WorldWideScience

Sample records for total moisture content

  1. Evaluation of free water and water activity measurements as functional alternatives to total moisture content in broiler excreta and litter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoeven-Hangoor, E; Rademaker, C J; Paton, N D; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2014-07-01

    Litter moisture contents vary greatly between and within practical poultry barns. The current experiment was designed to measure the effects of 8 different dietary characteristics on litter and excreta moisture content. Additionally, free water content and water activity of the excreta and litter were evaluated as additional quality measures. The dietary treatments consisted of nonstarch polysaccharide content (NSP; corn vs. wheat), particle size of insoluble fiber (coarse vs. finely ground oat hulls), viscosity of a nonfermentable fiber (low- and high-viscosity carboxymethyl cellulose), inclusion of a clay mineral (sepiolite), and inclusion of a laxative electrolyte (MgSO4). The 8 treatments were randomly assigned to cages within blocks, resulting in 12 replicates per treatment with 6 birds per replicate. Limited effects of the dietary treatments were noted on excreta and litter water activity, and indications were observed that this measurement is limited in high-moisture samples. Increasing dietary NSP content by feeding a corn-based diet (low NSP) compared with a wheat-based diet (high NSP) increased water intake, excreta moisture and free water, and litter moisture content. Adding insoluble fibers to the wheat-based diet reduced excreta and litter moisture content, as well as litter water activity. Fine grinding of the oat hulls diminished the effect on litter moisture and water activity. However, excreta moisture and free water content were similar when fed finely or coarsely ground oat hulls. The effects of changing viscosity and adding a clay mineral or laxative deviated from results observed in previous studies. Findings of the current experiment indicate a potential for excreta free water measurement as an additional parameter to assess excreta quality besides total moisture. The exact implication of this parameter warrants further investigation. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Moisture content measurement in paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomklao, P.; Kuntinugunetanon, S.; Wongkokua, W.

    2017-09-01

    Moisture content is an important quantity for agriculture product, especially in paddy. In principle, the moisture content can be measured by a gravimetric method which is a direct method. However, the gravimetric method is time-consuming. There are indirect methods such as resistance and capacitance methods. In this work, we developed an indirect method based on a 555 integrated circuit timer. The moisture content sensor was capacitive parallel plates using the dielectric constant property of the moisture. The instrument generated the output frequency that depended on the capacitance of the sensor. We fitted a linear relation between periods and moisture contents. The measurement results have a standard uncertainty of 1.23 % of the moisture content in the range of 14 % to 20 %.

  3. The critical micelle concentration of lecithin in bulk oils and medium chain triacylglycerol is influenced by moisture content and total polar materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JiSu; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2018-09-30

    Effects of different moisture contents and oxidised compounds on the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of lecithin were determined in bulk oils and in medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT). CMC of lecithin in MCT was significantly higher than that in other vegetable oils including olive, soybean, corn, and rapeseed oils (p < 0.05). Presence of moisture significantly affected the CMC of lecithin in MCT (p < 0.05). CMC of lecithin was high when the moisture content was below 900 ppm, whereas at a moisture content of 1000 ppm, CMC of lecithin decreased significantly (p < 0.05), and then started to increase. Addition of total polar materials (TPM), which are oxidation products, at 3 and 5% concentrations, decreased CMC of lecithin significantly (p < 0.05) in MCT, compared to when 0, 1, and 1.5% of TPM was added to MCT. As the degree of oxidation increased in corn oil, CMC of lecithin gradually decreased. Additionally, under different moisture contents, corn oils showed a similar pattern of CMC of lecithin in MCT, whereas oxidised corn oil had a little lower CMC of lecithin than unoxidised corn oil. The results clearly showed that the concentration of lecithin for the formation of micelles is greatly influenced by the presence of oxidation products and the moisture content in bulk oils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of free water and water activity measurements as functional alternatives to total moisture content in broiler excreta and litter samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven-Hangoor, van der E.; Rademaker, C.; Paton, N.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Litter moisture contents vary greatly between and within practical poultry barns. The current experiment was designed to measure the effects of 8 different dietary characteristics on litter and excreta moisture content. Additionally, free water content and water activity of the excreta and litter

  5. Variation in seasonal moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Phelps

    1992-01-01

    Several properties of wood are affected by moisture content-weight, fuel value, electrical conductivity, strength, and shrinkage. Differences in these properties are commonly observed in wood in service. For example, a green 2 X 4 weighs more than a kiln-dried 2 X 4, dried wood burns more easily and hotter than green wood, etc.

  6. Design of Moisture Content Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. C.; Wang, L.

    In this paper, a method for measuring the moisture content of grain was presented based on single chip microcomputer and capacitive sensor. The working principle of measuring moisture content is introduced and a concentric cylinder type of capacitive sensor is designed, the signal processing circuits of system are described in details. System is tested in practice and discussions are made on the various factors affecting the capacitive measuring of grain moisture based on the practical experiments, experiment results showed that the system has high measuring accuracy and good controlling capacity.

  7. Soil moisture content with global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnikov, K.Ya.

    1990-01-01

    The potential greenhouse-gas-induced changes in soil moisture, particularly the desiccation of the Northern Hemisphere contents in summer, are discussed. To check the conclusions based on climate models the authors have used long-term measurements of contemporary soil moisture in the USSR and reconstructions of soil moisture for the last two epochs that were warmer than the present, namely, the Holocene optimum, 5,000-6,000 years ago, and the last interglacial, about 125,000 years ago. The analysis shows that there is a considerable disagreement between the model results and the empirical data

  8. Drying and control of moisture content and dimensional changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman

    2010-01-01

    The discussion in this chapter is concerned with moisture content determination, recommended moisture content values, drying methods, methods of calculating dimensional changes, design factors affecting such changes in structures, and moisture content control during transit, storage, and construction. Data on green moisture content, fiber saturation point, shrinkage,...

  9. Analysis of Joint Masonry Moisture Content Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Kohta [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Adding insulation to the interior side of walls of masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw, have known solutions, but wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content & relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100% RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated versus non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15%) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  10. Moisture Content Monitoring of a Timber Footbridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niclas Björngrim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Construction of modern timber bridges has greatly increased during the last 20 years in Sweden. Wood as a construction material has several advantageous properties, e.g., it is renewable, sustainable, and aesthetically pleasing, but it is also susceptible to deterioration. To protect wood from deterioration and ensure the service life, the wood is either treated or somehow covered. This work evaluates a technology to monitor the moisture content in wood constructions. Monitoring the moisture content is important both to verify the constructive protection and for finding areas with elevated levels of moisture which might lead to a microbiological attack of the wood. In this work, a timber bridge was studied. The structure was equipped with six wireless sensors that measured the moisture content of the wood and the relative humidity every hour. Data for 744 days of the bridge are presented in this paper. Results show that the technology used to monitor the bridge generally works; however, there were issues due to communication problems and malfunction of sensors. This technology is promising for monitoring the state of wood constructions, but a more reliable sensor technology is warranted continuous remote monitoring of wood bridges over long periods of time.

  11. Opto-thermal moisture content and moisture depth profile measurements in organic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, P.; Guo, X.; Cui, Y.Y.; Imhof, R.; Bicanic, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    Opto-thermal transient emission radiometry(OTTER) is a infrared remote sensing technique, which has been successfully used in in vivo skin moisture content and skin moisture depth profiling measurements.In present paper, we extend this moisture content measurement capability to analyze the moisture

  12. Analysis of Joist Masonry Moisture Content Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Kohta [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-10-08

    There are many existing buildings with load-bearing mass masonry walls, whose energy performance could be improved with the retrofit of insulation. However, adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw have known solutions. But wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content & relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100% RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated vs. non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15%) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  13. 7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average moisture content. 51.2561 Section 51.2561... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a requirement of the grades, except when...

  14. Determining moisture content in pasta by vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Tomasz; Kuzawińska, Ewelina; Sobota, Aldona; Szostak, Roman

    2018-02-01

    Pasta aside from bread is the most consumed cereal-based product in the world. Its taste and cooking ease makes it the basis of many cuisines. The pasta dough formed by mixing flour and water is extruded through an extrusion die to mould the appropriate pasta form and is dried to obtain a stable product. The concentration of moisture in the pasta dough is a one of key parameters determining the final quality of the product. Monitoring the moisture content of pasta after extrusion is also critically important. It enables a selection of suitable drying conditions that ensure the appropriate parameters of pasta, such as texture, color and taste, are met. A method for the quantitative determination of moisture content in pasta dough and in pasta based on the partial least squares treatment of infrared spectra registered using a single-reflection attenuated total reflectance diamond accessory is described. Results of a similar quality were found using models derived from near infrared spectra obtained in a diffuse reflectance mode and slightly worse based on Raman spectra. Relative standard errors of prediction calculated for moisture quantification by ATR/NIR/Raman techniques amounted to 2.54/3.16/5.56% and 2.15/3.32/5.67%, for calibration and validation sets, respectively. The proposed procedures can be used for fast and efficient pasta moisture quantification and may replace the current, more laborious methods used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, B.

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  16. Estimation of Moisture Content in Coal in Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    the moisture content of the coal is proposed based on a simple dynamic energy model of a coal mill, which pulverizes and dries the coal before it is burned in the boiler. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate the moisture content based on an energy balance model. The designed moisture...

  17. Effect of Initial Moisture on the Adsorption and Desorption Equilibrium Moisture Contents of Polished Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Satoshi; Amaratunga, K.S.P.; Tanaka, Fumihiko; Hori, Yoshiaki; 村田, 敏; 田中, 史彦; 堀, 善昭

    1993-01-01

    The moisture adsorption and desorption properties for polished rice have been measured using a dynamic ventilatory method. Air temperatures of 10,20,30 and 40℃, relative humidities of 50,60,70,80 and 90%, and five levels of initial moisture contents ranging approximately from 8% to 19% d.b. were used to obtain moisture content data. The value of equilibrium moisture content for each initial moisture content at the range of air condition was determined by a method of nonlinear least squares. R...

  18. Simple grain moisture content determination from microwave measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraszewski, A.W.; Trabelsi, S.; Nelson, S.O.

    1998-01-01

    Moisture content of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., is expressed as a function of the ratio of microwave attenuation and phase shift, measured at 16.8 GHz, and grain temperature. Validation of the calibration equation indicated that moisture content was obtained with an uncertainty less than +/- 0.45% moisture at the 95% confidence level, independent of density variation, at temperatures from -1 degree C to 42 degrees C, and moisture contents from 10% to 19%. Moisture determination does not depend on the layer thickness of the wheat norits bulk density. No differences between two wheat cultivars were observed in the measurement data

  19. Total and methyl mercury, moisture, and porosity in Lake Michigan surficial sediment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Total and methyl mercury, moisture content (%), and porosity were measured in Lake Michigan sediment by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency/Office of Research...

  20. Probing bias reduction to improve comparability of lint cotton water and moisture contents at moisture equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) reference method is specific for water in lint cotton and was designed for samples conditioned to moisture equilibrium, thus limiting its biases. There is a standard method for moisture content – weight loss – by oven drying (OD), just not for equilibrium moisture c...

  1. Divergent surface and total soil moisture projections under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Alexis; Sheffield, Justin; Milly, Paul C.D.

    2017-01-01

    Land aridity has been projected to increase with global warming. Such projections are mostly based on off-line aridity and drought metrics applied to climate model outputs but also are supported by climate-model projections of decreased surface soil moisture. Here we comprehensively analyze soil moisture projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5, including surface, total, and layer-by-layer soil moisture. We identify a robust vertical gradient of projected mean soil moisture changes, with more negative changes near the surface. Some regions of the northern middle to high latitudes exhibit negative annual surface changes but positive total changes. We interpret this behavior in the context of seasonal changes in the surface water budget. This vertical pattern implies that the extensive drying predicted by off-line drought metrics, while consistent with the projected decline in surface soil moisture, will tend to overestimate (negatively) changes in total soil water availability.

  2. Effects of moisture content on some physical properties of red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical properties of red pepper seed were evaluated as a function of moisture content. The average length, width and thickness were 4.46, 3.66 and 0.79 mm, respectively, at 7.27% d.b. moisture content. In the moisture range of 7.27 to 20.69% dry basis (d.b.), studies on rewetted red pepper seed showed that the ...

  3. Influence of Inherent Moisture Content on the Deformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Inherent Moisture Content on the Deformation. Properties of Coconut Tissues During Mechanical Oil. Expression. *J. J. Mpagalile1 and B. Clarke2. 1Department of ... The study confirmed that moisture content has an important role in the deformation of coconut ..... A micro penetration technique for mechanical.

  4. MoisturEC: an R application for geostatistical estimation of moisture content from electrical conductivity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, N.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Werkema, D. D.; Lane, J. W., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture is a critical parameter for agriculture, water supply, and management of landfills. Whereas direct data (as from TDR or soil moisture probes) provide localized point scale information, it is often more desirable to produce 2D and/or 3D estimates of soil moisture from noninvasive measurements. To this end, geophysical methods for indirectly assessing soil moisture have great potential, yet are limited in terms of quantitative interpretation due to uncertainty in petrophysical transformations and inherent limitations in resolution. Simple tools to produce soil moisture estimates from geophysical data are lacking. We present a new standalone program, MoisturEC, for estimating moisture content distributions from electrical conductivity data. The program uses an indicator kriging method within a geostatistical framework to incorporate hard data (as from moisture probes) and soft data (as from electrical resistivity imaging or electromagnetic induction) to produce estimates of moisture content and uncertainty. The program features data visualization and output options as well as a module for calibrating electrical conductivity with moisture content to improve estimates. The user-friendly program is written in R - a widely used, cross-platform, open source programming language that lends itself to further development and customization. We demonstrate use of the program with a numerical experiment as well as a controlled field irrigation experiment. Results produced from the combined geostatistical framework of MoisturEC show improved estimates of moisture content compared to those generated from individual datasets. This application provides a convenient and efficient means for integrating various data types and has broad utility to soil moisture monitoring in landfills, agriculture, and other problems.

  5. Understanding the bias between moisture content by oven drying and water content by Karl Fischer titration at moisture equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple causes of the difference between equilibrium moisture and water content have been found. The errors or biases were traced to the oven drying procedure to determine moisture content. The present paper explains the nature of the biases in oven drying and how it is possible to suppress one ...

  6. Influence of moisture content on radon diffusion in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.; Ramola, R.C.; Singh, S.; Virk, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    Radon diffusion from soil has been studied as a function of the moisture content of the soil. A few simple experiments showed that up to a certain moisture content the radon diffusion increased with increasing moisture. A sharp rise in radon concentration occurred as the moisture was increased from the completely dry state to 13% water by weight. The radon flux was measured for columns of dry, moist and water saturated soil. The highest flux came from the column filled with moist soil. Water saturated soil gave the lowest flux because of the much lower diffusion coefficient of radon through water. (author)

  7. Neutron moisture monitoring (NMM) and moisture contents in the Green River, Utah, UMTRA disposal cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report provides the basis for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) request to discontinue neutron moisture monitoring (NMM) at the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) disposal cell and decommission the neutron access holes. After 3 years of monitoring the disposal cell, the DOE has determined that the NMM method is not suitable for determining changes in moisture content in the disposal cell. Existing tailings moisture contents in the disposal cell result in a low seepage flux. The combination of a low seepage flux and geochemical retardation by foundation materials underneath the disposal cell ensures that the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater protection standards will not be exceeded within the design life of the disposal cell. To assess the effectiveness of the NMM method for monitoring moisture contents In the disposal cell at Green River, the DOE subsequently conducted a field study and a review of historical and new literature. The literature review allowed the DOE to identify performance criteria for the NMM method. Findings of these studies suggest that: The NMM method is not sensitive to the low moisture contents found in the disposal cell.; there is an insufficient range of moisture contents in the disposal cell to develop a field calibration curve relating moisture content to neutron counts; it is not possible to collect NMM data from the disposal cell that meet data quality objectives for precision and accuracy developed from performance criteria described in the literature

  8. Effects of moisture barrier and initial moisture content on the storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two factors examined were moisture barrier at three levels namely: thick lining, thin lining and non-lining. The other factor included initial moisture content of the produce, namely, turgid and partially wilted. Partial wilting of the produce was achieved by exposing freshly harvested materials at ambient temperature to dry ...

  9. A Technical Design Approach to Soil Moisture Content Measurement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil moisture is an important type of data in many fields; ranging from agriculture to environmental monitoring. Three soil samples were collected at definite proportions to represent the three basic soil types (sandy, loamy and clay soils). The moisture contents of these soil samples were analyzed using the thermogravimetric ...

  10. Effects of moisture content and heat treatment on peroxide value ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... moisture content and reduced with increasing roasting duration. Analysis of ... Within the studied range, 13 h was the minimum OS recorded while maximum were 63.3 h.

  11. Effects of ageing and moisture content on thermal properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of ageing and moisture content on thermal properties of cassava roots ... after harvest coupled with non-‐availability of acceptable storage alternatives. ... the properties simultaneously based on the transient line heat source method.

  12. Determination of moisture content in hard coals using microwave meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrusciel, E.; Kopec, M.; Turek, B.

    1989-01-01

    The results of hard-coal moisture-content measurements, performed with the aid of the ZAM-WILMER microwave meter are presented. Over 80 ground coal samples, weighing 1.5 kg (approx.) each, were examined. The moisture content values ranged from 0 to 15 wt%, with the mean standard error being equal to 0.8 wt%. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  13. Characterization of seeds with different moisture content by photoacoustic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez Pacheco, Arturo; Hernandez Aguilar, Claudia; Marinez Ortiz, Efrain [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Sepi-Esime, Zacatenco. Unidad Profesional ' Adolfo Lopez Mateos' . Col. Lindavista. Mexico D.F., CP 07738 (Mexico); Cruz-Orea, Alfredo; Ayala-Maycotte, Esther, E-mail: fartur@hotmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV - IPN, A. P. 14-740, Mexico D.F., C.P. 07360 (Mexico)

    2010-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) technique has important applications for material characterization and nondestructive evaluation of opaque solid materials. PA microscopy allows the acquisition of information of samples with inhomogeneous structures as agricultural seeds. A determining factor for seed safe storage is their moisture content. Seeds stored at high moisture content exhibit increased respiration, heating, and fungal invasion resulting in poor seed vigor and viability. Low moisture content, in the seed to be stored, is the best prevention for these problems. In this study, Photoacoustic Microscopy (PAM) was used to characterize seeds with different moisture content. In the PAM experimental setup the photoacoustic cell and its sensor, an electret microphone, are mounted on an x-y stage of mobile axes, with spatial resolution of 70 {mu}m. The excitation light source is a fiber coupled laser diode, at 650 nm wavelength, modulated in intensity at 1 Hz of frequency, by the reference oscillator of a lock-in amplifier. By using a microscope objective the laser beam was focused on the seed surface. The resolution was enough to obtain differences in the obtained images, which are dependent on the moisture content. This method, to study differences in the seed moisture content, is nondestructive and could be useful for a sustainable Agriculture.

  14. Development of the neutron technology for measuring the moisture content in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingwu; Liu Shengkang; Zhang Zhiping

    2011-01-01

    According to measuring mode (in-hopper, surface, sampling neutron moisture gauge), the development and application of neutron moisture gauge in china were introduced, which include the following course from only measuring moisture content of soil to monitoring moisture content of farmland and saving water for irrigating farmland, from measuring moisture content of pellet to coke and coal material, from only measuring moisture content to computerized neutron moisture gauges with density compensation and o f high precision. (authors)

  15. Errors in the calculation of sub-soil moisture probe by equivalent moisture content technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshmipathy, A.V.; Gangadharan, P.

    1982-01-01

    The size of the soil sample required to obtain the saturation response, with a neutron moisture probe is quite large and this poses practical problems of handling and mixing large amounts of samples for absolute laboratory calibration. Hydrogenous materials are used as a substitute for water in the equivalent moisture content technique, for calibration of soil moisture probes. In this it is assumed that only hydrogen of the bulk sample is responsible for the slowing down of fast neutrons and the slow neutron countrate is correlated to equivalent water content by considering the hydrogen density of sample. It is observed that the higher atomic number elements present in water equivalent media also affect the response of the soil moisture probe. Hence calculations, as well as experiments, were undertaken to know the order of error introduced by this technique. The thermal and slow neutron flux distribution around the BF 3 counter of a sub-soil moisture probe is calculated using three group diffusion theory. The response of the probe corresponding to different equivalent moisture content of hydrogenous media, is calculated taking into consideration the effective length of BF 3 counter. Soil with hydrogenous media such as polyethylene, sugar and water are considered for calculation, to verify the suitability of these materials as substitute for water during calibration of soil moisture probe. Experiments were conducted, to verify the theoretically calculated values. (author)

  16. Moisture content analysis of covered uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, D.W.; Beedlow, P.A.; Cadwell, L.L.

    1981-12-01

    The use of vegetation and rock covers to stabilize uranium mill tailings cover systems is being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A modeling study of moisture movement through the tailings and cover layers was initiated to determine the effect of the stabilizing techniques. The cover system was simulated under climatic conditions occurring at Grand Junction, Colorado. The cover consisted of a layer of wet clay/gravel mix followed by a capillary barrier of washed rock and a surface layer of fill soil. Vegetation and rock were used to stabilize the surface layer. The simulation yielded moisture content and moisture storage values for the tailings and cover system along with information about moisture losses due to evaporation, transpiration, and drainage. The study demonstrates that different surface stabilization treatments lead to different degrees of moisture retention in the covered tailings pile. The evapotranspiration from vegetation can result in a relatively stable moisture content. Rock covers, however, may cause drainage to occur because they reduce evaporation and lead to a subsequent increase in moisture content. It is important to consider these effects when designing a surface stabilization treatment. Drainage may contribute to a groundwater pollution problem. A surface treatment that allows the cover system to dry out can increase the risk of atmospheric contamination through elevated radon emission rates

  17. Optical transparency of paper as a function of moisture content with applications to moisture measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forughi, A F; Green, S I; Stoeber, B

    2016-02-01

    Accurate measurement of the moisture content of paper is essential in papermaking and is also important in some paper-based microfluidic devices. Traditional measurement techniques provide very limited spatiotemporal resolution and working range. This article presents a novel method for moisture content measurement whose operating principle is the strong correlation between the optical transparency of paper and its moisture content. Spectrographic and microscopic measurement techniques were employed to characterize the relation of moisture content and relative transparency of four types of paper: hardwood chemi-thermomechanical pulp paper, Northern bleached softwood kraft paper, unbleached softwood kraft paper, and General Electric(®) Whatman™ grade 1 chromatography paper. It was found that for all paper types, the paper transparency increased monotonically with the moisture content (as the ratio of the mass-of-water to the mass-of-dry-paper increased from 0% to 120%). This significant increase in relative transparency occurred due to the refractive index matching role of water in wet paper. It is further shown that mechanical loading of the paper has little impact on the relative transparency, for loadings that would be typical on a paper machine. The results of two transient water absorption experiments are presented that show the utility and accuracy of the technique.

  18. The Effect of Moisture Content on Physical Properties of Berberis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Velayati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the mechanization level of harvest and post-harvest operations of Berberis fruit, as one of the major and local crops of south Khorasan province, some of its physical properties were investigated. Different dimensions, geometrical mean diameter, sphericity, surface area, mass of thousand fruit, true density, bulk density, porosity, static coefficient of friction and the repose angles were determined. The properties and the effect of moisture content on them were studied by the completely randomized designs statistical method. Analysis of data indicated that the change of moisture content caused significant difference (P

  19. Determination of Optimum Moisture Content of Palm Nut Cracking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ABSTRACT: After processing the palm fruit for oil, the nut is usually dried in order to loosen the kernel from the shell. The drying is necessary to enhance the release of whole kernel when the nut is cracked. A study was carried out to determine the optimum moisture content of nuts for high yield of whole kernels during ...

  20. Measurement of the moisture content of the granulated sugar by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... The moisture content of granulated sugar is a critical parameter for its transformation into cubes. To the best of our ... resolve this, a new method using infrared transphotometry technique based on the attenuation of an infrared ... contribution of other interactions to the attenuation of the incident wave, i.e. ...

  1. The Effects of Moisture Content on Mechanical Properties of Soybean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some mechanical properties were determined for four varieties of soybean (TGX 297-129C, Samsoy1, TGX 306-636C and TGX 536-02D). The hardness, compressive and tensile strength determination were carried out using a Rockwell Hardness machine and tensometer. The effect of moisture content on the hardness ...

  2. Measurement of the moisture content of the granulated sugar by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The moisture content of granulated sugar is a critical parameter for its transformation into cubes. To the best of our knowledge there is no easy-to-use method for the determination of this parameter. To resolve this, a new method using infrared transphotometry technique based on the attenuation of an infrared radiation ...

  3. Measuring of moisture content in biofuel; Fukthaltsmaetning av biobraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lars; Njurell, Rolf; Ehleskog, Rickard [AaF Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    Direct determination of the moisture content, i.e. analysis of the fuel, is the most dominating moisture measuring method of today, and is usually done manually by weighing and drying a sample. By measuring on the exhaust gases the moisture content is determined indirect. This method is based upon the fact that there is a relation between the moisture content in the fuel and in the exhaust gases. This is an alternative that is only considered briefly in this report. Acceptance test of the fuel today takes place in several ways. The methods vary from advanced automatic mechanical devices to manually taken tests made by the driver him self. In the simplest case when the plant only has one fuel supplier, deduction is maid against the amount of produced energy. There are no systems today that can automatically take tests for continuous measuring. This project aims to find methods that are practical for direct, automatic and continuous measurement of the moisture content for the following applications: Moisture determination of fuel supplies, acceptance test. Moisture determination for combustion control in furnaces and boilers. The possibilities to automate the sampling are discussed in detail, at which important background information concerning the handling problems associated with the point of measuring is illustrated. The measurement techniques that are described more in detail are NIR (Near Infra Red), radar technique, microwave technique, radio frequency scan, radioactive technique, double energy X-ray and some combinations of these techniques. In the report, suppliers of interesting instruments are presented. The fundamental technical demands and the basis that should be included in a specification of a measuring device are gathered. Our appraisal is that a sequel to this project should be concentrated on the following main issues: Automatic acceptance test: The measuring is suggested to be done with a test probe direct in the incoming batch. The most suited

  4. Influence of moisture content on physical properties of minor millets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S; Viswanathan, R

    2010-06-01

    Physical properties including 1000 kernel weight, bulk density, true density, porosity, angle of repose, coefficient of static friction, coefficient of internal friction and grain hardness were determined for foxtail millet, little millet, kodo millet, common millet, barnyard millet and finger millet in the moisture content range of 11.1 to 25% db. Thousand kernel weight increased from 2.3 to 6.1 g and angle of repose increased from 25.0 to 38.2°. Bulk density decreased from 868.1 to 477.1 kg/m(3) and true density from 1988.7 to 884.4 kg/m(3) for all minor millets when observed in the moisture range of 11.1 to 25%. Porosity decreased from 63.7 to 32.5%. Coefficient of static friction of minor millets against mild steel surface increased from 0.253 to 0.728 and coefficient of internal friction was in the range of 1.217 and 1.964 in the moisture range studied. Grain hardness decreased from 30.7 to 12.4 for all minor millets when moisture content was increased from 11.1 to 25% db.

  5. Testing for moisture content in foods by neutron gaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helf, S.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron gaging was applied to the testing for moisture content in bulk powdered foods and in canned Army field rations. The technique is based on the moderation or thermalization of fast neutrons by hydrogenous matter and the measurement of thermal neutron intensity as a function of moisture content. A small californium-252 capsule, of approximate output 10 7 neutrons per second, was used as the source of fast neutrons. It is concluded that a fast neutron moderation technique is feasible for the nondestructive measurement or control of moisture or both in near-dry bulk powdered foods. Samples must be measured under identical geometric conditions, that is, uniform bulk density and volume using a standard metal container or cell. For canned or otherwise prepacked rations, measurement of moisture is interfered with by variations in fill weight among cans or packages of the same product. A gamma-ray attenuation gaging method proved to be of insufficient sensitivity to correct for fill weight variation and was further complicated by nonuniformity in can wall dimensions. Neutron gaging, however, appears to be quite useful for monitoring a standard packaged item for fill weight since the neutron signal is virtually unaffected by variations in container dimensions. The radiation dose imparted to a sample or package of food subjected to such a test is judged to pose no threat to humans from subsequent consumption of the food. An estimate is given for the cost range of a commercial neutron gage and of encapsulated radioisotopic neutron sources

  6. Effect of moisture content of concrete on water uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucker-Gramm, P.; Beddoe, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    The penetration of water and non-polar hexane in Portland cement mortar prisms with different initial moisture contents was investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR). The amount of water in gel pores strongly affects the penetration of water in much larger capillary pores. Water penetration is reduced by the self-sealing effect as characterized by non-√t dependence of capillary uptake and penetration depth. This is explained by the ongoing redistribution of water from capillaries into gel pores which results in internal swelling and loss of continuity of the capillary pore system; a correlation was observed between the amount of redistributed water and departure from √t behaviour. A descriptive model is used to explain the dependence of water uptake and penetration on moisture content. For increasing initial moisture contents up to a critical value equivalent to equilibrium with a relative humidity between 65 and 80%, less penetrating water is able to redistribute. Thus more penetrating water is in larger capillaries with less viscous resistance; uptake and penetration depth increase. Above the critical initial moisture content, uptake and penetration depth decrease towards zero. This is explained by (a) an overall reduction in capillary pressure because transport takes places in fewer and larger pores and (b) an increase in viscous resistance due to the connection of penetrating capillary water with pores already containing water. Less capillary pore space is available for transport. The surface region of concrete placed in contact with water is not instantaneously saturated. Water content increases with time depending on the degree of surface saturation. A new transition coefficient for capillary suction γ is defined for the calculation of surface flux.

  7. Effect of moisture content on the flowability of crushed ores

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrejos Francisco

    2017-01-01

    In many mining and industrial processes where large quantities of non-degrading bulk materials such as crushed ores are handled, silos, hoppers, stockpiles and chutes are widely used because they are economical and reliable (if properly designed and operated). However, they are not free of trouble and may experience flow problems such as arching, ratholing, erratic flow, limited storage capacity, limited discharge flow rate, caking, segregation and/or flooding. Moisture content and fine parti...

  8. Effect of Moisture Content of Paper Material on Laser Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Alexander; Saukkonen, Esa; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser technology has been used in industrial processes for several decades. The most advanced development and implementation took place in laser welding and cutting of metals in automotive and ship building industries. However, there is high potential to apply laser processing to other materials in various industrial fields. One of these potential fields could be paper industry to fulfill the demand for high quality, fast and reliable cutting technology. Difficulties in industrial application of laser cutting for paper industry are associated to lack of basic information, awareness of technology and its application possibilities. Nowadays possibilities of using laser cutting for paper materials are widened and high automation level of equipment has made this technology more interesting for manufacturing processes. Promising area of laser cutting application at paper making machines is longitudinal cutting of paper web (edge trimming). There are few locations at a paper making machine where edge trimming is usually done: wet press section, calender or rewinder. Paper web is characterized with different moisture content at different points of the paper making machine. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture content of paper material on laser cutting parameters. Effect of moisture content on cellulose fibers, laser absorption and energy needed for cutting is described as well. Laser cutting tests were carried out using CO2 laser.

  9. Effect of moisture content on strength of CCA-treated lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies on the effects of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treatment on lumber design properties have primarily evaluated the effects of such treatment at or near 12% moisture content and at failure times of 1 to 10 min. The influence of various moisture contents and faster loading rates is unknown. This report discusses the influence of moisture content and its...

  10. [Contents of total flavonoids in Rhizoma Arisaematis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, S S; Lin, H Y; Zhou, Y X; Wei, L X

    2001-06-01

    Comparing the contents of total flavonoides of Rhizoma Arisaematis, which collected in different time, regions, different varieties and processed. Determining the contents by ultraviolet spectro-photometry. The contents were found in the following sequence: 1. the end of July, the begin of July, August, September; 2. Beijing, Shanxi, Sichuan, Anhui; 3. Arisaema erubenscens, A. heterophyllum, A. amurense; 4. unprocessed product, processed product.

  11. Non-destructive radio-frequency and microwave measurement of moisture content in agricultural commodities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, S.O.

    1994-01-01

    The importance of moisture content in agricultural commodities, the usefulness of the dielectric properties of such products for sensing moisture content by radiofrequency and microwave measurements, and factors affecting these properties are briefly discussed. Recent developments in the understanding of principles for online moisture sensing and the sensing of individual kernel, seed, nut and fruit moisture contents by radiofrequency and microwave techniques are reviewed. A brief discussion is included on aspects of practical application

  12. Innovative application of the moisture analyzer for determination of dry mass content of processed cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Małgorzata; Janas, Sławomir; Woźniak, Magdalena

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work was the presentation of an alternative method of determination of the total dry mass content in processed cheese. The authors claim that the presented method can be used in industry's quality control laboratories for routine testing and for quick in-process control. For the test purposes both reference method of determination of dry mass in processed cheese and moisture analyzer method were used. The tests were carried out for three different kinds of processed cheese. In accordance with the reference method, the sample was placed on a layer of silica sand and dried at the temperature of 102 °C for about 4 h. The moisture analyzer test required method validation, with regard to drying temperature range and mass of the analyzed sample. Optimum drying temperature of 110 °C was determined experimentally. For Hochland cream processed cheese sample, the total dry mass content, obtained using the reference method, was 38.92%, whereas using the moisture analyzer method, it was 38.74%. An average analysis time in case of the moisture analyzer method was 9 min. For the sample of processed cheese with tomatoes, the reference method result was 40.37%, and the alternative method result was 40.67%. For the sample of cream processed cheese with garlic the reference method gave value of 36.88%, and the alternative method, of 37.02%. An average time of those determinations was 16 min. Obtained results confirmed that use of moisture analyzer is effective. Compliant values of dry mass content were obtained for both of the used methods. According to the authors, the fact that the measurement took incomparably less time for moisture analyzer method, is a key criterion of in-process control and final quality control method selection.

  13. Analysis of Moisture Content in Beetroot using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and by Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesakumar, Noel; Baskar, Chanthini; Kesavan, Srinivasan; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru; Alwarappan, Subbiah

    2018-05-22

    The moisture content of beetroot varies during long-term cold storage. In this work, we propose a strategy to identify the moisture content and age of beetroot using principal component analysis coupled Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Frequent FTIR measurements were recorded directly from the beetroot sample surface over a period of 34 days for analysing its moisture content employing attenuated total reflectance in the spectral ranges of 2614-4000 and 1465-1853 cm -1 with a spectral resolution of 8 cm -1 . In order to estimate the transmittance peak height (T p ) and area under the transmittance curve [Formula: see text] over the spectral ranges of 2614-4000 and 1465-1853 cm -1 , Gaussian curve fitting algorithm was performed on FTIR data. Principal component and nonlinear regression analyses were utilized for FTIR data analysis. Score plot over the ranges of 2614-4000 and 1465-1853 cm -1 allowed beetroot quality discrimination. Beetroot quality predictive models were developed by employing biphasic dose response function. Validation experiment results confirmed that the accuracy of the beetroot quality predictive model reached 97.5%. This research work proves that FTIR spectroscopy in combination with principal component analysis and beetroot quality predictive models could serve as an effective tool for discriminating moisture content in fresh, half and completely spoiled stages of beetroot samples and for providing status alerts.

  14. [Effects of soil moisture content and light intensity on the plant growth and leaf physiological characteristics of squash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, She-ni; Bai, Gang-shuan; Liang, Yin-li

    2011-04-01

    A pot experiment with artificial shading was conducted to study the effects of soil moisture content and light intensity on the plant growth and leaf physiological characteristics of squash variety "Jingyingyihao". Under all test soil moisture conditions, 30% shading promoted the growth of "Jingyingyihao", with the highest yield at 70% - 80% soil relative moisture contents. 70% shading inhibited plant growth severely, only flowering and not bearing fruits, no economic yield produced. In all treatments, there was a similar water consumption trend, i. e., both the daily and the total water consumption decreased with increasing shading and decreasing soil moisture content. Among all treatments, 30% shading and 70% - 80% soil relative moisture contents had the highest water use efficiency (2.36 kg mm(-1) hm(-2)) and water output rate (1.57 kg mm(-1) hm(-2)). The net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and chlorophyll content of squash leaves decreased with increasing shading, whereas the intercellular CO2 concentration was in adverse. The leaf protective enzyme activity and proline content decreased with increasing shading, and the leaf MAD content decreased in the order of 70% shading, natural radiation, and 30% shading. Under the three light intensities, the change characteristics of squash leaf photosynthesis, protective enzyme activity, and proline and MAD contents differed with the increase of soil relative moisture content.

  15. Determination of the moisture content of instant noodles: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoda, Akiko; Kasama, Hirotaka; Sakaida, Kenichi; Suzuki, Tadanao; Yasui, Akemi

    2006-01-01

    Determination of the moisture content of instant noodles, currently under discussion by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) requires 2 methods: one for fried noodles and the other for nonfried noodles. The method to determine the moisture content of fried noodles by drying at 105 degrees C for 2 h used in the Japanese Agricultural Standard (JAS) system of Japan can be applied to this purpose. In the present study, the JAS method for fried noodles was modified to be suitable for nonfried noodles by extending the drying time to 4 h. An interlaboratory study was conducted to evaluate interlaboratory performance statistics for these 2 methods. Ten participating laboratories each analyzed 5 test materials of fried and nonfried noodles as blind duplicates. After removal of outliers statistically, the repeatability (RSDr) and the reproducibility (RSD(R)) of these methods were 1.6-2.6 and 3.9-4.8% for fried noodles, and 0.3-1.5 and 1.3-2.9% for nonfried noodles, respectively.

  16. A comparison of two methods for estimating conifer live foliar moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Matt Jolly; Ann M. Hadlow

    2012-01-01

    Foliar moisture content is an important factor regulating how wildland fires ignite in and spread through live fuels but moisture content determination methods are rarely standardised between studies. One such difference lies between the uses of rapid moisture analysers or drying ovens. Both of these methods are commonly used in live fuel research but they have never...

  17. Use a microwave oven to determine the moisture content of sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backer, L.F.; Walz, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Much of the sunflower crop in the major producing areas of the United States requires artificial drying because of late crop maturity. Plant growth regulators permit earlier harvest by accelerating the maturation rate of the plant; research indicates that use of the growth regulator would result in approximately 10-14 days earlier maturation. Effectiveness of the chemical is dependent on timely application at relatively high moisture contents (50 to 55 percent). A rapid means of determining seed moisture content is required so the chemical can be applied at the proper growth stage . Additionally, sunflower is often harvested at moisture contents of more than 17 percent. Most electronic moisture meters are not calibrated for moisture contents this high and the accuracy of most moisture meters decreases with increasing moisture content. A recent study has shown that a conventional microwave oven can successfully be used to very rapidly determine the moisture content of high moisture sunflower seeds to indicate proper growth stage for the application of plant growth regulators. The microwave oven could also be used with reasonable accuracy to check harvest moisture content down to about 15 percent. At lower moisture contents, it would be advisable to use a calibrated electronic moisture meter

  18. Impacts of soil moisture content on visual soil evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmet-Booth, Jeremy; Forristal, Dermot; Fenton, Owen; Bondi, Giulia; Creamer, Rachel; Holden, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation (VSE) techniques offer tools for soil quality assessment. They involve the visual and tactile assessment of soil properties such as aggregate size and shape, porosity, redox morphology, soil colour and smell. An increasing body of research has demonstrated the reliability and utility of VSE techniques. However a number of limitations have been identified, including the potential impact of soil moisture variation during sampling. As part of a national survey of grassland soil quality in Ireland, an evaluation of the impact of soil moisture on two widely used VSE techniques was conducted. The techniques were Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS) (Guimarães et al., 2011) and Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) (Shepherd, 2009). Both generate summarising numeric scores that indicate soil structural quality, though employ different scoring mechanisms. The former requires the assessment of properties concurrently and the latter separately. Both methods were deployed on 20 sites across Ireland representing a range of soils. Additional samples were taken for soil volumetric water (θ) determination at 5-10 and 10-20 cm depth. No significant correlation was observed between θ 5-10 cm and either VSE technique. However, VESS scores were significantly related to θ 10-20 cm (rs = 0.40, sig = 0.02) while VSA scores were not (rs = -0.33, sig = 0.06). VESS and VSA scores can be grouped into quality classifications (good, moderate and poor). No significant mean difference was observed between θ 5-10 cm or θ 10-20 cm according to quality classification by either method. It was concluded that VESS scores may be affected by soil moisture variation while VSA appear unaffected. The different scoring mechanisms, where the separate assessment and scoring of individual properties employed by VSA, may limit soil moisture effects. However, moisture content appears not to affect overall structural quality classification by either method. References

  19. Engineering properties of sunflower seed: Effect of dehulling and moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Ahmad Malik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study diagnosed engineering properties on varying moisture content of sunflower seed and kernel from 7.6 to 25% (wet basis. On increasing moisture, dimensional values increased for both seed and kernel. Bulk density, true density and porosity were found higher for kernel as compared to seed at each moisture content. On increasing the moisture content from 7.6 to 25%, true density, porosity and thousand kernel weight increased. Coefficient of static friction on plywood was found maximum for kernel at 25% moisture content, while it was minimum for seed on glass at 7.6% moisture content. The angle of repose was maximum for kernel as compared to seed. Initial cracking force, average rupture force and average rupture energy for seed and kernel decreased with an increase in the moisture content. The kernel was found to be more resistant to initial cracking than seed.

  20. Effects of Moisture Content on the Foundry Properties of Yola Natural Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Aondona IHOM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of moisture content of Yola natural sand has been studied. The moisture content was varied from 1 to 9%. The effect of the moisture content on the green compression strength, green permeability and bulk density was investigated. Particle size distribution of the natural sand, the grain fineness number, average grain size, grain shape and the clay content of the natural sand were also studied. 5% moisture gave the optimum green compression strength of 118.6KN/m2. The dry compression strength increased with moisture content, an optimum value of 4000KN/m2 was obtained at 9% moisture. The Yola natural sand had a grain fineness number of 88.05AFS, average grain size of 335.78 microns and a clay content of 26%. A sand mixture containing 5% moisture was prepared and used to produce a test casting with aluminium scraps, the test casting was sound.

  1. US-Total Electron Content Product (USTEC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The US Total Electron Content (US-TEC) product is designed to specify TEC over the Continental US (CONUS) in near real-time. The product uses a Kalman Filter data...

  2. Decoupling Seasonal Changes in Water Content and Dry Matter to Predict Live Conifer Foliar Moisture Content.

    OpenAIRE

    Jolly, W. M.; Hadlow, A. M.; Huguet, K.

    2014-01-01

    Live foliar moisture content (LFMC) significantly influences wildland fire behaviour. However, characterising variations in LFMC is difficult because both foliar mass and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water status and dry matter partitioning. We collected new and old foliar samples fromPinus contorta for two growing seasons and quantified their LFMC, relative water content (RWC) and dry matter chemistry. LFMC quantifies the amou...

  3. Flavonoid, hesperidine, total phenolic contents and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additionally, the antioxidant activities were also determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. C. hystrix had the highest flavonoid and total phenolic contents while C. aurantifolia had the highest hesperidine content. The antioxidant activity of ...

  4. Components of variance involved in estimating soil water content and water content change using a neutron moisture meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, D.F.; Williams, J.

    1979-01-01

    There have been significant developments in the design and use of neutron moisture meters since Hewlett et al.(1964) investigated the sources of variance when using this instrument to estimate soil moisture. There appears to be little in the literature, however, which updates these findings. This paper aims to isolate the components of variance when moisture content and moisture change are estimated using the neutron scattering method with current technology and methods

  5. MoisturEC: A New R Program for Moisture Content Estimation from Electrical Conductivity Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Neil; Day-Lewis, Frederick D; Werkema, Dale; Lane, John W

    2018-03-06

    Noninvasive geophysical estimation of soil moisture has potential to improve understanding of flow in the unsaturated zone for problems involving agricultural management, aquifer recharge, and optimization of landfill design and operations. In principle, several geophysical techniques (e.g., electrical resistivity, electromagnetic induction, and nuclear magnetic resonance) offer insight into soil moisture, but data-analysis tools are needed to "translate" geophysical results into estimates of soil moisture, consistent with (1) the uncertainty of this translation and (2) direct measurements of moisture. Although geostatistical frameworks exist for this purpose, straightforward and user-friendly tools are required to fully capitalize on the potential of geophysical information for soil-moisture estimation. Here, we present MoisturEC, a simple R program with a graphical user interface to convert measurements or images of electrical conductivity (EC) to soil moisture. Input includes EC values, point moisture estimates, and definition of either Archie parameters (based on experimental or literature values) or empirical data of moisture vs. EC. The program produces two- and three-dimensional images of moisture based on available EC and direct measurements of moisture, interpolating between measurement locations using a Tikhonov regularization approach. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. MoisturEC: a new R program for moisture content estimation from electrical conductivity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Neil; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Werkema, Dale D.; Lane, John W.

    2018-01-01

    Noninvasive geophysical estimation of soil moisture has potential to improve understanding of flow in the unsaturated zone for problems involving agricultural management, aquifer recharge, and optimization of landfill design and operations. In principle, several geophysical techniques (e.g., electrical resistivity, electromagnetic induction, and nuclear magnetic resonance) offer insight into soil moisture, but data‐analysis tools are needed to “translate” geophysical results into estimates of soil moisture, consistent with (1) the uncertainty of this translation and (2) direct measurements of moisture. Although geostatistical frameworks exist for this purpose, straightforward and user‐friendly tools are required to fully capitalize on the potential of geophysical information for soil‐moisture estimation. Here, we present MoisturEC, a simple R program with a graphical user interface to convert measurements or images of electrical conductivity (EC) to soil moisture. Input includes EC values, point moisture estimates, and definition of either Archie parameters (based on experimental or literature values) or empirical data of moisture vs. EC. The program produces two‐ and three‐dimensional images of moisture based on available EC and direct measurements of moisture, interpolating between measurement locations using a Tikhonov regularization approach.

  7. Effect of moisture content on the flowability of crushed ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrejos, Francisco

    2017-06-01

    In many mining and industrial processes where large quantities of non-degrading bulk materials such as crushed ores are handled, silos, hoppers, stockpiles and chutes are widely used because they are economical and reliable (if properly designed and operated). However, they are not free of trouble and may experience flow problems such as arching, ratholing, erratic flow, limited storage capacity, limited discharge flow rate, caking, segregation and/or flooding. Moisture content and fine particles significantly affect the flowability of most ores, increasing their cohesive strength and turning them more prone to these problems. The purpose of this article is to highlight a proven, scientific method that can be utilized to ensure reliable storage, flow and discharge of bulk solids in these equipment based on Jenike's flow-of-solids theory and laboratory testing. Knowledge of the flow properties of the material handled provides a design basis to ensure mass flow, avoid arching and prevent the formation of "ratholes". The effect of an increase in water content of the ore is discussed with experimental results.

  8. Effect of moisture content on the flowability of crushed ores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrejos Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many mining and industrial processes where large quantities of non-degrading bulk materials such as crushed ores are handled, silos, hoppers, stockpiles and chutes are widely used because they are economical and reliable (if properly designed and operated. However, they are not free of trouble and may experience flow problems such as arching, ratholing, erratic flow, limited storage capacity, limited discharge flow rate, caking, segregation and/or flooding. Moisture content and fine particles significantly affect the flowability of most ores, increasing their cohesive strength and turning them more prone to these problems. The purpose of this article is to highlight a proven, scientific method that can be utilized to ensure reliable storage, flow and discharge of bulk solids in these equipment based on Jenike’s flow-of-solids theory and laboratory testing. Knowledge of the flow properties of the material handled provides a design basis to ensure mass flow, avoid arching and prevent the formation of “ratholes”. The effect of an increase in water content of the ore is discussed with experimental results.

  9. The effect of moisture content within multilayer protective clothing on protection from radiation and steam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yun; Li, Jun; Song, Guowen

    2018-06-01

    The moisture from skin sweat and atmospheric water affects the thermal protective performance provided by multilayer protective clothing. Four levels of moisture content were selected to evaluate the impact of moisture on thermal protection under dry (thermal radiation) and wet (thermal radiation and low-pressure steam) heat exposure. Also, the role of moisture and its relationship with exposure time were analyzed based on skin heat flux and Henriques integral value. The addition of moisture to a fabric system was found to result in differences in second-degree and third-degree skin burn times. When moisture is added to a fabric system, it both acts as a thermal conductor to present a negative effect and provides a positive effect owing to thermal storage of water and evaporative heat loss. The positive or negative effects of moisture are mainly dependent on the thermal exposure time, the moisture content and the presence of hot steam.

  10. Correlation between laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy signal and moisture content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuan [Townes Laser Institute, CREOL - The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Gigant, Lionel [Townes Laser Institute, CREOL - The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Universite Bordeaux 1, 351 cours de la Liberation 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Baudelet, Matthieu, E-mail: baudelet@creol.ucf.edu [Townes Laser Institute, CREOL - The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Richardson, Martin [Townes Laser Institute, CREOL - The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The possibility of using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for measuring the moisture content of fresh food samples is studied. The normalized line emission of oxygen is highly correlated with the moisture content of the sample, cheese in our case, and can be used as a moisture marker in situations where oxygen interference from the matrix is not a critical issue. The linear correlation between the oxygen signal and the moisture content in the sample shows great potential for using LIBS as an alternative spectroscopic method for moisture monitoring. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative moisture measurement by LIBS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of matrix effects and normalization for physical information on the sample. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of signal from oxygen and CN radical in air background for moisture measurement.

  11. Correlation between laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy signal and moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuan; Gigant, Lionel; Baudelet, Matthieu; Richardson, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for measuring the moisture content of fresh food samples is studied. The normalized line emission of oxygen is highly correlated with the moisture content of the sample, cheese in our case, and can be used as a moisture marker in situations where oxygen interference from the matrix is not a critical issue. The linear correlation between the oxygen signal and the moisture content in the sample shows great potential for using LIBS as an alternative spectroscopic method for moisture monitoring. - Highlights: ► Quantitative moisture measurement by LIBS. ► Use of matrix effects and normalization for physical information on the sample. ► Use of signal from oxygen and CN radical in air background for moisture measurement.

  12. Technique for mass-spectrometric determination of moisture content in fuel elements and fuel element claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurillovich, A.N.; Pimonov, Yu.I.; Biryukov, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    A technique for mass-spectroimetric determination of moisture content in fuel elements and fuek claddings in the 2x10 -4 -1.5x10 -2 g range is developed. The relative standard deviation is 0.13. A character of moisture extraction from oxide uranium fuels in the 20-700 deg C temperature range is studied. Approximately 80% of moisture is extracted from the fuels at 300 deg C. The moisture content in fuel elements with granular uranium oxide fuels is measured. Dependence of fuel element moisture content on conditions of hot vacuum drying is shown. The technique permits to optimize the fuel element fabrication process to decrease the moisture content in them. 4 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. Variation of moisture content of some varnished woods in indoor climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Üçüncü

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, moisture change of varnished wood of black poplar (Populus nigra and yellow pine (Pinus silvestris L. used in indoor climate conditions with central heating in Trabzon (Turkey were investigated. 300 mm length wood specimens, with cross section of 12.5 mm in tangential and in radial and with the square sections of 25mm and 50 mm, were obtained from two species grown in Kanuni Campus of the Karadeniz Technical University. In this research, un-varnished wood samples were also used for reference. The wood moisture content was determined by the weighing method, the wood equilibrium moisture content by the Hailwood-Horrobin equation, and the relative humidity in the indoor climatic conditions by humid air thermodynamic principles. As a result; it was observed that the moisture content of varnished wood samples has a strong relationship with equilibrium moisture content, temperature and relative humidity. It was found that the moisture content of varnished woods was higher than the moisture content of un-varnished woods in the same climatic conditions. It was observed that the difference between the monthly average moisture content was lower in varnished woods in proportion to un-varnished woods. According to these results, it can be indicated that it would be more appropriate to select higher moisture content in the drying of wood than the equilibrium moisture content. Such an application would also reduce drying costs. Further, it can be recommended to use varnished wood in various applications because the low change range of average moisture content can affect the swelling or shrinking of wood.

  14. Moisture disturbance when measuring boron content in wet glass fibre materials with thermal neutron transmission method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiping; Liu Shengkang; Zhang Yongjie

    2001-01-01

    The theoretical calculation and experimental study on the moisture disturbance in the boron content measurement of wet glass fibre materials using the thermal neutron transmission method were reported. The relevant formula of the moisture disturbance was derived. For samples with a mass of 16 g, it was found that a moisture variation of 1% (mass percent) would result in a deviation of 0.28% (mass percent) in the measurement of boron contents

  15. Monitoring moisture content, temperature, and humidity in whole-tree pine chip piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Klepac; Dana Mitchell; Jason Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Two whole-tree chip piles were monitored for moisture content, temperature, and relative humidity from October 8th, 2010 to March 16th, 2011 at a location in south Alabama. Initial moisture content samples were collected immediately after chips were delivered to the study location on October 8th for Pile 1 and October 22nd for Pile 2. During pile construction, Lascar...

  16. Effect of Moisture Content of Chitin-Calcium Silicate on Rate of Degradation of Cefotaxime Sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nimry, Suhair S; Alkhamis, Khouloud A

    2018-04-01

    Assessment of incompatibilities between active pharmaceutical ingredient and pharmaceutical excipients is an important part of preformulation studies. The objective of the work was to assess the effect of moisture content of chitin calcium silicate of two size ranges (two specific surface areas) on the rate of degradation of cefotaxime sodium. The surface area of the excipient was determined using adsorption method. The effect of moisture content of a given size range on the stability of the drug was determined at 40°C in the solid state. The moisture content was determined at the beginning and the end of the kinetic study using TGA. The degradation in solution was studied for comparison. Increasing the moisture content of the excipient of size range 63-180 μm (surface area 7.2 m 2 /g) from 3.88 to 8.06% increased the rate of degradation of the drug more than two times (from 0.0317 to 0.0718 h -1 ). While an opposite trend was observed for the excipient of size range moisture content moisture content of 8.54%, and the degradation in solid state at both moisture contents was higher than that in solution (0.0871 h -1 ). In conclusion, the rate of degradation in solid should be studied taking into consideration the specific surface area and moisture content of the excipient at the storage condition and it may be higher than that in solution.

  17. Laboratory microwave measurement of the moisture content in seed cotton and ginned cotton fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    The timely and accurate measurement of cotton fiber moisture content is important, but the measurement is often performed by laborious, time-consuming laboratory oven drying methods. Microwave technology for measuring fiber moisture content directly (not for drying only) offers potential advantages...

  18. Investigation of Historic Equilibrium Moisture Content Data from the Forest Products Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka; Jay A. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    The Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) has provided equilibrium moisture content (EMC) values of wood for given temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions in various forms over the course of its history, primarily for practical purposes related to drying lumber and controlling moisture content. The FPL EMC data have been widely cited and reprinted, not only in...

