WorldWideScience

Sample records for total goodness-of-fit score

  1. A goodness of fit statistic for the geometric distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a goodness of fit statistic for the geometric distribution and compare it in terms of power, via simulation, with the chi-square statistic. The statistic is based on the Lau-Rao theorem and can be seen as a discrete analogue of the total time on test statistic. The results

  2. A goodness of fit statistic for the geometric distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a goodness of fit statistic for the geometric distribution and compare it in terms of power, via simulation, with the chi-square statistic. The statistic is based on the Lau-Rao theorem and can be seen as a discrete analogue of the total time on test statistic. The results suggest that the test based on the new statistic is generally superior to the chi-square test.

  3. Goodness-of-fit test for copulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, Valentyn

    2005-09-01

    Copulas are often used in finance to characterize the dependence between assets. However, a choice of the functional form for the copula is an open question in the literature. This paper develops a goodness-of-fit test for copulas based on positive definite bilinear forms. The suggested test avoids the use of plug-in estimators that is the common practice in the literature. The test statistics can be consistently computed on the basis of V-estimators even in the case of large dimensions. The test is applied to a dataset of US large cap stocks to assess the performance of the Gaussian copula for the portfolios of assets of various dimension. The Gaussian copula appears to be inadequate to characterize the dependence between assets.

  4. Mothers' Appraisal of Goodness of Fit and Children's Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifer, Ronald; Dickstein, Susan; Parade, Stephanie; Hayden, Lisa C.; Magee, Karin Dodge; Schiller, Masha

    2014-01-01

    Goodness of fit has been a key theoretical construct for understanding caregiver-child relationships. We developed an interview method to assess goodness of fit as a relationship construct, and employed this method in a longitudinal study of child temperament, family context, and attachment relationship formation. Goodness of fit at 4 and 8 months…

  5. The Meaning of Goodness-of-Fit Tests: Commentary on "Goodness-of-Fit Assessment of Item Response Theory Models"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thissen, David

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, David Thissen states that "Goodness-of-fit assessment for IRT models is maturing; it has come a long way from zero." Thissen then references prior works on "goodness of fit" in the index of Lord and Novick's (1968) classic text; Yen (1984); Drasgow, Levine, Tsien, Williams, and Mead (1995); Chen and…

  6. An Introduction to Goodness of Fit for PMU Parameter Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riepnieks, Artis; Kirkham, Harold

    2017-10-01

    New results of measurements of phasor-like signals are presented based on our previous work on the topic. In this document an improved estimation method is described. The algorithm (which is realized in MATLAB software) is discussed. We examine the effect of noisy and distorted signals on the Goodness of Fit metric. The estimation method is shown to be performing very well with clean data and with a measurement window as short as a half a cycle and as few as 5 samples per cycle. The Goodness of Fit decreases predictably with added phase noise, and seems to be acceptable even with visible distortion in the signal. While the exact results we obtain are specific to our method of estimation, the Goodness of Fit method could be implemented in any phasor measurement unit.

  7. Quantum chi-squared and goodness of fit testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temme, Kristan [IQIM, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Verstraete, Frank [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Wien, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Wien, Austria and Faculty of Science, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-01-15

    A quantum mechanical hypothesis test is presented for the hypothesis that a certain setup produces a given quantum state. Although the classical and the quantum problems are very much related to each other, the quantum problem is much richer due to the additional optimization over the measurement basis. A goodness of fit test for i.i.d quantum states is developed and a max-min characterization for the optimal measurement is introduced. We find the quantum measurement which leads both to the maximal Pitman and Bahadur efficiencies, and determine the associated divergence rates. We discuss the relationship of the quantum goodness of fit test to the problem of estimating multiple parameters from a density matrix. These problems are found to be closely related and we show that the largest error of an optimal strategy, determined by the smallest eigenvalue of the Fisher information matrix, is given by the divergence rate of the goodness of fit test.

  8. Chi-squared goodness of fit tests with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, N; Nikulin, MS

    2013-01-01

    Chi-Squared Goodness of Fit Tests with Applications provides a thorough and complete context for the theoretical basis and implementation of Pearson's monumental contribution and its wide applicability for chi-squared goodness of fit tests. The book is ideal for researchers and scientists conducting statistical analysis in processing of experimental data as well as to students and practitioners with a good mathematical background who use statistical methods. The historical context, especially Chapter 7, provides great insight into importance of this subject with an authoritative author team

  9. Goodness of Fit Test and Test of Independence by Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sharifdoost; N. Nematollahi; E. Pasha

    2009-01-01

    To test whether a set of data has a specific distribution or not, we can use the goodness of fit test. This test can be done by one of Pearson X 2 -statistic or the likelihood ratio statistic G 2 , which are asymptotically equal, and also by using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic in continuous distributions. In this paper, we introduce a new test statistic for goodness of fit test which is based on entropy distance, and which can be applied for large sample sizes...

  10. Goodness-of-Fit Assessment of Item Response Theory Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The article provides an overview of goodness-of-fit assessment methods for item response theory (IRT) models. It is now possible to obtain accurate "p"-values of the overall fit of the model if bivariate information statistics are used. Several alternative approaches are described. As the validity of inferences drawn on the fitted model…

  11. Local and omnibus goodness-of-fit tests in classical measurement error models

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Yanyuan

    2010-09-14

    We consider functional measurement error models, i.e. models where covariates are measured with error and yet no distributional assumptions are made about the mismeasured variable. We propose and study a score-type local test and an orthogonal series-based, omnibus goodness-of-fit test in this context, where no likelihood function is available or calculated-i.e. all the tests are proposed in the semiparametric model framework. We demonstrate that our tests have optimality properties and computational advantages that are similar to those of the classical score tests in the parametric model framework. The test procedures are applicable to several semiparametric extensions of measurement error models, including when the measurement error distribution is estimated non-parametrically as well as for generalized partially linear models. The performance of the local score-type and omnibus goodness-of-fit tests is demonstrated through simulation studies and analysis of a nutrition data set.

  12. Goodness of Fit Test and Test of Independence by Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sharifdoost

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available To test whether a set of data has a specific distribution or not, we can use the goodness of fit test. This test can be done by one of Pearson X 2 -statistic or the likelihood ratio statistic G 2 , which are asymptotically equal, and also by using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic in continuous distributions. In this paper, we introduce a new test statistic for goodness of fit test which is based on entropy distance, and which can be applied for large sample sizes. We compare this new statistic with the classical test statistics X 2 , G 2 , and Tn by some simulation studies. We conclude that the new statistic is more sensitive than the usual statistics to the rejection of distributions which are almost closed to the desired distribution. Also for testing independence, a new test statistic based on mutual information is introduced

  13. A note on goodness of fit test using moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Papadopoulos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to introduce a general moment-based approach to derive formal goodness of fit tests of a parametric family. We show that, in general, an approximate normal test or a chi-squared test can be derived by exploring the moment structure of a parametric family, when moments up to certain order exist. The idea is simple and the resulting tests are easy to implement. To illustrate the use of this approach, we derive moment-based goodness of fit tests for some common discrete and continuous parametric families. We also compare the proposed tests with the well known Pearson-Fisher chi-square test and some distance tests in a simulation study.

  14. Goodness-of-fit tests for the Gompertz distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenart, Adam; Missov, Trifon

    The Gompertz distribution is often fitted to lifespan data, however testing whether the fit satisfies theoretical criteria was neglected. Here five goodness-of-fit measures, the Anderson-Darling statistic, the Kullback-Leibler discrimination information, the correlation coefficient test, testing ...... for the mean of the sample hazard and a nested test against the generalized extreme value distributions are discussed. Along with an application to laboratory rat data, critical values calculated by the empirical distribution of the test statistics are also presented.......The Gompertz distribution is often fitted to lifespan data, however testing whether the fit satisfies theoretical criteria was neglected. Here five goodness-of-fit measures, the Anderson-Darling statistic, the Kullback-Leibler discrimination information, the correlation coefficient test, testing...

  15. Exact goodness-of-fit tests for Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besag, J; Mondal, D

    2013-06-01

    Goodness-of-fit tests are useful in assessing whether a statistical model is consistent with available data. However, the usual χ² asymptotics often fail, either because of the paucity of the data or because a nonstandard test statistic is of interest. In this article, we describe exact goodness-of-fit tests for first- and higher order Markov chains, with particular attention given to time-reversible ones. The tests are obtained by conditioning on the sufficient statistics for the transition probabilities and are implemented by simple Monte Carlo sampling or by Markov chain Monte Carlo. They apply both to single and to multiple sequences and allow a free choice of test statistic. Three examples are given. The first concerns multiple sequences of dry and wet January days for the years 1948-1983 at Snoqualmie Falls, Washington State, and suggests that standard analysis may be misleading. The second one is for a four-state DNA sequence and lends support to the original conclusion that a second-order Markov chain provides an adequate fit to the data. The last one is six-state atomistic data arising in molecular conformational dynamics simulation of solvated alanine dipeptide and points to strong evidence against a first-order reversible Markov chain at 6 picosecond time steps. © 2013, The International Biometric Society.

  16. Flexible competing risks regression modeling and goodness-of-fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we consider different approaches for estimation and assessment of covariate effects for the cumulative incidence curve in the competing risks model. The classic approach is to model all cause-specific hazards and then estimate the cumulative incidence curve based on these cause...... models that is easy to fit and contains the Fine-Gray model as a special case. One advantage of this approach is that our regression modeling allows for non-proportional hazards. This leads to a new simple goodness-of-fit procedure for the proportional subdistribution hazards assumption that is very easy...... of the flexible regression models to analyze competing risks data when non-proportionality is present in the data....

  17. Goodness-of-fit tests with dependent observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicheportiche, Rémy; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the Kolmogorov–Smirnov and Cramér–von Mises goodness-of-fit (GoF) tests and propose a generalization to identically distributed, but dependent univariate random variables. We show that the dependence leads to a reduction of the 'effective' number of independent observations. The generalized GoF tests are not distribution-free but rather depend on all the lagged bivariate copulas. These objects, that we call 'self-copulas', encode all the non-linear temporal dependences. We introduce a specific, log-normal model for these self-copulas, for which a number of analytical results are derived. An application to financial time series is provided. As is well known, the dependence is to be long-ranged in this case, a finding that we confirm using self-copulas. As a consequence, the acceptance rates for GoF tests are substantially higher than if the returns were iid random variables

  18. Modified Distribution-Free Goodness-of-Fit Test Statistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, So Yeon; Browne, Michael W; Shapiro, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    Covariance structure analysis and its structural equation modeling extensions have become one of the most widely used methodologies in social sciences such as psychology, education, and economics. An important issue in such analysis is to assess the goodness of fit of a model under analysis. One of the most popular test statistics used in covariance structure analysis is the asymptotically distribution-free (ADF) test statistic introduced by Browne (Br J Math Stat Psychol 37:62-83, 1984). The ADF statistic can be used to test models without any specific distribution assumption (e.g., multivariate normal distribution) of the observed data. Despite its advantage, it has been shown in various empirical studies that unless sample sizes are extremely large, this ADF statistic could perform very poorly in practice. In this paper, we provide a theoretical explanation for this phenomenon and further propose a modified test statistic that improves the performance in samples of realistic size. The proposed statistic deals with the possible ill-conditioning of the involved large-scale covariance matrices.

  19. Goodness-of-fit tests for a heavy tailed distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Koning (Alex); L. Peng (Liang)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractFor testing whether a distribution function is heavy tailed, we study the Kolmogorov test, Berk-Jones test, score test and their integrated versions. A comparison is conducted via Bahadur efficiency and simulations. The score test and the integrated score test show the best

  20. A simple non-parametric goodness-of-fit test for elliptical copulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaser Miriam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a simple non-parametric goodness-of-fit test for elliptical copulas of any dimension. It is based on the equality of Kendall’s tau and Blomqvist’s beta for all bivariate margins. Nominal level and power of the proposed test are investigated in a Monte Carlo study. An empirical application illustrates our goodness-of-fit test at work.

  1. GOODNESS-OF-FIT TEST FOR THE ACCELERATED FAILURE TIME MODEL BASED ON MARTINGALE RESIDUALS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2013), s. 40-59 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06047 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) SVV 261315/2011 Keywords : accelerated failure time model * survival analysis * goodness-of-fit Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.563, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/SI/novak-goodness-of-fit test for the aft model based on martingale residuals.pdf

  2. Residuals and the Residual-Based Statistic for Testing Goodness of Fit of Structural Equation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldnes, Njal; Foss, Tron; Olsson, Ulf Henning

    2012-01-01

    The residuals obtained from fitting a structural equation model are crucial ingredients in obtaining chi-square goodness-of-fit statistics for the model. The authors present a didactic discussion of the residuals, obtaining a geometrical interpretation by recognizing the residuals as the result of oblique projections. This sheds light on the…

  3. Goodness of Fit of Skills Assessment Approaches: Insights from Patterns of Real vs. Synthetic Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Behzad; Desmarais, Michel C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the issue of the goodness of fit of different skills assessment models using both synthetic and real data. Synthetic data is generated from the different skills assessment models. The results show wide differences of performances between the skills assessment models over synthetic data sets. The set of relative performances…

  4. Goodness-of-fit tests for multi-dimensional copulas: Expanding application to historical drought data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-wei Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of how to choose a copula model that best fits a given dataset is a predominant limitation of the copula approach, and the present study aims to investigate the techniques of goodness-of-fit tests for multi-dimensional copulas. A goodness-of-fit test based on Rosenblatt's transformation was mathematically expanded from two dimensions to three dimensions and procedures of a bootstrap version of the test were provided. Through stochastic copula simulation, an empirical application of historical drought data at the Lintong Gauge Station shows that the goodness-of-fit tests perform well, revealing that both trivariate Gaussian and Student t copulas are acceptable for modeling the dependence structures of the observed drought duration, severity, and peak. The goodness-of-fit tests for multi-dimensional copulas can provide further support and help a lot in the potential applications of a wider range of copulas to describe the associations of correlated hydrological variables. However, for the application of copulas with the number of dimensions larger than three, more complicated computational efforts as well as exploration and parameterization of corresponding copulas are required.

  5. Unifying distance-based goodness-of-fit indicators for hydrologic model assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qinbo; Reinhardt-Imjela, Christian; Chen, Xi; Schulte, Achim

    2014-05-01

    The goodness-of-fit indicator, i.e. efficiency criterion, is very important for model calibration. However, recently the knowledge about the goodness-of-fit indicators is all empirical and lacks a theoretical support. Based on the likelihood theory, a unified distance-based goodness-of-fit indicator termed BC-GED model is proposed, which uses the Box-Cox (BC) transformation to remove the heteroscedasticity of model errors and the generalized error distribution (GED) with zero-mean to fit the distribution of model errors after BC. The BC-GED model can unify all recent distance-based goodness-of-fit indicators, and reveals the mean square error (MSE) and the mean absolute error (MAE) that are widely used goodness-of-fit indicators imply statistic assumptions that the model errors follow the Gaussian distribution and the Laplace distribution with zero-mean, respectively. The empirical knowledge about goodness-of-fit indicators can be also easily interpreted by BC-GED model, e.g. the sensitivity to high flow of the goodness-of-fit indicators with large power of model errors results from the low probability of large model error in the assumed distribution of these indicators. In order to assess the effect of the parameters (i.e. the BC transformation parameter λ and the GED kurtosis coefficient β also termed the power of model errors) of BC-GED model on hydrologic model calibration, six cases of BC-GED model were applied in Baocun watershed (East China) with SWAT-WB-VSA model. Comparison of the inferred model parameters and model simulation results among the six indicators demonstrates these indicators can be clearly separated two classes by the GED kurtosis β: β >1 and β ≤ 1. SWAT-WB-VSA calibrated by the class β >1 of distance-based goodness-of-fit indicators captures high flow very well and mimics the baseflow very badly, but it calibrated by the class β ≤ 1 mimics the baseflow very well, because first the larger value of β, the greater emphasis is put on

  6. Different goodness of fit tests for Rayleigh distribution in ranked set sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Al-Omari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, different goodness of fit tests for the Rayleigh distribution are considered based on simple random sampling (SRS and ranked set sampling (RSS techniques. The performance of the suggested estimators is evaluated in terms of the power of the tests by using Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the suggested RSS tests perform better than their counterparts  in SRS.

  7. Permutation tests for goodness-of-fit testing of mathematical models to experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fişek, M Hamit; Barlas, Zeynep

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents statistical procedures for improving the goodness-of-fit testing of theoretical models to data obtained from laboratory experiments. We use an experimental study in the expectation states research tradition which has been carried out in the "standardized experimental situation" associated with the program to illustrate the application of our procedures. We briefly review the expectation states research program and the fundamentals of resampling statistics as we develop our procedures in the resampling context. The first procedure we develop is a modification of the chi-square test which has been the primary statistical tool for assessing goodness of fit in the EST research program, but has problems associated with its use. We discuss these problems and suggest a procedure to overcome them. The second procedure we present, the "Average Absolute Deviation" test, is a new test and is proposed as an alternative to the chi square test, as being simpler and more informative. The third and fourth procedures are permutation versions of Jonckheere's test for ordered alternatives, and Kendall's tau(b), a rank order correlation coefficient. The fifth procedure is a new rank order goodness-of-fit test, which we call the "Deviation from Ideal Ranking" index, which we believe may be more useful than other rank order tests for assessing goodness-of-fit of models to experimental data. The application of these procedures to the sample data is illustrated in detail. We then present another laboratory study from an experimental paradigm different from the expectation states paradigm - the "network exchange" paradigm, and describe how our procedures may be applied to this data set. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensitivity of goodness-of-fit statistics to rainfall data rounding off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deidda, Roberto; Puliga, Michelangelo

    An analysis based on the L-moments theory suggests of adopting the generalized Pareto distribution to interpret daily rainfall depths recorded by the rain-gauge network of the Hydrological Survey of the Sardinia Region. Nevertheless, a big problem, not yet completely resolved, arises in the estimation of a left-censoring threshold able to assure a good fitting of rainfall data with the generalized Pareto distribution. In order to detect an optimal threshold, keeping the largest possible number of data, we chose to apply a “failure-to-reject” method based on goodness-of-fit tests, as it was proposed by Choulakian and Stephens [Choulakian, V., Stephens, M.A., 2001. Goodness-of-fit tests for the generalized Pareto distribution. Technometrics 43, 478-484]. Unfortunately, the application of the test, using percentage points provided by Choulakian and Stephens (2001), did not succeed in detecting a useful threshold value in most analyzed time series. A deeper analysis revealed that these failures are mainly due to the presence of large quantities of rounding off values among sample data, affecting the distribution of goodness-of-fit statistics and leading to significant departures from percentage points expected for continuous random variables. A procedure based on Monte Carlo simulations is thus proposed to overcome these problems.

  9. A note on Poisson goodness-of-fit tests for ionizing radiation induced chromosomal aberration samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, Manuel; González, J E; Di Giorgio, Marina; Barquinero, J F

    2018-05-18

    To present Poisson exact goodness-of-fit tests as alternatives and complements to the asymptotic u-test, which is the most widely used in cytogenetic biodosimetry, to decide whether a sample of chromosomal aberrations in blood cells comes from an homogeneous or inhomogeneous exposure. Three Poisson exact goodness-of-fit test from the literature are introduced and implemented in the R environment. A Shiny R Studio application, named GOF Poisson, has been updated for the purpose of giving support to this work. The three exact tests and the u-test are applied in chromosomal aberration data from clinical and accidental radiation exposure patients. It is observed how the u-test is not an appropriate approximation in small samples with small yield of chromosomal aberrations. Tools are provided to compute the three exact tests, which is not as trivial as the implementation of the u-test. Poisson exact goodness-of-fit tests should be considered jointly to the u-test for detecting inhomogeneous exposures in the cytogenetic biodosimetry practice.

  10. On the optimal number of classes in the Pearson goodness-of-fit tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morales, D.; Pardo, L.; Vajda, Igor

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 6 (2005), s. 677-698 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1075403 Grant - others:BFM(ES) 2003-00892; GV(ES) 04B-670 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : pearson-type goodness -of- fit test s * asymptotic local test power * asymptotic equivalence of test s * optimal number of classes Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.343, year: 2005

  11. Goodness-of-Fit Tests For Elliptical and Independent Copulas through Projection Pursuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Touboul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Two goodness-of-fit tests for copulas are being investigated. The first one deals with the case of elliptical copulas and the second one deals with independent copulas. These tests result from the expansion of the projection pursuit methodology that we will introduce in the present article. This method enables us to determine on which axis system these copulas lie as well as the exact value of these very copulas in the basis formed by the axes previously determined irrespective of their value in their canonical basis. Simulations are also presented as well as an application to real datasets.

  12. FREQFIT: Computer program which performs numerical regression and statistical chi-squared goodness of fit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofland, G.S.; Barton, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The computer program FREQFIT is designed to perform regression and statistical chi-squared goodness of fit analysis on one-dimensional or two-dimensional data. The program features an interactive user dialogue, numerous help messages, an option for screen or line printer output, and the flexibility to use practically any commercially available graphics package to create plots of the program's results. FREQFIT is written in Microsoft QuickBASIC, for IBM-PC compatible computers. A listing of the QuickBASIC source code for the FREQFIT program, a user manual, and sample input data, output, and plots are included. 6 refs., 1 fig

  13. a locally adapted functional outcome measurement score for total

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results and success of total hip arthroplasty are often measured using a functional outcome scoring system. Most current scores were developed in Europe and. North America (1-3). During the evaluation of a Total. Hip Replacement (THR) project in Ouagadougou,. Burkina Faso (4) it was felt that these scores were not.

  14. Statistical alignment: computational properties, homology testing and goodness-of-fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein, J; Wiuf, Carsten; Møller, Martin

    2000-01-01

    The model of insertions and deletions in biological sequences, first formulated by Thorne, Kishino, and Felsenstein in 1991 (the TKF91 model), provides a basis for performing alignment within a statistical framework. Here we investigate this model.Firstly, we show how to accelerate the statistical...... alignment algorithms several orders of magnitude. The main innovations are to confine likelihood calculations to a band close to the similarity based alignment, to get good initial guesses of the evolutionary parameters and to apply an efficient numerical optimisation algorithm for finding the maximum...... analysis.Secondly, we propose a new homology test based on this model, where homology means that an ancestor to a sequence pair can be found finitely far back in time. This test has statistical advantages relative to the traditional shuffle test for proteins.Finally, we describe a goodness-of-fit test...

  15. Comment on the asymptotics of a distribution-free goodness of fit test statistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Michael W; Shapiro, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    In a recent article Jennrich and Satorra (Psychometrika 78: 545-552, 2013) showed that a proof by Browne (British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology 37: 62-83, 1984) of the asymptotic distribution of a goodness of fit test statistic is incomplete because it fails to prove that the orthogonal component function employed is continuous. Jennrich and Satorra (Psychometrika 78: 545-552, 2013) showed how Browne's proof can be completed satisfactorily but this required the development of an extensive and mathematically sophisticated framework for continuous orthogonal component functions. This short note provides a simple proof of the asymptotic distribution of Browne's (British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology 37: 62-83, 1984) test statistic by using an equivalent form of the statistic that does not involve orthogonal component functions and consequently avoids all complicating issues associated with them.

  16. Empirical Power Comparison Of Goodness of Fit Tests for Normality In The Presence of Outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saculinggan, Mayette; Balase, Emily Amor

    2013-01-01

    Most statistical tests such as t-tests, linear regression analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) require the normality assumptions. When the normality assumption is violated, interpretation and inferences may not be reliable. Therefore it is important to assess such assumption before using any appropriate statistical test. One of the commonly used procedures in determining whether a random sample of size n comes from a normal population are the goodness-of-fit tests for normality. Several studies have already been conducted on the comparison of the different goodness-of-fit(see, for example [2]) but it is generally limited to the sample size or to the number of GOF tests being compared(see, for example [2] [5] [6] [7] [8]). This paper compares the power of six formal tests of normality: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (see [3]), Anderson-Darling test, Shapiro-Wilk test, Lilliefors test, Chi-Square test (see [1]) and D'Agostino-Pearson test. Small, moderate and large sample sizes and various contamination levels were used to obtain the power of each test via Monte Carlo simulation. Ten thousand samples of each sample size and contamination level at a fixed type I error rate α were generated from the given alternative distribution. The power of each test was then obtained by comparing the normality test statistics with the respective critical values. Results show that the power of all six tests is low for small sample size(see, for example [2]). But for n = 20, the Shapiro-Wilk test and Anderson – Darling test have achieved high power. For n = 60, Shapiro-Wilk test and Liliefors test are most powerful. For large sample size, Shapiro-Wilk test is most powerful (see, for example [5]). However, the test that achieves the highest power under all conditions for large sample size is D'Agostino-Pearson test (see, for example [9]).

  17. Goodness-of-Fit Tests for Generalized Normal Distribution for Use in Hydrological Frequency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Samiran

    2018-04-01

    The use of three-parameter generalized normal (GNO) as a hydrological frequency distribution is well recognized, but its application is limited due to unavailability of popular goodness-of-fit (GOF) test statistics. This study develops popular empirical distribution function (EDF)-based test statistics to investigate the goodness-of-fit of the GNO distribution. The focus is on the case most relevant to the hydrologist, namely, that in which the parameter values are unidentified and estimated from a sample using the method of L-moments. The widely used EDF tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Cramer von Mises, and Anderson-Darling (AD) are considered in this study. A modified version of AD, namely, the Modified Anderson-Darling (MAD) test, is also considered and its performance is assessed against other EDF tests using a power study that incorporates six specific Wakeby distributions (WA-1, WA-2, WA-3, WA-4, WA-5, and WA-6) as the alternative distributions. The critical values of the proposed test statistics are approximated using Monte Carlo techniques and are summarized in chart and regression equation form to show the dependence of shape parameter and sample size. The performance results obtained from the power study suggest that the AD and a variant of the MAD (MAD-L) are the most powerful tests. Finally, the study performs case studies involving annual maximum flow data of selected gauged sites from Irish and US catchments to show the application of the derived critical values and recommends further assessments to be carried out on flow data sets of rivers with various hydrological regimes.

  18. Exploiting the information content of hydrological ''outliers'' for goodness-of-fit testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Laio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Validation of probabilistic models based on goodness-of-fit tests is an essential step for the frequency analysis of extreme events. The outcome of standard testing techniques, however, is mainly determined by the behavior of the hypothetical model, FX(x, in the central part of the distribution, while the behavior in the tails of the distribution, which is indeed very relevant in hydrological applications, is relatively unimportant for the results of the tests. The maximum-value test, originally proposed as a technique for outlier detection, is a suitable, but seldom applied, technique that addresses this problem. The test is specifically targeted to verify if the maximum (or minimum values in the sample are consistent with the hypothesis that the distribution FX(x is the real parent distribution. The application of this test is hindered by the fact that the critical values for the test should be numerically obtained when the parameters of FX(x are estimated on the same sample used for verification, which is the standard situation in hydrological applications. We propose here a simple, analytically explicit, technique to suitably account for this effect, based on the application of censored L-moments estimators of the parameters. We demonstrate, with an application that uses artificially generated samples, the superiority of this modified maximum-value test with respect to the standard version of the test. We also show that the test has comparable or larger power with respect to other goodness-of-fit tests (e.g., chi-squared test, Anderson-Darling test, Fung and Paul test, in particular when dealing with small samples (sample size lower than 20–25 and when the parent distribution is similar to the distribution being tested.

  19. A Monte Carlo-adjusted goodness-of-fit test for parametric models describing spatial point patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Dao, Ngocanh; Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the goodness-of-fit (GOF) for intricate parametric spatial point process models is important for many application fields. When the probability density of the statistic of the GOF test is intractable, a commonly used procedure is the Monte

  20. ARA and ARI imperfect repair models: Estimation, goodness-of-fit and reliability prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, Maria Luíza Guerra de; Freitas, Marta A.; Colosimo, Enrico A.; Gilardoni, Gustavo L.

    2015-01-01

    An appropriate maintenance policy is essential to reduce expenses and risks related to equipment failures. A fundamental aspect to be considered when specifying such policies is to be able to predict the reliability of the systems under study, based on a well fitted model. In this paper, the classes of models Arithmetic Reduction of Age and Arithmetic Reduction of Intensity are explored. Likelihood functions for such models are derived, and a graphical method is proposed for model selection. A real data set involving failures in trucks used by a Brazilian mining is analyzed considering models with different memories. Parameters, namely, shape and scale for Power Law Process, and the efficiency of repair were estimated for the best fitted model. Estimation of model parameters allowed us to derive reliability estimators to predict the behavior of the failure process. These results are a valuable information for the mining company and can be used to support decision making regarding preventive maintenance policy. - Highlights: • Likelihood functions for imperfect repair models are derived. • A goodness-of-fit technique is proposed as a tool for model selection. • Failures in trucks owned by a Brazilian mining are modeled. • Estimation allowed deriving reliability predictors to forecast the future failure process of the trucks

  1. Removing Visual Bias in Filament Identification: A New Goodness-of-fit Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C.-E.; Cunningham, M. R.; Dawson, J. R.; Jones, P. A.; Novak, G.; Fissel, L. M.

    2017-05-01

    Different combinations of input parameters to filament identification algorithms, such as disperse and filfinder, produce numerous different output skeletons. The skeletons are a one-pixel-wide representation of the filamentary structure in the original input image. However, these output skeletons may not necessarily be a good representation of that structure. Furthermore, a given skeleton may not be as good of a representation as another. Previously, there has been no mathematical “goodness-of-fit” measure to compare output skeletons to the input image. Thus far this has been assessed visually, introducing visual bias. We propose the application of the mean structural similarity index (MSSIM) as a mathematical goodness-of-fit measure. We describe the use of the MSSIM to find the output skeletons that are the most mathematically similar to the original input image (the optimum, or “best,” skeletons) for a given algorithm, and independently of the algorithm. This measure makes possible systematic parameter studies, aimed at finding the subset of input parameter values returning optimum skeletons. It can also be applied to the output of non-skeleton-based filament identification algorithms, such as the Hessian matrix method. The MSSIM removes the need to visually examine thousands of output skeletons, and eliminates the visual bias, subjectivity, and limited reproducibility inherent in that process, representing a major improvement upon existing techniques. Importantly, it also allows further automation in the post-processing of output skeletons, which is crucial in this era of “big data.”

