris, J.S.; Mills, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    The comparison between the total selenium in serum ('total Se') with that which is apparently bound to high molecular weight (> 12.000 D) species, presumably proteins ('bound Se') was reported. Nine hundred seventy seven (977) serum samples arising out of a population-based epidemiological study were prepared in duplicate for the determination of 'total Se' by pipeting directly into irradiation vials; and separate duplicate aliquots were dialyzed against DI water for the determination of 'bound Se'. All samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis via 77m Se (17.4s) A small dialyzable Se component (∼ 6%) ('free Se'), defined as the difference between the 'total Se' minus the 'bound Se', was identified. (author) 2 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  7. Total antioxidant capacity in children with acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, M; Boleken, M E; Kanmaz, T; Erel, O; Yucesan, S

    2006-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate antioxidant capacity by using a novel automated method in children with acute appendicitis. Blood samples were obtained from consecutive patients with acute appendicitis (appendicitis group, n = 12) and acute abdominal pain due to non surgical disease (non-appendicitis group, n = 11), and from patients with inguinal hernia (healthy group, n = 12) as the control group. At admission, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels of plasma were evaluated in all patients by a method recently developed by Erel. Four other major individual plasma antioxidant components, the levels of total protein, albumin, uric acid and bilirubin, were also evaluated. Total antioxidant capacity in patients with acute appendicitis was statistically compared with the two other groups. While the TAC level in the appendicitis group was significantly greater than in the non-appendicitis group, no significant difference was found in healthy groups (p 0.05, 1.94 +/- 0.38, 1.40 +/- 0.36, and 1.99 +/- 0.35 respectively). Individual components of total antioxidant capacity, i.e. total protein, albumin, uric acid and bilirubin concentrations, were also higher in the patients with acute appendicitis than those of the other two control groups. Our data show that children with acute appendicitis do not have deficient blood plasma antioxidant capacity. These results provide evidence that acute appendicitis results in more induction of antioxidative response than non-surgical diseases.

  8. Substituição Parcial do Farelo de Soja pela Farinha de Vísceras de Aves em Dietas Balanceadas com Base na Proteína e em Aminoácidos Totais ou Digestíveis para Frangos de Corte Partial Substitution of Soybean Meal by Poultry Offal Meal in Diets Balanced According to Protein and Total or Digestible Amino Acids for Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Bellaver

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A formulação com base no conceito de proteína ideal (PI é mais eficiente quando são usados ingredientes alternativos ao milho (M e ao farelo de soja (FS. Assim, o objetivo desse trabalho foi comparar formulações de dietas utilizando o conceito de PI, usando farinha de vísceras (FV em substituição ao FS, em dietas de frangos de corte. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: T1 = dieta com 22 % e 20% de proteína bruta (PB nas fases inicial (FI e de crescimento (FC e 3200 kcal/kg de EM durante todo experimento; T2 = energia semelhante a dieta T1 e PI à base de M e FS (1,15% de lisina digestível na FI e 0,90% de lisina digestível na FC; T3=dieta semelhante a T2, com 20 % e 25 % de substituição do FS por FV nas FI e FC, respectivamente; T4=dieta semelhante a T3, com 40 e 50 % de substituição do FS por FV, nas FI e FC, respectivamente; T5=dieta semelhante a T4, porém com balanço por aminoácidos (AA totais (1,10 e 1,00 % de lisina total nas FI e FC, respectivamente. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a formulação com base na PI é melhor do que aquela que considera a PB ou AA totais. A inclusão de 20 % FV na FI e 25 % na FC de frangos de corte, em substituição ao FS, melhorou o desempenho até os 21 dias e não alterou o desempenho até os 42 dias em dietas formuladas dentro do conceito de proteína ideal.Ideal protein (IP concept in feed formulation is more suitable when alternative ingredients to corn (C and soybean meal (SBM are used. Thus, the objective of this paper was to compare diets using IP concept and poultry offal meal (POM in substitution to SBM in broiler diets. The treatments were: T1= diets with 22% and 20 % crude protein (CP in starting phase (SP and growing phase (GP, respectively and 3200 kcal ME/kg all over the experiment; T2= similar energy to T1 and IP diet based on C and SBM (1.15% digestible lysine in SP and 0.90 % in GP; T3= similar diet to T2, with 20% and 25% of substitution of SBM by POM in SP and GP

  9. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH): ToxFAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a state: This map displays locations where Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) is known to be present. On ... I get more information? ToxFAQs TM for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) ( Hidrocarburos Totales de Petróleo (TPH) ) August ...