  19. Relationship between seed moisture content and acquisition of impermeability in Nelumbo nucifera (Nelumbonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh K. Jaganathan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seeds of Nelumbo nucifera do not imbibe water, and thus have physical dormancy (PY. However, a proportion of seeds are permeable to water, and so we hypothesized that variation in moisture content is a reason for the development of both permeable and impermeable seeds. The permeable proportion of seeds present in a lot collected from Suzhou, China, was separated using an imbibition test. The permeable proportion had an average moisture content of 15.6 %, compared with 8.5 % for impermeable seeds. Drying permeable seeds above silica gel to 10 % and 8 % f. wb., resulted in 77 and 100 % impermeable seeds, respectively, compared with no impermeable seeds at 15 % moisture content. Dried to 10 % moisture content, and incubated above water in an airtight container, 46 % of the seeds reverse impermeability. Permeable seeds with 15 % moisture content maintained above LiCl2 (RH=70 % did not develop impermeability after three months of storage. The seeds dried to 6 % moisture content and stored above water in an airtight container showed no increase in moisture. Based on these results, we conclude that there is a strong relationship between moisture content and the onset of impermeability in this species.

  20. Measurement of log moisture content and density by gamma and neutron backscatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content and green density of wood was investigated using scattering of gamma rays and neutrons. Both of these processes are dependent on density but neutrons are particularly sensitive to the hydrogen content, which changes with moisture content. A material mimicking the green density and moisture content of real wood was successfully used in a laboratory study to establish the feasibility of measuring these within the range found in standing trees. A later field trial indicated that the technique needed more development to take account of the natural variability of real trees. (author). 3 refs., 11 figs., 1 table

  1. Estimating the fuel moisture content to control the reciprocating grate furnace firing wet woody biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Striūgas, N.; Vorotinskienė, L.; Paulauskas, R.; Navakas, R.; Džiugys, A.; Narbutas, L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Combustion of biomass with varying moisture content might lead to unstable operation of a furnace. • Method for automatic control of a furnace fired with wet biomass was developed. • Fuel moisture is estimated by cost-effective indirect method for predictive control. • Fuel moisture estimation methods and furnace control algorithm were validated in an industrial boiler. - Abstract: In small countries like Lithuania with a widespread district heating system, 5–10 MW moving grate biomass furnaces equipped with water boilers and condensing economisers are widely used. Such systems are designed for firing biomass fuels; however, varying fuel moisture, mostly in the range from 30% to 60%, complicates the automated operation. Without manual adjustment of the grate motion mode and other parameters, unstable operation or even extinction of the furnace is possible. To ensure stable furnace operation with moist fuel, the indirect method to estimate the fuel moisture content was developed based on the heat balance of the flue gas condensing economiser. The developed method was implemented into the automatic control unit of the furnace to estimate the moisture content in the feedstock and predictively adjust the furnace parameters for optimal fuel combustion. The indirect method based on the economiser heat balance was experimentally validated in a 6 MW grate-fired furnace fuelled by biomass with moisture contents of 37, 46, 50, 54 and 60%. The analysis shows that the estimated and manually measured values of the fuel moisture content do not differ by more than 3%. This deviation indicates that the indirect fuel moisture calculation method is sufficiently precise and the calculated moisture content varies proportionally to changes in the thermal capacity of the economiser. By smoothing the data using sliding weighted averaging, the oscillations of the fuel moisture content were identified.

  2. Equilibrium moisture content of OSB panels made from Eucalyptus urophylla clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Marin Mendes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to verify the efficiency of Nelson's equation to estimate equilibrium moisture content of this material and provide a model for determination of moisture content of panels based on air relative moisture content, as well as to evaluate the effect of some processing variables on the equilibrium moisture content of OSB (Oriented Strand Board panels. The 25 x 25 mm samples were put in an acclimation room where they were kept at 30ºC and had their mass determined after stabilization at the relative air moisture contents of 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90%. By the results obtained it was possible to conclude that: Nelson's equation tended to underestimate moisture values of the panel; the polynomial model adjusted based on the relative moisture of the air presented great potential to be used; although different behavior may be observed for the isotherms of treatments, there was no significant effect of the variables panel density, wood basic density, mat type and pressure temperature on mean equilibrium moisture content in desorption 1, adsorption and desorption 2.

  3. Correlation between near infrared spectroscopy and electrical techniques in measuring skin moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, M; Sabbri, A R M; Jafri, M Z Mat; Omar, A F

    2014-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique serves as an important tool for the measurement of moisture content of skin owing to the advantages it has over the other techniques. The purpose of the study is to develop a correlation between NIR spectrometer with electrical conventional techniques for skin moisture measurement. A non-invasive measurement of moisture content of skin was performed on different part of human face and hand under control environment (temperature 21 ± 1 °C, relative humidity 45 ± 5 %). Ten healthy volunteers age between 21-25 (male and female) participated in this study. The moisture content of skin was measured using DermaLab ® USB Moisture Module, Scalar Moisture Checker and NIR spectroscopy (NIRQuest). Higher correlation was observed between NIRQuest and Dermalab moisture probe with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) above 70 % for all the subjects. However, the value of R 2 between NIRQuest and Moisture Checker was observed to be lower with the R 2 values ranges from 51.6 to 94.4 %. The correlation of NIR spectroscopy technique successfully developed for measuring moisture content of the skin. The analysis of this correlation can help to establish novel instruments based on an optical system in clinical used especially in the dermatology field

  4. Equilibrium moisture content of OSB panels produced with veneer inclusion and different types of adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Marin Mendes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different statistical models to estimate the equilibrium moisture content of OSB panels exposed to different conditions of air temperature and relative humidity, And also to evaluate the influence of the adhesive and veneer inclusion in the equilibrium moisture content. The panels were produced with three different adhesive types (phenol-formaldehyde - FF, melamine-urea-formaldehyde - MUF, and phenol-melamine-urea-formaldehyde - PMUF and with and without veneer inclusion. The evaluation of the equilibrium moisture content of the panels was carried out at temperatures of 30, 40 and 50°C and relative humidity of 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90%. The modeling of equilibrium moisture content was performed using the statistical non-linear and polynomial models. In general, the polynomial models are most indicated for determining the equilibrium moisture content of OSB. The models adjusted only with air relative humidity presented the best precision measurements. The type of adhesive affected the equilibrium moisture content of the panels, being observed for adhesives PMUF and FF the same trend of variation, and the highest values obtained for the panels produced with adhesive MUF. The veneer inclusion decreased the equilibrium moisture content only in the panels with MUF adhesive.

  5. Predicting moisture content and density distribution of Scots pine by microwave scanning of sawn timber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Hagman, O.; Fjellner, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of calibrating a prediction model for the moisture content and density distribution of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) using microwave sensors. The material was initially of green moisture content and was thereafter dried in several steps to zero moisture content. At each step, all the pieces were weighed, scanned with a microwave sensor (Satimo 9,4GHz), and computed tomography (CT)-scanned with a medical CT scanner (Siemens Somatom AR.T.). The output variables from the microwave sensor were used as predictors, and CT images that correlated with known moisture content were used as response variables. Multivariate models to predict average moisture content and density were calibrated using the partial least squares (PLS) regression. The models for average moisture content and density were applied at the pixel level, and the distribution was visualized. The results show that it is possible to predict both moisture content distribution and density distribution with high accuracy using microwave sensors. (author)

  6. Time domain reflectometry measured moisture content of sewage sludge compost across temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lu; Chen, Tong-Bin; Gao, Ding; Liu, Hong-Tao; Chen, Jun; Zheng, Guo-Di

    2013-01-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is a prospective measurement technology for moisture content of sewage sludge composting material; however, a significant dependence upon temperature has been observed. The objective of this study was to assess the impacts of temperature upon moisture content measurement and determine if TDR could be used to monitor moisture content in sewage sludge compost across a range of temperatures. We also investigated the combined effects of temperature and conductivity on moisture content measurement. The results revealed that the moisture content of composting material could be determined by TDR using coated probes, even when the measured material had a moisture content of 0.581 cm(3)cm(-3), temperature of 70°C and conductivity of 4.32 mS cm(-1). TDR probes were calibrated as a function of dielectric properties that included temperature effects. When the bulk temperature varied from 20°C to 70°C, composting material with 0.10-0.70 cm(3)cm(-3) moisture content could be measured by TDR using coated probes, and calibrations based on different temperatures minimized the errors. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Reduction of cyanogenic glycosides by extrusion - influence of temperature and moisture content of the processed material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Dušica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Тhe paper presents results of the investigation of the influence of extrusion temperature and moisture content of treated material on the reduction of cyanogenic glycosides (CGs in linseed-based co-extrudate. CGs are the major limitation of the effective usage of linseed in animal nutrition. Hence, some technological process must be applied for detoxification of linseed before its application as a nutrient. Extrusion process has demonstrated several advantages in reducing the present CGs, since it combines the influences of heating, shearing, high pressure, mixing, etc. According to obtained results, the increase in both temperature and moisture content of the starting mixture decreased the content of CGs in the processed material. HCN content, as a measurement of GCs presence, ranged from 25.42 mg/kg, recorded at the moisture content of 11.5%, to 126 mg/kg, detected at the lowest moisture content of 7%. It seems that moisture content and temperature had the impact on HCN content of equal importance. However, the influence of extrusion parameters other than temperature and moisture content could not be neglected. Therefore, the impact of individual factors has to be tested together. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46012

  8. Relationship of the moisture content of Finnish wheat flour and relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yen Linko

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the moisture content of Finnish commercial wheat flour stored at variable relative humidities, representing the conditions typical of flour storage in Finland, were investigated. It could be shown that flour of 15 % moisture at the time of packing tends to dry considerably during normal storage conditions. Owing to the hysteresis effect, the moisture content of once dried flour is not likely to reach detrimental levels during normal storage, even if the relative humidity would exceed the critical level of 75—80 % for short periods. Minimum warehouse relative humidity was observed during Januay, at which time flour moisture had decreased to 6.7 %. The equilibrium humidity for flour of 15 % original moisture content was found to be about 70 %.

  9. Microstructure and ultrastructure of alfalfa seeds with different moisture contents after satellite carrying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Peng; Li Jian; Zhang Yunwei; Liu Ruohan

    2009-01-01

    Seeds with different moisture contents (9%, 11%, 13%, 15%, 17%) of Medicago sativa L. cv. Zhongmu No. 1 were boarded on the Shijian-8 satellite and then the microscopic and ultrastructure were observed. The results showed that spongy tissue and leaf palisade of plant after space flight were different to their control. The impact of on spongy cells was more obvious than the palisade cells; greater chloroplasts, empty and crack overflow mitochondria were observed. More starch grain were found at the samples cultured from 15% and 17% moisture content treatment, which was analyzed that starch grains in leaf cell was affected by the moisture content of seeds. (authors)

  10. Influence of moisture content of combusted wood on the thermal efficiency of a boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurenda, Ladislav; Banski, Adrián

    2017-03-01

    In the paper the influence of moisture content of wood on the heat losses and thermal efficiency of a boiler is analysed. The moisture content of wood has a negative effect, especially on flue gas loss. The mathematical dependence of the thermal efficiency of a boiler is presented for the following boundary conditions: the moisture content of wood 10-60%, range of temperatures of emitted flue gases from the boiler into the atmosphere 120-200 C, the emissions meeting the emission standards: carbon monoxide 250 mgm-3, fly ash 50 mgm-3 and the heat power range 30-100%.

  11. Influence of moisture content of combusted wood on the thermal efficiency of a boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzurenda Ladislav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the influence of moisture content of wood on the heat losses and thermal efficiency of a boiler is analysed. The moisture content of wood has a negative effect, especially on flue gas loss. The mathematical dependence of the thermal efficiency of a boiler is presented for the following boundary conditions: the moisture content of wood 10-60%, range of temperatures of emitted flue gases from the boiler into the atmosphere 120-200 C, the emissions meeting the emission standards: carbon monoxide 250 mgm−3, fly ash 50 mgm−3 and the heat power range 30-100%.

  12. Sampling procedure in a willow plantation for estimation of moisture content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Kofoed; Lærke, Poul Erik; Liu, Na

    2015-01-01

    Heating value and fuel quality of wood is closely connected to moisture content. In this work the variation of moisture content (MC) of short rotation coppice (SRC) willow shoots is described for five clones during one harvesting season. Subsequently an appropriate sampling procedure minimising...... labour costs and sampling uncertainty is proposed, where the MC of a single stem section with the length of 10–50 cm corresponds to the mean shoot moisture content (MSMC) with a bias of maximum 11 g kg−1. This bias can be reduced by selecting the stem section according to the particular clone...

  13. Soil density and moisture content on two unused forest roads during first 30 months after construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Helvey; J.N. Kochenderfer; J.N. Kochenderfer

    1990-01-01

    Reports results of soil density and soil moisture measurements on two roads in the central Appalachians over a 30-month period. Density increased slightly during the measurement period at most locations. Almost all of the density changes occurred during the first few months after construction. Moisture content decreased during the first few months after construction,...

  14. Effect of moisture content and storage conditions on the storability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Rhizopus sp. were more abundant with increasing moisture content. Air-tight .... jute bag. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of moisture and storage .... be due to contamination as a result of local method of processing.

  15. Controlling moisture content of wood samples using a modified soil-pan decay method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy; Simon F. Curling; Patricia K. Lebow

    2005-01-01

    In wood, the threshold level below which decay cannot occur varies with species or type of wood product and other factors such as temperature, humidity, and propensity of exposure or service-use to allow rain-induced wetting and subsequent drying. The ability to control wood moisture content (MC) during laboratory decay testing could allow research on the moisture...

  16. Subcellular Electrical Measurements as a Function of Wood Moisture Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; José L. Colon Quintana; Samuel V. Glass; Joseph E. Jakes; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2015-01-01

    The percolation model developed by Zelinka et al. was based upon macroscale measurements of the electrical conductivity and implicitly treats the wood material as homogenous. The transport mechanism proposed by Jakes et al. depends upon a moisture induced glass transition occurring in the hemicelluloses. This theory suggests that there are likely differences in the...

  17. Moisture content of PuO2 fuel used for the milliwatt generator heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotelli, W.A.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of the moisture content of 238 Pu dioxide fuel for use in Milliwatt Generator heat sources was studied in an attempt to more clearly define the production fuel preloading procedures. The study indicated that water was not present or being adsorbed at various steps of the process (or during storage) that could lead to compatibility problems during pretreatment or long-term storage. The moisture content of the plutonium dioxide was analyzed by a commercial moisture analyzer. The moisture content at all steps of the process including storage averaged from 0.002% to 0.005%. The moisture content of the plutonium dioxide exposed to moist atmosphere for 7 days was 0.001%. These values indicated that no significant amount of moisture was adsorbed by the plutonium dioxide fuel charges. The only significant moisture content found was an average of 3.47%, after self-calcination. This was expected since no additional steps, other than self-heating of the fuel, are taken to remove the water

  18. GENERALIZATION, FORMULATION AND HEAT CONTENTS OF SIMULATED MSW WITH HIGH MOISTURE CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. JOHARI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a generalization technique for the formulation of simulated municipal solid waste. This technique is used for the elimination of the inconsistency in the municipal solid waste (MSW characteristics due to its heterogeneous nature. The compositions of simulated municipal solid waste were formulated from four major municipal waste streams components in Malaysia namely paper, plastic, food and yard waste. The technique produced four simplified waste generalization categories with composition of paper (19%, plastic (25%, food (27% and green waste (29% respectively. Comparative study was conducted for proximate analysis for the determination of volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash content. Ultimate analysis was performed for carbon and hydrogen content. The heat content for simulated and actual municipal solid waste showed good agreement. The moisture content of the simulated municipal solid waste and actual municipal solid waste were established at 52.34% and 61.71% respectively. Overall results were considered to be representative of the actual compositions of municipal solid waste in Malaysia.

  19. Influence of soil moisture content on surface albedo and soil thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Half hourly data of soil moisture content, soil temperature, solar irradiance, and reflectance are measured ... and the influence of solar elevation angle and cloud cover are also investigated. .... ters are important factors in climate modelling and.

  20. Equilibrium moisture content of radiata pine at elevated temperature and pressure reveals measurement challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Hamish; Gabbitas, Brian; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2012-01-01

    moisture contents were attributed to condensation of liquid water on the specimen with subsequent evaporation at a rate that was too slow for the moisture content to reach equilibrium before it was measured. Reliable EMC data at elevated temperatures require (1) tight process control of experimental......Relatively few studies have been performed on the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure. Eight studies indicated that EMC near saturation decreased between 100 and 150 °C, whilst five studies indicated that EMC increased. The aim...... of this study was to identify the likely source of the disagreement using radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood which was conditioned to a moisture content of around 3 % and then exposed for 1 h at 150 °C and relative humidities of either 50, 70 or 90 %. Mean values of EMC, obtained through in situ...

  1. DETERMINATION OF MOISTURE CONTENT OF BAGASSE OF JAGGERY UNIT USING MICROWAVE OVEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. ANWAR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In jaggery making furnaces, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel. Moisture content of bagasse affects its calorific value. So burning of bagasse at suitable level of moisture is essential from the viewpoint of furnace performance. Moisture content can also be used for indirect calculation of fibre content in sugarcane. Normally gravimetric method is used for moisture content determination, which is time consuming. Therefore, an attempt has been made to use microwave oven for drying of bagasse. It took about 20 to 25 minutes for the determination as compared to 8-10 hours in conventional hot air drying method and the results were comparable to the values obtained from hot air drying method.

  2. Study of time variation of terrestrial gamma radiation due to depth distribution of soil moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshioka, Katsuhiro

    1994-01-01

    An empirical equation was deduced from studies of time variations of terrestrial gamma exposure rate and soil moisture content with depth distribution in the surface layer. It was definitely suggested that the variation of terrestrial gamma exposure rate is most strongly influenced by the change of soil moisture content at 5 cm depth. The seasonal variation with a relative maximum in early autumn and a relative minimum in early spring was clearly obtained in the consequence of long time measurements of terrestrial gamma exposure rate and degree of soil dryness. The diurnal change and phase difference due to the effect of depth were also obtained in the dynamic characteristics of soil moisture content at 3 different depths. From the comparison between measured terrestrial gamma exposure rate and that evaluated from soil moisture content using the empirical equation, it was seen that seasonal variations of the both agreed fairly well as a whole. (author)

  3. Rapid field detection of moisture content for base and subgrade : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Mixing and compacting soil and flexible base pavement materials at the proper moisture content is critical : for obtaining adequate compaction and meeting construction specification requirements. This project sought : to evaluate rapid non-nuclear te...

  4. Effects of moisture content on mechanical properties, transparency, and thermal stability of yuba film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siran; Kim, Nayeon; Yokoyama, Wallace; Kim, Yookyung

    2018-03-15

    Yuba is the skin formed at the surface during the heating of soymilk. The 3rd, 7th, and 11th films were evaluated for properties at different RH. At 39% RH, the 11th film had the lowest moisture, while the 3rd film had the highest moisture. However, at 75% RH, reverse moisture results were obtained. The tensile strengths of the 3rd and 11th films were highest at 15% moisture, whereas the tensile strength of the 7th film was highest at 25% moisture. Elongation of the 3rd (127%) and 11th (85%) films were highest at 25% moisture. The light transmittance of the films was low and opaque at 5% moisture. The films were transparent at 23%-28% moisture, but became opaque as the moisture increased. The films at 39% RH (ΔH, 113-203J/g) had higher thermal stability than those at 87% RH (ΔH, 315-493J/g). Moisture content markedly changed the yuba film properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling effects of moisture content and advection on odor causing VOCs volatilization from stored swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, C M; Liang, H M

    2000-05-01

    Two models for evaluating the contents and advection of manure moisture on odor causing volatile organic compounds (VOC-odor) volatilization from stored swine manure were studied for their ability to predict the volatilization rate (indoor air concentration) and cumulative exposure dose: a MJ-I model and a MJ-II model. Both models simulating depletion of source contaminant via volatilization and degradation based on an analytical model adapted from the behavior assessment model of Jury et al. In the MJ-I model, manure moisture movement was negligible, whereas in the MJ-II model, time-dependent indoor air concentrations was a function of constant manure moisture contents and steady-state moisture advection. Predicted indoor air concentrations and inhaled doses for the study VOC-odors of p-cresol, toluene, and p-xylene varied by up to two to three orders of magnitude depending on the manure moisture conditions. The sensitivity analysis of both models suggests that when manure moisture movement exists, simply MJ-I model is inherently not sufficient to represent a more generally volatilization process, which can even become stringent as moisture content increases. The conclusion illustrates how one needs to include a wide variety of manure moisture values in order to fully assess the complex volatilization mechanisms that are present in a real situation.

  6. An analysis of infiltration with moisture content distribution in a two-dimensional discretized water content domain

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han; Douglas, Craig C.

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of unsaturated Darcy's law, the Talbot-Ogden method provides a fast unconditional mass conservative algorithm to simulate groundwater infiltration in various unsaturated soil textures. Unlike advanced reservoir modelling methods that compute unsaturated flow in space, it only discretizes the moisture content domain into a suitable number of bins so that the vertical water movement is estimated piecewise in each bin. The dimensionality of the moisture content domain is extended from one dimensional to two dimensional in this study, which allows us to distinguish pore shapes within the same moisture content range. The vertical movement of water in the extended model imitates the infiltration phase in the Talbot-Ogden method. However, the difference in this extension is the directional redistribution, which represents the horizontal inter-bin flow and causes the water content distribution to have an effect on infiltration. Using this extension, we mathematically analyse the general relationship between infiltration and the moisture content distribution associated with wetting front depths in different bins. We show that a more negatively skewed moisture content distribution can produce a longer ponding time, whereas a higher overall flux cannot be guaranteed in this situation. It is proven on the basis of the water content probability distribution independent of soil textures. To illustrate this analysis, we also present numerical examples for both fine and coarse soil textures.

  7. An analysis of infiltration with moisture content distribution in a two-dimensional discretized water content domain

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2014-06-11

    On the basis of unsaturated Darcy\\'s law, the Talbot-Ogden method provides a fast unconditional mass conservative algorithm to simulate groundwater infiltration in various unsaturated soil textures. Unlike advanced reservoir modelling methods that compute unsaturated flow in space, it only discretizes the moisture content domain into a suitable number of bins so that the vertical water movement is estimated piecewise in each bin. The dimensionality of the moisture content domain is extended from one dimensional to two dimensional in this study, which allows us to distinguish pore shapes within the same moisture content range. The vertical movement of water in the extended model imitates the infiltration phase in the Talbot-Ogden method. However, the difference in this extension is the directional redistribution, which represents the horizontal inter-bin flow and causes the water content distribution to have an effect on infiltration. Using this extension, we mathematically analyse the general relationship between infiltration and the moisture content distribution associated with wetting front depths in different bins. We show that a more negatively skewed moisture content distribution can produce a longer ponding time, whereas a higher overall flux cannot be guaranteed in this situation. It is proven on the basis of the water content probability distribution independent of soil textures. To illustrate this analysis, we also present numerical examples for both fine and coarse soil textures.

  8. Corrosion of Galvanized Steel Under Different Soil Moisture Contents

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,Roseana Florentino da Costa; Oliveira,Edkarlla Sousa Dantas de; Lima,Maria Alice Gomes de Andrade; Brasil,Simone Louise Delarue Cezar

    2015-01-01

    Galvanized steel has been widely applied in different applications and the industry significantly increased its production in recent years. Some galvanized structures can be completely or partially buried, such as transmission tower footings. The corrosion of these metallic structures is related to the soil chemical and physicochemical properties, which define the aggressiveness of the environment. To assess the effect of the soil moisture on galvanized steel corrosion, a comparative study wa...

  9. Effect of moisture content on fed batch composting reactor of vegetable and fruit wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolanun, B; Tripetchkul, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chaiprasert, P; Towprayoon, S

    2005-03-01

    Vegetable and fruit wastes mixed with sawdust were composted in a laboratory scale reactor by controlling the waste feeding rate at 21 kg m(-3) day(-1) and aeration rate at 10.6 l m(-3) min(-1). The effects of initial moisture content on organic matter degradation and process performance of fed batch composting were investigated. The absolute amount of removal, removal percentage, and removal rate of dry mass obtained were substantially different among the initial moisture contents. The rapid rise of moisture content and the lowest absolute amount of removal observed were achieved in the 50% condition. The initial moisture content yielding the largest absolute amount of removal in both feeding and curing stage was 30% whereas the removal percentage and rate constant of waste decomposition were highest in the 50% condition. Examined by traditional soil physics method, the moisture content at 50-55% was suitable for satisfying the degree of free air space (65-70%) of compost during the fed batch composting. Most degradable organic matter was mainly consumed in the feeding stage as indicated by a higher removal rate of dry mass in all cases. It is recommended that the initial moisture content of 30% and mode of aeration and agitation should be adopted for achieving practical fed batch composting of vegetable and fruit wastes. The study also demonstrated that the composting kinetics of vegetable and fruit wastes mixed with sawdust can be described by a first order model.

  10. Response of bacteria in wastewater sludge to moisture loss by evaporation and effect of moisture content on bacterial inactivation by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R.L.; Yeager, J.G.; Ashley, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Two studies were carried out to determine the influence of moisture content on the survival of bacteria in raw wastewater sludge. The first study involved the effect of water loss by evaporation on the bacterial population. The second used these dewatered samples to measure the effects of moisture content on the inactivation of bacteria in sludge by ionizing radiation. Both studies involved survival measurements of six representative fecally associated bacteria grown separately in sterilized sludge as well as survival data on bacteria indigenous to sludge. Growth of bacteria was stimulated in sludge during the initial phase of moisture removal by evaporation, but the reduction of moisture content below about 50% by weight caused a proportional decrease in bacterial numbers. The rates of inactivation of bacteria by ionizing radiation in sludge were usually modified to some degree by variations in moisture content. Most bacteria were found to be somewhat protected from ionizing radiation at reduced moisture levels

  11. Effect of grain moisture content during milling on pasting profile and functional properties of amaranth fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K Vishnuswamy Preetham; Dharmaraj, Usha; Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A

    2016-05-01

    Evaluation of functional properties of milled fractions of grain amaranth may be useful to decide the end uses of the grain. Hence, pasting profiles of amaranth fractions obtained by milling the grains at different moisture contents were studied in relation with their starch profile and also with their swelling power and solubility indices. It was observed that, for flour fraction, the viscosity parameters were lowest at 14-16 % moisture content. Swelling power and solubility indices of the samples varied as a function of grain moisture content. The middling fraction also showed similar pasting pattern with the variation of grain moisture content. The seed coat fractions showed higher gelatinization temperature compared to that of fine flour and middling fractions. However, starch content of the fine seed coat fraction was comparable with that of the flour and middling fractions. The coarse seed coat fraction showed lower viscosity parameters than the other samples. Viscosity parameters correlated well among themselves while, they did not show significant correlation with the starch content. However, the viscosity parameters showed negative correlation with the soluble amylose content. The study revealed that, the fractions obtained by milling the grains at different moisture content show differential pasting profiles and functional properties.

  12. Determination of moisture content of lyophilized allergen vaccines by NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yiwu; Lai, Xuxin; Bruun, Susanne Wrang

    2008-01-01

    Moisture content is an important parameter for lyophilized vaccines. Currently, Karl Fischer titration is widely used for moisture determination in routine analysis. However, this method is time-consuming, sample destructive and requires environment polluting reagents, as well as the results rely...... on the random samplings. In this study, near infrared spectroscopy was used as a fast, non-invasive and non-destructive method to determine the moisture content in lyophilized allergy vaccines. Five different vaccine products were investigated, which contained water in the range of 0.17-1.51% (w/w, KF......). Different data pre-treatments, wavelength selection and partial least squares regression were applied to construct calibration models. Multi-products model and product-specific models were obtained, which show the possibility of NIR as a rapid method to discriminate whether moisture content fit...

  13. Determination of moisture content gradient in wood by gamma-ray attenuation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, O.; Barros Ferraz, E.S. de

    1981-01-01

    A new methodology for determining water content gradients in wood was developed. It was based on the low energy gamma ray attenuation. Two equations were proposed for determining wood water content, below and above the fiber saturation point. A series of measurents of moisture content gradients in wood samples of Pinus oocarpa was made, during drying in an environment with controlled relative humidity and temperature. The water cntent gradients determination was quick, non-destructive and presented sensitivity and accuracy in moisture content range from 9% to 150%. Aspects of the application of this methodology in water diffusion and flow studies in wood are discussed. (Author) [pt

  14. Effect of Root Moisture Content and Diameter on Root Tensile Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanjun; Chen, Lihua; Li, Ning; Zhang, Qiufen

    2016-01-01

    The stabilization of slopes by vegetation has been a topical issue for many years. Root mechanical characteristics significantly influence soil reinforcement; therefore it is necessary to research into the indicators of root tensile properties. In this study, we explored the influence of root moisture content on tensile resistance and strength with different root diameters and for different tree species. Betula platyphylla, Quercus mongolica, Pinus tabulaeformis, and Larix gmelinii, the most popular tree species used for slope stabilization in the rocky mountainous areas of northern China, were used in this study. A tensile test was conducted after root samples were grouped by diameter and moisture content. The results showedthat:1) root moisture content had a significant influence on tensile properties; 2) slightly loss of root moisture content could enhance tensile strength, but too much loss of water resulted in weaker capacity for root elongation, and consequently reduced tensile strength; 3) root diameter had a strong positive correlation with tensile resistance; and4) the roots of Betula platyphylla had the best tensile properties when both diameter and moisture content being controlled. These findings improve our understanding of root tensile properties with root size and moisture, and could be useful for slope stabilization using vegetation. PMID:27003872

  15. MAPPING SPATIAL MOISTURE CONTENT OF UNSATURATED AGRICULTURAL SOILS WITH GROUND-PENETRATING RADAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Shamir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil subsurface moisture content, especially in the root zone, is important for evaluation the influence of soil moisture to agricultural crops. Conservative monitoring by point-measurement methods is time-consuming and expensive. In this paper we represent an active remote-sensing tool for subsurface spatial imaging and analysis of electromagnetic physical properties, mostly water content, by ground-penetrating radar (GPR reflection. Combined with laboratory methods, this technique enables real-time and highly accurate evaluations of soils' physical qualities in the field. To calculate subsurface moisture content, a model based on the soil texture, porosity, saturation, organic matter and effective electrical conductivity is required. We developed an innovative method that make it possible measures spatial subsurface moisture content up to a depth of 1.5 m in agricultural soils and applied it to two different unsaturated soil types from agricultural fields in Israel: loess soil type (Calcic haploxeralf, common in rural areas of southern Israel with about 30% clay, 30% silt and 40% sand, and hamra soil type (Typic rhodoxeralf, common in rural areas of central Israel with about 10% clay, 5% silt and 85% sand. Combined field and laboratory measurements and model development gave efficient determinations of spatial moisture content in these fields. The environmentally friendly GPR system enabled non-destructive testing. The developed method for measuring moisture content in the laboratory enabled highly accurate interpretation and physical computing. Spatial soil moisture content to 1.5 m depth was determined with 1–5% accuracy, making our method useful for the design of irrigation plans for different interfaces.

  16. Electromagnetic characterization of white spruce at different moisture contents using synthetic aperture radar imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingemi, Christopher M.; Owusu Twumasi, Jones; Yu, Tzuyang

    2018-03-01

    Detection and quantification of moisture content inside wood (timber) is key to ensuring safety and reliability of timber structures. Moisture inside wood attracts insects and fosters the development of fungi to attack the timber, causing significant damages and reducing the load bearing capacity during their design life. The use of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques (e.g., microwave/radar, ultrasonic, stress wave, and X-ray) for condition assessment of timber structures is a good choice. NDE techniques provide information about the level of deterioration and material properties of timber structures without obstructing their functionality. In this study, microwave/radar NDE technique was selected for the characterization of wood at different moisture contents. A 12 in-by-3.5 in-by-1.5 in. white spruce specimen (picea glauca) was imaged at different moisture contents using a 10 GHz synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensor inside an anechoic chamber. The presence of moisture was found to increase the SAR image amplitude as expected. Additionally, integrated SAR amplitude was found beneficial in modeling the moisture content inside the wood specimen.

  17. Design of a small scale boiler package for testing high moisture content biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the results of a project to design a prototype, small-scale boiler (0.88 MWth output) to enable clean and efficient combustion of high moisture content (>30%) biomass fuels. The boiler was based on an open bottom smoke tube design, modified to incorporate water tubes in the combustion chamber running from front to back. These were added to support refractory bricks to create an extra pass in the boiler combustion chamber such that the reflected heat from the refractory increased the rate of evaporation of moisture from the fuel. A chain grate stoker was employed. The combustion tests involved three biofuels: wood pellets with a low moisture content (8-10%) (to provide combustion rates for a commercially proven biofuel); wood chips from forestry waste with a 30-40% moisture content; and spent mushroom compost with 70-75% moisture. The tests on the wood chips required a number of modifications to the fuel feeding system and to the boiler in order to achieve limited success and the tests with the mushroom compost were unsuccessful due to the combination of the high moisture content and the fuel's low calorific value. Experience gained with the wood chips suggested a number of improvements for a future boiler design. As well as describing the experimental work and test results, the report offers an economic analysis (capital costs, fuel costs, running costs) of the scheme.

  18. Mechanical properties of potato starch modified by moisture content and addition of lubricant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiak, Mateusz; Molenda, Marek; Horabik, Józef; Mueller, Peter; Opaliński, Ireneusz

    2014-10-01

    Laboratory testing was conducted to deliver a set of characteristics of structure and mechanical properties of pure starch and starch with an addition of a lubricant - magnesium stearate. Considerable influence of moisture content of potato starch was found in the case of density, parameters of internal friction, coefficients of wall friction and flowability. Elasticity was found to be strongly influenced by water content of the material. Addition of magnesium stearate affected density and parameters of flowability, internal friction and elasticity. Bulk density increased from 604 to 774 kg m-3 with decrease in moisture content of potato starch from 17 to for 6%. Addition of magnesium stearate resulted in approximately 10% decrease in bulk density. Angle of internal friction obtained for 10 kPa of consolidation stress decreased from 33 to 24º with increase in moisture content, and to approximately 22º with addition of the lubricant. With an increase of moisture content from 6 to 18% and with addition of the lubricant, the modulus of elasticity during loading decreased from approximately 1.0 to 0.1 MPa. Modulus of elasticity during unloading was found in the range from 19 to 42 MPa and increased with increase of moisture content and amount of lubricant.

  19. Nuclear techniques for measuring moisture content in soil profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrada, Y.

    1983-01-01

    The prevailing severe shortage of animal feed in most of the developing countries could, to a considerable extent, be overcome through improved range management, which includes introduction of high yielding drought-resistant forage crops, development of adequate water conservation measures, and as far as possible growing annual forage crops on part of the vast areas of arable land currently left fallow each year. Year round measurements are essential for a good understanding of soil water and nutrients dynamics, which allow for adequate evaluation of pasture management alternatives. The methods most commonly used for moisture measurements in soil profiles are discussed because such measurements are likely to form an essential part of any investigation aimed at increasing animal feed production through the development of adequate pasture management practices. (author)

  20. Moisture content evaluation of biomass using CFD approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bartzanas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In grass conservation systems, drying in the field is an essential process upon which the quality and quantity of the material to be conserved is dependent on. In this study a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD model, previously validated, was used to assess qualitatively and quantitatively the field drying process of cut grass under different weather conditions and structural specifications of the grass. The use of the CFD model depicts the climate heterogeneity in the grass area with a special focus on moisture distribution, influence of the weather conditions, in order to create the possibility of applying the model as a decision support tool for an enhanced treatment of the grass after cutting.

  1. Automatic determination of moisture content in biofuels based on NIR-measurements; Automatisk fukthaltsbestaemning av biobraenslen med NIR-metoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Magnus; Wiklund, Sven Erik [AaF-Process AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Karlsson, Mikael; Tryzell, Robert [Bestwood AB, Sundbyberg (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    The determination of moisture content of biofuel is of large importance for the energy sector. The used methods for moisture determination are based on fuels samples taken from the bulk followed by drying and weighing. To be able to instead determine the moisture content based on a method with good accuracy and with a short response time would be a large improvement. Both for the fuel sampling and the following analysis there are Swedish standards but concerning the fuel sampling the standards are often not followed. The main reason is the difficulties to sample fuel samples from different depth from a delivery. This is one of the reasons that some plants have installed mechanical samplers but the investment cost for these is relatively high. The aim of this project was to investigate the use of the NIR-method for automatic moisture determination in biofuels. Within the project the NIR-method was used to determine the moisture content on withdrawn fuel samples, in addition the possibility to integrate the NIR-method in an automatic sampling system is also described. A large number of samples, in total over 200 samples, have been evaluated with the NIR-method and compared with the reference method, oven drying and gravimetric determination of moisture content. That the NIR-method can be used to determine moisture content in a number of well defined materials have previously been shown. In this report it has moreover been shown that the method can be used under the conditions at the fuel delivery station and for a large spectrum of biofuels. The accuracy that can be achieved with the NIR-method is in the same magnitude as the standard method, i.e. the reference method used for the measurements. Altogether this shows that the NIR-method is an interesting alternative for integration in an automatic measurement system for determination of fuel moisture content in biofuels. To be able to use the NIR-method for automatic determination of fuel moisture content at the

  2. Predicting long-term moisture contents of earthen covers at uranium mill tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.; Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-09-01

    The three methods for long-term moisture prediction covered in this report are: estimates from water retention (permanent wilting point) data, correlation with climate and soil type, and detailed model simulation. The test results have shown: soils vary greatly in residual moisture. Expected long-term moisture saturation ratios (based on generalized soil characteristics) range from 0.2 to 0.8 for soils ranging in texture from sand to clay, respectively. These values hold for noncompacted field soils. Measured radon diffusion coefficients for soils at 15-bar water contents ranged from 5.0E-2 cm 2 /s to 5.0E-3 cm 2 /s for sands and clays, respectively, at typical field densities. In contrast, fine-textured pit-run earthen materials, subjected to optimum compaction (>85% Proctor density) and dried to the 15-bar water content, ranged from 0.7 to 0.9 moisture saturation. Compacted pit-run soils at these moisture contents exhibited radon diffusion coefficients as low as 3.0E-4 cm 2 /s. The residual moisture saturation for cover soils is not known since no engineered barrier has been in place for more than a few years. A comparison of methods for predicting moisture saturation indicates that model simulations are useful for predicting effects of climatic changes on residual soil moisture, but that long-term moisture also can be predicted with some degree of confidence using generalized soil properties or empirical correlations based both on soils and climatic information. The optimal soil cover design will likely include more than one layer of soil. A two-layer system using a thick (1-m minimum) plant root zone of uncompacted soil placed over a moistened, tightly compacted fine-textured soil is recommended. This design concept has been tested successfully at the Grand Junction, Colorado, tailings piles

  3. Service Life Prediction of Wood Claddings by in-situ Measurement of Wood Moisture Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Emil Tang; Lindegaard, Berit; Morsing, Niels

    2009-01-01

    of wood moisture are done by in-situ resistance moisture meters (Lindegaard and Morsing 2006). The aim is that the test should form the basis of evaluation of the maintenance requirements and the prediction of service life of the surface treatment and the wood/construction. At the moment 60 test racks...... are exposed. This study examines the data from the first five years of outdoor exposure using data from a test rack with a water-borne acrylic coating and a test rack with ICP coating for case studies. The moisture content data was converted into weekly average and weekly variation values which gave a deeper...

  4. Temporal and spatial variabilities in the surface moisture content of a fine-grained beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namikas, S. L.; Edwards, B. L.; Bitton, M. C. A.; Booth, J. L.; Zhu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined spatial and temporal variations in the surface moisture content of a fine-grained beach at Padre Island, Texas, USA. Surface moisture measurements were collected on a 27 × 24 m grid that extended from the dune toe to the upper foreshore. The grid was surveyed at 2 to 4 h intervals for two tidal cycles, generating 17 maps of the spatial distribution of surface moisture. Simultaneous measurements of air temperature and humidity, wind speed and direction, tidal elevation, and water table elevation were used to interpret observed changes in surface moisture. It was found that the spatial distribution of surface moisture was broadly characterized by a cross-shore gradient of high to low content moving landward from the swash zone. The distribution of surface moisture was conceptualized in terms of three zones: saturated (> 25%), intermediate or transitional (5-25%), and dry (< 5%). The position of the saturated zone corresponded to the uppermost swash zone and therefore shifted in accordance with tidal elevation. Moisture contents in the intermediate and dry zones were primarily related to variation in water table depth (which was in turn controlled by tidal elevation) and to a lesser extent by evaporation. Signals associated with atmospheric processes such as evaporation were muted by the minimal degree of variation in atmospheric parameters experienced during most of the study period, but were apparent for the last few hours. The observed spatial and temporal variations in moisture content correspond reasonably well with observations of key controlling processes, but more work is needed to fully characterize this process suite.

  5. A study of quantitative radiography for moisture content distributions in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Y.; Hino, M.; Horie, T.

    2003-01-01

    Vacuum pre-cooling in cut flower or perishable vegetables industry are used for protecting from the deterioration of the perishables during transportation. Some improvements of the pre-cooling way, however, are required for a bruise in plant on the way of handling. Neutron radiography is suitable to detect and observe the bruise in plant, especially, moisture content distributions in leaves, flowers and stalks. Neutron spectrum in irradiation neutron beams is required for obtaining quantitative moisture contents in plant. The neutron spectrum measurements for determination of effective cross-section of water are carried out at CN-3 experimental hole of Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) by time of flight method. Moisture content distributions in leaves of chrysanthemum, before and after the vacuum pre-cooling are measured by cold neutron radiography at the experimental hole. The local decreases of moisture contents caused by a bruise on the surface of the leaves are measured quantitatively by the cold neutron radiography. The quantitative changes of the moisture content in the leaves are able to read out from the cold neutron radiography image. (M. Suetake)

  6. Physical Properties of two Acha varieties as a function of Moisture Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Aviara

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available "Acha" is a cereal crop of West African origin belonging to the family graminaea. There are many varieties of Acha, but the most prominent two are the white Acha (Digitaria exillis and brown Acha (Digitaria iburua. Acha is used in the production of food and beverages, and manufacture of medicines. The grain therefore, has immense economic values. However, the mechanization of Acha processing has been limited by shortage of data on its physical properties that would aid the design of equipment for its post-harvest operations. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the variation of bulk density, particle size distribution, porosity, solid density, angle of repose and one thousand grain mass of the two varieties of the crop with moisture content. The moisture content range within which the study was conducted was 5 - 30% (d.b for both white and brown variety. Results showed that as the moisture content of the two varieties of Acha increased, there was decrease in bulk density, porosity and solid density. However, increase in moisture content increased the 1000-grain mass and angle of repose of both varieties, with the values for white Acha being higher than those of brown Acha. The operation and adjustment of any Acha processing and storage equipment would therefore require a consideration of the variety and moisture content to obtain good performance.

  7. Evaluation of moisture content distribution in wood by soft X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Avramidis, S.; Shida, S.

    2009-01-01

    A technique for nondestructive evaluation of moisture content distribution of Japanese cedar (sugi) during drying using a newly developed soft X-ray digital microscope was investigated. Radial, tangential, and cross-sectional samples measuring 100 x 100 x 10 mm were cut from green sugi wood. Each sample was dried in several steps in an oven and upon completion of each step, the mass was recorded and a soft X-ray image was taken. The relationship between moisture content and the average grayscale value of the soft X-ray image at each step was linear. In addition, the linear regressions overlapped each other regardless of the sample sections. These results showed that soft X-ray images could accurately estimate the moisture content. Applying this relationship to a small section of each sample, the moisture content distribution was estimated from the image differential between the soft X-ray pictures obtained from the sample in question and the same sample in the oven-dried condition. Moisture content profiles for 10-mm-wide parts at the centers of the samples were also obtained. The shapes of the profiles supported the evaluation method used in this study

  8. A Compound Sensor for Simultaneous Measurement of Packing Density and Moisture Content of Silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Delun; Meng, Fanjia; Sun, Wei; Deng, Shuang

    2017-12-28

    Packing density and moisture content are important factors in investigating the ensiling quality. Low packing density is a major cause of loss of sugar content. The moisture content also plays a determinant role in biomass degradation. To comprehensively evaluate the ensiling quality, this study focused on developing a compound sensor. In it, moisture electrodes and strain gauges were embedded into an ASABE Standard small cone for the simultaneous measurements of the penetration resistance (PR) and moisture content (MC) of silage. In order to evaluate the performance of the designed sensor and the theoretical analysis being used, relevant calibration and validation tests were conducted. The determination coefficients are 0.996 and 0.992 for PR calibration and 0.934 for MC calibration. The validation indicated that this measurement technique could determine the packing density and moisture content of the silage simultaneously and eliminate the influence of the friction between the penetration shaft and silage. In this study, we not only design a compound sensor but also provide an alternative way to investigate the ensiling quality which would be useful for further silage research.

  9. Equilibrium moisture content of wood at different temperature/moisture conditions in the cladding of wooden constructions and in the relation to their reliability and service life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Havířová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the natural properties of wood and wood-based materials is their soaking capacity (hy­gro­sco­pi­ci­ty. The moisture content of wood and building constructions of wood and wood based materials significantly influences the service life and reliability of these constructions and buildings. The equilibrium weight moisture content of built-in wood corresponding to temperature/moisture conditions inside the cladding has therefore a decisive influence on the basic requirements placed on building constructions. The wood in wooden frame cladding changes its moisture content depending on temperature and moisture conditions of the environment it is built into. The water vapor condensation doesn’t necessarily have to occur right in the wooden framework of the cladding for the equilibrium moisture content to rise over the level permissible for the reliable function of a given construction. In spite of the fact that the common heat-technical assessment cannot be considered fully capable of detecting the effects of these factors on the functional reliability of wood-based constructions and buildings, an extension has been proposed of the present method of design an assessment of building constructions according to the ČSN 73 0540 standard regarding the interpretation of equilibrium moisture content in relation to the temperature/moisture conditions and their time behavior inside a construction.

  10. Measuring fuel moisture content in Alaska: standard methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney A. Norum; Melanie. Miller

    1984-01-01

    Methods and procedures are given for collecting and processing living and dead plant materials for the purpose of determining their water content. Wild-land fuels in Alaska are emphasized, but the methodology is applicable elsewhere. Guides are given for determining the number of samples needed to attain a chosen precision. Detailed procedures are presented for...

  11. Thermophysical properties of enzyme clarified Lime (Citrus aurantifolia L) juice at different moisture contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, S S; Raju, P S; Bawa, A S

    2014-11-01

    Thermophysical properties of enzyme clarified lime (Citrus aurantifolia L.) juice were evaluated at different moisture contents ranging from 30.37 % to 89.30 % (wet basis) corresponding to a water activity range of 0.835 to 0.979. The thermophysical properties evaluated were density, Newtonian viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity. The investigation showed that density and Newtonian viscosity of enzyme clarified lime juice decreased significantly (p lime juice with moisture content/water activity employing regression analysis by the method of least square approximation. Results indicated the existence of strong correlation between thermophysical properties and moisture content/water activity of enzyme clarified lime juice, a significant (p < 0.0001) negative correlation between physical and thermal properties was observed.

  12. Impact of moisture content in AAC on its heat insulation properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubene, S.; Vilnitis, M.

    2017-10-01

    One of the most popular trends in construction industry is sustainable construction. Therefore, application of construction materials with high insulation characteristics has significantly increased during the past decade. Requirements for application of construction materials with high insulation parameters are required not only by means of energy saving and idea of sustainable construction but also by legislative requirements. Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) is a load bearing construction material, which has high heat insulation parameters. However, if the AAC masonry construction has high moisture content the heat insulation properties of the material decrease significantly. This fact lead to the necessity for the on-site control of moisture content in AAC in order to avoid inconsistency between the designed and actual thermal resistivity values of external delimiting constructions. Research of the impact of moisture content in AAC on its heat insulation properties has been presented in this paper.

  13. Finite Element Analysis of Simple Rectangular Microstrip Sensor for Determination Moisture Content of Hevea Rubber Latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, NZ; Ramli, MR; Razak, NNANA; Abbas, Z.

    2018-04-01

    The Finite Element Method, FEM has been successfully used to model a simple rectangular microstrip sensor to determine the moisture content of Hevea rubber latex. The FEM simulation of sensor and samples was implemented by using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The simulation includes the calculation of magnitude and phase of reflection coefficient and was compared to analytical method. The results show a good agreement in finding the magnitude and phase of reflection coefficient when compared with analytical results. Field distributions of both the unloaded sensor as well as the sensor loaded with different percentages of moisture content were visualized using FEM in conjunction with COMSOL software. The higher the amount of moisture content in the sample the more the electric loops were observed.

  14. The influence of temperature and moisture contents regimes on the aerobic microbial activity of a biosolids composting blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C; Das, K C; McClendon, R W

    2003-01-01

    To understand the relationships between temperature, moisture content, and microbial activity during the composting of biosolids (municipal wastewater treatment sludge), well-controlled incubation experiments were conducted using a 2-factor factorial design with six temperatures (22, 29, 36, 43, 50, and 57 degrees C) and five moisture contents (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70%). The microbial activity was measured as O2 uptake rate (mg g(-1) h(-1)) using a computer controlled respirometer. In this study, moisture content proved to be a dominant factor impacting aerobic microbial activity of the composting blend. Fifty percent moisture content appeared to be the minimal requirement for obtaining activities greater than 1.0 mg g(-1) h(-1). Temperature was also documented to be an important factor for biosolids composting. However, its effect was less influential than moisture content. Particularly, the enhancement of composting activities induced by temperature increment could be realized by increasing moisture content alone.

  15. The effect of moisture content on physicochemical properties of extruded waxy and non-waxy rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsutjarittam, Ornpicha; Charoenrein, Sanguansri

    2014-12-19

    The properties of waxy rice flour (WRF) and non-waxy rice flour (RF) were modified using an extrusion process with different feeding material moisture contents. WRF was more affected by the thermomechanical stress from extrusion; consequently, it had a lower glass transition temperature but higher water solubility index (WSI) indicating higher molecular degradation than extruded RF. The lower moisture content of the feeding flour caused more severe flour damage (coarser surface of the extruded flour) and lowered relative crystallinity compared to higher moisture content processing. Moreover, low moisture content processing led to complete gelatinization, whereas, partial gelatinization occurred in the higher moisture content extrusion. Consequently, the extruded flours had a lower peak viscosity and gelatinization enthalpy but a higher water absorption index and WSI than native flour. In conclusion, the rice flour type and the moisture content of the extrusion feeding flour affected the physicochemical properties of the extruded flour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Moisture content during extrusion of oats impacts the initial fermentation metabolites and probiotic bacteria during extended fermentation by human fecal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Sandrayee; Weier, Steven A; Rose, Devin J

    2017-07-01

    Extrusion exposes flour components to high pressure and shear during processing, which may affect the dietary fiber fermentability by human fecal microbiota. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of flour moisture content during extrusion on in vitro fermentation properties of whole grain oats. Extrudates were processed at three moisture levels (15%, 18%, and 21%) at fixed screw speed (300rpm) and temperature (130°C). The extrudates were then subjected to in vitro digestion and fermentation. Extrusion moisture significantly affected water-extractable β-glucan (WE-BG) in the extrudates, with samples processed at 15% moisture (lowest) and 21% moisture (highest) having the highest concentration of WE-BG. After the first 8h of fermentation, more WE-BG remained in fermentation media in samples processed at 15% moisture compared with the other conditions. Also, extrusion moisture significantly affected the production of acetate, butyrate, and total SCFA by the microbiota during the first 8h of fermentation. Microbiota grown on extrudates processed at 18% moisture had the highest production of acetate and total SCFA, whereas bacteria grown on extrudates processed at 15% and 18% moisture had the highest butyrate production. After 24h of fermentation, samples processed at 15% moisture supported lower Bifidobacterium counts than those produced at other conditions, but had among the highest Lactobacillus counts. Thus, moisture content during extrusion significantly affects production of fermentation metabolites by the gut microbiota during the initial stages of fermentation, while also affecting probiotic bacteria counts during extended fermentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. De-coupling seasonal changes in water content and dry matter to predict live conifer foliar moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Matt Jolly; Ann M. Hadlow; Kathleen Huguet

    2014-01-01

    Live foliar moisture content (LFMC) significantly influences wildland fire behaviour. However, characterising variations in LFMC is difficult because both foliar mass and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water status and dry matter partitioning. We collected new and old foliar samples from Pinus contorta for...

  18. Measuring of the moisture content in brick walls of historical buildings - the overview of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hola, A.

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the issue of measuring the moisture content of brick walls in buildings of high historical value. It includes a classification of known methods used to measure the moisture content and their valorisation with regards to the legitimacy of using them in historical buildings. Moreover, the most important considerations for conducting such measurements are also described, which include the choice of an appropriate method for a specific situation, the determination of a correlative or hypothetical dependency for equipment used in tests and also the method of distributing measurement points.

  19. Determination of moisture content in steams and variation in moisture content with operating boiler level by analyzing sodium content in steam generator water and steam condensate of a nuclear power plant using ion chromatographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, P.K.; Bohra, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Dry steam with moisture content less than <1% is the stringent requirements in a steam generator for good health of the turbine. In order to confirm the same, determination of sodium is done in steam generator water and steam condensate using Flame photometer in ppm level and ion chromatograph in ppb level. Depending on the carry over of sodium in steam along with the water droplet (moisture), the moisture content in steam was calculated and was found to be < 1% which is requirements of the system. The paper described the salient features of a PHWR, principle of Ion Chromatography, chemistry parameters of Steam Generators and calculation of moisture content in steam on the basis of sodium analysis. (author)

  20. Effect of moisture content on some physical and mechanical properties of juvenile rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhnnum Kyokong

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Moisture content of rubberwood is an important factor influencing its physical and mechanical behaviours. This research aimed at quantifying effect of moisture content on physical and mechanical properties of juvenile rubberwood core. The specimens at various moisture contents were tested in compression and shear parallel to grain. Information was gathered to determine shrinkage, density and specific gravity of specimens. The equilibrium moisture content determined from desorption experiment, was well described by the Hailwood-Horrobin solution theory. Moisture content of 23+4% best represented the value of apparent fiber saturation point, Mp, determined from physical and mechanical properties data. Above Mp, values of all physical and mechanical properties examined were fairly constant. Maximum volumetric shrinkage from moisture content above Mp to an oven-dry condition was 8.2+1.8%. Specific gravity and density were 0.55+0.03 and 614+30 kg/m3 at 12% moisture content. Below Mp, ultimate compressive stress (UCS parallel to grain, ultimate shear stress parallel to grain, modulus of elasticity (MOE for compression parallel to grain, and shear modulus parallel to grain increased exponentially with decreasing moisture content. Shear strain at fracture and work to fracture of shear parallel to grain were found to increase as moisture content decreased below Mp and attained the maximum values at 20% and 12% moisture content, respectively. The values decreased with further lowering of the level of moisture content. Ultimate compressive stress (UCS parallel to grain was closely correlated with specific gravity and was more sensitive to changes in moisture content at higher specific gravity level.