  2. A goodness-of-fit test for occupancy models with correlated within-season revisits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Wilson; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Rodhouse, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Occupancy modeling is important for exploring species distribution patterns and for conservation monitoring. Within this framework, explicit attention is given to species detection probabilities estimated from replicate surveys to sample units. A central assumption is that replicate surveys are independent Bernoulli trials, but this assumption becomes untenable when ecologists serially deploy remote cameras and acoustic recording devices over days and weeks to survey rare and elusive animals. Proposed solutions involve modifying the detection-level component of the model (e.g., first-order Markov covariate). Evaluating whether a model sufficiently accounts for correlation is imperative, but clear guidance for practitioners is lacking. Currently, an omnibus goodnessof- fit test using a chi-square discrepancy measure on unique detection histories is available for occupancy models (MacKenzie and Bailey, Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics, 9, 2004, 300; hereafter, MacKenzie– Bailey test). We propose a join count summary measure adapted from spatial statistics to directly assess correlation after fitting a model. We motivate our work with a dataset of multinight bat call recordings from a pilot study for the North American Bat Monitoring Program. We found in simulations that our join count test was more reliable than the MacKenzie–Bailey test for detecting inadequacy of a model that assumed independence, particularly when serial correlation was low to moderate. A model that included a Markov-structured detection-level covariate produced unbiased occupancy estimates except in the presence of strong serial correlation and a revisit design consisting only of temporal replicates. When applied to two common bat species, our approach illustrates that sophisticated models do not guarantee adequate fit to real data, underscoring the importance of model assessment. Our join count test provides a widely applicable goodness-of-fit test and

  3. Summary goodness-of-fit statistics for binary generalized linear models with noncanonical link functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canary, Jana D; Blizzard, Leigh; Barry, Ronald P; Hosmer, David W; Quinn, Stephen J

    2016-05-01

    Generalized linear models (GLM) with a canonical logit link function are the primary modeling technique used to relate a binary outcome to predictor variables. However, noncanonical links can offer more flexibility, producing convenient analytical quantities (e.g., probit GLMs in toxicology) and desired measures of effect (e.g., relative risk from log GLMs). Many summary goodness-of-fit (GOF) statistics exist for logistic GLM. Their properties make the development of GOF statistics relatively straightforward, but it can be more difficult under noncanonical links. Although GOF tests for logistic GLM with continuous covariates (GLMCC) have been applied to GLMCCs with log links, we know of no GOF tests in the literature specifically developed for GLMCCs that can be applied regardless of link function chosen. We generalize the Tsiatis GOF statistic originally developed for logistic GLMCCs, (TG), so that it can be applied under any link function. Further, we show that the algebraically related Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL) and Pigeon-Heyse (J(2) ) statistics can be applied directly. In a simulation study, TG, HL, and J(2) were used to evaluate the fit of probit, log-log, complementary log-log, and log models, all calculated with a common grouping method. The TG statistic consistently maintained Type I error rates, while those of HL and J(2) were often lower than expected if terms with little influence were included. Generally, the statistics had similar power to detect an incorrect model. An exception occurred when a log GLMCC was incorrectly fit to data generated from a logistic GLMCC. In this case, TG had more power than HL or J(2) . © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/London School of Economics.

  4. A Bayesian goodness of fit test and semiparametric generalization of logistic regression with measurement data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schörgendorfer, Angela; Branscum, Adam J; Hanson, Timothy E

    2013-06-01

    Logistic regression is a popular tool for risk analysis in medical and population health science. With continuous response data, it is common to create a dichotomous outcome for logistic regression analysis by specifying a threshold for positivity. Fitting a linear regression to the nondichotomized response variable assuming a logistic sampling model for the data has been empirically shown to yield more efficient estimates of odds ratios than ordinary logistic regression of the dichotomized endpoint. We illustrate that risk inference is not robust to departures from the parametric logistic distribution. Moreover, the model assumption of proportional odds is generally not satisfied when the condition of a logistic distribution for the data is violated, leading to biased inference from a parametric logistic analysis. We develop novel Bayesian semiparametric methodology for testing goodness of fit of parametric logistic regression with continuous measurement data. The testing procedures hold for any cutoff threshold and our approach simultaneously provides the ability to perform semiparametric risk estimation. Bayes factors are calculated using the Savage-Dickey ratio for testing the null hypothesis of logistic regression versus a semiparametric generalization. We propose a fully Bayesian and a computationally efficient empirical Bayesian approach to testing, and we present methods for semiparametric estimation of risks, relative risks, and odds ratios when parametric logistic regression fails. Theoretical results establish the consistency of the empirical Bayes test. Results from simulated data show that the proposed approach provides accurate inference irrespective of whether parametric assumptions hold or not. Evaluation of risk factors for obesity shows that different inferences are derived from an analysis of a real data set when deviations from a logistic distribution are permissible in a flexible semiparametric framework. © 2013, The International Biometric

  5. Measures of effect size for chi-squared and likelihood-ratio goodness-of-fit tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janis E; Berry, Kenneth J; Mielke, Paul W

    2006-10-01

    A fundamental shift in editorial policy for psychological journals was initiated when the fourth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (1994) placed emphasis on reporting measures of effect size. This paper presents measures of effect size for the chi-squared and the likelihood-ratio goodness-of-fit statistic tests.

  6. Is Good Fit Related to Good Behaviour? Goodness of Fit between Daycare Teacher-Child Relationships, Temperament, and Prosocial Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipson, Will E.; Séguin, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    The Goodness-of-Fit model [Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York: Brunner/Mazel] proposes that a child's temperament interacts with the environment to influence child outcomes. In the past, researchers have shown how the association between the quality of the teacher-child relationship in daycare and child…

  7. Local and omnibus goodness-of-fit tests in classical measurement error models

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Yanyuan; Hart, Jeffrey D.; Janicki, Ryan; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    We consider functional measurement error models, i.e. models where covariates are measured with error and yet no distributional assumptions are made about the mismeasured variable. We propose and study a score-type local test and an orthogonal

  8. A simulation-based goodness-of-fit test for random effects in generalized linear mixed models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    The goodness-of-fit of the distribution of random effects in a generalized linear mixed model is assessed using a conditional simulation of the random effects conditional on the observations. Provided that the specified joint model for random effects and observations is correct, the marginal...... distribution of the simulated random effects coincides with the assumed random effects distribution. In practice, the specified model depends on some unknown parameter which is replaced by an estimate. We obtain a correction for this by deriving the asymptotic distribution of the empirical distribution...

  9. A simulation-based goodness-of-fit test for random effects in generalized linear mixed models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge

    The goodness-of-fit of the distribution of random effects in a generalized linear mixed model is assessed using a conditional simulation of the random effects conditional on the observations. Provided that the specified joint model for random effects and observations is correct, the marginal...... distribution of the simulated random effects coincides with the assumed random effects distribution. In practice the specified model depends on some unknown parameter which is replaced by an estimate. We obtain a correction for this by deriving the asymptotic distribution of the empirical distribution function...

  10. Validity and Reliability of the Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganestam, Ann; Barfod, Kristoffer; Klit, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    study was to validate a Danish translation of the ATRS. The ATRS was translated into Danish according to internationally adopted standards. Of 142 patients, 90 with previous rupture of the Achilles tendon participated in the validity study and 52 in the reliability study. The ATRS showed moderately......The best treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture remains debated. Patient-reported outcome measures have become cornerstones in treatment evaluations. The Achilles tendon total rupture score (ATRS) has been developed for this purpose but requires additional validation. The purpose of the present...... = .07). The limits of agreement were ±18.53. A strong correlation was found between test and retest (intercorrelation coefficient .908); the standard error of measurement was 6.7, and the minimal detectable change was 18.5. The Danish version of the ATRS showed moderately strong criterion validity...

  11. Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (HVBP) – Total Performance Score

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospitals participating in the Hospital VBP Program and their Clinical Process of Care domain scores, Patient Experience of Care dimension scores, and...

  12. A locally adapted functional outcome measurement score for total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in Europe or North America and seem not optimally suited for a general West ... We introduce a cross-cultural adaptation of the Lequesne index as a new score. ... Keywords: THR, Hip, Africa, Functional score, Hip replacement, Arthroscopy ...

  13. Validity and reliability of the Achilles tendon total rupture score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganestam, Ann; Barfod, Kristoffer; Klit, Jakob; Troelsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The best treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture remains debated. Patient-reported outcome measures have become cornerstones in treatment evaluations. The Achilles tendon total rupture score (ATRS) has been developed for this purpose but requires additional validation. The purpose of the present study was to validate a Danish translation of the ATRS. The ATRS was translated into Danish according to internationally adopted standards. Of 142 patients, 90 with previous rupture of the Achilles tendon participated in the validity study and 52 in the reliability study. The ATRS showed moderately strong correlations with the physical subscores of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (r = .70 to .75; p questionnaire (r = .71; p validity. For study and follow-up purposes, the ATRS seems reliable for comparisons of groups of patients. Its usability is limited for repeated assessment of individual patients. The development of analysis guidelines would be desirable. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Goodness of fit between prenatal maternal sleep and infant sleep: Associations with maternal depression and attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P; Parade, Stephanie H; Dickstein, Susan; Seifer, Ronald

    2016-08-01

    The current study prospectively examined the ways in which goodness of fit between maternal and infant sleep contributes to maternal depressive symptoms and the mother-child relationship across the first years of life. In a sample of 173 mother-child dyads, maternal prenatal sleep, infant sleep, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-child attachment security were assessed via self-report, actigraphy, and observational measures. Results suggested that a poor fit between mothers' prenatal sleep and infants' sleep at 8 months (measured by sleep diary and actigraphy) was associated with maternal depressive symptoms at 15 months. Additionally, maternal depression mediated the association between the interplay of mother and infant sleep (measured by sleep diary) and mother-child attachment security at 30 months. Findings emphasize the importance of the match between mother and infant sleep on maternal wellbeing and mother-child relationships and highlight the role of mothers' perceptions of infant sleep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Goodness of fit between prenatal maternal sleep and infant sleep: Associations with maternal depression and attachment security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P.; Parade, Stephanie H.; Dickstein, Susan; Seifer, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The current study prospectively examined the ways in which goodness of fit between maternal and infant sleep contributes to maternal depressive symptoms and the mother-child relationship across the first years of life. In a sample of 173 mother-child dyads, maternal prenatal sleep, infant sleep, maternal depressive symptoms, and mother-child attachment security were assessed via self-report, actigraphy, and observational measures. Results suggested that a poor fit between mothers’ prenatal sleep and infants’ sleep at 8 months (measured by sleep diary and actigraphy) was associated with maternal depressive symptoms at 15 months. Additionally, maternal depression mediated the association between the interplay of mother and infant sleep (measured by sleep diary) and mother-child attachment security at 30 months. Findings emphasize the importance of the match between mother and infant sleep on maternal wellbeing and mother-child relationships and highlight the role of mothers’ perceptions of infant sleep. PMID:27448324

  16. Goodness-of-Fit versus Significance: A CAPM Selection with Dynamic Betas Applied to the Brazilian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ricardo de Pinho Ronzani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM with time-varying betas is considered. These betas evolve over time, conditional on financial and non-financial variables. Indeed, the model proposed by Adrian and Franzoni (2009 is adapted to assess the behavior of some selected Brazilian equities. For each equity, several models are fitted, and the best model is chosen based on goodness-of-fit tests and parameters significance. Finally, using the selected dynamic models, VaR (Value-at-Risk measures are calculated. We can conclude that CAPM with time-varying betas provide less conservative VaR measures than those based on CAPM with static betas or historical VaR.

  17. Comparison of hypertabastic survival model with other unimodal hazard rate functions using a goodness-of-fit test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, M Ramzan; Tran, Quang X; Nikulin, Mikhail S

    2017-05-30

    We studied the problem of testing a hypothesized distribution in survival regression models when the data is right censored and survival times are influenced by covariates. A modified chi-squared type test, known as Nikulin-Rao-Robson statistic, is applied for the comparison of accelerated failure time models. This statistic is used to test the goodness-of-fit for hypertabastic survival model and four other unimodal hazard rate functions. The results of simulation study showed that the hypertabastic distribution can be used as an alternative to log-logistic and log-normal distribution. In statistical modeling, because of its flexible shape of hazard functions, this distribution can also be used as a competitor of Birnbaum-Saunders and inverse Gaussian distributions. The results for the real data application are shown. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Scoring the full extent of periodontal disease in the dog: development of a total mouth periodontal score (TMPS) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Colin E; Laster, Larry; Shofer, Frances; Miller, Bonnie

    2008-09-01

    The development of a total mouth periodontal scoring system is described. This system uses methods to score the full extent of gingivitis and periodontitis of all tooth surfaces, weighted by size of teeth, and adjusted by size of dog.

  19. Analysing relations between specific and total liking scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menichelli, Elena; Kraggerud, Hilde; Olsen, Nina Veflen

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present a new statistical approach for the study of consumer liking. Total liking data are extended by incorporating liking for specific sensory properties. The approach combines different analyses for the purpose of investigating the most important aspects...... of liking and indicating which products are similarly or differently perceived by which consumers. A method based on the differences between total liking and the specific liking variables is proposed for studying both relative differences among products and individual consumer differences. Segmentation...... is also tested out in order to distinguish consumers with the strongest differences in their liking values. The approach is illustrated by a case study, based on cheese data. In the consumer test consumers were asked to evaluate their total liking, the liking for texture and the liking for odour/taste. (C...

  20. A Monte Carlo-adjusted goodness-of-fit test for parametric models describing spatial point patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Dao, Ngocanh

    2014-04-03

    Assessing the goodness-of-fit (GOF) for intricate parametric spatial point process models is important for many application fields. When the probability density of the statistic of the GOF test is intractable, a commonly used procedure is the Monte Carlo GOF test. Additionally, if the data comprise a single dataset, a popular version of the test plugs a parameter estimate in the hypothesized parametric model to generate data for theMonte Carlo GOF test. In this case, the test is invalid because the resulting empirical level does not reach the nominal level. In this article, we propose a method consisting of nested Monte Carlo simulations which has the following advantages: the bias of the resulting empirical level of the test is eliminated, hence the empirical levels can always reach the nominal level, and information about inhomogeneity of the data can be provided.We theoretically justify our testing procedure using Taylor expansions and demonstrate that it is correctly sized through various simulation studies. In our first data application, we discover, in agreement with Illian et al., that Phlebocarya filifolia plants near Perth, Australia, can follow a homogeneous Poisson clustered process that provides insight into the propagation mechanism of these plants. In our second data application, we find, in contrast to Diggle, that a pairwise interaction model provides a good fit to the micro-anatomy data of amacrine cells designed for analyzing the developmental growth of immature retina cells in rabbits. This article has supplementary material online. © 2013 American Statistical Association, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, and Interface Foundation of North America.

  1. AN EXACT GOODNESS-OF-FIT TEST BASED ON THE OCCUPANCY PROBLEMS TO STUDY ZERO-INFLATION AND ZERO-DEFLATION IN BIOLOGICAL DOSIMETRY DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fontelo, Amanda; Puig, Pedro; Ainsbury, Elizabeth A; Higueras, Manuel

    2018-01-12

    The goal in biological dosimetry is to estimate the dose of radiation that a suspected irradiated individual has received. For that, the analysis of aberrations (most commonly dicentric chromosome aberrations) in scored cells is performed and dose response calibration curves are built. In whole body irradiation (WBI) with X- and gamma-rays, the number of aberrations in samples is properly described by the Poisson distribution, although in partial body irradiation (PBI) the excess of zeros provided by the non-irradiated cells leads, for instance, to the Zero-Inflated Poisson distribution. Different methods are used to analyse the dosimetry data taking into account the distribution of the sample. In order to test the Poisson distribution against the Zero-Inflated Poisson distribution, several asymptotic and exact methods have been proposed which are focused on the dispersion of the data. In this work, we suggest an exact test for the Poisson distribution focused on the zero-inflation of the data developed by Rao and Chakravarti (Some small sample tests of significance for a Poisson distribution. Biometrics 1956; 12 : 264-82.), derived from the problems of occupancy. An approximation based on the standard Normal distribution is proposed in those cases where the computation of the exact test can be tedious. A Monte Carlo Simulation study was performed in order to estimate empirical confidence levels and powers of the exact test and other tests proposed in the literature. Different examples of applications based on in vitro data and also data recorded in several radiation accidents are presented and discussed. A Shiny application which computes the exact test and other interesting goodness-of-fit tests for the Poisson distribution is presented in order to provide them to all interested researchers. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Assessing Goodness of Fit in Item Response Theory with Nonparametric Models: A Comparison of Posterior Probabilities and Kernel-Smoothing Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueiro, Manuel J.; Abad, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    The distance between nonparametric and parametric item characteristic curves has been proposed as an index of goodness of fit in item response theory in the form of a root integrated squared error index. This article proposes to use the posterior distribution of the latent trait as the nonparametric model and compares the performance of an index…

  3. Towards a contemporary, comprehensive scoring system for determining technical outcomes of hybrid percutaneous chronic total occlusion treatment: The RECHARGE score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeremans, Joren; Spratt, James C; Knaapen, Paul; Walsh, Simon; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Wilson, William; Avran, Alexandre; Faurie, Benjamin; Bressollette, Erwan; Kayaert, Peter; Bagnall, Alan J; Smith, Dave; McEntegart, Margaret B; Smith, William H T; Kelly, Paul; Irving, John; Smith, Elliot J; Strange, Julian W; Dens, Jo

    2018-02-01

    This study sought to create a contemporary scoring tool to predict technical outcomes of chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from patients treated by hybrid operators with differing experience levels. Current scoring systems need regular updating to cope with the positive evolutions regarding materials, techniques, and outcomes, while at the same time being applicable for a broad range of operators. Clinical and angiographic characteristics from 880 CTO-PCIs included in the REgistry of CrossBoss and Hybrid procedures in FrAnce, the NetheRlands, BelGium and UnitEd Kingdom (RECHARGE) were analyzed by using a derivation and validation set (2:1 ratio). Variables significantly associated with technical failure in the multivariable analysis were incorporated in the score. Subsequently, the discriminatory capacity was assessed and the validation set was used to compare with the J-CTO score and PROGRESS scores. Technical success in the derivation and validation sets was 83% and 85%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified six parameters associated with technical failure: blunt stump (beta coefficient (b) = 1.014); calcification (b = 0.908); tortuosity ≥45° (b = 0.964); lesion length 20 mm (b = 0.556); diseased distal landing zone (b = 0.794), and previous bypass graft on CTO vessel (b = 0.833). Score variables remained significant after bootstrapping. The RECHARGE score showed better discriminatory capacity in both sets (area-under-the-curve (AUC) = 0.783 and 0.711), compared to the J-CTO (AUC = 0.676) and PROGRESS (AUC = 0.608) scores. The RECHARGE score is a novel, easy-to-use tool for assessing the risk for technical failure in hybrid CTO-PCI and has the potential to perform well for a broad community of operators. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. CERAD Neuropsychological Total Scores Reflect Cortical Thinning in Prodromal Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Paajanen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sensitive cognitive global scores are beneficial in screening and monitoring for prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD. Early cortical changes provide a novel opportunity for validating established cognitive total scores against the biological disease markers. Methods: We examined how two different total scores of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD battery and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE are associated with cortical thickness (CTH in mild cognitive impairment (MCI and prodromal AD. Cognitive and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data of 22 progressive MCI, 78 stable MCI, and 98 control subjects, and MRI data of 103 AD patients of the prospective multicenter study were analyzed. Results: CERAD total scores correlated with mean CTH more strongly (r = 0.34-0.38, p Conclusion: CERAD total scores are sensitive to the CTH signature of prodromal AD, which supports their biological validity in detecting early disease-related cognitive changes.

  5. Statistical energy as a tool for binning-free, multivariate goodness-of-fit tests, two-sample comparison and unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslan, B.; Zech, G.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the novel concept of statistical energy as a statistical tool. We define statistical energy of statistical distributions in a similar way as for electric charge distributions. Charges of opposite sign are in a state of minimum energy if they are equally distributed. This property is used to check whether two samples belong to the same parent distribution, to define goodness-of-fit tests and to unfold distributions distorted by measurement. The approach is binning-free and especially powerful in multidimensional applications

  6. Total hip arthroplasty outcomes assessment using functional and radiographic scores to compare canine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, D; Broun, H C; Black, A P; Preston, C A; Anderson, G I

    2008-01-01

    A retrospective multi-centre study was carried out in order to compare outcomes between cemented and uncemented total hip arthoplasties (THA). A quantitative orthopaedic outcome assessment scoring system was devised in order to relate functional outcome to a numerical score, to allow comparison between treatments and amongst centres. The system combined a radiographic score and a clinical score. Lower scores reflect better outcomes than higher scores. Consecutive cases of THA were included from two specialist practices between July 2002 and December 2005. The study included 46 THA patients (22 uncemented THA followed for 8.3 +/- 4.7M and 24 cemented THA for 26.0 +/- 15.7M) with a mean age of 4.4 +/- 3.3 years at surgery. Multi-variable linear and logistical regression analyses were performed with adjustments for age at surgery, surgeon, follow-up time, uni- versus bilateral disease, gender and body weight. The differences between treatment groups in terms of functional scores or total scores were not significant (p > 0.05). Radiographic scores were different between treatment groups. However, these scores were usually assessed within two months of surgery and proved unreliable predictors of functional outcome (p > 0.05). The findings reflect relatively short-term follow-up, especially for the uncemented group, and do not include clinician-derived measures, such as goniometry and thigh circumference. Longer-term follow-up for the radiographic assessments is essential. A prospective study including the clinician-derived outcomes needs to be performed in order to validate the outcome instrument in its modified form.

  7. Coping strategies related to total stress score among post graduate medical students and residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Irawati Ismail

    2013-05-01

    several dominant coping strategies related to total stress score levels.Methods:A cross-sectional purposive sampling method study among postgraduate medical students of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia was done April-July 2011. We used a coping strategies questionnaire and the WHO SRQ-20. Linear regression was used to identify dominant coping strategies related to stress levels.Results:This study had 272 subjects, aged 23-47 years. Four items decreased the total stress score (accepting the reality of the fact, talking to someone who could do something, seeking God’s help, and laughing about the situation. However, three factors increased the total stress score (taking one step at a time has to be done, talking to someone to find out more about the situation, and admitting can’t deal solving the situation. One point of accepting the reality of the situation reduced 0.493 points the total stress score [regression coefficient (β= -0.493; P=0.002]. While one point seeking God’s help reduced 0.307 points the total stress score (β= -0.307; P=0.056. However, one point of doing one step at a time increased 0.54 point the total stress score (β=0.540; P=0.005.Conclusions: Accepting the reality of the situation, talking to someone who could do something, seeking God’s help, and laughing about the situation decreased the stress level. However, taking one step at a time, talking to someone to find out more about the situation and admitting can’t deal solving the situation, increased the total stress score.Key words:stress level, coping strategies, age, seeking God’s help

  8. Interobserver Reliability of the Total Body Score System for Quantifying Human Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbs, Gretchen R; Connor, Melissa; Bytheway, Joan A

    2016-03-01

    Several authors have tested the accuracy of the Total Body Score (TBS) method for quantifying decomposition, but none have examined the reliability of the method as a scoring system by testing interobserver error rates. Sixteen participants used the TBS system to score 59 observation packets including photographs and written descriptions of 13 human cadavers in different stages of decomposition (postmortem interval: 2-186 days). Data analysis used a two-way random model intraclass correlation in SPSS (v. 17.0). The TBS method showed "almost perfect" agreement between observers, with average absolute correlation coefficients of 0.990 and average consistency correlation coefficients of 0.991. While the TBS method may have sources of error, scoring reliability is not one of them. Individual component scores were examined, and the influences of education and experience levels were investigated. Overall, the trunk component scores were the least concordant. Suggestions are made to improve the reliability of the TBS method. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of Persian Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Hasanvand, Sahar; Fakhari, Zahra; Kordi, Ramin; Nilsson-Helander, Katarina

    2016-04-01

    To cross-culturally adapt the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) to Persian language and to preliminary evaluate the reliability and validity of a Persian ATRS. A cross-sectional and prospective cohort study was conducted to translate and cross-culturally adapt the ATRS to Persian language (ATRS-Persian) following steps described in guidelines. Thirty patients with total Achilles tendon rupture and 30 healthy subjects participated in this study. Psychometric properties of floor/ceiling effects (responsiveness), internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest detectable change (SDC), construct validity, and discriminant validity were tested. Factor analysis was performed to determine the ATRS-Persian structure. There were no floor or ceiling effects that indicate the content and responsiveness of ATRS-Persian. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's α 0.95). Item-total correlations exceeded acceptable standard of 0.3 for the all items (0.58-0.95). The test-retest reliability was excellent [(ICC)agreement 0.98]. SEM and SDC were 3.57 and 9.9, respectively. Construct validity was supported by a significant correlation between the ATRS-Persian total score and the Persian Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (PFAOS) total score and PFAOS subscales (r = 0.55-0.83). The ATRS-Persian significantly discriminated between patients and healthy subjects. Explanatory factor analysis revealed 1 component. The ATRS was cross-culturally adapted to Persian and demonstrated to be a reliable and valid instrument to measure functional outcomes in Persian patients with Achilles tendon rupture. II.

  10. Fall Risk Score at the Time of Discharge Predicts Readmission Following Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Bheeshma; Nan, Zhang; Schwartz, Adam J; Clarke, Henry D

    2017-07-01

    Readmission among Medicare recipients is a leading driver of healthcare expenditure. To date, most predictive tools are too coarse for direct clinical application. Our objective in this study is to determine if a pre-existing tool to identify patients at increased risk for inpatient falls, the Hendrich Fall Risk Score, could be used to accurately identify Medicare patients at increased risk for readmission following arthroplasty, regardless of whether the readmission was due to a fall. This study is a retrospective cohort study. We identified 2437 Medicare patients who underwent a primary elective total joint arthroplasty (TJA) of the hip or knee for osteoarthritis between 2011 and 2014. The Hendrich Fall Risk score was recorded for each patient preoperatively and postoperatively. Our main outcome measure was hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge. Of 2437 eligible TJA recipients, there were 226 (9.3%) patients who had a score ≥6. These patients were more likely to have an unplanned readmission (unadjusted odds ratio 2.84, 95% confidence interval 1.70-4.76, P 3 days (49.6% vs 36.6%, P = .0001), and were less likely to be sent home after discharge (20.8% vs 35.8%, P fall risk score after TJA is strongly associated with unplanned readmission. Application of this tool will allow hospitals to identify these patients and plan their discharge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A closer look at the effect of preliminary goodness-of-fit testing for normality for the one-sample t-test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, Justine; Kieser, Meinhard

    2011-11-01

    Student's one-sample t-test is a commonly used method when inference about the population mean is made. As advocated in textbooks and articles, the assumption of normality is often checked by a preliminary goodness-of-fit (GOF) test. In a paper recently published by Schucany and Ng it was shown that, for the uniform distribution, screening of samples by a pretest for normality leads to a more conservative conditional Type I error rate than application of the one-sample t-test without preliminary GOF test. In contrast, for the exponential distribution, the conditional level is even more elevated than the Type I error rate of the t-test without pretest. We examine the reasons behind these characteristics. In a simulation study, samples drawn from the exponential, lognormal, uniform, Student's t-distribution with 2 degrees of freedom (t(2) ) and the standard normal distribution that had passed normality screening, as well as the ingredients of the test statistics calculated from these samples, are investigated. For non-normal distributions, we found that preliminary testing for normality may change the distribution of means and standard deviations of the selected samples as well as the correlation between them (if the underlying distribution is non-symmetric), thus leading to altered distributions of the resulting test statistics. It is shown that for skewed distributions the excess in Type I error rate may be even more pronounced when testing one-sided hypotheses. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Figure-of-merit (FOM), an improved criterion over the normalized chi-squared test for assessing goodness-of-fit of gamma-ray spectral peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garo Balian, H.; Eddy, N.W.

    1977-01-01

    A careful experimenter knows that in order to choose the best curve fits of peaks from a gamma ray spectrum for such purposes as energy or intensity calibration, half-life determination, etc., the application of the normalized chi-squared test, [chisub(N)] 2 =chi 2 /(n-m), is insufficient. One must normally verify the goodness-of-fit with plots, detailed scans of residuals, etc. Because of different techniques of application, variations in backgrounds, in peak sizes and shapes, etc., quotation of the [chisub(N)] 2 value associated with an individual peak fit conveys very little information unless accompanied by considerable ancillary data. (This is not to say that the traditional chi 2 formula should not be used as the source of the normal equations in the least squares fitting procedure. But after the fitting, it is unreliable as a criterion for comparison with other fits.) The authors present a formula designated figure-of-merit (FOM) which greatly improves on the uncertainty and fluctuations of the [chisub(N)] 2 formula. An FOM value of less than 2.5% indicates a good fit (in the authors' judgement) irrespective of background conditions and variations in peak sizes and shapes. Furthermore, the authors feel the FOM formula is less subject to fluctuations resulting from different techniques of application. (Auth.)

  13. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test for non-identically distributed random variables: with application to empirical Bayes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conover, W.J.; Cox, D.D.; Martz, H.F.

    1997-12-01

    When using parametric empirical Bayes estimation methods for estimating the binomial or Poisson parameter, the validity of the assumed beta or gamma conjugate prior distribution is an important diagnostic consideration. Chi-square goodness-of-fit tests of the beta or gamma prior hypothesis are developed for use when the binomial sample sizes or Poisson exposure times vary. Nine examples illustrate the application of the methods, using real data from such diverse applications as the loss of feedwater flow rates in nuclear power plants, the probability of failure to run on demand and the failure rates of the high pressure coolant injection systems at US commercial boiling water reactors, the probability of failure to run on demand of emergency diesel generators in US commercial nuclear power plants, the rate of failure of aircraft air conditioners, baseball batting averages, the probability of testing positive for toxoplasmosis, and the probability of tumors in rats. The tests are easily applied in practice by means of corresponding Mathematica reg-sign computer programs which are provided

  14. Application of tests of goodness of fit in determining the probability density function for spacing of steel sets in tunnel support system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnoosh Basaligheh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the conventional methods for temporary support of tunnels is to use steel sets with shotcrete. The nature of a temporary support system demands a quick installation of its structures. As a result, the spacing between steel sets is not a fixed amount and it can be considered as a random variable. Hence, in the reliability analysis of these types of structures, the selection of an appropriate probability distribution function of spacing of steel sets is essential. In the present paper, the distances between steel sets are collected from an under-construction tunnel and the collected data is used to suggest a proper Probability Distribution Function (PDF for the spacing of steel sets. The tunnel has two different excavation sections. In this regard, different distribution functions were investigated and three common tests of goodness of fit were used for evaluation of each function for each excavation section. Results from all three methods indicate that the Wakeby distribution function can be suggested as the proper PDF for spacing between the steel sets. It is also noted that, although the probability distribution function for two different tunnel sections is the same, the parameters of PDF for the individual sections are different from each other.