  10. Drought affects protein and phenolic content in bambara groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.) is a legume crop, which has long been recognised as a protein-rich and drought-tolerant crop, used extensively in sub-Saharan Africa. This study evaluates the effect of experimental water deficit stress on total protein concentration, secondary protein structure and the total ...

  11. Lysine Rich Proteins in the Salt-Soluble Protein Fraction of Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2.......Fractionation of the protein complex from Emir barley showed that the salt-soluble fraction accounts for 44% of the total lysine content but only for 2....

  12. Total protein electrophoresis and RAPD fingerprinting analysis for the identification of Aeromonas at the species level Análise eletroforética de proteínas totais e marcadores de RAPD na identificação de Aeromonas ao nível de espécie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Longaray Delamare

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen well-defined strains of Aeromonas of thirteen species were analyzed by SDS protein electrophoretic analysis (SDS-PAGE and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD. The comparison between the patterns obtained by both methods allowed differentiating all the strains. Clusters formed by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages applied to protein data correlates with the genetic and biochemical information about the species. The results show that protein fingerprinting has the potential to differentiate Aeromonas species, but the low qualitative variation indicates that this technique is not efficient for the characterization of strains within a species. Conversely, RAPD fingerprinting allows the identification of strains but the high variability limits its potential as an aiding method for species identification.Quinze linhagens de Aeromonas pertencentes a treze espécies foram avaliadas através de eletroforese de proteínas totais (SDS-PAGE e segmentos de DNA amplificados ao acaso (RAPD. A comparação entre os padrões obtidos por ambos métodos permitiu diferenciar todas as linhagens. Agrupamentos formados com base nos dados protéicos mostraram relação com informações bioquímicas e genéticas a respeito das espécies. Os resultados mostraram que análises protéicas têm potencial para diferenciar espécies de Aeromonas, mas a baixa variação qualitativa indica que esta técnica não é eficiente para a caracterização entre linhagens dentro de espécies. Ao contrário, marcadores de RAPD permitem identificar linhagens, mas a alta variabilidade limita seu potencial como método auxiliar na identificação de espécies.

  13. Vibrational spectroscopy of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaighofer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Two important steps for the development of a biosensor are the immobilization of the biological component (e.g. protein) on a surface and the enhancement of the signal to improve the sensitivity of detection. To address these subjects, the present work describes Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) investigations of several proteins bound to the surface of an attenuated total reflection (ATR) crystal. Furthermore, new nanostructured surfaces for signal enhancement were developed for use in FTIR microscopy. The mitochondrial redox-protein cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) was incorporated into a protein-tethered bilayer lipid membrane (ptBLM) on an ATR crystal featuring a roughened two-layer gold surface for signal enhancement. Electrochemical excitation by periodic potential pulses at different modulation frequencies was followed by time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy. Phase sensitive detection was used for deconvolution of the IR spectra into vibrational components. A model based on protonation-dependent chemical reaction kinetics could be fitted to the time evolution of IR bands attributed to several different redox centers of the CcO. Further investigations involved the odorant binding protein 14 (OBP14) of the honey bee (Apis mellifera), which was studied using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and circular dichroism. OBP14 was found to be thermally stable up to 45 °C, thus permitting the potential application of this protein for the fabrication of biosensors. Thermal denaturation measurements showed that odorant binding increases the thermal stability of the OBP-odorant complex. In another project, plasmonic nanostructures were fabricated that enhance the absorbance in FTIR microscopy measurements. The nanostructures are composed of an array of round-shaped insulator and gold discs on top of a continuous gold layer. Enhancement factors of up to ⁓125 could be observed with self-assembled monolayers of dodecanethiol molecules immobilized on the gold surface (author) [de

  14. Protein nanoparticles for therapeutic protein delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Estrada, L P; Champion, J A

    2015-06-01

    Therapeutic proteins can face substantial challenges to their activity, requiring protein modification or use of a delivery vehicle. Nanoparticles can significantly enhance delivery of encapsulated cargo, but traditional small molecule carriers have some limitations in their use for protein delivery. Nanoparticles made from protein have been proposed as alternative carriers and have benefits specific to therapeutic protein delivery. This review describes protein nanoparticles made by self-assembly, including protein cages, protein polymers, and charged or amphipathic peptides, and by desolvation. It presents particle fabrication and delivery characterization for a variety of therapeutic and model proteins, as well as comparison of the features of different protein nanoparticles.