  1. Diuron mineralisation in a Mediterranean vineyard soil: impact of moisture content and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sebaï, Talaat; Devers, Marion; Lagacherie, Bernard; Rouard, Nadine; Soulas, Guy; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2010-09-01

    The diuron-mineralising ability of the microbiota of a Mediterranean vineyard soil exposed each year to this herbicide was measured. The impact of soil moisture and temperature on this microbial activity was assessed. The soil microbiota was shown to mineralise diuron. This mineralising activity was positively correlated with soil moisture content, being negligible at 5% and more than 30% at 20% soil moisture content. According to a double Gaussian model applied to fit the dataset, the optimum temperature/soil moisture conditions were 27.9 degrees C/19.3% for maximum mineralisation rate and 21.9 degrees C/18.3% for maximum percentage mineralisation. The impact of temperature and soil moisture content variations on diuron mineralisation was estimated. A simulated drought period had a suppressive effect on subsequent diuron mineralisation. This drought effect was more marked when higher temperatures were used to dry (40 degrees C versus 28 degrees C) or incubate (28 degrees C versus 20 degrees C) the soil. The diuron kinetic parameters measured after drought conditions were no longer in accordance with those estimated by the Gaussian model. Although soil microbiota can adapt to diuron mineralisation, its activity is strongly dependent on climatic conditions. It suggests that diuron is not rapidly degraded under Mediterranean climate, and that arable Mediterranean soils are likely to accumulate diuron residues. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effect of Moisture Content on Lignocellulosic Power Generation: Energy, Economic and Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Rajendran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The moisture content of biomass affects its processing for applications such as electricity or steam. In this study, the effects of variation in moisture content of banagrass and energycane was evaluated using techno-economic analysis and life-cycle assessments. A 25% loss of moisture was assumed as a variation that was achieved by field drying the biomass. Techno-economic analysis revealed that high moisture in the biomass was not economically feasible. Comparing banagrass with energycane, the latter was more economically feasible; thanks to the low moisture and ash content in energycane. About 32 GWh/year of electricity was produced by field drying 60,000 dry MT/year energycane. The investment for different scenarios ranged between $17 million and $22 million. Field-dried energycane was the only economically viable option that recovered the investment after 11 years of operation. This scenario was also more environmentally friendly, releasing 16-gCO2 equivalent/MJ of electricity produced.

  3. Determination of Soil Moisture Content using Laboratory Experimental and Field Electrical Resistivity Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Rosli, S.; Fauziah, A.; Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Ashraf, M. I. M.; Faizal, T. B. M.; Kamarudin, A. F.; Rais, Y.; Dan, M. F. Md; Azhar, A. T. S.; Hafiz, Z. M.

    2018-04-01

    The efficiency of civil engineering structure require comprehensive geotechnical data obtained from site investigation. In the past, conventional site investigation was heavily related to drilling techniques thus suffer from several limitations such as time consuming, expensive and limited data collection. Consequently, this study presents determination of soil moisture content using laboratory experimental and field electrical resistivity values (ERV). Field and laboratory electrical resistivity (ER) test were performed using ABEM SAS4000 and Nilsson400 soil resistance meter. Soil sample used for resistivity test was tested for characterization test specifically on particle size distribution and moisture content test according to BS1377 (1990). Field ER data was processed using RES2DINV software while laboratory ER data was analyzed using SPSS and Excel software. Correlation of ERV and moisture content shows some medium relationship due to its r = 0.506. Moreover, coefficient of determination, R2 analyzed has demonstrate that the statistical correlation obtain was very good due to its R2 value of 0.9382. In order to determine soil moisture content based on statistical correlation (w = 110.68ρ-0.347), correction factor, C was established through laboratory and field ERV given as 19.27. Finally, this study has shown that soil basic geotechnical properties with particular reference to water content was applicably determined using integration of laboratory and field ERV data analysis thus able to compliment conventional approach due to its economic, fast and wider data coverage.

  4. Response of bacteria in wastewater sludge to moisture loss by evaporation and effect of moisture content on bacterial inactivation by ionizing radiation.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, R L; Yeager, J G; Ashley, C S

    1981-01-01

    Two studies were carried out to determine the influence of moisture content of the survival of bacteria in raw wastewater sludge. The first study involved the effect of water loss by evaporation on the bacterial population. The second used these dewatered samples to measure the effects of moisture content on the inactivation of bacteria sludge by ionizing radiation. Both studies involved survival measurements of six representative fecally associated bacteria grown separately in sterilized slu...

  5. [The stratification of moisture content and its dynamics in co-composting of sewage sludge and pig manure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Chen, Tong-bin; Gao, Ding; Zheng, Yu-qi; Zheng, Guo-di

    2004-03-01

    The experiment of co-composting of sewage sludge and pig manure was studied. The moisture contents were 50.82%-60.87% at the stage of temperature rising and 38.7%-52.17% at the stage of thermophilic fermentation, and the stratification of moisture content were not obvious for both stages because the door, the internal wall and the depth of the composting bay had little effect on the stratification. At the stage of cooling, the moisture content was 24.54%-49.39%, and the stratification of moisture content was remarkable as the door, the internal wall and the depth of the composting bay had great influence on it. At the stage of maturity, the moisture content was 19.18%-49.34%, and the stratification of moisture weakened, for which the door and the internal wall were mainly responsible. At the different composting stage, the degree of difference of moisture content on the profiles of the pile was of the order: maturity stage > cooling stage > thermophilic stage = temperature rising stage, and the moisture content in the pile was as follows: the lower > the middle > the upper. The relation between moisture content and composting time meeted with two-order kinetics equation.

  6. Effect of moisture content and temperature on thermal behaviour of sesame seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Hassan Miraei ASHTIANI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The specific heat, thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of two varieties (white and brown of sesame seeds were evaluated as a function of moisture content and temperature. The experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 25-70˚C and the moisture content range of 3.86-19.83% (dry basis for white and 3.07-18.99% (dry basis for brown varieties. The specific heat of white and brown sesame seeds ranged 1062-3058 and 906-2958 J/(kg·˚C, respectively. Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity values also increased with increasing either moisture content or temperature. Thermal diffusivity varied between 4.66×10-8 and 8.59×10-8 m2/s for white and 4.36×10-8-8.08×10-8 m2/s for brown varieties. Thermal conductivity ranged 0.031-0.149 and 0.023-0.135 W/(m·˚C for white and brown varieties, respectively. Results showed that the moisture content and temperature had significant effects (p≤0.01 on the studied properties.

  7. Moisture content in raw rubber sheet analyzed by transflectance near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnarit Rittiron

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Moisture content is an important trait for rubber sheet trading system. Therefore, a calibration equation for predicting moisture content was created by near infrared (NIR technique in order to develop a more fair trading system in Thailand. Spectra were recorded in two systems. One was measurement on each rubber sheet and the other was on a pile of sheets. Both were measured by a handheld NIR spectrometer in the short wavelength region (700–1100 nm in the transflectance mode using Teflon as a diffuse reflector. The spectra showed the peak at about 900 nm which belongs to isoprene, the major component of rubber sheet. Pretreatment with second derivative was applied to remove baseline shift effect occurring due to thickness differences on each rubber sheet. From validation results, moisture contents predicted by single sheet system were more accurate than a pile of sheet system with standard error of prediction (SEP = 0.39% and bias of -0.07%, and they were not significantly different from the actual values at 95% confidence. As a result, determining moisture content in each rubber sheet by a handheld NIR spectrometer provided accurate values, easy and rapid operation.

  8. Evolution of standardized procedures for adjusting lumber properties for change in moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; James W. Evans

    2001-01-01

    This paper documents the development of procedures in American Society for Testing and Materials standards for adjusting the allowable properties of lumber for changes in moisture content. The paper discusses the historical context of efforts to establish allowable properties on a consensus basis, beginning in the 19th century. Where possible, the reasons for proposed...

  9. The behavior of moisture content in Durian after harvesting by neutron reflection and transmission techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimoye, T.; Fuangfoong, M.

    1998-01-01

    The study aimed at development of a neutron reflection and transmission technique to determine moisture content in Durian fruit as a function of time after harvesting. A system of a 3 mCi Am-Be neutron source with a BF 3 detector as a neutron probe was developed. The results obtained were validated using weighting method

  10. Modeling of the Equilibrium Moisture Content (EMC) of Tarragon (Artemisia Dracunculus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.; Huisman, W.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Mueller, J.

    2005-01-01

    The equilibrium moisture content of tarragon, Artemisia dracunculus L. (stem and leaf separately) was determined by using the saturated salt solutions method at three temperatures (25, 50 and 70°C) within a range of 5 to 90% relative humidity. Both adsorption and desorption methods were used for

  11. Effect of Moisture Content on Mechanical Properties and Terminal Velocity of Berberis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Velayati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of mechanical properties of Berberis not only is useful for design and optimization of transportation, processing and packaging equipment but also can prevent mechanical injuries and losses. In this study force, deformation, energy and toughness were measured at different moisture content levels including 70-76, 45-50, 25-30 and 7-10 percent (w.b.. The decrease of moisture content caused increasing rupture force from 1.387 to 2.679 N, decreasing shape deformation from 3.387 to 2.413mm, increasing toughness from 4.297 to 8.220 J/cm3 and decreasing rupture energy from 0.921 to 0.661mJ. Effects of loading speed, force orientation and their interaction were investigated on just fresh Berberis fruit. It was indicated that only force orientation was effective on all investigated properties except toughness. The moisture content was identified as an effective parameter on terminal velocity. It decreased from 9 to 4.5 m/s with decrease of moisture content from 76 to 7 percent (w.b..

  12. Moisture content of cereals at harvesting time by comparing microclimate values and standard weather data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atzema, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    The moisture content of wheat and barley together with the weather elements were measured at 3 different experimental sites in the Netherlands in 1990-91. The difference in the dew point temperature in the screen[house] and in the field was small. However, the differences between air temperature in

  13. Density-independent algorithm for sensing moisture content of sawdust based on reflection measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    A density-independent algorithm for moisture content determination in sawdust, based on a one-port reflection measurement technique is proposed for the first time. Performance of this algorithm is demonstrated through measurement of the dielectric properties of sawdust with an open-ended haft-mode s...

  14. Spectroscopic analysis of seasonal changes in live fuel moisture content and leaf dry mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Qi; Philip E. Dennison; W. Matt Jolly; Rachael C. Kropp; Simon C. Brewer

    2014-01-01

    Live fuel moisture content (LFMC), the ratio of water mass to dry mass contained in live plant material, is an important fuel property for determining fire danger and for modeling fire behavior. Remote sensing estimation of LFMC often relies on an assumption of changing water and stable dry mass over time. Fundamental understanding of seasonal variation in plant water...

  15. Cell wall domain and moisture content influence southern pine electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Leandro Passarini; José L. Colon Quintana; Samuel V. Glass; Joseph E. Jakes; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has highlighted the importance of movement of chemicals and ions through the wood cell wall. This movement depends strongly on moisture content and is necessary for structural damage mechanisms such as fastener corrosion and wood decay. Here, we present the first measurements of electrical resistance of southern pine at the subcellular level as a function...

  16. Performance of a rigid and a flexible adhesive in lumber joints subjected to moisture content changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Krueger; R. F. Blomquist

    1964-01-01

    Experimental work was undertaken to investigate the extent and magnitude of deterioration that can occur in typical plywood-to-lumber glue joints subjected to stresses resulting from changes in the moisture content of the wood, and to compare the performance of a somewhat flexible or deformable adhesive to that of a rigid adhesive in these joints. Results showed that...

  17. Behavior of an epoxy-polysulfide adhesive in wood joints exposed to moisture content changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon P. Krueger

    1965-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of a flexible epoxy-resin adhesive system was observed in joints of plywood to lumber. The joints were subjected to internal swelling stresses caused by an increase in moisture content. Previous experimental work at the U.S. Forest Products Laboratory has shown that this adhesive system acts as a strain-absorbing cushion and thus has a...

  18. Stress Wave E-Rating of Structural Timber—Size and Moisture Content Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of cross sectional size and moisture content on stress wave properties of structural timber in various sizes and evaluate the feasibility of using stress wave method to E-rate timber in green conditions. Four different sizes of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) square timbers were...

  19. Measuring the Moisture Content of Green Wood Using Time Domain Reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence Schimleck; Kim Love-Myers; Joe Sanders; Heath Raybon; Richard Daniels; Jerry Mahon; Edward Andrews; Erik Schilling

    2011-01-01

    The responsible usage of water by facilities that rely on wet log storage in the southern United States has become an issue of great importance as restrictions on water usage have grown in recent years. In order to learn about the dynamics of moisture content in wet-stored logs over time, it is necessary to conduct continuous monitoring of log piles. Time domain...

  20. Technical note: Equilibrium moisture content of kabuli chickpea, black sesame, and white sesame seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesame and chickpeas are important crops for Ethiopia as both are major exports providing small farmers and the country much revenue. There is a lack of information on fundamental equilibrium moisture content (EMC) relationships for these products which would help facilitate better monitoring and st...

  1. Equilibrium moisture content (EMC) in Norway spruce during the first and second desorptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Engelund, Emil Tang; Thygesen, Lisbeth G.

    2011-01-01

    It is a commonly accepted notion that the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood at a given relative humidity (RH) is highest during initial desorption of green wood due to an irreversible loss of hygroscopicity during the 1st desorption. The basis for this notion is investigated by assessing...

  2. Composting of high moisture content swine manure with corncob in a pilot-scale aerated static bin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Nengwu

    2006-10-01

    Pilot composting experiments of swine manure with corncob were conducted to evaluate the performance of the aerated static bin composting system. Effects of temperature control (60 and 70 degrees C) and moisture content (70% and 80%) were monitored on the composting by measuring physical and chemical indexes. The results showed that (1) the composting system could destroy pathogens, converted nitrogen from unstable ammonia to stable organic forms, and reduced the volume of waste; (2) significant difference of NH(4)(+)-N (P(12) = 0.074), and (NO(3)(-) + NO(2)(-))-N (P(12) = 0.085) was found between the temperature control treatments; (3) anaerobic reaction in the treatment with 80% moisture content resulted in significant difference of pH (P(23) = 0.006), total organic matter (P(23) = 0.003), and germination index (P(23) = 0.040) between 70% and 80%. Therefore, the optimum initial moisture content was less than 80% with the composting of swine manure and corncob by using the composting system.

  3. Equilibrium moisture content of wood at different temperature/moisture conditions in the cladding of wooden constructions and in the relation to their reliability and service life

    OpenAIRE

    Zdeňka Havířová; Pavel Kubů

    2010-01-01

    One of the natural properties of wood and wood-based materials is their soaking capacity (hy­gro­sco­pi­ci­ty). The moisture content of wood and building constructions of wood and wood based materials significantly influences the service life and reliability of these constructions and buildings. The equilibrium weight moisture content of built-in wood corresponding to temperature/moisture conditions inside the cladding has therefore a decisive influence on the basic requirements placed on bui...

  4. Determination of degree of compacting and of moisture content by radiometric probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinec, J.; Paul, P.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is given of radiometric probes used for measuring bulk density and moisture content. Surface probes are used in depths of up to 20 cm with an accuracy of 10%, drive-in probes are used to depths of up to 50 cm with a 4% error, depth probes are used for measuring in depths of 30 to 50 cm with an accuracy of roughly 5% and bulk density in depths of 10 to 150 cm may be measured with an accuracy of 2% using a lysimeter. Changes in the bulk density and soil moisture of the subsoil of an airport runway were studied radiometrically in dependence on time and depth. The dependence is represented graphically. The results of radiometric measurements were compared with the conventional method using a lysimeter probe; the comparison showed that the results were lower by about 7% for the moisture content and higher by about 8% for the bulk density. Radiometric measurements for determining bulk density and soil moisture are advantageous in that they allow the measurement of a great number of sites without any major disturbance of the measured material and results are available immediately on measurement. The economic effect is significant in a large number of measurements carried out on a surface having the same chemical composition and similar grain size which does not necessitate calibration of the instruments to be made more than once a week. The NZK-201 probe by Tesla does not provide sufficiently accurate information on the moisture and density of the earths probed

  5. Resistant Starch Contents of Native and Heat-Moisture Treated Jackfruit Seed Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornanong S. Kittipongpatana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Native jackfruit seed starch (JFS contains 30% w/w type II resistant starch (RS2 and can potentially be developed as a new commercial source of RS for food and pharmaceutical application. Heat-moisture treatment (HMT was explored as a mean to increase RS content of native JFS. The effect of the conditions was tested at varied moisture contents (MC, temperatures, and times. Moisture levels of 20–25%, together with temperatures 80–110°C, generally resulted in increases of RS amount. The highest amount of RS (52.2% was achieved under treatment conditions of 25% MC and 80°C, for 16 h (JF-25-80-16. FT-IR peak ratio at 1047/1022 cm−1 suggested increases in ordered structure in several HMT-JFS samples with increased RS. SEM showed no significant change in the granule appearance, except at high moisture/temperature treatment. XRD revealed no significant change in peaks intensities, suggesting the crystallinity within the granule was mostly retained. DSC showed increases in Tg and, in most cases, ΔT, as the MC was increased in the samples. Slight but significant decreases in ΔH were observed in samples with low RS, indicating that a combination of high moisture and temperature might cause partial gelatinization. HMT-JFS with higher RS exhibited less swelling, while the solubility remained mostly unchanged.

  6. Effects of moisture content on coarse woody debris respiration in a tropical rainforest of Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Y.; Li, G.; Han, S. H.; Abu Salim, K.; Son, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Since coarse woody debris (CWD) respiration (Rcwd) has an important role in carbon (C) cycling in forest ecosystems, it is a significant parameter in an investigation of CWD decomposition rate. Rcwd is known as to be influenced not only by environmental factors but also by CWD properties (e.g., moisture content). This study investigated the effects of CWD moisture content on Rcwd in a lowland mixed Dipterocarp tropical rainforest of Brunei Darussalam. CWDs in the forest were selected and categorized into two decay classes (sound and partially decomposed), and three diameter classes (10-20 cm, 20-30 cm, more than 30 cm). Samplings of CWDs were conducted in February and October, 2016. The fresh weight and Rcwd of the samples were measured within 24 h of sampling. Rcwd measurements were conducted using a closed chamber system with a diffusion-type, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) sensor. In February, the fresh weight and Rcwd of the samples were remeasured, after submerging them in the fresh water for 24, 48, and 72 h. The Rcwd increased significantly with moisture content in February (r2=0.25, p0.05). Rcwd was lowest in the largest diameter class (p0.05). On the basis of these results, the Rcwd in this site was in the range of Rcwd in previous studies conducted in other tropical rainforests. Rcwd increased with moisture content, however, the contribution of moisture content to changes in Rcwd might not be influential during the eight months study period.*Supported by research grants from the Korea Forest Service (2017044B10-1719-BB01).

  7. Measurements of volatile compound contents in resins using a moisture analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masanori; Nagano, Futami; Endo, Kazuhiko; Ohno, Hiroki

    2010-02-01

    The contents of volatile adhesive compounds, such as water, solvents, and residual unpolymerized monomers, affect the integrity and durability of adhesive bonding. However, there is no method available that can be used to rapidly assess the residual solvent or water contents of adhesive resins. This study examined the effectiveness of a digital moisture analyzer to measure the volatile compound contents of resins. Five self-etching adhesives and seven experimental light-cured resins prepared with different contents (0, 10, and 20% by weight) of water or solvents (acetone and ethanol) were examined in this study. The resins were prepared using different methods (with and without air blast or light-curing) to simulate the clinical conditions of adhesive application. Resin weight changes (% of weight loss) were determined as the residual volatile compound contents, using the moisture analyzer. After the measurements, the resin films were examined using a scanning electron microscope. The weight changes of the resins were found to depend on the amount of water or solvents evaporating from the resin. Water and solvents were evaporated by air blast or light-curing, but some of the water and solvents remained in the cured resin. The moisture analyzer is easy to operate and is a useful instrument for using to measure the residual volatile compound contents of adhesive resin.

  8. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Eunjong Kim; Dong-Hyun Lee; Seunggun Won; Heekwon Ahn

    2016-01-01

    Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull) and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdu...

  9. Stress wave velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity of yellow-poplar ranging from 100 to 10 percent moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody D. Gray; Shawn T. Grushecky; James P. Armstrong

    2008-01-01

    Moisture content has a significant impact on mechanical properties of wood. In recent years, stress wave velocity has been used as an in situ and non-destructive method for determining the stiffness of wooden elements. The objective of this study was to determine what effect moisture content has on stress wave velocity and dynamic modulus of elasticity. Results...

  10. Time to ignition is influenced by both moisture content and soluble carbohydrates in live Douglas fir and Lodgepole pine needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Jolly; Sara McAllister; Mark Finney; Ann Hadlow

    2010-01-01

    Living plants are often the primary fuels burning in wildland fire but little is known about the factors that govern their ignition behavior. Moisture content has long been hypothesized to determine the characteristics of fires spreading in live fuels but moisture content alone fails to explain observed differences in the ignition of various species at different times...

  11. Frequency, moisture content, and temperature dependent dielectric properties of potato starch related to drying with radio-frequency/microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhuozhuo; Guo, Wenchuan

    2017-08-24

    To develop advanced drying methods using radio-frequency (RF) or microwave (MW) energy, dielectric properties of potato starch were determined using an open-ended coaxial-line probe and network analyzer at frequencies between 20 and 4,500 MHz, moisture contents between 15.1% and 43.1% wet basis (w.b.), and temperatures between 25 and 75 °C. The results showed that both dielectric constant (ε') and loss factor (ε″) were dependent on frequency, moisture content, and temperature. ε' decreased with increasing frequency at a given moisture content or temperature. At low moisture contents (≤25.4% w.b.) or low temperatures (≤45 °C), ε″ increased with increasing frequency. However, ε″ changed from decrease to increase with increasing frequency at high moisture contents or temperatures. At low temperatures (25-35 °C), both ε' and ε″ increased with increasing moisture content. At low moisture contents (15.1-19.5% w.b.), they increased with increasing temperature. The change trends of ε' and ε″ were different and dependent on temperature and moisture content at their high levels. The penetration depth (d p ) decreased with increasing frequency. RF treatments may provide potential large-scale industrial drying application for potato starch. This research offers useful information on dielectric properties of potato starch related to drying with electromagnetic energy.

  12. The effects of moisture content, particle size and binding agent content on oil palm shell pellet quality parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Arzola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste-to-energy represents a challenge for the oil palm industry worldwide. Bio-pellet production is an alternative way of adding value to oil palm biomass. This would mean that a product having major energy density becomes more mechanically stable and achieves better performance during combustion. This paper deals with oil palm shell pelleting; using binding agents having up to 25% mass keeping average particle size less than 1mm and moisture content up to 18.7% (d.b. were evaluated. An experimental factorial design used binding agent mass percentage, milled shell particle size and moisture content as factors. Pellet density response surfaces and durability index were obtained. Pellet performance during thermal-chemical transformation was also evaluated by using thermogravimetry equipment. The results led to technical evaluation of scale-up at industrial production level.

  13. Relation between moisture content and granulation of Shatian shaddock during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diao Junming

    1999-01-01

    The fruit Shatian shaddocks were stored at room temperature for ten days after harvest and then marked with 3 H 2 O. The radioactivities of the base, peel and pulp of the fruit were tested regularly, and the changes of the weight loss and fruit juice, the moisture content in different tissues, respiration intensity and the nutritious materials were also determined. The results showed that during the storage of Shatianyou, the moisture transferred among valves, pulp and peel. During granulation, the transfer of moisture from pulp to peel is faster than that of normal fruit. The reason for granulation of Shatian shaddock may be the consumption of nutritious materials in pulp and the simultaneously relative regeneration in peel tissue

  14. Hemp-Lime Performance in Danish Climatic Context. Thermal Conductivity as a Function of Moisture Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonov, Yovko Ivanov; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    concrete is a bio-based building material composed of the woody core of industrial hemp and lime based binder. It is a non-load-bearing material, which can be used as floor and around structural frames for walls and roof. The material is characterized by relatively low environmental impact, moderate...... thermal properties and, high air and moisture permeability. The properties vary with binder composition, mixing and casting techniques, as well as intended application. This research presents preliminary heat and moisture building simulations of single family house made out of hemp-lime composite....... To evaluate the performance of hemp-lime, it is compared to models with common external walls, upon defined parameters. The article also determines the variation of thermal conductivity for hemp-lime commercial plaster and wall mix, as a function of moisture content. The most promising binder composition...

  15. Effect of 60Co γ-rays irradiation on equilibrium moisture content of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yong; Wang Jun; Jin Shuifeng; Teng Bin

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of irradiation on the EMC (equilibrium moisture content) of rice. Irradiation dose was included in three widely used models for EMC, the parameters in models based on the experimental data, and correlation coefficient, mean relative error and standard error of moisture were studied for the better model. Experimental results show that gamma irradiation dose affects the values of EMC of grain at the same relative humidity and temperature of ambient. Values of the EMC decreased with increass of γ-rays irradiation dose during both adsorption and desorption process. Based on the correlation coefficient, mean relative error and standard error of moisture, the modified Chung-Pfost equation and the modified Henderson equation were found to fit the desorption and adsorption isotherms for rough rice grain in the range of experimental conditions. (authors)

  16. Moisture content determination in solid biofuels by dielectric and NIR reflection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Peter Daugbjerg; Morsing, Merete [Department of Forest and Landscape, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Rolighedsvej 23, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Hartmann, Hans; Boehm, Thorsten [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum fuer Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (TFZ), Schulgasse 18, D-94315 Straubing (Germany); Temmerman, Michael; Rabier, Fabienne [Departement Genie Rural, Chee de Namur 146, B-5030 Gembloux (Belgium)

    2006-11-15

    One near infrared (NIR) reflectance and five dielectric moisture meters were tested for their capability of measuring moisture content (MC) in solid biofuels. Ninety-eight samples were tested at up to eight moisture levels covering the MC range from fresh fuel to approximately 10% MC (w.b.). The fuel types ranged from typical solid biofuels such as coniferous and deciduous wood chips over short rotation coppice (SRC) to sunflower seed and olive stones. The most promising calibrations were obtained with the NIR reflection method and two dielectric devices where the sample is placed in a container integrated in the device. The calibration equations developed show that there is a profound influence from both laboratory and fuel type. It is suggested that individual calibrations that are based on the specific fuel types used at the individual heating plant could be applied. (author)

  17. Ground-penetrating radar study of the Cena Bog, Latvia: linkage of reflections with peat moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karušs, J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Present work illustrates results of the ground-penetrating radar (GPR study of the Cena Bog, Latvia. Six sub-horizontal reflections that most probably correspond to boundaries between sediments with different electromagnetic properties were identified. One of the reflections corresponds to bog peat mineral bottom interface but the rest are linked to boundaries within the peat body. The radar profiles are incorporated with sediment cores and studies of peat moisture and ash content, and degree of decomposition. Most of the electromagnetic wave reflections are related to changes in peat moisture content. The obtained data show that peat moisture content changes of at least 3 % are required to cause GPR signal reflection. However, there exist reflections that do not correlate with peat moisture content. As a result, authors disagree with a dominant opinion that all reflections in bogs are solely due to changes in volumetric peat moisture content.

  18. Influence of wood moisture content on the modulus of elasticity in compression parallel to the grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Aparecido Lopes Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Standard ABNT NBR7190:1997 for timber structures design, adopts a first degree equation to describe the influence of wood moisture content. Periodically, when necessary, the referred standard is revised in order to analyze inconsistencies and to adopt considerations according new realities verified. So, the present paper aims to examine the adequacy of its equation which corrects to 12% of moisture the values of rigidity properties obtained on experimental tests. To quantify the moisture influence on modulus of elasticity, it was applied tests of compression parallel to the grain for six specimens of different strength classes, considering nominal moisture of 12; 20; 25; 30%. As results, modulus of elasticity in the moisture range 25-30% showed statistically equivalents, and was obtained a first degree equation to correlate the studied variables which leads to statically equivalent estimations when compared with results by ABNT NBR7190:1997 equation. However, it was indicated to maintain the current expression for the next text of the referred document review, without prejudice to statistical significance of the estimates.

  19. Pupation Behaviors and Emergence Successes of Ectropis grisescens (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Response to Different Substrate Types and Moisture Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huifang; Ma, Tao; Xiao, Qiang; Cao, Panrong; Chen, Xuan; Wen, Yuzhen; Xiong, Hongpeng; Qin, Wenquan; Liang, Shiping; Jian, Shengzhe; Li, Yanjun; Sun, Zhaohui; Wen, Xiujun; Wang, Cai

    2017-12-08

    Ectropis grisescens Warren (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is one of the most severe pests of tea plants in China. This species commonly pupates in soil; however, little is known about its pupation ecology. In the present study, choice and no-choice tests were conducted to investigate the pupation behaviors and emergence success of E. grisescens in response to different substrates (sand, sandy loam 1, sandy loam 2, and silt loam) and moisture contents (5, 20, 35, 50, 65, and 80%). Moisture-choice bioassays showed that significantly more E. grisescens individuals pupated in or on soil (sandy loam 1 and 2 and silt loam) that was at the intermediate moisture levels, whereas 5%- and 35%-moisture sand was significantly more preferred over 80%-moisture sand for pupating. Substrate-choice bioassays showed that sand was most preferred by E. grisescens individuals at 20%- and 80%-moisture levels, but no preference was detected among the four substrates at 50%-moisture content. No-choice tests showed that the percentage of burrowed E. grisescens individuals and pupation depth were significantly lower when soil was dry (20% moisture) or wet (80% moisture). In addition, 20%-moisture sandy loam 2 and silt loam significantly decreased the body water content of pupae and emergence success of adults compared to 50%-moisture content. However, each measurement (percentage of burrowed individuals, pupation depth, body water content, or emergence success) was similar when compared among different moisture levels of sand. Interestingly, pupae buried with 80%-moisture soil exhibited significantly lower emergence success than that were unburied. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effects of moisture content on long-term survival and regrowth of bacteria in wastewater sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeager, J.G. (BDM Corp., Albuquerque, NM); Ward, R.L.

    1981-05-01

    The effects of moisture content on the survival and regrowth of seeded and indigenous enteric bacteria in raw sludge were determined. Cultures of six strains of fecally associated bacteria grown in sterilized, liquid sludge (5% solids) were all quite stable at this moisture level for over 90 days at 21/sup 0/C. When the moisture content of the sludge containing these organisms was reduced by evaporation and the samples were stored at 21/sup 0/C for extended periods, bacterial inactivation rates were generally proportional to the moisture losses of the samples. A dramatic reversal in this effect was observed in samples containing more than 90% solids. In this dried sludge, every bacterial species studied except Proteus mirabilis was found to be extremely stable. Bacteria indigenous to sludge were also found to survive for long periods in dried sludge. Growth of seeded Salmonella typhimurium was also found to occur in the presence of indigenous organisms in both liquid and dewatered raw sludges. However, the population density attained was well below that found in sterilized samples of the same sludges.

  1. Comparison of total phenolic content and composition of individual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A successful peanut breeding to obtain genotypes with greater phenolic content requires information on type and content of phenolic compounds in parental peanut genotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate the total phenolic contents and phenolic acid profiles of 15 Valencia-type peanut genotypes both in peanut ...

  2. The economic benefits of sorting SPF lumber to be kiln-dried on the basis of initial moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, S.; Johnson, G.

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic benefits of sorting green lumber into moisture content classes before kiln-drying. Laser moisture sensing technology was implemented in the sawmill for sorting purposes. The grade outturn and energy savings resulting from shortened drying times were examined. The final moisture content distribution resulting from moisture sorting did not show overdrying or underdrying. Based on grade outturn, the benefits were as much as $15.94 per thousand board feet (MBF) for 2 by 4 by 16 lumber and $19.66 per MBF for 2 by 6 by 16 lumber; energy savings were $1.88 per thousand board feet

  3. Surveillance of smokeless tobacco nicotine, pH, moisture, and unprotonated nicotine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Patricia; Spierto, Francis W

    2003-12-01

    Smokeless tobacco is a complex chemical mixture, including not only the components of the tobacco leaf but also chemicals added during the manufacturing process. Smokeless tobacco contains the addictive chemical nicotine and more than 20 cancer-causing chemicals, including the potent tobacco-specific nitrosamines. The National Toxicology Program of the National Institutes of Health has concluded that oral use of smokeless tobacco is a human carcinogen. Therefore, smokeless tobacco is not a safe alternative to cigarettes. In fact, smokeless tobacco use begins primarily during early adolescence and can lead to nicotine dependence and increased risk of becoming a cigarette smoker. Under the Comprehensive Smokeless Tobacco Health Education Act of 1986 (15 U.S.C. 4401 et seq., Pub. L. 99-252), tobacco manufacturers report annually to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on the total nicotine, unprotonated nicotine, pH, and moisture content of their smokeless tobacco products. This information is considered "trade secret," or confidential, in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(4) and 18 U.S.C. 1905 and cannot be released to the public. In an effort to provide consumers and researchers with information on the nicotine content of smokeless tobacco, CDC arranged for the analysis of popular brands of smokeless tobacco. The results of this CDC study show that pH is a primary factor in the amount of nicotine that is in the most readily absorbable, unprotonated form. Furthermore, this study found that the brands of moist snuff smokeless tobacco with the largest amount of unprotonated nicotine also are the most frequently sold brands.

  4. Moisture Content Impact on Mechanical Properties of Selected Cohesive Soils from the Wielkopolskie Voivodeship Southern Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezowicz Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of investigations of shearing resistance and compressibility of fine-grained cohesive soil from the southern part of the wielkopolskie voivodeship in relation to the increasing moisture content are presented. The analysis of two series of samples, using soil paste for the consistency index of 0.9 and 0.4–0.3 was carried out. The results imply that the increasing moisture content causes a decrease in the angle of shearing resistance and cohesion and is also reflected in the higher compressibility of the soil. It was observed that regardless of the soil consistency, the angle of shearing resistance decreases and the cohesion value and the oedometric modulus of primary (consolidation and secondary compressibility grows with the increase in the clay fraction.

  5. Preventing performance drops of coal mills due to high moisture content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Mataji, B.

    2007-01-01

    Coal mills pulverize and dry the coal dust before it is blown into the furnace in coal-fired power plants. The coal mills can only deliver the requested coal flow if certain conditions are fulfilled. These are normally considered as constraints on individual variables. However, combinations of more...... than one variable might cause problems even though these individually variables are in an acceptable region. This paper deals with such a problem. The combination of a high load of the power plant, a large load change and high moisture content in the coal, can force the coal mill into a state where...... coal is accumulated instead of being blown into the furnace. This paper suggests a simple method for preventing the accumulation of the coal in the mill, by limiting the requested coal flow considering the coal moisture content and the temperature outside the mill.  ...

  6. Effect of C/N ratio, aeration rate and moisture content on ammonia and greenhouse gas emission during the composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Yuanqiu

    2011-01-01

    Gaseous emission (N2O, CH4 and NH3) from composting can be an important source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas and air pollution. A laboratory scale orthogonal experiment was conducted to estimate the effects of C/N ratio, aeration rate and initial moisture content on gaseous emission during the composting of pig faeces from Chinese Ganqinfen system. The results showed that about 23.9% to 45.6% of total organic carbon (TOC) was lost in the form of CO2 and 0.8% to 7.5% of TOC emitted as CH4. Most of the nitrogen was lost in the form of NH3, which account for 9.6% to 32.4% of initial nitrogen. N2O was also an important way of nitrogen losses and 1.5% to 7.3% of initial total nitrogen was lost as it. Statistic analysis showed that the aeration rate is the most important factor which could affect the NH3 (p = 0.0189), CH4 (p = 0.0113) and N2O (p = 0.0493) emissions significantly. Higher aeration rates reduce the CH4 emission but increase the NH3 and N2O losses. C/N ratio could affect the NH3 (p = 0.0442) and CH4 (p = 0.0246) emissions significantly, but not the N2O. Lower C/N ratio caused higher NH3 and CH4 emissions. The initial moisture content can not influence the gaseous emission significantly. Most treatments were matured after 37 days, except a trial with high moisture content and a low C/N ratio.

  7. Waste Oils pre-Esterification for Biodiesel Synthesis: Effect of Feed Moisture Contents

    OpenAIRE

    Kalala Jalama

    2012-01-01

    A process flowsheet was developed in ChemCad 6.4 to study the effect of feed moisture contents on the pre-esterification of waste oils. Waste oils were modelled as a mixture of triolein (90%), oleic acid (5%) and water (5%). The process mainly consisted of feed drying, pre-esterification reaction and methanol recovery. The results showed that the process energy requirements would be minimized when higher degrees of feed drying and higher preesterification reaction tempera...

  8. Influence of moisture content and temperature on thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of rice flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of four types of rice flours and one type of rice protein were determine at temperatures ranging from 4.8 to 36.8 C, bulk densities 535 to 875.8 kg/m3, and moisture contents 2.6 to 16.7 percent (w.b.), using a KD2 Thermal Properties Analyzer. It was ...

  9. Distribution of temperature and moisture content fields in a rectangular beet pulp particle during convection drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model describing distribution of fields of temperatures and moisture contents in a particle of a squared beet press at convective drying is given. As the initial equations the differential equations of material and thermal balances in which transfer of warmth and weight is caused by phase transformations have been accepted. The algorithm of the numerical solution of a non-stationary regional problem of heat conductivity with variable heat and mass transfer coefficients of the dried-up product, boundary and entry conditions and also phase transition with mobile limit of the section of phases is developed for the solution of mathematical model. At the same time the initial system of the equations is given to a dimensionless look. For the solution of a problem of non-stationary heat conductivity the zone method of calculation of temperature fields when drying a beet press is used. Process of drying broke into some time intervals. Within each interval geometrical form of a particle, its density, heatphysical and mass-exchanged characteristics; initial distribution of temperature and moisture content on particle volume and also density of a mass and thermal stream with the evaporated moisture are constant. The zone method of the solution of a problem of the non-stationary three-dimensional equation of heat conductivity for a parallelepiped taking into account internal sources of warmth has been checked on experimental data of stationary drying of a beet press with use of basic data. For realization of a zone method dependences of change of the linear size of a particle of a beet press on spatial coordinate x and its moisture content in the course of drying are received. At constant values of moisture content and the sizes of the party of the dried-up particle on each step the method of a machine experiment has found the current values of coefficient of phase transformation on condition of the maximum rapprochement of settlement and

  10. Rapid and accurate biofuel moisture content gauging using magnetic resonance measurement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaervinen, T.

    2013-04-15

    Biomass is extensively utilised in energy production and as a raw material, such as for the production of liquid biofuels. All those processes will benefit if the moisture content of bio material is known in advance as accurately as possible under transient circumstances. Biofuel trade is increasingly based on the calorific value of fuels. In the first step, this also increases the need for rapid and accurate moisture content determination. During the last few years, large biofuel standardisation has been implemented, emphasising biofuel quality control at all stages of the utilisation chain. In principle, the moisture instrumental measurement can be utilised by many technologies and procedures. Typical techniques are infrared, radiofrequency, microwave, radiometric, electrical conductivity, capacitance, and impedance. Nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) and thermal neutron absorption are also applied. The MR measurement principle has been known and utilised already since the early 1950s. It has become the basic instrumental analysis tool in chemistry. It is also well-known as a very accurate method for analysing most compounds, especially substances containing hydrogen. The utilisation of MR metering is expanded extensively to medical diagnostics as a form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Because of the precision of the MR principle, there have for a long time been efforts to apply it in new and different areas, and to make more user-friendly, smaller, and even portable devices. Such a device was designed by Vaisala a few years ago. VTT has utilised Vaisala's MR prototype for approximately one year for moisture content measurement of different biofuels. The first step in the use of an MR device for moisture determination was the definition of its measurement accuracy compared to the standard method (EN 14774). Those tests proved that the absolute precision seems to be comparable to the standard moisture content measurement method. It was also found out that

  11. Relationship between moisture content and electrical impedance of carrot slices during drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertész, Ákos; Hlaváčová, Zuzana; Vozáry, Eszter; Staroňová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Electrical properties of food materials can give information about the inner structure and physiological state of biological tissues. Generally, the process of drying of fruits and vegetables is followed by weight loss. The aim of this study was to measure the impedance spectra of carrot slices during drying and to correlate impedance parameters to moisture content in different drying periods. Cylindrical slices were cut out from the carrot root along the axis. The slices were dried in a Venticell 111 air oven at 50°C. The weight of the slices was measured with a Denver SI-603 electronic analytical and precision balance. The weighing of the samples was performed every 30 min at the beginning of drying and every 60 min after the process. The moisture content of the samples was calculated on wet basis. The magnitude and phase angle of electrical impedance of the slices were measured with HP 4284A and 4285A precision LCR meters in the frequency range from 30 Hz to 1 MHz and from 75 kHz to 30 MHz, respectively, at voltage 1 V. The impedance measurement was performed after weighting. The change in the magnitude of impedance during drying showed a good correlation with the change in the moisture content.

  12. Radon exhalation and its dependence on moisture content from samples of soil and building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faheem, Munazza; Matiullah

    2008-01-01

    Indoor radon has long been recognized as a potential health hazard for mankind. Building materials are considered as one of the major sources of radon in the indoor environment. To study radon exhalation rate and its dependence on moisture content, samples of soil and some common types of building materials (sand, cement, bricks and marble) were collected from Gujranwala, Gujrat, Hafizabad, Sialkot, Mandibahauddin and Narowal districts of the Punjab province (Pakistan). After processing, samples of 200 g each were placed in plastic vessels. CR-39 based NRPB detector were placed at the top of these vessels and were then hermetically sealed. After exposing to radon for 30 days within the closed vessels, the CR-39 detectors were processed. Radon exhalation rate was found to vary from 122±19 to 681±10mBqm -2 h -1 with an average of 376±147mBqm -2 h -1 in the soil samples whereas an average of 212±34, 195±25, 231±30 and 292±35mBqm -2 h -1 was observed in bricks, sand, cement and marble samples, respectively. Dependence of exhalation on moisture content has also been studied. Radon exhalation rate was found to increase with an increase in moisture, reached its maximum value and then decreased with further increase in the water content

  13. Temperature and moisture content effects on compressive strength parallel to the grain of paricá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jesús Manríquez Figueroa

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the temperature and moisture content on the compressive strength parallel to the grain of paricá (Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex. Ducke from cultivated forests. The experiments were carried out on 3 timber samples under different conditions: heated (HT, thermal treatment (TT and water saturated (WS. The HT sample consisted of 105 clear specimens assembled in 15 groups, the TT consisted of 90 clear specimens assembled in 15 groups and the WS consisted of 90 clear specimens assembled in 9 groups. The specimens from HT and WS samples were tested at a temperature range from 20 to 230 ºC and 20 to 100 ºC, respectively. The HT specimens were tested at ambient temperature, but after being submitted to thermal treatment. The HT, TT and WS samples present a decrease in the compressive strength, reaching 65%, 76% and 59% of the compressive strength at room temperature, respectively. The decrease in the compressive strength of the HT and WS samples can be associated to the thermal degradation of wood polymers and the moisture content. For the TT sample, the strength increased for a pre-heating temperature of up to 170 °C due to the reduction in the moisture content of the specimens.

  14. Effect of standardizing the lactose content of cheesemilk on the properties of low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, A C; Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Molitor, M; Jaeggi, J J; Johnson, M E; McSweeney, P L H; Lucey, J A

    2016-10-01

    The texture, functionality, and quality of Mozzarella cheese are affected by critical parameters such as pH and the rate of acidification. Acidification is typically controlled by the selection of starter culture and temperature used during cheesemaking, as well as techniques such as curd washing or whey dilution, to reduce the residual curd lactose content and decrease the potential for developed acidity. In this study, we explored an alternative approach: adjusting the initial lactose concentration in the milk before cheesemaking. We adjusted the concentration of substrate available to form lactic acid. We added water to decrease the lactose content of the milk, but this also decreased the protein content, so we used ultrafiltration to help maintain a constant protein concentration. We used 3 milks with different lactose-to-casein ratios: one at a high level, 1.8 (HLC, the normal level in milk); one at a medium level, 1.3 (MLC); and one at a low level, 1.0 (LLC). All milks had similar total casein (2.5%) and fat (2.5%) content. We investigated the composition, texture, and functional and sensory properties of low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella manufactured from these milks when the cheeses were ripened at 4°C for 84d. All cheeses had similar pH values at draining and salting, resulting in cheeses with similar total calcium contents. Cheeses made with LLC milk had higher pH values than the other cheeses throughout ripening. Cheeses had similar moisture contents. The LLC and MLC cheeses had lower levels of lactose, galactose, lactic acid, and insoluble calcium compared with HLC cheese. The lactose-to-casein ratio had no effect on the levels of proteolysis. The LLC and MLC cheeses were harder than the HLC cheese during ripening. Maximum loss tangent (LT), an index of cheese meltability, was lower for the LLC cheese until 28d of ripening, but after 28d, all treatments exhibited similar maximum LT values. The temperature where LT=1 (crossover temperature), an index

  15. Randomized controlled trial on postoperative pulmonary humidification after total laryngectomy: External humidifier versus heat and moisture exchanger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérol, Jean-Claude; Charpiot, Anne; Langagne, Thibault; Hémar, Patrick; Ackerstaff, Annemieke H.; Hilgers, Frans J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis: Assessment of immediate postoperative airway humidification after total laryngectomy (TLE), comparing the use of an external humidifier (EH) with humidification through a heat and moisture exchanger (HME). Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Methods: Fifty-three

  16. Randomized controlled trial on postoperative pulmonary humidification after total laryngectomy: external humidifier versus heat and moisture exchanger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérol, J.-C.; Charpiot, A.; Langagne, T.; Hémar, P.; Ackerstaff, A.H.; Hilgers, F.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis: Assessment of immediate postoperative airway humidification after total laryngectomy (TLE), comparing the use of an external humidifier (EH) with humidification through a heat and moisture exchanger (HME). Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Methods: Fifty-three

  17. Measurements of moisture content in wood fuels with dual energy x-ray; Maetning av fukt i biobraenslen med dubbelenergiroentgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordell, Anders [Industriellt Utvecklingscentrum i Karlskoga, Karlskoga (Sweden); Vikterloef, K J [Oerebro Radiofysik AB, Oerebro (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    some of the mixed fuels. Provided that the main category is known the moisture content can be determined within one or two percent from the measurements. A complication is that the procedure requires that the fuel type be known. The method offers a relative measurement which means that it relies on calibration against known references. Different types of fuels therefore to some extent need different calibrations. This is basically due to the differences in carbon content which affects the result. With a further development of the method there are ways to overcome this difference in the total absorption resulting in a measurement more or less independent of the fuel type. As the content of carbon as well as of oxygen strongly affects the absorption, one would also in principle be able to calculate the heat content of the fuel. On top of that there is a correlation of the absorption to the mineral content, which opens a possibility to calculate the amount of ash in the material. To reveal these for biofuels highly interesting parameters a substantial effort of software development in the data treatment is required. A fine-tuning of the x-ray energies is also desirable to reach a higher signal ratio for the case moisture in wood, compared to what is possible with the medical equipment. These development steps are regarded fully feasible and are recommended to be taken in the coming work.

  18. Influence of Moisture Content and Compression Axis on Physico-mechanical Properties of Shorea robusta Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashikumar, C.; Pradhan, R. C.; Mishra, S.

    2018-02-01

    Shorea robusta (Sal) is mainly harvested and processed for its seed oil, which has diverse application in commercial food and non-food based industries. Before extraction of its oil, seeds undergo into various post-harvest unit operations. Physical and mechanical properties play an important role in the handling and other processing activity. In this study influence of moisture content and compression axis of sal seed on physico-mechanical properties were studied and their application are highlighted. The experiments were conducted at five different moisture levels of 6.38, 10.49, 13.63, 17.64, and 21.95% (d.b) at two different orientations. The first orientation is on major axis (LEN) of the seed, and the other orientation is on intermediate or minor axis (WID), which is right angle to the major axis. It was observed that 68% of sal seeds were of medium size group at initial moisture content of 10.49% (d.b). The mean length and width of sal seed was found to be 26.7 mm and 12.8 mm, respectively. It was found that values of hardness, deformation at hardness, deformation at hardness percentage and energy for rupture were higher in minor axis (WID) as compared to the major axis (LEN). The results provide necessary data that may be useful to engineers, scientists, industries in the design of a suitable post-harvest processing machine.

  19. Leachate recirculation: moisture content assessment by means of a geophysical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Roger; Munoz, Marie Laure; Aran, Christophe; Laperrelle, Claire; Hidra, Mustapha; Drouart, Eric; Grellier, Solenne

    2004-01-01

    Bioreactor technology is a waste treatment concept consisting in speeding up the biodegradation of landfilled waste by optimizing its moisture content through leachate recirculation. The measurement of variations in waste moisture content is critical in the design and control of bioreactors. Conventional methods such as direct physical sampling of waste reach their limits due to the interference with the waste matrix. This paper reviews geophysical measurements such as electrical direct current and electromagnetic slingram methods for measuring the electrical conductivity. Electrical conductivity is a property, which is linked to both moisture and temperature and can provide useful indications on the biodegradation environment in the waste mass. The study reviews three site experiments: a first experimentation shows the advantages (correlation between conductive anomaly and water seepage) but also the limits of geophysical interpretation; the two other sites allow the leachate recirculation to be tracked by studying the relative resistivity variation versus time from electrical 2D imaging. Even if some improvements are necessary to consider geophysical measurements as a real bioreactor monitoring tool, results are promising and could lead to the use of electrical 2D imaging in bioreactor designing.

  20. Moisture Content Numerical Simulation on Structural Damage of Hot Mix Asphaltic Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abejide, O. S.; Mostafa, M. M. H.

    2017-06-01

    Considering the merits of road transportation in the economy and communication activities of the modern societies, it is imperative to design a safe, stable, efficient and cost effective road that will lead to increased economic development and growth of the South African nation. Although, the overarching effect of failed roads has in many ways led to increased travel time, loss of life and property; leading to reduced driver control on failed road sections (riding quality). Thus, time rate delamination of flexible pavement is a major focus of this study. Since structural collapse in a flexible pavement structure is caused by the evolution of different types of damage mechanisms; fatigue cracking, advanced crushing, temperature variation, and delamination. The effect of moisture content on HMA was analysed. The analysis from the multi-layered elastic model indicates that increase in moisture content in the underlying layer of HMA pavement results to increase in the strain of the individual layers and culminates to a decrease in the structural carrying capacity of the pavement with respect to number of load cycles that can be carried on the HMA pavement. This study shows a clear relationship between the moisture/saturation coefficient and the Elastic Modulus of the underlying geometric material layer properties of the pavement during the service life of the pavement.

  1. Influence of Moisture Content and Compression Axis on Physico-mechanical Properties of Shorea robusta Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashikumar, C.; Pradhan, R. C.; Mishra, S.

    2018-06-01

    Shorea robusta (Sal) is mainly harvested and processed for its seed oil, which has diverse application in commercial food and non-food based industries. Before extraction of its oil, seeds undergo into various post-harvest unit operations. Physical and mechanical properties play an important role in the handling and other processing activity. In this study influence of moisture content and compression axis of sal seed on physico-mechanical properties were studied and their application are highlighted. The experiments were conducted at five different moisture levels of 6.38, 10.49, 13.63, 17.64, and 21.95% (d.b) at two different orientations. The first orientation is on major axis (LEN) of the seed, and the other orientation is on intermediate or minor axis (WID), which is right angle to the major axis. It was observed that 68% of sal seeds were of medium size group at initial moisture content of 10.49% (d.b). The mean length and width of sal seed was found to be 26.7 mm and 12.8 mm, respectively. It was found that values of hardness, deformation at hardness, deformation at hardness percentage and energy for rupture were higher in minor axis (WID) as compared to the major axis (LEN). The results provide necessary data that may be useful to engineers, scientists, industries in the design of a suitable post-harvest processing machine.

  2. Interspecific variation in total phenolic content in temperate brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Mannino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae synthesize secondary metabolites such as polyphenols that function as defense and protection mechanisms. Among brown algae, Fucales and Dictyotales (Phaeophyceae contain the highest levels of phenolic compounds, mainly phlorotannins, that play multiple roles. Four temperate brown algae (Cystoseira amentacea, Cystoseira compressa, Dictyopteris polypodioides and Padina pavonica were studied for total phenolic contents. Total phenolic content was determined colorimetrically with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Significant differences in total phenolic content were observed between leathery and sheetlike algae and also within each morphological group. Among the four species, the sheet-like alga D. polypodioides, living in the upper infralittoral zone, showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that total phenolic content in temperate brown algae is influenced by a combination of several factors, such as growth form, depth, and exposition to solar radiation.

  3. Chlorophyll meter reading and total nitrogen content applied as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ana Mascarello

    The present study was aimed to assess the relationship between the reading of the chlorophyll meter and the total nitrogen (N) content ... devices to measure chlorophyll index (SPAD) and N content in the leaf. The nitrogen levels were found ... absorption of other nutrients and the production of carbohydrates. The methods ...

  4. The effect of moisture content on the explosively driven fragmentation of wet sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, K

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive model is established to account for the instability onset of rapidly expanding granular shells subject to the explosion loadings generated by the detonation of the central explosives. The moisture content strongly influences the shock interactions in the wet particle beds and the ensuing evolvement of the granular compacts. A material model for granular materials which can account for the degree of saturation was incorporated into a nonlinear dynamic simulation program to investigate the moisture effect on the shock responses of wet granular materials. In conjunction with our instability model, the predicted instability diameters of the expanding dry/wet granular shells are in a good agreement with the experimental results. Particularly the postponed instability onset of the wet granular shell found both experimentally and analytically can largely be attributed to the significantly greater kinetic energy obtained by wet particles thanks to less energy of shock wave consumed in compacting the granular material.

  5. Increased profitability in cellulose production through more accurate measurement of the moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A general report on the project 'Dry Wood' is presented. In this project Noratom-Norcontrol A/S cooperate with the wood-pulp and paper factory Petersen and Soen in the application of Noratom's radiometric moisture gauge and their continuous weighing machine (densimeter) in the continuous measurement of the moisture content of wood chips in cellulose production. Conventional methods give an accuracy of π+ 2% and the objective of this method is an accuracy of π+ 1%. This would have a considerable economic significance. A test unit has been operating in the production line for a year and has attained the objective for short periods. Improved long term stability is the present problem. The system has process outputs which will facilitate future on-line computer process control. (JIW)

  6. Generating a representative signal of coal moisture content to anticipate combustion control in thermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto-Fernandez, Ismael; Luengo-Garcia, J. Carlos; Alonso-Hidalgo, Manuela; Ponte-Gutierrez, Daniel [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Universidad de Oviedo, Campus Universitario s/n 33203, Asturias Gijon (Spain)

    2002-06-01

    This article describes the possibilities of continuously measuring coal moisture in the boiler feeding circuit of a thermal power station so that the measurement can be used as a signal for the boiler combustion control system. To do so, in the first place, the point through which coal would be fed into the boiler was chosen. After studying the different parts of the circuit, the feeder was selected. Then, an installation was designed, at semi-industrial scale, faithfully reproducing the operation of a belt conveyor. In order to measure the moisture content, a microwave system was installed, and a large number of coal samples with different ranks and grain sizes was tested showing eventually the likelihood of the objective.

  7. [Relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Teng, Jianbei; Cai, Yi; Liang, Jie; Zhu, Yilin; Wei, Tao

    2011-12-01

    To find out the relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii. Microscopy-counting process was applied to starch quantity statistics, sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetry was used to assay polysaccharides content and bromocresol green colorimetry was used to assay alkaloid content. Pearson product moment correlation analysis, Kendall's rank correlation analysis and Spearman's concordance coefficient analysis were applied to study their relativity. Extremely significant positive correlation was found between starch quantity and polysaccharides content, and significant negative correlation between alkaloid content and starch quantity was discovered, as well was between alkaloid content and polysaccharides content.