  15. Total Mini-Mental State Examination score and regional cerebral blood flow using Z score imaging and automated ROI analysis software in subjects with memory impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Eiji; Shiozaki, Kazumasa; Takahashi, Nobukazu; Togo, Takashi; Odawara, Toshinari; Oka, Takashi; Inoue, Tomio; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2008-01-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is considered a useful supplementary method to diagnose dementia and evaluate the severity of cognitive disturbance. However, the region of the cerebrum that correlates with the MMSE score is not clear. Recently, a new method was developed to analyze regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using a Z score imaging system (eZIS). This system shows changes of rCBF when compared with a normal database. In addition, a three-dimensional stereotaxic region of interest (ROI) template (3DSRT), fully automated ROI analysis software was developed. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between rCBF changes and total MMSE score using these new methods. The association between total MMSE score and rCBF changes was investigated in 24 patients (mean age±standard deviation (SD) 71.5±9.2 years; 6 men and 18 women) with memory impairment using eZIS and 3DSRT. Step-wise multiple regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis, with the total MMSE score as the dependent variable and rCBF change in 24 areas as the independent variable. Total MMSE score was significantly correlated only with the reduction of left hippocampal perfusion but not with right (P<0.01). Total MMSE score is an important indicator of left hippocampal function. (author)

  16. Do Press Ganey Scores Correlate With Total Knee Arthroplasty-Specific Outcome Questionnaires in Postsurgical Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chughtai, Morad; Patel, Nirav K; Gwam, Chukwuweike U; Khlopas, Anton; Bonutti, Peter M; Delanois, Ronald E; Mont, Michael A

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether Center for Medicaid and Medicare services-implemented satisfaction (Press Ganey [PG]) survey results correlate with established total knee arthroplasty (TKA) assessment tools. Data from 736 patients who underwent TKA and received a PG survey between November 2009 and January 2015 were analyzed. The PG survey overall hospital rating scores were correlated with standardized validated outcome assessment tools for TKA (Short form-12 and 36 Health Survey; Knee Society Score; Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index; University of California, Los Angeles; and visual analog scale) at a mean follow-up of 1154 days post-TKA. There was no correlation between PG survey overall hospital rating score and the above-mentioned outcome assessment tools. Our study shows that there is no statistically significant relationship between established arthroplasty assessment tools and the PG overall hospital rating. Therefore, PG surveys may not be an appropriate tool to determine reimbursement for orthopedists performing TKAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reliability and validation of the Dutch Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdam, K T M; Zwiers, R; Wiegerinck, J I; Kleipool, A E B; Haverlag, R; Goslings, J C; van Dijk, C N

    2018-03-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) have become a cornerstone for the evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment. The Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) is a PROM for outcome and assessment of an Achilles tendon rupture. The aim of this study was to translate the ATRS to Dutch and evaluate its reliability and validity in the Dutch population. A forward-backward translation procedure was performed according to the guidelines of cross-cultural adaptation process. The Dutch ATRS was evaluated for reliability and validity in patients treated for a total Achilles tendon rupture from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2014 in one teaching hospital and one academic hospital. Reliability was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Cronbach's alpha and minimal detectable change (MDC). We assessed construct validity by calculation of Spearman's rho correlation coefficient with domains of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS), Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles questionnaire (VISA-A) and Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) for pain in rest and during running. The Dutch ATRS had a good test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.852) and a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.96). MDC was 30.2 at individual level and 3.5 at group level. Construct validity was supported by 75 % of the hypothesized correlations. The Dutch ATRS had a strong correlation with NRS for pain during running (r = -0.746) and all the five subscales of the Dutch FAOS (r = 0.724-0.867). There was a moderate correlation with the VISA-A-NL (r = 0.691) and NRS for pain in rest (r = -0.580). The Dutch ATRS shows an adequate reliability and validity and can be used in the Dutch population for measuring the outcome of treatment of a total Achilles tendon rupture and for research purposes. Diagnostic study, Level I.

  18. Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity Score System in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Ney, Patrick H; Condliffe, Donald P; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P

    2016-08-01

    Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues. The authors present a further demonstration of the acute radiation sickness severity score system in a mouse (CD2F1, males) TBI model (1-14 Gy, Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min) based on multiple biodosimetric endpoints. This includes the acute radiation sickness severity Observational Grading System, survival rate, weight changes, temperature, peripheral blood cell counts and radiation-responsive protein expression profile: Flt-3 ligand, interleukin 6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, and serum amyloid A. Results show that use of the multiple-parameter severity score system facilitates identification of animals requiring enhanced monitoring after irradiation and that proteomics are a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposure, enhancing accuracy and discrimination index for acute radiation sickness response categories and early prediction of outcome.

  19. MRI quantitative assessment of brain maturation and prognosis in premature infants using total maturation score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Ying; Wang Xiaoming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To quantitatively assess brain maturation and prognosis in premature infants on conventional MRI using total maturation score (TMS). Methods: Nineteen cases of sequelae of white matter damage (WMD group )and 21 cases of matched controls (control group) in premature infants confirmed by MRI examinations were included in the study. All cases underwent conventional MR imaging approximately during the perinatal period after birth. Brain development was quantitatively assessed using Childs AM's validated scoring system of TMS by two sophisticated radiology physicians. Interobserver agreement and reliability was evaluated by using intraclass correlation (ICC). Linear regression analysis between TMS and postmenstrual age (PMA) was made(Y: TMS, X: PMA). Independent-sample t test of the two groups' TMS was made. Results: Sixteen of 19 cases revealed MRI abnormalities. Lesions showing T 1 and T 2 shortening tended to occur in clusters or a linear pattern in the deep white matter of the centrum semiovale, periventricular white matter. Diffusion-weighted MR image (DWI) showed 3 cases with greater lesions and 4 cases with new lesions in corpus callosum. There was no abnormality in control group on MRI and DWI. The average numbers of TMS between the two observers were 7.13±2.27, 7.13±2.21. Interobservcer agreement was found to be high (ICC=0.990, P 2 =0.6401,0.5156 respectively, P 0.05). Conclusion: Conventional MRI is able to quantify the brain maturation and prognosis of premature infants using TMS. (authors)

  20. Negative emotions affect postoperative scores for evaluating functional knee recovery and quality of life after total knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Qi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether psychological factors affect health-related quality of life (HRQL and recovery of knee function in total knee replacement (TKR patients. A total of 119 TKR patients (male: 38; female: 81 completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-revised (EPQR-S, Knee Society Score (KSS, and HRQL (SF-36. At 1 and 6 months after surgery, anxiety, depression, and KSS scores in TKR patients were significantly better compared with those preoperatively (P<0.05. SF-36 scores at the sixth month after surgery were significantly improved compared with preoperative scores (P<0.001. Preoperative Physical Component Summary Scale (PCS and Mental Component Summary Scale (MCS scores were negatively associated with extraversion (E score (B=-0.986 and -0.967, respectively, both P<0.05. Postoperative PCS and State Anxiety Inventory (SAI scores were negatively associated with neuroticism (N score; B=-0.137 and -0.991, respectively, both P<0.05. Postoperative MCS, SAI, Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI, and BAI scores were also negatively associated with the N score (B=-0.367, -0.107, -0.281, and -0.851, respectively, all P<0.05. The KSS function score at the sixth month after surgery was negatively associated with TAI and N scores (B=-0.315 and -0.532, respectively, both P<0.05, but positively associated with the E score (B=0.215, P<0.05. The postoperative KSS joint score was positively associated with postoperative PCS (B=0.356, P<0.05. In conclusion, for TKR patients, the scores used for evaluating recovery of knee function and HRQL after 6 months are inversely associated with the presence of negative emotions.

  1. Can an arthroplasty risk score predict bundled care events after total joint arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair S. Ashley, MD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The validated Arthroplasty Risk Score (ARS predicts the need for postoperative triage to an intensive care setting. We hypothesized that the ARS may also predict hospital length of stay (LOS, discharge disposition, and episode-of-care cost (EOCC. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed a series of 704 patients undergoing primary total hip and knee arthroplasty over 17 months. Patient characteristics, 90-day EOCC, LOS, and readmission rates were compared before and after ARS implementation. Results: ARS implementation was associated with fewer patients going to a skilled nursing or rehabilitation facility after discharge (63% vs 74%, P = .002. There was no difference in LOS, EOCC, readmission rates, or complications. While the adoption of the ARS did not change the mean EOCC, ARS >3 was predictive of high EOCC outlier (odds ratio 2.65, 95% confidence interval 1.40-5.01, P = .003. Increased ARS correlated with increased EOCC (P = .003. Conclusions: Implementation of the ARS was associated with increased disposition to home. It was predictive of high EOCC and should be considered in risk adjustment variables in alternative payment models. Keywords: Bundled payments, Risk stratification, Arthroplasty

  2. Comparison between the Harris- and Oxford Hip Score to evaluate outcomes one-year after total hip arthroplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, Hanneke; Lindeboom, Robert; Kuipers, Sander E.; Vervest, Ton M. J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Harris Hip Score (HHS) is a surgeon administered measurement for assessing hip function before and after total hip arthroplasties (THA). Patient reported outcome measurements (PROMs) such as the Oxford Hip Score (OHS) are increasingly used. HHS was compaired to the OHS assessing whether the HHS can

  3. Sensitivity and Specificity of the Coma Recovery Scale--Revised Total Score in Detection of Conscious Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodien, Yelena G; Carlowicz, Cecilia A; Chatelle, Camille; Giacino, Joseph T

    2016-03-01

    To describe the sensitivity and specificity of Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) total scores in detecting conscious awareness. Data were retrospectively extracted from the medical records of patients enrolled in a specialized disorders of consciousness (DOC) program. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were completed using CRS-R-derived diagnoses of minimally conscious state (MCS) or emerged from minimally conscious state (EMCS) as the reference standard for conscious awareness and the total CRS-R score as the test criterion. A receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed to demonstrate the optimal CRS-R total cutoff score for maximizing sensitivity and specificity. Specialized DOC program. Patients enrolled in the DOC program (N=252, 157 men; mean age, 49y; mean time from injury, 48d; traumatic etiology, n=127; nontraumatic etiology, n=125; diagnosis of coma or vegetative state, n=70; diagnosis of MCS or EMCS, n=182). Not applicable. Sensitivity and specificity of CRS-R total scores in detecting conscious awareness. A CRS-R total score of 10 or higher yielded a sensitivity of .78 for correct identification of patients in MCS or EMCS, and a specificity of 1.00 for correct identification of patients who did not meet criteria for either of these diagnoses (ie, were diagnosed with vegetative state or coma). The area under the curve in the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis is .98. A total CRS-R score of 10 or higher provides strong evidence of conscious awareness but resulted in a false-negative diagnostic error in 22% of patients who demonstrated conscious awareness based on CRS-R diagnostic criteria. A cutoff score of 8 provides the best balance between sensitivity and specificity, accurately classifying 93% of cases. The optimal total score cutoff will vary depending on the user's objective. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. SF-36 total score as a single measure of health-related quality of life: Scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2016-01-01

    According to the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire developers, a global measure of health-related quality of life such as the "SF-36 Total/Global/Overall Score" cannot be generated from the questionnaire. However, studies keep on reporting such measure. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency and to describe some characteristics of articles reporting the SF-36 Total/Global/Overall Score in the scientific literature. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses method was adapted to a scoping review. We performed searches in PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS, BVS, and Cochrane Library databases for articles using such scores. We found 172 articles published between 1997 and 2015; 110 (64.0%) of them were published from 2010 onwards; 30.0% appeared in journals with Impact Factor 3.00 or greater. Overall, 129 (75.0%) out of the 172 studies did not specify the method for calculating the "SF-36 Total Score"; 13 studies did not specify their methods but referred to the SF-36 developers' studies or others; and 30 articles used different strategies for calculating such score, the most frequent being arithmetic averaging of the eight SF-36 domains scores. We concluded that the "SF-36 Total/Global/Overall Score" has been increasingly reported in the scientific literature. Researchers should be aware of this procedure and of its possible impacts upon human health.

  5. Can the pre-operative Western Ontario and McMaster score predict patient satisfaction following total hip arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, B A; Alolabi, B; Carrothers, A D; Kreder, H J; Jenkinson, R J

    2015-02-01

    In this study we evaluated whether pre-operative Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) osteoarthritis scores can predict satisfaction following total hip arthroplasty (THA). Prospective data for a cohort of patients undergoing THA from two large academic centres were collected, and pre-operative and one-year post-operative WOMAC scores and a 25-point satisfaction questionnaire were obtained for 446 patients. Satisfaction scores were dichotomised into either improvement or deterioration. Scatter plots and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used to describe the association between pre-operative WOMAC and one-year post-operative WOMAC scores and patient satisfaction. Satisfaction was compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis against pre-operative, post-operative and δ WOMAC scores. We found no relationship between pre-operative WOMAC scores and one-year post-operative WOMAC or satisfaction scores, with Spearman's rank correlation coefficients of 0.16 and -0.05, respectively. The ROC analysis showed areas under the curve (AUC) of 0.54 (pre-operative WOMAC), 0.67 (post-operative WOMAC) and 0.43 (δ WOMAC), respectively, for an improvement in satisfaction. We conclude that the pre-operative WOMAC score does not predict the post-operative WOMAC score or patient satisfaction after THA, and that WOMAC scores can therefore not be used to prioritise patient care. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  6. Validation of use of subsets of teeth when applying the total mouth periodontal score (TMPS) system in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Colin E; Laster, Larry; Shofer, Frances S

    2012-01-01

    A total mouth periodontal score (TMPS) system in dogs has been described previously. Use of buccal and palatal/lingual surfaces of all teeth requires observation and recording of 120 gingivitis scores and 120 periodontitis scores. Although the result is a reliable, repeatable assessment of the extent of periodontal disease in the mouth, observing and recording 240 data points is time-consuming. Using data from a previously reported study of periodontal disease in dogs, correlation analysis was used to determine whether use of any of seven different subsets of teeth can generate TMPS subset gingivitis and periodontitis scores that are highly correlated with TMPS all-site, all-teeth scores. Overall, gingivitis scores were less highly correlated than periodontitis scores. The minimal tooth set with a significant intra-class correlation (> or = 0.9 of means of right and left sides) for both gingivitis scores and attachment loss measurements consisted of the buccal surface of the maxillary third incisor canine, third premolar fourth premolar; and first molar teeth; and, the mandibular canine, third premolar, fourth premolar and first molar teeth on one side (9 teeth, 15 root sites). Use of this subset of teeth, which reduces the number of data points per dog from 240 to 30 for gingivitis and periodontitis at each scoring episode, is recommended when calculating the gingivitis and periodontitis scores using the TMPS system.

  7. Distribution of Total Depressive Symptoms Scores and Each Depressive Symptom Item in a Sample of Japanese Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomitaka, Shinichiro; Kawasaki, Yohei; Ide, Kazuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Miyake, Hirotsugu; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Furukaw, Toshiaki A

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we reported that the distribution of total depressive symptoms scores according to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) in a general population is stable throughout middle adulthood and follows an exponential pattern except for at the lowest end of the symptom score. Furthermore, the individual distributions of 16 negative symptom items of the CES-D exhibit a common mathematical pattern. To confirm the reproducibility of these findings, we investigated the distribution of total depressive symptoms scores and 16 negative symptom items in a sample of Japanese employees. We analyzed 7624 employees aged 20-59 years who had participated in the Northern Japan Occupational Health Promotion Centers Collaboration Study for Mental Health. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D. The CES-D contains 20 items, each of which is scored in four grades: "rarely," "some," "much," and "most of the time." The descriptive statistics and frequency curves of the distributions were then compared according to age group. The distribution of total depressive symptoms scores appeared to be stable from 30-59 years. The right tail of the distribution for ages 30-59 years exhibited a linear pattern with a log-normal scale. The distributions of the 16 individual negative symptom items of the CES-D exhibited a common mathematical pattern which displayed different distributions with a boundary at "some." The distributions of the 16 negative symptom items from "some" to "most" followed a linear pattern with a log-normal scale. The distributions of the total depressive symptoms scores and individual negative symptom items in a Japanese occupational setting show the same patterns as those observed in a general population. These results show that the specific mathematical patterns of the distributions of total depressive symptoms scores and individual negative symptom items can be reproduced in an occupational population.

  8. Total Cerebral Small Vessel Disease MRI Score Is Associated With Cognitive Decline In Executive Function In Patients With Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske Uiterwijk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hypertension is a major risk factor for white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds and perivascular spaces, which are MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD. Studies have shown associations between these individual MRI markers and cognitive functioning and decline. Recently, a total SVD score was proposed in which the different MRI markers were combined into one measure of SVD, to capture total SVD-related brain damage. We investigated if this SVD score was associated with cognitive decline over 4 years in patients with hypertension. Methods: In this longitudinal cohort study, 130 hypertensive patients (91 patients with uncomplicated hypertension and 39 hypertensive patients with a lacunar stroke were included. They underwent a neuropsychological assessment at baseline and after 4 years. The presence of white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were rated on baseline MRI. Presence of each individual marker was added to calculate the total SVD score (range 0-4 in each patient. Results: Uncorrected linear regression analyses showed associations between SVD score and decline in overall cognition (p=0.017, executive functioning (p<0.001 and information processing speed (p=0.037, but not with memory (p=0.911. The association between SVD score and decline in overall cognition and executive function remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, education, anxiety and depression score, potential vascular risk factors, patient group and baseline cognitive performance.Conclusions: Our study shows that a total SVD score can predict cognitive decline, specifically in executive function, over 4 years in hypertensive patients. This emphasizes the importance of considering total brain damage due to SVD.

  9. A Novel Risk Score in Predicting Failure or Success for Antegrade Approach to Percutaneous Coronary Intervention of Chronic Total Occlusion: Antegrade CTO Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Mohammad Hasan; Serati, Ali Reza; Vakili, Hosein; Safi, Morteza; Parsa, Saeed Ali Pour; Saadat, Habibollah; Taherkhani, Maryam; Emami, Sepideh; Pedari, Shamseddin; Vatanparast, Masoomeh; Movahed, Mohammad Reza

    2017-06-01

    Total occlusion of a coronary artery for more than 3 months is defined as chronic total occlusion (CTO). The goal of this study was to develop a risk score in predicting failure or success during attempted percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of CTO lesions using antegrade approach. This study was based on retrospective analyses of clinical and angiographic characteristics of CTO lesions that were assessed between February 2012 and February 2014. Success rate was defined as passing through occlusion with successful stent deployment using an antegrade approach. A total of 188 patients were studied. Mean ± SD age was 59 ± 9 years. Failure rate was 33%. In a stepwise multivariate regression analysis, bridging collaterals (OR = 6.7, CI = 1.97-23.17, score = 2), absence of stump (OR = 5.8, CI = 1.95-17.9, score = 2), presence of calcification (OR = 3.21, CI = 1.46-7.07, score = 1), presence of bending (OR = 2.8, CI = 1.28-6.10, score = 1), presence of near side branch (OR = 2.7, CI = 1.08-6.57, score = 1), and absence of retrograde filling (OR = 2.5, CI = 1.03-6.17, score = 1) were independent predictors of PCI failure. A score of 7 or more was associated with 100% failure rate whereas a score of 2 or less was associated with over 80% success rate. Most factors associated with failure of CTO-PCI are related to lesion characteristics. A new risk score (range 0-8) is developed to predict CTO-PCI success or failure rate during antegrade approach as a guide before attempting PCI of CTO lesions.

  10. Hip disability and osteoarthritis outcome score (HOOS)--validity and responsiveness in total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsdotter, Anna K; Lohmander, L Stefan; Klässbo, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate if physical functions usually associated with a younger population were of importance for an older population, and to construct an outcome measure for hip osteoarthritis with improved responsiveness compared to the Western Ontario McMaster osteoarthritis score...

  11. Can computer assistance improve the clinical and functional scores in total knee arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vaquero, Daniel; Suarez-Vazquez, Abelardo; Iglesias-Fernandez, Susana

    2011-12-01

    Surgical navigation in TKA facilitates better alignment; however, it is unclear whether improved alignment alters clinical evolution and midterm and long-term complication rates. We determined the alignment differences between patients with standard, manual, jig-based TKAs and patients with navigation-based TKAs, and whether any differences would modify function, implant survival, and/or complications. We retrospectively reviewed 97 patients (100 TKAs) undergoing TKAs for minimal preoperative deformities. Fifty TKAs were performed with an image-free surgical navigation system and the other 50 with a standard technique. We compared femoral angle (FA), tibial angle (TA), and femorotibial angle (FTA) and determined whether any differences altered clinical or functional scores, as measured by the Knee Society Score (KSS), or complications. Seventy-three patients (75 TKAs) had a minimum followup of 8 years (mean, 8.3 years; range, 8-9.1 years). All patients included in the surgical navigation group had a FTA between 177° and 182º. We found no differences in the KSS or implant survival between the two groups and no differences in complication rates, although more complications occurred in the standard technique group (seven compared with two in the surgical navigation group). In the midterm, we found no difference in functional and clinical scores or implant survival between TKAs performed with and without the assistance of a navigation system. Level II, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines online for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  12. Use of the Liverpool Elbow Score as a postal questionnaire for the assessment of outcome after total elbow arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, Alexander M; Gozzard, Charles; Blewitt, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The Liverpool Elbow Score (LES) is a newly developed, validated elbow-specific score. It consists of a patient-answered questionnaire (PAQ) and a clinical assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the PAQ portion of the LES could be used independently as a postal questionnaire for the assessment of outcome after total elbow arthroplasty and to correlate the LES and the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS). A series of 51 total elbow replacements were reviewed by postal questionnaire. Patients then attended the clinic for assessment by use of both the LES and the MEPS. There was an excellent response rate to the postal questionnaire (98%), and 44 elbows were available for clinical review. Good correlation was shown between the LES and the MEPS (Spearman correlation coefficient, 0.84; P PAQ portion of the LES and the MEPS (Spearman correlation coefficient, 0.76; P PAQ component and the MEPS, suggesting that outcome assessment is possible by postal questionnaire.

  13. Boundary curves of individual items in the distribution of total depressive symptom scores approximate an exponential pattern in a general population

    OpenAIRE

    Tomitaka, Shinichiro; Kawasaki, Yohei; Ide, Kazuki; Akutagawa, Maiko; Yamada, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Toshiaki A.; Ono, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    [Background]Previously, we proposed a model for ordinal scale scoring in which individual thresholds for each item constitute a distribution by each item. This lead us to hypothesize that the boundary curves of each depressive symptom score in the distribution of total depressive symptom scores follow a common mathematical model, which is expressed as the product of the frequency of the total depressive symptom scores and the probability of the cumulative distribution function of each item th...

  14. A new calibrated bayesian internal goodness-of-fit method: sampled posterior p-values as simple and general p-values that allow double use of the data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Gosselin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent approaches mixing frequentist principles with bayesian inference propose internal goodness-of-fit (GOF p-values that might be valuable for critical analysis of bayesian statistical models. However, GOF p-values developed to date only have known probability distributions under restrictive conditions. As a result, no known GOF p-value has a known probability distribution for any discrepancy function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show mathematically that a new GOF p-value, called the sampled posterior p-value (SPP, asymptotically has a uniform probability distribution whatever the discrepancy function. In a moderate finite sample context, simulations also showed that the SPP appears stable to relatively uninformative misspecifications of the prior distribution. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These reasons, together with its numerical simplicity, make the SPP a better canonical GOF p-value than existing GOF p-values.

  15. Coronary collateral circulation in patients with chronic coronary total occlusion; its relationship with cardiac risk markers and SYNTAX score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börekçi, A; Gür, M; Şeker, T; Baykan, A O; Özaltun, B; Karakoyun, S; Karakurt, A; Türkoğlu, C; Makça, I; Çaylı, M

    2015-09-01

    Compared to patients without a collateral supply, long-term cardiac mortality is reduced in patients with well-developed coronary collateral circulation (CCC). Cardiovascular risk markers, such as N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) are independent predictors for cardiovascular mortality. The main goal of this study was to examine the relationship between CCC and cardiovascular risk markers. We prospectively enrolled 427 stable coronary artery disease patients with chronic total occlusion (mean age: 57.5±11.1 years). The patients were divided into two groups, according to their Rentrop scores: (a) poorly developed CCC group (Rentrop 0 and 1) and (b) well-developed CCC group (Rentrop 2 and 3). NT-proBNP, hs-CRP, hs-cTnT, uric acid and other biochemical markers were also measured. The SYNTAX score was calculated for all patients. The patients in the poorly developed CCC group had higher frequencies of diabetes and hypertension (prisk markers, such as NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT and hs-CRP are independently associated with CCC in stable coronary artery disease with chronic total occlusion. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS – validation and comparison to the WOMAC in total knee replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roos Ewa M

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS is an extension of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthrtis Index (WOMAC, the most commonly used outcome instrument for assessment of patient-relevant treatment effects in osteoarthritis. KOOS was developed for younger and/or more active patients with knee injury and knee osteoarthritis and has in previous studies on these groups been the more responsive instrument compared to the WOMAC. Some patients eligible for total knee replacement have expectations of more demanding physical functions than required for daily living. This encouraged us to study the use of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS to assess the outcome of total knee replacement. Methods We studied the test-retest reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Swedish version LK 1.0 of the KOOS when used to prospectively evaluate the outcome of 105 patients (mean age 71.3, 66 women after total knee replacement. The follow-up rates at 6 and 12 months were 92% and 86%, respectively. Results The intraclass correlation coefficients were over 0.75 for all subscales indicating sufficient test-retest reliability. Bland-Altman plots confirmed this finding. Over 90% of the patients regarded improvement in the subscales Pain, Symptoms, Activities of Daily Living, and knee-related Quality of Life to be extremely or very important when deciding to have their knee operated on indicating good content validity. The correlations found in comparison to the SF-36 indicated the KOOS measured expected constructs. The most responsive subscale was knee-related Quality of Life. The effect sizes of the five KOOS subscales at 12 months ranged from 1.08 to 3.54 and for the WOMAC from 1.65 to 2.56. Conclusion The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS is a valid, reliable, and responsive outcome measure in total joint replacement. In comparison to the WOMAC, the KOOS improved validity

  17. An Analysis of Cross Racial Identity Scale Scores Using Classical Test Theory and Rasch Item Response Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Joshua; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Worrell, Frank C.; Watson, Stevie

    2013-01-01

    Item response models (IRMs) were used to analyze Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores. Rasch analysis scores were compared with classical test theory (CTT) scores. The partial credit model demonstrated a high goodness of fit and correlations between Rasch and CTT scores ranged from 0.91 to 0.99. CRIS scores are supported by both methods.…

  18. Anesthesia Technique and Mortality after Total Hip or Knee Arthroplasty: A Retrospective, Propensity Score-matched Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlas, Anahi; Chan, Vincent W S; Beattie, Scott

    2016-10-01

    This propensity score-matched cohort study evaluates the effect of anesthetic technique on a 30-day mortality after total hip or knee arthroplasty. All patients who had hip or knee arthroplasty between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2014, were evaluated. The principal exposure was spinal versus general anesthesia. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes were (1) perioperative myocardial infarction; (2) a composite of major adverse cardiac events that includes cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, or newly diagnosed arrhythmia; (3) pulmonary embolism; (4) major blood loss; (5) hospital length of stay; and (6) operating room procedure time. A propensity score-matched-pair analysis was performed using a nonparsimonious logistic regression model of regional anesthetic use. We identified 10,868 patients, of whom 8,553 had spinal anesthesia and 2,315 had general anesthesia. Ninety-two percent (n = 2,135) of the patients who had general anesthesia were matched to similar patients who did not have general anesthesia. In the matched cohort, the 30-day mortality rate was 0.19% (n = 4) in the spinal anesthesia group and 0.8% (n = 17) in the general anesthesia group (risk ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.83; P = 0.0045). Spinal anesthesia was also associated with a shorter hospital length of stay (5.7 vs. 6.6 days; P anesthesia and lower 30-day mortality, as well as a shorter hospital length of stay, after elective joint replacement surgery.

  19. Boundary curves of individual items in the distribution of total depressive symptom scores approximate an exponential pattern in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomitaka, Shinichiro; Kawasaki, Yohei; Ide, Kazuki; Akutagawa, Maiko; Yamada, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Ono, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we proposed a model for ordinal scale scoring in which individual thresholds for each item constitute a distribution by each item. This lead us to hypothesize that the boundary curves of each depressive symptom score in the distribution of total depressive symptom scores follow a common mathematical model, which is expressed as the product of the frequency of the total depressive symptom scores and the probability of the cumulative distribution function of each item threshold. To verify this hypothesis, we investigated the boundary curves of the distribution of total depressive symptom scores in a general population. Data collected from 21,040 subjects who had completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) questionnaire as part of a national Japanese survey were analyzed. The CES-D consists of 20 items (16 negative items and four positive items). The boundary curves of adjacent item scores in the distribution of total depressive symptom scores for the 16 negative items were analyzed using log-normal scales and curve fitting. The boundary curves of adjacent item scores for a given symptom approximated a common linear pattern on a log normal scale. Curve fitting showed that an exponential fit had a markedly higher coefficient of determination than either linear or quadratic fits. With negative affect items, the gap between the total score curve and boundary curve continuously increased with increasing total depressive symptom scores on a log-normal scale, whereas the boundary curves of positive affect items, which are not considered manifest variables of the latent trait, did not exhibit such increases in this gap. The results of the present study support the hypothesis that the boundary curves of each depressive symptom score in the distribution of total depressive symptom scores commonly follow the predicted mathematical model, which was verified to approximate an exponential mathematical pattern.

  20. Boundary curves of individual items in the distribution of total depressive symptom scores approximate an exponential pattern in a general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Tomitaka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Previously, we proposed a model for ordinal scale scoring in which individual thresholds for each item constitute a distribution by each item. This lead us to hypothesize that the boundary curves of each depressive symptom score in the distribution of total depressive symptom scores follow a common mathematical model, which is expressed as the product of the frequency of the total depressive symptom scores and the probability of the cumulative distribution function of each item threshold. To verify this hypothesis, we investigated the boundary curves of the distribution of total depressive symptom scores in a general population. Methods Data collected from 21,040 subjects who had completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D questionnaire as part of a national Japanese survey were analyzed. The CES-D consists of 20 items (16 negative items and four positive items. The boundary curves of adjacent item scores in the distribution of total depressive symptom scores for the 16 negative items were analyzed using log-normal scales and curve fitting. Results The boundary curves of adjacent item scores for a given symptom approximated a common linear pattern on a log normal scale. Curve fitting showed that an exponential fit had a markedly higher coefficient of determination than either linear or quadratic fits. With negative affect items, the gap between the total score curve and boundary curve continuously increased with increasing total depressive symptom scores on a log-normal scale, whereas the boundary curves of positive affect items, which are not considered manifest variables of the latent trait, did not exhibit such increases in this gap. Discussion The results of the present study support the hypothesis that the boundary curves of each depressive symptom score in the distribution of total depressive symptom scores commonly follow the predicted mathematical model, which was verified to approximate an

  1. Alternative Payment Models Should Risk-Adjust for Conversion Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Propensity Score-Matched Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLawhorn, Alexander S; Schairer, William W; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Halsey, David A; Iorio, Richard; Padgett, Douglas E

    2017-12-06

    For Medicare beneficiaries, hospital reimbursement for nonrevision hip arthroplasty is anchored to either diagnosis-related group code 469 or 470. Under alternative payment models, reimbursement for care episodes is not further risk-adjusted. This study's purpose was to compare outcomes of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) vs conversion THA to explore the rationale for risk adjustment for conversion procedures. All primary and conversion THAs from 2007 to 2014, excluding acute hip fractures and cancer patients, were identified in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Conversion and primary THA patients were matched 1:1 using propensity scores, based on preoperative covariates. Multivariable logistic regressions evaluated associations between conversion THA and 30-day outcomes. A total of 2018 conversions were matched to 2018 primaries. There were no differences in preoperative covariates. Conversions had longer operative times (148 vs 95 minutes, P reimbursement models shift toward bundled payment paradigms, conversion THA appears to be a procedure for which risk adjustment is appropriate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Noise reduction technology reduces radiation dose in chronic total occlusions percutaneous coronary intervention: a propensity score-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccagni, Davide; Benincasa, Susanna; Bellini, Barbara; Candilio, Luciano; Poletti, Enrico; Carlino, Mauro; Colombo, Antonio; Azzalini, Lorenzo

    2018-03-23

    Chronic total occlusions (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with high radiation dose. Our study aim was to evaluate the impact of the implementation of a noise reduction technology (NRT) on patient radiation dose during CTO PCI. A total of 187 CTO PCIs performed between February 2016 and May 2017 were analyzed according to the angiographic systems utilized: Standard (n = 60) versus NRT (n = 127). Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to control for differences in baseline characteristics. Primary endpoints were Cumulative Air Kerma at Interventional Reference Point (AK at IRP), which correlates with patient's tissue reactions; and Kerma Area Product (KAP), a surrogate measure of patient's risk of stochastic radiation effects. An Efficiency Index (defined as fluoroscopy time/AK at IRP) was calculated for each procedure. Image quality was evaluated using a 5-grade Likert-like scale. After PSM, n = 55 pairs were identified. Baseline and angiographic characteristics were well matched between groups. Compared to the Standard system, NRT was associated with lower AK at IRP [2.38 (1.80-3.66) vs. 3.24 (2.04-5.09) Gy, p = 0.035], a trend towards reduction for KAP [161 (93-244) vs. 203 (136-363) Gycm 2 , p = 0.069], and a better Efficiency Index [16.75 (12.73-26.27) vs. 13.58 (9.92-17.63) min/Gy, p = 0.003]. Image quality was similar between the two groups (4.39 ± 0.53 Standard vs. 4.34 ± 0.47 NRT, p = 0.571). In conclusion, compared with a Standard system, the use of NRT in CTO PCI is associated with lower patient radiation dose and similar image quality.