  15. Protein intake and ovulatory infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarro, Jorge E; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rosner, Bernard A; Willett, Walter C

    2008-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether intake of protein from animal and vegetable origin is associated with ovulatory infertility. A total of 18,555 married women without a history of infertility were followed up as they attempted a pregnancy or became pregnant during an 8 year period. Dietary assessments were related to the incidence of ovulatory infertility. During follow-up, 438 women reported ovulatory infertility. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval [CI]; P for trend) of ovulatory infertility comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of animal protein intake was 1.39 (1.01 to 1.90; 0.03). The corresponding RR (95% CI; P for trend) for vegetable protein intake was 0.78 (0.54 to 1.12; 0.07). Furthermore, consuming 5% of total energy intake as vegetable protein rather than as animal protein was associated with a more than 50% lower risk of ovulatory infertility (P =.007). Replacing animal sources of protein with vegetable sources of protein may reduce ovulatory infertility risk.

  16. Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total proteins in Wistar rats. Christian E Odo, Okwesili FC Nwodo, Parker E Joshua, Chibuike S Ubani, Okon E Etim, Okechukwu PC Ugwu ...

  17. Tuber storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R

    2003-06-01

    A wide range of plants are grown for their edible tubers, but five species together account for almost 90 % of the total world production. These are potato (Solanum tuberosum), cassava (Manihot esculenta), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus), yams (Dioscorea spp.) and taro (Colocasia, Cyrtosperma and Xanthosoma spp.). All of these, except cassava, contain groups of storage proteins, but these differ in the biological properties and evolutionary relationships. Thus, patatin from potato exhibits activity as an acylhydrolase and esterase, sporamin from sweet potato is an inhibitor of trypsin, and dioscorin from yam is a carbonic anhydrase. Both sporamin and dioscorin also exhibit antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Taro differs from the other three crops in that it contains two major types of storage protein: a trypsin inhibitor related to sporamin and a mannose-binding lectin. These characteristics indicate that tuber storage proteins have evolved independently in different species, which contrasts with the highly conserved families of storage proteins present in seeds. Furthermore, all exhibit biological activities which could contribute to resistance to pests, pathogens or abiotic stresses, indicating that they may have dual roles in the tubers.

  18. Practices in prescribing protein substitutes for PKU in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, A; Ahring, K; Almeida, M F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There appears little consensus concerning protein requirements in phenylketonuria (PKU). METHODS: A questionnaire completed by 63 European and Turkish IMD centres from 18 countries collected data on prescribed total protein intake (natural/intact protein and phenylalanine-free protein...

  19. Nitrogen-to-Protein Conversion Factors for Three Edible Insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Renske H.; Vincken, Jean Paul; Broek, van den Lambertus A.M.; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Lakemond, Catriona M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Insects are considered a nutritionally valuable source of alternative proteins, and their efficient protein extraction is a prerequisite for large-scale use. The protein content is usually calculated from total nitrogen using the nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor (Kp) of 6.25. This factor

  20. The effects of calcium regulation of endosperm reserve protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of steep liquor calcium ion on sorghum endosperm reserve protein mobilization were evaluated using two improved Nigeria sorghum cultivars (ICSV 400 and KSV 8). The key protein modification factors evaluated were free amino nitrogen (FAN), total non protein nitrogen (TNPN) and soluble protein of cold water ...

  1. Protein-Protein Interaction Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szklarczyk, Damian; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2015-01-01

    Years of meticulous curation of scientific literature and increasingly reliable computational predictions have resulted in creation of vast databases of protein interaction data. Over the years, these repositories have become a basic framework in which experiments are analyzed and new directions...