  8. Linking precipitation, evapotranspiration and soil moisture content for the improvement of predictability over land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Franco; Alessandri, Andrea; De Felice, Matteo

    2013-04-01

    Climate change scenarios are expected to show an intensification of the hydrological cycle together with modifications of evapotranspiration and soil moisture content. Evapotranspiration changes have been already evidenced for the end of the 20th century. The variance of evapotranspiration has been shown to be strongly related to the variance of precipitation over land. Nevertheless, the feedbacks between evapotranspiration, soil moisture and precipitation have not yet been completely understood at present-day. Furthermore, soil moisture reservoirs are associated to a memory and thus their proper initialization may have a strong influence on predictability. In particular, the linkage between precipitation and soil moisture is modulated by the effects on evapotranspiration. Therefore, the investigation of the coupling between these variables appear to be of primary importance for the improvement of predictability over the continents. The coupled manifold (CM) technique (Navarra and Tribbia 2005) is a method designed to separate the effects of the variability of two variables which are connected. This method has proved to be successful for the analysis of different climate fields, like precipitation, vegetation and sea surface temperature. In particular, the coupled variables reveal patterns that may be connected with specific phenomena, thus providing hints regarding potential predictability. In this study we applied the CM to recent observational datasets of precipitation (from CRU), evapotranspiration (from GIMMS and MODIS satellite-based estimates) and soil moisture content (from ESA) spanning a time period of 23 years (1984-2006) with a monthly frequency. Different data stratification (monthly, seasonal, summer JJA) have been employed to analyze the persistence of the patterns and their characteristical time scales and seasonality. The three variables considered show a significant coupling among each other. Interestingly, most of the signal of the

  9. Effect of moisture content and dry unit weight on the resilient modulus of subgrade soils predicted by cone penetration test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture content and dry unit weight on the resilient characteristics of subgrade soil predicted by the cone penetration test. An experimental program was conducted in which cone penetratio...

  10. Antecedent moisture content and soil texture effects on infiltration and erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, A. I.; Huang, C.; Levy, G. J.

    2006-12-01

    Water infiltration, seal formation, runoff and erosion depend on the soil's inherent properties and surface conditions. Most erosion models consider only soil inherent properties (mainly texture) in assessing infiltration and erosion without consideration of spatial and temporary variation in the surface condition, particularly the antecedent moisture content. We studied the interaction of two different surface conditions, i.e. antecedent moisture content (AMC) and aging (timing after wetting) on infiltration (IR), seal formation (runoff generation) and erosion in four soils varying from loam to clay. Soil samples were packed in erosion box and wetted with different amounts of water (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, or 16 mm) to obtain a wide moisture range (i.e., pF 0-6.2, or from air dry to full saturation). The boxes were put in plastic bags and allowed to age for 0.01, 1, 3, or 7 days. Then the soil in the erosion box exposed to 60 mm of rain. At no aging final IR of soils did not change significantly, but runoff volume (a measure for seal development) and soil loss increased with an increase in AMC mainly because of aggregate breakdown. For any given aging, the highest IR and smallest runoff volume and soil loss were obtained at the intermediate AMC levels (pF 2.4-4.2, between wilting point and field capacity). For instance, in the clay soil to which 3 mm of water (pF~2.7) was added, as aging increased from one to seven days, final IR increased from 5.3 to 7.9 mm h-1, while runoff and soil loss decreased from 34 mm to 22 mm, and from 630 to 360 g m2 respectively. At this AMC range, increasing aging time resulted in up to 40% increase in IR and decrease in runoff or soil loss. This tendency significantly more pronounced for clay soils because water-filled pores in the clay fabric were considered active in the stabilization process and the development of cohesive bonds between and within particles during the aging period. The results of this study are important for soil

  11. Effect of moisture content on the R{sub 70} self-heating rate of Callide coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamish, B. Basil; Hamilton, Garth R. [School of Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld 4072 (Australia)

    2005-10-17

    Strip samples from the Boundary Hill pit at Callide have been tested in an adiabatic oven to assess the effect of moisture on the R{sub 70} self-heating rate of coal. The two strip samples tested had R{sub 70} self-heating rate values of 10.23 and 8.61 {sup o}C/h. As the moisture content of the coal was progressively increased, from the dry state of the test, the R{sub 70} value decreased dramatically. At approximately 40-50% of the moisture holding capacity of the coal, the self-heating rate becomes measurable. Above this critical level of moisture content, the heat produced by oxidation is dissipated by moisture evaporation and coal self-heating is significantly delayed. (author)

  12. Effect of sugar addition on glass transition temperatures of cassava starch with low to intermediate moisture contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Yetzury; Guevara, Marvilan; Pérez, Adriana; Cova, Aura; Sandoval, Aleida J; Müller, Alejandro J

    2016-08-01

    This work studies how sucrose (S) addition modifies the thermal properties of cassava starch (CS). Neat CS and CS-S blends with 4, 6 and 8% sugar contents (CS-S-4%, CS-S-6% and CS-S-8%) were prepared and analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), in a wide range of moisture levels (2-20%). In equilibrated samples with moisture contents lower than 10%, twoendothermic steps were observed during first DSC heating scans and two corresponding relaxation maxima in tan δ were detected by DMTA. The first transition, detected at around 45-55°C by both DSC and DMTA, is frequently found in starchy foods, while the second observed at higher temperatures is associated to the glass transition temperature of the blends. At higher moisture contents, only one thermal transition was observed. Samples analyzed immediately after cooling from the melt (i.e., after erasing their thermal history), exhibited a single glass transition temperature, regardless of their moisture content. Addition of sugar promotes water plasticization of CS only at high moisture contents. In the low moisture content range, anti-plasticization was observed for both neat and sugar-added CS samples. Addition of sugar decreases the moisture content needed to achieve the maximum value of the glass transition temperature before plasticization starts. The results of this work may be valuable for the study of texture establishment in low moisture content extruded food products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Processing Method, Moisture Content, and Resin System on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Woven Kenaf Plant Fiber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaiman Jaffar Sharba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the processing method, moisture content, and polymer type were evaluated relative to the physical and mechanical properties of composites based on natural plants. When kenaf was heated above the glass transition temperature of lignin, there was a reduction in moisture content by more than 8% of the total weight of the raw material. To investigate polymer behavior, the raw material was reinforced with three types of polymers: epoxy, unsaturated polyester (UP, and vinyl ester fabricated using hand lay-up with cold press (HCP and vacuum infusion (VI. The results of (HCP showed a noticeable improvement in tensile and flexural strength and their moduli for all types of polymer used compared with (VI, in ascending order from UP and vinyl ester to epoxy. Using the HCP method, the tensile strength improved considerably, by 60% for epoxy, 59% for UP, and 250% for vinyl ester, while flexural strength was enhanced by 16% for epoxy, 126% for UP, and 117% for vinyl ester compared to VI. Impact results showed a slight or no improvement in absorbed energy.

  14. The effect of moisture content on the corrosion of fasteners embedded in wood subjected to alkaline copper quaternary treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelinka, Samuel L.; Glass, Samuel V.; Derome, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine the dependence of metal corrosion on wood moisture content. • Corrosion of steel and galvanized steel in treated wood were measured. • Corrosion products were analyzed across moisture contents using X-ray diffraction. • The corrosion rate has a sigmoidal dependence on moisture content. • The data herein can be used to improve combined hygrothermal–corrosion models. - Abstract: This paper characterizes the corrosion rate of embedded fasteners as a function of wood moisture content using gravimetric and electrochemical measurements. The results indicated that the corrosion rate increased with moisture content before reaching a plateau. The phases present in the corrosion products, as analyzed using X-ray diffraction, are generally consistent with previous work. Uniform corrosion was observed for all fasteners and all conditions except steel fasteners embedded in water-saturated wood. Data of dependence of corrosion rate on moisture content, presented herein, are necessary to ensure the accuracy of combined hygrothermal/corrosion models used to predict durability of wood structures

  15. Soil sample moisture content as a function of time during oven drying for gamma-ray spectroscopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benke, R.R.; Kearfott, K.J.

    1999-01-01

    In routine gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis of collected soil samples, procedure often calls to remove soil moisture by oven drying overnight at a temperature of 100 deg. C . Oven drying not only minimizes the gamma-ray self-attenuation of soil samples due to the absence of water during the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis, but also allows for a straightforward calculation of the specific activity of radionuclides in soil, historically based on the sample dry weight. Because radon exhalation is strongly dependent on moisture , knowledge of the oven-drying time dependence of the soil moisture content, combined with radon exhalation measurements during oven drying and at room temperature for varying soil moisture contents, would allow conclusions to be made on how the oven-drying radon exhalation rate depends on soil moisture content. Determinations of the oven-drying radon exhalation from soil samples allow corrections to be made for the immediate laboratory gamma-ray spectroscopy of radionuclides in the natural uranium decay chain. This paper presents the results of soil moisture content measurements during oven drying and suggests useful empirical fits to the moisture data

  16. Effects of varying soil moisture contents and vegetation canopies on microwave emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, H.-H. K.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    Results of NASA airborne passive microwave scans of bare and vegetated fields for comparison with ground truth tests are discussed and a model for atmospheric scattering of radiation by vegetation is detailed. On-board radiometers obtained data at 21, 2.8, and 1.67 cm during three passes over each of 46 fields, 28 of which were bare and the others having wheat or alfalfa. Ground-based sampling included moisture in five layers down to 15 cm in addition to soil temperature. The relationships among the brightness temperature and soil moisture, as well as the surface roughness and the vegetation canopy were examined. A model was developed for the dielectric coefficient and volume scattering for a vegetation medium. L- to C-band data were found useful for retrieving soil information directly. A surface moisture content of 5-35% yielded an emissivity of 0.9-0.7. The data agreed well with a combined multilayer radiative transfer model with simple roughness correction.

  17. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation.

  18. Effects of moisture content of food waste on residue separation, larval growth and larval survival in black soldier fly bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jack Y K; Chiu, Sam L H; Lo, Irene M C

    2017-09-01

    In order to foster sustainable management of food waste, innovations in food waste valorization technologies are crucial. Black soldier fly (BSF) bioconversion is an emerging technology that can turn food waste into high-protein fish feed through the use of BSF larvae. The conventional method of BSF bioconversion is to feed BSF larvae with food waste directly without any moisture adjustment. However, it was reported that difficulty has been experienced in the separation of the residue (larval excreta and undigested material) from the insect biomass due to excessive moisture. In addition to the residue separation problem, the moisture content of the food waste may also affect the growth and survival aspects of BSF larvae. This study aims to determine the most suitable moisture content of food waste that can improve residue separation as well as evaluate the effects of the moisture content of food waste on larval growth and survival. In this study, pre-consumer and post-consumer food waste with different moisture content (70%, 75% and 80%) was fed to BSF larvae in a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor. The results show that the residue can be effectively separated from the insect biomass by sieving using a 2.36mm sieve, for both types of food waste at 70% and 75% moisture content. However, sieving of the residue was not feasible for food waste at 80% moisture content. On the other hand, reduced moisture content of food waste was found to slow down larval growth. Hence, there is a trade-off between the sieving efficiency of the residue and the larval growth rate. Furthermore, the larval survival rate was not affected by the moisture content of food waste. A high larval survival rate of at least 95% was achieved using a temperature-controlled rotary drum reactor for all treatment groups. The study provides valuable insights for the waste management industry on understanding the effects of moisture content when employing BSF bioconversion for food waste recycling

  19. Biodrying process: A sustainable technology for treatment of municipal solid waste with high moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Asha P; Pawels, Renu; Haridas, Ajit

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste with high moisture content is the major hindrance in the field of waste to energy conversion technologies and here comes the importance of biodrying process. Biodrying is a convective evaporation process, which utilizes the biological heat developed from the aerobic reactions of organic components. The numerous end use possibilities of the output are making the biodrying process versatile, which is possible by achieving the required moisture reduction, volume reduction and bulk density enhancement through the effective utilization of biological heat. In the present case study the detailed research and development of an innovative biodrying reactor has been carried out for the treatment of mixed municipal solid waste with high moisture content. A pilot scale biodrying reactor of capacity 565 cm(3) was designed and set up in the laboratory. The reactor dimensions consisted of an acrylic chamber of 60 cm diameter and 200 cm height, and it was enveloped by an insulation chamber. The insulation chamber was provided to minimise the heat losses through the side walls of the reactor. It simulates the actual condition in scaling up of the reactor, since in bigger scale reactors the heat losses through side walls will be negligible while comparing the volume to surface area ratio. The mixed municipal solid waste with initial moisture content of 61.25% was synthetically prepared in the laboratory and the reactor was fed with 109 kg of this substrate. Aerobic conditions were ensured inside the reactor chamber by providing the air at a constant rate of 40 litre per minute, and the direction of air flow was from the specially designed bottom air chamber to the reactor matrix top. The self heating inside reactor matrix was assumed in the range of 50-60°C during the design stage. Innovative biodrying reactor was found to be efficiently working with the temperature inside the reactor matrix rising to a peak value of 59°C by the fourth day of experiment (the

  20. Minerals and Total Polyphenolic Content of Some Vegetal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana E. TUFEANU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The total polyphenolic content and minerals were determined for chia seeds, Psyllium husks and watermelon rind powder. The minerals content was performed by using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emissions Spectrometer and Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, technique FIAS-Furnace (for Se. The sample with the highest content of polyphenols was chia (2.69 mg GAE/g s. followed by the watermelon rind powder. Reduced amounts of polyphenols were found in the Psyllium husks. Also, the total polyphenol concentration increased with the increase of the extraction time on the ultrasonic water bath. Minerals analysis indicated that powders obtained from chia seeds and watermelon rind contained large amounts of potassium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The most abundant mineral in the Psyllium husks powder was found potassium, followed by calcium. In conclusion, these powders can be used as ingredients for functional food and food supplements production due to the high nutritional content and bioactive properties.

  1. Using Sentinel-1 and Landsat 8 satellite images to estimate surface soil moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mexis, Philippos-Dimitrios; Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the potential for more accurate assessment of Soil Moisture (SM) content exploiting Earth Observation (EO) technology, by exploring the use of synergistic approaches among a variety of EO instruments has emerged. This study is the first to investigate the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) (Sentinel-1) and optical (Landsat 8) images in combination with ground measurements to estimate volumetric SM content in support of water management and agricultural practices. SAR and optical data are downloaded and corrected in terms of atmospheric, geometric and radiometric corrections. SAR images are also corrected in terms of roughness and vegetation with the synergistic use of Oh and Topp models using a dataset consisting of backscattering coefficients and corresponding direct measurements of ground parameters (moisture, roughness). Following, various vegetation indices (NDVI, SAVI, MSAVI, EVI, etc.) are estimated to record diachronically the vegetation regime within the study area and as auxiliary data in the final modeling. Furthermore, thermal images from optical data are corrected and incorporated to the overall approach. The basic principle of Thermal InfraRed (TIR) method is that Land Surface Temperature (LST) is sensitive to surface SM content due to its impact on surface heating process (heat capacity and thermal conductivity) under bare soil or sparse vegetation cover conditions. Ground truth data are collected from a Time-domain reflectometer (TRD) gauge network established in western Crete, Greece, during 2015. Sophisticated algorithms based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) approaches are used to explore the statistical relationship between backscattering measurements and SM content. Results highlight the potential of SAR and optical satellite images to contribute to effective SM content detection in support of water resources management and precision agriculture. Keywords: Sentinel-1, Landsat 8, Soil

  2. Impact of stone content on soil moisture measurement with capacitive sensors 10HS (Decagon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deraedt, Deborah; Bernard, Julien; Bietlot, Louise; Clerbois, Laura; Rosière, Clément; Starren, Amandine; Colinet, Gilles; Mercatoris, Benoit; Degré, Aurore

    2015-04-01

    Lot of soil survey focused on agricultural soils. For practical reasons, those soils have a low stone content. So, most of the soil water content sensors are placed on low stone content soils and the calibration equations are developed for them. Yet some researches take an interest in forest soils that are often much different from the previous ones. The differences lie in their stone content and their slope. Lots of studies have proved the importance of making soil specific calibration of the soil water content sensor. As our lab use regularly the 10HS sensors (Decagon Devices, United States) in forested soil, we decided to evaluate the importance of the stone content in the soil moisture measurement. The soil used for this experimentation comes from Gembloux (50°33'54.9''N, 4°42'11.3''E). It is silt that has been sieved at 2 mm to remove the gravel. The stones used to form the samples come from an experimental site located in the Belgian Ardennes (50°1'52.6''N, 4°53'22.5''E). They are mainly composed of schist with some quartz and sandstone elements. Initially, only five samples were constructed with three replications each. The size and the proportion of stones were the variables. Stones were classified in two groups, the first contains gravels whose size is less than 1,5 cm and a the second contains gravels whose size is comprised between 2 and 3 cm. The proportions of stone selected for the experiment are 0, 20 and 40%. In order to generate validation data, two more samples were constructed with intermediate proportion of stone content (30%). The samples were built in PVC container which dimensions are slightly bigger than the sensor volume of influence (1.1-1.3l). The soil samples were saturated and then dried on a thermal chamber set at about 32°C. During at least 14 days, the samples soil water content was determined by the sensor measurement with the Procheck read-out system (Decagon Devices, United State) and by weighting the samples thrice a day

  3. On-line measurement of moisture content of powdered food using microwave free-space transmission technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Bok; Park, Seong Un; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Jong Heon; Lee, ChanJoo

    2006-01-01

    The moisture content of food is not only the most important quality factor but also one of the essential parameters affecting their physical and chemical properties related to storage, capability of processing and quality control. The moisture measurement technique using microwave is very attractive because that method has merits of rapid and accurate measurement in the wider range of moisture content, simple implementation and inexpensive compared with other methods. In this study, microwave free-space transmission technique was applied to measure the moisture content of powdered food. The on-line measurement system consisting of microwave system with 2.5 GHz, 7.0 GHz and 10.5 GHz, conveying device to move the food samples, inlet and outlet of the food samples, guide plate to control the thickness of the food samples, temperature sensing nit, taco-meter and central processing unit having analog to digital convert and microprocessor was constructed and its performance was evaluated.

  4. Increases of equatorial total electron content (TEC) during magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeboah-Amankwah, D.

    1976-01-01

    This paper is a report on the analysis of equatorial electron content, TEC, during magnetic storms. Storms between 1969 and 1972 have been examined as part of an on-going study of TEC morphology during magnetically disturbed days. The published magnetic Ksup(p) indices and TEC data from the Legon abservatory have been employed. The general picture arising from the analysis is that the total electron content of the ionosphere is significantly enhanced during magnetic storms. (author)

  5. Estimation of Total Body Fat from Potassium-40 Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha Mohamed Taha Ahmed, T.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns on estimation of total body fat from potassium 40 content using total body counting technique. The work performed using fast scan whole body counter. Calibration of that system for K-40 was carried out under assumption that uniformity distribution of radioactivity of potassium was distributed in 10 polyethylene bottles phantom. Different body sizes were represented by 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 polyethylene bottles; each bottle has a volume of 0.04 m3. The counting efficiency for each body size was determined. Lean body weight (LBW) was calculated for ten males and ten females using appropriate mathematical equation. Total Body Potassium, TBK for the same selected group was measured using whole body counter. A mathematical relationship between lean body weight and potassium content was deduced .Fat contents for some individuals were calculated and weight/height ratio was indicated for fatness.

  6. Fat and Moisture Content in Chinese Fried Bread Sticks: Assessment and Rapid Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Method Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuqing Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fried bread sticks (FBS are one of the most widely consumed deep fried food products in China. Understanding the fat and moisture content in FBS will help consumers make healthy food choices as well as assist food processors to provide FBS with desirable quality. Rapid Fourier transform near-infrared methods (FT-NIR were developed for determining fat and moisture content in FBS collected from 123 different vendors in Shanghai, China. FBS samples with minimum sample preparation (either finely or coarsely ground were used for NIR analyses. Spectra of FBS were treated with different mathematic pretreatments before being used to build models between the spectral information and fat (7.71%–30.89% or moisture (17.39%–32.65% content in FBS. Finely ground samples may lead to slightly more robust PLS models, but the particle sizes of ground FBS samples did not seriously affect the predictability of the models with appropriate mathematical treatments. The fat and moisture content in FBS predicted by FT-NIR methods had very good correlation with their values determined via traditional methods (fat, R2=0.965; moisture, R2=0.983, which clearly indicated that FT-NIR methods could be used as an effective tool for rapid determination of fat and moisture content in FBS.

  7. Automatisation of moisture content measurement in biofuel deliveries; Automatiserad fukthaltsmaetning vid braenslemottagning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulin, Robert; Hessling, Krister; Karlsson, Mikael; Tryzell, Robert (Bestwood AB, Sundbyberg (Sweden))

    2008-06-15

    Measurement of moisture content in biofuel is normally made through manual sampling near the surface of truck deliveries or in the bulk of fuel deliveries that is distributed on e.g. a storage area. Moisture content is usually performed trough gravimetric determination at lab using oven drying for 24 hours. Precision is approximately a standard deviation of 2 %-units. However, there are several reasons to replace this method by an automatic procedure that measures moisture content in the bulk of the cargo. Except for obtaining more representative samples in the bulk, are speed and the measurement cost important characteristics. The purpose of this project was to develop a well-functioning prototype of a system that is automatic in the sense that manual sampling and sample preparation is replaced by a Near Infra Red (NIR) based system. The intended users of such a system would be both buyers of biofuel and suppliers who would benefit from better knowledge of the quality of the product that they are about to deliver. This project was initiated in the late autumn of 2006. A complete hardware set-up including a NIR spectrophotometer, light probe and a crane was installed in June 2007 in Eskilstuna, Sweden, and shown to members of the reference group at Vaermeforsk. The reliability of reference data obtained through gravimetric measurement was unfortunately not as good as expected on beforehand. This problem was due to the difficulty of obtaining representative samples near the surface of the truck cargo. It delayed the validation phase of this project significantly. An evaluation of the NIR based system reveals a good accuracy and precision that is far better than that of the traditional method for delivery control. A major reason for the superior precision is that the sampling error is reduced. Further, the NIR based system delivers real-time moisture data with a speed that is difficult to reach at lab because of restrictions in manual labour and limitations in

  8. Effects of storage structures and moisture contents on seed quality attributes of quality protein maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Bhandari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to examine the effects of various storage structures and moisture contents on seed quality attributes of quality protein maize seed. The quality protein maize (QPM-1 seed was tested in conventional seed storage containers (Fertilizer sack and earthen pot and the improved hermetic ones (Metal bin, Super grain bag, and Purdue Improved Crop Storage (PICS bag at Seed Science and Technology Division, Khumaltar, Nepal during February, 2015 to January 2016. Ten treatments comprising 5 storage devices in two moisture regimes (11% and 9% replicated thrice and laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD. Data on temperature, relative humidity (RH, germination, electrical conductivity (EC, seed moisture content (MC were collected bimonthly. The conventional containers were found liable to the external environmental condition whereas the hermetic structures observed with controlled RH level below 40% in all combinations. Electrical conductivity (EC for seed vigor showed that hermetic containers provide higher seed vigor than the conventional ones. Up to 4 months all treatments were found statistically at par for germination. A significant difference was observed in each treatment after 4 months where PICS bag & Super grain bag showed best germination followed by metal bin while fertilizer bag & earthen-pot showed poorer and poorest germination respectively till one year. Almost all treatments with lower MC showed better results than the treatments with higher MC. A negative correlation (R2=69.7% was found between EC and Germination. All six figures from 2 to 12 months on MC showed statistically different where hermetic plastic bags were found maintaining MC as initial whereas MC of fertilizer bags and earthen pot was spiked than the basal figure. The finding evidenced that the hermetic containers and low MC are the seed storage approaches for retaining the quality of seed even in an ambient environmental condition for more than a year.

  9. Thermodynamic properties of water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Prette

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Jackfruit tree is one of the most significant trees in tropical home gardens and perhaps the most widespread and useful tree in the important genus Artocarpus. The fruit is susceptible to mechanical and biological damage in the mature state, and some people find the aroma of the fruit objectionable, particularly in confined spaces. The dehydration process could be an alternative for the exploitation of this product, and the relationship between moisture content and water activity provides useful information for its processing and storage. The aim of this study was to determine the thermodynamic properties of the water sorption of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. as a function of moisture content. Desorption isotherms of the different parts of the jackfruit (pulp, peduncle, mesocarp, peel, and seed were determined at four different temperatures (313.15, 323.15, 333.15, and 343.15 K in a water activity range of 0.02-0.753 using the static gravimetric method. Theoretical and empirical models were used to model the desorption isotherms. An analytical solution of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation was proposed to calculate the isosteric heat of sorption, the differential entropy, and Gibbs' free energy using the Guggenhein-Anderson-de Boer and Oswin models considering the effect of temperature on the hygroscopic equilibrium.

  10. Method of determining the enthalpy and moisture content of wet steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestri, G.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear powered multi-stage steam turbine system wherein steam at higher than atmospheric pressure is introduced into the turbine system at a high pressure turbine element and thereafter flows through a series of turbine elements at successively decreasing pressures, wherein portions of the steam are extracted from the turbine elements at a plurality of lower pressure points and the steam is finally exhausted at a lowest pressure point, the method of determining moisture content and enthalpy of steam at a selected pressure point. It comprises sampling a small quantity of steam at the selected pressure point; super heating the steam sample to a single-phase state by reducing its pressure and bottling it in a closed measuring chamber whereby the flow energy of the sample is converted into internal energy; measuring the pressure of the steam sample within the chamber; determining the sonic velocity of the steam sample by passing a sound wave through the sample from a transmitter to a receiver located at a known distance from the transmitter and measuring the time required for the sound wave to travel from transmitter to receiver; and utilizing the measured pressure and sonic velocity of the steam sample to calculate the moisture content and enthalpy of the steam at the selected pressure point

  11. Control of final moisture content of food products baked in continuous tunnel ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Ian

    2006-02-01

    There are well-known difficulties in making measurements of the moisture content of baked goods (such as bread, buns, biscuits, crackers and cake) during baking or at the oven exit; in this paper several sensing methods are discussed, but none of them are able to provide direct measurement with sufficient precision. An alternative is to use indirect inferential methods. Some of these methods involve dynamic modelling, with incorporation of thermal properties and using techniques familiar in computational fluid dynamics (CFD); a method of this class that has been used for the modelling of heat and mass transfer in one direction during baking is summarized, which may be extended to model transport of moisture within the product and also within the surrounding atmosphere. The concept of injecting heat during the baking process proportional to the calculated heat load on the oven has been implemented in a control scheme based on heat balance zone by zone through a continuous baking oven, taking advantage of the high latent heat of evaporation of water. Tests on biscuit production ovens are reported, with results that support a claim that the scheme gives more reproducible water distribution in the final product than conventional closed loop control of zone ambient temperatures, thus enabling water content to be held more closely within tolerance.

  12. Equilibrium moisture content of waste mixtures from post-consumer carton packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacelos, M S; Freire, J T

    2012-01-01

    The manufacturing of boards and roof tiles is one of the routes to reuse waste from the recycled-carton-packaging process. Such a process requires knowledge of the hygroscopic behaviour of these carton-packaging waste mixtures in order to guarantee the quality of the final product (e.g. boards and roof tiles). Thus, with four carton-packaging waste mixtures of selected compositions (A, B, C and D), the sorption isotherms were obtained at air temperature of 20, 40 and 60 degrees C by using the static method. This permits one to investigate which model can relate the equilibrium moisture content of the mixture with that of a pure component through the mass fraction of each component in the mixtures. The results show that the experimental data can be well described by the weighted harmonic mean model. This suggests that the mean equilibrium moisture content of the carton-packaging mixture presents a non-linear relationship with each single, pure compound.

  13. Thermophysical properties of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius: experimental determination and effect of moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Augusto Perussello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about thermophysical properties of foods is especially important in thermal processing, influencing the design, optimization and cost reduction of the process, as well as the quality and safety of the final product. This article deals with the determination of some thermophysical properties of yacon, namely, specific mass, specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity during the osmo-convective drying. Yacon is a root with approximately 90% w.b. of moisture content, whose high concentration of fructooligosacharydes and antioxidants has gained attention in the food research field. Yacon slices were osmotically dehydrated for 2 hours in a sucralose solution and then dried in a convective tray dryer for 2 hours, varying the osmotic solution’s temperature and stirring rate and temperature of the drying air. All thermophysical properties were determined during the drying process at 30-minute intervals. The thermophysical properties were determined not only experimentally but also calculated by models available in literature based on the product’s centesimal composition. A satisfactory agreement between experimental and predicted results was obtained. Further, empirical models obtained by nonlinear regression were successfully fitted to the experimental data, as a function of moisture content, within a 94% - 3% w.b. range.

  14. Results and Conclusions from the NASA Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe 2009 IRT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reehorst, Andrew; Brinker, David

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed and tested a Total Water Content Isokinetic Sampling Probe. Since, by its nature, it is not sensitive to cloud water particle phase nor size, it is particularly attractive to support super-cooled large droplet and high ice water content aircraft icing studies. The instrument comprises the Sampling Probe, Sample Flow Control, and Water Vapor Measurement subsystems. Results and conclusions are presented from probe tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) during January and February 2009. The use of reference probe heat and the control of air pressure in the water vapor measurement subsystem are discussed. Several run-time error sources were found to produce identifiable signatures that are presented and discussed. Some of the differences between measured Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe and IRT calibration seems to be caused by tunnel humidification and moisture/ice crystal blow around. Droplet size, airspeed, and liquid water content effects also appear to be present in the IRT calibration. Based upon test results, the authors provide recommendations for future Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe development.

  15. Comparative total phenolic content, anti-lipase and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total phenol values are expressed in terms of Gallic acid equivalent (w/w of dry mass). Aframomum melegueta exhibited the highest phenolic content of 60.4 ± 2.36 mgGAE/g, a percentage antioxidant activity of 86.6 % at 200μg/ml and percentage lipase inhibition of 89% at 1mg/ml while Aframomum danielli revealed a total ...

  16. Lipid and moisture content modeling of amphidromous Dolly Varden using bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, J.T.; Margraf, F.J.; Carlson, J.G.; Sutton, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological well-being or condition of fish is most commonly estimated from aspects of individual morphology. However, these metrics may be only weakly correlated with nutritional reserves stored as lipid, the primary form of accumulated energy in fish. We constructed and evaluated bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) models as an alternative method of assessing condition in amphidromous Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma collected from nearshore estuarine and lotic habitats of the Alaskan Arctic. Data on electrical resistance and reactance were collected from the lateral and ventral surfaces of 192 fish, and whole-body percent lipid and moisture content were determined using standard laboratory methods. Significant inverse relationships between temperature and resistance and reactance prompted the standardization of these data to a constant temperature using corrective equations developed herein. No significant differences in resistance or reactance were detected among spawning and nonspawning females after accounting for covariates, suggesting that electrical pathways do not intersect the gonads. Best-fit BIA models incorporating electrical variables calculated from the lateral and ventral surfaces produced the strongest associations between observed and model-predicted estimates of proximate content. These models explained between 6% and 20% more of the variability in laboratory-derived estimates of proximate content than models developed from single-surface BIA data and 32% more than models containing only length and weight data. While additional research is required to address the potential effects of methodological variation, bioelectrical impedance analysis shows promise as a way to provide high-quality, minimally invasive estimates of Dolly Varden lipid or moisture content in the field with only small increases in handling time.

  17. Retrieval of canopy moisture content for dynamic fire risk assessment using simulated MODIS bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Carmine; Leone, Antonio P.; Meoli, Giuseppe; Calabrò, Gaetano; Menenti, Massimo

    2007-10-01

    Forest fires are one of the major environmental hazards in Mediterranean Europe. Biomass burning reduces carbon fixation in terrestrial vegetation, while soil erosion increases in burned areas. For these reasons, more sophisticated prevention tools are needed by local authorities to forecast fire danger, allowing a sound allocation of intervention resources. Various factors contribute to the quantification of fire hazard, and among them vegetation moisture is the one that dictates vegetation susceptibility to fire ignition and propagation. Many authors have demonstrated the role of remote sensing in the assessment of vegetation equivalent water thickness (EWT), which is defined as the weight of liquid water per unit of leaf surface. However, fire models rely on the fuel moisture content (FMC) as a measure of vegetation moisture. FMC is defined as the ratio of the weight of the liquid water in a leaf over the weight of dry matter, and its retrieval from remote sensing measurements might be problematic, since it is calculated from two biophysical properties that independently affect vegetation reflectance spectrum. The aim of this research is to evaluate the potential of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) in retrieving both EWT and FMC from top of the canopy reflectance. The PROSPECT radiative transfer code was used to simulate leaf reflectance and transmittance as a function of leaf properties, and the SAILH model was adopted to simulate the top of the canopy reflectance. A number of moisture spectral indexes have been calculated, based on MODIS bands, and their performance in predicting EWT and FMC has been evaluated. Results showed that traditional moisture spectral indexes can accurately predict EWT but not FMC. However, it has been found that it is possible to take advantage of the multiple MODIS short-wave infrared (SWIR) channels to improve the retrieval accuracy of FMC (r2 = 0.73). The effects of canopy structural properties on MODIS

  18. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunjong Kim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdust; BR, Beef cattle manure+rice hull were determined based on oxygen uptake rate measured by a pressure sensor method. A broad range of oxygen uptake rates (0.3 to 33.3 mg O2/g VS d were monitored as a function of moisture level and composting feedstock type. The maximum oxygen consumption of each material was observed near the saturated condition, which ranged from 75% to 98% of water holding capacity. The optimum moisture content of BS and BR were 70% and 57% on a wet basis, respectively. Although BS’s optimum moisture content was near saturated state, its free air space kept a favorable level (above 30% for aerobic composting due to the sawdust’s coarse particle size and bulking effect.

  19. Evaluation of Optimum Moisture Content for Composting of Beef Manure and Bedding Material Mixtures Using Oxygen Uptake Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjong; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Won, Seunggun; Ahn, Heekwon

    2016-05-01

    Moisture content influences physiological characteristics of microbes and physical structure of solid matrices during composting of animal manure. If moisture content is maintained at a proper level, aerobic microorganisms show more active oxygen consumption during composting due to increased microbial activity. In this study, optimum moisture levels for composting of two bedding materials (sawdust, rice hull) and two different mixtures of bedding and beef manure (BS, Beef cattle manure+sawdust; BR, Beef cattle manure+rice hull) were determined based on oxygen uptake rate measured by a pressure sensor method. A broad range of oxygen uptake rates (0.3 to 33.3 mg O2/g VS d) were monitored as a function of moisture level and composting feedstock type. The maximum oxygen consumption of each material was observed near the saturated condition, which ranged from 75% to 98% of water holding capacity. The optimum moisture content of BS and BR were 70% and 57% on a wet basis, respectively. Although BS's optimum moisture content was near saturated state, its free air space kept a favorable level (above 30%) for aerobic composting due to the sawdust's coarse particle size and bulking effect.

  20. Decrease in fruit moisture content heralds and might launch the onset of ripening processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Chaim; Hartman, Thomas G

    2012-10-01

    It is known that fruit ripening is a genetically programmed event but it is not entirely clear what metabolic cue(s) stimulate the onset of ripening, ethylene action notwithstanding. Here, we examined the conjecture that fruit ripening might be evoked by an autonomously induced decrease in tissue water status. We found decline in water content occurring at the onset of ripening in climacteric and nonclimacteric fruit, suggesting that this phenomenon might be universal. This decline in water content persisted throughout the ripening process in some fruit, whereas in others it reversed during the progression of the ripening process. Applied ethylene also induced a decrease in water content in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers. In ethylene-mutant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit (antisense to1-aminocyclopropane carboxylate synthase), cold-induced decline in water content stimulated onset of ripening processes apparently independently of ethylene action, suggesting cause-and-effect relationship between decreasing water content and onset of ripening. The decline in tissue water content, occurring naturally or induced by ethylene, was strongly correlated with a decrease in hydration (swelling) efficacy of cell wall preparations suggesting that hydration dynamics of cell walls might account for changes in tissue moisture content. Extent of cell wall swelling was, in turn, related to the degree of oxidative cross-linking of wall-bound phenolic acids, suggesting that oxidant-induced wall restructuring might mediate cell wall and, thus, fruit tissue hydration status. We propose that oxidant-induced cell wall remodeling and consequent wall dehydration might evoke stress signaling for the onset of ripening processes. This study suggests that decline in fruit water content is an early event in fruit ripening. This information may be used to gauge fruit maturity for appropriate harvest date and for processing. Control of fruit hydration state might be used to regulate the

  1. Response of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of bush ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The positive health benefits associated with tea are made possible by the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds present in tea. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides DC.) and special tea (Monsonia burkeana) were studied. The extractions were done in triplicate using cold ...

  2. Cytotoxicity, Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Annona muricata were extracted using ethanol and the extracts were evaluated for cytotoxicity using Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay. The crude extract showed 73.33 % mortality at 1000 μg/mL concentration and its ...

  3. Chlorophyll meter reading and total nitrogen content applied as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed to assess the relationship between the reading of the chlorophyll meter and the total nitrogen (N) content in the leaf in different parts of the crambe plant, depending on the doses of nitrogen applied to the canopy. Randomized block design in a split plot experimental design was used. The plots ...

  4. Total Phenol amd Flavonoid contents of Crude Extract and Fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic compounds are numerous in plants and are essential part of human diet. Picralima nitida has been extensively used in African folk medicine especially in West Africa. The present study evaluated the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract and fractions of Picralima nitida. The methanol extracts of P.

  5. MULTIFREQUENCY ALGORITHMS FOR DETERMINING THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF LIQUID EMULSIONS BY THE METHOD OF RESONANCE DIELCOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Korobko

    2017-06-01

    obtained. The value of the volumetric moisture in the transformer oil was measured. Originality. New multifrequency algorithms for determining the moisture content by the resonance dielcometric method have been proposed, investigated and practically realized. A generalized metrological characteristic for an algorithm with four frequencies is obtained. Metrological characteristics of algorithms for three and two frequencies are obtained. The problem of «uncertainty of varieties» was solved. Recommendations for increasing the sensitivity of dielcometric resonance moisture meters are developed and implemented. Practical value. The results of this work allow to solve the problem of «variability of varieties», increase sensitivity and accurately determine the moisture content in most nonpolar liquid dielectrics to a value of 10-5. This is applicable in a large field of electrical engineering, machine building, oil refining and the chemical industry.

  6. Procyanidin content of grape seed and pomace, and total anthocyanin content of grape pomace as affected by extrusion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, R C; Howard, L R; Prior, R L

    2009-08-01

    Grape juice processing by-products, grape seed and pomace are a rich source of procyanidins, compounds that may afford protection against chronic disease. This study was undertaken to identify optimal extrusion conditions to enhance the contents of monomers and dimers at the expense of large molecular weight procyanidin oligomers and polymers in grape seed and pomace. Extrusion variables, temperature (160, 170, and 180 degrees C in grape seed, and 160, 170, 180, and 190 degrees C in pomace) and screw speed (100, 150, and 200 rpm in both) were tested using mixtures of grape seed as well as pomace with decorticated white sorghum flour at a ratio of 30 : 70 and moisture content of 45%. Samples of grape seed and pomace were analyzed for procyanidin composition before and after extrusion, and total anthocyanins were determined in pomace. Additionally, chromatograms from diol and normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography were compared for the separation of procyanidins. Extrusion of both grape by-products increased the biologically important monomer and dimers considerably across all temperature and screw speeds. Highest monomer content resulted when extruded at a temperature of 170 degrees C and screw speed of 200 rpm, which were 120% and 80% higher than the unextruded grape seed and pomace, respectively. Increases in monomer and dimer contents were apparently the result of reduced polymer contents, which declined by 27% to 54%, or enhanced extraction facilitated by disruption of the food matrix during extrusion. Extrusion processing reduced total anthocyanins in pomace by 18% to 53%. Extrusion processing can be used to increase procyanidin monomer and dimer contents in grape seed and pomace. Procyanidins in grape by-products have many health benefits, but most are present as large molecular weight compounds, which are poorly absorbed. Extrusion processing appears to be a promising technology to increase levels of the bioactive low molecular weight

  7. Dead fuel moisture estimation with MSG-SEVIRI data. Retrieval of meteorological data for the calculation of the equilibrium moisture content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto Solana, Hector; Sandholt, Inge; Aguado, Inmaculada

    2010-01-01

    In this study we propose to use remote sensing data to estimate hourly meteorological data and then assess the moisture content of dead fuels. Three different models to estimate the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) were applied together with remotely sensed retrieved air temperature and relative...... humidity. The input data were acquired by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensor, on board the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite, from which air temperature and relative humidity were estimated every 15 min. Air temperature estimations are based on the Temperature-Vegetation...... Index (TVX) algorithm. This algorithm exploits the inverse linear relationship between the land surface temperature and the vegetation fractional cover. This relationship was evaluated in a spatial window where the meteorological forcing is assumed to be constant. To estimate the vapour pressure...

  8. Effect of Soil Moisture Content on Growth, Crude Drug "Cho-to-ko" Yield and Oxindole Alkaloid Content of Uncaria rhynchophylla (B. LIVING SCIENCE)

    OpenAIRE

    川添, 禎浩; 小林, 茂樹; 水上, 元; 大橋, 裕; SADAHIRO, KAWAZOE; SHIGEKI, KOBAYASHI; HAJIME, MIZUKAMI; HIROMU, OHASHI; Laboratory of Environmetal Health and Toxicology, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Kyoto Prefectural University; Department of Medicinal Plant Research, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University; Department of Medicinal Plant Research, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University; Department of Medicinal Plant Research, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagasaki University

    1992-01-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla was cultivated by using soil with various moisture contents (20,40,60,80 or 100% of the maximum moisture content retained by soil). Both growth and crude drug "Cho-to-ko" (dried stem with hooks of U. rhynchophylla) yield of the plant were in the following order : 60%> 80%> 40%> 100%> 20%, while oxindole alkaloid content of the stem was in the following order : 20%> 60%> 100%> 40%> 80%. It is concluded that moderately wet soil is suitable for cultivation of U. rhynchophyl...

  9. Effects of biofilter media depth and moisture content on removal of gases from a swine barn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongshuai; Dong, Hongmin; Zhu, Zhiping; Shang, Bin; Yin, Fubin; Zhang, Wanqin; Zhou, Tanlong

    2017-12-01

    Media depth (MD) and moisture content (MC) are two important factors that greatly influence biofilter performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effect of MC and MD on removing ammonia (NH 3 ), hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) from swine barns. Biofiltration performance of different MDs and MCs in combination based on a mixed medium of wood chips and compost was monitored. A 3 × 3 factorial design was adopted, which included three levels of the two factors (MC: 45%, 55%, and 67% [wet basis]; MD: 0.17, 0.33, and 0.50 m). Results indicated that high MC and MD could improve NH 3 removal efficiency, but increase outlet N 2 O concentration. When MC was 67%, the average NH 3 removal efficiency of three MDs (0.17, 0.33, and, 0.50 m) ranged from 77.4% to 78.7%; the range of average H 2 S removal efficiency dropped from 68.1-90.0% (1-34 days of the test period) to 36.8-63.7% (35-58 days of the test period); and the average outlet N 2 O concentration increased by 25.5-60.1%. When MC was 55%, the average removal efficiency of NH 3 , H 2 S, and N 2 O for treatment with 0.33 m MD was 72.8 ± 5.9%, 70.9 ± 13.3%, and -18.9 ± 8.1%, respectively; and the average removal efficiency of NH 3 , H 2 S, and N 2 O for treatment with 0.50 m MD was 77.7 ± 4.2%, 65.8 ± 13.7%, and -24.5 ±12.1%, respectively. When MC was 45%, the highest average NH 3 reduction efficiency among three MDs was 60.7% for 0.5 m MD, and the average N 2 O removal efficiency for three MDs ranged from -18.8% to -12.7%. In addition, the pressure drop of 0.33 m MD was significantly lower than that of 0.50 m MD (p moisture contents (45%, 55%, and 67% [wet basis]) were compared to remove gases from a swine barn. Using wood chips and compost mixture as the biofilters media, the combination of 0.33 m media depth and 55% media moisture content is recommended to obtain good reduction of NH 3 and H 2 S, and to simultaneously prevent elevated emission of N 2 O and large

  10. Changes in Moisture, Protein, and Fat Content of Fish and Rice Flour Coextrudates during Single-Screw Extrusion Cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Sukumar Bandyopadhyay; A. S. Bawa

    2013-02-01

    Changes in proximate composition of fish and rice flour coextrudates like moisture, protein, and fat content were studied with respect to extrusion process v ariables like barrel temperature, x1 (100–200 degrees C); screw speed, x2 (70–110 rpm); fish content of the feed, x3 (5–45 percent); and feed moisture content, x4 (20–60 percent). Experiments were conducted at five levels of the process variables based on rotatable experimental design. Response surface models (RSM) were developed that adequately described the changes in moisture, protein, and fat content of the extrudates based on the coeff icient of determination (R2) values of 0.95, 0.99, and 0.94. ANOVA analysis indicated that extrudate moisture content was influenced by x4, protein content by x1 and x3, and fat content by x3 and x4 at P < 0.001. Trends based on response surf ace plots indicated that the x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 90 rpm, x3 of about 25%, and x4 of about 20% minimized the moisture in the extrudates. Protein content was maximized at x1 of 100 degrees C, x2 > 80 rpm, x3 of about 45 percent, and x4 > 50 percent, and fat content was minimized at x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 85–95 rpm, x3 < 15 percent, and x4 of about >50 percent. Optimized process variables based on a genetic algorithm (GA) for minimum moisture and fat content and maximum protein content were x1 = 199.86, x2 = 109.86, x3 = 32.45, x4 = 20.03; x1 = 199.71, x2 = 90.09, x3 = 15.27, x4 = 58.47; and x1 = 102.97, x2 = 107.67, x3 = 44.56, x4 = 59.54. The predicted values were 17.52 percent, 0.57 percent, and 46.65 percent. Based on the RSM and GA analy sis, extrudate moisture and protein content was influenced by x1, x3, and x4 and fat content by x2, x3, and x4.

  11. Total and available metal contents in sediments by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Sobrinho, Gilmar A.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the total and available contents of Al, Si, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr, Ba, Ce and Pb in sediments from river Atibaia were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence technique. The detection limits for K series varies from 200 ng.mL -1 for Al to 2 ng.mL -1 for Zn while for L series the value varies from 20 ng.mL -1 for Ba to 10 ng.mL -1 for Pb. The samples were submitted to two different processes, in order to obtain the total and biological available metal contents. The information about metal content is a important parameter for a correct evaluation about the hydrologic cycle in Piracicaba basin. All the measure were carried out at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas, SP, Brazil, using a white beam for excitation. (author)

  12. Effects of drought season length on live moisture content dynamic in Mediterranean shrubs: 8 years of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Ventura, Andrea; Bortolu, Sara; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean shrubs are an important component of Mediterranean vegetation communities. In this kind of vegetation, live fuel is a relevant component of the available fuel which catches fire and, consequently, its water content plays an important role in determining fire occurrence and spread. In live plant, water content patterns are related to both environmental conditions (e.g. meteorological variables, soil water availability) and ecophysiological characteristics of the plant species. According to projections on future climate, an increase in risk of summer droughts is likely to take place in Southern Europe. More prolonged drought seasons induced by climatic changes are likely to influence general flammability characteristics of fuel. In addition, variations in precipitation and mean temperature could directly affect fuel water status and length of critical periods of high ignition danger for Mediterranean ecosystems. The aims of this work were to analyse the influence of both weather seasonality and inter-annual weather variability on live fuel moisture content within and among some common Mediterranean species, and to investigate the effects of prolonged drought season on live moisture content dynamic. The study was carried out in North Sardinia (Italy). Measurements of LFMC seasonal pattern of two really common and flammable Mediterranean shrub species (Cistus monspeliensis and Rosmarinus officinalis) were performed periodically for 8 years. Meteorological variables were also recorded. Relationships between live fuel moisture content and environmental conditions (i.e. rainfall, air temperature and soil moisture) were investigated and effects of different lengths of drought season on LFMC pattern were analysed. Results showed that distribution and amount of rainfall affected seasonal variation of live fuel moisture content. In particular more prolonged drought seasons caused a longer period in which LFMC was below 95 -100% that is commonly considered as

  13. In situ changes in the moisture content of heated, welded tuff based on thermal neutron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Carlson, R.C.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1991-07-01

    Thermal neutron logs were collected to monitor changes in moisture content within a welded tuff rock mass heated from a borehole containing an electrical heater which remained energized for 195 days. Thermal neutron measurements were made in sampling boreholes before, during and after heating. The results generally corroborated our conceptual understanding of hydrothermal flow as well as most of the numerical modeling conducting for this study. Conceptual models have been developed in conjunction with the numerical model calculations to explain differences in the drying and re-wetting behavior above and below the heater. Numerical modeling indicated that the re-wetting of the dried-out zone was dominated by the binary diffusion of water vapor through fractures. Saturation gradients in the rock matrix resulted in relative humidity gradients which drove water vapor (primarily along fractures) back to the dried-out zone where it condensed along the fracture walls and was imbibed by the matrix. 4 refs., 28 figs

  14. AAS determination of total mercury content in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskalova, M.; Zemberyova, M.

    1997-01-01

    Two methods for determination of total mercury content in environmental samples soils, and sediments, were compared. Dissolution procedure of soils, sediments, and biological material under elevated pressure followed by determination of mercury by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry using a MHS-1 system and direct total mercury determination without any chemical pretreatment from soil samples using a Trace Mercury Analyzer TMA-254 were compared. TMA-254 was also applied for the determination of mercury in various further standard reference materials. Good agreement with certified values of environmental reference materials was obtained. (authors)

  15. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of cinchona ledgeriana leaves ethanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundowo, Andini; Artanti, Nina; Hanafi, M.; Minarti, Primahana, Gian

    2017-11-01

    C ledgeriana is a medicinal plant that contains alkaloids, especially on the barks for commercial production of quinine as antimalarial. The main alkaloids in this plant are cinchonine, cinchonidine, quinine and quinidine. Besides for antiamalarial this plant is also commonly used to treat whooping cough, influenza and dysentery. Compare to other medicinal plants, nowadays only very few studies were conducted in Cinchona species. Our current study aims to determine the content of phytochemical, total phenol and total flavonoids from C. ledgeriana leaves 70% ethanol extract. The extraction was performed by maceration method using 70% ethanol solvent and then fractionated into hexane, ethylacetate and butanol. Phytochemical screening was performed to determine the content of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and alumunium chloride colorimetric methods using gallic acid and quercetin as standards. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The results of phytochemical screening showed that the 70% ethanol extract of C. ledgeriana leaves contained alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. The total phenol and total flavonoids analysis showed that ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total phenol (40.23%) and total flavonoids (65.34%).

  16. NIR prediction of fruit moisture, free acidity and oil content in intact olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the prediction of olive fruit and virgin olive oil quality parameters through the direct measuring of the fruit using near infrared spectrometry (NIRS has been investigated and the effectiveness of a portable spectrometer has been assessed. Models and calibration tests were developed using both the hexane-isopropanol extraction of individual olive fruits, and the Soxhlet extraction of olive paste. The parameters analyzed were the free acidity in olive oil, oil yield from physical extraction, oil content referring to fresh weight, oil content referring to dry matter and fruit moisture. The results indicate a good predictive potential with both methodologies and serve to encourage improvement in the obtained models through the enlargement of the calibrations. Fruit moisture prediction models showed high accuracy.

    En este trabajo se ha investigado la predicción de parámetros de calidad de aceitunas y de aceite de oliva virgen mediante medidas directas en el fruto de espectrometría de infrarrojo cercano (NIRS, evaluándose la utilidad de un espectrómetro portátil. Se han desarrollado respectivamente modelos predictivos y calibraciones utilizando como análisis de referencia tanto la extracción de aceitunas individualmente con hexano-isopropanol, como la extracción de pasta de aceituna mediante Soxhlet. Los parámetros analizados fueron: acidez libre del aceite, rendimiento de la extracción física de aceite, contenido de aceite referido a peso fresco, contenido de aceite referido a materia seca y humedad del fruto. Los resultados indican un buen potencial de predicción mediante ambos métodos y alientan al perfeccionamiento de los modelos obtenidos mediante la ampliación de las calibraciones. Los modelos predictivos de la humedad del fruto mostraron una alta precisión.

  17. Long-term trends in the total electron content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Urbář, Jaroslav; Kozubek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 16 (2017), s. 8186-8172 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03909S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : total electron content * long-term trend * solar control Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Climatic research Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017GL075063/full

  18. Are trends in total electron content (TEC) really positive?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 6 (2013), s. 3831-3835 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/10/1792 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Long-term trends * total electron content Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jgra.50261/abstract

  19. Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy Diem Do

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Limnophila aromatica is commonly used as a spice and a medicinal herb in Southeast Asia. In this study, water and various concentrations (50%, 75%, and 100% of methanol, ethanol, and acetone in water were used as solvent in the extraction of L. aromatica. The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and total flavonoid content of the freeze-dried L. aromatica extracts were investigated using various in vitro assays. The extract obtained by 100% ethanol showed the highest total antioxidant activity, reducing power and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The same extract also exhibited the highest phenolic content (40.5 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of defatted L. aromatica and the highest flavonoid content (31.11 mg quercetin equivalent/g of defatted L. aromatica. The highest extraction yield was obtained by using 50% aqueous acetone. These results indicate that L. aromatica can be used in dietary applications with a potential to reduce oxidative stress.

  20. Studies and Application of Remote Sensing Retrieval Method of Soil Moisture Content in Land Parcel Units in Irrigation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H.; Zhao, H. L.; Jiang, Y. Z.; Zang, W. B.

    2018-05-01

    Soil moisture is one of the important hydrological elements. Obtaining soil moisture accurately and effectively is of great significance for water resource management in irrigation area. During the process of soil moisture content retrieval with multiremote sensing data, multi- remote sensing data always brings multi-spatial scale problems which results in inconformity of soil moisture content retrieved by remote sensing in different spatial scale. In addition, agricultural water use management has suitable spatial scale of soil moisture information so as to satisfy the demands of dynamic management of water use and water demand in certain unit. We have proposed to use land parcel unit as the minimum unit to do soil moisture content research in agricultural water using area, according to soil characteristics, vegetation coverage characteristics in underlying layer, and hydrological characteristic into the basis of study unit division. We have proposed division method of land parcel units. Based on multi thermal infrared and near infrared remote sensing data, we calculate the ndvi and tvdi index and make a statistical model between the tvdi index and soil moisture of ground monitoring station. Then we move forward to study soil moisture remote sensing retrieval method on land parcel unit scale. And the method has been applied in Hetao irrigation area. Results show that compared with pixel scale the soil moisture content in land parcel unit scale has displayed stronger correlation with true value. Hence, remote sensing retrieval method of soil moisture content in land parcel unit scale has shown good applicability in Hetao irrigation area. We converted the research unit into the scale of land parcel unit. Using the land parcel units with unified crops and soil attributes as the research units more complies with the characteristics of agricultural water areas, avoids the problems such as decomposition of mixed pixels and excessive dependence on high-resolution data

  1. Effects of mix ratio, moisture content and aeration rate on sulfur odor emissions during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Bing; Li, Shuyan; Michel, Frederick; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Difang; Li, Yangyang

    2016-10-01

    Sulfur compounds in swine manure can cause odor emissions during composting if conditions are not conducive to their rapid oxidation and degradation. In this study, the effects of controllable composting process variables on sulfur odor emissions were investigated. These included pig manure to corn stalk mix ratio (0.7:1, 1.5:1 and 2.2:1dw basis), initial moisture content (60%, 65%, 70% and 75%) and aeration rate (1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0m(3)m(-3)h(-1)). The compounds measured were carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, ethyl mercaptan, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide (Me2S) and dimethyl disulfide (Me2SS). The results showed that total sulfur losses ranged from 3.9% to 18.3% after 26days of composting. Me2S and Me2SS were the primary (>59.61%) sulfur compounds released during this period. After turning, emission rates of both Me2S and Me2SS increased. Emissions of the other six sulfur compounds were low and inconsistent during composting. Within the compost, feedstock mix ratio significantly influenced the concentration of Me2SS, while aeration rate significantly affected Me2S concentration (pMoisture content did not have a significant effect on the concentrations of either of these two compounds. Concentrations of sulfur odor compounds were the lowest at the highest aeration rate. Therefore, high aeration rates during the thermophilic phase, especially after turning, are recommended to minimize sulfur odors produced during swine manure composting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Foliar moisture content of Pacific Northwest vegetation and its relation to wildland fire behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Agee; Clinton S. Wright; Nathan Williamson; Mark H. Huff

    2002-01-01

    Fotiar moisture was monitored for five conifers and associated understory vegetation in Pacific Northwest forests. Decline in foliar moisture of new foliage occurred over the dry season, while less variation was evident in older foliage. Late season foliar moisture ranged from 130 to 170%. In riparian-upland comparisons, largest differences were found for understory...