  3. External validation of a decision tree early warning score using only laboratory data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Atkins, Tara E; Öhman, Malin C; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Early warning scores (EWS) have been developed to identify the degree of illness severity among acutely ill patients. One system, The Laboratory Decision Tree Early Warning Score (LDT-EWS) is wholly laboratory data based. Laboratory data was used in the development of a rare...... computerized method, developing a decision tree analysis. This article externally validates LDT-EWS, which is obligatory for an EWS before clinical use. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected data based on a time limited sample of all patients admitted through the medical......) and calibration (precision) as Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness of fit test. RESULTS: A total of 5858 patients were admitted and 4902 included (83.7%). In-hospital mortality in our final dataset (n=4902) was 3.5%. Discriminatory power (95% CI), identifying in-hospital death was 0.809 (0.777-0.842). Calibration was good...

  4. Association between Diet-Quality Scores, Adiposity, Total Cholesterol and Markers of Nutritional Status in European Adults: Findings from the Food4Me Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind Fallaize

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet-quality scores (DQS, which are developed across the globe, are used to define adherence to specific eating patterns and have been associated with risk of coronary heart disease and type-II diabetes. We explored the association between five diet-quality scores (Healthy Eating Index, HEI; Alternate Healthy Eating Index, AHEI; MedDietScore, MDS; PREDIMED Mediterranean Diet Score, P-MDS; Dutch Healthy Diet-Index, DHDI and markers of metabolic health (anthropometry, objective physical activity levels (PAL, and dried blood spot total cholesterol (TC, total carotenoids, and omega-3 index in the Food4Me cohort, using regression analysis. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Participants (n = 1480 were adults recruited from seven European Union (EU countries. Overall, women had higher HEI and AHEI than men (p < 0.05, and scores varied significantly between countries. For all DQS, higher scores were associated with lower body mass index, lower waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference, and higher total carotenoids and omega-3-index (p trends < 0.05. Higher HEI, AHEI, DHDI, and P-MDS scores were associated with increased daily PAL, moderate and vigorous activity, and reduced sedentary behaviour (p trend < 0.05. We observed no association between DQS and TC. To conclude, higher DQS, which reflect better dietary patterns, were associated with markers of better nutritional status and metabolic health.

  5. Impact of the Occlusion Duration on the Performance of J-CTO Score in Predicting Failure of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Chronic Total Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro-Filho, Antonio; Lamas, Edgar Stroppa; Meneguz-Moreno, Rafael A; Staico, Rodolfo; Siqueira, Dimytri; Costa, Ricardo A; Braga, Sergio N; Costa, J Ribamar; Chamié, Daniel; Abizaid, Alexandre

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined the association between Multicenter CTO Registry in Japan (J-CTO) score in predicting failure of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) correlating with the estimated duration of chronic total occlusion (CTO). The J-CTO score does not incorporate estimated duration of the occlusion. This was an observational retrospective study that involved all consecutive procedures performed at a single tertiary-care cardiology center between January 2009 and December 2014. A total of 174 patients, median age 59.5 years (interquartile range [IQR], 53-65 years), undergoing CTO-PCI were included. The median estimated occlusion duration was 7.5 months (IQR, 4.0-12.0 months). The lesions were classified as easy (score = 0), intermediate (score = 1), difficult (score = 2), and very difficult (score ≥3) in 51.1%, 33.9%, 9.2%, and 5.7% of the patients, respectively. Failure rate significantly increased with higher J-CTO score (7.9%, 20.3%, 50.0%, and 70.0% in groups with J-CTO scores of 0, 1, 2, and ≥3, respectively; PJ-CTO score predicted failure of CTO-PCI independently of the estimated occlusion duration (P=.24). Areas under receiver-operating characteristic curves were computed and it was observed that for each occlusion time period, the discriminatory capacity of the J-CTO score in predicting CTO-PCI failure was good, with a C-statistic >0.70. The estimated duration of occlusion had no influence on the J-CTO score performance in predicting failure of PCI in CTO lesions. The probability of failure was mainly determined by grade of lesion complexity.

  6. SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF INDIVIDUAL BERG BALANCE ITEMS COMPARED WITH THE TOTAL SCORE TO PREDICT FALLS IN COMMUNITY DWELLING ELDERLY INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Denzil Dias

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are a major problem in the elderly leading to increased morbidity and mortality in this population. Scores from objective clinical measures of balance have frequently been associated with falls in older adults. The Berg Balance Score (BBS which is a frequently used scale to test balance impairments in the elderly ,takes time to perform and has been found to have scoring inconsistencies. The purpose was to determine if individual items or a group of BBS items would have better accuracy than the total BBS in classifying community dwelling elderly individuals according to fall history. Method: 60 community dwelling elderly individuals were chosen based on a history of falls in this cross sectional study. Each BBS item was dichotomized at three points along the scoring scale of 0 – 4: between scores of 1 and 2, 2 and 3, and 3 and 4. Sensitivity (Sn, specificity (Sp, and positive (+LR and negative (-LR likelihood ratios were calculated for all items for each scoring dichotomy based on their accuracy in classifying subjects with a history of multiple falls. These findings were compared with the total BBS score where the cut-off score was derived from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: On analysing a combination of BBS items, B9 and B11 were found to have the best sensitivity and specificity when considered together. However the area under the curve of these items was 0.799 which did not match that of the total score (AUC= 0.837. A, combination of 4 BBS items - B9 B11 B12 and B13 also had good Sn and Sp but the AUC was 0.815. The combination with the AUC closest to that of the total score was a combination items B11 and B13. (AUC= 0.824. hence these two items can be used as the best predictor of falls with a cut off of 6.5 The ROC curve of the Total Berg balance Scale scores revealed a cut off score of 48.5. Conclusion: This study showed that combination of items B11 and B13 may be best predictors of falls in

  7. SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF INDIVIDUAL BERG BALANCE ITEMS COMPARED WITH THE TOTAL SCORE TO PREDICT FALLS IN COMMUNITY DWELLING ELDERLY INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Denzil Dias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are a major problem in the elderly leading to increased morbidity and mortality in this population. Scores from objective clinical measures of balance have frequently been associated with falls in older adults. The Berg Balance Score (BBS which is a frequently used scale to test balance impairments in the elderly ,takes time to perform and has been found to have scoring inconsistencies. The purpose was to determine if individual items or a group of BBS items would have better accuracy than the total BBS in classifying community dwelling elderly individuals according to fall history. Method: 60 community dwelling elderly individuals were chosen based on a history of falls in this cross sectional study. Each BBS item was dichotomized at three points along the scoring scale of 0 – 4: between scores of 1 and 2, 2 and 3, and 3 and 4. Sensitivity (Sn, specificity (Sp, and positive (+LR and negative (-LR likelihood ratios were calculated for all items for each scoring dichotomy based on their accuracy in classifying subjects with a history of multiple falls. These findings were compared with the total BBS score where the cut-off score was derived from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: On analysing a combination of BBS items, B9 and B11 were found to have the best sensitivity and specificity when considered together. However the area under the curve of these items was 0.799 which did not match that of the total score (AUC= 0.837. A, combination of 4 BBS items - B9 B11 B12 and B13 also had good Sn and Sp but the AUC was 0.815. The combination with the AUC closest to that of the total score was a combination items B11 and B13. (AUC= 0.824. hence these two items can be used as the best predictor of falls with a cut off of 6.5 The ROC curve of the Total Berg balance Scale scores revealed a cut off score of 48.5. Conclusion: This study showed that combination of items B11 and B13 may be best predictors of falls in

  8. Good validity and reliability of the forgotten joint score in evaluating the outcome of total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten G; Latifi, Roshan; Kallemose, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    . We investigated the validity and reliability of the FJS. Patients and methods - A Danish version of the FJS questionnaire was created according to internationally accepted standards. 360 participants who underwent primary TKA were invited to participate in the study. Of these, 315 were included...... in a validity study and 150 in a reliability study. Correlation between the Oxford knee score (OKS) and the FJS was examined and test-retest evaluation was performed. A ceiling effect was defined as participants reaching a score within 15% of the maximum achievable score. Results - The validity study revealed...... of the FJS (ICC? 0.79). We found a high level of internal consistency (Cronbach's? = 0.96). The ceiling effect for the FJS was 16%, as compared to 37% for the OKS. Interpretation - The FJS showed good construct validity and test-retest reliability. It had a lower ceiling effect than the OKS. The FJS appears...

  9. Pattern analysis of total item score and item response of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6 in a nationally representative sample of US adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Tomitaka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Several recent studies have shown that total scores on depressive symptom measures in a general population approximate an exponential pattern except for the lower end of the distribution. Furthermore, we confirmed that the exponential pattern is present for the individual item responses on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. To confirm the reproducibility of such findings, we investigated the total score distribution and item responses of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6 in a nationally representative study. Methods Data were drawn from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS, which comprises four subsamples: (1 a national random digit dialing (RDD sample, (2 oversamples from five metropolitan areas, (3 siblings of individuals from the RDD sample, and (4 a national RDD sample of twin pairs. K6 items are scored using a 5-point scale: “none of the time,” “a little of the time,” “some of the time,” “most of the time,” and “all of the time.” The pattern of total score distribution and item responses were analyzed using graphical analysis and exponential regression model. Results The total score distributions of the four subsamples exhibited an exponential pattern with similar rate parameters. The item responses of the K6 approximated a linear pattern from “a little of the time” to “all of the time” on log-normal scales, while “none of the time” response was not related to this exponential pattern. Discussion The total score distribution and item responses of the K6 showed exponential patterns, consistent with other depressive symptom scales.

  10. Validation of the total dysphagia risk score (TDRS) in head and neck cancer patients in a conventional and a partially accelerated radiotherapy scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nevens, Daan; Deschuymer, Sarah; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Daisne, Jean -Francois; Duprez, Frederic; De Neve, Wilfried; Nuyts, Sandra

    Background and purpose: A risk model, the total dysphagia risk score (TDRS), was developed to predict which patients are most at risk to develop grade >= 2 dysphagia at 6 months following radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer. The purpose of this study was to validate this model at 6 months and

  11. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia Part I : The use of PANSS total score and clinical utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddy, Venkatesh Pilla; Kozielska, Magdalena; Suleiman, Ahmed Abbas; Johnson, Martin; Vermeulen, An; Liu, Jing; de Greef, Rik; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Danhof, Meindert; Proost, Johannes H.

    Background: To develop a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model using individual-level data of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score to characterize the antipsychotic drug effect taking into account the placebo effect and dropout rate. In addition, a clinical utility (CU)

  12. Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score at 3 months can predict patients' ability to return to sport 1 year after injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maria Swennergren; Christensen, Marianne; Budolfsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate how the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) at 3 months and 1 year after injury is associated with a patient's ability to return to work and sports as well as to investigate whether sex and age influence ATRS after 3 months and 1 year. METHOD: This is a retrospectiv...

  13. Complex versus Simple Modeling for DIF Detection: When the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (?) of the Studied Item Is Less Than the ? of the Total Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ying; Myers, Nicholas D.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that differential item functioning (DIF) methods that do not account for multilevel data structure could result in too frequent rejection of the null hypothesis (i.e., no DIF) when the intraclass correlation coefficient (?) of the studied item was the same as the ? of the total score. The current study extended…

  14. Effect of Antihypertensive Therapy on SCORE-Estimated Total Cardiovascular Risk: Results from an Open-Label, Multinational Investigation—The POWER Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy De Backer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High blood pressure is a substantial risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Design & Methods. The Physicians' Observational Work on patient Education according to their vascular Risk (POWER survey was an open-label investigation of eprosartan-based therapy (EBT for control of high blood pressure in primary care centers in 16 countries. A prespecified element of this research was appraisal of the impact of EBT on estimated 10-year risk of a fatal cardiovascular event as determined by the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE model. Results. SCORE estimates of CVD risk were obtained at baseline from 12,718 patients in 15 countries (6504 men and from 9577 patients at 6 months. During EBT mean (±SD systolic/diastolic blood pressures declined from 160.2 ± 13.7/94.1 ± 9.1 mmHg to 134.5 ± 11.2/81.4 ± 7.4 mmHg. This was accompanied by a 38% reduction in mean SCORE-estimated CVD risk and an improvement in SCORE risk classification of one category or more in 3506 patients (36.6%. Conclusion. Experience in POWER affirms that (a effective pharmacological control of blood pressure is feasible in the primary care setting and is accompanied by a reduction in total CVD risk and (b the SCORE instrument is effective in this setting for the monitoring of total CVD risk.

  15. Effect of Antihypertensive Therapy on SCORE-Estimated Total Cardiovascular Risk: Results from an Open-Label, Multinational Investigation—The POWER Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Guy; Petrella, Robert J.; Goudev, Assen R.; Radaideh, Ghazi Ahmad; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej; Pathak, Atul

    2013-01-01

    Background. High blood pressure is a substantial risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Design & Methods. The Physicians' Observational Work on patient Education according to their vascular Risk (POWER) survey was an open-label investigation of eprosartan-based therapy (EBT) for control of high blood pressure in primary care centers in 16 countries. A prespecified element of this research was appraisal of the impact of EBT on estimated 10-year risk of a fatal cardiovascular event as determined by the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) model. Results. SCORE estimates of CVD risk were obtained at baseline from 12,718 patients in 15 countries (6504 men) and from 9577 patients at 6 months. During EBT mean (±SD) systolic/diastolic blood pressures declined from 160.2 ± 13.7/94.1 ± 9.1 mmHg to 134.5 ± 11.2/81.4 ± 7.4 mmHg. This was accompanied by a 38% reduction in mean SCORE-estimated CVD risk and an improvement in SCORE risk classification of one category or more in 3506 patients (36.6%). Conclusion. Experience in POWER affirms that (a) effective pharmacological control of blood pressure is feasible in the primary care setting and is accompanied by a reduction in total CVD risk and (b) the SCORE instrument is effective in this setting for the monitoring of total CVD risk. PMID:23997946

  16. Standardized Total Average Toxicity Score: A Scale- and Grade-Independent Measure of Late Radiotherapy Toxicity to Facilitate Pooling of Data From Different Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, Gillian C., E-mail: gillbarnett@doctors.org.uk [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); West, Catharine M.L. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Coles, Charlotte E. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Pharoah, Paul D.P. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Elliott, Rebecca M. [School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Tanteles, George A. [Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Symonds, R. Paul [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Jennifer S. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Dunning, Alison M. [Cancer Research-UK Centre for Genetic Epidemiology and Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratories, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Burnet, Neil G. [University of Cambridge Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bentzen, Soren M. [University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Department of Human Oncology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: The search for clinical and biologic biomarkers associated with late radiotherapy toxicity is hindered by the use of multiple and different endpoints from a variety of scoring systems, hampering comparisons across studies and pooling of data. We propose a novel metric, the Standardized Total Average Toxicity (STAT) score, to try to overcome these difficulties. Methods and Materials: STAT scores were derived for 1010 patients from the Cambridge breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy trial and 493 women from University Hospitals of Leicester. The sensitivity of the STAT score to detect differences between patient groups, stratified by factors known to influence late toxicity, was compared with that of individual endpoints. Analysis of residuals was used to quantify the effect of these covariates. Results: In the Cambridge cohort, STAT scores detected differences (p < 0.00005) between patients attributable to breast volume, surgical specimen weight, dosimetry, acute toxicity, radiation boost to tumor bed, postoperative infection, and smoking (p < 0.0002), with no loss of sensitivity over individual toxicity endpoints. Diabetes (p = 0.017), poor postoperative surgical cosmesis (p = 0.0036), use of chemotherapy (p = 0.0054), and increasing age (p = 0.041) were also associated with increased STAT score. When the Cambridge and Leicester datasets were combined, STAT was associated with smoking status (p < 0.00005), diabetes (p = 0.041), chemotherapy (p = 0.0008), and radiotherapy boost (p = 0.0001). STAT was independent of the toxicity scale used and was able to deal with missing data. There were correlations between residuals of the STAT score obtained using different toxicity scales (r > 0.86, p < 0.00005 for both datasets). Conclusions: The STAT score may be used to facilitate the analysis of overall late radiation toxicity, from multiple trials or centers, in studies of possible genetic and nongenetic determinants of radiotherapy toxicity.

  17. Intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Knee Society Knee Score when used by two physiotherapists in patients post total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: It has yet to be shown whether routine physiotherapy plays a role in the rehabilitation of patients post totalknee arthroplasty (Rajan et al 2004. Physiotherapists should be using validoutcome measures to provide evidence of the benefit of their intervention. The aim of this study was to establish the intra and inter-rater reliability of the Knee Society Knee Score, a scoring system developed by Insall et al(1989. The Knee Society Knee Score can be used to assess the integrity of theknee joint of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Since the scoreinvolves clinical testing, the intra-rater reliability of the clinician should be established prior to using the scores as datain clinical research. W here multiple clinicians are involved, inter-rater reliability should also be established.Design: This was a correlation study.Subjects: A  sample of thirty patients post total knee arthroplasty attending the arthroplasty clinic at Johannesburg Hospital between six weeks and twelve months postoperatively.M ethod: Recruited patients were evaluated twice with a time interval of one hour between each assessment. Statistical A nalysis: The intra- and inter-rater reliability were estimated using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC. R esults: The intra-rater reliability showed excellent reliability (h= 0.95 for Examiner A  and good reliability (h= 0.71for Examiner B. The inter-rater reliability showed moderate reliability (h= 0.67 during test one and h= 0.66 during test two.Conclusion: The KSKS has good intra-rater reliability when tested within a period of one hour. The KSKS demonstrated moderate agreement for inter rater reliability.

  18. An empirical study using range of motion and pain score as determinants for continuous passive motion: outcomes following total knee replacement surgery in an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    The continuous passive motion (CPM) machine is one means by which to rehabilitate the knee after total knee replacement surgery. This study sought to determine which total knee replacement patients, if any, benefit from the use of the CPM machine. For the study period, most patients received active physical therapy. Patients were placed in the CPM machine if, on postoperative day 1, they had a range of motion less than or equal to 45° and/or pain score of 8 or greater on a numeric rating scale of 0-10, 0 being no pain and 10 being the worst pain. Both groups of patients healed at similar rates. The incidence of adverse events, length of stay, and functional outcomes was comparable between groups. Given the demonstrated lack of relative benefit to the patient and the cost of the CPM, this study supported discontinuing the routine use of the CPM.

  19. Test-retest reliability at the item level and total score level of the Norwegian version of the Spinal Cord Injury Falls Concern Scale (SCI-FCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaldsen, Kirsti Skavberg; Måøy, Åsa Blad; Jørgensen, Vivien; Stanghelle, Johan Kvalvik

    2016-05-01

    Translation of the Spinal Cord Injury Falls Concern Scale (SCI-FCS), and investigation of test-retest reliability on item-level and total-score-level. Translation, adaptation and test-retest study. A specialized rehabilitation setting in Norway. Fifty-four wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury. The median age of the cohort was 49 years, and the median number of years after injury was 13. Interventions/measurements: The SCI-FCS was translated and back-translated according to guidelines. Individuals answered the SCI-FCS twice over the course of one week. We investigated item-level test-retest reliability using Svensson's rank-based statistical method for disagreement analysis of paired ordinal data. For relative reliability, we analyzed the total-score-level test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2.1), the standard error of measurement (SEM), and the smallest detectable change (SDC) for absolute reliability/measurement-error assessment and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. All items showed satisfactory percentage agreement (≥69%) between test and retest. There were small but non-negligible systematic disagreements among three items; we recovered an 11-13% higher chance for a lower second score. There was no disagreement due to random variance. The test-retest agreement (ICC2.1) was excellent (0.83). The SEM was 2.6 (12%), and the SDC was 7.1 (32%). The Cronbach's alpha was high (0.88). The Norwegian SCI-FCS is highly reliable for wheelchair users with chronic spinal cord injuries.

  20. Risk score to predict gastrointestinal bleeding after acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ruijun; Shen, Haipeng; Pan, Yuesong; Wang, Penglian; Liu, Gaifen; Wang, Yilong; Li, Hao; Singhal, Aneesh B; Wang, Yongjun

    2014-07-25

    Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is a common and often serious complication after stroke. Although several risk factors for post-stroke GIB have been identified, no reliable or validated scoring system is currently available to predict GIB after acute stroke in routine clinical practice or clinical trials. In the present study, we aimed to develop and validate a risk model (acute ischemic stroke associated gastrointestinal bleeding score, the AIS-GIB score) to predict in-hospital GIB after acute ischemic stroke. The AIS-GIB score was developed from data in the China National Stroke Registry (CNSR). Eligible patients in the CNSR were randomly divided into derivation (60%) and internal validation (40%) cohorts. External validation was performed using data from the prospective Chinese Intracranial Atherosclerosis Study (CICAS). Independent predictors of in-hospital GIB were obtained using multivariable logistic regression in the derivation cohort, and β-coefficients were used to generate point scoring system for the AIS-GIB. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test were used to assess model discrimination and calibration, respectively. A total of 8,820, 5,882, and 2,938 patients were enrolled in the derivation, internal validation and external validation cohorts. The overall in-hospital GIB after AIS was 2.6%, 2.3%, and 1.5% in the derivation, internal, and external validation cohort, respectively. An 18-point AIS-GIB score was developed from the set of independent predictors of GIB including age, gender, history of hypertension, hepatic cirrhosis, peptic ulcer or previous GIB, pre-stroke dependence, admission National Institutes of Health stroke scale score, Glasgow Coma Scale score and stroke subtype (Oxfordshire). The AIS-GIB score showed good discrimination in the derivation (0.79; 95% CI, 0.764-0.825), internal (0.78; 95% CI, 0.74-0.82) and external (0.76; 95% CI, 0.71-0.82) validation cohorts

  1. Modelling the predictive performance of credit scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Shen

    2013-07-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this empirical paper was to examine the predictive performance of credit scoring systems in Taiwan. Motivation for the study: Corporate lending remains a major business line for financial institutions. However, in light of the recent global financial crises, it has become extremely important for financial institutions to implement rigorous means of assessing clients seeking access to credit facilities. Research design, approach and method: Using a data sample of 10 349 observations drawn between 1992 and 2010, logistic regression models were utilised to examine the predictive performance of credit scoring systems. Main findings: A test of Goodness of fit demonstrated that credit scoring models that incorporated the Taiwan Corporate Credit Risk Index (TCRI, micro- and also macroeconomic variables possessed greater predictive power. This suggests that macroeconomic variables do have explanatory power for default credit risk. Practical/managerial implications: The originality in the study was that three models were developed to predict corporate firms’ defaults based on different microeconomic and macroeconomic factors such as the TCRI, asset growth rates, stock index and gross domestic product. Contribution/value-add: The study utilises different goodness of fits and receiver operator characteristics during the examination of the robustness of the predictive power of these factors.

  2. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Japanese version of the new Knee Society Scoring System for osteoarthritic knee with total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Yosuke; Ito, Hiromu; Furu, Moritoshi; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Azukizawa, Masayuki; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2015-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to translate the new Knee Society Score (KSS) into Japanese and to evaluate the construct and content validity, test-retest reliability, and internal consistency of the Japanese version of the new KSS. The Japanese version of the KSS was developed according to cross-cultural guidelines by using the "translation-back translation" method to ensure content validity. KSS data were then obtained from patients who had undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The psychometric properties evaluated were as follows: for feasibility, response rate, and floor and ceiling effects; for construct validity, internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha, and correlations with quality of life. Construct validity was evaluated by using Spearman's correlation coefficient to quantify the correlation between the KSS and the Japanese version of the Oxford 12-item Knee Score or Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaires. The Japanese version of the KSS was sent to 93 consecutive osteoarthritic patients who underwent primary TKA in our institution. Fifty-five patients completed the questionnaires and were included in this study. Neither a floor nor ceiling effect was observed. The reliability proved excellent in the majority of domains, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.65-0.88. Internal consistency, assessed by Cronbach's alpha, was good to excellent for all domains (0.78-0.94). All of the four domains of the KSS correlated significantly with the Oxford 12-item Knee Score. The activity and satisfaction domains of the KSS correlated significantly with all and the majority of subscales of the SF-36, respectively, whereas symptoms and expectation domains showed significant correlations only with bodily pain and vitality subscales and with the physical function, bodily pain, and vitality subscales, respectively. The Japanese version of the new KSS is a valid, reliable, and responsive instrument to capture subjective aspects of the functional

  3. Validation of the LOD score compared with APACHE II score in prediction of the hospital outcome in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwannimit, Bodin

    2008-01-01

    The Logistic Organ Dysfunction score (LOD) is an organ dysfunction score that can predict hospital mortality. The aim of this study was to validate the performance of the LOD score compared with the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score in a mixed intensive care unit (ICU) at a tertiary referral university hospital in Thailand. The data were collected prospectively on consecutive ICU admissions over a 24 month period from July1, 2004 until June 30, 2006. Discrimination was evaluated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). The calibration was assessed by the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit H statistic. The overall fit of the model was evaluated by the Brier's score. Overall, 1,429 patients were enrolled during the study period. The mortality in the ICU was 20.9% and in the hospital was 27.9%. The median ICU and hospital lengths of stay were 3 and 18 days, respectively, for all patients. Both models showed excellent discrimination. The AUROC for the LOD and APACHE II were 0.860 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.838-0.882] and 0.898 (95% Cl = 0.879-0.917), respectively. The LOD score had perfect calibration with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit H chi-2 = 10 (p = 0.44). However, the APACHE II had poor calibration with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit H chi-2 = 75.69 (p < 0.001). Brier's score showed the overall fit for both models were 0.123 (95%Cl = 0.107-0.141) and 0.114 (0.098-0.132) for the LOD and APACHE II, respectively. Thus, the LOD score was found to be accurate for predicting hospital mortality for general critically ill patients in Thailand.

  4. Comparisons of American, Israeli, Italian and Mexican physicians and nurses on the total and factor scores of the Jefferson scale of attitudes toward physician-nurse collaborative relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Gonnella, Joseph S; Nasca, Thomas J; Fields, Sylvia K; Cicchetti, Americo; Lo Scalzo, Alessandra; Taroni, Francesco; Amicosante, Anna Maria Vincenza; Macinati, Manuela; Tangucci, Massimo; Liva, Carlo; Ricciardi, Gualtiero; Eidelman, Shmuel; Admi, Hanna; Geva, Hana; Mashiach, Tanya; Alroy, Gideon; Alcorta-Gonzalez, Adelina; Ibarra, David; Torres-Ruiz, Antonio

    2003-05-01

    This cross-cultural study was designed to compare the attitudes of physicians and nurses toward physician-nurse collaboration in the United States, Israel, Italy and Mexico. Total participants were 2522 physicians and nurses who completed the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration (15 Likert-type items, (Hojat et al., Evaluation and the Health Professions 22 (1999a) 208; Nursing Research 50 (2001) 123). They were compared on the total scores and four factors of the Jefferson Scale (shared education and team work, caring as opposed to curing, nurses, autonomy, physicians' dominance). Results showed inter- and intra-cultural similarities and differences among the study groups providing support for the social role theory (Hardy and Conway, Role Theory: Perspectives for Health Professionals, Appelton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1978) and the principle of least interest (Waller and Hill, The Family: A Dynamic Interpretation, Dryden, New York, 1951) in inter-professional relationships. Implications for promoting physician-nurse education and inter-professional collaboration are discussed.