  2. Protein supplementation with sports protein bars in renal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Anthony

    2007-05-01

    Malnutrition prevalence in patients on dialysis is well established. The protein requirements for both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis have been documented elsewhere, including the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative Clinical Practice Guidelines for Nutrition in Chronic Renal Failure. The clinical challenge is to assist patients in meeting these targets, especially in those with anorexia. Traditional supplements have included fluid, which is an issue for patients who are fluid restricted. The study objectives were to (1) investigate the range of sports protein supplements that may be suitable for patients on hemodialysis to use and (2) trial nonfluid protein supplements in patients on hemodialysis. Known manufacturers of sports protein bars and other sports supplements available in Australia were contacted for the nutrient breakdown of high-protein products, specifically potassium, protein, and phosphorus contents. As a result, selected high-protein sports bars (Protein FX, Aussie Bodies, Port Melbourne, Victoria, Australia) were used as an alternative to the more commonly used renal-specific fluid supplements (Nepro, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL; Novasource Renal, Novartis Nutrition Corporation, Fremont, MI; and Renilon, Nutricia, Wiltshire, UK) in patients with poor nutritional status requiring supplementation. Patient satisfaction and clinical nutrition markers were investigated. The study took place at inpatient, in-center, and satellite hemodialysis settings in Adelaide, South Australia. A total of 32 patients (16 females and 16 males) with an average age of 62.9 years (range 32-86 years) undergoing hemodialysis (acute and maintenance) were included. Subjects were selected by the author as part of routine clinical nutrition care. Patients trialed sports protein bars as a protein supplement alone or in conjunction with other supplementary products. All patients were in favor of the trial, with 22 of 32 patients continuing with the protein

  3. Hubungan antara konsumsi protein dengan produksi, protein dan laktosa susu kambing Peranakan Ettawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galuh Estu Prihatiningsih

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine a correlation between crude protein intake, milk production, milk protein and milk lactose. This study used purposive sampling method. The sample used in this study were 35 Etawa crossbred goats with months of lactation 4-5 and lactation periods 2-3. Parameters observed were crude protein intake, milk production, milk protein and milk lactose. Data were analyzed using correlation analysis and simple linear regression. The result showed that crude protein intake, total milk production concentrations of milk protein and lactose were 0.77 kg/day; 0.30 kg/day; 0.196% and 3.32% respectively. There was a medium positive linear correlation between the crude protein intake with total milk production, protein and lactose content of milk. The correlation coefficient (r were 0.258; 0.254 and 0,255 respectively. It could be concluded that the higher crude protein intake would increase the amount of milk production, protein and lactose contents. Keywords: crude protein intake, total milk production, milk protein, milk lactose

  4. Total Thiols: Biomedical Importance And Their Alteration In Various Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungli Prakash

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Thiols are the organic compounds that contain a sulphydryl group. Among all the antioxidants that are available in the body, thiols constitute the major portion of the total body antioxidants and they play a significant role in defense against reactive oxygen species. Total thiols composed of both intracellular and extracellular thiols either in the free form as oxidized or reduced glutathione, or thiols bound to proteins. Among the thiols that are bound to proteins, albumin makes the major portion of the protein bound thiols, which binds to sufhydryl group at its cysteine-34 portion. Apart from their role in defense against free radicals, thiols share significant role in detoxification, signal transduction, apoptosis and various other functions at molecular level. The thiol status in the body can be assessed easily by determining the serum levels of thiols. Decreased levels of thiols has been noted in various medical disorders including chronic renal failure and other disorders related to kidney, cardiovascular disorders, stroke and other neurological disorders, diabetes mellitus, alcoholic cirrhosis and various other disorders. Therapy using thiols has been under investigation for certain disorders.

  5. Aquaporin Protein-Protein Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Virginia Roche

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are tetrameric membrane-bound channels that facilitate transport of water and other small solutes across cell membranes. In eukaryotes, they are frequently regulated by gating or trafficking, allowing for the cell to control membrane permeability in a specific manner. Protein–protein interactions play crucial roles in both regulatory processes and also mediate alternative functions such as cell adhesion. In this review, we summarize recent knowledge about aquaporin protein–protein interactions; dividing the interactions into three types: (1 interactions between aquaporin tetramers; (2 interactions between aquaporin monomers within a tetramer (hetero-tetramerization; and (3 transient interactions with regulatory proteins. We particularly focus on the structural aspects of the interactions, discussing the small differences within a conserved overall fold that allow for aquaporins to be differentially regulated in an organism-, tissue- and trigger-specific manner. A deep knowledge about these differences is needed to fully understand aquaporin function and regulation in many physiological processes, and may enable design of compounds targeting specific aquaporins for treatment of human disease.