  3. The importance of binder moisture content in Metformin HCL high-dose formulations prepared by moist aqueous granulation (MAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Takasaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate binders to improve the flowability of granulates and compactibility of Metformin HCL (Met using the moist aqueous granulation (MAG process. The effect of the binder moisture content on granulate and tablet quality was also evaluated. Vinylpyrrolidone–vinyl acetate copolymer (Kollidon VA64 fine: VA64, polyvidone (Povidone K12: PVP, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC SSL SF: HPC and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Methocel E5 LV: HPMC were evaluated as binders. These granulates, except for HPMC, had a lower yield pressure than Met active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. HPMC Met was not sufficiently granulated with low water volume. No problems were observed with the VA64 Met granulates during the tableting process. However, HPC Met granulates had a bowl-forming tendency, and PVP Met granulates had the tendency to stick during the tableting process. These bowl-forming and sticking tendencies may have been due to the low moisture absorbency of HPC and the high volume of bound water of PVP, respectively. VA64 Met granulates had the highest ambient moisture content (bulk water, bound water and moisture absorbency. It was concluded that the type of binder used for the Met MAG process has an impact on granulate flow and compactibility, as well as moisture absorbency and maintenance of moisture balance.

  4. Influence of the level of subsoil water on the distribution of moisture content in a peat formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedotov, A.I.; Kostyuk, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    Under laboratory and field conditions, observations are made of the influence of the level of subsoil water on the distribution of moisture content in the upper layers of the peat formation. It is established that prolonged evaporation sharply reduces the moisture content of the upper layers of the formation at a depth up to 20cm. Precipitation is mainly absorbed by the upper layers of the formation and can penetrate in the season with level of subsoil water about 1m at depth of no more than 50cm. The zone of complete capillary water-saturation of the upper formation does not exceed 45cm.

  5. Measurement of water content in semi-humid sandy land by using IAE-II neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Qi

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of using a neutron moisture gauge to study moisture change in semi-humid sandy land was affirmed. The gauge is compact and can rapidly take measurements with small errors. It is found that both the inter-substance boundary surface and the space formed in fixing the neutron tube affect obviously the precision of measurements in the survey process. The calibration variance is the most important part of total uncertainty in measurements

  6. Calibration of neutron moisture gauges and their ability to spatially determine soil water content in environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Martinez, J.L.; Langhorst, G.J.

    1994-10-01

    Several neutron moisture gauges were calibrated, and their ability to spatially determine soil water content was evaluated. In 1982, the midpoint of sensitivity of each neutron probe to the detection of hydrogen was determined, as well as the radius of investigation of each probe in crushed Bandelier Tuff with varying water contents. After determining the response of one of the moisture gauges to changes in soil water at the soil-air interface, a neutron transport model was successfully calibrated to predict spatial variations in soil water content. The model was then used to predict various shapes and volumes of crushed Bandelier Tuff interrogated by the neutron moisture gauge. From 1991 through 1994, six neutron moisture gauges were calibrated for soil water determinations in a local topsoil and crushed Bandelier Tuff, as well as for a sample of fine sand and soils from a field experiment at Hill Air Force Base. Statistical analysis of the calibration results is presented and summarized, and a final summary of practical implications for future neutron moisture gauge studies at Los Alamos is included

  7. Effects of chemical composite, puffing temperature and intermediate moisture content on physical properties of potato and apple slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabtaing, S.; Paengkanya, S.; Tanthong, P.

    2017-09-01

    Puffing technique is the process that can improve texture and volumetric of crisp fruit and vegetable. However, the effect of chemical composite in foods on puffing characteristics is still lack of study. Therefore, potato and apple slices were comparative study on their physical properties. Potato and apple were sliced into 2.5 mm thickness and 2.5 cm in diameter. Potato slices were treated by hot water for 2 min while apple slices were not treatment. After that, they were dried in 3 steps. First step, they were dried by hot air at temperature of 90°C until their moisture content reached to 30, 40, and 50 % dry basis. Then they were puffed by hot air at temperature of 130, 150, and 170°C for 2 min. Finally, they were dried again by hot air at temperature of 90°C until their final moisture content reached to 4% dry basis. The experimental results showed that chemical composite of food affected on physical properties of puffed product. Puffed potato had higher volume ratio than those puffed apple because potato slices contains starch. The higher starch content provided more hard texture of potato than those apples. Puffing temperature and moisture content strongly affected on the color, volume ratio, and textural properties of puffed potato slices. In addition, the high drying rate of puffed product observed at high puffing temperature and higher moisture content.

  8. The Effect of Soil Type and Moisture Content on Head Impacts on Natural Grass Athletic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyley Dickson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies are warranted to evaluate head injury criterion (HIC on athletic fields to determine baseline numbers and compare those findings to current critical thresholds for impact attenuation. A two year (2016 and 2017 study was conducted on University of Tennessee athletic fields (Knoxville, TN, USA to determine the effect of soil type (cohesive soil, United States Golf Association sand specifications and grass species (Poa pratensis and Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis on HIC. Additionally soil moisture conditions monitored were: dry (0.06–0.16 m3/m3, acceptable (0.17–0.29 m3/m3, and wet (0.30–0.40 m3/m3. A linear relationship (r = 0.91 was identified between drop height (0.5–2.9 M and HIC value (35-1423 HIC on granular root zones of both grass types. However, HIC on cohesive soil is a function of soil water content in addition to drop height. These results demonstrate to aid in head injury prevention on cohesive soil athletic fields the HIC can be lowered by managing soil water content.

  9. Corrosion potential: influence of moisture, water-cement ratio, chloride content and concrete cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. F. Medeiros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The method of measuring the corrosion potential is used as an electrochemical tool for helping the monitoring of the corrosion of reinforcements of concrete structures. As a criterion for evaluating results it is common to use intervals of corrosion potential and their correlation with corrosion probability, as precognizes ASTM C 876:2015. With this criterion, it is possible to establish an overview of the thermodynamic situation of corrosion in the structure or in the test specimen in laboratory. However, the method is influenced by several factors related with the concrete, the environment and with procedures adopted at the moment of executing the readings. Aiming to provide information to guide the technical and scientific environment regarding the right use of this type of non-destructive testing, the objective of this work is to evaluate some possible factors influencing the reading of corrosion potential, such as: moisture content of the concrete, water/cement ratio, thickness of the concrete cover and degree of contamination by chlorides. Results indicate that moisture and degree of contamination of the concrete by chloride ions had a tendency of making the corrosion potential more electronegative. Besides, it was verified that the influence of the cover is different for the case of contaminated concrete (1% of chlorides by mass of cement and not contaminated with chlorides: the influence of the thickness of the cover, in the case of concrete contaminated by chlorides, was inversely proportional, in other words, the greater the cover thickness is, the less electronegative the value of the corrosion potential will be. On the other hand, in cases of concretes without chlorides, the effect of the cover thickness in the readings or corrosion potential was irrelevant. All this information was proved with 95% of statistical significance.

  10. Total body and regional bone mineral content in hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Satoshi; Aratani, Hideyui; Miki, Takami; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Okamura, Terue; Koizumi, Yoshiko; Ochi, Hironobu; Morii, Hirotoshi

    1994-01-01

    Bone mineral content (BMC) in the total body and lumbar spine was evaluated in 126 hemodialysis patients (60 males, 66 females) by dual photon absorptiometry with the Norland DBD 2600. Measurements of: 1) total body BMC divided by lean body mass (BMC TB /LBM), 2) bone mineral density (BMD) of total body, 3) BMD of four regional sections (head, trunk, pelvis, and legs), and 4) BMD of lumbar spine, generally showed a significant decrease in the hemodialysis patients compared to the reference population. However, arm BMD did not show a significant difference between patients and control populations. The z-score of BMC TB /LBM declined significantly throughout the duration of hemodialysis, although that of the lumbar spine BMD did not. It should be noted that the degree of decrease in BMC was more prominent in the total body measurement than in the lumbar spine measurement. There was preferential osteopenia of the total body in the hemodialysis patients. Although the lumbar spine BMD showed a lower value than the control population, the lumbar spine is not the recommended region to monitor the BMD change in hemodialysis patients. (author)

  11. Nonlinear response of hail precipitation rate to environmental moisture content: A real case modeling study of an episodic midlatitude severe convective event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingxin; Zhang, Fuqing; Zhang, Qinghong; Harrington, Jerry Y.; Kumjian, Matthew R.

    2017-07-01

    The dependence of hail production on initial moisture content in a simulated midlatitude episodic convective event occurred in northeast China on 10-11 June 2005 was investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with a double-moment microphysics scheme where both graupel and hail are considered. Three sensitivity experiments were performed by modifying the initial water vapor mixing ratio profile to 90% ("Q-10%"), 105% ("Q+5%"), and 110% ("Q+10%") of the initial conditions used for the control simulation. It was found that increasing the initial water vapor content caused the hail and total precipitation rates to increase during the first 5 h. The precipitation response to increasing water vapor content was monotonic for this first episode; however, for the event's second episode, the hail precipitation rate responds to the initial water vapor profile nonlinearly, while the total precipitation rate responds mostly monotonically. In particular, simulation Q+5% achieves the largest hail production rate while simulation Q+10% has the largest total precipitation rate. In contrast, during the second episode simulation Q-10% has the strongest vertical motion, produces the most cloud ice and snow, but has the lowest hail production. Analysis shows that increasing the initial moisture content directly increases the precipitation during the first episode, which subsequently induces a stronger, longer-lasting cold pool that limits the development of deep convection during the second episode.

  12. The Effect of Moisture Content of Maize Grits on Physicochemical Properties of Its Puffed Food Products Properties of Its Puffed Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharifi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of different levels of moisture content of maize grits (10, 13, 16 and 19% as an attribute of physicochemical properties of extruder-derived puffed products, was investigated. The results showed that with increasing maize grits' moisture content, water absorption index (WAI and water solubility index (WSI were decreased. Moreover, with changing in feed moisture content from 10 to 16%, the volume and sectional expansion index (SEI increased but further increase of moisture content to 19% caused a reduction in these parameters. The textural tests also revealed that with increase in moisture content, the compression energy (Nmm, maximum force (N and time to achieve the first major peak (s were increased but the number of peaks was decreased. With increase in the moisture content, specific mechanical energy (SME was decreased, due probably to the reduction in the viscosity of melt. With increase in the moisture content the L and b values were increased but the value of the samples were decreased due to the reduction of Maillard reaction rate. Our data confirms that the moisture content of maize grits may play an important role in the quality of produced extruded snacks and a high quality product can be achieved by optimizing this parameter. In this research, the maximum volume of the extruder product was obtained in 16% of moisture level.

  13. Effects of particle fracturing and moisture content on fire behaviour in masticated fuelbeds burned in a laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse K. Kreye; J. Morgan Varner; Eric E. Knapp

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical mastication is a fuels treatment that converts shrubs and small trees into dense fuelbeds composed of fractured woody particles. Although compaction is thought to reduce fireline intensity, the added particle surface area due to fracturing could also influence fire behavior. We evaluated effects of particle fracturing and moisture content (ranging from 2.5...

  14. Estimation of the deoxynivalenol and moisture contents of bulk wheat grain samples by FT-NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in harvested grain samples are used to evaluate the Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance of wheat cultivars and breeding lines. Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) calibrations were developed to estimate the DON and moisture content (MC) of bulk wheat grain samples ...

  15. Dielectric characterization of Bentonite clay at various moisture contents and with mixtures of biomass in the microwave spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assesses the potential for using bentonite as a microwave absorber for microwave-assisted biomass pyrolysis based on the dielectric properties. Dielectric properties of bentonite at different moisture contents were measured using a coaxial line dielectric probe and vector network analyzer...

  16. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetic resonance measurements of the moisture content and hydration condition of a magnetic mixture material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, K.; Kusaka, T.; Saari, M. M.; Takagi, R.; Sakai, K.; Kiwa, T.; Bito, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a magnetic measurement method to measure the moisture content and hydration condition of mortar as a magnetic mixture material. Mortar is a mixture of Portland cement, sand, and water, and these materials exhibit different magnetic properties. The magnetization–magnetic field curves of these components and of mortars with different moisture contents were measured, using a specially developed high-temperature-superconductor superconducting quantum interference device. Using the differences in magnetic characteristics, the moisture content of mortar was measured at the ferromagnetic saturation region over 250 mT. A correlation between magnetic susceptibility and moisture content was successfully established. After Portland cement and water are mixed, hydration begins. At the early stage of the hydration/gel, magnetization strength increased over time. To investigate the magnetization change, we measured the distribution between bound and free water in the mortar in the early stage by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI results suggest that the amount of free water in mortar correlates with the change in magnetic susceptibility

  17. Effects of delayed wrapping and moisture content on intake and digestibility of ryegrass silage by growing lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baling silage provides an alternative method for preserving forage quality in areas where hay production can be compromised because of the risk of rain exposure and humidity. This study was conducted to examine the effects of moisture content at baling and delayed wrapping intervals on the intake an...

  18. Determination of the moisture content of Nordic spruce wood through cone heater experiments and an integral model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mindykowski, Pierrick Anthony; Jørgensen, M.; Svensson, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    The combination of cone heater experiments and an integral model was used to determine the moisture content of Nordic spruce with varying degree of drying. Nine specimens of Nordic spruce were pre-heated to 105°C in a convective oven for durations ranging from 0 days (no drying) and up to 63 days...

  19. Development and evaluation of a low cost probe-type instrument to measure the equilibrium moisture content of grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storage bags are common in Africa, Asia and many other less developed countries therefore a grain probing method is well-suited for moisture content (MC) measurement. A low cost meter was developed as part of a USAID project to reduce the post-harvest loss (PHL). The meter measures the MC of maize a...

  20. Effect of aeration rate, moisture content and composting period on availability of copper and lead during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yujun; Zhao, Lixin; Meng, Haibo; Hou, Yueqing; Zhou, Haibin; Wang, Fei; Cheng, Hongsheng; Liu, Hongbin

    2016-06-01

    Pollution by heavy metals, such as copper and lead, has become a limiting factor for the land application of faecal manures, such as pig manure. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of composting process parameters, including aeration rate, moisture content and composting period, on the distribution of heavy metal species during composting, and to select an optimal parameter for copper and lead inactivation. Results showed that the distribution ratios of exchangeable fractions of copper and lead had a bigger decrease under conditions of aeration rate, 0.1 m(3) min(-1) m(-3), an initial moisture content of 65% and composting period of 50 days. Suboptimal composting process conditions could lead to increased availability of heavy metals. Statistical analysis indicated that the aeration rate was the main factor affecting copper and lead inactivation, while the effects of moisture content and composting period were not significant. The rates of reduction of copper-exchangeable fractions and lead-exchangeable fractions were positively correlated with increased pH. The optimal parameters for reducing heavy metal bioavailability during pig manure composting were aeration rate, 0.1 m(3) min(-1) m(-3), initial moisture content, 65%, and composting period, 20 days. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Comparison of sampling and test methods for determining asphalt content and moisture correction in asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify the difference, if any, in AASHTO and OSHD test procedures and results. This report addresses the effect of the size of samples taken in the field and evaluates the methods of determining the moisture content...

  2. On-line moisture analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutmore, N.G.; Mijak, D.G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk material. Nuclear-based analysers measure the total hydrogen content in the sample and do not differentiate between free and combined moisture. Such analysers may also be sensitive to material presentation and elemental composition. Very low frequency electromagnetic probes, such as capacitance or conductance probes, operate in the frequency region where the DC conductivity dominates much of the response, which is a function not only of moisture content but also of ionic composition and chemistry. These problems are overcome using microwave transmission techniques, which also have the following advantages, as a true bulk moisture analysis is obtained, because a high percentage of the bulk material is analysed; the moisture estimate is mostly insensitive to any biased presentation of moisture, for example due to stratification of bulk material with different moisture content and because no physical contact is made between the sensor and the bulk material. This is

  3. JUICE EXTRACTION FOR TOTAL SOLUBLE SOLIDS CONTENT DETERMINATION IN MELON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The total soluble solids content (TSSC shows high positive correlation with sugars content, and therefore is generally accepted as an important quality trait of fruits. In melon, this evaluation is usually done by grinding a slice of the fruit's pulp in a household food processor, straining the ground material and then proceeding the TSSC determination in the resulting juice. This evaluation is labor-intensive and takes a long time to complete. An alternative process was delineated for obtaining the juice: the pulp of the fruit slice would be transversally cut one or more times, and longitudinally pressed by hand to obtain the juice. The objective of this work was to compare processes for obtaining juice to evaluate TSSC in melons. Fifty, 15, and 15 fruits of the Galia, Yellow, and Cantaloupe type melons were evaluated, respectively. Each fruit was considered as a block, and was longitudinally split into six fractions with similar sizes, which corresponded to the plots. The following treatments were evaluated: fraction without cuts, fractions with one, three, five, or seven transversal cuts, and the fraction treated by the conventional process. It was concluded that the procedure by which the melon slices of Galia, Yellow and Cantaloupe types are pressed for obtaining the juice to evaluate TSSC can overestimate this content. This would probably be due to the fact that the most internal section of the mesocarp presents greater TSSC than the portions closer to the epicarp.

  4. Determination of moisture content in lyophilized mannitol through intact glass vials using NIR micro-spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Rodrigo Muzzio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of moisture content in lyophilized solids is fundamental to predict quality and stability of freeze-dried products, but conventional methods are time-consuming, invasive and destructive. The aim of this study was to develop and optimize a fast, inexpensive, noninvasive and nondestructive method for determination of moisture content in lyophilized mannitol, based on an NIR micro-spectrometer instead of a conventional NIR spectrometer. Measurements of lyophilized mannitol were performed through the bottom of rotating glass vials by means of a reflectance probe. The root mean standard error of prediction (RMSEP and the correlation coefficient (R²pred, yielded by the pre-treatments and calibration method proposed, was 0.233% (w/w and 0.994, respectively.A determinação do conteúdo de umidade em sólidos liofilizados é fundamental para se prever a qualidade e a estabilidade de produtos liofilizados, mas os métodos convencionais consomem muito tempo, são invasivos e destrutivos. O objetivo desse estudo foi desenvolver e otimizar um método rápido, econômico, não invasivo e não destrutivo para a determinação do conteúdo de umidade em manitol liofilizado, com base em microespectrômetro de infravermelho próximo ao invés de um espectrômetro de infravermelho próximo convencional. As medidas de manitol liofilizado foram realizadas através do fundo de recipiente de vidro em rotação por meio de sonda de reflectância. A raíz do erro médio padrão de predição (RMSEP e o coeficiente de correlação (R²pred obtidos pelo prétratamento e pelo método de calibração proposto foram, respectivamente, 0,233% (p/p e 0,994.

  5. Characterizing the toughness of an epoxy resin after wet aging using compact tension specimens with non-uniform moisture content

    KAUST Repository

    Quino, Gustavo; El Yagoubi, Jalal; Lubineau, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the change in toughness of polymers subjected to wet aging is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the testing samples. Indeed, as wet aging is guided by a diffusion/reaction process, compact tension samples (defined by the ASTM D5045 standard), which are relevant for toughness characterization but are somewhat thick, display a non-uniform moisture content over the bulk material. We define here a rigorous procedure to extract meaningful data from such tests. Our results showed that the relation between the moisture uptake of the whole sample and the measured toughness was not a meaningful material property. In fact, we found that the measured toughness depended on the locally varying moisture uptake over the cracking path. Here, we propose a post-processing technique that relies on a validated reaction/diffusion model to predict the three-dimensional moisture state of the epoxy. This makes identification of the variation in toughness with respect to the local moisture content possible. In addition, we analyze the fracture surface using micrography and roughness measurements. The observed variations in toughness are correlated with the roughness in the vicinity of the crack tip. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights rese.

  6. Characterizing the toughness of an epoxy resin after wet aging using compact tension specimens with non-uniform moisture content

    KAUST Repository

    Quino, Gustavo

    2014-11-01

    Characterizing the change in toughness of polymers subjected to wet aging is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the testing samples. Indeed, as wet aging is guided by a diffusion/reaction process, compact tension samples (defined by the ASTM D5045 standard), which are relevant for toughness characterization but are somewhat thick, display a non-uniform moisture content over the bulk material. We define here a rigorous procedure to extract meaningful data from such tests. Our results showed that the relation between the moisture uptake of the whole sample and the measured toughness was not a meaningful material property. In fact, we found that the measured toughness depended on the locally varying moisture uptake over the cracking path. Here, we propose a post-processing technique that relies on a validated reaction/diffusion model to predict the three-dimensional moisture state of the epoxy. This makes identification of the variation in toughness with respect to the local moisture content possible. In addition, we analyze the fracture surface using micrography and roughness measurements. The observed variations in toughness are correlated with the roughness in the vicinity of the crack tip. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights rese.

  7. Total antioxidant content of alternatives to refined sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine M; Carlsen, Monica H; Blomhoff, Rune

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other degenerative disorders. Recent nutritional research has focused on the antioxidant potential of foods, while current dietary recommendations are to increase the intake of antioxidant-rich foods rather than supplement specific nutrients. Many alternatives to refined sugar are available, including raw cane sugar, plant saps/syrups (eg, maple syrup, agave nectar), molasses, honey, and fruit sugars (eg, date sugar). Unrefined sweeteners were hypothesized to contain higher levels of antioxidants, similar to the contrast between whole and refined grain products. To compare the total antioxidant content of natural sweeteners as alternatives to refined sugar. The ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was used to estimate total antioxidant capacity. Major brands of 12 types of sweeteners as well as refined white sugar and corn syrup were sampled from retail outlets in the United States. Substantial differences in total antioxidant content of different sweeteners were found. Refined sugar, corn syrup, and agave nectar contained minimal antioxidant activity (sugar had a higher FRAP (0.1 mmol/100 g). Dark and blackstrap molasses had the highest FRAP (4.6 to 4.9 mmol/100 g), while maple syrup, brown sugar, and honey showed intermediate antioxidant capacity (0.2 to 0.7 mmol FRAP/100 g). Based on an average intake of 130 g/day refined sugars and the antioxidant activity measured in typical diets, substituting alternative sweeteners could increase antioxidant intake an average of 2.6 mmol/day, similar to the amount found in a serving of berries or nuts. Many readily available alternatives to refined sugar offer the potential benefit of antioxidant activity.

  8. Effect of edible coating ingredients incorporated into predusting mix on moisture content, fat content and consumer acceptability of fried breaded product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongnuch Raksakulthai

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of edible coatings and their concentrations on moisture and fat contents of fried breaded potato were investigated. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, methylcellulose (MC or wheat gluten (WG were incorporate into predusting mix to achieve coating material concentration of 3-12% (w/w. Blanched potatoes were first coated with predusting mix and followed sequentially by battering, breading and deep frying at 170°C for 3 min. Moisture and fat contents in the core and crust of sample and intact samples were determined. It was found that HPMC and MC could reduce moisture loss and fat absorption than WG. Predusting mix with 6% MC was the most effective to retain moisture and reduce fat absorption. This predusting mix was then applied to commercial breaded shrimps. In both prefried and fried products, treated breaded shrimps had more moisture and less fat than untreated breaded shrimps. They also were lower in product hardness and crust hardness than untreated samples. Sensory evaluation showed that treated and untreated shrimp samples had similar rating for appearance, color, flavor, taste, texture and overall. Treated breaded shrimp was acceptable to the consumers. The application of edible coatings into predusting mix can be easily introduced into the production process and is beneficial to both food industry and consumers.

  9. Strategies for multivariate modeling of moisture content in freeze-dried mannitol-containing products by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Wai Lam; Gausemel, Ingvil; Sande, Sverre Arne; Dyrstad, Knut

    2012-11-01

    Accurate determination of residual moisture content of a freeze-dried (FD) pharmaceutical product is critical for prediction of its quality. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a fast and non-invasive method routinely used for quantification of moisture. However, several physicochemical properties of the FD product may interfere with absorption bands related to the water content. A commonly used stabilizer and bulking agent in FD known for variation in physicochemical properties, is mannitol. To minimize this physicochemical interference, different approaches for multivariate correlation between NIR spectra of a FD product containing mannitol and the corresponding moisture content measured by Karl Fischer (KF) titration have been investigated. A novel method, MIPCR (Main and Interactions of Individual Principal Components Regression), was found to have significantly increased predictive ability of moisture content compared to a traditional PLS approach. The philosophy behind the MIPCR is that the interference from a variety of particle and morphology attributes has interactive effects on the water related absorption bands. The transformation of original wavelength variables to orthogonal scores gives a new set of variables (scores) without covariance structure, and the possibility of inclusion of interaction terms in the further modeling. The residual moisture content of the FD product investigated is in the range from 0.7% to 2.6%. The mean errors of cross validated prediction of models developed in the investigated NIR regions were reduced from a range of 24.1-27.6% for traditional PLS method to 15.7-20.5% for the MIPCR method. Improved model quality by application of MIPCR, without the need for inclusion of a large number of calibration samples, might increase the use of NIR in early phase product development, where availability of calibration samples is often limited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring GNSS ionospheric total electron content at Concordia, and application to L-band radiometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Romano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the project BIS - Bipolar Ionospheric Scintillation and Total Electron Content Monitoring, the ISACCO-DMC0 and ISACCO-DMC1 permanent monitoring stations were installed in 2008. The principal scope of the stations is to measure the ionospheric total electron content (TEC and to monitor the ionospheric scintillations, using high-sampling-frequency global positioning system (GPS ionospheric scintillation and TEC monitor (GISTM receivers. The disturbances that the ionosphere can induce on the electromagnetic signals emitted by the Global Navigation Satellite System constellations are due to the presence of electron density anomalies in the ionosphere, which are particularly frequent at high latitudes, where the upper atmosphere is highly sensitive to perturbations coming from outer space. With the development of present and future low-frequency space-borne microwave missions (e.g., Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity [SMOS], Aquarius, and Soil Moisture Active Passive missions, there is an increasing need to estimate the effects of the ionosphere on the propagation of electromagnetic waves that affects satellite measurements. As an example, how the TEC data collected at Concordia station are useful for the calibration of the European Space Agency SMOS data within the framework of an experiment promoted by the European Space Agency (known as DOMEX will be discussed. The present report shows the ability of the GISTM station to monitor ionospheric scintillation and TEC, which indicates that only the use of continuous GPS measurements can provide accurate information on TEC variability, which is necessary for continuous calibration of satellite data.

  11. Optimisasi Suhu Pemanasan dan Kadar Air pada Produksi Pati Talas Kimpul Termodifikasi dengan Teknik Heat Moisture Treatment (HMT (Optimization of Heating Temperature and Moisture Content on the Production of Modified Cocoyam Starch Using Heat Moisture Treatment (HMT Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Kencana Putra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the physically starch modification technique is heat-moisture treatment (HMT. This technique can increase the resistance of starch to heat, mechanical treatment, and acid during processing.  This research aimed to find out the influence of heating temperature and moisture content in the modification process of cocoyam starch  with HMT techniques on the characteristic of product, and then to determine the optimum heating temperature and moisture content in the process. The research was designed with a complete randomized design (CRD with two factors factorial experiment.  The first factor was temperature of the heating consists of 3 levels namely 100 °C, 110 °C, and 120 °C. The second factor was the moisture content of starch which consists of 4 levels, namely 15 %, 20 %, 25 %, and 30 %. The results showed that the heating temperature and moisture content significantly affected water content, amylose content and swelling power of modified cocoyam starch product, but the treatment had no significant effect on the solubility of the product. HMT process was able to change the type of cocoyam starch from type B to type C. The optimum heating temperature and water content on modified cocoyam starch production process was 110 °C and 30 % respectively. Such treatment resulted in a modified cocoyam starch with moisture content of 6.50 %, 50,14 % amylose content, swelling power of 7.90, 0.0009% solubility, paste clarity of 96.310 % T, and was classified as a type C starch.   ABSTRAK Salah satu teknik modifikasi pati secara fisik adalah teknik Heat Moisture Treatment (HMT. Teknik ini dapat meningkatkan ketahanan pati terhadap panas, perlakuan mekanik, dan asam selama pengolahan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh suhu dan kadar air pada proses modifikasi pati talas kimpul dengan teknik HMT terhadap karakteristik produk, dan selanjutnya menentukan suhu dan kadar air yang optimal dalam proses tersebut. Penelitian ini dirancang

  12. Mapping The Temporal and Spatial Variability of Soil Moisture Content Using Proximal Soil Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgawati, S.; Mawardi, M.; Sutiarso, L.; Shibusawa, S.; Segah, H.; Kodaira, M.

    2018-05-01

    In studies related to soil optical properties, it has been proven that visual and NIR soil spectral response can predict soil moisture content (SMC) using proper data analysis techniques. SMC is one of the most important soil properties influencing most physical, chemical, and biological soil processes. The problem is how to provide reliable, fast and inexpensive information of SMC in the subsurface from numerous soil samples and repeated measurement. The use of spectroscopy technology has emerged as a rapid and low-cost tool for extensive investigation of soil properties. The objective of this research was to develop calibration models based on laboratory Vis-NIR spectroscopy to estimate the SMC at four different growth stages of the soybean crop in Yogyakarta Province. An ASD Field-spectrophotoradiometer was used to measure the reflectance of soil samples. The partial least square regression (PLSR) was performed to establish the relationship between the SMC with Vis-NIR soil reflectance spectra. The selected calibration model was used to predict the new samples of SMC. The temporal and spatial variability of SMC was performed in digital maps. The results revealed that the calibration model was excellent for SMC prediction. Vis-NIR spectroscopy was a reliable tool for the prediction of SMC.

  13. Coupling model of aerobic waste degradation considering temperature, initial moisture content and air injection volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Liu, Lei; Ge, Sai; Xue, Qiang; Li, Jiangshan; Wan, Yong; Hui, Xinminnan

    2018-03-01

    A quantitative description of aerobic waste degradation is important in evaluating landfill waste stability and economic management. This research aimed to develop a coupling model to predict the degree of aerobic waste degradation. On the basis of the first-order kinetic equation and the law of conservation of mass, we first developed the coupling model of aerobic waste degradation that considered temperature, initial moisture content and air injection volume to simulate and predict the chemical oxygen demand in the leachate. Three different laboratory experiments on aerobic waste degradation were simulated to test the model applicability. Parameter sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the reliability of parameters. The coupling model can simulate aerobic waste degradation, and the obtained simulation agreed with the corresponding results of the experiment. Comparison of the experiment and simulation demonstrated that the coupling model is a new approach to predict aerobic waste degradation and can be considered as the basis for selecting the economic air injection volume and appropriate management in the future.

  14. Determination of moisture content and natural radioactivity in soils using gamma spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Hady, E E [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Qater University (Qatar); El-Sayed, A M.A.; Alaa, H B [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, El-Minia University, Minia (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The gamma-ray transmission method has been used to study the soil-water properties in the laboratory as well as in the field. The present measurements were performed using gamma-ray spectroscopy system based on a 5 x 5 cm Nal (T 1) scintillation detector and combined sources ({sup 137} Cs and {sup 241} Am). The two sources are placed in a suitable lead collimator to obtain a pin beam of 1 mm diameter. Suitable samples of clay and sandy soils obtained from the local field were prepared to determine the water content and the soil bulk densities by the combined method for different moisture stages. From the results obtained, it is clear that the soil density at both stages (saturated and after drainage) remains the same. this is because the soil particles do not rearrange during the wetting and drying process. The full results will be presented in the text. Natural radioactivity of the investigated samples was also studied using gamma-ray spectrometer having HPGe detector. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of natural gamma radiations revealed the presence of {sup 40} K, {sup 214} Bi, {sup 208} TI and {sup 228} Ac in meaningful concentrations. 3 figs.

  15. Thermo-mechanical Densification of Populus tomentosa var. tomentosa with Low Moisture Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengyun Tu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study used thermo-mechanical densification technology to compress low-moisture content (3~5% rapid-growth Populus tomentosa var. tomentosa trees to produce specimens with a low-compression ratio (small volume loss and a uniform density profile and desirable properties. Furthermore, the densified specimens were subjected to post-heat treatment at 180, 190, and 200 °C for 2, 3, and 4 h, respectively. Microscopic examination was performed to observe the changes that occurred in the wood vessels after densification. To determine the influence of post-heat treatment on the set recovery, the specimens were subjected to eight cycles of soaking and drying in 20 °C water and two cycles in boiling water. The density profile tendencies of the densified specimens were in accord with undensified specimens. Microscopic observation revealed that the deformations present in the densified wood resulted from the viscous buckling of cell walls without fracture. The volume of the void areas in the specimens decreased uniformly. Post-heat treatment can decrease compressive deformation, especially when applied at 200 °C for 4 h. After two boiling water cycles of soaking and drying, the densified wood still had a certain set recovery. Therefore, densified wood should be used sparingly in high temperature and high humidity environments.

  16. Development of water movement model as a module of moisture content simulation in static pile composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Bunrith; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of vertical water movement and a performance evaluation of the model in static pile composting operated with neither air supply nor turning. The vertical moisture content (MC) model was developed with consideration of evaporation (internal and external evaporation), diffusion (liquid and vapour diffusion) and percolation, whereas additional water from substrate decomposition and irrigation was not taken into account. The evaporation term in the model was established on the basis of reference evaporation of the materials at known temperature, MC and relative humidity of the air. Diffusion of water vapour was estimated as functions of relative humidity and temperature, whereas diffusion of liquid water was empirically obtained from experiment by adopting Fick's law. Percolation was estimated by following Darcy's law. The model was applied to a column of composting wood chips with an initial MC of 60%. The simulation program was run for four weeks with calculation span of 1 s. The simulated results were in reasonably good agreement with the experimental results. Only a top layer (less than 20 cm) had a considerable MC reduction; the deeper layers were comparable to the initial MC, and the bottom layer was higher than the initial MC. This model is a useful tool to estimate the MC profile throughout the composting period, and could be incorporated into biodegradation kinetic simulation of composting.

  17. Soil Moisture Content Estimation Based on Sentinel-1 and Auxiliary Earth Observation Products. A Hydrological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios D; Mexis, Filippos-Dimitrios K; Vozinaki, Anthi-Eirini K; Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N; Tsanis, Ioannis K

    2017-06-21

    A methodology for elaborating multi-temporal Sentinel-1 and Landsat 8 satellite images for estimating topsoil Soil Moisture Content (SMC) to support hydrological simulation studies is proposed. After pre-processing the remote sensing data, backscattering coefficient, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), thermal infrared temperature and incidence angle parameters are assessed for their potential to infer ground measurements of SMC, collected at the top 5 cm. A non-linear approach using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) is tested. The methodology is applied in Western Crete, Greece, where a SMC gauge network was deployed during 2015. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated using leave-one-out cross validation and sensitivity analysis. ANNs prove to be the most efficient in SMC estimation yielding R² values between 0.7 and 0.9. The proposed methodology is used to support a hydrological simulation with the HEC-HMS model, applied at the Keramianos basin which is ungauged for SMC. Results and model sensitivity highlight the contribution of combining Sentinel-1 SAR and Landsat 8 images for improving SMC estimates and supporting hydrological studies.

  18. Influence of moisture content on microbial activity and silage quality during ensilage of food processing residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Yates, Matthew; Aung, Hnin; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Yu, Chaowei; Guo, Hongyun; Zhang, Ruihong; Vandergheynst, Jean; Jenkins, Bryan M

    2011-10-01

    Seasonally produced biomass such as sugar beet pulp (SBP) and tomato pomace (TP) needs to be stored properly to meet the demand of sustainable biofuel production industries. Ensilage was used to preserve the feedstock. The effect of moisture content (MC) on the performance of ensilage and the relationship between microorganism activities and MC were investigated. For SBP, MC levels investigated were 80, 55, 30, and 10% on a wet basis. For TP, MC levels investigated were 60, 45, 30, and 10%. Organic acids, ethanol, ammonia, pH and water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) were measured to evaluate the silage quality. Ensilage improved as the MC decreased from 80 to 55% for SBP and from 60 to 45% for TP. When the MC decreased to 30%, a little microbial activity was detected for both feedstocks. Storage at 10% MC prevented all the microbial activity. The naturally occurring microorganisms in TP were found to preserve TP during silage and were isolated and determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results suggest that partial drying followed by ensilage may be a good approach for stabilization of food processing residues for biofuels production.

  19. Processing temperature and moisture content effects on the texture and microscopic appearance of cooked fowl meat gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voller, L M; Dawson, P L; Han, I Y

    1996-12-01

    New aseptic processes are being used and refined to produce convenient, shelf stable liquid products containing meat particles. These processes utilize high temperature, short time thermal treatments to minimize food quality change; however, little research has been conducted on the effects of this process on the texture of meat from mature hens traditionally used for canning. The objective of this study was to examine textural and structural changes in meat structure due to different high temperature (HT) heat treatments and meat moisture contents were examined by use of electron microscopy and torsion analyses. Cooked gels of different moisture contents (71.2 to 74.8%) were formulated from spent fowl breast meat and exposed to processing temperatures of 120 or 124 C. The HT processing resulted in stronger (tougher) meat gels that were more deformable (more chewy) than gels that were not processed by HT. Water added prior to cooking was not retained in samples that were cooked and then processed at 124 C, but was retained in the samples processed at 120 C. Electron micrographs showed a more organized and open gel structure in the samples with higher moisture content and lower temperature (120 C) processing compared to the lower moisture and higher (124 C) temperature treatments.

  20. Hemp yarn reinforced composites – III. Moisture content and dimensional changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Lilholt, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive set of experimental data it is demonstrated that the moisture properties of aligned hemp fibre yarn/thermoplastic matrix composites are showing low moisture sorption capacity and low dimensional changes. Using a reference humidity of 65% RH, and a common span of ambient...

  1. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) testing in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, B. J.; Obregon, R. E.; Ross, H. R.; Hebert, B. J.; Sass, J. P.; Dirschka, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The measured Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems at Stennis Space Center (SSC) have shown wide variations. Examples of these variations include the following: 1) differences between vendor-supplied THC values and those obtained using standard SSC analysis procedures; and 2) increasing THC values over time at an active SSC test stand in both storage and run vessels. A detailed analysis of LOX sampling techniques, analytical instrumentation, and sampling procedures will be presented. Additional data obtained on LOX system operations and LOX delivery trailer THC values during the past 12-24 months will also be discussed. Field test results showing THC levels and the distribution of the THC's in the test stand run tank, modified for THC analysis via dip tubes, will be presented.

  2. Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) Testing in Liquid Oxygen (LOX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, B. J.; Obregon, R. E.; Ross, H. R.; Hebert, B. J.; Sass, J. P.; Dirschka, G. E.

    2016-01-01

    The measured Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems at Stennis Space Center (SSC) have shown wide variations. Examples of these variations include the following: 1) differences between vendor-supplied THC values and those obtained using standard SSC analysis procedures; and 2) increasing THC values over time at an active SSC test stand in both storage and run vessels. A detailed analysis of LOX sampling techniques, analytical instrumentation, and sampling procedures will be presented. Additional data obtained on LOX system operations and LOX delivery trailer THC values during the past 12-24 months will also be discussed. Field test results showing THC levels and the distribution of the THC's in the test stand run tank, modified for THC analysis via dip tubes, will be presented.

  3. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements in the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clináscia Rodrigues Rocha Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements of the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora were investigated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and β-carotene methods. The assays based on the DPPH (EC50 = 3.18 g sample/g DPPH, ABTS•+ (1017 μmol Trolox/g sample, FRAP (1676 µM Fe2SO4/g sample and β-carotene/linoleic acid (70% of oxidation inhibition methods indicated a high antioxidant capacity of the fruit peel extract of the plant. The Folin-Denis method was more efficient in determining the total phenolic compound contents in the different solvents than the Folin-Ciocalteu one. Extractions made with 4:1 methanol-water, 4:1 ethanol-water, 3:2 ethanol-water and 3:2 acetone-water solutions using the Folin-Denis method exhibited high contents of phenolic compounds (18.95, 14.06, 12.93 and 11.99 mg GAE/g, respectively. Potassium was the major element found in the fruit peel, followed by phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and iron, in that order. As a result, the fruit peel of M. cauliflora can be considered as an important source of natural antioxidants and essential elements of easy access for the population and for application in the food industry.

  4. A numerical investigation of the influence of radiation and moisture content on pyrolysis and ignition of a leaf-like fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.L. Yashwanth; B. Shotorban; S. Mahalingam; C.W. Lautenberger; David Weise

    2016-01-01

    The effects of thermal radiation and moisture content on the pyrolysis and gas phase ignition of a solid fuel element containing high moisture content were investigated using the coupled Gpyro3D/FDS models. The solid fuel has dimensions of a typical Arctostaphylos glandulosa leaf which is modeled as thin cellulose subjected to radiative heating on...

  5. A SIMPLE METHOD TO CONTROL THE MOISTURE CONTENT OF THE FERMENTING MEDIUM DURING LABORATORY-SCALE SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. BORZANI

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available When the moisture content of the fermenting medium significantly decreases during laboratory-scale solid-state fermentation tests, the quantity of water to be periodically added to the medium in order to control its moisture content may be evaluated from the water evaporation rate of the non-inoculated medium.

  6. Defatted wheat germ application: Influence on cookies' properties with regard to its particle size and dough moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Jovana; Rakić, Dušan; Fišteš, Aleksandar; Pajin, Biljana; Lončarević, Ivana; Tomović, Vladimir; Zarić, Danica

    2017-10-01

    The introduction of agro-food industry by-products rich in bioactive compounds represents major challenge in food industry sector. The influence of wheat germ particle size (Box-Behnken experimental design. The substitution of wheat flour with wheat germ increased the protein, fat, mineral, and fiber content of the cookies. The particle size of wheat germ affected the textural properties of cookies. As the particle size of wheat germ increased, the hardness of cookies decreased. The color of the cookie was most influenced by the interaction of dough moisture content and wheat germ particle size. Wheat germ level up to 15% had no significant effect on the sensory characteristics of cookies. A suitable combination of defatted wheat germ level, its particle size, and dough moisture content can improve the nutritional value of cookies, without causing a negative effect on the cookies' sensory characteristics.

  7. Structural changes in a clay-containing nanocomposite with a different moisture content caused by its deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajtel'son, E.A.; Glaskova, T.I.; Korkhovm, V.P.; Aniskevich, A.N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of the properties of a clay-containing nanocomposite with an epoxy binder under moisture-temperature and mechanical action. It has been established that whatever the moisture content, the nanocomposite crystallizes under the thermomechanical action (upon reaching the glasstransition temperature). When the nanocomposite is heated to 70 C, the restructuring process is reversible, and its heating to above 150 C leads to its amorphization. The presence of clay nanoparticles (up to 6 mass percent) does not influence the temperature of structural transitions of the nanocomposite and does not cause a substantial strengthening effect. The sorbed moisture plasticizes the nanocomposite and decreases its glasstransition temperature by 10 C. The specific features of the thermomechanical behavior of nanocomposites upon their tensile prestrain or creep are due to the formation of an oriented structure. Their crystallization begins at lower temperatures and with a higher degree of crystallinity than that of unloaded nanostructures. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of density, moisture content and percentage compaction of concrete using direct transmission and backscatter methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attobrah, A. T

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear method widely used in determining the density and moisture content of soil - aggregates, asphalt concretes, roller compacted concretes and Portland cement concretes, is the radiometry technique. Generally, all radiometry systems consist of a source of radiation, the sample being examined and a radiation detector. In operation, a radioactive source and a detector are placed on the same or opposite sides of a concrete sample. A portion of radiation from the source which passes through the concrete sample and reaches the detector produces a series of electrical pulses which when counted gives a measure of the dimensions or physical characteristics of the concrete sample. In this research work, concrete beams were fabricated using a 500 x 225 x 200mm wooden mould whiles a table vibrator was used to consolidate the concrete after placement in the mould. The mass of the beam was determined and the actual density calculated and inputted in the gauge. Measurements were performed on the unhardened and hardened concrete using the backscatter method and the direct transmission method at depths of 50mm, 100mm and 150mm. The measuring times of 15, 60 and 240 second were use to take the measurements. The study provided information on the variation of density with depth and this was observed to be within the range of 0 kg/m 3 to 1 kg/m 3 and 13 kg/m 3 to 23 kg/m 3 for the unhardened concrete samples in which density increased with depth and those in which density decreased with depth respectively. For the hardened concrete sample, the average change in density with depth was between 4 - 11 kg/m 3 for the samples in which density increased with depth and between 11 - 21 kg/m 3 for the samples in which density decreased with depth. The study also provided information about the degree of consolidation of Portland cement concrete which on the average was between 95% - 97% for the unhardened concrete samples and increased to between 97% - 99% for the hardened concrete

  9. The effect of the moisture content of a local heat source on the blood flow response of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold Scott; Bains, Gurinder; Raju, Chinna; Lohman, Everett; Berk, Lee; Prowse, Michelle; Gunda, Shashi; Madani, Piyush; Batt, Jennifer

    2009-09-01

    Numerous studies have examined the effect of local and global heating of the body on skin blood flow. However, the effect of the moisture content of the heat source on the skin blood flow response has not been examined. Thirty-three subjects, without diabetes or cardiovascular disease, between the ages of 22 and 32 were examined to determine the relationship between the effects of dry vs. moist heat applied for the same length of time and with the skin clamped at the same skin temperature on the blood flow response of the skin. The skin, heated with an infrared heat lamp (skin temperature monitored with a thermocouple) to 40 degrees C for 15 min, was either kept moist with wet towels or, in a separate experiment, kept dry with Drierite (a desiccant) between the towels to remove any moisture. Before and after heat exposure of the forearm, blood pressure, heart rate, skin moisture content, skin temperature, and skin blood flow were recorded. The results of the experiment showed that there was no change in skin moisture after 15 min exposure to dry heat at 40 degrees C. However, with moist heat, skin moisture increased by 43.7%, a significant increase (P heat, blood flow increased from the resting value by 282.3% whereas with moist heat, blood flow increased by 386% over rest, a significant increase over dry heat (P heat was a better heating modality than dry heat. The reason may be linked to moisture sensitivity in calcium channels in the vascular endothelial cell.

  10. Dependence of Microcrack Behavior in Wood on Moisture Content during Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Yamamoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM system was developed not only to observe the microcracks on the surface of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don in situ at the cellular level but also to obtain information about the moisture content (MC of the wood surface by measuring the change in its electrical resistivity. The sequential images and changes in the electrical resistivity of the wood surface indicated that microcracks formed between the tracheid and ray parenchyma in the latewood region at >1.0E + 07 Ω/sq (square. Microcracks formed when the MC of the wood surface was below the fiber saturation point determined through regression analysis of the surface electrical resistivity and MC. Most of the microcracks develop when the surface electrical resistivity ranged from 3.95E + 10 to 3.60E + 12 Ω/sq. When the surface MC was ~2.5%, microcracks closed and the surface electrical resistivity was either ~1.00E + 15 Ω/sq or outside the measurement range. The modified CLSM and the method to measure the MC of the wood surface can be used to acquire information about the surface MC in specific areas shown in CLSM images. The findings indicated that the MC of the surface of the wood plays an important role in suppressing the emergence of microcracks in drying wood. The modified CLSM system and the method of measuring the MC of the surface of wood can be used to efficiently evaluate methods of drying wood and the quality of dried wood.

  11. Prediction of total electron content using the international reference ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcnamara, L.F.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is an empirical model of the ionosphere based on experimental observations. Rawer et al. (1978) have discussed the goals and status of the IRI. The aim of the IRI is related to the establishment of a compendium of height profiles through the ionosphere for the four main parameters, taking into account plasma density, temperature of ions and electrons, and ion composition. The present model is inadequate in some areas, and the IRI working group has encouraged tests of the model's validity. The present investigation is concerned with a test of the model's ability to reproduce observations of total electron content (TEC) over a wide range of conditions. The TEC observations were obtained with the aid of the Faraday rotation technique, which provides the TEC out to about 2000 km. Tests using the Bent ionospheric model indicate that the altitude range 1000 to 2000 km contributes up to five percent of the TEC. 12 references

  12. Capability of crop water content for revealing variability of winter wheat grain yield and soil moisture under limited irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Liu, Jiangui; Shang, Jiali; Cai, Huanjie

    2018-08-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop in the Guanzhong Plain, China. Understanding its water status is important for irrigation planning. A few crop water indicators, such as the leaf equivalent water thickness (EWT: g cm -2 ), leaf water content (LWC: %) and canopy water content (CWC: kg m -2 ), have been estimated using remote sensing techniques for a wide range of crops, yet their suitability and utility for revealing winter wheat growth and soil moisture status have not been well studied. To bridge this knowledge gap, field-scale irrigation experiments were conducted over two consecutive years (2014 and 2015) to investigate relationships of crop water content with soil moisture and grain yield, and to assess the performance of four spectral process methods for retrieving these three crop water indicators. The result revealed that the water indicators were more sensitive to soil moisture variation before the jointing stage. All three water indicators were significantly correlated with soil moisture during the reviving stage, and the correlations were stronger for leaf water indicators than that of the canopy water indicator at the jointing stage. No correlation was observed after the heading stage. All three water indicators showed good capabilities of revealing grain yield variability in jointing stage, with R 2 up to 0.89. CWC had a consistent relationship with grain yield over different growing seasons, but the performances of EWT and LWC were growing-season specific. The partial least squares regression was the most accurate method for estimating LWC (R 2 =0.72; RMSE=3.6%) and comparable capability for EWT and CWC. Finally, the work highlights the usefulness of crop water indicators to assess crop growth, productivity, and soil water status and demonstrates the potential of various spectral processing methods for retrieving crop water contents from canopy reflectance spectrums. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimation of Moisture Content & Metal Ions in White Flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis and Purple Flowers of Bougainvillea glabra in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    *S. A. Rashid; F. S. Rehmani; 1M. Arman; M. Ibrahim; 2S. Shafique

    2011-01-01

    Bougainvillea consists of 18 shrubby species, growing in different parts of Pakistan and is being used as Anti-ulcer, Anti-diarrheal, Anti-microbial, Anti- diabetic, Amylase Inhibition and as for low blood pressure but none of the studies on Bougainvillea focused on the estimation of metal ion concentration. The focus of the present study was to estimation of moisture content and comparative analysis of trace metal ions in white flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd and Purple flowers of...

  14. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kazuei, E-mail: k-ishii@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Furuichi, Toru

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability.

  15. Influence of moisture content, particle size and forming temperature on productivity and quality of rice straw pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kazuei; Furuichi, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimized conditions were determined for the production of rice straw pellets. • The moisture content and forming temperature are key factors. • High quality rice pellets in the lower heating value and durability were produced. - Abstract: A large amount of rice straw is generated and left as much in paddy fields, which causes greenhouse gas emissions as methane. Rice straw can be used as bioenergy. Rice straw pellets are a promising technology because pelletization of rice straw is a form of mass and energy densification, which leads to a product that is easy to handle, transport, store and utilize because of the increase in the bulk density. The operational conditions required to produce high quality rice straw pellets have not been determined. This study determined the optimal moisture content range required to produce rice straw pellets with high yield ratio and high heating value, and also determined the influence of particle size and the forming temperature on the yield ratio and durability of rice straw pellets. The optimal moisture content range was between 13% and 20% under a forming temperature of 60 or 80 °C. The optimal particle size was between 10 and 20 mm, considering the time and energy required for shredding, although the particle size did not significantly affect the yield ratio and durability of the pellets. The optimized conditions provided high quality rice straw pellets with nearly 90% yield ratio, ⩾12 MJ/kg for the lower heating value, and >95% durability

  16. Olive mill wastewater disposal in evaporation ponds in Sfax (Tunisia): moisture content effect on microbiological and physical chemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboui, Raja; Hadrich, Bilel; Gharsallah, Néji; Ammar, Emna

    2009-11-01

    The study of the isotherms desorption of olive mill wastewater (OMW) was investigated to describe its water activity under different saturated environments. The microbial biodegradation of OMW during its storage in 5 evaporation ponds located in Agareb (Sfax-Tunisia) was carried out during the oil-harvesting year held 105 days in 2004. Gravimetric static method using saturated salt solutions was used and OMW as placed at 30 degrees C and under different water activities ranging from 0.11 to 0.90. Eight models were taken from the literature to describe experimental desorption isotherms. During storage, the evolution of physico-chemical parameters including pH, temperature, evaporation, humidity, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and phenols and three microbiological flora (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and moulds) were considered. At 30 degrees C, when relative humidity increased in the experimented ponds of 69, 84 and 90%, the evaporation speed decreased from 1.24 x 10(-5) to 5 x 10(-6) cm(3) s(-1), from 6 x 10(-5) to 7 x 10(-6) cm(3) s(-1) and from 5 x 10(-6) to 1.1 x 10(-7) cm(3) s(-1) respectively. The desorption isotherm exhibited a sigmoidal curve corresponding to type II, typical of many organic material. The GAB and Peleg models gave the best fit for describing the relationship between the equilibrium moisture content and water activity in OMW (R (2) = 0.998). During the storage period, the analysis showed an increase of all the physico-chemical parameters studied, except phenols and total phosphorus concentrations. The microbiological study showed the predominance of yeasts and moulds and the decrease of bacteria population after 75 days reflecting both effect of recalcitrant compounds and the water activity on microbial growth.

  17. Dynamics of total electron content distribution during strong geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafyeva, E. I.; Afraimovich, E. L.; Kosogorov, E. A.