  5. Associations between preoperative Oxford hip and knee scores and costs and quality of life of patients undergoing primary total joint replacement in the NHS England: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibich, Peter; Dakin, Helen A; Price, Andrew James; Beard, David; Arden, Nigel K; Gray, Alastair M

    2018-04-10

    To assess how costs and quality of life (measured by EuroQoL-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D)) before and after total hip replacement (THR) and total knee replacement (TKR) vary with age, gender and preoperative Oxford hip score (OHS) and Oxford knee score (OKS). Regression analyses using prospectively collected data from clinical trials, cohort studies and administrative data bases. UK secondary care. Men and women undergoing primary THR or TKR. The Hospital Episode Statistics data linked to patient-reported outcome measures included 602 176 patients undergoing hip or knee replacement who were followed up for up to 6 years. The Knee Arthroplasty Trial included 2217 patients undergoing TKR who were followed up for 12 years. The Clinical Outcomes in Arthroplasty Study cohort included 806 patients undergoing THR and 484 patients undergoing TKR who were observed for 1 year. EQ-5D-3L quality of life before and after surgery, costs of primary arthroplasty, costs of revision arthroplasty and the costs of hospital readmissions and ambulatory costs in the year before and up to 12 years after joint replacement. Average postoperative utility for patients at the 5th percentile of the OHS/OKS distribution was 0.61/0.5 for THR/TKR and 0.89/0.85 for patients at the 95th percentile. The difference between postoperative and preoperative EQ-5D utility was highest for patients with preoperative OHS/OKS lower than 10. However, postoperative EQ-5D utility was higher than preoperative utility for all patients with OHS≤46 and those with OKS≤44. In contrast, costs were generally higher for patients with low preoperative OHS/OKS than those with high OHS/OKS. For example, costs of hospital readmissions within 12 months after primary THR/TKR were £740/£888 for patients at the 5th percentile compared with £314/£404 at the 95th percentile of the OHS/OKS distribution. Our findings suggest that costs and quality of life associated with total joint replacement vary systematically with

  6. Prosthetic alignment after total knee replacement is not associated with dissatisfaction or change in Oxford Knee Score: A multivariable regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbregts, Henricus J T A M; Khan, Riaz J K; Fick, Daniel P; Jarrett, Olivia M; Haebich, Samantha

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 18% of the patients are dissatisfied with the result of total knee replacement. However, the relation between dissatisfaction and prosthetic alignment has not been investigated before. We retrospectively analysed prospectively gathered data of all patients who had a primary TKR, preoperative and one-year postoperative Oxford Knee Scores (OKS) and postoperative computed tomography (CT). The CT protocol measures hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle, and coronal, sagittal and axial component alignment. Satisfaction was defined using a five-item Likert scale. We dichotomised dissatisfaction by combining '(very) dissatisfied' and 'neutral/not sure'. Associations with dissatisfaction and change in OKS were calculated using multivariable logistic and linear regression models. 230 TKRs were implanted in 105 men and 106 women. At one year, 12% were (very) dissatisfied and 10% neutral. Coronal alignment of the femoral component was 0.5 degrees more accurate in patients who were satisfied at one year. The other alignment measurements were not different between satisfied and dissatisfied patients. All radiographic measurements had a P-value>0.10 on univariate analyses. At one year, dissatisfaction was associated with the three-months OKS. Change in OKS was associated with three-months OKS, preoperative physical SF-12, preoperative pain and cruciate retaining design. Neither mechanical axis, nor component alignment, is associated with dissatisfaction at one year following TKR. Patients get the best outcome when pain reduction and function improvement are optimal during the first three months and when the indication to embark on surgery is based on physical limitations rather than on a high pain score. 2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Continued Inpatient Care After Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty Increases 30-Day Post-Discharge Complications: A Propensity Score-Adjusted Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLawhorn, Alexander S; Fu, Michael C; Schairer, William W; Sculco, Peter K; MacLean, Catherine H; Padgett, Douglas E

    2017-09-01

    Discharge destination, either home or skilled care facility, after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may be associated with significant variation in postacute care outcomes. The purpose of this study was to characterize the 30-day postdischarge outcomes after primary TKA relative to discharge destination. All primary unilateral TKAs performed for osteoarthritis from 2011-2014 were identified in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Propensity scores based on predischarge characteristics were used to adjust for selection bias in discharge destination. Propensity-adjusted multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine associations between discharge destination and postdischarge complications. Among 101,256 primary TKAs identified, 70,628 were discharged home and 30,628 to skilled care facilities. Patients discharged to facilities were more frequently were female, older, higher body mass index class, higher Charlson comorbidity index and American Society of Anesthesiologists scores, had predischarge complications, received general anesthesia, and classified as nonindependent preoperatively. Propensity adjustment accounted for this selection bias. Patients discharged to skilled care facilities after TKA had higher odds of any major complication (odds ratio = 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.37) and readmission (odds ratio = 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-2.18). Skilled care was associated with increased odds for respiratory, septic, thromboembolic, and urinary complications. Associations with death, cardiac, and wound complications were not significant. After controlling for predischarge characteristics, discharge to skilled care facilities vs home after primary TKA is associated with higher odds of numerous complications and unplanned readmission. These results support coordination of care pathways to facilitate home discharge after hospitalization for TKA whenever possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Goodness-of-fit tests in mixed models

    KAUST Repository

    Claeskens, Gerda

    2009-05-12

    Mixed models, with both random and fixed effects, are most often estimated on the assumption that the random effects are normally distributed. In this paper we propose several formal tests of the hypothesis that the random effects and/or errors are normally distributed. Most of the proposed methods can be extended to generalized linear models where tests for non-normal distributions are of interest. Our tests are nonparametric in the sense that they are designed to detect virtually any alternative to normality. In case of rejection of the null hypothesis, the nonparametric estimation method that is used to construct a test provides an estimator of the alternative distribution. © 2009 Sociedad de Estadística e Investigación Operativa.

  9. Bootstrap Power of Time Series Goodness of fit tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Chand

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we looked at power of various versions of Box and Pierce statistic and Cramer von Mises test. An extensive simulation study has been conducted to compare the power of these tests. Algorithms have been provided for the power calculations and comparison has also been made between the semi parametric bootstrap methods used for time series. Results show that Box-Pierce statistic and its various versions have good power against linear time series models but poor power against non linear models while situation reverses for Cramer von Mises test. Moreover, we found that dynamic bootstrap method is better than xed design bootstrap method.

  10. Goodness-of-fit tests in mixed models

    KAUST Repository

    Claeskens, Gerda; Hart, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    Mixed models, with both random and fixed effects, are most often estimated on the assumption that the random effects are normally distributed. In this paper we propose several formal tests of the hypothesis that the random effects and/or errors

  11. Two-dimensional goodness-of-fit testing in astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, J.A

    1983-01-01

    This paper deals with the techniques available to test for consistency between the empirical distribution of data points on a plane and a hypothetical density law. Two new statistical tests are developed. The first is a two-dimensional version of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, for which the distribution of the test statistic is investigated using a Monte Carlo method. This test is found in practice to be very nearly distribution-free, and empirical formulae for the confidence levels are given. Secondly, the method of power-spectrum analysis is extended to deal with cases in which the null hypothesis is not a uniform distribution. These methods are illustrated by application to the distribution of quasar candidates found on an objective-prism plate of the Virgo Cluster. (author)

  12. Association between diet-quality scores, adiposity, total cholesterol and markers of nutritional status in european adults: Findings from the Food4Me study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fallaize, R.; Livingstone, K.M.; Celis-Morales, C.; Macready, A.L.; San-Cristobal, R.; Navas-Carretero, S.; Marsaux, C.F.M.; O’Donovan, C.B.; Kolossa, S.; Moschonis, G.; Walsh, M.C.; Gibney, E.R.; Brennan, L.; Bouwman, J.; Manios, Y.; Jarosz, M.; Martinez, J.A.; Daniel, H.; Saris, W.H.M.; Gundersen, T.E.; Drevon, C.A.; Gibney, M.J.; Mathers, J.C.; Lovegrove, J.A.

    2018-01-01

    Diet-quality scores (DQS), which are developed across the globe, are used to define adherence to specific eating patterns and have been associated with risk of coronary heart disease and type-II diabetes. We explored the association between five diet-quality scores (Healthy Eating Index, HEI;

  13. Prospective associations of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and CRP genetic risk scores with risk of total knee and hip replacement for osteoarthritis in a diverse cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadyab, A H; Terkeltaub, R; Kooperberg, C; Reiner, A; Eaton, C B; Jackson, R D; Krok-Schoen, J L; Salem, R M; LaCroix, A Z

    2018-05-22

    To examine associations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and polygenic CRP genetic risk scores (GRS) with risk of end-stage hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA), defined as incident total hip (THR) or knee replacement (TKR) for OA. This study included a cohort of postmenopausal white, African American, and Hispanic women from the Women's Health Initiative. Women were followed from baseline to date of THR or TKR, death, or December 31, 2014. Medicare claims data identified THR and TKR. Hs-CRP and genotyping data were collected at baseline. Three CRP GRS were constructed: 1) a 4-SNP GRS comprised of genetic variants representing variation in the CRP gene among European populations; 2) a multilocus 18-SNP GRS of genetic variants significantly associated with CRP levels in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies; and 3) a 5-SNP GRS of genetic variants significantly associated with CRP levels among African American women. In analyses conducted separately among each race and ethnic group, there were no significant associations of ln hs-CRP with risk of THR or TKR, after adjusting for age, body mass index, lifestyle characteristics, chronic diseases, hormone therapy use, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. CRP GRS were not associated with risk of THR or TKR in any ethnic group. Serum levels of ln hs-CRP and genetically-predicted CRP levels were not associated with risk of THR or TKR for OA among a diverse cohort of women. Copyright © 2018 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. External Validation of the Simple Clinical Score and the HOTEL Score, Two Scores for Predicting Short-Term Mortality after Admission to an Acute Medical Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stræde, Mia; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    with the objective of validating the Simple Clinical Score (SCS) and the HOTEL score, two existing risk stratification systems that predict mortality for medical patients based solely on clinical information, but not only vital signs. METHODS: Pre-planned prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Danish 460.......932 to 0.988) for 24-hours mortality and 0.826 (95% CI, 0.774-0.879) for 30-day mortality, and goodness-of-fit test, χ2 = 2.68 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.998 and χ2 = 4.00, P = 0.947, respectively. We included 1470 patients when calculating the HOTEL score. Discriminatory power (AUROC) was 0.931 (95......% CI, 0.901-0.962) for 24-hours mortality and goodness-of-fit test, χ2 = 5.56 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.234. CONCLUSION: We find that both the SCS and HOTEL scores showed an excellent to outstanding ability in identifying patients at high risk of dying with good or acceptable precision....

  15. The performance and customization of SAPS 3 admission score in a Thai medical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwannimit, Bodin; Bhurayanontachai, Rungsun

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Simplified Acute Physiology Score 3 (SAPS 3) admission scores, both the original and a customized version, in mixed medical critically ill patients. A prospective cohort study was conducted over a 2-year period in the medical intensive care unit (MICU) of a tertiary referral university teaching hospital in Thailand. The probability of hospital mortality of the original SAPS 3 was calculated using the general and customized Australasia version (SAPS 3-AUS). The patients were randomly divided into equal calibration and validation groups for customization. A total of 1,873 patients were enrolled. The hospital mortality rate was 28.6%. The general equation of SAPS 3 had excellent discrimination with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.933, but poor calibration with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit H = 106.7 and C = 101.2 (P customized SAPS 3 showed a good calibration of all patients in the validation group (H = 14, P = 0.17 and C = 11.3, P = 0.33) and all subgroups according to main diagnosis, age, gender and co-morbidities. The SAPS 3 provided excellent discrimination but poor calibration in our MICU. A first level customization of the SAPS 3 improved the calibration and could be used to predict mortality and quality assessment in our ICU or other ICUs with a similar case mix.

  16. External validation of the simple clinical score and the HOTEL score, two scores for predicting short-term mortality after admission to an acute medical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stræde, Mia; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Clinical scores can be of aid to predict early mortality after admission to a medical admission unit. A developed scoring system needs to be externally validated to minimise the risk of the discriminatory power and calibration to be falsely elevated. We performed the present study with the objective of validating the Simple Clinical Score (SCS) and the HOTEL score, two existing risk stratification systems that predict mortality for medical patients based solely on clinical information, but not only vital signs. Pre-planned prospective observational cohort study. Danish 460-bed regional teaching hospital. We included 3046 consecutive patients from 2 October 2008 until 19 February 2009. 26 (0.9%) died within one calendar day and 196 (6.4%) died within 30 days. We calculated SCS for 1080 patients. We found an AUROC of 0.960 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.932 to 0.988) for 24-hours mortality and 0.826 (95% CI, 0.774-0.879) for 30-day mortality, and goodness-of-fit test, χ(2) = 2.68 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.998 and χ(2) = 4.00, P = 0.947, respectively. We included 1470 patients when calculating the HOTEL score. Discriminatory power (AUROC) was 0.931 (95% CI, 0.901-0.962) for 24-hours mortality and goodness-of-fit test, χ(2) = 5.56 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.234. We find that both the SCS and HOTEL scores showed an excellent to outstanding ability in identifying patients at high risk of dying with good or acceptable precision.

  17. Prospective analysis of a first MTP total joint replacement. Evaluation by bone mineral densitometry, pedobarography, and visual analogue score for pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wetke, Eva; Zerahn, Bo; Kofoed, Hakon

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that a total replacement of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTP-1) would alter the walking pattern with medialisation of the ground reaction force (GRF) of the foot and subsequently cause an increase in bone mineral density (BMD) in the medial metatarsal bones and a decline o...

  18. Dengue score as a diagnostic predictor for pleural effusion and/or ascites: external validation and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwarto, Suhendro; Hidayat, Mohammad Jauharsyah; Widjaya, Bing

    2018-02-23

    The Dengue Score is a model for predicting pleural effusion and/or ascites and uses the hematocrit (Hct), albumin concentration, platelet count and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ratio as independent variables. As this metric has not been validated, we conducted a study to validate the Dengue Score and assess its clinical application. A retrospective study was performed at a private hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia. Patients with dengue infection hospitalized from January 2011 through March 2016 were included. The Dengue Score was calculated using four parameters: Hct increase≥15.1%, serum albumin≤3.49 mg/dL, platelet count≤49,500/μL and AST ratio ≥ 2.51. Each parameter was scored as 1 if present and 0 if absent. To validate the Dengue Score, goodness-of-fit was used to assess calibration, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC) was used to assess discrimination. Associations between clinical parameters and Dengue Score groups were determined by bivariate analysis. A total of 207 patients were included in this study. The calibration of the Dengue Score was acceptable (Hosmer-Lemeshow test, p = 0.11), and the score's discriminative ability was good (AROC = 0.88 (95% CI: 0.83-0.92)). At a cutoff of ≥2, the Dengue Score had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 79.03% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 90.36% for the diagnostic prediction of pleural effusion and/or ascites. Compared with the Dengue Score ≤ 1 group, the Dengue Score = 2 group was significantly associated with hemoconcentration> 20% (p = 0.029), severe thrombocytopenia (p = 0.029), and increased length of hospital stay (p = 0.003). Compared with the Dengue Score = 2 group, the Dengue Score ≥ 3 group was significantly associated with hemoconcentration> 20% (p = 0.001), severe thrombocytopenia (p = 0.024), severe dengue (p = 0.039), and increased length of hospital stay (p = 0.011). The Dengue Score performed well and can

  19. The relation of putamen nucleus 6-[18F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine uptake to total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchy, R.

    2002-01-01

    The contribution of dopaminergic deficiency in the striatum to the severity of locomotor disability in Parkinson's disease has been consistently shown with 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA in positron emission tomography. Recently, 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine, an alternative tracer with similar distribution kinetics has been used to facilitate data analysis. Locomotor disability in Parkinson's disease can be measured using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale was used in conjunction with 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine -PET to clinically examine a group of five Parkinson's disease patients. An inverse relation similar to that previously demonstrated with 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA was found between the putamen nucleus 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine influx constant and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score. This finding suggests that like 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine can be used to accurately measure the degree of locomotor disability caused by Parkinson's disease. (author)

  20. Category fluency test: effects of age, gender and education on total scores, clustering and switching in Brazilian Portuguese-speaking subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brucki S.M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Verbal fluency tests are used as a measure of executive functions and language, and can also be used to evaluate semantic memory. We analyzed the influence of education, gender and age on scores in a verbal fluency test using the animal category, and on number of categories, clustering and switching. We examined 257 healthy participants (152 females and 105 males with a mean age of 49.42 years (SD = 15.75 and having a mean educational level of 5.58 (SD = 4.25 years. We asked them to name as many animals as they could. Analysis of variance was performed to determine the effect of demographic variables. No significant effect of gender was observed for any of the measures. However, age seemed to influence the number of category changes, as expected for a sensitive frontal measure, after being controlled for the effect of education. Educational level had a statistically significant effect on all measures, except for clustering. Subject performance (mean number of animals named according to schooling was: illiterates, 12.1; 1 to 4 years, 12.3; 5 to 8 years, 14.0; 9 to 11 years, 16.7, and more than 11 years, 17.8. We observed a decrease in performance in these five educational groups over time (more items recalled during the first 15 s, followed by a progressive reduction until the fourth interval. We conclude that education had the greatest effect on the category fluency test in this Brazilian sample. Therefore, we must take care in evaluating performance in lower educational subjects.

  1. Predictive Performance of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and the Initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score in Acutely Ill Intensive Care Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granholm, Anders; Møller, Morten Hylander; Kragh, Mette

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Severity scores including the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score are used in intensive care units (ICUs) to assess disease severity, predict mortality and in research. We aimed to assess the predictive performance of SAPS II...... compared the discrimination of SAPS II and initial SOFA scores, compared the discrimination of SAPS II in our cohort with the original cohort, assessed the calibration of SAPS II customised to our cohort, and compared the discrimination for 90-day mortality vs. in-hospital mortality for both scores....... Discrimination was evaluated using areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUROC). Calibration was evaluated using Hosmer-Lemeshow's goodness-of-fit Ĉ-statistic. RESULTS: AUROC for in-hospital mortality was 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-0.83) for SAPS II and 0.73 (95% CI 0...

  2. A scoring system for ascertainment of incident stroke; the Risk Index Score (RISc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass-Hout, T A; Moyé, L A; Smith, M A; Morgenstern, L B

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop and validate a computer-based statistical algorithm that could be translated into a simple scoring system in order to ascertain incident stroke cases using hospital admission medical records data. The Risk Index Score (RISc) algorithm was developed using data collected prospectively by the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project, 2000. The validity of RISc was evaluated by estimating the concordance of scoring system stroke ascertainment to stroke ascertainment by physician and/or abstractor review of hospital admission records. RISc was developed on 1718 randomly selected patients (training set) and then statistically validated on an independent sample of 858 patients (validation set). A multivariable logistic model was used to develop RISc and subsequently evaluated by goodness-of-fit and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. The higher the value of RISc, the higher the patient's risk of potential stroke. The study showed RISc was well calibrated and discriminated those who had potential stroke from those that did not on initial screening. In this study we developed and validated a rapid, easy, efficient, and accurate method to ascertain incident stroke cases from routine hospital admission records for epidemiologic investigations. Validation of this scoring system was achieved statistically; however, clinical validation in a community hospital setting is warranted.

  3. Society of Thoracic Surgeons Risk Score predicts hospital charges and resource use after aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutakis, George J; George, Timothy J; Alejo, Diane E; Merlo, Christian A; Baumgartner, William A; Cameron, Duke E; Shah, Ashish S

    2011-09-01

    The impact of Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted mortality risk score on resource use has not been previously studied. We hypothesize that increasing Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk scores in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement are associated with greater hospital charges. Clinical and financial data for patients undergoing aortic valve replacement at The Johns Hopkins Hospital over a 10-year period (January 2000 to December 2009) were reviewed. The current Society of Thoracic Surgeons formula (v2.61) for in-hospital mortality was used for all patients. After stratification into risk quartiles, index admission hospital charges were compared across risk strata with rank-sum and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Linear regression and Spearman's coefficient assessed correlation and goodness of fit. Multivariable analysis assessed relative contributions of individual variables on overall charges. A total of 553 patients underwent aortic valve replacement during the study period. Average predicted mortality was 2.9% (±3.4) and actual mortality was 3.4% for aortic valve replacement. Median charges were greater in the upper quartile of patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (quartiles 1-3, $39,949 [interquartile range, 32,708-51,323] vs quartile 4, $62,301 [interquartile range, 45,952-97,103], P < .01]. On univariate linear regression, there was a positive correlation between Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk score and log-transformed charges (coefficient, 0.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.07; P < .01). Spearman's correlation R-value was 0.51. This positive correlation persisted in risk-adjusted multivariable linear regression. Each 1% increase in Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk score was associated with an added $3000 in hospital charges. This is the first study to show that increasing Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk score predicts greater charges after aortic valve replacement. As competing therapies, such as percutaneous valve replacement, emerge to

  4. Society of Thoracic Surgeons Risk Score Predicts Hospital Charges and Resource Utilization After Aortic Valve Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutakis, George J.; George, Timothy J.; Alejo, Diane E.; Merlo, Christian A.; Baumgartner, William A.; Cameron, Duke E.; Shah, Ashish S.

    2011-01-01

    Context The impact of Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) predicted mortality risk score on resource utilization after aortic valve replacement (AVR) has not been previously studied. Objective We hypothesize that increasing STS risk scores in patients having AVR are associated with greater hospital charges. Design, Setting, and Patients Clinical and financial data for patients undergoing AVR at a tertiary care, university hospital over a ten-year period (1/2000–12/2009) were retrospectively reviewed. The current STS formula (v2.61) for in-hospital mortality was used for all patients. After stratification into risk quartiles (Q), index admission hospital charges were compared across risk strata with Rank-Sum tests. Linear regression and Spearman’s coefficient assessed correlation and goodness of fit. Multivariable analysis assessed relative contributions of individual variables on overall charges. Main Outcome Measures Inflation-adjusted index hospitalization total charges Results 553 patients had AVR during the study period. Average predicted mortality was 2.9% (±3.4) and actual mortality was 3.4% for AVR. Median charges were greater in the upper Q of AVR patients [Q1–3,$39,949 (IQR32,708–51,323) vs Q4,$62,301 (IQR45,952–97,103), p=<0.01]. On univariate linear regression, there was a positive correlation between STS risk score and log-transformed charges (coefficient: 0.06, 95%CI 0.05–0.07, p<0.01). Spearman’s correlation R-value was 0.51. This positive correlation persisted in risk-adjusted multivariable linear regression. Each 1% increase in STS risk score was associated with an added $3,000 in hospital charges. Conclusions This study showed increasing STS risk score predicts greater charges after AVR. As competing therapies such as percutaneous valve replacement emerge to treat high risk patients, these results serve as a benchmark to compare resource utilization. PMID:21497834

  5. External Validation of the Prestroke Independence, Sex, Age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale Score for Predicting Pneumonia After Stroke Using Data From the China National Stroke Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runhua; Ji, Ruijun; Pan, Yuesong; Jiang, Yong; Liu, Gaifen; Wang, Yilong; Wang, Yongjun

    2017-05-01

    Pneumonia is an important risk factor for mortality and morbidity after stroke. The Prestroke Independence, Sex, Age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (ISAN) score was shown to be a useful tool for predicting stroke-associated pneumonia based on UK multicenter cohort study. We aimed to externally validate the score using data from the China National Stroke Registry (CNSR). Eligible patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the CNSR from 2007 to 2008 were included. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) curve was used to evaluate discrimination. The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test and Pearson correlation coefficient were performed to assess calibration of the model. A total of 19,333 patients (AIS = 14400; ICH = 4933) were included and the overall pneumonia rate was 12.7%. The AUC was .76 (95% confidence interval [CI]: .75-.78) for the subgroup of AIS and .70 (95% CI: .68-.72) for the subgroup of ICH. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed the ISAN score with the good calibration for AIS and ICH (P = .177 and .405, respectively). The plot of observed versus predicted pneumonia rates suggested higher correlation for patients with AIS than with ICH (Pearson correlation coefficient = .99 and .83, respectively). The ISAN score was a useful tool for predicting in-hospital pneumonia after acute stroke, especially for patients with AIS. Further validations need to be done in different populations. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Achieving Minimum Clinically Important Difference in Oxford Knee Score and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary Is Less Likely with Single-Radius Compared with Multiradius Total Knee Arthroplasty in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wu Chean; Bin Abd Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah; Allen, John Carson; Chong, Hwei Chi; Tan, Hwee Chye Andrew

    2018-04-10

    Single-radius (SR) and multiradius (MR) total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) have produced similar outcomes, albeit most studies originate from Western nations. There are known knee kinematic differences between Western and Asian patients after TKA. The aim of this study is to compare the short-term patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) of SR-TKA versus MR-TKA in Asians. Registry data of 133 SR-TKA versus 363 MR-TKA by a single surgeon were analyzed. Preoperative and 2-year postoperative range of motion (ROM) and PROMs were compared with Student's t -test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the odds of SR-TKA or MR-TKA achieving the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) of studied outcomes. Patients in both groups had similar age (65.7 ± 7.6 vs. 65.8 ± 8.2 years; p  = 0.317), gender proportion (71% females vs. 79% females; p  = 0.119), and ethnic distribution (80% Chinese vs. 84% Chinese; p  = 0.258). Preoperatively, there were no statistically significant differences between both groups for ROM, Knee Society Score (KSS), Oxford Knee Score (OKS), and Short Form (SF)-36 scores. At 2 years, all outcomes were statistically similar or failed to achieve a difference of MCID. Controlling for all preoperative variables, SR-TKA has significantly lower odds of achieving MCID for OKS (odds ratio [OR]: 0.275, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.114-0.663; p  = 0.004) and SF-36 Physical Component Summary (PCS) (OR: 0.547; 95% CI: 0.316-0.946; p  = 0.031) compared with MR-TKA. In conclusion, there are no significant differences in the absolute PROMs between SR-TKA and MR-TKA at 2 years following TKA in Asians. However, SR-TKA has significantly lower odds of achieving the MCID for OKS and SF-36 PCS. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Effects of levan-type fructan on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, diarrhoea scores, faecal shedding of total lactic acid bacteria and coliform bacteria, and faecal gas emission in weaning pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xin Jian; Kim, Yong Min; Park, Jae Hong; Baek, Dong Heon; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Kim, In Ho

    2018-03-01

    The use of antibiotics as growth promoters in feed has been fully or partially banned in several countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of levan-type fructan on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, faecal shedding of lactic acid bacteria and coliform bacteria, diarrhoea scores, and faecal gas emission in weaning pigs. A total of 144 weaning pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace) × Duroc] were randomly allocated to four diets: corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with 0, 0.1, 0.5, or 1.0 g kg -1 levan-type fructan during this 42-day experiment. During days 0 to 21 and 0 to 42, average daily gain and average daily feed intake were linearly increased (P bacteria counts were linearly increased (P = 0.001). The results indicate that dietary supplementation with increasing levan-type fructan enhanced growth performance, improved nutrient digestibility, and increased faecal lactic acid bacteria counts in weaning pigs linearly. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Statistical modeling of road contribution as emission sources to total suspended particles (TSP) under MCF model downtown Medellin - Antioquia - Colombia, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Miryam; Saldarriaga, Julio; Correa, Mauricio; Posada, Enrique; Castrillon M, Francisco Javier

    2007-01-01

    Sand fields, constructions, carbon boilers, roads, and biologic sources are air-contaminant-constituent factors in down town Valle de Aburra, among others. the distribution of road contribution data to total suspended particles according to the source receptor model MCF, source correlation modeling, is nearly a gamma distribution. Chi-square goodness of fit is used to model statistically. This test for goodness of fit also allows estimating the parameters of the distribution utilizing maximum likelihood method. As convergence criteria, the estimation maximization algorithm is used. The mean of road contribution data to total suspended particles according to the source receptor model MCF, is straightforward and validates the road contribution factor to the atmospheric pollution of the zone under study

  9. Validation of SAPS3 admission score and its customization for use in Korean intensive care unit patients: a prospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, So Yeon; Koh, Shin Ok; Jeon, Kyeongman; Na, Sungwon; Lim, Chae-Man; Choi, Won-Il; Lee, Young-Joo; Kim, Seok Chan; Chon, Gyu Rak; Kim, Je Hyeong; Kim, Jae Yeol; Lim, Jaemin; Rhee, Chin Kook; Park, Sunghoon; Kim, Ho Cheol; Lee, Jin Hwa; Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Jisook; Koh, Younsuck; Suh, Gee Young

    2013-08-01

    To externally validate the simplified acute physiology score 3 (SAPS3) and to customize it for use in Korean intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This is a prospective multicentre cohort study involving 22 ICUs from 15 centres throughout Korea. The study population comprised patients who were consecutively admitted to participating ICUs from 1 July 2010 to 31 January 2011. A total of 4617 patients were enrolled. ICU mortality was 14.3%, and hospital mortality was 20.6%. The patients were randomly assigned into one of two cohorts: a development (n = 2309) or validation (n = 2308) cohort. In the development cohort, the general SAPS3 had good discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve = 0.829), but poor calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test H = 123.06, P Customization was achieved by altering the logit of the original SAPS3 equation. The new equation for Korean ICU patients was validated in the validation cohort, and demonstrated both good discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve = 0.835) and good calibration (H = 4.61, P = 0.799, C = 5.67, P = 0.684). General and regional Australasia SAPS3 admission scores showed poor calibration for use in Korean ICU patients, but the prognostic power of the SAPS3 was significantly improved by customization. Prediction models should be customized before being used to predict mortality in different regions of the world. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  10. Differences of wells scores accuracy, caprini scores and padua scores in deep vein thrombosis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatot, D.; Mardia, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) is the venous thrombus in lower limbs. Diagnosis is by using venography or ultrasound compression. However, these examinations are not available yet in some health facilities. Therefore many scoring systems are developed for the diagnosis of DVT. The scoring method is practical and safe to use in addition to efficacy, and effectiveness in terms of treatment and costs. The existing scoring systems are wells, caprini and padua score. There have been many studies comparing the accuracy of this score but not in Medan. Therefore, we are interested in comparative research of wells, capriniand padua score in Medan.An observational, analytical, case-control study was conducted to perform diagnostic tests on the wells, caprini and padua score to predict the risk of DVT. The study was at H. Adam Malik Hospital in Medan.From a total of 72 subjects, 39 people (54.2%) are men and the mean age are 53.14 years. Wells score, caprini score and padua score has a sensitivity of 80.6%; 61.1%, 50% respectively; specificity of 80.65; 66.7%; 75% respectively, and accuracy of 87.5%; 64.3%; 65.7% respectively.Wells score has better sensitivity, specificity and accuracy than caprini and padua score in diagnosing DVT.

  11. [Does the GHQ-12 scoring system affect its factor structure? An exploratory study of Ibero American students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Alfonso; Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra; Bargsted, Mariana; Irarrázaval, Matías

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the scoring system of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) alters the instrument's factor structure. The method considered 1,972 university students from nine Ibero American countries. Modeling was performed with structural equations for 1, 2, and 3 latent factors. The mechanism for scoring the questions was analyzed within each type of structure. The results indicate that models with 2 and 3 factors show better goodness-of-fit. In relation to scoring mechanisms, procedure 0-1-1-1 for models with 2 and 3 factors showed the best fit. In conclusion, there appears to be a relationship between the response format and the number of factors identified in the instrument's structure. The model with the best fit was 3-factor 0-1-1-1-formatted, but 0-1-2-3 has acceptable and more stable indicators and provides a better format for two- and three-dimensional models.

  12. Poor performances of EuroSCORE and CARE score for prediction of perioperative mortality in octogenarians undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhor, Vibol; Merceron, Sybille; Ricome, Sylvie; Baron, Gabriel; Daoud, Omar; Dilly, Marie-Pierre; Aubier, Benjamin; Provenchere, Sophie; Philip, Ivan

    2010-08-01

    Although results of cardiac surgery are improving, octogenarians have a higher procedure-related mortality and more complications with increased length of stay in ICU. Consequently, careful evaluation of perioperative risk seems necessary. The aims of our study were to assess and compare the performances of EuroSCORE and CARE score in the prediction of perioperative mortality among octogenarians undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis and to compare these predictive performances with those obtained in younger patients. This retrospective study included all consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery in our institution between November 2005 and December 2007. For each patient, risk assessment for mortality was performed using logistic EuroSCORE, additive EuroSCORE and CARE score. The main outcome measure was early postoperative mortality. Predictive performances of these scores were assessed by calibration and discrimination using goodness-of-fit test and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, respectively. During this 2-year period, we studied 2117 patients, among whom 134/211 octogenarians and 335/1906 nonoctogenarians underwent an aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis. When considering patients with aortic stenosis, discrimination was poor in octogenarians and the difference from nonoctogenarians was significant for each score (0.58, 0.59 and 0.56 vs. 0.82, 0.81 and 0.77 for additive EuroSCORE, logistic EuroSCORE and CARE score in octogenarians and nonoctogenarians, respectively, P performances of these scores are poor in octogenarians undergoing cardiac surgery, especially aortic valve replacement. Risk assessment and therapeutic decisions in octogenarians should not be made with these scoring systems alone.