  6. The urine proteome for radiation biodosimetry: effect of total body vs. local kidney irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukut; Halligan, Brian D; Wakim, Bassam T; Savin, Virginia J; Cohen, Eric P; Moulder, John E

    2010-02-01

    Victims of nuclear accidents or radiological terrorism are likely to receive varying doses of ionizing radiation inhomogeneously distributed over the body. Early biomarkers may be useful in determining organ-specific doses due to total body irradiation (TBI) or partial body irradiation. The authors used liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to compare the effect of TBI and local kidney irradiation (LKI) on the rat urine proteome using a single 10-Gy dose of x-rays. Both TBI and LKI altered the urinary protein profile within 24 h with noticeable differences in gene ontology categories. Some proteins, including fetuin-B, tissue kallikrein, beta-glucuronidase, vitamin D-dependent calcium binding protein and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2, were detected only in the TBI group. Some other proteins, including major urinary protein-1, RNA binding protein 19, neuron navigator, Dapper homolog 3, WD repeat and FYVE domain containing protein 3, sorting nexin-8, ankycorbin and aquaporin were detected only in the LKI group. Protease inhibitors and kidney proteins were more abundant (fraction of total scans) in the LKI group. Urine protein (Up) and creatinine (Uc) (Up/Uc) ratios and urinary albumin abundance decreased in both TBI and LKI groups. Several markers of acute kidney injury were not detectable in either irradiated group. Present data indicate that abundance and number of proteins may follow opposite trends. These novel findings demonstrate intriguing differences between TBI and LKI, and suggest that urine proteome may be useful in determining organ-specific changes caused by partial body irradiation.

  7. Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global drought total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross Domestic...

  8. Chinese National Strategy of Total War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Good, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    ... concept of total warfare. This research seeks to determine if China is currently engaged in a total war with the United States across nontraditional forms of conflict including economic, political, information, financial...

  9. Totally optimal decision trees for Boolean functions

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor; Hussain, Shahid; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    We study decision trees which are totally optimal relative to different sets of complexity parameters for Boolean functions. A totally optimal tree is an optimal tree relative to each parameter from the set simultaneously. We consider the parameters

  10. Asymmetric total synthesis of cladosporin and isocladosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huaiji; Zhao, Changgui; Fang, Bowen; Jing, Peng; Yang, Juan; Xie, Xingang; She, Xuegong

    2012-07-06

    The first asymmetric total syntheses of cladosporin and isocladosporin were accomplished in 8 steps with 8% overall yield and 10 steps with 26% overall yield, respectively. The relative configuration of isocladosporin was determined via this total synthesis.

  11. Global Landslide Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross...

  12. Protein immobilization strategies for protein biochips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusmini, F.; Rusmini, Federica; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In the past few years, protein biochips have emerged as promising proteomic and diagnostic tools for obtaining information about protein functions and interactions. Important technological innovations have been made. However, considerable development is still required, especially regarding protein

  13. TUW at the First Total Recall Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    TUW AT THE FIRST TOTAL RECALL TRACK MIHAI LUPU Abstract. For the first participation in the TREC Total Recall track, we set out to try some basic...significantly and consistently outperformed it. 1. Introduction As the organizers point out, the focus of the Total Recall Track is to evaluate methods to...TUW AT THE FIRST TOTAL RECALL TRACK 3 The only change we made was at a higher level. The Sofia ML library provides 5 more ML algorithms. The following

  14. Protective effect of a non specific inflammation on bone marrow protein synthesis in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herodin, F.; Roques, P.; Court, L.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma radiations exert a decrease in mouse bone marrow total protein synthesis. A non-specific inflammatory process induced with polyacrylamide microbeads stimulates spleen and marrow protein synthesis and protects the medullar protein synthesis in irradiated mice [fr

  15. Derivation of a formula for adjusting the total serum calcium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-06-16

    Jun 16, 2006 ... The total calcium concentration, total protein, albumin and globulin were estimated for 302 patients that reported for serum calcium estimation at the clinical biochemistry laboratory of the Olabisi Onabanjo. University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria. Based on regression analysis, three formulae were.