    We worked out a new method of mapping of total electron content TEC equal lines displacement velocity The method is based on the technique of global absolute vertical TEC value mapping Global Ionospheric Maps technique GIM GIM with 2-hours time resolution are available from Internet underline ftp cddisa gsfc nasa gov in standard IONEX-files format We determine the displacement velocity absolute value as well as its wave vector orientation from increments of TEC x y derivatives and TEC time derivative for each standard GIM cell 5 in longitude to 2 5 in latitude Thus we observe global traveling of TEC equal lines but we also can estimate the velocity of these line traveling Using the new method we observed anomalous rapid accumulation of the ionosphere plasma at some confined area due to the depletion of the ionization at the other spacious territories During the main phase of the geomagnetic storm on 29-30 October 2003 very large TEC enhancements appeared in the southwest of North America TEC value in that area reached up to 200 TECU 1 TECU 10 16 m -2 It was found that maximal velocity of TEC equal lines motion exceeded 1500 m s and the mean value of the velocity was about 400 m s Azimuth of wave vectors of TEC equal lines were orientated toward the center of region with anomaly high values of TEC the southwest of North America It should be noted that maximal TEC values during geomagnetically quiet conditions is about 60-80 TECU the value of TEC equal lines

  18. Relative permeability of fractured wellbore cement: an experimental investigation using electrical resistivity monitoring for moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, W.; Rod, K. A.; Strickland, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    Permeability is a critical parameter needed to understand flow in subsurface environments; it is particularly important in deep subsurface reservoirs where multiphase fluid flow is common, such as carbon sequestration and geothermal reservoirs. Cement is used in the annulus of wellbores due to its low permeable properties to seal aquifers, reducing leaks to adjacent strata. Extreme subsurface environments of CO2 storage and geothermal production conditions will eventually reduce the cement integrity, propagating fracture networks and increasing the permeability for air and/or water. To date, there have been no reproducible experimental investigations of relative permeability in fractured wellbore cement published. To address this gap, we conducted a series of experiments using fractured Portland cement monoliths with increasing fracture networks. The monolith cylinder sides were jacketed with heavy-duty moisture-seal heat-shrink tubing, then fractured using shear force applied via a hydraulic press. Fractures were generated with different severity for each of three monoliths. Stainless steel endcaps were fixed to the monoliths using the same shrink-wrapped jacket. Fracture characteristics were determined using X-ray microtomography and image analysis. Flow controllers were used to control flow of water and air to supply continuous water or water plus air, both of which were delivered through the influent end cap. Effluent air flow was monitored using a flow meter, and water flow was measured gravimetrically. To monitor the effective saturation of the fractures, a RCON2 concrete bulk electrical resistivity test device was attached across both endcaps and a 0.1M NaNO3 brine was used as the transport fluid to improve resistivity measurements. Water content correlated to resistivity measurements with a r2 > 0.96. Data from the experiments was evaluated using two relative permeability models, the Corey-curve, often used for modeling relative permeability in porous media

  19. Effect of feed composition, moisture content and extrusion temperature on extrudate characteristics of yam-corn-rice based snack food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Dibyakanta; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Ganapathy, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Blends of yam, rice and corn flour were processed in a twin-screw extruder. Effects of yam flour (10-40 %), feed moisture content (12-24 %) and extruder barrel temperature (100-140 °C) on the characteristics of the dried extrudates was investigated using a statistical technique response surface methodology (RSM). Radial expansion ratio differed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with change in all the independent variables. Highest expansion (3.97) was found at lowest moisture content (12 %) and highest barrel temperature (140 °C). Increased yam flour level decreased the expansion ratio significantly. Water absorption index (WAI) increased significantly with increase of all variables. However, water solubility index (WSI) did not change with change in yam flour percent. Hardness of extrudates that varied from 3.86 to 6.94 N was positively correlated with yam flour level and feed moisture content, however it decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.001) with increase of barrel temperature. Yam percent of 15.75 with feed moisture and barrel temperature at 12.00 % and 140 °C respectively gave an optimized product of high desirability (> 0.90) with optimum responses of 3.29 expansion ratio, 5.64 g/g dry solid water absorption index, 30.39 % water solubility index and 3.86 N hardness. The predicted values registered non-significant (p extruded snacks and little emphasis on the chemistry of interaction between different components.

  20. A study on the relationship of arsenic accumulation with protein, lipid, ash and moisture contents in muscle of eight species of fish in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Askary Sary

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was conducted to investigate a relationship between concentration of arsenic with protein, lipid, ash and moisture content in Cyprinus carpio, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Aristichthys nobilis, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Scomberomorus commerson, Scomberomorus guttatus and Otolithes ruber. A total of 72 sample of common carp, Bighead carp, silver carp and grass carp fishing from Azadegan fish farming center, Ahvaz; Rainbow trout from Cheshme Dimeh and Scomberomorus commerson, Scomberomorus guttatus and Otolithes ruber caught with gill netfrom Hendijan. Wet-digestion method was performed prior to arsenic determination in the samples. The level of arsenic was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that concentration of arsenic in the muscle of fishes was 269.87 ± 20.96 µg/Kg. Moreover, levels of protein, lipid, ash and moisture in the samples were estimated at 19.67±0.78 g/100, 2.45±0.45 g/100, 1.49±0.23 g/100, 78±1.89 g/100, respectively. Results also showed a positive correlation between the accumulation of arsenic in muscle of fishes with levels of protein, lipid, ash and moisture (p

  1. The effect of moisture content on solid-state anaerobic digestion of dairy manure from a sawdust-bedded pack barn

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of moisture content on solid-state anaerobic digestion of dairy manure from a Korean sawdust-bedded pack barn was determined using laboratory-scale digesters operated at three moisture levels (70, 76, and 83% on a wet basis) at 37 C for 85 days. Results showed that digesters containing m...

  2. Long-term trends in the total electron content (TEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laštovička, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The long-term trends in the total electron content (TEC) have very little been studied. Lean et al. (2011; J. Geophys. Res., 116, A00H04, doi:10.1029/2010JA016378) studied trends in TEC globally based on JPL maps for 1995-2010. However, their trends appear to be too positive, which is not plausible taking into account the trends in other ionospheric parameters. Therefore they prefer the less positive trends calculated under the assumption of the same level of solar activity in solar cycle minima 22/23 and 23/24. However, as it is now clear, this is not a correct assumption. Lastovicka (2013; J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 118, 3831-3835, doi:10.1002/jgra.50261) selected a region around Florence, Italy, as a region with available historical TEC data based on Faraday rotation measurements and remarkably larger than average trends in TEC by Lean et al. (2011). Historical data from Florence provide no trend in TEC. However, foF2 from Juliusruh provide slight negative trends for 1976-1996 but no trends for 1995-2010. Thus the question of reality of trends by Lean et al. (2011) remained open. Here we use TEC from GIM and JPL data for two European regions with high Lean's trends, regions around Florence and around Prague, using 10-14 LT medians, 1998-2015, yearly average values. A classical approach is applied. First a model of solar activity dependence of TEC is constructed separately for each region from all data. Then model data are subtracted from experimental data and analysis is made with residuals. This analysis shows that early data (1998-2001) are by several TECU lower than they should be according to solar activity, the year 2002 is intermediate and in 2003-2015 the data fit well a weak or rather no trend of TEC. The change in TEC data does not seem to be jump-like, it lasted at least a year, if not longer. Thus the positive TEC trends reported by Lean et al. (2011) appear to be affected by data problem; real trends are evidently less positive if any.

  3. Proximate Analysis and Total Lycopene Content of Some Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2017-06-05

    Jun 5, 2017 ... Organic acids dictate the dominant micro flora in foods as many .... The lycopene content of each sample was then estimated (Fish et al., .... by cultivar and scheme of fertilizer application. ... nutritional quality of tomato varieties.

  4. Response of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of bush

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    OF BUSH TEA AND SPECIAL TEA USING DIFFERENT SELECTED. EXTRACTION ... 3,3'digallate and caffeine). Tea leaves have ..... Effects of solvent extraction on phenolic content and ... Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition,.

  5. EFFECTS OF BURN RATE, WOOD SPECIES, MOISTURE CONTENT AND WEIGHT OF WOOD LOADED ON WOODSTOVE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of tests of four woodstove operating parameters (burn rate, wood moisture, wood load, and wood species) at two levels each using a half factorial experimental test design to determine statistically significant effects on the emission components CO, CO2, p...

  6. Effects of moisture content on some physical properties of red pepper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... In the moisture range of 7.27 to 20.69% dry basis (d.b.), studies on rewetted red pepper seed ... m-3; ρt, true density, kg m-3; φ, sphericity of seed; al, ... the experiments in this study. ... For each experiment, a sample was.

  7. Predicted harvest time effects on switchgrass moisture content, nutrient concentration, yield, and profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production costs change with harvest date of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a result of nutrient recycling and changes in yield of this perennial crop. This study examines the range of cost of production from an early, yield-maximizing harvest date to a late winter harvest date at low moisture...

  8. Effect of sample moisture content on XRD-estimated cellulose crystallinity index and crystallite size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Sally A. Ralph; Carlos Baez; Richard S. Reiner; Steve P. Verrill

    2017-01-01

    Although X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been the most widely used technique to investigate crystallinity index (CrI) and crystallite size (L200) of cellulose materials, there are not many studies that have taken into account the role of sample moisture on these measurements. The present investigation focuses on a variety of celluloses and cellulose...

  9. Year-round estimation of soil moisture content using temporally variable soil hydraulic parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šípek, Václav; Tesař, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 6 (2017), s. 1438-1452 ISSN 0885-6087 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-05665S Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : hydrological modelling * pore-size distribution * saturated hydraulic conductivity * seasonal variability * soil hydraulic parameters * soil moisture Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Hydrology Impact factor: 3.014, year: 2016

  10. The influence of moisture content on the water vapour resistance of surface coated spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, E.T.; Ulriksen, L.; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2005-01-01

    Two series of cup tests are carried out. The first series is performed on spruce specimens having moisture transport in either radial direction (R-direction) or in tangential direction (T-direction). The T-direction tests are made as wet cup tests having 93 %RH inside the cups, while the R-direct...

  11. Tensile behaviour of radiata pine with different moisture contents at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Hamish; Gabbitas, Brian; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2012-01-01

    that moisture and temperature can play a significant role in reducing stress during drying, regardless of the drying time. Properties of wood, such as tensile elastic information at elevated temperatures, are important for mechanical design, distortion modelling and understanding the fundamental behaviour...

  12. Stemflow variation in Mexico's northeastern forest communities: Its contribution to soil moisture content and aquifer recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Návar, José

    2011-09-01

    SummaryStemflow hydro-ecological importance was measured in trees and assessed in Mexico's northeast forest stands by answering three basic questions: (a) what are the intra and inter-specific stemflow variations; (b) is the stemflow coefficient constant from tree level to stand scales? and (c) what is the stemflow area and wetted soil volume in individual trees and the stemflow volume discharged at the stand scale in two plant communities of northeastern Mexico? Gross rainfall and stemflow flux measurements were conducted on 78 trees of semi-arid, sub-tropical (31 Diospyros texana; 14 Acacia rigidula; four Bumelia celastrina; five Condalia hookeri; three Cordia bioissieri; three Pithecellobium pallens) and temperate forest communities (six Pinus pseudostrobus Lindl. and 12 Quercus spp.). Stemflow was extrapolated from individual trees to the stand scale using 98 inventory plots (1600 m 2 ha -1 each) placed in oak-pine forests and 37 quadrats (5 m × 5 m each) distributed across the Tamaulipan thornscrub forest range. Stemflow infiltration flux and infiltration area measurements assessed the wetted soil volume. Daily measurements were conducted from May of 1997 to November of 1998. Results showed that stemflow coefficients varied between plant communities since they averaged (confidence intervals, α = 0.05) 2.49% (0.57), 0.30% (0.09), and 0.77% (0.27) of the bulk precipitation for Tamaulipan thornscrub, pine, and oak forests, respectively. Intra-specific stemflow variations could not be identified in Tamaulipan although in temperate tree species. Basal diameter explained intra-specific stemflow variation in both plant communities. Stemflow increased threefold since it accounted for by 6.38% and 2.19% of the total bulk rainfall for Tamaulipan thornscrub quadrats and temperate oak-pine inventory plots, respectively. Small shrubs growing underneath large trees, in combination with the presence of small-diameter trees that recorded the largest stemflow coefficients

  13. Implications of moisture content determination in the environmental characterisation of FGD gypsum for its disposal in landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E. [Department of Environmental Geology, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' (CSIC), C/ Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: ealvarez@ija.csic.es; Querol, X. [Department of Environmental Geology, Institute of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera' (CSIC), C/ Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Tomas, A. [Endesa Generacion, S.A., C/ Ribera de Loira 60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-05-01

    The leachable contents of elements of environmental concern considered in the Council Decision 2003/33/EC on waste disposal were determined in flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) gypsum. To this end, leaching tests were performed following the standard EN-12457-4 which specifies the determination of the dry mass of the material at 105 deg. C and the use of a liquid to solid (L/S) ratio of 10 l kg{sup -1} dry matter. Additionally, leaching tests were also carried out taking into account the dry mass of the material at 60 deg. C and using different L/S ratios (2, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 20 l kg{sup -1} dry matter). It was found that the dry mass determination at 105 deg. C turns out to be inappropriate for FGD gypsum since at this temperature gypsum transforms into bassanite, and so, in addition to moisture content, crystalline water is removed. As a consequence the moisture content is overvalued (about 16%), what makes consider a lower L/S ratio than that specified by the standard EN-12457-4. As a result the leachable contents in FGD gypsum are, in general, overestimated, what could lead to more strict environmental requirements for FGD gypsum when considering its disposal in landfills, specially concerning those elements (e.g., F) risking the characterisation of FGD gypsum as a waste acceptable at landfills for non-hazardous wastes.

  14. Red-Edge Spectral Reflectance as an Indicator of Surface Moisture Content in an Alaskan Peatland Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, M.; Kane, E. S.; Turetsky, M. R.; Douglass, T.; Falkowski, M. J.; Montgomery, R.; Edwards, J.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic and boreal peatlands serve as major reservoirs of terrestrial organic carbon (C) because Net Primary Productivity (NPP) outstrips C loss from decomposition over long periods of time. Peatland productivity varies as a function of water table position and surface moisture content, making C storage in these systems particularly vulnerable to the climate warming and drying predicted for high latitudes. Detailed spatial knowledge of how aboveground vegetation communities respond to changes in hydrology would allow for ecosystem response to environmental change to be measured at the landscape scale. This study leverages remotely sensed data along with field measurements taken at the Alaska Peatland Experiment (APEX) at the Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research site to examine relationships between plant solar reflectance and surface moisture. APEX is a decade-long experiment investigating the effects of hydrologic change on peatland ecosystems using water table manipulation treatments (raised, lowered, and control). Water table levels were manipulated throughout the 2015 growing season, resulting in a maximum separation of 35 cm between raised and lowered treatment plots. Water table position, soil moisture content, depth to seasonal ice, soil temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), CO2 and CH4 fluxes were measured as predictors of C loss through decomposition and NPP. Vegetation was surveyed for percent cover of plant functional types. Remote sensing data was collected during peak growing season, when the separation between treatment plots was at maximum difference. Imagery was acquired via a SenseFly eBee airborne platform equipped with a Canon S110 red-edge camera capable of detecting spectral reflectance from plant tissue at 715 nm band center to within centimeters of spatial resolution. Here, we investigate empirical relationships between spectral reflectance, water table position, and surface moisture in relation to peat carbon balance.

  15. Determining Total Phenolics, Anthocyanin Content and Ascorbic Acid Content in Some Plum Genotypes Grown in Ardahan Ecological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. ABACI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, total phenol content, total anthocyanin content, brix, pH, titrable acidity and total ascorbic acid content in the five plum genotypes cultivated in Ardahan City are determined and sustenance of the plums are revealed. Total phenol content was determined with folin-ciocalteu’s method, total anthocyanin content was determined with pH differential method and total ascorbic acid was determined with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol method.It is detected that the genotype with the highest brix content (%13.9 and lowest acidity (%0.98 is cancur, the genotype with the lowest brix content (%11 and highest acidity (%2.06 is wild plum, the genotype with the highest content of total anthocyanin, total phenolic substance and ascorbic acid is the wild plum and the genotype with the least content of these is the water plum. As a result of the study, it is revealed that the plum fruit has high levels of phenolic substance, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid content, so it has a high sustenance.

  16. CAMEX-4 DC-8 NEVZOROV TOTAL CONDENSED WATER CONTENT SENSOR V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 DC-8 Nevzorov Total Condensed Water Content Sensor dataset was collected by the Nevzorov total condensed water content sensor which was used to measure...

  17. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant capacity of the flowering aerial parts of Astragalus squarrosus was determined by 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferric thiocyanate methods. The phenolic and flavonoid content was also measured. A. squarrosus showed weak free radical scavenging activity with the DPPH ...

  18. The moisture content monitoring device for PuO2 using self neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanenko, Valeriy I.; Sviridov, Victor; Frolov, Vladimir V.; Ryazanov, Boris G.; Talanov, Vladimir V.

    2003-01-01

    Solutions technology of plutonium dioxide powders production inevitably leads to free or chemically bound hydrogen to be present in these powders. This work is devoted to the nondestructive method of PuO 2 powder moisture measurement based on application of the effect of neutron moderation caused by water. Plutonium dioxide is fast neutron source, while 3 He counters located in the nickel and polyethylene annular reflectors surrounding PuO 2 serve as detectors. In the work wide range of issues are considered related to practical implementation of the moisture measurement method by detecting inherent neutron radiation of plutonium dioxide powder. The most practical design of the detector has been chosen, which include two 3 He detectors having different reflectors mounted to the device. The absolute error of measurement does not exceed 0.2wt% with confidence coefficient of 0.95. Duration of analysis ∼5 minutes. (author)

  19. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Makan, Abdelhadi; Assobhei, Omar; Mountadar, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts. For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreove...

  20. Investigation of the variation of the specific heat capacity of local soil samples from the Niger delta, Nigeria with moisture content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofoegbu, C.O.; Adjepong, S.K.

    1987-11-01

    Results of an investigation of the variation, with moisture content, of the specific heat capacity of samples of three texturally different types of soil (clayey, sandy and sandy loam) obtained from the Niger delta area of Nigeria, are presented. The results show that the specific heat capacities of the soils studied, increase with moisture content. This increase is found to be linear for the entire range of moisture contents considered (0-25%), in the case of the sandy loam soil while for the clayey and sandy soils the specific heat capacity is found to increase linearly with moisture content up to about 15% after which the increase becomes parabolic. The rate of increase of specific heat capacity with moisture content appears to be highest in the clayey soil and lowest in the sandy soil. It is thought that the differences in the rates of increase of specific heat capacity with moisture content, observed for the soils, reflect the soils' water-retention capacities. (author) 3 refs, 5 figs

  1. Effect of Initial Moisture Content on the in-Vessel Composting Under Air Pressure of Organic Fraction of MunicipalSolid Waste in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhadi Makan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  2. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makan, Abdelhadi; Assobhei, Omar; Mountadar, Mohammed

    2013-01-03

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts.For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times.This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  3. Effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mountadar Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of initial moisture content on the in-vessel composting under air pressure of organic fraction of municipal solid waste in Morocco in terms of internal temperature, produced gases quantity, organic matter conversion rate, and the quality of the final composts. For this purpose, in-vessel bioreactor was designed and used to evaluate both appropriate initial air pressure and appropriate initial moisture content for the composting process. Moreover, 5 experiments were carried out within initial moisture content of 55%, 65%, 70%, 75% and 85%. The initial air pressure and the initial moisture content of the mixture showed a significant effect on the aerobic composting. The experimental results demonstrated that for composting organic waste, relatively high moisture contents are better at achieving higher temperatures and retaining them for longer times. This study suggested that an initial moisture content of around 75%, under 0.6 bar, can be considered as being suitable for efficient composting of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. These last conditions, allowed maximum value of temperature and final composting product with good physicochemical properties as well as higher organic matter degradation and higher gas production. Moreover, final compost obtained showed good maturity levels and can be used for agricultural applications.

  4. Effect of extrusion temperature and moisture content of corn flour on crystallinity and hardness of rice analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Faleh Setia; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Budijanto, Slamet; Syah, Dahrul

    2015-12-01

    Rice analogues are food products made of broken rice and/or any other carbohydrate sources to have similar texture and shape as rice. They are usually made by hot extrusion processing. The hot extrusion process may change the crystallinity of starch and influence the characteristic of rice analogues. Therefore, this research aimed to study the effect of moisture content of incoming dough and temperature of extrusion process on the crystallinity and hardness of resulting rice analogues. The dough's were prepared by mixing of corn starch-flour with ratio 10/90 (w/w) and moisture content of 35%, 40% and 45% (w/w) and extrusion process were done at temperature of 70, 80, 90°C by using of twin screw extruder BEX-DS-2256 Berto. The analyses were done to determine the type of crystal, degree of crystallinity, and hardness of the resulting rice analogues. Our result showed that the enhancement of extrusion temperature from 70 - 90°C increased degree of crystallinity from 5.86 - 15.00% to 10.70 - 18.87% and hardness from 1.71 - 4.36 kg to 2.05 - 5.70 kg. The raising of dough moisture content from 35 - 45% decreased degree of crystallinity from 15.00 - 18.87% to 5.86 - 10.70% and hardness from 4.36 - 5.70 kg to 1.71 - 2.05 kg. The increase of degree of crystallinity correlated positively with the increase of hardness of rice analogues (r = 0.746, p = 0.05).

  5. Seasonal relationships between foliar moisture content, heat content and biochemistry of lodge pole pine and big sagebrush foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Qi; Matt Jolly; Philip E. Dennison; Rachael C. Kropp

    2016-01-01

    Wildland fires propagate by liberating energy contained within living and senescent plant biomass. The maximum amount of energy that can be generated by burning a given plant part can be quantified and is generally referred to as its heat content (HC). Many studies have examined heat content of wildland fuels but studies examining the seasonal variation in foliar HC...

  6. Vis-NIR hyperspectral imaging and multivariate analysis for prediction of the moisture content and hardness of Pistachio kernels roasted in different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Mohammadi Moghaddam

    2015-09-01

    of determination (R2, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP and the ratio of the standard deviation of the response variable to RMSEP (known as relative performance determinant (RPD were calculated. Results and discussion: Interpretation of hyperspectral data: The results showed that the spectra of the shell, the whole kernel and the internal part of the kernel have different patterns. The internal part of thekernel had 2 peaks at 630 nm and 690 nm, while the shell and the whole kernel had 1 peak at 670 nm and 720 nm, respectively and the peak of the whole kernel was sharper than that of the shell. The highest and lowest intensities were for the internal part of the kernel and the whole kernel, respectively. The spectral slope of the internal part is higher than that of the shell and the whole kernel at 500-700 nm. The effect of different pre-processing techniques and analysis on prediction of pistachio kernels properties: In the absence of pre-processing techniques, low correlation coefficients were observed for prediction of moisture content and hardness. However, with the use of pre-processing techniques, in some models, correlation coefficient and RPD increased and the RMSEP decreased. The results revealed that ANN models would predict moisture content and textural characteristics of roasted pistachio kernels better than PLSR models. Moisture content: ANN models can predict moisture content of roasted pistachio kernels better than PLSR models. In total, PLSR models showed low RPD and R2. For all samples, RPD was lower than 1.5, indicating that the developed models do not give an accurate prediction for moisture content. The best results with ANN method were achieved using a combination of SNV, wavelet and D1 for predicting moisture content with R2 =0.907 and RMSEP=0.179. Hardness: The results indicated that ANN models can predict the hardness better than PLSR models. The best results with PLSR models were achieved using a combination of SNV, wavelet and

  7. Total β-carotene content of orange sweetpotato cultivated under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MFaber

    vitamin A value, percentage contribution towards vitamin A requirements and serving size needed to provide 100% of the vitamin requirements. Months after planting. Root weight c. (g). Total β-. Carotene d. (µg 100 g-1). Vitamin A value e. (µg RAE 100 g-1). %RDA provided by 100 g f. Amount j needed to provide 100%.

  8. Effect of soil moisture content on the radiosensitivity of soil bacteria and fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massoud, M.A.; El-Nennah, M.E.; El-Kholi, A.F.; Abd-Elmonem, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the effect of soil moisture on the radiosensitivity of soil bacteria and fungi. The percentages of survival of soil bacteria and fungi, after exposure to different doses of gamma radiation, were lower in the moistened soil samples than in the dry one, inspite of the observed encouragement of wetting the soil samples, before gamma radiation exposure, on the proliferation of soil micro-organisms. This effect was explained by the indirect action from the breakdown products of radiolysis of water rather than by the direct damage to the cell structure

  9. Effects of Moisture and Particle Size on Quantitative Determination of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in Soils Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Elena; Vincenzi, Fabio; Costa, Stefania; Mantovi, Paolo; Pedrini, Paola; Castaldelli, Giuseppe

    2017-10-17

    Near-Infrared Spectroscopy is a cost-effective and environmentally friendly technique that could represent an alternative to conventional soil analysis methods, including total organic carbon (TOC). Soil fertility and quality are usually measured by traditional methods that involve the use of hazardous and strong chemicals. The effects of physical soil characteristics, such as moisture content and particle size, on spectral signals could be of great interest in order to understand and optimize prediction capability and set up a robust and reliable calibration model, with the future perspective of being applied in the field. Spectra of 46 soil samples were collected. Soil samples were divided into three data sets: unprocessed, only dried and dried, ground and sieved, in order to evaluate the effects of moisture and particle size on spectral signals. Both separate and combined normalization methods including standard normal variate (SNV), multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and normalization by closure (NCL), as well as smoothing using first and second derivatives (DV1 and DV2), were applied to a total of seven cases. Pretreatments for model optimization were designed and compared for each data set. The best combination of pretreatments was achieved by applying SNV and DV2 on partial least squares (PLS) modelling. There were no significant differences between the predictions using the three different data sets ( p TOC was carried out on 16 unknown soil samples to evaluate the predictive ability of the final combined calibration model. Hence, we demonstrate that sample preprocessing has minor influence on the quality of near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) predictions, laying the ground for a direct and fast in situ application of the method. Data can be acquired outside the laboratory since the method is simple and does not need more than a simple band ratio of the spectra.

  10. Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels

    OpenAIRE

    W. Hao; H. L. Wang; T. T. Ning; F. Y. Yang; C. C. Xu

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR). The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted...

  11. Effects of moisture content and redox potential on in situ K d values for radioiodine in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, D.J.; Shaw, G.

    2006-01-01

    The soil solid-liquid distribution coefficient (K d ) value is of great significance in understanding and modelling the environmental behaviour of soil contaminants. For many years, the batch sorption technique has been used for the determination of such values. Here, we propose an alternative 'mini-column' approach in which somewhat more realistic soil conditions are maintained. In particular, this approach allows for determination of radionuclide K d values under realistic soil moisture contents and in a system in which time-dependent processes such as changes in redox potential can take place. Data obtained for radioactive iodine (a key radionuclide in the consideration of radioactive waste disposal) are presented and indicate that soil moisture content, particularly in conjunction with soil redox potential (through water-logging of the soil), has a marked effect on measured K d values. The results indicate the advantages and potential usefulness of the mini-column approach in assessing the environmental behaviour of radioactive, and other, soil contaminants

  12. An extension of the talbot-ogden hydrology model to an affine multi-dimensional moisture content domain

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Han

    2013-09-01

    The Talbot-Ogden hydrology model provides a fast mass conservative method to compute infiltration in unsaturated soils. As a replacement for a model based on Richards equation, it separates the groundwater movement into infiltration and redistribution for every time step. The typical feature making this method fast is the discretization of the moisture content domain rather than the spatial one. The Talbot-Ogden model rapidly determines how well ground water and aquifers are recharged only. Hence, it differs from models based on advanced reservoir modeling that are uniformly far more expensive computationally since they determine where the water moves in space instead, a completely different and more complex problem.According to the pore-size distribution curve for many soils, this paper extends the one dimensional moisture content domain into a two dimensional one by keeping the vertical spatial axis. The proposed extension can describe any pore-size or porosity distribution as an important soil feature. Based on this extension, infiltration and redistribution are restudied. The unconditional conservation of mass in the Talbot-Ogden model is inherited in this extended model. A numerical example is given for the extended model.

  13. Umidade de equilíbrio de painéis de madeira Equilibrium moisture content of wood panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciane Angélica da Silva

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo a determinação da umidade de equilíbrio de painéis de madeira numa câmara de climatização e comparação dos seus valores com os obtidos através da equação de Nelson. O trabalho foi desenvolvido na Unidade Experimental de Produção de Painéis de Madeira da Universidade Federal de Lavras. Foram utilizadas amostras de aglomerado, compensado multilaminado e sarrafeado, chapa dura, OSB (Oriented Strand Board , MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard, HDF (High Density Fiberboard, madeira-cimento e madeira-pl��stico, sendo esses produtos de escala industrial e experimental. As dimensões dos corpos-de-prova foram de 2,60 cm de largura por 2,60 cm de comprimento. As espessuras foram aquelas mais utilizadas comercialmente de cada produto, sendo utilizadas cinco repetições por painel. Os corpos-de-prova foram pesados e levados para uma câmara de climatização, onde foram submetidos a diferentes condições de umidade relativa (90, 80, 70, 60, 50 e 40% e uma temperatura constante de 30 ºC. Determinaram-se a histerese e a umidade de equilíbrio, que variaram de 40 a 90%. Os resultados indicaram que a equação de Nelson se mostrou eficiente na estimativa da umidade de equilíbrio e que não existe em média diferença de histerese entre os produtos estudados, mostrando que todos apresentam a mesma estabilidade dimensional. Observou-se, também, que o revestimento dos painéis não afetou a umidade de equilíbrio.This study aimed at determining the equilibrium moisture content of wood panels in a climatization chamber and comparing the values of equilibrium moisture content found with those given by Nelson's equation. The research was developed at the Experimental Unit of Wood Panel Production of the Universidade Federal de Lavras. Samples of particleboard, plywood, hardboard, OSB (Oriented Strand Board, MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard, HDF (High Density Fiberboard, cement wood and plastic wood were taken both from

  14. The effect of sulphide and moisture content on steel corrosion during transport of fine wet coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waanders, F. B.; Vorster, S. W.

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation the influence of compaction pressure (stress) on the corrosivity of wet coal was investigated. Two coal samples, one high in sulphur content (3 %) and the other low in sulphur content (0.6 %) were used to determine the influence of compaction stress on the corrosion rates of steel samples in contact with compacted coal. It was found that the pressure exerted on finely divided wet coal is an important factor in determining its water content and corrosivity towards mild steel. Corrosion of the steel was typically in the form of pitting and the sulphur content of the coal was an important factor in determining the corrosivity of the coal. The corrosion rate of the high sulphur content coal was higher than that of the low sulphur coal. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that a FeS species developed on the steel surface.

  15. [Seasonal changes and response to stress of total flavonoids content of Farfugium japonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dalian; Ma, Yuxin

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the seasonal variation of total flavonoid content of Farfugium japonicum and its response to stress. The total flavonoids of Farfugium japonicum were determined by spectrophotometry in different seasons and under various stressful factors. The total flavonoid content in Farfugium japonicum leaves was the highest, followed by the petiole, and rhizomes (Pseasons (Pwater stress, the total flavonoid content in Farfugium japonicum leaves gradually increased, that in petiole first increased and then decreased,while that in rhizomes decreased (Pstress, the total flavonoid content in leaves, petioles and rhizomes of Farfugium japonicum showed a decreasing trend (Pseasons and that in different parts of the plant has different responses to ecological stressful factors.

  16. Effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. by-product on the quality and total phenol content of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroua Boubaker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Legume flours, due to their phenol and fibre content, are ideal ingredients for improving the nutritional value of bakery products. In this study, artichoke stem powder (ASP was used to substitute 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% of wheat flour for making breads. Proximate composition of wheat flour and ASP were determined. Bread qualities and total phenols content were analyzed and compared with those of wheat bread. Results show that ASP contained 10.37% moisture, 10.28% ash, 11.53% protein, 0.86% fat, 51.29% fibre and 1350 mg EAG/100g d.m. ASP addition considerably modified the bread quality: altered appearance and texture, darker crumb and more intense odour were observed. From the sensory evaluation, tastes of bread with higher content of ASP (7.5 and 10% were the most acceptable for assessors. Total phenol contents of breads significantly increased with the addition of ASP. Therefore ASP may be considered as valuable ingredients for industrial manufacture of functional foods.

  17. Influence of mineralogy and moisture content on plasticity and induced anisotropic damage of a clay-stone: application to nuclear waste disposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarelli, A.S.; Sibai, M.; Karami, M.; Ledesert, B.; Hoteit, N.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of mineralogy and moisture content on mechanical behaviour of a clay-stone rock is studied by the way of uniaxial and triaxial compression tests and microscopic observations. Some parameters characteristic of phenomena like plasticity and induced anisotropic damage are discussed as a function of these two factors. Rock behaviour becomes more brittle when calcite content grows or when clay or moisture content decreases. At the micro-level, plasticity is induced by slip of clay sheets and induced anisotropic damage appears by growth of oriented microcracks at the interface between grains and matrix. (authors)

  18. Nitrate and Moisture Content of Broad Permafrost Landscape Features in the Barrow Peninsula: Predicting Evolving NO3 Concentrations in a Changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, C. A.; Heikoop, J. M.; Newman, B. D.; Wales, N. A.; McCaully, R. E.; Wilson, C. J.; Wullschleger, S.

    2017-12-01

    The geochemical evolution of Arctic regions as permafrost degrades, significantly impacts nutrient availability. The release of nitrogen compounds from permafrost degradation fertilizes both microbial decomposition and plant productivity. Arctic warming promotes permafrost degradation, causing geomorphic and hydrologic transitions that have the potential to convert saturated zones to unsaturated zones and subsequently alter the nitrate production capacity of permafrost regions. Changes in Nitrate (NO3-) content associated with shifting moisture regimes are a primary factor determining Arctic fertilization and subsequent primary productivity, and have direct feedbacks to carbon cycling. We have documented a broad survey of co-located soil moisture and nitrate concentration measurements in shallow active layer regions across a variety of topographic features in the expansive continuous permafrost region encompassing the Barrow Peninsula of Alaska. Topographic features of interest are slightly higher relative to surrounding landscapes with drier soils and elevated nitrate, including the rims of low centered polygons, the centers of flat and high centered polygons, the rims of young, old and ancient drain thaw lake basins and drainage slopes that exist across the landscape. With this information, we model the nitrate inventory of the Barrow Peninsula using multiple geospatial approaches to estimate total area cover by unsaturated features of interest and further predict how various drying scenarios increase the magnitude of nitrate produced in degrading permafrost regions across the Arctic. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment, NGEE-Arctic.

  19. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COVER CROP RESIDUES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT UNDER A TOMATO CROP (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Njomo Karuku

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYThe soil water storage, soil water content, available water content and soil water balance under various cover crop residue management practices in a Nitisol were evaluated in a field experiment at the Kabete Field Station, University of Nairobi. The effects of surface mulching, above and below ground biomass and roots only incorporated of (mucuna pruriens, Tanzanian sunnhemp (Crotalaria ochroleuca and Vetch (Vicia benghalensis cover crops, fertilizer and non fertilized plots on soil water balance were studied. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum was used as the test crop. Since water content was close to field capacity, the drainage component at 100 cm soil depth was negligible and evapotranspiration was therefore derived from the change in soil moisture storage and precipitation. Residue management showed that above and below ground biomass incorporated optimized the partitioning of the water balance components, increasing moisture storage, leading to increased tomato yields and water use efficiency. Furthermore, vetch above and below ground biomass incorporated significantly improved the quantity and frequency of deep percolation. Soil fertilization (F and non fertilization (NF caused the most unfavourable partitioning of water balance, leading to the lowest yield and WUE. Tomato yields ranged from 4.1 in NF to 7.4 Mg ha-1 in Vetch treated plots. Vetch above and belowground biomass incorporated had significant (p ≤ 0.1 yields of 11.4 Mg ha-1 compared to all other residue management systems. Vetch residue treatment had the highest WUE (22.7 kg mm-1 ha-1 followed by mucuna treated plots (20.7 kg mm-1 ha-1 and both were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05 compared to the others irrespective of residue management practices.

  20. Influence of the Moisture Content on the Flowability of Fine-Grained Iron Ore Concentrate

    OpenAIRE

    C. Lanzerstorfer; M. Hinterberger

    2017-01-01

    The iron content of the ore used is crucial for the productivity and coke consumption rate in blast furnace pig iron production. Therefore, most iron ore deposits are processed in beneficiation plants to increase the iron content and remove impurities. In several comminution stages, the particle size of the ore is reduced to ensure that the iron oxides are physically liberated from the gangue. Subsequently, physical separation processes are applied to concentrate the iron ore. The fine-graine...

  1. Organic matter and soil moisture content and double cropping with organic matter sourceplants

    OpenAIRE

    John Bako Baon; Aris Wibawa

    2005-01-01

    Double cropping of coffee with organic matter source plants is thought to increase organic matter content of soil. This study examined the effect of double cropping of coffee and organic matter source plants on soil organic matter content and yield of coffee plants. Arabica coffee trees in Andungsari Experimental Station (Bondowoso district), 1400 m asl. and climate type C; and Robusta coffee trees in Sumberasin Experimental Station (Malang district), 550 m asl. and climate type C, were used ...

  2. Production and characterization refuse derived fuel (RDF) from high organic and moisture contents of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianda, P.; Mahidin; Munawar, E.

    2018-03-01

    Many cities in developing countries is facing a serious problems to dealing with huge municipal solid waste (MSW) generated. The main approach to manage MSW is causes environmental impact associated with the leachate and landfill gas emissions. On the other hand, the energy available also limited by rapid growth of population and economic development due to shortage of the natural resource. In this study, the potential utilized of MSW to produce refuse derived fuel (RDF) was investigate. The RDF was produced with various organic waste content. Then, the RDF was subjected to laboratory analysis to determine its characteristic including the calorific value. The results shows the moisture content was increased by increasing organic waste content, while the calorific value was found 17-36 MJ/kg. The highest calorific value was about 36 MJ/kg obtained at RDF with 40% organic waste content. This results indicated that the RDF can be use to substitute coal in main burning process and calcinations of cement industry.

  3. Effect of Syngas Moisture Content on the Emissions of Micro-Gas Turbine Fueled with Syngas/LPG in Dual Fuel Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadig Hussain

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Syngas produced by gasification has a potential to be one of the fueling solutions for gas turbines in the future. In addition to the combustible constituents and inert gases, syngas derived by gasification contains a considerable amount of water vapor which effect on syngas combustion behaviour. In this work, a micro-gas turbine with a thermal capacity of 50 kW was simulated using ASPEN Plus. The micro gas turbine system emissions were characterized using dry syngas fuels with a different composition, syngas 1 (10.53% H2, 24.94% CO, 2.03% CH4, 12.80% CO2, and 49.70% N2 and syngas 2 (21.62% H2, 32.48% CO, 3.72% CH4, 19.69% CO2, and 22.49% N2 mixed with LPG in a dual fueling mode. The effect of syngas moisture content was then studied by testing the system with moist syngas/LPG with a moisture content ranging from 0 to 20% by volume. The study demonstrates that the syngas moisture content has high influence on nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide emissions. It’s found that for 5% syngas moisture content, the NOx emission were reduced by 75.5% and 83% for Syngas 1 and Syngas 2 respectively. On carbon monoxide emissions and for same moisture content ratio, the reduction was found to be 43% and 57% for syngas1 and syngas 2 respectively.

  4. Influence of moisture content and temperature on degree of carbonation and the effect on Cu and Cr leaching from incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenlin Yvonne; Heng, Kim Soon; Sun, Xiaolong; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the influence of moisture content and temperature on the degree of carbonation of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration bottom ash (IBA) from two different incineration plants in Singapore. The initial rate of carbonation was affected by the nominal moisture content used. Carbonation temperature seemed to play a part in changing the actual moisture content of IBA during carbonation, which in turn affected the degree of carbonation. Results showed that 2h of carbonation was sufficient for the samples to reach a relatively high degree of carbonation that was close to the degree of carbonation observed after 1week of carbonation. Both Cu and Cr leaching also showed significant reduction after only 2h of carbonation. Therefore, the optimum moisture content and temperature were selected based on 2h of carbonation. The optimum moisture content was 15% for both incineration plants while the optimum temperature was different for the two incineration plants, at 35°C and 50°C. The effect on Cu and Cr leaching from IBA after accelerated carbonation was evaluated as a function of carbonation time. Correlation coefficient, Pearson's R, was used to determine the dominant leaching mechanism. The reduction in Cu leaching was found to be contributed by both formation of carbonate mineral and reduction of DOC leaching. On the other hand, Cr leaching seemed to be dominantly controlled by pH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.T.; Cates, M.R.; Franks, L.A.; Kunz, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fissions are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for 239 Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed delayed neutrons

  6. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Rui; Ismail, Tamer M.; Ren, Xiaohan; Abd El-Salam, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of moisture content on the burning process of MSW are investigated. • A two-dimensional mathematical model was built to simulate the combustion process. • Temperature distributions, process rates, gas species were measured and simulated. • The The conversion ratio of C/CO and N/NO in MSW are inverse to moisture content. - Abstract: In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k–ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW

  7. Numerical and experimental studies on effects of moisture content on combustion characteristics of simulated municipal solid wastes in a fixed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Rui, E-mail: Sunsr@hit.edu.cn [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Ismail, Tamer M., E-mail: temoil@aucegypt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Ren, Xiaohan [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92, West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Abd El-Salam, M. [Department of Basic Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The effects of moisture content on the burning process of MSW are investigated. • A two-dimensional mathematical model was built to simulate the combustion process. • Temperature distributions, process rates, gas species were measured and simulated. • The The conversion ratio of C/CO and N/NO in MSW are inverse to moisture content. - Abstract: In order to reveal the features of the combustion process in the porous bed of a waste incinerator, a two-dimensional unsteady state model and experimental study were employed to investigate the combustion process in a fixed bed of municipal solid waste (MSW) on the combustion process in a fixed bed reactor. Conservation equations of the waste bed were implemented to describe the incineration process. The gas phase turbulence was modeled using the k–ε turbulent model and the particle phase was modeled using the kinetic theory of granular flow. The rate of moisture evaporation, devolatilization rate, and char burnout was calculated according to the waste property characters. The simulation results were then compared with experimental data for different moisture content of MSW, which shows that the incineration process of waste in the fixed bed is reasonably simulated. The simulation results of solid temperature, gas species and process rate in the bed are accordant with experimental data. Due to the high moisture content of fuel, moisture evaporation consumes a vast amount of heat, and the evaporation takes up most of the combustion time (about 2/3 of the whole combustion process). The whole bed combustion process reduces greatly as MSW moisture content increases. The experimental and simulation results provide direction for design and optimization of the fixed bed of MSW.

  8. Effect of total solids content on methane and volatile fatty acid production in anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Flavia; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco; Pontoni, Ludovico

    2014-10-01

    This work investigates the role of the moisture content on anaerobic digestion of food waste, as representative of rapidly biodegradable substrates, analysing the role of volatile fatty acid production on process kinetics. A range of total solids from 4.5% to 19.2% is considered in order to compare methane yields and kinetics of reactors operated under wet to dry conditions. The experimental results show a reduction of the specific final methane yield of 4.3% and 40.8% in semi-dry and dry conditions compared with wet conditions. A decreasing trend of the specific initial methane production rate is observed when increasing the total solids concentration. Because of lack of water, volatile fatty acids accumulation occurs during the first step of the process at semi-dry and dry conditions, which is considered to be responsible for the reduction of process kinetic rates. The total volatile fatty acids concentration and speciation are proposed as indicators of process development at different total solids content. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Regulation of Picea abies seed dormancy by red and far-red light at various moisture contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, K.; Chantal, M. de [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    1998-04-01

    The effects of red (R), far-red (FR) and R+FR light on Norway spruce seed dormancy were studied at five different moisture contents (MC) between 5 and 20%. The degree of dormancy was studied by germinating seeds over a wide range of temperatures in the dark. The non-irradiated control seeds were shallowly dormant, only a proportion of them germinated and within a limited temperature range. Red light progressively stimulated germination between 5 and 17% MC, but this effect was reversed if a FR treatment followed, although all germination could not be inhibited by one FR pulse. Far-red light had a slightly stimulating effect at 19% MC. To generate seeds able to germinate over a wide range of temperatures in darkness, an artificial light pretreatment should be given to seeds at MC above 17% in order to receive maximum response 24 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  10. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for the simultaneous determination of Density and Moisture Content in Porous Structural Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Jensen, Signe Kamp; Gerward, Leif

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the dual-energy x-ray equipment, which consists of a x-ray source, filters and a detector. The x-ray beam can be moved automatically in two dimensions relative to a fixed specimen. The purpose of the equipment is to measure simultaneously the density and moisture content...... in porous materials relevant for the building industry. The theory of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is presented. DEXA results on two combinations of aluminium and acrylic plastic are compared with corresponding values calculated from the geometry of the experimental setup. The results from the x......-ray measurements show good agreement with results from the two standard materials which imitate water in a porous material. On this background the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurement principle can be used on porous structural materials....

  11. Randomized controlled trial on postoperative pulmonary humidification after total laryngectomy: external humidifier versus heat and moisture exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérol, Jean-Claude; Charpiot, Anne; Langagne, Thibault; Hémar, Patrick; Ackerstaff, Annemieke H; Hilgers, Frans J M

    2012-02-01

    Assessment of immediate postoperative airway humidification after total laryngectomy (TLE), comparing the use of an external humidifier (EH) with humidification through a heat and moisture exchanger (HME). Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Fifty-three patients were randomized into the standard (control) EH (N = 26) or the experimental HME arm (N = 27). Compliance, pulmonary and sleeping problems, patients' and nursing staff satisfaction, nursing time, and cost-effectiveness were assessed with trial-specific structured questionnaires and tally sheets. In the EH arm data were available for all patients, whereas in the HME arm data were incomplete for four patients. The 24/7 compliance rate in the EH arm was 12% and in the HME arm 87% (77% if the four nonevaluable patients are considered noncompliant). Compliance and patients' satisfaction were significantly better, and the number of coughing episodes, mucus expectoration for clearing the trachea, and sleeping disturbances were significantly less in the HME arm (P humidification by means of an HME over the use of an EH after TLE. This study therefore underlines that HMEs presently can be considered the better option for early postoperative airway humidification after TLE. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Assessment of the variation of the moisture content in the Pinus pinaster Ait. using the non destructive GPR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díez Barra, R.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The moisture content variations in wood have a significant influence in wood’s physicochemical properties, as well as in its electromagnetic properties and to specific effects upon waves’ characteristics. In particular, this paper focuses on the analysis of the Ground-penetrating Radar’s (GPR using an antenna of 1.6GHz central frequency capacity to register the velocity and the amplitude of the electromagnetic waves’ variation during the drying process of Pinus pinaster Ait timber joists. The results showed that when timber MC descends, the propagation velocity and amplitude of both the direct and the reflected wave increased. The high correlation found between the variables studied demonstrates GPR efficiency and the innovative application of this technique as a non-destructive evaluation tool for timber structures, particularly when studying its moisture content.La variación en el contenido de humedad (CH tiene una influencia significativa tanto en las propiedades físico- químicas de la madera, como en sus propiedades electromagnéticas y por tanto afecta a las características de la propagación de las ondas. En concreto, en este trabajo se estudia la capacidad del georradar (GR empleando una antena de 1.6GHz de frecuencia central para registrar las variaciones que se producen en la velocidad y en la amplitud de las ondas electromagnéticas cuando se propagan en unas viguetas de madera de Pinus pinaster Ait de uso estructural cuyo CH va disminuyendo. Se ha comprobado como cuando el CH descendía la velocidad de propagación y las amplitudes, tanto de la onda directa como de la reflejada aumentaba. Los altos factores de correlación encontrados demuestran que el GR es una técnica capaz de evaluar, de forma no destructiva, el CH de la madera de uso estructural.

  13. Assessment of Wildfire Risk in Southern California with Live Fuel Moisture Measurement and Remotely Sensed Vegetation Water Content Proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, S.; Kim, S. H.; Nghiem, S. V.; Kafatos, M.

    2017-12-01

    Live fuel moisture (LFM) is the water content of live herbaceous plants expressed as a percentage of the oven-dry weight of plant. It is a critical parameter in fire ignition in Mediterranean climate and routinely measured in sites selected by fire agencies across the U.S. Vegetation growing cycle, meteorological metrics, soil type, and topography all contribute to the seasonal and inter-annual variation of LFM, and therefore, the risk of wildfire. The optical remote sensing-based vegetation indices (VIs) have been used to estimate the LFM. Comparing to the VIs, microwave remote sensing products have advantages like less saturation effect in greenness and representing the water content of the vegetation cover. In this study, we established three models to evaluate the predictability of LFM in Southern California using MODIS NDVI, vegetation temperature condition index (VTCI) from downscaled Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) products, and vegetation optical depth (VOD) derived by Land Parameter Retrieval Model. Other ancillary variables, such as topographic factors (aspects and slope) and meteorological metrics (air temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity), are also considered in the models. The model results revealed an improvement of LFM estimation from SMAP products and VOD, despite the uncertainties introduced in the downscaling and parameter retrieval. The estimation of LFM using remote sensing data can provide an assessment of wildfire danger better than current methods using NDVI-based growing seasonal index. Future study will test the VOD estimation from SMAP data using the multi-temporal dual channel algorithm (MT-DCA) and extend the LFM modeling to a regional scale.

  14. Multi-channel ground-penetrating radar to explore spatial variations in thaw depth and moisture content in the active layer of a permafrost site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Wollschläger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-channel ground-penetrating radar (GPR was applied at a permafrost site on the Tibetan Plateau to investigate the influence of surface properties and soil texture on the late-summer thaw depth and average soil moisture content of the active layer. Measurements were conducted on an approximately 85 × 60 m2 sized area with surface and soil textural properties that ranged from medium to coarse textured bare soil to finer textured, sparsely vegetated areas covered with fine, wind blown sand, and it included the bed of a gravel road. The survey allowed a clear differentiation of the various units. It showed (i a shallow thaw depth and low average soil moisture content below the sand-covered, vegetated area, (ii an intermediate thaw depth and high average soil moisture content along the gravel road, and (iii an intermediate to deep thaw depth and low to intermediate average soil moisture content in the bare soil terrain. From our measurements, we found hypotheses for the permafrost processes at this site leading to the observed late-summer thaw depth and soil moisture conditions. The study clearly indicates the complicated interactions between surface and subsurface state variables and processes in this environment. Multi-channel GPR is an operational technology to efficiently study such a system at scales varying from a few meters to a few kilometers.

  15. Gamma-ray yield dependence on bulk density and moisture content of a sample of a PGNAA setup. A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagadi, M.M.; Naqvi, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were carried out to study the dependence of γ-ray yield on the bulk density and moisture content of a sample in a thermalneutron capture-based prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup. The results of the study showed a strong dependence of the γ-ray yield upon the sample bulk density. An order of magnitude increase in yield of 1.94 and 6.42 MeV prompt γ-rays from calcium in a Portland cement sample was observed for a corresponding order of magnitude increase in the sample bulk density. On the contrary the γ-ray yield has a weak dependence on sample moisture content and an increase of only 20% in yield of 1.94 and 6.42 MeV prompt γ-rays from calcium in the Portland cement sample was observed for an order of magnitude increase in the moisture content of the Portland cement sample. A similar effect of moisture content has been observed on the yield of 1.167 MeV prompt γ-rays from chlorine contaminants in Portland cement samples. For an order of magnitude increase in the moisture content of the sample, a 7 to 12% increase in the yield of the 1.167 MeV chlorine γ-ray was observed for the Portland cement samples containing 1 to 5 wt.% chlorine contaminants. This study has shown that effects of sample moisture content on prompt γ-ray yield from constituents of a Portland cement sample are insignificant in a thermal-neutrons capture-based PGNAA setup. (author)

  16. Study of the effect of moisture content and bending rate on the fracture toughness of rocks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavro, Leona; Souček, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2013), s. 247-253 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : fracture toughness * bending rate * tensile strength Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2013 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/materialy/acta_content/2013_02/acta_170_14_Vavro_Soucek_247-253.pdf

  17. Neutron activation analysis for sulphur in coal samples and moisture content by gamma-ray transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.

    1993-01-01

    A neutron activation analysis method is described for the determination of sulphur in coal samples by analysing the beta spectrum emitted from 32 P and 33 P following the reactions 32 S(n, p) 32 P and 33 S(n, p) 33 P using 252 Cf as a source of neutrons. The transmission of the combined gamma-rays emitted from three 137 Cs and three 241 Am sources is used to measure the water content of the coal samples. (author)

  18. The impact of compaction, moisture content, particle size and type of bulking agent on initial physical properties of sludge-bulking agent mixtures before composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, J; Druilhe, C; Trémier, A; Benoist, J C; Debenest, G

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to experimentally acquire evolution profiles between depth, bulk density, Free Air Space (FAS), air permeability and thermal conductivity in initial composting materials. The impact of two different moisture content, two particle size and two types of bulking agent on these four parameters was also evaluated. Bulk density and thermal conductivity both increased with depth while FAS and air permeability both decreased with it. Moreover, depth and moisture content had a significant impact on almost all the four physical parameters contrary to particle size and the type of bulking agent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT ON TOTAL CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT OF CERTAIN AQUATIC MACROPHYTES

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Priti; Vishen Ashish; Wadhwani R; Pandey Y.N

    2012-01-01

    To assess the toxicity of industrial effluents on certain macrophytes, the total chlorophyll content of free floating, submerged and emergent macrophytes were estimated in concentrations of industrial effluents at varying exposure duration. The result revealed reduction in total chlorophyll content of exposed macrophytes at higher concentrations of industrial effluents on prolonged duration.

  20. Estimating and Up-Scaling Fuel Moisture and Leaf Dry Matter Content of a Temperate Humid Forest Using Multi Resolution Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Adab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation moisture and dry matter content are important indicators in predicting the behavior of fire and it is widely used in fire spread models. In this study, leaf fuel moisture content such as Live Fuel Moisture Content (LFMC, Leaf Relative Water Content (RWC, Dead Fuel Moisture Content (DFMC, and Leaf Dry Matter Content (LDMC (hereinafter known as moisture content indices (MCI were calculated in the field for different forest species at 32 sites in a temperate humid forest (Zaringol forest located in northeastern Iran. These data and several relevant vegetation-biophysical indices and atmospheric variables calculated using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ data with moderate spatial resolution (30 m were used to estimate MCI of the Zaringol forest using Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR methods. The prediction of MCI using ANN showed that ETM+ predicted MCI slightly better (Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE of 6%–12% than MLR (MAPE between 8% and 17%. Once satisfactory results in estimating MCI were obtained by using ANN from ETM+ data, these data were then upscaled to estimate MCI using MODIS data for daily monitoring of leaf water and leaf dry matter content at 500 m spatial resolution. For MODIS derived LFMC, LDMC, RWC, and DLMC, the ANN produced a MAPE between 11% and 29% for the indices compared to MLR which produced an MAPE of 14%–33%. In conclusion, we suggest that upscaling is necessary for solving the scale discrepancy problems between the indicators and low spatial resolution MODIS data. The scaling up of MCI could be used for pre-fire alert system and thereby can detect fire prone areas in near real time for fire-fighting operations.

  1. Antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content in different apple varieties cultivated in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Quitral, Vilma; Sepulveda, Marcela; Schwartz, Marco; Kern, Werther

    2014-01-01

    Three apple varieties cultivated in Chile were studied in total polyphenol content by Folin Ciocalteu method and antioxidant capacity by FRAP method: Granny Smith, Royal Gala and Fuji (whole and peeled apples). The total polyphenol content in whole and peeled apples do not show significant differences. The antioxidant capacity of the Granny Smith variety is significantly higher than Royal Gala and Fuji. Apple dehydration at 60 oC for 4 hours to obtain flakes keeps polyphenol content high. The...