  13. Poisson goodness-of-fit tests for radiation-induced chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, W.

    1981-01-01

    Asymptotic and exact Poisson goodness-to-fit tests have been reviewed with regard to their applicability in analysing distributional properties of data on chromosome aberrations. It has been demonstrated that for typical cytogenetic samples, i.e. when the average number of aberrations per cell is smaller than one, results of asymptotic tests, especially of the most commonly used u-test, differ greatly from results of corresponding exact tests. While the u-statistic can serve as a qualitative index to indicate a tendency towards under- or over-dispersion, exact tests should be used if the assumption of a Poisson distribution is crucial, e.g. in investigating induction mechanisms. If the main interest is to detect a difference between the mean and the variance of a sample it is furthermore important to realize that a much larger sample size is required to detect underdispersion than it is to detect overdispersion. (author)

  14. Asymptotically Distribution-Free Goodness-of-Fit Testing for Copulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Can, S.U.; Einmahl, John; Laeven, R.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Consider a random sample from a continuous multivariate distribution function F with copula C. In order to test the null hypothesis that C belongs to a certain parametric family, we construct an under H0 asymptotically distribution-free process that serves as a tests generator. The process is a

  15. Assessing the Goodness of Fit of Phylogenetic Comparative Methods: A Meta-Analysis and Simulation Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwueng-Chwuan Jhwueng

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic comparative methods (PCMs have been applied widely in analyzing data from related species but their fit to data is rarely assessed.Can one determine whether any particular comparative method is typically more appropriate than others by examining comparative data sets?I conducted a meta-analysis of 122 phylogenetic data sets found by searching all papers in JEB, Blackwell Synergy and JSTOR published in 2002-2005 for the purpose of assessing the fit of PCMs. The number of species in these data sets ranged from 9 to 117.I used the Akaike information criterion to compare PCMs, and then fit PCMs to bivariate data sets through REML analysis. Correlation estimates between two traits and bootstrapped confidence intervals of correlations from each model were also compared.For phylogenies of less than one hundred taxa, the Independent Contrast method and the independent, non-phylogenetic models provide the best fit.For bivariate analysis, correlations from different PCMs are qualitatively similar so that actual correlations from real data seem to be robust to the PCM chosen for the analysis. Therefore, researchers might apply the PCM they believe best describes the evolutionary mechanisms underlying their data.

  16. Testing the goodness of fit of selected infiltration models on soils with different land use histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.

    1993-10-01

    Six infiltration models, some obtained by reformulating the fitting parameters of the classical Kostiakov (1932) and Philip (1957) equations, were investigated for their ability to describe water infiltration into highly permeable sandy soils from the Nsukka plains of SE Nigeria. The models were Kostiakov, Modified Kostiakov (A), Modified Kostiakov (B), Philip, Modified Philip (A) and Modified Philip (B). Infiltration data were obtained from double ring infiltrometers on field plots established on a Knadic Paleustult (Nkpologu series) to investigate the effects of land use on soil properties and maize yield. The treatments were; (i) tilled-mulched (TM), (ii) tilled-unmulched (TU), (iii) untilled-mulched (UM), (iv) untilled-unmulched (UU) and (v) continuous pasture (CP). Cumulative infiltration was highest on the TM and lowest on the CP plots. All estimated model parameters obtained by the best fit of measured data differed significantly among the treatments. Based on the magnitude of R 2 values, the Kostiakov, Modified Kostiakov (A), Philip and Modified Philip (A) models provided best predictions of cumulative infiltration as a function of time. Comparing experimental with model-predicted cumulative infiltration showed, however, that on all treatments the values predicted by the classical Kostiakov, Philip and Modified Philip (A) models deviated most from experimental data. The other models produced values that agreed very well with measured data. Considering the eases of determining the fitting parameters it is proposed that on soils with high infiltration rates, either Modified Kostiakov model (I = Kt a + Ict) or Modified Philip model (I St 1/2 + Ict), (where I is cumulative infiltration, K, the time coefficient, t, time elapsed, 'a' the time exponent, Ic the equilibrium infiltration rate and S, the soil water sorptivity), be used for routine characterization of the infiltration process. (author). 33 refs, 3 figs 6 tabs

  17. Practical Statistics for Particle Physics Analyses: Chi-Squared and Goodness of Fit (2/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Moneta, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    This will be a 4-day series of 2-hour sessions as part of CERN's Academic Training Course. Each session will consist of a 1-hour lecture followed by one hour of practical computing, which will have exercises based on that day's lecture. While it is possible to follow just the lectures or just the computing exercises, we highly recommend that, because of the way this course is designed, participants come to both parts. In order to follow the hands-on exercises sessions, students need to bring their own laptops. The exercises will be run on a dedicated CERN Web notebook service, SWAN (swan.cern.ch), which is open to everybody holding a CERN computing account. The requirement to use the SWAN service is to have a CERN account and to have also access to Cernbox, the shared storage service at CERN. New users of cernbox are invited to activate beforehand cernbox by simply connecting to https://cernbox.cern.ch. A basic prior knowledge of ROOT and C++ is also recommended for participation in the practical session....

  18. A goodness of fit and validity study of the Korean radiological technologists' core job competency model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chang Seon; Cho, A Ra; Hur, Yera; Choi, Seong Youl

    2017-01-01

    Radiological Technologists deals with the life of a person which means professional competency is essential for the job. Nevertheless, there have been no studies in Korea that identified the job competence of radiologists. In order to define the core job competencies of Korean radiologists and to present the factor models, 147 questionnaires on job competency of radiology were analyzed using 'PASW Statistics Version 18.0' and 'AMOS Version 18.0'. The valid model consisted of five core job competencies ('Patient management', 'Health and safety', 'Operation of equipment', 'Procedures and management') and 17 sub – competencies. As a result of the factor analysis, the RMSEA value was 0.1 and the CFI, and TLI values were close to 0.9 in the measurement model of the five core job competencies. The validity analysis showed that the mean variance extraction was 0.5 or more and the conceptual reliability value was 0.7 or more , And there was a high correlation between subordinate competencies included in each subordinate competencies. The results of this study are expected to provide specific information necessary for the training and management of human resources centered on competence by clearly showing the job competence required for radiologists in Korea's health environment

  19. Mapping the perceptual structure of rectangles through goodness-of-fit ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E; Guidi, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to investigate the internal structure of a rectangular frame to test Arnheim's (1974 Art and Visual Perception, 1988 The Power of the Center) proposals about its 'structural skeleton'. Observers made subjective ratings of how well a small probe circle fit within a rectangle at different interior positions. In experiment 1, ratings of 77 locations were highest in the center, decreased with distance from the center, greatly elevated along vertical and horizontal symmetry axes, and somewhat elevated along the local symmetry axes. A linear regression model with six symmetry-related factors accounted for 95% of the variance. In experiment 2 we measured perceived fit along local symmetry axes versus global diagonals near the corners to determine which factor was relevant. 2AFC probabilities were elevated only along the local symmetry axes and were higher when the probe was closer to the vertex. In experiment 3 we examined the effect of dividing a rectangular frame into two rectangular 'subframes' using an additional line. The results show that the primary determinant of good fit is the position of the target circle within the local subframes. In general, the results are consistent with Arnheim's proposals about the internal structure of a rectangular frame, but an alternative interpretation is offered in terms of the Gestalt concept of figural goodness.

  20. Goodness-of-fit tests and model diagnostics for negative binomial regression of RNA sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Gu; Di, Yanming; Schafer, Daniel W

    2015-01-01

    This work is about assessing model adequacy for negative binomial (NB) regression, particularly (1) assessing the adequacy of the NB assumption, and (2) assessing the appropriateness of models for NB dispersion parameters. Tools for the first are appropriate for NB regression generally; those for the second are primarily intended for RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data analysis. The typically small number of biological samples and large number of genes in RNA-Seq analysis motivate us to address the trade-offs between robustness and statistical power using NB regression models. One widely-used power-saving strategy, for example, is to assume some commonalities of NB dispersion parameters across genes via simple models relating them to mean expression rates, and many such models have been proposed. As RNA-Seq analysis is becoming ever more popular, it is appropriate to make more thorough investigations into power and robustness of the resulting methods, and into practical tools for model assessment. In this article, we propose simulation-based statistical tests and diagnostic graphics to address model adequacy. We provide simulated and real data examples to illustrate that our proposed methods are effective for detecting the misspecification of the NB mean-variance relationship as well as judging the adequacy of fit of several NB dispersion models.

  1. Beyond the goodness of fit: A preference-based account of Europeanization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, E.; Keulen, M. van; Haverland, M; Holzhacker, R

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with formulating and testing a preference-based explanation of EU implementation. The hypothesis is that, rather than the ‘goodness of fit’ with existing policies, the fit with national preferences predicts the ease of implementation of new EU legislation. This hypothesis is

  2. Gender, TIMI risk score and in-hospital mortality in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI: results from the Belgian STEMI registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaert, Sofie A; De Bacquer, Dirk; Evrard, Patrick; Convens, Carl; Dubois, Philippe; Boland, Jean; Renard, Marc; Beauloye, Christophe; Coussement, Patrick; De Raedt, Herbert; de Meester, Antoine; Vandecasteele, Els; Vranckx, Pascal; Sinnaeve, Peter R; Claeys, Marc J

    2014-01-22

    The relationship between the predictive performance of the TIMI risk score for STEMI and gender has not been evaluated in the setting of primary PCI (pPCI). Here, we compared in-hospital mortality and predictive performance of the TIMI risk score between Belgian women and men undergoing pPCI. In-hospital mortality was analysed in 8,073 (1,920 [23.8%] female and 6,153 [76.2%] male patients) consecutive pPCI-treated STEMI patients, included in the prospective, observational Belgian STEMI registry (January 2007 to February 2011). A multivariable logistic regression model, including TIMI risk score variables and gender, evaluated differences in in-hospital mortality between men and women. The predictive performance of the TIMI risk score according to gender was evaluated in terms of discrimination and calibration. Mortality rates for TIMI scores in women and men were compared. Female patients were older, had more comorbidities and longer ischaemic times. Crude in-hospital mortality was 10.1% in women vs. 4.9% in men (OR 2.2; 95% CI: 1.82-2.66, pdiscrimination and calibration in women as well as in men (c-statistic=0.84 [95% CI: 0.809-0.866], goodness-of-fit p=0.53 and c-statistic=0.89 [95% CI: 0.873-0.907], goodness-of-fit p=0.13, respectively), but mortality prediction for TIMI scores was better in men (p=0.02 for TIMI score x gender interaction). In the Belgian STEMI registry, pPCI-treated women had a higher in-hospital mortality rate even after correcting for TIMI risk score variables. The TIMI risk score was effective in predicting in-hospital mortality but performed slightly better in men. The database was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00727623).

  3. The SAFARI Score to Assess the Risk of Convulsive Seizure During Admission for Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaja, Blessing N R; Schweizer, Tom A; Claassen, Jan; Le Roux, Peter; Mayer, Stephan A; Macdonald, R Loch

    2018-06-01

    Seizure is a significant complication in patients under acute admission for aneurysmal SAH and could result in poor outcomes. Treatment strategies to optimize management will benefit from methods to better identify at-risk patients. To develop and validate a risk score for convulsive seizure during acute admission for SAH. A risk score was developed in 1500 patients from a single tertiary hospital and externally validated in 852 patients. Candidate predictors were identified by systematic review of the literature and were included in a backward stepwise logistic regression model with in-hospital seizure as a dependent variable. The risk score was assessed for discrimination using the area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC) and for calibration using a goodness-of-fit test. The SAFARI score, based on 4 items (age ≥ 60 yr, seizure occurrence before hospitalization, ruptured aneurysm in the anterior circulation, and hydrocephalus requiring cerebrospinal fluid diversion), had AUC = 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.82 in the development cohort. The validation cohort had AUC = 0.65, 95% CI 0.56-0.73. A calibrated increase in the risk of seizure was noted with increasing SAFARI score points. The SAFARI score is a simple tool that adequately stratified SAH patients according to their risk for seizure using a few readily derived predictor items. It may contribute to a more individualized management of seizure following SAH.

  4. Allegheny County Walk Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Walk Score measures the walkability of any address using a patented system developed by the Walk Score company. For each 2010 Census Tract centroid, Walk Score...

  5. Perioperative and mid-term oncologic outcomes of robotic assisted radical cystectomy with totally intracorporeal neobladder: Results of a propensity score matched comparison with open cohort from a single-centre series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Giuseppe; Tuderti, Gabriele; Misuraca, Leonardo; Anceschi, Umberto; Ferriero, Mariaconsiglia; Minisola, Francesco; Guaglianone, Salvatore; Gallucci, Michele

    2018-04-17

    In this study, we compared perioperative and oncologic outcomes of patients treated with either open or robot-assisted radical cystectomy and intracorporeal neobladder at a tertiary care center. The institutional prospective bladder cancer database was queried for "cystectomy with curative intent" and "neobladder". All patients underwent robot-assisted radical cystectomy and intracorporeal neobladder or open radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder for high-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer or muscle invasive bladder cancer with a follow-up length ≥2 years were included. A 1:1 propensity score matching analysis was used. Kaplan-Meier method was performed to compare oncologic outcomes of selected cohorts. Survival rates were computed at 1,2,3 and 4 years after surgery and the log rank test was applied to assess statistical significance between the matched groups. Overall, 363 patients (299 open and 64 robotic) were included. Open radical cystectomy patients were more frequently male (p = 0.08), with higher pT stages (p = 0.003), lower incidence of urothelial histologies (p = 0.05) and lesser adoption of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (open radical cystectomy cases (all p ≥ 0.22). Open cohort showed a higher rate of perioperative overall complications (91.3% vs 42.2%, p 0.001). At Kaplan-Meier analysis robotic and open cohorts displayed comparable disease-free survival (log-rank p = 0.746), cancer-specific survival (p = 0.753) and overall-survival rates (p = 0.909). Robot-assisted radical cystectomy and intracorporeal neobladder provides comparable oncologic outcomes of open radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder at intermediate term survival analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of memantine on cognition in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease: post-hoc analyses of ADAS-cog and SIB total and single-item scores from six randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecocci, Patrizia; Bladström, Anna; Stender, Karina

    2009-05-01

    The post-hoc analyses reported here evaluate the specific effects of memantine treatment on ADAS-cog single-items or SIB subscales for patients with moderate to severe AD. Data from six multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, double-blind, 6-month studies were used as the basis for these post-hoc analyses. All patients with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of less than 20 were included. Analyses of patients with moderate AD (MMSE: 10-19), evaluated with the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) and analyses of patients with moderate to severe AD (MMSE: 3-14), evaluated using the Severe Impairment Battery (SIB), were performed separately. The mean change from baseline showed a significant benefit of memantine treatment on both the ADAS-cog (p ADAS-cog single-item analyses showed significant benefits of memantine treatment, compared to placebo, for mean change from baseline for commands (p < 0.001), ideational praxis (p < 0.05), orientation (p < 0.01), comprehension (p < 0.05), and remembering test instructions (p < 0.05) for observed cases (OC). The SIB subscale analyses showed significant benefits of memantine, compared to placebo, for mean change from baseline for language (p < 0.05), memory (p < 0.05), orientation (p < 0.01), praxis (p < 0.001), and visuospatial ability (p < 0.01) for OC. Memantine shows significant benefits on overall cognitive abilities as well as on specific key cognitive domains for patients with moderate to severe AD. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Malay Language Version of Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS Questionnaire among Knee Osteoarthritis Patients: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli MM

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt a Malay version of Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS and to evaluate its psychometric properties in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The English version KOOS was translated into a Malay version using forward and backward translation process, followed by face validity and content validity. Two hundred and twenty-six knee OA patients attending the Outpatient and Orthopaedic Clinics, Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital, completed the Malay version KOOS. Construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis and internal reliability assessment were performed. RESULTS: The results showed that the original five-factor model with 42 items failed to achieve acceptable values of the goodness of fit indices, indicating poor model fit. A new five-factor model of 26 items demonstrated acceptable level of goodness of fit (comparative fit index= 0.929, incremental fit index= 0.930, Tucker Lewis fit index= 0.920, root mean square error of approximation= 0.073 and Chisquared/ degree of freedom= 2.183 indices to signify a model fit. The Cronbach’s alpha value for the new model ranged from 0.776 to 0.946. The composite reliability values of each construct ranged between 0.819 and 0.921, indicating satisfactory to high level of convergent validity. CONCLUSION: The five-factor model with 26 items in the Malay version of KOOS questionnaire demonstrated a good degree of goodness of fit and was found to be valid, reliable and simple as an assessment tool for symptoms, pain, activity of daily living, sports and recreational activity and quality of life for Malaysian adults suffering from knee osteoarthritis.

  9. Performance of the score systems Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and III at an interdisciplinary intensive care unit, after customization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markgraf, Rainer; Deutschinoff, Gerd; Pientka, Ludger; Scholten, Theo; Lorenz, Cristoph

    2001-01-01

    Background: Mortality predictions calculated using scoring scales are often not accurate in populations other than those in which the scales were developed because of differences in case-mix. The present study investigates the effect of first-level customization, using a logistic regression technique, on discrimination and calibration of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II and III scales. Method: Probabilities of hospital death for patients were estimated by applying APACHE II and III and comparing these with observed outcomes. Using the split sample technique, a customized model to predict outcome was developed by logistic regression. The overall goodness-of-fit of the original and the customized models was assessed. Results: Of 3383 consecutive intensive care unit (ICU) admissions over 3 years, 2795 patients could be analyzed, and were split randomly into development and validation samples. The discriminative powers of APACHE II and III were unchanged by customization (areas under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve 0.82 and 0.85, respectively). Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit tests showed good calibration for APACHE II, but insufficient calibration for APACHE III. Customization improved calibration for both models, with a good fit for APACHE III as well. However, fit was different for various subgroups. Conclusions: The overall goodness-of-fit of APACHE III mortality prediction was improved significantly by customization, but uniformity of fit in different subgroups was not achieved. Therefore, application of the customized model provides no advantage, because differences in case-mix still limit comparisons of quality of care. PMID:11178223

  10. The ACTA PORT-score for predicting perioperative risk of blood transfusion for adult cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A A; Collier, T; Yeates, J; Miles, L F; Fletcher, S N; Evans, C; Richards, T

    2017-09-01

    A simple and accurate scoring system to predict risk of transfusion for patients undergoing cardiac surgery is lacking. We identified independent risk factors associated with transfusion by performing univariate analysis, followed by logistic regression. We then simplified the score to an integer-based system and tested it using the area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUC) statistic with a Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. Finally, the scoring system was applied to the external validation dataset and the same statistical methods applied to test the accuracy of the ACTA-PORT score. Several factors were independently associated with risk of transfusion, including age, sex, body surface area, logistic EuroSCORE, preoperative haemoglobin and creatinine, and type of surgery. In our primary dataset, the score accurately predicted risk of perioperative transfusion in cardiac surgery patients with an AUC of 0.76. The external validation confirmed accuracy of the scoring method with an AUC of 0.84 and good agreement across all scores, with a minor tendency to under-estimate transfusion risk in very high-risk patients. The ACTA-PORT score is a reliable, validated tool for predicting risk of transfusion for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This and other scores can be used in research studies for risk adjustment when assessing outcomes, and might also be incorporated into a Patient Blood Management programme. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. A Simple Risk Score for Identifying Individuals with Impaired Fasting Glucose in the Southern Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop and validate a simple risk score for detecting individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG among the Southern Chinese population. A sample of participants aged ≥20 years and without known diabetes from the 2006–2007 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional survey was used to develop separate risk scores for men and women. The participants completed a self-administered structured questionnaire and underwent simple clinical measurements. The risk scores were developed by multiple logistic regression analysis. External validation was performed based on three other studies: the 2007 Zhuhai rural population-based study, the 2008–2010 Guangzhou diabetes cross-sectional study and the 2007 Tibet population-based study. Performance of the scores was measured with the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and ROC c-statistic. Age, waist circumference, body mass index and family history of diabetes were included in the risk score for both men and women, with the additional factor of hypertension for men. The ROC c-statistic was 0.70 for both men and women in the derivation samples. Risk scores of ≥28 for men and ≥18 for women showed respective sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 56.6%, 71.7%, 13.0% and 96.0% for men and 68.7%, 60.2%, 11% and 96.0% for women in the derivation population. The scores performed comparably with the Zhuhai rural sample and the 2008–2010 Guangzhou urban samples but poorly in the Tibet sample. The performance of pre-existing USA, Shanghai, and Chengdu risk scores was poorer in our population than in their original study populations. The results suggest that the developed simple IFG risk scores can be generalized in Guangzhou city and nearby rural regions and may help primary health care workers to identify individuals with IFG in their practice.

  12. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  13. Lower bounds to the reliabilities of factor score estimators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessen, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    Under the general common factor model, the reliabilities of factor score estimators might be of more interest than the reliability of the total score (the unweighted sum of item scores). In this paper, lower bounds to the reliabilities of Thurstone’s factor score estimators, Bartlett’s factor score

  14. The Zhongshan Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Guo, Jianming; Wang, Hang; Wang, Guomin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the zero ischemia era of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS), a new anatomic classification system (ACS) is needed to adjust to these new surgical techniques. We devised a novel and simple ACS, and compared it with the RENAL and PADUA scores to predict the risk of NSS outcomes. We retrospectively evaluated 789 patients who underwent NSS with available imaging between January 2007 and July 2014. Demographic and clinical data were assessed. The Zhongshan (ZS) score consisted of three parameters. RENAL, PADUA, and ZS scores are divided into three groups, that is, high, moderate, and low scores. For operative time (OT), significant differences were seen between any two groups of ZS score and PADUA score (all P RENAL showed no significant difference between moderate and high complexity in OT, WIT, estimated blood loss, and increase in SCr. Compared with patients with a low score of ZS, those with a high or moderate score had 8.1-fold or 3.3-fold higher risk of surgical complications, respectively (all P RENAL score, patients with a high or moderate score had 5.7-fold or 1.9-fold higher risk of surgical complications, respectively (all P RENAL and PADUA scores. ZS score could be used to reflect the surgical complexity and predict the risk of surgical complications in patients undergoing NSS. PMID:25654399

  15. External Validation of the ISAN, A2DS2, and AIS-APS Scores for Predicting Stroke-Associated Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Arriaza, Elena; Moniche, Francisco; Blanca, Pardo-Galiana; Bustamante, Alejandro; Escudero-Martínez, Irene; Uclés, Oscar; Ollero-Ortiz, Ángela; Sánchez-García, Jose Antonio; Gamero, Miguel Ángel; Quesada, Ángeles; Vidal De Francisco, Diana; Romera, Mercedes; De la Cruz, Carlos; Sanz, Gema; Montaner, Joan

    2018-03-01

    The Prestroke Independence, Sex, Age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (ISAN), Age, Atrial Fibrillation, Dysphagia, male sex, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (A2DS2), and acute ischemic stroke-associated pneumonia score (AIS-APS) scores were created to predict stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP), one of the most important medical stroke complications. External validation of all such scores in an acute stroke population was the aim of our study. Patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke were prospectively enrolled in the multicenter Stroke-Induced Pneumonia in Andalucía project between October 2014 and May 2016. Receiver operating characteristic curves and linear regression analyses were used to determine discrimination ability of the scores. The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test and the plot of observed versus predicted SAP risk were used to assess model calibration. Among 201 included patients, SAP rate was 15.5% (31). Higher ISAN, A2DS2, and AIS-APS scores were related to SAP (all P manage SAP. The AIS-APS score would be recommendable for the development of future clinical trials. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  17. How to score questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstee, W.K.B.; Ten Berge, J.M.F.; Hendriks, A.A.J.

    The standard practice in scoring questionnaires consists of adding item scores and standardizing these sums. We present a set of alternative procedures, consisting of (a) correcting for the acquiescence variance that disturbs the structure of the questionnaire; (b) establishing item weights through

  18. SCORE - A DESCRIPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SLACK, CHARLES W.

    REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…

  19. Testing measurement invariance of the schizotypal personality questionnaire-brief scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ortuño-Sierra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizotypy is a complex construct intimately related to psychosis. Empirical evidence indicates that participants with high scores on schizotypal self-report are at a heightened risk for the later development of psychotic disorders. Schizotypal experiences represent the behavioural expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Previous factorial studies have shown that schizotypy is a multidimensional construct similar to that found in patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B, the three-dimensional model has been widely replicated. However, there has been no in-depth investigation of whether the dimensional structure underlying the SPQ-B scores is invariant across countries. METHODS: The main goal of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of the SPQ-B scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents. The final sample was made up of 261 Spanish participants (51.7% men; M = 16.04 years and 241 Swiss participants (52.3% men; M = 15.94 years. RESULTS: The results indicated that Raine et al.'s three-factor model presented adequate goodness-of-fit indices. Moreover, the results supported the measurement invariance (configural and partial strong invariance of the SPQ-B scores across the two samples. Spanish participants scored higher on Interpersonal dimension than Swiss when latent means were compared. DISCUSSION: The study of measurement equivalence across countries provides preliminary evidence for the Raine et al.'s three-factor model and of the cross-cultural validity of the SPQ-B scores in adolescent population. Future studies should continue to examine the measurement invariance of the schizotypy and psychosis-risk syndromes across cultures.

  20. EuroSCORE models in a cohort of patients with valvular heart disease and a high prevalence of rheumatic fever submitted to surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalino, Ricardo; Tarasoutchi, Flávio; Spina, Guilherme; Katz, Marcelo; Bacelar, Antonio; Sampaio, Roney; Ranzani, Otavio T; Pomerantzeff, Pablo M; Grinberg, Max

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological differences can be found between Brazilian and European valvular heart disease patients. The prevalence of heart valve diseases due to rheumatic disease is significantly higher in the Brazilian compared with the European population. Therefore, they could have different risks during and after cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of the additive and logistic EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE II in a cohort of high-risk patients with valvular heart disease of predominantly rheumatic aetiology submitted to surgery. Between 1 February and 30 December 2009, 540 consecutive patients scheduled for valvular heart surgery were included in this study. In this set of patients, we examined the performance of the additive, logistic, and EuroSCORE II models for predicting in-hospital mortality. Calibration of each model was assessed by comparing predicted and observed in-hospital mortality and by the goodness of fit of the Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square test. Discrimination performance of the model was evaluated with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The mean age was 56 ± 16 years, 50.6% were female, and the mortality rate was 16.0% (6.0% in elective surgery and 34.0% in emergency/urgency surgery). Mortality rates were estimated according to the additive and logistic EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE II at 6.1%, 8.7%, and 4.3%, respectively. The AUC was 0.76 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.70-0.81) for the additive EuroSCORE, 0.76 (95% CI 0.70-0.81) for the logistic EuroSCORE and 0.81 (95% CI 0.76-0.86) for EuroSCORE II. Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistics were P = 0.52, P = 0.07, and P = 0.12 for additive, logistic EuroSCORE, and EuroSCORE II. In this cohort of Brazilian patients with valvular heart disease submitted to surgical procedure, the EuroSCORE models had a good discriminatory capacity; however, the calibration was compromised because of an underestimation of the mortality rate.

  1. The Bandim tuberculosis score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Joaquim, Luis Carlos; Vieira, Cesaltina

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was carried out in Guinea-Bissau ’ s capital Bissau among inpatients and outpatients attending for tuberculosis (TB) treatment within the study area of the Bandim Health Project, a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Our aim was to assess the variability between 2...... physicians in performing the Bandim tuberculosis score (TBscore), a clinical severity score for pulmonary TB (PTB), and to compare it to the Karnofsky performance score (KPS). Method : From December 2008 to July 2009 we assessed the TBscore and the KPS of 100 PTB patients at inclusion in the TB cohort and...

  2. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  3. Risk Pricing in Emerging Economies: Credit Scoring and Private Banking in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis Anagnostopoulos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iran’s banking industry as a developing country is comparatively very new to risk management practices. An inevitable predictive implication of this rapid growth is the growing concerns with regard to credit risk management which is the motivation of conducting this research. The paper focuses on the credit scoring aspect of credit risk management using both logit and probit regression approaches. Real data on corporate customers are available for conducting this research which is also a contribution to this area for all other developing countries. Our questions focus on how future customers can be classified in terms of credibility, which models and methods are more effective in better capturing risks. Findings suggest that probit approaches are more effective in capturing the significance of variables and goodness-of-fitness tests. Seven variables of the Ohlson O-Score model are used: CL_CA, INTWO, OENEG, TA_TL, SIZE, WCAP_TA, and ROA; two were found to be statistically significant in logit (ROA, TL_TA and three were statistically significant in probit (ROA, TL_TA, SIZE. Also, CL_CA, ROA, and WCAP_TA were the three variables with an unexpected correlation to the probability of default. The prediction power with the cut-off point is set equal to 26% and 56.91% for defaulted customers in both logit and probit models. However, logit achieved 54.85% correct estimation of defaulted assets, 0.37% more than what probit estimated.

  4. Validation of acute physiologic and chronic health evaluation II scoring system software developed at The Aga Khan University, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, M; Asghar, A; Shamim, F; Khan, F H

    2016-01-01

    To assess the predictive performance of Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) software available on the hospital intranet and analyze interrater reliability of calculating the APACHE II score by the gold standard manual method or automatically using the software. An expert scorer not involved in the data collection had calculated APACHE II score of 213 patients admitted to surgical Intensive Care Unit using the gold standard manual method for a previous study performed in the department. The same data were entered into the computer software available on the hospital intranet (http://intranet/apacheii) to recalculate the APACHE II score automatically along with the predicted mortality. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistical test and Pearson's correlation coefficient was computed. The 213 patients had an average APACHE II score of 17.20 ± 8.24, the overall mortality rate was 32.8% and standardized mortality ratio was 1.00. The area under the ROC curve of 0.827 was significantly >0.5 (P test showed a good calibration (H = 5.46, P = 0.71). Interrater reliability using Pearson's product moment correlations demonstrated a strong positive relationship between the computer and the manual expert scorer (r = 0.98, P = 0.0005). APACHE II software available on the hospital's intranet has satisfactory calibration and discrimination and interrater reliability is good when compared with the gold standard manual method.

  5. The HOSPITAL score and LACE index as predictors of 30 day readmission in a retrospective study at a university-affiliated community hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Robinson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hospital readmissions are common, expensive, and a key target of the Medicare Value Based Purchasing (VBP program. Validated risk assessment tools such as the HOSPITAL score and LACE index have been developed to identify patients at high risk of hospital readmission so they can be targeted for interventions aimed at reducing the rate of readmission. This study aims to evaluate the utility of HOSPITAL score and LACE index for predicting hospital readmission within 30 days in a moderate-sized university affiliated hospital in the midwestern United States. Materials and Methods All adult medical patients who underwent one or more ICD-10 defined procedures discharged from the SIU-SOM Hospitalist service from Memorial Medical Center (MMC from October 15, 2015 to March 16, 2016, were studied retrospectively to determine if the HOSPITAL score and LACE index were a significant predictors of hospital readmission within 30 days. Results During the study period, 463 discharges were recorded for the hospitalist service. The analysis includes data for the 432 discharges. Patients who died during the hospital stay, were transferred to another hospital, or left against medical advice were excluded. Of these patients, 35 (8% were readmitted to the same hospital within 30 days. A receiver operating characteristic evaluation of the HOSPITAL score for this patient population shows a C statistic of 0.75 (95% CI [0.67–0.83], indicating good discrimination for hospital readmission. The Brier score for the HOSPITAL score in this setting was 0.069, indicating good overall performance. The Hosmer–Lemeshow goodness of fit test shows a χ2 value of 3.71 with a p value of 0.59. A receiver operating characteristic evaluation of the LACE index for this patient population shows a C statistic of 0.58 (95% CI [0.48–0.68], indicating poor discrimination for hospital readmission. The Brier score for the LACE index in this setting was 0.082, indicating good

  6. Instant MuseScore

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant MuseScore is written in an easy-to follow format, packed with illustrations that will help you get started with this music composition software.This book is for musicians who would like to learn how to notate music digitally with MuseScore. Readers should already have some knowledge about musical terminology; however, no prior experience with music notation software is necessary.