  16. Defense meteorological satellite measurements of total ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Ellis, J.S.; Luther, F.M.; Sullivan, R.J.; Weichel, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    A multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) on Defense Meteorological Satellites (DMS) that measured total ozone on a global-scale from March 1977 - February 1980 is described. The total ozone data measured by the MFR were compared with total ozone data taken by surfaced-based Dobson spectrophotometers. When comparisons were made for five months, the Dobson spectrophotometer measured 2-5% more total ozone than the MFR. Comparisons between the Dobson spectrophotometer and the MFR showed a reduced RMS difference as the comparisons were made at closer proximity. A Northern Hemisphere total ozone distribution obtained from MFR data is presented

  17. Secretory proteins of the pulmonary extracellular lining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.P.; Patton, S.E.; Eddy, M.; Smits, H.L.; Jetten, A.M.; Nettesheim, P.; Hook, G.E.R.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to identify proteins in the pulmonary extracellular lining (EL) that are secreted by cells of the pulmonary epithelium. Pulmonary lavage effluents from the lungs of rabbits were centrifuged to remove all cells and particulate materials. Serum proteins were removed by repeatedly passing concentrated lavage effluent fluid through an affinity column containing IgG fraction of goat anti-rabbit (whole serum) antiserum bound to Sepharose-4B. Nonserum proteins accounted for 21.3 +/- 10.3% of the total soluble proteins in pulmonary lavage effluents. Serum free lavage effluents (SFL) contained 25 identifiable proteins as determined by using SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. Of these proteins approximately 73% was accounted for by a single protein with MW of 66 kd. The secretory nature of the proteins present in SFL was investigated by studying the incorporation of 35 S-methionine into proteins released by lung slices and trachea followed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. Many, but not all proteins present in SFL were identified as proteins secreted by pulmonary tissues. The major secretory proteins appeared to have MWs of 59, 53, 48, 43, 24, 14, and 6 kd under reducing conditions. These data demonstrate the presence of several proteins in the pulmonary extracellular lining that appear to be secreted by the pulmonary epithelium

  18. Analysis of secreted proteins from Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Martha L; Haynes, Paul A; Breci, Linda; Francisco, Wilson A

    2005-08-01

    MS/MS techniques in proteomics make possible the identification of proteins from organisms with little or no genome sequence information available. Peptide sequences are obtained from tandem mass spectra by matching peptide mass and fragmentation information to protein sequence information from related organisms, including unannotated genome sequence data. This peptide identification data can then be grouped and reconstructed into protein data. In this study, we have used this approach to study protein secretion by Aspergillus flavus, a filamentous fungus for which very little genome sequence information is available. A. flavus is capable of degrading the flavonoid rutin (quercetin 3-O-glycoside), as the only source of carbon via an extracellular enzyme system. In this continuing study, a proteomic analysis was used to identify secreted proteins from A. flavus when grown on rutin. The growth media glucose and potato dextrose were used to identify differentially expressed secreted proteins. The secreted proteins were analyzed by 1- and 2-DE and MS/MS. A total of 51 unique A. flavus secreted proteins were identified from the three growth conditions. Ten proteins were unique to rutin-, five to glucose- and one to potato dextrose-grown A. flavus. Sixteen secreted proteins were common to all three media. Fourteen identifications were of hypothetical proteins or proteins of unknown functions. To our knowledge, this is the first extensive proteomic study conducted to identify the secreted proteins from a filamentous fungus.

  19. The effects of a high-animal- and a high-vegetable-protein diet on mineral balance and bowel function of young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokkum, W. van; Wesstra, A.; Luyken, R.; Hermus, R.J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Twelve young men were given for periods of 20 d, each of three mixed diets, namely a low-protein (LP) diet (9% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin), a high-animal-protein (HA) diet (16% total energy as protein, 67% of animal origin) and a high-vegetable-protein (HV) diet (16% total energy

  20. Neutron protein crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    X-ray diffraction of single crystal has enriched the knowledge of various biological molecules such as proteins, DNA, t-RNA, viruses, etc. It is difficult to make structural analysis of hydrogen atoms in a protein using X-ray crystallography, whereas neutron diffraction seems usable to directly determine the location of those hydrogen atoms. Here, neutron diffraction method was applied to structural analysis of hen egg-white lysozyme. Since the crystal size of a protein to analyze is generally small (5 mm{sup 3} at most), the neutron beam at the sample position in monochromator system was set to less than 5 x 5 mm{sup 2} and beam divergence to 0.4 degree or less. Neutron imaging plate with {sup 6}Li or Gd mixed with photostimulated luminescence material was used and about 2500 Bragg reflections were recorded in one crystal setting. A total of 38278 reflections for 2.0 A resolution were collected in less than 10 days. Thus, stereo views of Trp-111 omit map around the indol ring of Trp-111 was presented and the three-dimensional arrangement of 696H and 264D atoms in the lysozyme molecules was determined using the omit map. (M.N.)