  2. Relative performance evaluation of a custom-made near infrared reflectance instrument and two commercial instruments (Foss and ASD) in the nondestructive moisture content measurement of in-shell peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A custom made Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) spectroscope was used to determine the moisture content of in-shell peanuts of Virginia type peanuts. Peanuts were conditioned to different moisture levels between 6 and 26 % (wet basis) and samples from different moisture levels were separated into two...

  3. Avaliação do teor de umidade da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis por medidores elétricos resistivos. Evaluation of the Eucalyptus grandis lumber moisture content by resistancetype moisture meters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Eduardo Guarnetti dos SANTOS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivoverificar a precisão de dois tipos de medidoreselétricos de teor de umidade durante o processo desecagem da madeira de Eucalyptus grandis. Foramretiradas amostras representativas de 14 tábuas deEucalyptus grandis e secas em estufa elétrica a40 ºC de temperatura, até que o material atingisse10% de umidade. Durante a secagem foramdeterminados, periodicamente, o teor de umidadeatravés do método de massas correntes e deverificações simultâneas com um medidor elétricoportátil (EMM e com o sistema de controle de umsecador convencional (KCS. Os resultados mostraramque: (1 o sensor de umidade KCS pode substituiro método gravimétrico durante a secagem damadeira; (2 o medidor do teor de umidade EMMsubestima os reais teores de umidade durante asecagem da madeira e não é indicado parasubstituir o método gravimétrico de determinação de umidade.The aim of the study was to evaluate theprecision of two types of electric moisture metersduring the drying process of Eucalyptus grandisboards. Samples were obtained from 14 boards ofEucalyptus grandis and they were dried in electriclaboratory oven at 40 ºC of temperature, until thewood achieve 10% of moisture content. During thedrying, the moisture content was determined bygravimetric method and simultaneous checks by anelectric moisture meter (EMM and by kilncontrol system (KCS. The results showed that:(1 the KCS can replace the gravimetric methodduring the wood drying; (2 the EMMunderestimate the real moisture content during thedrying of boards and it is not indicate as substituteof the gravimetric method.

  4. Solid waste leach characteristics and contaminant-sediment interactions Volume 2: Contaminant transport under unsaturated moisture contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenmeier, C.W.; Serne, R.J.; Conca, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    The objectives of this report and subsequent volumes include describing progress on (1) development and optimization of experimental methods to quantify the release of contaminants from solid wastes and their subsequent interactions with unsaturated sediments and (2) the creation of empirical data that become input parameters to performance assessment (PA) analyses for future Hanford Site disposal units and baseline risk assessments for inactive and existing solid waste disposal units. For this report, efforts focused on developing methodologies to evaluate contaminant transport in Trench 8 (W-5 Burial Ground) sediments under unsaturated (vadose zone) conditions. To accomplish this task, a series of flow-through column tests were run using standard saturated column systems, Wierenga unsaturated column systems (both commercial and modified), and the Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA). The reactants investigated were 85 Sr, 236 U, and 238 U as reactive tracers, and tritium as a non-reactive tracer. Results indicate that for moderately unsaturated conditions (volumetric water contents >50 % of saturation), the Wierenga system performed reasonably well such that long water residence times (50-147 h) were achieved, and reasonably good steady-state flow conditions were maintained. The major drawbacks in using this system for reactive tracer work included (1) the inability to achieve reproducible and constant moisture content below 50% of saturation, (2) the four to six month time required to complete a single test, and (3) the propensity for mechanical failure resulting from laboratory power outages during the prolonged testing period

  5. Impact of slurry application method on phosphorus loss in runoff from grassland soils during periods of high soil moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McConnell D.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that the trailing shoe application technique reduces phosphorus (P in the runoff postslurry application when compared to the traditional splash-plate application technique. However, the effectiveness of the trailing-shoe technique as a means of reducing P losses has not been evaluated when slurry is applied during periods of high soil moisture levels and lower herbage covers. To address this issue, three treatments were examined in a 3 × 4 factorial design split-plot experiment, with treatments comprising three slurry treatments: control (no slurry, splashplate and trailing-shoe, and four slurry application dates: 7 December, 18 January, 1 March and 10 April. Dairy cow slurry was applied at a rate of 20 m3/ha, while simulated runoff was generated 2, 9 and 16 days later and analysed for a range of P fractions. Dissolved reactive P concentrations in runoff at day two was 41% lower when slurry was applied using the trailing-shoe technique, compared to the splash-plate technique (P < 0.05. In addition, P concentrations in runoff were higher (P < 0.05 from slurry applied in December and March compared to slurry applied in January or April, coinciding with periods of higher soil moisture contents. While the latter highlights that ‘calendar’-based non-spreading periods might not always achieve the desired consequences, the study demonstrated that further field-scale investigations into the trailing shoe as a mitigation measure to reduced P loss from agricultural soils is warranted.

  6. Development of a neutron moisture gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    A neutron moisture gauge fabricated for measuring the moisture content of coke is described. It has an americium-beryllium source placed beside a boron coated neutron counter which is a slow neutron detector. The fast neutrons emitted by the radioactive source are slowed down by the hydrogen nuclei present in the material either as bound hydrogen or as a hydrogen of the water. Measure of the slowed down i.e. thermal neutrons (their density) is proportional to the total hydrogen content of the material. The instrument is installed as an ''on-line'' measuring device to estimate the moisture content of coke at the weighing hopper feeding the skip car. The accuracy of measurement is dependent on the moisture content, i.e. higher accuracy is obtained for higher moisture content. At low moisture content, the effect of the bound hydrogen other than that of the water on low moisture readings is pronounced. Effect of bulk density on the accuracy of measurement is not very significant as long as the coke size is constant. The error is in the range of +- 1.1%. (M.G.B.)

  7. Effects of moisture content or particle size on the in situ degradability of maize silage and alfalfa haylage in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yang; Dong, Shuangzhao; Du, Yun; Li, Shengli; Wang, Yajing; Cao, Zhijun

    2016-09-01

    A study using four Holstein cows with ruminal cannulas was conducted to evaluate the degradability of different moisture content or particle size of maize silage and alfalfa haylage. The maize silage (MS; 20-mm length) and alfalfa haylage (AH; 40-mm length) samples were wet (wet maize silage, MSW; wet alfalfa haylage, AHW), dried (dried maize silage, MSD; dried alfalfa haylage, AHD), or ground to pass through a 2.5-mm screen (dried ground maize silage, MSG; dried ground alfalfa haylage, AHG). Samples were incubated in the rumen for 2, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h. Cows were fed ad libitum and allowed free access to water. High moisture content treatment of MSW expressed a lower rinsing NDF and ADF degradability at 2 h ( P  < 0.05) compared with dried samples (MSD and MSG). Different moisture content and particle size had a significant impact ( P  < 0.05) on the NDF degradability at 72 h, ADF degradability at 36, 48, and 72 h, and ruminally degradable ADF. All of the highest values were observed in small particle size and low moisture content AHG treatment. Based on this study, sample processing, such as drying and grinding, should be considered when evaluating nutritive values of forages.

  8. Toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus crypticus changes under a global warming perspective: Variations in air temperature and soil moisture content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Alcaraz, M.N.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess how the current global warming perspective, with increasing air temperature (20 °C vs. 25 °C) and decreasing soil moisture content (50% vs. 30% of the soil water holding capacity, WHC), affected the toxicity of a metal(loid)-polluted agricultural soil to Enchytraeus

  9. A multivariate mixed model system for wood specific gravity and moisture content of planted loblolly pine stands in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finto Antony; Laurence R. Schimleck; Alex Clark; Richard F. Daniels

    2012-01-01

    Specific gravity (SG) and moisture content (MC) both have a strong influence on the quantity and quality of wood fiber. We proposed a multivariate mixed model system to model the two properties simultaneously. Disk SG and MC at different height levels were measured from 3 trees in 135 stands across the natural range of loblolly pine and the stand level values were used...

  10. Moisture content, insect pests and mycotoxin levels of maize at harvest and post-harvest in the Middle Belt of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture content, insect pest infestation and mycotoxin contamination of maize are challenges to food safety and security, especially in the tropics where maize is a staple grain. However, very little documentation is available on the impact of these factors on maize in Ghana. This study focused on ...

  11. Initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affects chemical properties of bagged substrates containing controlled release fertilizer at two different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagged potting mixes can be stored for weeks or months before being used by consumers. Some bagged potting mixes are amended with controlled release fertilizers (CRF). The objective of this research was to observe how initial substrate moisture content and storage temperature affect the chemical p...

  12. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS LIGNIN DERIVED FROM CORN STOVER AS AN INTRINSTIC BINDER FOR BIO-COMPOSITES MANUFACTURE: EFFECT OF FIBER MOISTURE CONTENT AND PRESSING TEMPERATURE ON BOARDS’ PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanben Du

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Binderless fiberboards from enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL and cotton stalk fibers were prepared under various manufacturing conditions, and their physico-mechanical properties were evaluated. Full factorial experimental design was used to assess the effect of fiber moisture content and pressing temperature on boards’ properties. In addition, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to obtain the glass transition temperature (Tg of EHL. We found that both fiber moisture content and pressing temperature had significant effects on binderless fiberboards’ properties. High fiber moisture content and pressing temperature are suggested to contribute to the self-bonding improvement among fibers with lignin-rich surface mainly by thermal softening enzymatic hydrolysis lignin. In this experiment, the optimized pressing temperature applied in binderless fiberboard production should be as high as 190°C in accordance with the EHL Tg value of 189.4°C, and the fiber moisture content should be limited to less than 20% with a higher board density of 950 kg/m3 to avoid the delamination of boards during hot pressing.

  13. Effects of moisture content or particle size on the in situ degradability of maize silage and alfalfa haylage in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A study using four Holstein cows with ruminal cannulas was conducted to evaluate the degradability of different moisture content or particle size of maize silage and alfalfa haylage. The maize silage (MS; 20-mm length and alfalfa haylage (AH; 40-mm length samples were wet (wet maize silage, MSW; wet alfalfa haylage, AHW, dried (dried maize silage, MSD; dried alfalfa haylage, AHD, or ground to pass through a 2.5-mm screen (dried ground maize silage, MSG; dried ground alfalfa haylage, AHG. Samples were incubated in the rumen for 2, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h. Cows were fed ad libitum and allowed free access to water. High moisture content treatment of MSW expressed a lower rinsing NDF and ADF degradability at 2 h (P < 0.05 compared with dried samples (MSD and MSG. Different moisture content and particle size had a significant impact (P < 0.05 on the NDF degradability at 72 h, ADF degradability at 36, 48, and 72 h, and ruminally degradable ADF. All of the highest values were observed in small particle size and low moisture content AHG treatment. Based on this study, sample processing, such as drying and grinding, should be considered when evaluating nutritive values of forages.

  14. Non-destructive and rapid prediction of moisture content in red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) powder using near-infrared spectroscopy and a partial least squares regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a technique for the non-destructive and rapid prediction of the moisture content in red pepper powder using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and a partial least squares regression (PLSR) model. Methods: Three red pepper powder products were separated in...

  15. The effect of moisture content on the thermal conductivity of moss and organic soil horizons from black spruce ecosystems in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan A. O' Donnell; Vladimir E. Romanovsky; Jennifer W. Harden; A. David. McGuire

    2009-01-01

    Organic soil horizons function as important controls on the thermal state of near-surface soil and permafrost in high-latitude ecosystems. The thermal conductivity of organic horizons is typically lower than mineral soils and is closely linked to moisture content, bulk density, and water phase. In this study, we examined the relationship between thermal conductivity...

  16. Steam-explosion pretreatment of wood: effect of chip size, acid, moisture content and pressure drop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownell, H.H.; Yu, E.K.C.; Saddler, J.N.

    1986-06-01

    Material balances for pentosan, lignin, and hexosan, during steam-explosion pretreatment of aspenwood, showed almost quantitative recovery of cellulose in the water-insoluble fraction. Dilute acid impregnation resulted in more selective hydrolysis of pentosan relative to undesirable pyrolysis, and gave a more accessible substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis. Thermocouple probes, located inside simulated aspenwood chips heated in 240 degrees C-saturated steam, showed rapid heating of air-dry wood, whereas green or impregnated wood heated slowly. Small chips, 3.2 mm in the fiber direction, whether green or air dry gave approximately equal rates of pentosan destruction and solubilization, and similar yields of glucose and of total reducing sugars on enzmatic hydrolysis with Trichoderma harzianum. Partial pyrolysis, destroying one-third of the pentosan of aspenwood at atmospheric pressure by dry steam at 276 degrees C, gave little increase in yield of reducing sugars on enzymatic hydrolysis. Treatment with saturated steam at 240 degrees C gave essentially the same yields of butanediol and ethanol on fermentation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, whether or not 80% of the steam was bled off before explosion and even if the chips remained intact, showing that explosion was unnecessary. 17 references.

  17. Antioxidant properties, total phenolic and total flavonoid content of the Slovak white wines – welschriesling and chardonnay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bajčan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The biologically active compounds in wines, especially phenolics, are responsible for reduced risk of developing chronic diseses (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer disease, etc., due to their antioxidant activities. Twenty six Slovak white wines, produced from different geographical origins, were examined in this study. The antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of two types monovarietal wines - Welschriesling and Chardonnay were evaluated. All three mentioned parameters were determined by UV-VIS absorption spectrometry. The results showed that both types of Slovak white wines were high in polyphenols (average content was 303.2 mg GAE.L-1 in Welschriesling, resp. 355.6 mg GAE.L-1 in Chardonnay and flavonoids (average content was 51.9 mg CE.L-1 in Welschriesling, resp. 60.1 mg CE.L-1 in Chardonnay, as well as a high antioxidant activity (average value was 35.0% inhibition of DPPH in Welschriesling, resp. 43.3% inhibition of DPPH in Chardonnay, comparable to the wines produced in other regions in the world. Among the white wines, Chardonnay had higher content of total polyphenols, as well as flavonoids and higher values of antioxidant activity. Our results confirmed very strong linear correlations between all three analysed parameters (TPC, TFC and AA: TPC and TFC (r = 0.818, AA and TPC (r = 0.699, resp. TFC and AA (r = 0.693.

  18. The Effect of Moisture Content and Temperature on the Specific Heat Capacity of Nut and Kernel of Two Iranian Pistachio Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Salari Kia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pistachio has a special ranking among Iranian agricultural products. Iran is known as the largest producer and exporter of pistachio in the world. Agricultural products are imposed under different thermal treatments during storage and processing. Designing all these processes requires thermal parameters of the products such as specific heat capacity. Regarding the importance of pistachio processing as an exportable product, in this study the specific heat capacity of nut and kernel of two varieties of Iranian pistachio (Kalle-Ghochi and Badami were investigated at four levels of moisture content (initial moisture content (5%, 15%, 25% and 40% w.b. and three levels of temperature (40, 50 and 60°C. In both varieties, the differences between the data were significant at the 1% of probability; however, the effect of moisture content was greater than that of temperature. The results indicated that the specific heat capacity of both nuts and kernels increase logarithmically with increase of moisture content and also increase linearly with increase of temperature. This parameter has altered for nut and kernel of Kalle-Ghochi and Badami varieties within the range of 1.039-2.936 kJ kg-1 K-1, 1.236-3.320 kJ kg-1 K-1, 0.887-2.773 kJ kg-1 K-1 and 0.811-2.914 kJ kg-1 K-1, respectively. Moreover, for any given level of temperature, the specific heat capacity of kernels was higher than that of nuts. Finally, regression models with high R2 values were developed to predict the specific heat capacity of pistachio varieties as a function of moisture content and temperature

  19. Grau de umidade e temperatura na conservação de sementes de café Moisture content and temperature on the preservation of coffee seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL FELIPE DE OLIVEIRA GENTIL

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de verificar as influências do grau de umidade e da temperatura de armazenamento na manutenção da qualidade de sementes de Coffea arabica L. Sementes com 51%, 41%, 34%, 23%, 16% e 10% de água, acondicionadas em sacos de polietileno e mantidas sob temperaturas de 30 °C, 20 °C e 10 °C, durante 48 semanas de armazenamento, foram submetidas a avaliações periódicas do grau de umidade, da germinação, do vigor e da sanidade. Foi constatado que as reduções do grau de umidade até 10% e da temperatura até 10 °C são favoráveis à manutenção da qualidade fisiológica das sementes, e que umidade próxima a 23% favorece o estabelecimento de Penicillium sp. e de Aspergillus sp. nas sementes.The aim of this work was to verify the influences of the moisture content and storage temperature in the preservation of Coffea arabica L. seeds. Seeds with 51%, 41%, 34%, 23%, 16% and 10% moisture content were packed in polyethylene bags and stored at temperatures of 30 °C, 20 °C and 10 °C for forty-eight weeks, and submitted to periodic evaluations of moisture content, germination, vigour and sanity. Decreases in moisture content until 10% and temperature until 10 °C were favorable to the maintenance of seed physiological quality. Seed moisture content around 23% favor the establishment of Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of heat and moisture exchangers compared to usual care for pulmonary rehabilitation after total laryngectomy in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retèl, Valesca P.; van den Boer, Cindy; Steuten, Lotte M. G.; Okła, Sławomir; Hilgers, Frans J.; van den Brekel, Michiel W.

    2015-01-01

    The beneficial physical and psychosocial effects of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) for pulmonary rehabilitation of laryngectomy patients are well evidenced. However, cost-effectiveness in terms of costs per additional quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) has not yet been investigated. Therefore,

  1. CAMEX-4 DC-8 NEVZOROV TOTAL CONDENSED WATER CONTENT SENSOR V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nevzorov probe is an instrument that measures the total water content of the sample of air which passes through it. It flew on the NASA DC-8 during the CAMEX-4...

  2. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Radish as Influenced by the Variety and Vegetative Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doinița Borș

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of the variety and vegetative stage on the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of radish. Samples of seeds, sprouts (day-3, day-5 and day-7 and roots of three varieties (red, white and black of radish (Raphanussativus were collected and tested for the above-mentioned parameters. Determination of total phenolic content was performed by Folin-Ciocalteau assay and antioxidant activity by DPPH assay. The total phenolic content ranged between 4.75 and 19.44 mg GAE/g DW and the antioxidant capacity between 12 and 75%. The highest total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity was found in radish sprouts and the lowest in radish roots, and among samples in the black radish variety. 

  3. Innovative Natural Ingredients-Based Multiple Emulsions: The Effect on Human Skin Moisture, Sebum Content, Pore Size and Pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugne Cizauskaite

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The increased interest in natural cosmetics has resulted in a higher market demand for preservative-free products based on herbal ingredients. An innovative W/O/W type emulsions containing herbal extracts were prepared directly; its cation form was induced by an ethanolic rosemary extract and stabilized using weak herbal gels. Due to the wide phytochemical composition of herbal extracts and the presence of alcohol in the emulsion system, which can cause skin irritation, sensitization or dryness when applied topically, the safety of the investigated drug delivery system is necessary. The aim of our study was to estimate the potential of W/O/W emulsions based on natural ingredients for skin irritation and phototoxicity using reconstructed 3D epidermis models in vitro and to evaluate in vivo its effect on human skin moisture, sebum content and pigmentation by biomedical examination using a dermatoscopic camera and corneometer. According to the results obtained after in vitro cell viability test the investigated emulsion was neither irritant nor phototoxic to human skin keratinocytes. W/O/W emulsion did not cause skin dryness in vivo, despite the fact that it contained ethanol. We can conclude that the emulsion is safe for use as a leave-on product due to the positive effect on human skin characteristics or as a semisolid pharmaceutical base where active compounds could be encapsulated.

  4. Potential use of multispectral imaging technology to identify moisture content and water-holding capacity in cooked pork sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Wu; Li, Peijun; Niu, Xiangli; Chen, Conggui; Zheng, Lei

    2018-03-01

    The traditional detection methods for moisture content (MC) and water-holding capacity (WHC) in cooked pork sausages (CPS) are destructive, time consuming, require skilled personnel and are not suitable for online industry applications. The goal of this work was to explore the potential of multispectral imaging (MSI) in combination with multivariate analysis for the identification of MC and WHC in CPS. Spectra and textures of 156 CPS treated by six salt concentrations (0-2.5%) were analyzed using different calibration models to find the most optimal results of predicting MC and WHC in CPS. By using the fused data of spectra and textures, partial least squares regression models performed well for determining the MC and WHC, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.949 and 0.832, respectively. Additionally, their spatial distribution in CPS could be visualized via applying prediction equations to transfer each pixel in the image. Results of satisfactory detection and visualization of the MC and WHC showed that MSI has the potential to serve as a rapid and non-destructive method for use in sausage industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Total Phenolic Content in Sea Buckthorn Wine and Other Selected Fruit Wines

    OpenAIRE

    Bharti Negi; Gargi Dey

    2009-01-01

    This is the first report from India on a beverage resulting from alcoholic fermentation of the juice of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L) using lab isolated yeast strain. The health promoting potential of the product was evaluated based on its total phenolic content. The most important finding was that under the present fermentation condition, the total phenolic content of the wine product was 689 mg GAE/L. Investigation of influence of bottle ageing on the sea buckthorn wine showed a sl...

  6. Improvement of Soil Moisture Retrieval from Hyperspectral VNIR-SWIR Data Using Clay Content Information: From Laboratory to Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Oltra-Carrió

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the constraints and performance of SMC retrieval methodologies in the VNIR (Visible-Near InfraRed and SWIR (ShortWave InfraRed regions (from 0.4 to 2.5 µm when passing from controlled laboratory conditions to field conditions. Five different approaches of signal processing found in literature were considered. Four local criteria are spectral indices (WISOIL, NSMI, NINSOL and NINSON. These indices are the ratios between the spectral reflectances acquired at two specific wavelengths to characterize moisture content in soil. The last criterion is based in the convex hull concept and it is a global method, which is based on the analysis of the full spectral signature of the soil. The database was composed of 464 and 9 spectra, respectively, measured over bare soils in laboratory and in-situ. For each measurement, SMC and texture were well-known and the database was divided in two parts dedicated to calibration and validation steps. The calibration part was used to define the empirical relation between SMC and SMC retrieval approaches, with coefficients of determination (R2 between 0.72 and 0.92. A clay content (CC dependence was detected for the NINSOL and NINSON indices. Consequently, two new criteria were proposed taking into account the CC contribution (NINSOLCC and NINSONCC. The well-marked regression between SMC and global/local indices, and the interest of using the CC, were confirmed during the validation step using laboratory data (R² superior to 0.76 and Root mean square errors inferior to 8.3% m3∙m−3 in all cases and using in-situ data, where WISOIL, NINSOLCC and NINSONCC criteria stand out among the NSMI and CH.

  7. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic acid were further analyzed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid content by Dowd method. The M. citrifolia extract by high pressure extraction with ethyl acetate as solvent and spray dried was found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. High total phenolic content was determined in the high pressure extract using ethyl acetate as solvent and vacuum dried. It was interesting to note that ultrasonic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. High pressure extracted M. citrifolia in ethanol was found to express lesser values comparatively. The significant difference in activity among the high pressure extracts was found to be due to the polarity of the solvents used for extraction as M. citrifolia fruit contains relatively larger quantity of non-polar antioxidant compounds. It was also found that the drying methods had significant impact on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.

  8. A study on total phenolics and vitamin c contents of kalecik karasi (vitis vinifera l.) clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, N.; Keskin, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study total phenolic and vitamin C contents of the fully ripe berries of 23 clones of Kalecik Karasi which is one of the leading Turkish local red-wine grape cultivar originally grown in Kizilirmak valley near Kalecik/Ankara region were examined under the clone selection project supported by TUBTAK (Project Nr: 107 O 731). High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for vitamin C and spectrophotometer for total phenolics estimation. One way ANOVA was used to compare means of clone for their total phenolic and vitamin C contents. In addition to this univariate method, hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to identify similarity levels among the clones by considering total phenolics and vitamin C content together. Differences among the clones were found statistically significant for both characteristics. Total phenolic contents of the clones varied from 3.310 mg (clone 21) to 3.389 mg (clone 6) as GAE g fw. Vitamin C content ranged from 14.010 mg (clone 6) to 16.500 mg (clone 19) in 100g fw. Furthermore, similarity level for all clones was 83.1% that means variation rate is about 17% among the clones. As a summary of whole data, the first three performing clones are 6 (3.389 mg), 10 (3.374 mg) and 1 (3.365 mg) for total phenolics, and 19 (16.500 mg), 9 (16.020 mg), and 21 (16.015 mg) for vitamin C contents of the berries. (author)

  9. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the combustion process of a leather residuals gasification fuel gas: influence of fuel moisture content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonietti, Anderson Jose; Beskow, Arthur Bortolin; Silva, Cristiano Vitorino da [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil)], E-mails: arthur@uricer.edu.br, mlsperb@unisinos.br; Indrusiak, Maria Luiza Sperb [Universidade do Vale do Rio dos Sinos (UNISINOS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: cristiano@uricer.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    This work presents a numerical study of the combustion process of leather residuals gasification gas, aiming the improvement of the process efficiency, considering different concentrations of water on the gas. The heating produced in this combustion process can be used to generation of thermal and/or electrical energy, for use at the leather industrial plant. However, the direct burning of this leather-residual-gas into the chambers is not straightforward. The alternative in development consists in processing this leather residuals by gasification or pyrolysis, separating the volatiles and products of incomplete combustion, for after use as fuel in a boiler. At these processes, different quantities of water can be used, resulting at different levels of moisture content in this fuel gas. This humidity can affect significantly the burning of this fuel, producing unburnt gases, as the carbon monoxide, or toxic gases as NOx, which must have their production minimized on the process, with the purpose of reducing the emission of pollutants to the atmosphere. Other environment-harmful-gases, remaining of the chemical treatment employed at leather manufacture, as cyanide, and hydrocarbons as toluene, must burn too, and the moisture content has influence on it. At this way, to increase understanding of the influence of moisture in the combustion process, it was made a numerical investigation study of reacting flow in the furnace, evaluating the temperature field, the chemical species concentration fields, flow mechanics and heat transfer at the process. The commercial CFD code CFX Ansys Inc. was used. Considering different moisture contents in the fuel used on the combustion process, with this study was possible to achieve the most efficient burning operation parameters, with improvement of combustion efficiency, and reduction of environmental harmful gases emissions. It was verified that the different moisture contents in the fuel gas demand different operation conditions

  10. Total protein and lipid contents of canned fish on the Serbian market

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Goran; Mladenović Jelena; Cvijović Milica; Miljković Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Total protein and lipid contents were analysed in 5 samples of canned fish (sardines, Atlantic mackerel fillets, tuna in olive oil, smoked Baltic sprat and herring fillets) available on the Serbian market. Standard methods for the determination of protein (Kjeldahl method) and lipid (Soxhlet method) contents were used on drained samples. The protein content was 21.31% on average, with a range of 18.59% - 24.17%. Total lipids showed considerably large variations (5.49% - 35.20%), and averaged ...

  11. Total phenol content and antioxidant activity of water solutions of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Kopjar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water solutions of extracts were investigated for total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Susceptibility to degradation of water solutions of plant extracts, under light and in the dark, during storage at room temperature was investigated in order to determine their stability prior to their application for fortification of food products. Large dispersion of total phenol (TP content in the investigated model solutions of selected extracts (olive leaves, green tea, red grape, red wine, pine bark PE 5:1, pine bark PE 95 %, resveratrol, ranging from 11.10 mg GAE/100 mL to 92.19 mg GAE/100 mL was observed. Consequently, large dispersion of total flavonoids (TF content (8.89 mg to 61.75 mg CTE/100 mL was also observed. Since phenols have been mostly responsible for antioxidant activity of extracts, in most cases, antioxidant activity followed the TP content. That was proven by estimation of correlation coefficient between the total phenol content and antioxidant activity. Correlation coefficients between investigated parameters ranged from 0.5749 to 0.9604. During storage of 5 weeks at room temperature loss of phenols and flavonoids occurred. Antioxidant activity decreased with the decrease of TP and TF content. Degradations of phenols and flavonoids were more pronounced in samples stored at light.

  12. Moisture content prediction in poultry litter using artificial intelligence techniques and Monte Carlo simulation to determine the economic yield from energy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Contreras, José Octavio; Aguilar-Lasserre, Alberto Alfonso; Méndez-Contreras, Juan Manuel; López-Andrés, Jhony Josué; Cid-Chama, Gabriela

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the economic return of poultry litter combustion in boilers to produce bioenergy (thermal and electrical), as this biomass has a high-energy potential due to its component elements, using fuzzy logic to predict moisture and identify the high-impact variables. This is carried out using a proposed 7-stage methodology, which includes a statistical analysis of agricultural systems and practices to identify activities contributing to moisture in poultry litter (for example, broiler chicken management, number of air extractors, and avian population density), and thereby reduce moisture to increase the yield of the combustion process. Estimates of poultry litter production and heating value are made based on 4 different moisture content percentages (scenarios of 25%, 30%, 35%, and 40%), and then a risk analysis is proposed using the Monte Carlo simulation to select the best investment alternative and to estimate the environmental impact for greenhouse gas mitigation. The results show that dry poultry litter (25%) is slightly better for combustion, generating 3.20% more energy. Reducing moisture from 40% to 25% involves considerable economic investment due to the purchase of equipment to reduce moisture; thus, when calculating financial indicators, the 40% scenario is the most attractive, as it is the current scenario. Thus, this methodology proposes a technology approach based on the use of advanced tools to predict moisture and representation of the system (Monte Carlo simulation), where the variability and uncertainty of the system are accurately represented. Therefore, this methodology is considered generic for any bioenergy generation system and not just for the poultry sector, whether it uses combustion or another type of technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of Mullein (Verbascum songaricum ecotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The Mullein genus is the largest genus of Scrophulariaceae family which has extensive natural habitat in southwest of Iran. Mullein contains compounds such as phenolic compounds, mucilage, saponins and anthocyanin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of mullein ecotypes in Iran. Methods: Six ecotypes of the Verbascum songaricum were evaluated. Determination of total flavonoid content was performed bythealuminium chloride colourimetric method. The antioxidant activity of the flower extracts was measured using the DPPH method. Results: The results showed that total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were different among ecotypes.  The highest and lowest amounts of total flavonoidwas obtained  from Shermard ecotype (13.42 mg rutin /g DW and Klar ecotypes(10.10 mg rutin /g DW, respectively. The highest amounts of antioxidant activity were obtained from the Shermard ecotype (IC50 246.35 μg/mL. The correlation analysis showed that a significant relation between flavonoid, antioxidant activity and habitat elevation. Conclusion: Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of the samples were affected by habitat climatic.  The present data indicated that the highest antioxidant activity may be due to higher flavonoid content and the habitat elevation was effective on the flavonoid content. Due to the high amounts of flavonoid and antioxidant activity of mullein extract, it seems to be a good herbal option as an antioxidant in complementary therapies.

  14. Solid fat content as a substitute for total polar compound analysis in edible oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The solid fat contents (SFC) of heated edible oil samples were measured and found to correlate positively with total polar compounds (TPC) and inversely with triglyceride concentration. Traditional methods for determination of total polar compounds require a laboratory setting and are time intensiv...

  15. A practical approach for deriving all-weather soil moisture content using combined satellite and meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Pei; Li, Zhao-Liang; Duan, Si-Bo; Gao, Mao-Fang; Huo, Hong-Yuan

    2017-09-01

    Soil moisture has long been recognized as one of the essential variables in the water cycle and energy budget between Earth's surface and atmosphere. The present study develops a practical approach for deriving all-weather soil moisture using combined satellite images and gridded meteorological products. In this approach, soil moisture over the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) clear-sky pixels are estimated from the Vegetation Index/Temperature (VIT) trapezoid scheme in which theoretical dry and wet edges were determined pixel to pixel by China Meteorological Administration Land Data Assimilation System (CLDAS) meteorological products, including air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and specific humidity. For cloudy pixels, soil moisture values are derived by the calculation of surface and aerodynamic resistances from wind speed. The approach is capable of filling the soil moisture gaps over remaining cloudy pixels by traditional optical/thermal infrared methods, allowing for a spatially complete soil moisture map over large areas. Evaluation over agricultural fields indicates that the proposed approach can produce an overall generally reasonable distribution of all-weather soil moisture. An acceptable accuracy between the estimated all-weather soil moisture and in-situ measurements at different depths could be found with an Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) varying from 0.067 m3/m3 to 0.079 m3/m3 and a slight bias ranging from 0.004 m3/m3 to -0.011 m3/m3. The proposed approach reveals significant potential to derive all-weather soil moisture using currently available satellite images and meteorological products at a regional or global scale in future developments.

  16. The Interrelationship of pCO2, Soil Moisture Content, and Biomass Fertilization Expressed in the Carbon Isotope Signature of C3 Plant Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, B.; Jahren, A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Hundreds of chamber and field experiments have shown an increase in C3 plant biomass in response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2); however, secondary water and nutrient deficits are thought to limit this response. Some have hypothesized that secondary limitation might be self-alleviating under elevated pCO2 as greater root biomass imparts enhanced access to water and nutrients. Here we present results of growth chamber experiments designed to test this hypothesis: we grew 206 Arabidopsis thaliana plants within 5 growth chambers, each set at a different level of pCO2: 390, 685, 1075, 1585, and 2175 ppmv. Within each growth chamber, soil moisture content (θm) was maintained across a spectrum: 1.50, 0.83, 0.44, and 0.38 g g-1. After 3 weeks of total growth, tissues were analyzed for both biomass and net carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) value. From these values, we calculated Δresidual, which represents the residual effect of water stress after subtraction of the effect of pCO2 due to photorespiration. Across the full range of moisture content, Δresidual displayed a significant 2.5‰ increase with increasing pCO2. This further implies a 0.1 unit increase in ci/ca, consistent with decreased water stress at elevated pCO2. The influence of CO2 fertilization on the alleviation of water stress was further evidenced in a positive correlation between percent biomass change and Δresidual, such that a doubling of plant biomass yielded a 1.85‰ increase in carbon isotope discrimination. In addition to providing new insight into water uptake in plants growing under elevated carbon dioxide, these data underscore the importance of separating the effects of increased pCO2 (via photorespiration) and altered ci/ca (via stomatal conductance) when considering changes in the Δ13C value of C3 land plants during the Anthropocene, or across any geological period that includes a marked change in global carbon cycling.

  17. Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR. The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted to 400 g/kg (low moisture level, LML, 450 g/kg (medium moisture level, MML, and 500 g/kg (high moisture level, HML, and both non-fermented and 56-d-fermented TMR were subjected to air exposure to determine aerobic stability. Aerobic deterioration resulted in high losses of nutritional components and largely reduced dry matter digestibility. Non-fermented TMR deteriorated during 48 h of air exposure and the HML treatment was more aerobically unstable. On dry matter (DM basis, yeast populations significantly increased from 107 to 1010 cfu/g during air exposure, and Candida ethanolica was the predominant species during deterioration in non-fermented TMR. Fermented TMR exhibited considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Spoilage was only observed in the HML treatment and its yeast population increased dramatically to 109 cfu/g DM when air exposure progressed to 30 d. Zygosaccharomyces bailii was the sole yeast species isolated when spoilage occurred. These results confirmed that non-fermented and fermented TMR with a HML are more prone to spoilage, and fermented TMR has considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Yeasts can trigger aerobic deterioration in both non-fermented and fermented TMR. C. ethanolica may be involved in the spoilage of non-fermented TMR and the vigorous growth of Z. bailii can initiate aerobic deterioration in fermented TMR.

  18. Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, W; Wang, H L; Ning, T T; Yang, F Y; Xu, C C

    2015-06-01

    The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR). The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted to 400 g/kg (low moisture level, LML), 450 g/kg (medium moisture level, MML), and 500 g/kg (high moisture level, HML), and both non-fermented and 56-d-fermented TMR were subjected to air exposure to determine aerobic stability. Aerobic deterioration resulted in high losses of nutritional components and largely reduced dry matter digestibility. Non-fermented TMR deteriorated during 48 h of air exposure and the HML treatment was more aerobically unstable. On dry matter (DM) basis, yeast populations significantly increased from 10(7) to 10(10) cfu/g during air exposure, and Candida ethanolica was the predominant species during deterioration in non-fermented TMR. Fermented TMR exhibited considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Spoilage was only observed in the HML treatment and its yeast population increased dramatically to 10(9) cfu/g DM when air exposure progressed to 30 d. Zygosaccharomyces bailii was the sole yeast species isolated when spoilage occurred. These results confirmed that non-fermented and fermented TMR with a HML are more prone to spoilage, and fermented TMR has considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Yeasts can trigger aerobic deterioration in both non-fermented and fermented TMR. C. ethanolica may be involved in the spoilage of non-fermented TMR and the vigorous growth of Z. bailii can initiate aerobic deterioration in fermented TMR.

  19. Estimation of Moisture Content of Forest Canopy and Floor from SAR Data Part II: Trunk-Ground Double-Bounce Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, M.; Saatchi, S.

    1996-01-01

    Several scattering mechanisms contribute to the total radar backscatter cross section measured by the synthetic aperture radar. These are volume scattering, trunk-ground double-bounce scattering, branch-ground double-bounce scattering, and surface scattering. All of these mechanisms are directly related to the dielectric constant of forest components responsible for that mechanism and their moisture.

  20. N2O emission from urine in the soil in the beef production in Southeast Brazil: soil moisture content and temperature effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões Barneze, Arlete; Mancebo Mazzetto, Andre; Fernandes Zani, Caio; Siqueira Neto, Marcos; Clemente Cerri, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Pasture expansion in Brazil has shown an increase in 4.5% per year, and a total cattle herd of about 200 millions in 2010. Associated to animal husbandry there are emissions of N2O (nitrous oxide) and other gases to the atmosphere. The liquid manure contributes to emitte 5% of the total N2O emissions. The urea content of cattle urine will readily hydrolyze to form ammonium after deposition to the soil. Nitrous oxide may then be emitted through the microbiological processes of nitrification and denitrification. Important factors can influence on these processes and consequently in nitrous oxide emissions, as soil water content and temperature (Bolan et al., 2004; Luo et al., 2008). The main goal of this research was to determine the soil water content and temperature influence on N2O emissions from urine depositions on the soil. In order to achieve the objective, soil incubation experiment was conducted in laboratory conditions at three levels of water-filled pore space (40%, 60% and 80% WFPS) and two temperatures (25ºC and 35ºC) with and without urine, with five replicates each. The soil used in this study was collected from the 0-10 cm layer of a grassland field in Southeast of Brazil and classified as Nitisols. For each measurement, the Kilner jar was hermetically sealed by replacing the lid and a first gas sample was immediately taken (time-zero, t0 sample) using a syringe and stored in a pre-evacuated gas vial. After 30 minutes the headspace of each jar was sampled again (time-thirty, t_30 sample). The lids were then removed and kept off until the next sampling day. Nitrous oxide concentrations in the sampled air were measured using a SRI Gas Chromatograph (Model 8610C). Gas fluxes were calculated by fitting linear regressions through the data collected at t0 and t_30 and were corrected for temperature and amount of soil incubated. Gas measurements were carried out up to 55 days. To determine the statistical significance, Tukey tests were carried out at 0

  1. Effects of moisture content in cigar tobacco on nicotine extraction. Similarity between soxhlet and focused open-vessel microwave-assisted techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lay-Keow; Hupé, Michel

    2003-09-05

    The effects of tobacco moisture on nicotine yield were investigated in this study. Soxhlet and microwave-assisted techniques were used to extract nicotine from cigar fillers of varying moisture contents (5-20%), using a polar (methanol) and a non-polar (isooctane) solvent. The extracts were analyzed by a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame-ionization detector. For both extraction techniques, higher nicotine yields were consistently obtained with methanol than with isooctane from the same samples. Solubility of nicotine salts in methanol but not in isooctane is the major cause of this observation. Moreover, pronounced effects of the tobacco moisture content on extraction efficiency were observed with isooctane but not with methanol. For microwave assisted extraction (MAE) with isooctane, nicotine yield increased from 3 to 70% as the moisture level in tobacco was raised from 3 to 13%, and leveled off thereafter. Similar observations were made with Soxhlet extraction. While MAE results were rationalized by the known cell-rupture process, a mechanism based on the interaction between the solvents and the structural components of the plant cells has been proposed to account for the observations made with Soxhlet extraction.

  2. Study on optimal fat content in total parenteral nutrition in partially hepatectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, S; Sakabe, S; Hirata, M; Kamuro, H; Asahara, N; Watanabe, M

    1997-04-01

    In order to investigate the optimal fat content for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solutions, male Wistar rats were subjected to 70% hepatectomy and then placed, for five days, on one of five TPN regimens in which fat represented 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%, respectively, of the total calorie content. As serum triglyceride levels in the fat-treated groups were lower than those in the non-treated normal rats, it was concluded that the administered fat was sufficiently hydrolyzed. The greater the fat content, the higher the regeneration rate of the remnant liver. Significant differences were found between the 0%-fat group and 20%-plus fat groups. Hepatic triglyceride level was significantly lower in the 20%-fat group. Hepatic protein level was significantly elevated in all fat-treated groups. Serum phospholipids and total cholesterol due to the lecithin contained in fat emulsion were significantly elevated in the 30 and 40%-fat groups, indicating that fat content of 30 and 40% was excessive. The results suggest that TPN containing fat is superior to fat-free TPN for liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, and that optimal fat content is estimated to be about 20% of total calorie content in the case of this fat emulsion.

  3. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Moh Moh San

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics  mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g extract and total flavonoids  mg quercetin equivalent (QE/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight. These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product.

  4. development and testing of a capacitive digital soil moisture metre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    soil moisture meter using the NE555 timer and micro controller as a major electronic component ... relationship between the moisture content process and the digital soil moisture meter. ..... the moisture contents showing that the infiltration of.

  5. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of seven local varieties of Rosa indica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Kiran; Ahmed, Maqsood; Khan, Farah

    2018-05-01

    Rosa indica symbol of godness and beauty known for various healing power, has astringent, sedative, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant qualities. Standard methods were used for qualitative detection of phyto-compounds, and quantitative detection of antioxidants was done using DPPH radical scavenging assay, total phenolics and total flavonoids content were expressed in mg GAE/g dry weight and mg QE/g dry weight. Results revealed phyto-compounds presence in all varieties under study however maximum % inhibition was observed by R. indica var pink perfume (94 ± 0.6) with IC50 value 0.3376 ± 0.01 mg/mL. Highest phenolic and flavonoid content was observed in the leaves extract of R. indica var cardinal red, i.e. 3.3553 ± 0.11 (ethanol) mg of Gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight and 3.736 ± 0.001(ethanol) mg of quercetin equivalents (QE)/g dry weight, respectively, at conc. 0.125 mg/mL. Our finding provides evidence that all varieties of rose contain medicinally important bioactive compounds and justifies their use for treatment of different diseases.

  6. Combining satellite radar altimetry, SAR surface soil moisture and GRACE total storage changes for model calibration and validation in a large ungauged catchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milzow, Christian; Krogh, Pernille Engelbredt; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The availability of data is a major challenge for hydrological modelling in large parts of the world. Remote sensing data can be exploited to improve models of ungauged or poorly gauged catchments. In this study we combine three datasets for calibration and validation of a rainfall-runoff model...... of the ungauged Okavango catchment in Southern Africa: (i) Surface soil moisture (SSM) estimates derived from SAR measurements onboard the Envisat satellite; (ii) Radar altimetry measurements by Envisat providing river stages in the tributaries of the Okavango catchment, down to a minimum width of about one...... hundred meters; and (iii) Temporal changes of the Earth’s gravity field recorded by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) caused by total water storage changes in the catchment. The SSM data are compared to simulated moisture conditions in the top soil layer. They cannot be used for model...

  7. NIR technology for on-line determination of superficial a(w) and moisture content during the drying process of fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collell, Carles; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint; Muñoz, Israel; Comaposada, Josep

    2012-12-01

    Three different NIR equipment were evaluated based on their ability to predict superficial water activity (a(w)) and moisture content in two types of fermented sausages (with and without moulds on surface), using partial least squares (PLS) regression models. The instruments differed mainly in wavelength range, resolution and measurement configuration. The most accurate equipment was used in a new experiment to achieve robust models in sausages with different salt contents and submitted to different drying conditions. The models developed showed determination coefficients (R(2)(P)) values of 0.990, 0.910 and 0.984, and RMSEP values of 1.560%, 0.220% and 0.007% for moisture, salt and a(w) respectively. It was demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy could be a suitable non-destructive method for on-line monitoring and control of the drying process in fermented sausages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison study of moisture content, colour properties and essential oil compounds extracted by hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction between stem and leaves of lemongrass (Cymbopogun citratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Shazlin; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Haiyee, Zaibunnisa Abdul

    2018-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the properties of moisture content, colour and essential oil compounds between stem and leaves of lemongrass (Cymbopogun citratus). The essential oil was extracted using two different methods which are hydrodistillation and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). There was no significant difference of moisture content between stem and leaves of lemongrass. The lightness (L) and yellowness (+b) values of the stems were significantly higher (pleaves. The highest yield of essential oil was obtained by extraction using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) in leaves (˜ 0.7%) by treatment at 1700psi and 50°C. The main compound of extracted essential oil was citral (geranial and neral).

  9. Short Communications Sand moisture as a factor determining depth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-11-05

    Nov 5, 1993 ... The depths to which the animals burrow are, at least partly. determined by the moisture gradient in the sand. They are, however, incapable of burrowing into totally dry sand. Animals alter their position in the sand in response to changes in moisture content so as to ensure exposure to suitable conditions.

  10. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Piper Betel Linn leaves oil and total phenolic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A. H. A.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Arsad, N. H.; Lee, N. Y.; Idham, Z.; Razak, A. Q. A.

    2016-11-01

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) Extraction was applied to extract piper betel linn leaves. The piper betel leaves oil was used antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anticancer and antistroke. The aim of this study was to optimize the conditions of pressure, temperature and flowrate for oil yield and total phenolic content. The operational conditions of SC-CO2 studied were pressure (10, 20, 30 MPa), temperature (40, 60, 80 °C) and flowrate carbon dioxide (4, 6, 8 mL/min). The constant parameters were average particle size and extraction regime, 355pm and 3.5 hours respectively. First order polynomial expression was used to express the extracted oil while second order polynomial expression was used to express the total phenolic content and the both results were satisfactory. The best conditions to maximize the total extraction oil yields and total phenolic content were 30 MPa, 80 °C and 4.42 mL/min leading to 7.32% of oil and 29.72 MPa, 67.53 °C and 7.98 mL/min leading to 845.085 mg GAE/g sample. In terms of optimum condition with high extraction yield and high total phenolic content in the extracts, the best operating conditions were 30 MPa, 78 °C and 8 mL/min with 7.05% yield and 791.709 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample. The most dominant condition for extraction of oil yield and phenolic content were pressure and CO2 flowrate. The results show a good fit to the proposed model and the optimal conditions obtained were within the experimental range with the value of R2 was 96.13% for percentage yield and 98.52% for total phenolic content.

  11. Measurement of thyroid volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content by CT and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaji, Shunsuke; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Kyouko; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Imanishi et al have developed new CT software for quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine. Using a CT system with the software, we measured volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content of thyroids in 63 controls and 435 patients with various diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules. In controls, all of them showed no difference between the sexes. Although the iodine concentration of the thyroid showed no difference among children, adults and seniles, the volume and total iodine content of the thyroid appeared smaller in children and seniles than in adults. In addition, although the volume and iodine concentration of the thyroid had two peaks in distribution, the total iodine content had almost normal distribution. Normal range of volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content in adults were 5.2-15.5 cm 3 , 0.28831-0.85919 mg/cm 3 and 2.35-11.69 mg, respectively. In thyroid nodule, there is no significant difference in volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content between benign and malignant nodules. All nodules with iodine concentration of less than 0.00007 mg/cm 3 were benign. No thyroid was higher in iodine concentration than the normal range although the thyroid was lower in 78.7% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. In all thyroids with increasing iodine concentration and total iodine content in medication course, thyroidal symptoms and signs were uncontrollable by the medication. In 43.8% of patients with long-period systemic diseases, the thyroid showed abnormality in any of the three. We concluded that quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine by CT could assist the diagnosis of thyroid diseases and decision of therapeutic methods. (author)

  12. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale) based drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayat; Cahyono, B.; Satriadi, H.; Munfarida, S.

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia is a rich spices country, both as a cooking spice and medicine. One of the most abundant commodities is red ginger, where it still less in application. On the other hand, the level of pollution is higher, so antioxidants are needed to protect the body cells from the bad effects of free radicals. The body can not naturally produce antioxidants as needed, so we need to consume foods with high antioxidant content. The purpose of this study is to know the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in red ginger (Zingiber officinale) based drinks. Research design with complete randomized design (RAL) with factorial pattern 3 x 3, as the first factor is red ginger extract and water ratio (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1: 3) and second factor is the type of sugar used (cane sugar, palm sugar and mixed sugar). The results of this study indicate that red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 3 give higher antioxidant. The highest antioxidant obtained in red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 3 and using mixed sugar. That antioxidants value is 88.56%, it is not significant decreased compared to the antioxidant of pure ginger extract that is 91.46%. For higher phenol total content obtained on syrup that uses palm sugar. The highest phenol total content obtained in red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 1 and using palm sugar. That total phenol content value is 6299 ppm.

  13. Study of nitrate contaminated samples from a historic building with the hygroscopic moisture content method: Contribution of laboratory data to interpret results practical significance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nunes, Cristiana Lara; Skružná, Olga; Válek, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 30, March-April (2018), s. 57-69 ISSN 1296-2074 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DG16P02H012 Keywords : soluble salts * hygroscopicity * moisture content * nitrate salts * deliquescence * porous building materials Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1296207417302649

  14. Boiler control using on-line determination of moisture content for incoming fuel; Forskning kring pannstyrning med on-line fukthaltsmaetning paa biobraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelin, Anders; Dahlquist, Erik; Moden, Per Erik

    2008-10-15

    Incoming fuels to the biomass fueled boiler are the main source for uncertainties in the combustion process. Fuel quality has large impact on the combustion and the heat transfer in the boiler. There are several possibilities to control the boiler when the bed temperature varies. Flue gas recirculation is one of the variables used for control of the bed temperature in the boiler. Another parameter to use for controlling the bed temperature is to adjust the humidification of the combustion air. The parameter with the major influence on the bed temperature is the amount of primary air. These three parameters are all used as control variables for control of the bed temperature. One part of the study has been to investigate how much and how fast each parameter influences bed temperature and how the information of the moisture content in the incoming fuel can be used for feed-forward information for controlling bed temperature. At the reception terminal all the incoming deliveries are registered with quality and moisture content. This study has also investigated how to use the information about the moisture content of incoming fuel, based on NIR measurements on the fuel transported in to the boiler, and the fluctuation of the bed temperature. Another question is how to connect this information for the bed control. This part of the study is used to evaluate if the information to the operators about the moisture content from the NIR has affect on the variation of the bed temperature. A process model has been developed of the Bubbling Fluidised Bed boiler (BFB) that is one of the boilers at the power plant in Eskilstuna. The model has been used to analyze the process. Process models have become more common and important in the heat and power industry. Nowadays process models are used for training of the staff in simulators of the real plant and for offline tests of control systems

  15. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Akter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p

  16. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Kazi Nahid; Karmakar, Palash; Das, Abhijit; Anonna, Shamima Nasrin; Shoma, Sharmin Akter; Sattar, Mohammad Mafruhi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma) at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (pbetel leaves extract, therefore it may be processed for further drug research. PMID:25386394

  17. Influence of fuel moisture content and reactor temperature on the calorific value of syngas resulted from gasification of oil palm fronds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Yusup, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Biomass wastes produced from oil palm mills and plantations include empty fruit bunches (EFBs), shells, fibers, trunks, and oil palm fronds (OPF). EFBs and shells are partially utilized as boiler fuel while the rest of the biomass materials like OPF have not been utilized for energy generation. No previous study has been reported on gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) biomass for the production of fuel gas. In this paper, the effect of moisture content of fuel and reactor temperature on downdraft gasification of OPF was experimentally investigated using a lab scale gasifier of capacity 50 kW. In addition, results obtained from equilibrium model of gasification that was developed for facilitating the prediction of syngas composition are compared with experimental data. Comparison of simulation results for predicting calorific value of syngas with the experimental results showed a satisfactory agreement with a mean error of 0.1 MJ/Nm³. For a biomass moisture content of 29%, the resulting calorific value for the syngas was found to be only 2.63 MJ/Nm³, as compared to nearly double (4.95 MJ/Nm³) for biomass moisture content of 22%. A calorific value as high as 5.57 MJ/Nm³ was recorded for higher oxidation zone temperature values.

  18. Influence of Fuel Moisture Content and Reactor Temperature on the Calorific Value of Syngas Resulted from Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Mekbib Atnaw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass wastes produced from oil palm mills and plantations include empty fruit bunches (EFBs, shells, fibers, trunks, and oil palm fronds (OPF. EFBs and shells are partially utilized as boiler fuel while the rest of the biomass materials like OPF have not been utilized for energy generation. No previous study has been reported on gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF biomass for the production of fuel gas. In this paper, the effect of moisture content of fuel and reactor temperature on downdraft gasification of OPF was experimentally investigated using a lab scale gasifier of capacity 50 kW. In addition, results obtained from equilibrium model of gasification that was developed for facilitating the prediction of syngas composition are compared with experimental data. Comparison of simulation results for predicting calorific value of syngas with the experimental results showed a satisfactory agreement with a mean error of 0.1 MJ/Nm3. For a biomass moisture content of 29%, the resulting calorific value for the syngas was found to be only 2.63 MJ/Nm3, as compared to nearly double (4.95 MJ/Nm3 for biomass moisture content of 22%. A calorific value as high as 5.57 MJ/Nm3 was recorded for higher oxidation zone temperature values.