  7. A diagnostic scoring system for myxedema coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoveniuc, Geanina; Chandra, Tanu; Sud, Anchal; Sharma, Meeta; Blackman, Marc R; Burman, Kenneth D; Mete, Mihriye; Desale, Sameer; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2014-08-01

    To develop diagnostic criteria for myxedema coma (MC), a decompensated state of extreme hypothyroidism with a high mortality rate if untreated, in order to facilitate its early recognition and treatment. The frequencies of characteristics associated with MC were assessed retrospectively in patients from our institutions in order to derive a semiquantitative diagnostic point scale that was further applied on selected patients whose data were retrieved from the literature. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the predictive power of the score. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to test the discriminative power of the score. Of the 21 patients examined, 7 were reclassified as not having MC (non-MC), and they were used as controls. The scoring system included a composite of alterations of thermoregulatory, central nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and metabolic systems, and presence or absence of a precipitating event. All 14 of our MC patients had a score of ≥60, whereas 6 of 7 non-MC patients had scores of 25 to 50. A total of 16 of 22 MC patients whose data were retrieved from the literature had a score ≥60, and 6 of 22 of these patients scored between 45 and 55. The odds ratio per each score unit increase as a continuum was 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.16; P = .019); a score of 60 identified coma, with an odds ratio of 1.22. The area under the ROC curve was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.65 to 1.00), and the score of 60 had 100% sensitivity and 85.71% specificity. A score ≥60 in the proposed scoring system is potentially diagnostic for MC, whereas scores between 45 and 59 could classify patients at risk for MC.

  8. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  9. The lod score method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J P; Saccone, N L; Corbett, J

    2001-01-01

    The lod score method originated in a seminal article by Newton Morton in 1955. The method is broadly concerned with issues of power and the posterior probability of linkage, ensuring that a reported linkage has a high probability of being a true linkage. In addition, the method is sequential, so that pedigrees or lod curves may be combined from published reports to pool data for analysis. This approach has been remarkably successful for 50 years in identifying disease genes for Mendelian disorders. After discussing these issues, we consider the situation for complex disorders, where the maximum lod score (MLS) statistic shares some of the advantages of the traditional lod score approach but is limited by unknown power and the lack of sharing of the primary data needed to optimally combine analytic results. We may still learn from the lod score method as we explore new methods in molecular biology and genetic analysis to utilize the complete human DNA sequence and the cataloging of all human genes.

  10. The Bayesian Score Statistic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibergen, F.R.; Kleijn, R.; Paap, R.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a novel Bayesian test under a (noninformative) Jeffreys'priorspecification. We check whether the fixed scalar value of the so-calledBayesian Score Statistic (BSS) under the null hypothesis is aplausiblerealization from its known and standardized distribution under thealternative. Unlike

  11. South African Scoring System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-18

    Nov 18, 2014 ... for 80% (SASS score) and 75% (NOT) of the variation in the regression model. Consequently, SASS ... further investigation: spatial analyses of macroinvertebrate assemblages; and the use of structural and functional metrics. Keywords: .... conductivity levels was assessed using multiple linear regres- sion.

  12. Developing Scoring Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  13. Credit scoring methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtek, Martin; Kočenda, Evžen

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, 3-4 (2006), s. 152-167 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/05/0931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : banking sector * credit scoring * discrimination analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.190, year: 2006 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1050_s_152_167.pdf

  14. Two Aspects of the Simplex Model: Goodness of Fit to Linear Growth Curve Structures and the Analysis of Mean Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandys, Frantisek; Dolan, Conor V.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Studied the conditions under which the quasi-Markov simplex model fits a linear growth curve covariance structure and determined when the model is rejected. Presents a quasi-Markov simplex model with structured means and gives an example. (SLD)

  15. A goodness of fit and validity study of the Korean radiological technologists' core job competency model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chang Seon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Konyang University College of Medical Sciences, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, A Ra [Dept. of Medical Education, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Yera [Dept. of Medical Education, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seong Youl [Dept. of Occupational Therapy, Kwangju women’s University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Radiological Technologists deals with the life of a person which means professional competency is essential for the job. Nevertheless, there have been no studies in Korea that identified the job competence of radiologists. In order to define the core job competencies of Korean radiologists and to present the factor models, 147 questionnaires on job competency of radiology were analyzed using 'PASW Statistics Version 18.0' and 'AMOS Version 18.0'. The valid model consisted of five core job competencies ('Patient management', 'Health and safety', 'Operation of equipment', 'Procedures and management') and 17 sub – competencies. As a result of the factor analysis, the RMSEA value was 0.1 and the CFI, and TLI values were close to 0.9 in the measurement model of the five core job competencies. The validity analysis showed that the mean variance extraction was 0.5 or more and the conceptual reliability value was 0.7 or more , And there was a high correlation between subordinate competencies included in each subordinate competencies. The results of this study are expected to provide specific information necessary for the training and management of human resources centered on competence by clearly showing the job competence required for radiologists in Korea's health environment.

  16. Goodness of Fit between Children and Classrooms: Effects of Child Temperament and Preschool Classroom Quality on Achievement Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Virginia E.; Moas, Olga; Henderson, Heather A.; Greenfield, Daryl B.; Munis, Pelin M.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine whether child temperament differentially predicted academic school readiness depending on the quality of classroom interactions for 179 Head Start preschoolers. Teachers rated children's temperament as overcontrolled, resilient, or undercontrolled in the fall and reported on children's…

  17. Credit scoring for individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria DIMITRIU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lending money to different borrowers is profitable, but risky. The profits come from the interest rate and the fees earned on the loans. Banks do not want to make loans to borrowers who cannot repay them. Even if the banks do not intend to make bad loans, over time, some of them can become bad. For instance, as a result of the recent financial crisis, the capability of many borrowers to repay their loans were affected, many of them being on default. That’s why is important for the bank to monitor the loans. The purpose of this paper is to focus on credit scoring main issues. As a consequence of this, we presented in this paper the scoring model of an important Romanian Bank. Based on this credit scoring model and taking into account the last lending requirements of the National Bank of Romania, we developed an assessment tool, in Excel, for retail loans which is presented in the case study.

  18. Uncertainty Model for Total Solar Irradiance Estimation on Australian Rooftops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saadi, Hassan; Zivanovic, Rastko; Al-Sarawi, Said

    2017-11-01

    The installations of solar panels on Australian rooftops have been in rise for the last few years, especially in the urban areas. This motivates academic researchers, distribution network operators and engineers to accurately address the level of uncertainty resulting from grid-connected solar panels. The main source of uncertainty is the intermittent nature of radiation, therefore, this paper presents a new model to estimate the total radiation incident on a tilted solar panel. Where a probability distribution factorizes clearness index, the model is driven upon clearness index with special attention being paid for Australia with the utilization of best-fit-correlation for diffuse fraction. The assessment of the model validity is achieved with the adoption of four goodness-of-fit techniques. In addition, the Quasi Monte Carlo and sparse grid methods are used as sampling and uncertainty computation tools, respectively. High resolution data resolution of solar irradiations for Adelaide city were used for this assessment, with an outcome indicating a satisfactory agreement between actual data variation and model.

  19. College Math Assessment: SAT Scores vs. College Math Placement Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley-Peres, Kathleen; Poirier, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Many colleges and university's use SAT math scores or math placement tests to place students in the appropriate math course. This study compares the use of math placement scores and SAT scores for 188 freshman students. The student's grades and faculty observations were analyzed to determine if the SAT scores and/or college math assessment scores…

  20. Estimating NHL Scoring Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Buttrey, Samuel E.; Washburn, Alan R.; Price, Wilson L.; Operations Research

    2011-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.2202/1559-0410.1334 We propose a model to estimate the rates at which NHL teams score and yield goals. In the model, goals occur as if from a Poisson process whose rate depends on the two teams playing, the home-ice advantage, and the manpower (power-play, short-handed) situation. Data on all the games from the 2008-2009 season was downloaded and processed into a form suitable for the analysis. The model...

  1. The International Bleeding Risk Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Laine, L.; Dalton, H.

    2017-01-01

    The International Bleeding Risk Score: A New Risk Score that can Accurately Predict Mortality in Patients with Upper GI-Bleeding.......The International Bleeding Risk Score: A New Risk Score that can Accurately Predict Mortality in Patients with Upper GI-Bleeding....

  2. Validation of the German Diabetes Risk Score within a population-based representative cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, S; Kuss, O; Tiller, D; Greiser, K H; Schulze, M B; Dierkes, J; Werdan, K; Haerting, J; Kluttig, A

    2013-09-01

    To validate the German Diabetes Risk Score within the population-based cohort of the Cardiovascular Disease - Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA) study. The sample included 582 women and 719 men, aged 45-83 years, who did not have diabetes at baseline. The individual risk of every participant was calculated using the German Diabetes Risk Score, which was modified for 4 years of follow-up. Predicted probabilities and observed outcomes were compared using Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit tests and receiver-operator characteristic analyses. Changes in prediction power were investigated by expanding the German Diabetes Risk Score to include metabolic variables and by subgroup analyses. We found 58 cases of incident diabetes. The median 4-year probability of developing diabetes based on the German Diabetes Risk Score was 6.5%. The observed and predicted probabilities of developing diabetes were similar, although estimation was imprecise owing to the small number of cases, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test returned a poor correlation (chi-squared = 55.3; P = 5.8*10⁻¹²). The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.70 (95% CI 0.64-0.77), and after excluding participants ≥66 years old, the AUC increased to 0.77 (95% CI 0.70-0.84). Consideration of glycaemic diagnostic variables, in addition to self-reported diabetes, reduced the AUC to 0.65 (95% CI 0.58-0.71). A new model that included the German Diabetes Risk Score and blood glucose concentration (AUC 0.81; 95% CI 0.76-0.86) or HbA(1c) concentration (AUC 0.84; 95% CI 0.80-0.91) was found to peform better. Application of the German Diabetes Risk Score in the CARLA cohort did not reproduce the findings in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Potsdam study, which may be explained by cohort differences and model overfit in the latter; however, a high score does provide an indication of increased risk of diabetes. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes

  3. Do Test Scores Buy Happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Neal

    2017-01-01

    Since at least the enactment of No Child Left Behind in 2002, standardized test scores have served as the primary measures of public school effectiveness. Yet, such scores fail to measure the ultimate goal of education: maximizing happiness. This exploratory analysis assesses nation level associations between test scores and happiness, controlling…

  4. Predicting occupational personality test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, A; Drakeley, R

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between students' actual test scores and their self-estimated scores on the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI; R. Hogan & J. Hogan, 1992), an omnibus personality questionnaire, was examined. Despite being given descriptive statistics and explanations of each of the dimensions measured, the students tended to overestimate their scores; yet all correlations between actual and estimated scores were positive and significant. Correlations between self-estimates and actual test scores were highest for sociability, ambition, and adjustment (r = .62 to r = .67). The results are discussed in terms of employers' use and abuse of personality assessment for job recruitment.

  5. Lower Bounds to the Reliabilities of Factor Score Estimators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, David J

    2016-10-06

    Under the general common factor model, the reliabilities of factor score estimators might be of more interest than the reliability of the total score (the unweighted sum of item scores). In this paper, lower bounds to the reliabilities of Thurstone's factor score estimators, Bartlett's factor score estimators, and McDonald's factor score estimators are derived and conditions are given under which these lower bounds are equal. The relative performance of the derived lower bounds is studied using classic example data sets. The results show that estimates of the lower bounds to the reliabilities of Thurstone's factor score estimators are greater than or equal to the estimates of the lower bounds to the reliabilities of Bartlett's and McDonald's factor score estimators.

  6. Development of the Respiratory Index of Severity in Children (RISC score among young children with respiratory infections in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Reed

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pneumonia is a leading cause of death in children worldwide. A simple clinical score predicting the probability of death in a young child with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI could aid clinicians in case management and provide a standardized severity measure during epidemiologic studies. METHODS: We analyzed 4,148 LRTI hospitalizations in children <24 months enrolled in a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial in South Africa from 1998-2001, to develop the Respiratory Index of Severity in Children (RISC. Using clinical data at admission, a multivariable logistic regression model for mortality was developed and statistically evaluated using bootstrap resampling techniques. Points were assigned to risk factors based on their coefficients in the multivariable model. A child's RISC score is the sum of points for each risk factor present. Separate models were developed for HIV-infected and non-infected children. RESULTS: Significant risk factors for HIV-infected and non-infected children included low oxygen saturation, chest indrawing, wheezing, and refusal to feed. The models also included age and HIV clinical classification (for HIV-infected children or weight-for-age (for non-infected children. RISC scores ranged up to 7 points for HIV-infected or 6 points for non-infected children and correlated with probability of death (0-47%, HIV-infected; 0-14%, non-infected. Final models showed good discrimination (area under the ROC curve and calibration (goodness-of-fit. CONCLUSION: The RISC score incorporates a simple set of risk factors that accurately discriminate between young children based on their risk of death from LRTI, and may provide an objective means to quantify severity based on the risk of mortality.

  7. Application of the FOUR Score in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Risk Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braksick, Sherri A; Hemphill, J Claude; Mandrekar, Jay; Wijdicks, Eelco F M; Fugate, Jennifer E

    2018-06-01

    The Full Outline of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) Score is a validated scale describing the essentials of a coma examination, including motor response, eye opening and eye movements, brainstem reflexes, and respiratory pattern. We incorporated the FOUR Score into the existing ICH Score and evaluated its accuracy of risk assessment in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Consecutive patients admitted to our institution from 2009 to 2012 with spontaneous ICH were reviewed. The ICH Score was calculated using patient age, hemorrhage location, hemorrhage volume, evidence of intraventricular extension, and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). The FOUR Score was then incorporated into the ICH Score as a substitute for the GCS (ICH Score FS ). The ability of the 2 scores to predict mortality at 1 month was then compared. In total, 274 patients met the inclusion criteria. The median age was 73 years (interquartile range 60-82) and 138 (50.4%) were male. Overall mortality at 1 month was 28.8% (n = 79). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was .91 for the ICH Score and .89 for the ICH Score FS . For ICH Scores of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, 1-month mortality was 4.2%, 29.9%, 62.5%, 95.0%, and 100%. In the ICH Score FS model, mortality was 10.7%, 26.5%, 64.5%, 88.9%, and 100% for scores of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The ICH Score and the ICH Score FS predict 1-month mortality with comparable accuracy. As the FOUR Score provides additional clinical information regarding patient status, it may be a reasonable substitute for the GCS into the ICH Score. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Propensity score matching in SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fuqiang; DU, Chunlin; Sun, Menghui; Ning, Bing; Luo, Ying; An, Shengli

    2015-11-01

    To realize propensity score matching in PS Matching module of SPSS and interpret the analysis results. The R software and plug-in that could link with the corresponding versions of SPSS and propensity score matching package were installed. A PS matching module was added in the SPSS interface, and its use was demonstrated with test data. Score estimation and nearest neighbor matching was achieved with the PS matching module, and the results of qualitative and quantitative statistical description and evaluation were presented in the form of a graph matching. Propensity score matching can be accomplished conveniently using SPSS software.

  9. [Prognostic scores for pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Alain

    2016-03-23

    Nine prognostic scores for pulmonary embolism (PE), based on retrospective and prospective studies, published between 2000 and 2014, have been analyzed and compared. Most of them aim at identifying PE cases with a low risk to validate their ambulatory care. Important differences in the considered outcomes: global mortality, PE-specific mortality, other complications, sizes of low risk groups, exist between these scores. The most popular score appears to be the PESI and its simplified version. Few good quality studies have tested the applicability of these scores to PE outpatient care, although this approach tends to already generalize in the medical practice.

  10. D-score: a search engine independent MD-score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudel, Marc; Breiter, Daniela; Beck, Florian; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Martens, Lennart; Zahedi, René P

    2013-03-01

    While peptides carrying PTMs are routinely identified in gel-free MS, the localization of the PTMs onto the peptide sequences remains challenging. Search engine scores of secondary peptide matches have been used in different approaches in order to infer the quality of site inference, by penalizing the localization whenever the search engine similarly scored two candidate peptides with different site assignments. In the present work, we show how the estimation of posterior error probabilities for peptide candidates allows the estimation of a PTM score called the D-score, for multiple search engine studies. We demonstrate the applicability of this score to three popular search engines: Mascot, OMSSA, and X!Tandem, and evaluate its performance using an already published high resolution data set of synthetic phosphopeptides. For those peptides with phosphorylation site inference uncertainty, the number of spectrum matches with correctly localized phosphorylation increased by up to 25.7% when compared to using Mascot alone, although the actual increase depended on the fragmentation method used. Since this method relies only on search engine scores, it can be readily applied to the scoring of the localization of virtually any modification at no additional experimental or in silico cost. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  12. Quadratic prediction of factor scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansbeek, T

    1999-01-01

    Factor scores are naturally predicted by means of their conditional expectation given the indicators y. Under normality this expectation is linear in y but in general it is an unknown function of y. II is discussed that under nonnormality factor scores can be more precisely predicted by a quadratic

  13. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  14. Matching score based face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Beumer, G.M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate face registration is of vital importance to the performance of a face recognition algorithm. We propose a new method: matching score based face registration, which searches for optimal alignment by maximizing the matching score output of a classifier as a function of the different

  15. Modelling sequentially scored item responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, W.

    2000-01-01

    The sequential model can be used to describe the variable resulting from a sequential scoring process. In this paper two more item response models are investigated with respect to their suitability for sequential scoring: the partial credit model and the graded response model. The investigation is

  16. The New York Sepsis Severity Score: Development of a Risk-Adjusted Severity Model for Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gary S; Osborn, Tiffany M; Terry, Kathleen M; Gesten, Foster; Levy, Mitchell M; Lemeshow, Stanley

    2018-05-01

    In accordance with Rory's Regulations, hospitals across New York State developed and implemented protocols for sepsis recognition and treatment to reduce variations in evidence informed care and preventable mortality. The New York Department of Health sought to develop a risk assessment model for accurate and standardized hospital mortality comparisons of adult septic patients across institutions using case-mix adjustment. Retrospective evaluation of prospectively collected data. Data from 43,204 severe sepsis and septic shock patients from 179 hospitals across New York State were evaluated. Prospective data were submitted to a database from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2015. None. Maximum likelihood logistic regression was used to estimate model coefficients used in the New York State risk model. The mortality probability was estimated using a logistic regression model. Variables to be included in the model were determined as part of the model-building process. Interactions between variables were included if they made clinical sense and if their p values were less than 0.05. Model development used a random sample of 90% of available patients and was validated using the remaining 10%. Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit p values were considerably greater than 0.05, suggesting good calibration. Areas under the receiver operator curve in the developmental and validation subsets were 0.770 (95% CI, 0.765-0.775) and 0.773 (95% CI, 0.758-0.787), respectively, indicating good discrimination. Development and validation datasets had similar distributions of estimated mortality probabilities. Mortality increased with rising age, comorbidities, and lactate. The New York Sepsis Severity Score accurately estimated the probability of hospital mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock patients. It performed well with respect to calibration and discrimination. This sepsis-specific model provides an accurate, comprehensive method for standardized mortality comparison of adult

  17. Extension of the lod score: the mod score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerget-Darpoux, F

    2001-01-01

    In 1955 Morton proposed the lod score method both for testing linkage between loci and for estimating the recombination fraction between them. If a disease is controlled by a gene at one of these loci, the lod score computation requires the prior specification of an underlying model that assigns the probabilities of genotypes from the observed phenotypes. To address the case of linkage studies for diseases with unknown mode of inheritance, we suggested (Clerget-Darpoux et al., 1986) extending the lod score function to a so-called mod score function. In this function, the variables are both the recombination fraction and the disease model parameters. Maximizing the mod score function over all these parameters amounts to maximizing the probability of marker data conditional on the disease status. Under the absence of linkage, the mod score conforms to a chi-square distribution, with extra degrees of freedom in comparison to the lod score function (MacLean et al., 1993). The mod score is asymptotically maximum for the true disease model (Clerget-Darpoux and Bonaïti-Pellié, 1992; Hodge and Elston, 1994). Consequently, the power to detect linkage through mod score will be highest when the space of models where the maximization is performed includes the true model. On the other hand, one must avoid overparametrization of the model space. For example, when the approach is applied to affected sibpairs, only two constrained disease model parameters should be used (Knapp et al., 1994) for the mod score maximization. It is also important to emphasize the existence of a strong correlation between the disease gene location and the disease model. Consequently, there is poor resolution of the location of the susceptibility locus when the disease model at this locus is unknown. Of course, this is true regardless of the statistics used. The mod score may also be applied in a candidate gene strategy to model the potential effect of this gene in the disease. Since, however, it

  18. Ripasa score: a new diagnostic score for diagnosis of acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, M.Q.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the usefulness of RIPASA score for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis using histopathology as a gold standard. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of General Surgery, Combined Military Hospital, Kohat, from September 2011 to March 2012. Methodology: A total of 267 patients were included in this study. RIPASA score was assessed. The diagnosis of appendicitis was made clinically aided by routine sonography of abdomen. After appendicectomies, resected appendices were sent for histopathological examination. The 15 parameters and the scores generated were age (less than 40 years = 1 point; greater than 40 years = 0.5 point), gender (male = 1 point; female = 0.5 point), Right Iliac Fossa (RIF) pain (0.5 point), migration of pain to RIF (0.5 point), nausea and vomiting (1 point), anorexia (1 point), duration of symptoms (less than 48 hours = 1 point; more than 48 hours = 0.5 point), RIF tenderness (1 point), guarding (2 points), rebound tenderness (1 point), Rovsing's sign (2 points), fever (1 point), raised white cell count (1 point), negative urinalysis (1 point) and foreign national registration identity card (1 point). The optimal cut-off threshold score from the ROC was 7.5. Sensitivity analysis was done. Results: Out of 267 patients, 156 (58.4%) were male while remaining 111 patients (41.6%) were female with mean age of 23.5 +- 9.1 years. Sensitivity of RIPASA score was 96.7%, specificity 93.0%, diagnostic accuracy was 95.1%, positive predictive value was 94.8% and negative predictive value was 95.54%. Conclusion: RIPASA score at a cut-off total score of 7.5 was a useful tool to diagnose appendicitis, in equivocal cases of pain. (author)

  19. Description and validation of a scoring system for tomosynthesis in pulmonary cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vult von Steyern, Kristina; Bjoerkman-Burtscher, Isabella M.; Bozovic, Gracijela; Wiklund, Marie; Geijer, Mats [Skaane University Hospital, Lund University, Centre for Medical Imaging and Physiology, Lund (Sweden); Hoeglund, Peter [Skaane University Hospital, Competence Centre for Clinical Research, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    To design and validate a scoring system for tomosynthesis (digital tomography) in pulmonary cystic fibrosis. A scoring system dedicated to tomosynthesis in pulmonary cystic fibrosis was designed. Three radiologists independently scored 88 pairs of radiographs and tomosynthesis examinations of the chest in 60 patients with cystic fibrosis and 7 oncology patients. Radiographs were scored according to the Brasfield scoring system and tomosynthesis examinations were scored using the new scoring system. Observer agreements for the tomosynthesis score were almost perfect for the total score with square-weighted kappa >0.90, and generally substantial to almost perfect for subscores. Correlation between the tomosynthesis score and the Brasfield score was good for the three observers (Kendall's rank correlation tau 0.68, 0.77 and 0.78). Tomosynthesis was generally scored higher as a percentage of the maximum score. Observer agreements for the total score for Brasfield score were almost perfect (square-weighted kappa 0.80, 0.81 and 0.85). The tomosynthesis scoring system seems robust and correlates well with the Brasfield score. Compared with radiography, tomosynthesis is more sensitive to cystic fibrosis changes, especially bronchiectasis and mucus plugging, and the new tomosynthesis scoring system offers the possibility of more detailed and accurate scoring of disease severity. (orig.)

  20. Description and validation of a scoring system for tomosynthesis in pulmonary cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vult von Steyern, Kristina; Björkman-Burtscher, Isabella M; Höglund, Peter; Bozovic, Gracijela; Wiklund, Marie; Geijer, Mats

    2012-12-01

    To design and validate a scoring system for tomosynthesis (digital tomography) in pulmonary cystic fibrosis. A scoring system dedicated to tomosynthesis in pulmonary cystic fibrosis was designed. Three radiologists independently scored 88 pairs of radiographs and tomosynthesis examinations of the chest in 60 patients with cystic fibrosis and 7 oncology patients. Radiographs were scored according to the Brasfield scoring system and tomosynthesis examinations were scored using the new scoring system. Observer agreements for the tomosynthesis score were almost perfect for the total score with square-weighted kappa >0.90, and generally substantial to almost perfect for subscores. Correlation between the tomosynthesis score and the Brasfield score was good for the three observers (Kendall's rank correlation tau 0.68, 0.77 and 0.78). Tomosynthesis was generally scored higher as a percentage of the maximum score. Observer agreements for the total score for Brasfield score were almost perfect (square-weighted kappa 0.80, 0.81 and 0.85). The tomosynthesis scoring system seems robust and correlates well with the Brasfield score. Compared with radiography, tomosynthesis is more sensitive to cystic fibrosis changes, especially bronchiectasis and mucus plugging, and the new tomosynthesis scoring system offers the possibility of more detailed and accurate scoring of disease severity. Tomosynthesis is more sensitive than conventional radiography for pulmonary cystic fibrosis changes. The radiation dose from chest tomosynthesis is low compared with computed tomography. Tomosynthesis may become useful in the regular follow-up of patients with cystic fibrosis.

  1. Description and validation of a scoring system for tomosynthesis in pulmonary cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vult von Steyern, Kristina; Bjoerkman-Burtscher, Isabella M.; Bozovic, Gracijela; Wiklund, Marie; Geijer, Mats; Hoeglund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To design and validate a scoring system for tomosynthesis (digital tomography) in pulmonary cystic fibrosis. A scoring system dedicated to tomosynthesis in pulmonary cystic fibrosis was designed. Three radiologists independently scored 88 pairs of radiographs and tomosynthesis examinations of the chest in 60 patients with cystic fibrosis and 7 oncology patients. Radiographs were scored according to the Brasfield scoring system and tomosynthesis examinations were scored using the new scoring system. Observer agreements for the tomosynthesis score were almost perfect for the total score with square-weighted kappa >0.90, and generally substantial to almost perfect for subscores. Correlation between the tomosynthesis score and the Brasfield score was good for the three observers (Kendall's rank correlation tau 0.68, 0.77 and 0.78). Tomosynthesis was generally scored higher as a percentage of the maximum score. Observer agreements for the total score for Brasfield score were almost perfect (square-weighted kappa 0.80, 0.81 and 0.85). The tomosynthesis scoring system seems robust and correlates well with the Brasfield score. Compared with radiography, tomosynthesis is more sensitive to cystic fibrosis changes, especially bronchiectasis and mucus plugging, and the new tomosynthesis scoring system offers the possibility of more detailed and accurate scoring of disease severity. (orig.)

  2. From Rasch scores to regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang

    2006-01-01

    Rasch models provide a framework for measurement and modelling latent variables. Having measured a latent variable in a population a comparison of groups will often be of interest. For this purpose the use of observed raw scores will often be inadequate because these lack interval scale propertie....... This paper compares two approaches to group comparison: linear regression models using estimated person locations as outcome variables and latent regression models based on the distribution of the score....

  3. Shower reconstruction in TUNKA-HiSCORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porelli, Andrea; Wischnewski, Ralf [DESY-Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6, 15738 Zeuthen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Tunka-HiSCORE detector is a non-imaging wide-angle EAS cherenkov array designed as an alternative technology for gamma-ray physics above 10 TeV and to study spectrum and composition of cosmic rays above 100 TeV. An engineering array with nine stations (HiS-9) has been deployed in October 2013 on the site of the Tunka experiment in Russia. In November 2014, 20 more HiSCORE stations have been installed, covering a total array area of 0.24 square-km. We describe the detector setup, the role of precision time measurement, and give results from the innovative WhiteRabbit time synchronization technology. Results of air shower reconstruction are presented and compared with MC simulations, for both the HiS-9 and the HiS-29 detector arrays.

  4. Nursing Activities Score and Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Utuari de Andrade Coelho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the nursing workload in intensive care patients with acute kidney injury (AKI. Method: A quantitative study, conducted in an intensive care unit, from April to August of 2015. The Nursing Activities Score (NAS and Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO were used to measure nursing workload and to classify the stage of AKI, respectively. Results: A total of 190 patients were included. Patients who developed AKI (44.2% had higher NAS when compared to those without AKI (43.7% vs 40.7%, p <0.001. Patients with stage 1, 2 and 3 AKI showed higher NAS than those without AKI. A relationship was identified between stage 2 and 3 with those without AKI (p = 0.002 and p <0.001. Conclusion: The NAS was associated with the presence of AKI, the score increased with the progression of the stages, and it was associated with AKI, stage 2 and 3.

  5. Evaluation of modified Alvarado scoring system and RIPASA scoring system as diagnostic tools of acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaib, Abdullah; Shuaib, Ali; Fakhra, Zainab; Marafi, Bader; Alsharaf, Khalid; Behbehani, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical condition presented in emergency departments worldwide. Clinical scoring systems, such as the Alvarado and modified Alvarado scoring systems, were developed with the goal of reducing the negative appendectomy rate to 5%-10%. The Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Appendicitis (RIPASA) scoring system was established in 2008 specifically for Asian populations. The aim of this study was to compare the modified Alvarado with the RIPASA scoring system in Kuwait population. This study included 180 patients who underwent appendectomies and were documented as having "acute appendicitis" or "abdominal pain" in the operating theatre logbook (unit B) from November 2014 to March 2016. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), diagnostic accuracy, predicted negative appendectomy and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the modified Alvarado and RIPASA scoring systems were derived using SPSS statistical software. A total of 136 patients were included in this study according to our criteria. The cut-off threshold point of the modified Alvarado score was set at 7.0, which yielded a sensitivity of 82.8% and a specificity of 56%. The PPV was 89.3% and the NPV was 42.4%. The cut-off threshold point of the RIPASA score was set at 7.5, which yielded a 94.5% sensitivity and an 88% specificity. The PPV was 97.2% and the NPV was 78.5%. The predicted negative appendectomy rates were 10.7% and 2.2% for the modified Alvarado and RIPASA scoring systems, respectively. The negative appendectomy rate decreased significantly, from 18.4% to 10.7% for the modified Alvarado, and to 2.2% for the RIPASA scoring system, which was a significant difference (PAsian populations. It consists of 14 clinical parameters that can be obtained from a good patient history, clinical examination and laboratory investigations. The RIPASA scoring system is more accurate and specific than the modified Alvarado

  6. Re-Scoring the Game’s Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study explores immersive presence as well as emotional valence and arousal in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music scores in the 3rd person action-adventure video game genre while also considering relevant personality traits of the player. 60 subjects answered self-report questionnai......This study explores immersive presence as well as emotional valence and arousal in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music scores in the 3rd person action-adventure video game genre while also considering relevant personality traits of the player. 60 subjects answered self......-temporal alignment in the resulting emotional congruency of nondiegetic music. Whereas imaginary aspects of immersive presence are systemically affected by the presentation of dynamic music, sensory spatial aspects show higher sensitivity towards the arousal potential of the music score. It is argued...