  19. The effect of moisture content on the thermal conductivity of moss and organic soil horizons from black spruce ecosystems in interior alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, J. A.; Romanovsky, V.E.; Harden, J.W.; McGuire, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Organic soil horizons function as important controls on the thermal state of near-surface soil and permafrost in high-latitude ecosystems. The thermal conductivity of organic horizons is typically lower than mineral soils and is closely linked to moisture content, bulk density, and water phase. In this study, we examined the relationship between thermal conductivity and soil moisture for different moss and organic horizon types in black spruce ecosystems of interior Alaska. We sampled organic horizons from feather moss-dominated and Sphagnum-dominated stands and divided horizons into live moss and fibrous and amorphous organic matter. Thermal conductivity measurements were made across a range of moisture contents using the transient line heat source method. Our findings indicate a strong positive and linear relationship between thawed thermal conductivity (Kt) and volumetric water content. We observed similar regression parameters (?? or slope) across moss types and organic horizons types and small differences in ??0 (y intercept) across organic horizon types. Live Sphagnum spp. had a higher range of Kt than did live feather moss because of the field capacity (laboratory based) of live Sphagnum spp. In northern regions, the thermal properties of organic soil horizons play a critical role in mediating the effects of climate warming on permafrost conditions. Findings from this study could improve model parameterization of thermal properties in organic horizons and enhance our understanding of future permafrost and ecosystem dynamics. ?? 2009 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  20. Influence of Fuel Moisture Content and Reactor Temperature on the Calorific Value of Syngas Resulted from Gasification of Oil Palm Fronds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Yusup, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Biomass wastes produced from oil palm mills and plantations include empty fruit bunches (EFBs), shells, fibers, trunks, and oil palm fronds (OPF). EFBs and shells are partially utilized as boiler fuel while the rest of the biomass materials like OPF have not been utilized for energy generation. No previous study has been reported on gasification of oil palm fronds (OPF) biomass for the production of fuel gas. In this paper, the effect of moisture content of fuel and reactor temperature on downdraft gasification of OPF was experimentally investigated using a lab scale gasifier of capacity 50 kW. In addition, results obtained from equilibrium model of gasification that was developed for facilitating the prediction of syngas composition are compared with experimental data. Comparison of simulation results for predicting calorific value of syngas with the experimental results showed a satisfactory agreement with a mean error of 0.1 MJ/Nm3. For a biomass moisture content of 29%, the resulting calorific value for the syngas was found to be only 2.63 MJ/Nm3, as compared to nearly double (4.95 MJ/Nm3) for biomass moisture content of 22%. A calorific value as high as 5.57 MJ/Nm3 was recorded for higher oxidation zone temperature values. PMID:24578617

  1. Non-destructive determination of moisture content and micro-fibril angle of wood using a poly-chromatic X-ray beam theoretical and experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baettig, R.

    2005-07-01

    Non-destructive determination of moisture content and micro-fibril angle are important stakes for the sciences of the wood because these two parameters influence strongly the macroscopic behavior of the wood. For example, the shrinkage, the mechanical properties, the thermal and acoustic conductivity are dependent on the moisture content and their anisotropic character is largely governed by the micro-fibril angle. We used the light difference between X-ray mass attenuation coefficient for the water and for the wood in transmission. Regrettably, the results show that this difference between X-ray mass attenuation coefficient is insufficient to allow the precise measurement of the moisture content.In spite of this, the coherent scattering shows sensitive effects. So, by using a poly-energetic beam and a spectrometric system, we were able to discriminate between the crystalline constituent (cellulose) of the amorphous constituent (water) in a sample of wet wood, because for a given angle these phases scatter in different energy. Besides, the device created allowed us to study the crystalline phase of the wood. We were able to confront experimental profiles of diffraction with theoretical profiles of diffraction, obtained by means of a rigorous simulation, in the objective to estimate the average micro-fibril angle and its standard deviation. (author)

  2. Total and Free Sugar Content of Canadian Prepackaged Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jodi T.; Schermel, Alyssa; Mills, Christine M.; L’Abbé, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    A number of recommendations for policy and program interventions to limit excess free sugar consumption have emerged, however there are a lack of data describing the amounts and types of sugar in foods. This study presents an assessment of sugar in Canadian prepackaged foods including: (a) the first systematic calculation of free sugar contents; (b) a comprehensive assessment of total sugar and free sugar levels; and (c) sweetener and free sugar ingredient use, using the University of Toronto’s Food Label Information Program (FLIP) database 2013 (n = 15,342). Food groups with the highest proportion of foods containing free sugar ingredients also had the highest median total sugar and free sugar contents (per 100 g/mL): desserts (94%, 15 g, and 12 g), sugars and sweets (91%, 50 g, and 50 g), and bakery products (83%, 16 g, and 14 g, proportion with free sugar ingredients, median total sugar and free sugar content in Canadian foods, respectively). Free sugar accounted for 64% of total sugar content. Eight of 17 food groups had ≥75% of the total sugar derived from free sugar. Free sugar contributed 20% of calories overall in prepackaged foods and beverages, with the highest at 70% in beverages. These data can be used to inform interventions aimed at limiting free sugar consumption. PMID:27657125

  3. Total and Free Sugar Content of Canadian Prepackaged Foods and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi T. Bernstein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of recommendations for policy and program interventions to limit excess free sugar consumption have emerged, however there are a lack of data describing the amounts and types of sugar in foods. This study presents an assessment of sugar in Canadian prepackaged foods including: (a the first systematic calculation of free sugar contents; (b a comprehensive assessment of total sugar and free sugar levels; and (c sweetener and free sugar ingredient use, using the University of Toronto’s Food Label Information Program (FLIP database 2013 (n = 15,342. Food groups with the highest proportion of foods containing free sugar ingredients also had the highest median total sugar and free sugar contents (per 100 g/mL: desserts (94%, 15 g, and 12 g, sugars and sweets (91%, 50 g, and 50 g, and bakery products (83%, 16 g, and 14 g, proportion with free sugar ingredients, median total sugar and free sugar content in Canadian foods, respectively. Free sugar accounted for 64% of total sugar content. Eight of 17 food groups had ≥75% of the total sugar derived from free sugar. Free sugar contributed 20% of calories overall in prepackaged foods and beverages, with the highest at 70% in beverages. These data can be used to inform interventions aimed at limiting free sugar consumption.

  4. Modeling of the Ionospheric Scintillation and Total Electron Content Observations during the 21 August 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta-Barua, S.; Gachancipa, J. N.; Deshpande, K.; Herrera, J. A.; Lehmacher, G. A.; Su, Y.; Gyuk, G.; Bust, G. S.; Hampton, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    High concentration of free electrons in the ionosphere can cause fluctuations in incoming electromagnetic waves, such as those from the different Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The behavior of the ionosphere depends on time and location, and it is highly influenced by solar activity. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of a total solar eclipse on the local ionosphere in terms of ionospheric scintillations, and on the global ionosphere in terms of TEC (Total Electron Content). The studied eclipse occurred on 21 August 2017 across the continental United States. During the eclipse, we expected to see a decrease in the scintillation strength, as well as in the TEC values. As a broader impact part of our recently funded NSF proposal, we temporarily deployed two GNSS receivers on the eclipse's totality path. One GNSS receiver was placed in Clemson, SC. This is a multi-frequency GNSS receiver (NovAtel GPStation-6) capable of measuring high and low rate scintillation data as well as TEC values from four different GNSS systems. We had the receiver operating before, during, and after the solar eclipse to enable the comparison between eclipse and non-eclipse periods. A twin receiver collected data at Daytona Beach, FL during the same time, where an 85% partial solar eclipse was observed. Additionally, we set up a ground receiver onsite in the path of totality in Perryville, Missouri, from which the Adler Planetarium of Chicago launched a high-altitude balloon to capture a 360-degree video of the eclipse from the stratosphere. By analyzing the collected data, this study looks at the effects of partial and total solar eclipse periods on high rate GNSS scintillation data at mid-latitudes, which had not been explored in detail. This study also explores the impact of solar eclipses on signals from different satellite constellations (GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo). Throughout the eclipse, the scintillation values did not appear to have dramatic changes

  5. THE RESEARCH OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLS CONTENT AND THEIR CHANGES IN DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Volnová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants with antioxidant properties. In this work we research the changes in the content of total polyphenols in five varieties of potatoes (Rumelia, Arwen, Megan, Malvína, Erídia. Potatoes were grown at the stage of full maturity from Matejovce nad Hornádom, region of Poprad. Total polyphenols we determined in whole peeled potatoes; in the outside part of peeled potato tubers (1 cm; in inside part of potato tubers (mean 2 cm and in the whole peel-boiled potatoes. The total polyphenols content was determined by spectrophotometry (λ = 765 nm and it was used lyophilized samples in ethanol extracts. In whole peeled potatoes was the content of total polyphenols in the range from 243.34 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Rumelia to 446.38 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Megan, in the outside part of peeled potato tubers was content in the range from 190.45 mg.kg-1 (cv. Rumelia to 446.84 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Malvína and in inside part of potato tubers from 245.51 mg.kg-1 to 446.26 mg.kg-1 DM (Arwen < Rumelia < Megan < Erídia < Malvína. In the whole peel-boiled potatoes was the lowest content of total polyphenols in variety Rumelia (252.5 mg.kg-1 DM and the highest content in variety Megan (440.54 mg.kg-1 DM. Results were statistically evaluated by the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA – Multiple Range Tests, Method: 95.0 percent LSD using statistical software STATGRAPHICS (Centurion XVI.I, USA and the regression and correlation analysis (Microsoft Excel was used.

  6. Total alkaloid content in various fractions of Tabernaemonata sphaerocarpa Bl. (Jembirit) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamah, N.; Ningsih, D. S.

    2017-11-01

    Tabernaemontana sphaerocarpa Bl. (Jembirit) is one of the Apocynaceae family plants containing alkaloid compound. Traditionally, it is used as an anti-inflammatory medicine. It is found to have a new bisindole alkaloid compound that shows a potent cytotoxic activity in human cancer. This study aimed to know the total alkaloid content in some fractions of ethanolic extract of T. sphaerocarpa Bl. leaf powder was extracted by maceration method in 70% ethanol solvent. Then, the extract was fractionated in a separatory funnel using water, ethyl acetate, and hexane. The total alkaloid content in each fraction was analyzed with visible spectrophotometric methods based on the reaction with Bromocresol Green (BCG). The total alkaloids in water fraction and ethyl acetate fraction were (0.0312±0.0009)% and (0.0281±0.0014)%, respectively. Meanwhile, the total alkaloid content in hexane was not detected. The statistical analysis, performed in SPSS, resulted in a significant difference between the total alkaloids in water fraction and ethyl acetate fraction. The total alkaloid in water fraction of T. sphaerocarpa Bl. was higher than the one in ethyl acetate fraction.

  7. Total Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of some Almond (Amygdalus Communis L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildirim Adnan Nurhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the total oil contents and fatty acid compositions of some commercial almond cultivars. The total oil contents changed significantly (p<0.05 by year in all cultivars with the exception of cultivar Ferrastar. Total oil contents were changed from 50.90% (Picantili to 62.01% (Supernova in 2008 and from 52.44% (Lauranne to 63.18% (Cristomorto in 2009. While predominant unsaturated fatty acids were oleic and linoleic acids, predominant saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid. The highest amount of oleic acid was obtained in Glorieta in both 2008 (83.35% and 2009 (72.74%. Linoleic acid content varied by year and the highest content was recorded in Picantili (26.08% in 2008 and Yaltinski (30.01% in 2009. The highest amount of palmitic acid was detected in cultivar Sonora in both years, i.e. as 7.76% in 2008 and 10.11% in 2009. The mean UFA:SFA ratio was 11.73 in 2008 but 7.59 in 2009. Principal component (PC analysis indicated that palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, arachidic acid, unsaturated fatty acid (UFA, saturated fatty acid (SFA and UFA:SFA ratio were primarily responsible for the separation on PC1

  8. Beacon satellite studies and modelling of total electron contents of the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    An attempt is made to highlight some of the beacon satellite studies, particularly those relating to total electron content (TEC) and scintillations, with special attention to Indian subcontinent observations. The modelling of TEC is described. The scope of new experiments for specific problem is indicated. (author). 78 refs., 12 figs

  9. Quantitative analysis of total starch content in wheat flour by reaction headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Gong, Yi-Xian; Yu, Kong-Xian

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposed a new reaction headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) method for efficiently quantifying the total starch content in wheat flours. A certain weight of wheat flour was oxidized by potassium dichromate in an acidic condition in a sealed headspace vial. The results show that the starch in wheat flour can be completely transferred to carbon dioxide at the given conditions (at 100 °C for 40 min) and the total starch content in wheat flour sample can be indirectly quantified by detecting the CO 2 formed from the oxidation reaction. The data showed that the relative standard deviation of the reaction HS-GC method in the precision test was less than 3.06%, and the relative differences between the new method and the reference method (titration method) were no more than 8.90%. The new reaction HS-GC method is automated, accurate, and can be a reliable tool for determining the total starch content in wheat flours in both laboratory and industrial applications. Graphical abstract The total starch content in wheat flour can be indirectly quantified by the GC detection of the CO 2 formed from the oxidation reaction between wheat flour and potassium dichromate in an acidic condition.

  10. The Total Electron Content From InSAR and GNSS: A Midlatitude Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musico, Elvira; Cesaroni, Claudio; Spogli, Luca

    2018-01-01

    The total electron content (TEC) measured from the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and froma dense network of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers are used to assess the capability of InSAR to retrieve ionospheric information, when the tropospheric contribution...

  11. Analysis of total hydrogen content in palm oil and palm kernel oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fast and non-destructive technique based on thermal neutron moderation has been used for determining the total hydrogen content in two types of red palm oil (dzomi and amidze) and palm kernel oil produced by traditio-nal methods in Ghana. An equipment consisting of an 241Am-Be neutron source and 3He neutron ...

  12. Non-destructive Measurement of Total Carotenoid Content in Processed Tomato Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.; Streza, M.; Dóka, O.; Valinger, D.; Luterotti, S.; Ajtony, Zs; Kurtanjek, Z.; Dadarlat, D.

    2015-01-01

    Carotenes found in a diversity of fruits and vegetables are among important natural antioxidants. In a study described in this paper, the total carotenoid content (TCC) in seven different products derived from thermally processed tomatoes was determined using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy

  13. Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents of 56 Wild Fruits from South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify wild fruits possessing high nutraceutical potential, the antioxidant activities of 56 wild fruits from South China were systematically evaluated. The fat-soluble components were extracted with tetrahydrofuran, and the water-soluble ones were extracted with a 50:3.7:46.3 (v/v methanol-acetic acid-water mixture. The antioxidant capacities of the extracts were evaluated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays, and their total phenolic contents were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Most of these wild fruits were analyzed for the first time for their antioxidant activities. Generally, these fruits had high antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents. A significant correlation between the FRAP value and the TEAC value suggested that antioxidant components in these wild fruits were capable of reducing oxidants and scavenging free radicals. A high correlation between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content indicated that phenolic compounds could be the main contributors to the measured antioxidant activity. The results showed that fruits of Eucalyptus robusta, Eurya nitida, Melastoma sanguineum, Melaleuca leucadendron, Lagerstroemia indica, Caryota mitis, Lagerstroemia speciosa and Gordonia axillaris possessed the highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents among those tested, and could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants and functional foods. The results obtained are very helpful for the full utilization of these wild fruits.

  14. Complexities of the storm-time characteristics of ionospheric total electron content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The complexities of the storm-time variations of the ionospheric total electron content are briefly reviewed. It is suggested that large variations from storm to storm may be due to irregular flows from the auroral region towards equator. A proper study of such flows needs an elaborate network of TEC measuring instruments. The need of planning and organizing such a network is emphasized

  15. A comparative assessment of antioxidant properties, total phenolic content of einkorn, wheat, barley and their malts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarasi, Attila-Levente; Kun, Szilárd; Tankó, Gabriella; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva; Hegyesné-Vecseri, Beáta

    2015-01-15

    Two einkorn wheat, one barley, three optional winter cultivation wheat and five winter cultivation wheat samples harvested in Hungary in 2011, and their malts were evaluated for their DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation scavenging activity, ferric reduction capacity (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC). All einkorn and barley samples exhibited significant antioxidant activities determined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. The einkorn samples show higher polyphenol content than the other wheat samples. In all cases the barley sample had the highest antioxidant potential and polyphenol content. The einkorn malts had high DPPH and ABTS radical cation scavenging activities, but the phenolic content was lower against wheat samples. There was significant difference between the antioxidant potential of optional and winter cultivation wheat samples except on ABTS scavenging activities. Einkorn wheat is potentially a new raw material to produce organic beer that might have beneficial effects with its increased antioxidant potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of different cooking methods on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Bai, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2014-11-01

    The influences of cooking methods (steaming, pressure-cooking, microwaving, frying and boiling) on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of fruit body of Boletus mushrooms (B. aereus, B. badius, B. pinophilus and B. edulis) have been evaluated. The results showed that microwaving was better in retention of total phenolics than other cooking methods, while boiling significantly decreased the contents of total phenolics in samples under study. Effects of different cooking methods on phenolic acids profiles of Boletus mushrooms showed varieties with both the species of mushroom and the cooking method. Effects of cooking treatments on antioxidant activities of Boletus mushrooms were evaluated by in vitro assays of hydroxyl radical (OH·) -scavenging activity, reducing power and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH·) -scavenging activity. Results indicated the changes of antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms were different in five cooking methods. This study could provide some information to encourage food industry to recommend particular cooking methods.

  17. Effect of sulfite treatment on total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide, and total free sulfydryl groups contents in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herken, Emine Nur; Kocamaz, Erdogan; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Kucukatay, Vural

    2009-08-01

    Sulfites, which are commonly used as preservatives, are continuously formed in the body during the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sulfite oxidase (SOX) is an essential enzyme in the pathway of the oxidative degradation of sulfite to sulfate protecting cells from sulfite toxicity. This article investigated the effect of sulfite on total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and total free sulfydryl groups (-SH) levels in normal and SOX-deficient male albino rat plasma. For this purpose, rats were divided into four groups: control, sulfite-treated, SOX-deficient, and sulfite-treated SOX-deficient groups. SOX deficiency was established by feeding rats a low molybdenum diet and adding to their drinking water 200 ppm tungsten. Sulfite (70 mg/kg) was administered to the animals via their drinking water. SOX deficiency together with sulfite treatment caused a significant increase in the plasma LOOH and total oxidant status levels. -SH content of rat plasma significantly decreased by both sulfite treatment and SOX deficiency compared to the control. There was also a significant decrease in plasma TAC level by sulfite treatment. In conclusion, sulfite treatment affects the antioxidant/oxidant balance of the plasma cells of the rats toward oxidants in SOX-deficient groups.

  18. Study on dew condensation of noncombustible insulation materials : Part 5. Prediction method of rate of moisture content

    OpenAIRE

    権藤, 尚; 三原, 邦彰; 荒井, 良延; 鉾井, 修一; 小椋, 大輔

    2011-01-01

    Summaries of technical papers of Annual Meeting Architectural Institute of Japan. D-2, Environmental engineering II, Heat, moisture, thermal comfort, natural energy, air flow, ventilation, smoke exhaustion, computational fluid dynamics, indoor air quality heating, cooling and air-conditioning heat and cold sources, piping systems application of building services

  19. Spectral detection of near-surface moisture content and water-table position in northern peatland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl M. Meingast; Michael J. Falkowski; Evan S. Kane; Lynette R. Potvin; Brian W. Benscoter; Alistair M.S. Smith; Laura L. Bourgeau-Chavez; Mary Ellen. Miller

    2014-01-01

    Wildland fire occurrence has been increasing in peatland ecosystems during recent decades. As such, there is a need for broadly applicable tools to detect and monitor controls on combustion such as surface peat moisture and water-table position. A field portable spectroradiometer was used to measure surface reflectance of two Sphagnum moss-dominated...

  20. Development of a new spectrophotometric method to determine the total aromatic contents in kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harfoush, A.; shlewit, H.

    1996-12-01

    This developed spectrophotometric method is helpful to determine and control the total aromatic contents in kerosene, during the treatment process of kerosene with conc. H sup 2 SO sup 4 and P sup 2 O sup 5 to remove aromatics, which have negative effect on the solvent extraction coefficient KD of uranium from the Syrian phosphoric acid, where kerosene is used as diluent. this method is rapid according to others, and simply, using the standard curve prepared by the separated aromatics from the Syrian kerosene, A =f (C) at 272 nm, we can calculate the aromatic contents in the known samples. (author). 24 Refs., 5 Figs

  1. Influence of Moisture Absorption and Content of Graphite Filler on Electrical Property of Sensors and Transducers Enclosures and Phenomena of Electrostriction in Glass- Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shivamurthy

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation E-glass epoxy composite filled with different amount of graphite particles were prepared by compression. Plain waived E-glass cloth with density 200g / meter square was used as reinforcement. Epoxy resin LY556 mixed with Hardener HT907 and accelerator DY063 in the ratio 100:80:2 were used as matrix. The graphite of 50 particle size was used as fillers. Four types of composites were prepared with different amount of graphite fillers viz 0 %, 3 %, 6 % and 9 % with unchanged reinforcement. After subjecting the samples to water absorption up to 96 hours in steps of 24 hrs, dielectric dissipation factor (tan δ, dielectric constant and a. c. conductivity have been measured by using a LCR meter at two different frequencies (100 Hz and 1 kHz. Results show that tan δ direct constant, a.c. conductivity increases with increase in % of graphite in the composites at both high and low frequency for dry samples. Samples with 24 hrs moisture absorption showed approximately same result. After 48 hrs, tan δ values showed variations. However, the fluctuations were less at 6 % of graphite in all samples after 48 and 72 hrs of moisture absorption. Dielectric constant increases with increase in graphite % in composites at higher frequency and there was not much variation at low frequency. In all samples after 24 and 48 hrs of moisture absorption, dielectric constant decreases with increase in graphite loading. It is observed that dielectric constant increases in all samples after 72 hrs of moisture absorption as compared to dry samples. A c. conductivity increases with increase in % of graphite content in dry sample. Up to 6% a. c. conductivity increases after 24 and 48 hrs of immersion, after 72 hrs the trend is reversed. Since Fermi level is initially shifted towards the conduction band and then after 72 hrs of moisture absorption shifted towards the valence band. a. c. conductivity increases with increase in moisture content. The

  2. Geographical variation in total and inorganic arsenic content of polished (white) rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meharg, Andrew A; Williams, Paul N; Adomako, Eureka; Lawgali, Youssef Y; Deacon, Claire; Villada, Antia; Cambell, Robert C J; Sun, Guoxin; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Islam, Rafiqul; Hossain, Shahid; Yanai, Junta

    2009-03-01

    An extensive data set of total arsenic analysis for 901 polished (white) grain samples, originating from 10 countries from 4 continents, was compiled. The samples represented the baseline (i.e., notspecifically collected from arsenic contaminated areas), and all were for market sale in major conurbations. Median total arsenic contents of rice varied 7-fold, with Egypt (0.04 mg/kg) and India (0.07 mg/kg) having the lowest arsenic content while the U.S. (0.25 mg/kg) and France (0.28 mg/kg) had the highest content. Global distribution of total arsenic in rice was modeled by weighting each country's arsenic distribution by that country's contribution to global production. A subset of 63 samples from Bangladesh, China, India, Italy, and the U.S. was analyzed for arsenic species. The relationship between inorganic arsenic contentversus total arsenic contentsignificantly differed among countries, with Bangladesh and India having the steepest slope in linear regression, and the U.S. having the shallowest slope. Using country-specific rice consumption data, daily intake of inorganic arsenic was estimated and the associated internal cancer risk was calculated using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cancer slope. Median excess internal cancer risks posed by inorganic arsenic ranged 30-fold for the 5 countries examined, being 0.7 per 10,000 for Italians to 22 per 10,000 for Bangladeshis, when a 60 kg person was considered.

  3. Influence of moisture content on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in powdered red and black pepper spices by radio-frequency heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seul-Gi; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2014-04-17

    The influence of moisture content during radio-frequency (RF) heating on heating rate, dielectric properties, and inactivation of foodborne pathogens was investigated. The effect of RF heating on the quality of powdered red and black pepper spices with different moisture ranges was also investigated. Red pepper (12.6%, 15.2%, 19.1%, and 23.3% dry basis, db) and black pepper (10.1%, 17.2%, 23.7%, and 30.5% db) inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were treated in a RF heating system with 27.12 MHz. The heating rate of the sample was dependent on moisture content up to 19.1% (db) of red pepper and 17.2% (db) of black pepper, but there was a significant decrease in the heating rate when the moisture content was increased beyond these levels. The dielectric properties of both samples increased with a rise in moisture content. As the moisture content increased, treatment time required to reduce E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium by more than 7 log CFU/g (below the detection limit, 1 log CFU/g) decreased and then increased again without affecting product quality when the moisture content exceeded a level corresponding to the peak heating rate. RF treatment significantly (Pspices. These results suggest that RF heating can be effectively used to not only control pathogens but also reduce moisture levels in spices and that the effect of inactivation is dependent on moisture content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Differences among total and in vitro digestible phosphorus content of meat and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Heini; Ekholm, Päivi; Kemi, Virpi; Hirvonen, Tero; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2012-05-01

    Meat and milk products are important sources of dietary phosphorus (P) and protein. The use of P additives is common both in processed cheese and meat products. Measurement of in vitro digestible phosphorus (DP) content of foods may reflect absorbability of P. The objective of this study was to measure both total phosphorus (TP) and DP contents of selected meat and milk products and to compare amounts of TP and DP and the proportion of DP to TP among different foods. TP and DP contents of 21 meat and milk products were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In DP analysis, samples were digested enzymatically, in principle, in the same way as in the alimentary canal before the analyses. The most popular national brands of meat and milk products were chosen for analysis. The highest TP and DP contents were found in processed and hard cheeses; the lowest, in milk and cottage cheese. TP and DP contents in sausages and cold cuts were lower than those in cheeses. Chicken, pork, beef, and rainbow trout contained similar amounts of TP, but slightly more variation was found in their DP contents. Foods containing P additives have a high content of DP. Our study confirms that cottage cheese and unenhanced meats are better choices than processed or hard cheeses, sausages, and cold cuts for chronic kidney disease patients, based on their lower P-to-protein ratios and sodium contents. The results support previous findings of better P absorbability in foods of animal origin than in, for example, legumes. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mineral Composition, Total Phenol Content and Antioxidant Activity of a Macrolichen Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr. Hale (Parmeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Prashith Kekuda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated for the first time mineral composition, total phenol content and antioxidant activity of a foliose macrolichen Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr. Hale (Parmeliaceae from Bhadra wildlife sanctuary, Karnataka, India. Mineral content of the lichen was estimated by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer after acid digestion. The secondary metabolites were detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC and phytochemical assays. The lichen material was extracted with methanol in soxhlet apparatus. Total phenol content was estimated by folin ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH, Ferric reducing and metal chelating assays. Among the principal elements, calcium was found in high concentration followed by magnesium, potassium and phosphorus. Among trace elements, iron was detected in high amount followed by zinc, manganese and copper. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be dose dependent with an IC50 of 6.73 μg/mL. In ferric reducing assay, the absorbance increased with the concentration of extract suggesting reducing power. The extract exhibited good metal chelating activity with an IC50 value of 29.28 μg/mL. Total phenol content was 101.2 mg tannic acid equivalents per gram of extract. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. TLC revealed atranorin, salazinic acid and protolichesterinic acid. The lichen can be consumed as a source of minerals required for the body as appreciable amount of minerals has been detected. The marked antioxidant activity may be attributed to the presence of phenol content in the extract. Further studies on isolation of metabolites and their bioactivities are under investigation.

  6. Determination of phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Andrographis paniculata using chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzawa, Marzanna; Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kłodzińska, Ewa; Szłyk, Edward

    2015-07-15

    Antioxidant activity, total phenolics content and selected phytochemicals (alkaloids and andrographolides) were determined in Andrographis paniculata and in dietary supplements containing this plant. Antioxidant activity was measured by FRAP, CUPRAC and DPPH procedures and ranged from 503.36 to 6164.09μmol TE/100g d.m. depending on methods, part of plant and kind of dietary supplement. The total phenolics (175.13-1723.79mg GAE/100g) and andrographolides content (19.44-85.13mg/g) in the studied samples were correlated with antioxidant activities determined by CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH (r>0.95, ppaniculata leaves, whereas the lowest in dietary supplement Pn. Moreover principal component analysis, cluster analysis and one-way ANOVA follow by Duncan's tests were also performed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. The effect of geomagnetic storm on GPS derived total electron content (TEC) at Varanasi, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, A K

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we studied the effect of geomagnetic storm on Global Positioning System (GPS) derived total electron content (TEC) at low latitude Varanasi (Geomagnetic lat 14 0 , 55' N, geomagnetic long 154 0 E) during the period of May 2007 to April 2008. During this period 2 storms were found, which were occurred on 20 November 2007 and 9 March 2008. In this study vertical total electron content (VTEC) of single Pseudorandom Noise (PRN) and average of VTEC of same PRN before 10 days of storm, which is called background TEC, were used to see the effect of these storms on the variation of TEC. From this study this is found that during the storm of March 2008 the TEC increases in main phase of storm while in the case of November 2007 storm, TEC decreases during the main phase of storm but increases in the recovery phase (next day) of storm.

  8. [Contents mensuration of total alkaloid in Uncaria rhynchophylla by acid dye colorimetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chang-qing; Luo, Bei-liang

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the method of determination of total alkaloids Uncaria rhynchophylla. The Contents of total Alkaloid were determined by Acid dye Colorimetry. Acid dye color conditions: pH3.6 buffer 5.0 ml, bromocresol green liquid 5.0 ml; chloroform extraction three times, each time was exeracted for 2 minutes, put it aside for at least 5 minutes for the determination of the best method. Rhynchophylline 6.018 microg - 108.324 microg in the linear range, Recoveriys rate was 97.19%, RSD was 1.34% (n = 6). The method is simple, highly sensitive and reproducible.

  9. Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Arisarum vulgare seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjer Kadri; Salah Eddine Djilani; Abdelouaheb Djilani

    2013-01-01

    Background.Arisarum vulgare is screened and its total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid contents were measured. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of the methanol-water (7:3) extract of this plant is evalu- ated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfon- ic)) tests expressed by Vitamin C Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (VCEAC). HPLC analyses are carried out to identify some polyphenols. The aim of this study is to identify, ...

  10. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENTS OF SIX ALLIUM SPECIES GROWING IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz Abdel-Gawad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designated to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as evaluation the in vitro antioxidant activity of the defatted methanolic extracts of six Allium species growing in Egypt. Three of them are subspecies of Allium cepa L. (ssp. red onion, ssp. white onion and ssp. green onion, the other three species are Allium sativum L. (garlic, Allium porrum L. (leek and Allium kurrat L. (kurrat baladi. The results exhibited that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have the highest phenolic contents. On the other hand, in vitro antioxidant activity using three methods, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, phosphomolybdate and reducing power assays revealed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have high antioxidant activities. Moreover, there was positive correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of the tested Allium species. Therefore, the two plant species A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum were submitted to fractionation process using chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fractions of the two plants have high phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as have high antioxidant activities. Also, the preliminary phytochemical screening of the tested Allium species showed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have high quantities of flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and saponins.

  11. Solvent Effect on Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Betula alba and Convolvulus arvensi

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Azman A. Nurul; Husni Shafik; Almajano P. Maria; Gallego G. Maria

    2013-01-01

    The potential of using herbal Betula alba (BA) and Convolvulus arvensis (CA) as a natural antioxidant for food applications were investigated. Each plant extract was prepared by using pure ethanol, different concentration of ethanol aqueous solutions, including 50% and 75%, 50% methanol aqueous and water. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin–Ciocalteau method and antioxidant activity were analyzed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, trolox equivalent antioxida...

  12. The Content of U .S. Library's Total Quality Management and Its Developmental Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yung Fan

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The total quality management (TQM is a process, a technique, a management style, a goal and a tool. Most important of all, TQM means quality service. However, these are concepts largely unfamiliar to libraries but which seem to have strong potential to offer new insights and strategies in library management. This paper attempts toexpound the theoretical advantages of TQM and the barriers of its application in U.S. libraries. [Article content in Chinese

  13. Evaluation of total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of different verity lupin seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Sulaiman Dalaram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes, including lupins, beans, lentil and chickpea, are one of the most important crops in the world because of their nutritional quality. Lupin seeds have been used as human food and animal feed since ancient times. It was known that antioxidant photochemical in foods have many health benefits including prevention of various diseases associated with oxidative stress such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, neuro-degeneration and diabetes. Lupin grains are rich sources of complex carbohydrates, protein, vitamins and minerals. Antioxidants can be found naturally in foods. Total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity were measured in four varieties of lupin, namely in white lupin, blue lupin, yellow lupin and Mutabilis lupin species. A majority of antioxidants naturally present in foods occur in phenolic structures and especially in flavonoid structures. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. Antioxidant activity was measured by using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. In the present experiment according to the average contents of total polyphenols (TPC in dry matter of lupin seeds there was the following line: L. Angustifolius (blue lupin (696.212 mg GAE.100g-1 > L. Albus (white lupin (614.13 mg GAE.100g-1 > L. Luteus (yellow lupin (467.78 mg GAE.100g-1 > L. Mutabilis (pearl lupin (367.36 mg GAE.100g-1. Based on the measured values of total antioxidant capacity (TAC of lupin samples can be classified as follows: L. Albus (white lupin (43.44% >L. Angustifolius (blue lupin (38.27% >L. Luteus (yellow lupin (22.29% >L. Mutabilis (Pearl lupin (20.80%. The relationship of antioxidant capacity with total polyphenolic was discussed. According to used statistical analyzes. Correlation between the phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity was significantly positive (r = 0.88. Our results confirmed that legumes can be a good source of bioactive compounds in the human nutrition

  14. [Analysis of effect of topographical conditions on content of total alkaloid in Coptidis Rhizoma in Chongqin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Huang, He; Yang, Yan-fang; Wu, He-zhen

    2014-12-01

    To study ecology suitability rank dividing of the total alkaloid content of Coptis Rhizoma for selecting artificial planting base and high-quality industrial raw material in Chongqing province. Based on the investigation of PCB and DEM data of Chongqing province, the relationship between the total alkaloid content in Coptis Rhizoma and topographical conditions was analyzed by statistical analysis. The geographic information systems (GIS)-based assessment and landscape ecological principles were applied to assess eco logy suitability areas of Coptis Rhizoma in Chongqing. slope, aspect and altitude are main topographical factors that affect the content of the total alkaloid content in Coptis Rhizoma The total alkaloid content in Coptis Rhizoma is higher in the lower altitude, shady slope and bigger slope areas. The total alkaloid content is higher in the south areas of Chongqing province and lower in the northeast. Terrain conditions of the southern region of Chongqing are most suitable for The accumulated of total alkaloid Coptis Rhizoma content.

  15. TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF THE EXTRACT OF EPHEDRA PROCERA FISCH. ET MEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Naser Vahed; Kachouie, Mehrdad Ataie; Pirbalouti, Abdollah Ghasemi; Malekpoor, Fatemeh; Rabei, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Ephedra prcera belonging to the family Ephedraceae is a poison and medicinal plant. The main aim of present study was to determine total phenolic content and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of ethanolic extract from the aerial parts of E. procera collected from a natural habitat in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Southwestern Iran. The total phenolic content of the extract by Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antioxidant activity using DPPH assay were determined. The antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were evaluated against five bacteria, including Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enteobacter aeogenes, Bacillus ceirus and Staphylococcus aureus. Total phenolic content in the extract of E. procera was 0.718 mg tannic acid/g dry weight extract. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract of E. piocera exhibited radical scavenging activity. In addition, the results of this study confirmed that the ethanolic extract of E. procera exhibited antibacterial activity. In conclusion, the extract of E. piocera could be an important source of phenolic components with antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity.

  16. Nitrogen fertilization of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines: yield, total nitrogen content in the leaves and must composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Lorensini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Grapevines grown on sandy soils are subjected to the application of supplemental nitrogen (N; however, there is little information available regarding the impact of these applications on yield, plant nutritional state and must composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield, nutritional state and must composition of grapevines subjected to N fertilization. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines were subjected to annual applications of 0, 10, 15, 20, 40, 80 and 120 kg N ha-1 in 2008, 2009 and 2010. During the 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11 harvest seasons, leaves were collected during full flowering and when the berries changed color, and the total N content was analyzed. The grape yield and the enological characteristics of the must were evaluated. The response to applied N was low, and the highest Cabernet Sauvignon grape yield was obtained in response to an application of 20 kg N ha-1 year-1. The application of N increased the nutrient content in the leaf collected at full flowering, but it had little effect on the total nutrient content in the must, and it did not affect the enological characteristics of the must, such as soluble solids, pH, total acidity, malic acid and tartaric acid.

  17. Total phenolic content, radical scavenging properties, and essential oil composition of Origanum species from different populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambolena, José S; Zunino, María P; Lucini, Enrique I; Olmedo, Rubén; Banchio, Erika; Bima, Paula J; Zygadlo, Julio A

    2010-01-27

    The aim of this work was to compare the antiradical activity, total phenol content (TPC), and essential oil composition of Origanum vulgare spp. virens, Origanum x applii, Origanum x majoricum, and O. vulgare spp. vulgare cultivated in Argentina in different localities. The experiment was conducted in the research station of La Consulta (INTA-Mendoza), the research station of Santa Lucia (INTA-San Juan), and Agronomy Faculty of National University of La Pampa, from 2007 to 2008. The composition of the essential oils of oregano populations was independent of cultivation conditions. In total, 39 compounds were identified in essential oils of oregano from Argentina by means of GC-MS. Thymol and trans-sabinene hydrate were the most prominent compounds, followed by gamma-terpinene, terpinen-4-ol, and alpha-terpinene. O. vulgare vulgare is the only Origanum studied which is rich in gamma-terpinene. Among tested oregano, O. x majoricum showed the highest essential oil content, 3.9 mg g(-1) dry matter. The plant extract of O. x majoricum had greater total phenol content values, 19.36 mg/g dry weight, than the rest of oregano studied. To find relationships among TPC, free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), and climate variables, canonical correlations were calculated. The results obtained allow us to conclude that 70% of the TPC and FRSA variability can be explained by the climate variables (R(2) = 0.70; p = 8.3 x 10(-6)), the temperature being the most important climatic variable.

  18. 40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section 60.4360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4360 How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must monitor the total sulfur content of the...

  19. Total Dietary Fiber Content of Selected Traditional Beverages in Egypt: A Brief Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil H. Aboul-Enein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Escalating obesity rates have become a major public health concern in North Africa and the Middle East. Culturally-congruent dietary health education and strategies continue to be warranted to address this increasing public health crisis. Knowledge and familiarity with traditional foods and their nutritive value would assist public health practitioners in becoming culturally competent when educating on healthy eating patterns. The aim of this study is to provide a brief dietary profile of the total dietary fiber (TDF contents of selected traditional beverages in Egypt. Five cookbooks for Egyptian food recipes were reviewed for traditional beverages. Beverage recipes (n = 19 were selected and reviewed for their TDF content using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (Release 27. The published values for TDF content were tabulated and reported per 100 mL of consumable portions. The highest TDF content was found in carob juice (8.0 g and the lowest found in peppermint tea (0.0 g with an overall TDF mean content of 2.8 g. Traditional beverages could be regarded as important sources of TDF within a healthy Egyptian dietary pattern. Cultural awareness and familiarities to traditional foods and their respective dietary profiles should be encouraged as an objective towards building culturally-competent health professionals and combating obesity in Egypt. Furthermore, developments of a traditional Egyptian food nutrient database for public access should be explored.

  20. Effects of soil type, moisture content, redox potential and methyl bromide fumigation on Kd values of radio-selenium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, D.J.; Moore, J.; Shaw, G.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the processes that determine the solid-liquid partitioning (K d value) of Se is of fundamental importance in assessing the risk associated with the disposal of radio-selenium-containing waste. Using a mini-column (rather than batch) approach, K d values for 75 Se were determined over time in relation to soil moisture content (field capacity or saturated), redox potential and methyl bromide fumigation (used to disrupt the soil microbial population) in three contrasting soil types: clay loam, organic and sandy loam. The K d values were generally in the range 50-500 L kg -1 , with mean soil K d increasing with increasing organic matter content. Saturation with water lowered the measured redox potentials in the soils. However, only in the sandy loam soil did redox potential become negative, and this led to an increase in 75 Se K d value in this soil. Comparison of the data with the Eh-pH stability diagram for Se suggested that such strong reduction may have been consistent with the formation of the insoluble Se species, selenide. These findings, coupled with the fact that methyl bromide fumigation had no discernible effect on 75 Se K d value in the sandy loam soil, suggest that geochemical, rather than microbial, processes controlled 75 Se partitioning. The inter-relations between soil moisture content, redox potential and Se speciation should be considered in the modelling and assessment of radioactive Se fate and transport in the environment

  1. Effects of moisture content or particle size on the in situ degradability of maize silage and alfalfa haylage in lactating dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Zou; Shuangzhao Dong; Yun Du; Shengli Li; Yajing Wang; Zhijun Cao

    2016-01-01

    A study using four Holstein cows with ruminal cannulas was conducted to evaluate the degradability of different moisture content or particle size of maize silage and alfalfa haylage. The maize silage (MS; 20-mm length) and alfalfa haylage (AH; 40-mm length) samples were wet (wet maize silage, MSW; wet alfalfa haylage, AHW), dried (dried maize silage, MSD; dried alfalfa haylage, AHD), or ground to pass through a 2.5-mm screen (dried ground maize silage, MSG; dried ground alfalfa haylage, AHG)....

  2. Study on the relation between uranium content and total phosphorus in some sudanese phosphate ore samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, M. A. H.; Mohammed, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work uranium content and total phosphorus were determined in 30 phosphate ore samples collected from Kurun and Uro areas in Nuba Mountains in Sudan. Spectrophotometry technique was used for this purpose. Uranium analysis is based on the use of nitrogen (V) acid for leaching the rock, and treatment with ammonium carbonate solution, whereby uranium (Vi) is kept in solution as its carbonate complex. The ion exchange technique was used for the recovery of uranium. Uranium was eluted from the resin with 1 M hydrochloric acid. In the elute, uranium was determined spectrophotometrically by measurement of absorbance of the yellow uranium (Vi)-8-hydroxyquinolate complex at λ 400 nm. The total phosphorus was measured as (P 2 O 5 %) by treatment of the total liquor with ammonium molybdate solution. The absorbance of the blue complex was measured at λ 880 nm. The results show that a limited relation is existed between uranium content and total phosphorus in phosphate samples from kurun area, which contain 58.8 ppm uranium in average, where there are no relation is existed in phosphate samples from uro area, which contain 200 ppm uranium in average. (Author)

  3. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT OF GRAPE SEEDS AND PEELS FROM ROMANIAN VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina IUGA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grape seeds and peels are valuable by-products from wine production industry that can be valorized in food production. Both grape seeds and peels have a great amount of antioxidants and polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the total phenolic content of red and white grape seeds and peels and to establish the optimal solvent concentration for highest extraction yield. For this purpose, Folin Ciocâlteu method was used to achieve the phenols content and the antioxidant activity was estimated using 2,2 – diphenyl-1-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH reagent. The total phenolic content ranged from 81.13 mg GAE/g for red peels, 93.47 mg GAE/g for white peels, to 128.47 mg GAE/g for red seeds and 164.70 mg GAE/g for white seeds. The One-Way ANOVA method was used to see if there are differences between the antioxidant activities depending on the solvent concentration. The results showed that the methanol concentration significantly (p < 0.05 influences the antioxidants extraction. The inhibition percent IC50 ranged from 0,24 to 4,37 μg/mL for white peels, from 3,12 to 6,29 μg/mL for red peels, from 5,53 to 5,90 μg/mL for white seeds and from 4,59 to 6,14 μg/mL for red seeds. This study highlighted the possibility to use grape seeds and peels as food ingredients or natural antioxidant to extend the shelf life of food, especial of lipids and lipid-containing foods because of their high antioxidant activity and total phenolic content.

  4. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khairul Alam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC and total polyphenol content (TPC. Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI Sweet Potato 7 (SP7 contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  5. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Khairul; Rana, Ziaul Hasan; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2016-09-14

    In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC) and total polyphenol content (TPC). Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) Sweet Potato 7 (SP7) contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  6. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  7. Total polyphenols contents in different grapevine varieties in highlands of southern brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brighenti Emilio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are one of the main parameters of wine quality and contribute to the organoleptic characteristics, particularly color, astringency and body. In the highlands of southern Brazil, low temperatures and high accumulation of global solar radiation favor the synthesis of total polyphenols in grapes. The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of total polyphenols of 10 white varieties and 13 red varieties produced in high altitude regions of southern Brazil. The vineyard is located in the Experimental Station of Santa Catarina State Agricultural Research and Rural Extension Agency (EPAGRI, in the city of São Joaquim (28° 16′30″S, 49° 56′09″W, Altitude 1,400 m, the evaluations occurred in 2015/2016 growing season. The content of total polyphenols was determined as proposed by Singleton & Rossi (1965, using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, with spectrophotometer readings. Polyphenol content ranged from 283.56 to 1,387.31 mg/L for white varieties, the varieties with the highest concentrations were Greco di Tufo (1,378.31 mg/L, Trebbiano Toscano (995.59 mg/L and Ribola Gialla (737.48 mg/L. For the red varieties, the total polyphenol content ranged from 523.87 to 4,929.57 mg/L, Ancellotta (4,929.57 mg/L, Uva di Troia (2,722.27 mg/L and Croatina (2,410 mg/L stood out for presenting the highest levels.

  8. The Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents of Some Medicinal Plants in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mirzaei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Free radicals are highly reactive molecules may cause great damage to cell membranes and DNA and Result in inducing oxidation DNA mutations leading to cancer, degenerative, and other diseases. Plant antioxidant derived may be preventive of free radical damages. Methods & Materials: The Stems and flower sample of plants air-dried, finely ground and were extracted by ethanol: water (70:30 for 48 h. Extracts were filtered and dried under vacuum. The antioxidant activity of five ethanolic extract of medicinal plants (Descurainia Sophia, Plantago major, Trachyspermum copticum L, Coriandrum sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum from Iran were analysed by five different methods [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, 2,2,azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation, Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP, phosphomolybdenum (PMB and reducing power (RP]. In addition, for determination of antioxidant components total phenolic content was also analyzed. Results: The total phenolic content of medicinal plant ranges from 74 to 154.3 mg Gallic acid/g extract as measured by the Folin–Ciocalteau method. Values of DPPH varied from 15.5 to 19.6 µmol trolex/g. FRAP ranged from 124.2 to 753 µmol of Fe(II/g extract. Antioxidant activity of the Plantago major was always higher compared to the other plants extracts values of total phenols content and antioxidant capacity by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, (154.33 mg GAE/g, 1856 µmol trolox, 750 µmol trolox and 1169 µmol of Fe(II/g, extract respectively. The range of total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum method was 513.3 to 870 µmol trolox/g. The reducing ability of the tested extracts was between 0.31-1.26. Plantago majorwas also highest activity in both tests. Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrated that Plantago major crude extract exhibit significant antioxidant activity.

  9. Comparative study of the total phenol content and antioxidant activity of some medicinal herbal extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hajimehdipoor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines can be used as the potential sources of anti-oxidative compounds to help the treatment of diseases associated to oxidative stress. In this paper, the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP activity of four Lamiaceae herbal extracts, which traditionally applied in oxidative stress related diseases, has been evaluated and total phenolics contents of these extracts determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The aqueous methanol extracts were prepared by percolation method and investigated for antioxidant properties and total phenolics content evaluation. All the extracts showed antioxidant effect from 123.6±4.6 mmol of FeSO4.7H2Oequivalent/100 g dried extract in Scutellaria tornefortii to 551.5±16.0 mmol of FeSO4.7H2Oequivalent/100 g dried extract in Satureja sahendica. Interestingly, although Satureja sahendica exhibited the most antioxidant activity, the highest content of polyphenolics belonged to Stachys byzantina. Taking together, antioxidant activity of the mentioned medicinal plants is not necessarily associated with polyphenolic compounds and might be partially due to the presence of other polar constituents like terpenoid-glycosides in aqueous extracts that traditionally used as decoction.

  10. Automatic moisture content determination on biomass with NIR and radio frequency spectroscopy; Automatisk fukthaltsmaetning paa biobraenslen med NIR samt radiofrekvent spektroskopi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlquist, Erik; Nystroem, Jenny; Thorin, Eva; Paz, Ana de la [Maelardalen Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Public Technology; Axrup, Lars [Stora Enso AB (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The goal with the project has been to evaluate two methods for determination of moisture content in biomass fuels and to determine if these methods can be used in practice in connection with delivery control of biomass at power plants. Tests have been performed with different biomass qualities and with two different measurement methods within a large moisture span, 0.6-72%. The two methods have been NIR (Near Infrared spectroscopy), and RF (Radio Frequency spectroscopy). The NIR-method is a surface analysis method, where hydro-carbons like wood have a different absorption pattern than water. The RF-method is a bulk method and utilizes that wood and water have different dielectric constants. Radio waves thus are affected differently by transportation through wet and dry biomass. In this project we have studied how representative sampling can be achieved from a large volume of delivered biomass fuel. We also have performed calibration with mixtures of the different fuels. Sampling has been performed by extracting biomass in a four meter long screw from the large volume as it is poured into a storage vessel. A conveyor belt is then transporting the material to the measurement systems. Two different NIR-instruments, DA (Diod Array) -NIR respective FT (Fourier Transform)- NIR, were placed above the conveyor belt. The material was collected from the belt into the measuring vessel for the RF, a 200 liter 'oil barrel'. The radio waves were sent from the transceiver into the sample from above without direct contact between the biomass and the transceiver antenna. Six different fuels were studied separately. Calibration was performed where the moisture content was varied by mixing relatively dry fuel with humidified biomass in different proportions a day before the measurements. Samples were taken from each mixture in connection with the measurements, from the conveyor belt. The samples were made in such a way that they represented the whole volume as good as

  11. Determination of fat and total protein content in milk using conventional digital imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    The applicability of conventional digital imaging to quantitative determination of fat and total protein in cow's milk, based on the phenomenon of light scatter, has been proved. A new algorithm for extracting features from digital images of milk samples has been developed. The algorithm takes into account spatial distribution of light, diffusely transmitted through a sample. The proposed method has been tested on two sample sets prepared from industrial raw milk standards, with variable fat and protein content. Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression on the features calculated from images of monochromatically illuminated milk samples resulted in models with high prediction performance when analysed the sets separately (best models with cross-validated R(2)=0.974 for protein and R(2)=0.973 for fat content). However when analysed the sets jointly with the obtained results were significantly worse (best models with cross-validated R(2)=0.890 for fat content and R(2)=0.720 for protein content). The results have been compared with previously published Vis/SW-NIR spectroscopic study of similar samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Jing; Dong, Bin; Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste...

  13. Determination of fat and total protein content in milk using conventional digital imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    into account spatial distribution of light, diffusely transmitted through a sample. The proposed method has been tested on two sample sets prepared from industrial raw milk standards, with variable fat and protein content. Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression on the features calculated from images......The applicability of conventional digital imaging to quantitative determination of fat and total protein in cow’s milk, based on the phenomenon of light scatter, has been proved. A new algorithm for extracting features from digital images of milk samples has been developed. The algorithm takes...... of monochromatically illuminated milk samples resulted in models with high prediction performance when analysed the sets separately (best models with cross-validated R2=0.974 for protein and R2=0.973 for fat content). However when analysed the sets jointly the obtained results were significantly worse (best models...

  14. Polysaccharides, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activities in different parts of Silybum marianum L. plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Li, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaolei

    2017-01-01

    Silybum marianum L. is used for the production of silymarin, a flavonoid utilized for regenerating damaged hepatic tissues. Herein, the total flavonoid content (TFC) and polysaccharides content (PC) in the roots, main stems, leaves, fruit receptacles, and pappi of Silybum marianum were determined. The antioxidant activities of plant ethanol extracts were assessed to validate the medicinal potential of the various plant parts. The pappi exhibited the highest TFC (17.10 mg rutin/g of dry plant material), followed by the fruit receptacles (15.34 mg/g). The PC varied from 3.57±0.23 to 11.02±0.35 mg glucose /g dry plant material; the highest PC was obtained from the roots. At 50 ug/mL, the pappi ethanol extract showed the highest 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (69.68%), followed by the roots (66.02%).

  15. Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents in edible dried seaweed in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y O; Park, S G; Park, G Y; Choi, S M; Kim, M Y

    2010-01-01

    Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents were determined in 426 samples of seaweed sold in Korea in 2007-08. The average concentrations, expressed in mg kg(-1), dry weight, were: total arsenic 17.4 (less than the limit of detection [LOD] to 88.8), Hg 0.01 (from 0.001 to 0.050), lead 0.7 (less than the LOD to 2.7), and cadmium 0.50 (less than the LOD to 2.9). There were differences in mercury, cadmium, and arsenic content in seaweed between different kinds of products and between coastal areas. The intakes of total mercury, lead, and cadmium for Korean people from seaweed were estimated to be 0.11, 0.65, and 0.45 µg kg(-1) body weight week(-1), respectively. With respect to food safety, consumption of 8.5 g day(-1) of the samples analysed could represent up to 0.2-6.7% of the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes established by the World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, even if Korean people have a high consumption of seaweed, this study confirms the low probability of health risks from these metals via seaweed consumption.

  16. Study on the relation between uranium content and total phosphorus in some sudanese phosphate ore samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, A.A.; Eltayeb, M.A.H.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work uranium content and total phosphorous were determined in 30 phosphate ore samples collected from Kurun and Uro areas in Nuba mountains in sudan. Spectrophotometry technique was used for this purpose. Uranium analysis is based on the use of nitrogen (V) acid for leaching the rock, and treatment with ammonium carbonate solution, whereby uranium (VI) is kept in solution as its carbonate complex. The ion-exchange technique was used for the recovery of uranium. Uranium was eluted from the resin with 1 M hydrochloric acid. In the elute, uranium was determined spectrophotometrically by measurement of the absorbance of the yellow uranium (VI) - 8- hydroxyquinolate complex at λ 400 nm. The total phosphorus was measured as (P 2 O 5 %) by treatment of the leach liquor with ammonium molybdate solution. The absorbance of the blue complex was measured at λ 880 nm. The results show that a limited relation is existed between uranium content and total phosphorus in phosphate samples from Kurun area, which contain 58.8 ppm uranium in average, where there are no relation is existed in phosphate samples samples from Uro area, which contain 200 ppm uranium in average

  17. Estudos sôbre a conservação de sementes. IV - Café Influence of moisture content on the viability of coffee seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Bacchi

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de café, recém-colhidas e imediatamente sêcas à sombra e ao sol, foram conservadas com diferentes teores de umidade em dois tipos de recipientes, abertos e hermèticamente fechados, à temperatura não controlada do laboratório. Pelos resultados obtidos através de determinações periódicas das porcentagens de germinação e umidade das sementes armazenadas nessas condições, foram tiradas as seguintes conclusões: a a vitalidade das sementes foi inteiramente independente do processo de seca; b a longevidade das sementes conservadas em recipientes hermèticamente fechados foi inversamente proporcional ao seu teor de umidade; sementes com aproximadamente 20%, 13% e 10% de umidade premaneceram viáveis durante 4, 8 e 21 meses, respectivamente. c o teor inicial de umidade não teve qualquer influência sôbre a longevidade das sementes armazenadas em recipientes abertos; isto se verificou, provavelmente, em virtude da quantidade relativamente pequena de sementes, o que permitiu uma rápida desidratação daquelas que se encontravam com teores elevados de umidade; a vitalidade das sementes colocadas nestes recipientes permaneceu inalterada por oito a dez meses. Estas conclusões estão inteiramente em desacôrdo com as de vários autores, segundo as quais a semente de café perde rapidamente sua vitalidade pela simples desidratação ao ar.Freshly harvested seeds of coffee (Coffea arabica L. var. typica Cramer were air dried and sun-dried at different levels of moisture content and stored in open and sealed containers at room temperature. Moisture determination and germination tests were made on the "fresh" seeds and at different intervals during the storage period. Based on the results obtained, the following conclusions were drawn: 1 The process of drying did not interfere with the seed viability. 2 The longevity of the seeds kept in sealed containers was inversely proportional to the seed moisture content. Seeds containing about

  18. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yi

    Full Text Available The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  19. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies. PMID:25051352

  20. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jing; Dong, Bin; Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.