  7. Association of increased total antioxidant capacity and anovulation in nonobese infertile patients with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verit, Fatma Ferda; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2007-08-01

    To investigate whether total antioxidant capacity (TAC) could predict the response to ovulation induction to clomiphene citrate (CC) in nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Prospective longitudinal follow-up study. Academic hospital. Fifty-five nonobese, oligomenorrheic women with polycystic ovary syndrome and normal indices of insulin sensitivity. None. Standard clinical examinations and ultrasonographic and endocrine screening, including FSH, LH, E(2), P, total T, sex hormone-binding globulin, DHEAS, and TAC were performed before initiation of CC medication. Within the total group, 27 (49%) of the patients did not ovulate at the end of follow-up. TAC, free androgen index, and ovarian volume were all significantly different in CC nonresponders from those in responders. Total antioxidant capacity was found to be the best predictor in univariate analysis (odds ratio, 171.55; 95% confidence interval, 10.61-2,772.93), and it had the highest area in the receiver operating characteristics analysis (0.91). In a multivariate prediction model, TAC, free androgen index, and ovarian volume showed good predictive power, with Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test of 0.80. Total antioxidant capacity was the strongest predictor of ovarian response during CC induction of ovulation in these patients. It can be concluded that TAC can be used as a routine screening test.

  8. Comparing the Scoring of Human Decomposition from Digital Images to Scoring Using On-site Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbs, Gretchen R; Bytheway, Joan A; Connor, Melissa

    2017-09-01

    When in forensic casework or empirical research in-person assessment of human decomposition is not possible, the sensible substitution is color photographic images. To date, no research has confirmed the utility of color photographic images as a proxy for in situ observation of the level of decomposition. Sixteen observers scored photographs of 13 human cadavers in varying decomposition stages (PMI 2-186 days) using the Total Body Score system (total n = 929 observations). The on-site TBS was compared with recorded observations from digital color images using a paired samples t-test. The average difference between on-site and photographic observations was -0.20 (t = -1.679, df = 928, p = 0.094). Individually, only two observers, both students with human decomposition based on digital images can be substituted for assessments based on observation of the corpse in situ, when necessary. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Skin scoring in systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Hugh; Bjerring, Peter; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars

    1994-01-01

    Forty-one patients with systemic sclerosis were investigated with a new and simple skin score method measuring the degree of thickening and pliability in seven regions together with area involvement in each region. The highest values were, as expected, found in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis...... (type III SS) and the lowest in limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (type I SS) with no lesions extending above wrists and ancles. A positive correlation was found to the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen, a serological marker for synthesis of type III collagen. The skin score...

  10. Mobile health technology transforms injury severity scoring in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Richard Trafford; Zargaran, Eiman; Hameed, S Morad; Navsaria, Pradeep; Nicol, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    The burden of data collection associated with injury severity scoring has limited its application in areas of the world with the highest incidence of trauma. Since January 2014, electronic records (electronic Trauma Health Records [eTHRs]) replaced all handwritten records at the Groote Schuur Hospital Trauma Unit in South Africa. Data fields required for Glasgow Coma Scale, Revised Trauma Score, Kampala Trauma Score, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Trauma Score-Injury Severity Score calculations are now prospectively collected. Fifteen months after implementation of eTHR, the injury severity scores were compared as predictors of mortality on three accounts: (1) ability to discriminate (area under receiver operating curve, ROC); (2) ability to calibrate (observed versus expected ratio, O/E); and (3) feasibility of data collection (rate of missing data). A total of 7460 admissions were recorded by eTHR from April 1, 2014 to July 7, 2015, including 770 severely injured patients (ISS > 15) and 950 operations. The mean age was 33.3 y (range 13-94), 77.6% were male, and the mechanism of injury was penetrating in 39.3% of cases. The cohort experienced a mortality rate of 2.5%. Patient reserve predictors required by the scores were 98.7% complete, physiological injury predictors were 95.1% complete, and anatomic injury predictors were 86.9% complete. The discrimination and calibration of Trauma Score-Injury Severity Score was superior for all admissions (ROC 0.9591 and O/E 1.01) and operatively managed patients (ROC 0.8427 and O/E 0.79). In the severely injured cohort, the discriminatory ability of Revised Trauma Score was superior (ROC 0.8315), but no score provided adequate calibration. Emerging mobile health technology enables reliable and sustainable injury severity scoring in a high-volume trauma center in South Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Outcomes of Total Knee Arthroplasty in Patients With Poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhi-Wei Jonathan; Pang, Hee Nee

    2016-11-01

    We report our experience with outcomes of poliomyelitis in the Asian population. Sixteen total knee replacements in 14 patients with polio-affected knees were followed up for at least 18 months. Follow-up assessment included scoring with the American Knee Society Score (AKSS), Oxford knee score, and Short Form 36 Health Survey scores. The mean AKSS improved from 25.59 preoperatively to 82.94 at 24 months, with greater improvement in the knee score. The mean Oxford knee score improved from 40.82 preoperatively to 20.53 at 24 months. The mean AKSS pain score rose from 2.35 to 47.66 at 24 months. The Short Form 36 Health Survey physical functioning and bodily pain scores improved for all patients. Primary total knee arthroplasty of poliomyelitis-affected limbs shows good outcomes, improving quality of life, and decreasing pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The persistence of depression score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J.; de Graaf, R.; Ormel, J.; Nolen, W. A.; Grobbee, D. E.; Burger, H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To construct a score that allows prediction of major depressive episode (MDE) persistence in individuals with MDE using determinants of persistence identified in previous research. Method: Data were derived from 250 subjects from the general population with new MDE according to DSM-III-R.

  13. Score distributions in information retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arampatzis, A.; Robertson, S.; Kamps, J.

    2009-01-01

    We review the history of modeling score distributions, focusing on the mixture of normal-exponential by investigating the theoretical as well as the empirical evidence supporting its use. We discuss previously suggested conditions which valid binary mixture models should satisfy, such as the

  14. Developing Scoring Algorithms (Earlier Methods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  15. Dimensional Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire - Brief Revised (SPQ-BR) Scores Across American and Spanish Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Cohen, Alex; Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; de Álbeniz, Alicia Pérez; Muñiz, José

    2017-08-01

    The main goal of the present study was to test the measurement equivalence of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire - Brief Revised (SPQ-BR) scores in a large sample of Spanish and American non-clinical young adults. The sample was made up of 5,625 young adults (M = 19.65 years; SD = 2.53; 38.5% males). Study of the internal structure, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), revealed that SPQ-BR items were grouped in a theoretical internal structure of nine first-order factors. Moreover, three or four second-order factor and bifactor models showed adequate goodness-of-fit indices. Multigroup CFA showed that the nine lower-order factor models of the SPQ-BR had configural and weak measurement invariance and partial strong measurement invariance across country. The reliability of the SPQ-BR scores, estimated with omega, ranged from 0.67 to 0.91. Using the item response theory framework, the SPQ-BR provides more accurate information at the medium and high end of the latent trait. Statistically significant differences were found in the raw scores of the SPQ-BR subscales and dimensions across samples. The American group scored higher than the Spanish group in all SPQ-BR domains except Ideas of Reference and Suspiciousness. The finding of comparable factor structure in cross-cultural samples would lend further support to the continuum model of psychosis spectrum disorders. In addition, these results provide new information about the factor structure of schizotypal traits and support the validity and utility of this measure in cross-cultural research.

  16. The Ability of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE IV Score to Predict Mortality in a Single Tertiary Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woo Choi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II model has been widely used in Korea. However, there have been few studies on the APACHE IV model in Korean intensive care units (ICUs. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of APACHE IV and APACHE II in predicting hospital mortality, and to investigate the ability of APACHE IV as a critical care triage criterion. Methods The study was designed as a prospective cohort study. Measurements of discrimination and calibration were performed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test respectively. We also calculated the standardized mortality ratio (SMR. Results The APACHE IV score, the Charlson Comorbidity index (CCI score, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and unplanned ICU admissions were independently associated with hospital mortality. The calibration, discrimination, and SMR of APACHE IV were good (H = 7.67, P = 0.465; C = 3.42, P = 0.905; AUROC = 0.759; SMR = 1.00. However, the explanatory power of an APACHE IV score >93 alone on hospital mortality was low at 44.1%. The explanatory power was increased to 53.8% when the hospital mortality was predicted using a model that considers APACHE IV >93 scores, medical admission, and risk factors for CCI >3 coincidentally. However, the discriminative ability of the prediction model was unsatisfactory (C index <0.70. Conclusions The APACHE IV presented good discrimination, calibration, and SMR for hospital mortality.

  17. Gleason Score Correlation Between Prostate Biopsy and Radical Prostatectomy Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Öztürk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in men and the second cause of cancer-related mortality. Prostate biopsy and the Gleason score guide treatment decisions in prostate cancer. Several studies have investigated the correlation between biopsy scores and radical prostatectomy specimen scores. We also evaluated the correlation of Gleason scores of these specimens in our patient series. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 468 men who were diagnosed with prostate cancer and underwent radical prostatectomy between 2008 and 2017. Patients’ age, prostate-specific antigen levels at diagnosis, and prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimen Gleason scores were recorded. Upgrading and downgrading were defined as increase or decrease of Gleason score of radical prostate specimen compared to Gleason score of prostate biopsy. Results: A total of 442 men diagnosed with prostate cancer were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 62.62±6.26 years (44-84 years and mean prostate specific antigen level was 9.01±6.84 ng/mL (1.09-49 ng/mL. Prostate biopsy Gleason score was 7 in 27 (6.1% men. Radical prostatectomy specimen Gleason score was 7 in 62 (14% men. Gleason correlation was highest in the 240 patients (71.6% with score <7 and was lowest in the 31 (38.75% patients with score =7. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the discordance rate between Gleason scores of prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens was 35.7%.

  18. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  19. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  20. Technique of total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy

  1. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  2. Combining Teacher Assessment Scores with External Examination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combining Teacher Assessment Scores with External Examination Scores for Certification: Comparative Study of Four Statistical Models. ... University entrance examination scores in mathematics were obtained for a subsample of 115 ...

  3. Scoring System Improvements to Three Leadership Predictors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dela

    1997-01-01

    .... The modified scoring systems were evaluated by rescoring responses randomly selected from the sample which had been scored according to the scoring systems originally developed for the leadership research...

  4. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  5. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Steinert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G on the force concept inventory (FCI were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335 and one university (N=292 , and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations ( r=0.57 and r=0.46 , respectively. These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  6. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent P. Coletta

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G on the force concept inventory (FCI were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335 and one university (N=292, and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations (r=0.57 and r=0.46, respectively. These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  7. A Comparison of the Updated Diamond-Forrester, CAD Consortium, and CONFIRM History-Based Risk Scores for Predicting Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease in Patients With Stable Chest Pain: The SCOT-HEART Coronary CTA Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Lohendran; Danad, Ibrahim; Gransar, Heidi; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Lin, Fay Y; Peña, Jessica M; Hunter, Amanda; Newby, David E; Adamson, Philip D; Min, James K

    2018-04-13

    This study sought to compare the performance of history-based risk scores in predicting obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) among patients with stable chest pain from the SCOT-HEART study. Risk scores for estimating pre-test probability of CAD are derived from referral-based populations with a high prevalence of disease. The generalizability of these scores to lower prevalence populations in the initial patient encounter for chest pain is uncertain. We compared 3 scores among patients with suspected CAD in the coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) randomized arm of the SCOT-HEART study for the outcome of obstructive CAD by coronary CTA: the updated Diamond-Forrester score (UDF), CAD Consortium clinical score (CAD2), and CONFIRM risk score (CRS). We tested calibration with goodness-of-fit, discrimination with area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC), and reclassification with net reclassification improvement (NRI) to identify low-risk patients. In 1,738 patients (58 ± 10 years and 44.0% women), overall calibration was best for UDF, with underestimation by CRS and CAD2. Discrimination by AUC was highest for CAD2 at 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77 to 0.81) than for UDF (0.77 [95% CI: 0.74 to 0.79]) or CRS (0.75 [95% CI: 0.73 to 0.77]) (p CAD2 (NRI 0.31, 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.35) followed by CRS (NRI 0.21, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.25) compared with UDF (p CAD and uniform CAD evaluation by coronary CTA, CAD2 provided the best discrimination and classification, despite overestimation of obstructive CAD as evaluated by coronary CTA. CRS exhibited intermediate performance followed by UDF for discrimination and reclassification. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Ganga hospital open injury score in management of open injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, S; Sabapathy, S R; Dheenadhayalan, J; Sundararajan, S R; Venkatramani, H; Devendra, A; Ramesh, P; Srikanth, K P

    2015-02-01

    Open injuries of the limbs offer challenges in management as there are still many grey zones in decision making regarding salvage, timing and type of reconstruction. As a result, there is still an unacceptable rate of secondary amputations which lead to tremendous waste of resources and psychological devastation of the patient and his family. Gustilo Anderson's classification was a major milestone in grading the severity of injury but however suffers from the disadvantages of imprecise definition, a poor interobserver correlation, inability to address the issue of salvage and inclusion of a wide spectrum of injuries in Type IIIb category. Numerous scores such as Mangled Extremity Severity Score, the Predictive Salvage Index, the Limb Salvage Index, Hannover Fracture Scale-97 etc have been proposed but all have the disadvantage of retrospective evaluation, inadequate sample sizes and poor sensitivity and specificity to amputation, especially in IIIb injuries. The Ganga Hospital Open Injury Score (GHOIS) was proposed in 2004 and is designed to specifically address the outcome in IIIb injuries of the tibia without vascular deficit. It evaluates the severity of injury to the three components of the limb--the skin, the bone and the musculotendinous structures separately on a grade from 0 to 5. Seven comorbid factors which influence the treatment and the outcome are included in the score with two marks each. The application of the total score and the individual tissue scores in management of IIIB injuries is discussed. The total score was shown to predict salvage when the value was 14 or less; amputation when the score was 17 and more. A grey zone of 15 and 16 is provided where the decision making had to be made on a case to case basis. The additional value of GHOIS was its ability to guide the timing and type of reconstruction. A skin score of more than 3 always required a flap and hence it indicated the need for an orthoplastic approach from the index procedure. Bone

  9. Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 290

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  10. Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 293

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George; Archiable, Robert; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  11. Open Field Scoring Record No. 298

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Jr., Larry; Robitaille, George; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  12. Open Field Scoring Record No. 299

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  13. Translation and validation of the new version of the Knee Society Score - The 2011 KS Score - into Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriana Lucia Pastore E; Croci, Alberto Tesconi; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Hinckel, Betina Bremer; Pecora, José Ricardo; Demange, Marco Kawamura

    2017-01-01

    Translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of the new version of the Knee Society Score - The 2011 KS Score - into Brazilian Portuguese and verification of its measurement properties, reproducibility, and validity. In 2012, the new version of the Knee Society Score was developed and validated. This scale comprises four separate subscales: (a) objective knee score (seven items: 100 points); (b) patient satisfaction score (five items: 40 points); (c) patient expectations score (three items: 15 points); and (d) functional activity score (19 items: 100 points). A total of 90 patients aged 55-85 years were evaluated in a clinical cross-sectional study. The pre-operative translated version was applied to patients with TKA referral, and the post-operative translated version was applied to patients who underwent TKA. Each patient answered the same questionnaire twice and was evaluated by two experts in orthopedic knee surgery. Evaluations were performed pre-operatively and three, six, or 12 months post-operatively. The reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between the two applications. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha. The ICC found no difference between the means of the pre-operative, three-month, and six-month post-operative evaluations between sub-scale items. The Brazilian Portuguese version of The 2011 KS Score is a valid and reliable instrument for objective and subjective evaluation of the functionality of Brazilian patients who undergo TKA and revision TKA.

  14. The BRICS (Bronchiectasis Radiologically Indexed CT Score): A Multicenter Study Score for Use in Idiopathic and Postinfective Bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Pallavi; Chalmers, James D; Goeminne, Pieter C; Mai, Cindy; Saravanamuthu, Pira; Velu, Prasad Palani; Cartlidge, Manjit K; Loebinger, Michael R; Jacob, Joe; Kamal, Faisal; Schembri, Nicola; Aliberti, Stefano; Hill, Uta; Harrison, Mike; Johnson, Christopher; Screaton, Nicholas; Haworth, Charles; Polverino, Eva; Rosales, Edmundo; Torres, Antoni; Benegas, Michael N; Rossi, Adriano G; Patel, Dilip; Hill, Adam T

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a simplified radiological score that could assess clinical disease severity in bronchiectasis. The Bronchiectasis Radiologically Indexed CT Score (BRICS) was devised based on a multivariable analysis of the Bhalla score and its ability in predicting clinical parameters of severity. The score was then externally validated in six centers in 302 patients. A total of 184 high-resolution CT scans were scored for the validation cohort. In a multiple logistic regression model, disease severity markers significantly associated with the Bhalla score were percent predicted FEV 1 , sputum purulence, and exacerbations requiring hospital admission. Components of the Bhalla score that were significantly associated with the disease severity markers were bronchial dilatation and number of bronchopulmonary segments with emphysema. The BRICS was developed with these two parameters. The receiver operating-characteristic curve values for BRICS in the derivation cohort were 0.79 for percent predicted FEV 1 , 0.71 for sputum purulence, and 0.75 for hospital admissions per year; these values were 0.81, 0.70, and 0.70, respectively, in the validation cohort. Sputum free neutrophil elastase activity was significantly elevated in the group with emphysema on CT imaging. A simplified CT scoring system can be used as an adjunct to clinical parameters to predict disease severity in patients with idiopathic and postinfective bronchiectasis. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Interval Coded Scoring: a toolbox for interpretable scoring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Billiet

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, clinical decision support systems have been gaining importance. They help clinicians to make effective use of the overload of available information to obtain correct diagnoses and appropriate treatments. However, their power often comes at the cost of a black box model which cannot be interpreted easily. This interpretability is of paramount importance in a medical setting with regard to trust and (legal responsibility. In contrast, existing medical scoring systems are easy to understand and use, but they are often a simplified rule-of-thumb summary of previous medical experience rather than a well-founded system based on available data. Interval Coded Scoring (ICS connects these two approaches, exploiting the power of sparse optimization to derive scoring systems from training data. The presented toolbox interface makes this theory easily applicable to both small and large datasets. It contains two possible problem formulations based on linear programming or elastic net. Both allow to construct a model for a binary classification problem and establish risk profiles that can be used for future diagnosis. All of this requires only a few lines of code. ICS differs from standard machine learning through its model consisting of interpretable main effects and interactions. Furthermore, insertion of expert knowledge is possible because the training can be semi-automatic. This allows end users to make a trade-off between complexity and performance based on cross-validation results and expert knowledge. Additionally, the toolbox offers an accessible way to assess classification performance via accuracy and the ROC curve, whereas the calibration of the risk profile can be evaluated via a calibration curve. Finally, the colour-coded model visualization has particular appeal if one wants to apply ICS manually on new observations, as well as for validation by experts in the specific application domains. The validity and applicability

  16. High-Throughput Scoring of Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2017-01-01

    High-throughput analysis of seed germination for phenotyping large genetic populations or mutant collections is very labor intensive and would highly benefit from an automated setup. Although very often used, the total germination percentage after a nominated period of time is not very informative as it lacks information about start, rate, and uniformity of germination, which are highly indicative of such traits as dormancy, stress tolerance, and seed longevity. The calculation of cumulative germination curves requires information about germination percentage at various time points. We developed the GERMINATOR package: a simple, highly cost-efficient, and flexible procedure for high-throughput automatic scoring and evaluation of germination that can be implemented without the use of complex robotics. The GERMINATOR package contains three modules: (I) design of experimental setup with various options to replicate and randomize samples; (II) automatic scoring of germination based on the color contrast between the protruding radicle and seed coat on a single image; and (III) curve fitting of cumulative germination data and the extraction, recap, and visualization of the various germination parameters. GERMINATOR is a freely available package that allows the monitoring and analysis of several thousands of germination tests, several times a day by a single person.

  17. The Rectal Cancer Female Sexuality Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyø, Anne; Emmertsen, Katrine J; Laurberg, Søren

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction and impaired quality of life is a potential side effect to rectal cancer treatment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a simple scoring system intended to evaluate sexual function in women treated for rectal cancer. DESIGN......: This is a population-based cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: Female patients diagnosed with rectal cancer between 2001 and 2014 were identified by using the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group's database. Participants filled in the validated Sexual Function Vaginal Changes questionnaire. Women declared to be sexually active...... in the validation group. PATIENTS: Female patients with rectal cancer above the age of 18 who underwent abdominoperineal resection, Hartmann procedure, or total/partial mesorectal excision were selected. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measured was the quality of life that was negatively affected because...

  18. Exploring a Source of Uneven Score Equity across the Test Score Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne; Qiu, Yuxi; Penfield, Randall D.

    2018-01-01

    Score equity assessment (SEA) refers to an examination of population invariance of equating across two or more subpopulations of test examinees. Previous SEA studies have shown that score equity may be present for examinees scoring at particular test score ranges but absent for examinees scoring at other score ranges. No studies to date have…

  19. Association between sleep stages and hunger scores in 36 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, R; Pina, P; Rubin, D; Erichsen, D

    2016-10-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing health challenge. Recent studies show that children with late bedtime and late awakening are more obese independent of total sleep time. In adolescents and adults, a delayed sleep phase has been associated with higher caloric intake. Furthermore, an adult study showed a positive correlation between REM sleep and energy balance. This relationship has not been demonstrated in children. However, it may be important as a delayed sleep phase would increase the proportion of REM sleep. This study investigated the relationship between hunger score and sleep physiology in a paediatric population. Thirty-six patients referred for a polysomnogram for suspected obstructive sleep apnoea were enrolled in the study. Sleep stages were recorded as part of the polysomnogram. Hunger scores were obtained using a visual analogue scale. Mean age was 9.6 ± 3.5 years. Mean hunger scores were 2.07 ± 2.78. Hunger scores were positively correlated with percentage of total rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (r = 0.438, P hunger score (r = -0.360, P hunger scores. These findings suggest that delayed bedtime, which increases the proportion of REM sleep and decreases the proportion of SWS, results in higher hunger levels in children. © 2015 World Obesity.

  20. Total Quality Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  1. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...

  2. Evaluation of Scoring Skills and Non Scoring Skills in the Brazilian SuperLeague Women’s Volleyball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluizio Otávio Gouvêa Ferreira Oliveira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed all the games (n=253 from the 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 Seasons of Brazilian SuperLeague Women’s Volleyball, to identify the game-related factors that discriminate in favor of winning and losing teams. In the 2011/2012 Season, the Total Shares Setting (TAL and Total Points Attack (TPA were factors that discriminated in favor of a defeat. The factors that determined the victory were the Total Shares Serve (TAS, Total Shares Defense (TAD, Total Shares Reception (TAR and Total Defense Excellent (TDE. In the 2012/2013 Season, the factor (TAD most often discriminated in favor of victory and the factor that led to defeat was the Total Points Made (TPF. The scoring skills (TPA and (TPF discriminated against the final outcome of the game, but surprisingly are associated with defeat and the (TAS supposed to victory. The non-scoring skills (TAD, (TAR and (TDE discriminate the end result of the game and this may be associated with the victory. The non-scoring skill (TAL determines the outcome of the game and is supposedly associated with the defeat.

  3. The ERICE-score: the new native cardiovascular score for the low-risk and aged Mediterranean population of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Rafael; Brotons, Carlos; Tormo, M José; Segura, Antonio; Rigo, Fernando; Elosua, Roberto; Carbayo, Julio A; Gavrila, Diana; Moral, Irene; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Muñiz, Javier

    2015-03-01

    In Spain, data based on large population-based cohorts adequate to provide an accurate prediction of cardiovascular risk have been scarce. Thus, calibration of the EuroSCORE and Framingham scores has been proposed and done for our population. The aim was to develop a native risk prediction score to accurately estimate the individual cardiovascular risk in the Spanish population. Seven Spanish population-based cohorts including middle-aged and elderly participants were assembled. There were 11800 people (6387 women) representing 107915 person-years of follow-up. A total of 1214 cardiovascular events were identified, of which 633 were fatal. Cox regression analyses were conducted to examine the contributions of the different variables to the 10-year total cardiovascular risk. Age was the strongest cardiovascular risk factor. High systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus and smoking were strong predictive factors. The contribution of serum total cholesterol was small. Antihypertensive treatment also had a significant impact on cardiovascular risk, greater in men than in women. The model showed a good discriminative power (C-statistic=0.789 in men and C=0.816 in women). Ten-year risk estimations are displayed graphically in risk charts separately for men and women. The ERICE is a new native cardiovascular risk score for the Spanish population derived from the background and contemporaneous risk of several Spanish cohorts. The ERICE score offers the direct and reliable estimation of total cardiovascular risk, taking in consideration the effect of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular risk factor management. The ERICE score is a practical and useful tool for clinicians to estimate the total individual cardiovascular risk in Spain. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  5. Dutch validation of the low anterior resection syndrome score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupkens, B J P; Breukink, S O; Olde Reuver Of Briel, C; Tanis, P J; de Noo, M E; van Duijvendijk, P; van Westreenen, H L; Dekker, J W T; Chen, T Y T; Juul, T

    2018-04-21

    The aim of this study was to validate the Dutch translation of the low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) score in a population of Dutch rectal cancer patients. Patients who underwent surgery for rectal cancer received the LARS score questionnaire, a single quality of life (QoL) category question and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 questionnaire. A subgroup of patients received the LARS score twice to assess the test-retest reliability. A total of 165 patients were included in the analysis, identified in six Dutch centres. The response rate was 62.0%. The percentage of patients who reported 'major LARS' was 59.4%. There was a high proportion of patients with a perfect or moderate fit between the QoL category question and the LARS score, showing a good convergent validity. The LARS score was able to discriminate between patients with or without neoadjuvant radiotherapy (P = 0.003), between total and partial mesorectal excision (P = 0.008) and between age groups (P = 0.039). There was a statistically significant association between a higher LARS score and an impaired function on the global QoL subscale and the physical, role, emotional and social functioning subscales of the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. The test-retest reliability of the LARS score was good, with an interclass correlation coefficient of 0.79. The good psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the LARS score are comparable overall to the earlier validations in other countries. Therefore, the Dutch translation can be considered to be a valid tool for assessing LARS in Dutch rectal cancer patients. Colorectal Disease © 2018 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  7. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  8. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  9. Evaluation of the NICE mini-GRACE risk scores for acute myocardial infarction using the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (MINAP) 2003-2009: National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research (NICOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Alexander D; Reynolds, Stephanie; Pieper, Karen; Baxter, Paul D; Cattle, Brian A; Batin, Phillip D; Wilson, John I; Deanfield, John E; West, Robert M; Fox, Keith A A; Hall, Alistair S; Gale, Christopher P

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) mini-Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) (MG) and adjusted mini-GRACE (AMG) risk scores. Retrospective observational study. 215 acute hospitals in England and Wales. 137 084 patients discharged from hospital with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between 2003 and 2009, as recorded in the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (MINAP). Model performance indices of calibration accuracy, discriminative and explanatory performance, including net reclassification index (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement. Of 495 263 index patients hospitalised with AMI, there were 53 196 ST elevation myocardial infarction and 83 888 non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) (27.7%) cases with complete data for all AMG variables. For AMI, AMG calibration was better than MG calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test: p=0.33 vs pModel performance was reduced in patients with NSTEMI, chronic heart failure, chronic renal failure and in patients aged ≥85 years. The AMG and MG risk scores, utilised by NICE, demonstrated good performance across a range of indices using MINAP data, but performed less well in higher risk subgroups. Although indices were better for AMG, its application may be constrained by missing predictors.

  10. Spinal appearance questionnaire: factor analysis, scoring, reliability, and validity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Leah Y; Sanders, James O; Polly, David W; Sucato, Daniel J; Parent, Stefan; Roy-Beaudry, Marjolaine; Hopkins, Jeffrey; McClung, Anna; Bratcher, Kelly R; Diamond, Beverly E

    2011-08-15

    Cross sectional. This study presents the factor analysis of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and its psychometric properties. Although the SAQ has been administered to a large sample of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) treated surgically, its psychometric properties have not been fully evaluated. This study presents the factor analysis and scoring of the SAQ and evaluates its psychometric properties. The SAQ and the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) were administered to AIS patients who were being observed, braced or scheduled for surgery. Standard demographic data and radiographic measures including Lenke type and curve magnitude were also collected. Of the 1802 patients, 83% were female; with a mean age of 14.8 years and mean initial Cobb angle of 55.8° (range, 0°-123°). From the 32 items of the SAQ, 15 loaded on two factors with consistent and significant correlations across all Lenke types. There is an Appearance (items 1-10) and an Expectations factor (items 12-15). Responses are summed giving a range of 5 to 50 for the Appearance domain and 5 to 20 for the Expectations domain. The Cronbach's α was 0.88 for both domains and Total score with a test-retest reliability of 0.81 for Appearance and 0.91 for Expectations. Correlations with major curve magnitude were higher for the SAQ Appearance and SAQ Total scores compared to correlations between the SRS Appearance and SRS Total scores. The SAQ and SRS-22 Scores were statistically significantly different in patients who were scheduled for surgery compared to those who were observed or braced. The SAQ is a valid measure of self-image in patients with AIS with greater correlation to curve magnitude than SRS Appearance and Total score. It also discriminates between patients who require surgery from those who do not.

  11. The importance of'goodness of fit' between organizational culture and climate in the management of change: a case study in the development of online learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald W. McMurray

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Education Association in the USA in a recently released report entitled 'Quality on the line' (National Education Association, 2000 identified twenty-four quality measures as being essential to ensuring excellence in Internet-based learning. While establishing best practice benchmarks for the provision of quality online distance education, the report does not fully address important policy issues in relation to the role of technology in the selection of appropriate teaching and learning strategies. Furthermore, it does not address the important question of the management of organizational change in today's higher education environment. This paper explores the nexus between organizational culture and organizational climate in the management of change process by presenting a case study of an Australian regional university currently undertaking the development of online courses.

  12. How Should We Assess the Fit of Rasch-Type Models? Approximating the Power of Goodness-of-Fit Statistics in Categorical Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto; Montano, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the performance of three statistics, R [subscript 1], R [subscript 2] (Glas in "Psychometrika" 53:525-546, 1988), and M [subscript 2] (Maydeu-Olivares & Joe in "J. Am. Stat. Assoc." 100:1009-1020, 2005, "Psychometrika" 71:713-732, 2006) to assess the overall fit of a one-parameter logistic model…

  13. A Critical Examination of Figure of Merit (FOM). Assessing the Goodness-of-Fit in Gamma/X-ray Peak Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Favalli, Andrea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Weaver, Brian Phillip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Burr, Thomas Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McElroy, R. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-06

    In this paper we develop and investigate several criteria for assessing how well a proposed spectral form fits observed spectra. We consider the classical improved figure of merit (FOM) along with several modifications, as well as criteria motivated by Poisson regression from the statistical literature. We also develop a new FOM that is based on the statistical idea of the bootstrap. A spectral simulator has been developed to assess the performance of these different criteria under multiple data configurations.

  14. Total 2004 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  15. Total synthesis of ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Akinari; Isobe, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Something fishy: Ciguatoxin (see structure) is one of the principal toxins involved in ciguatera poisoning and the target of a total synthesis involving the coupling of three segments. The key transformations in this synthesis feature acetylene-dicobalthexacarbonyl complexation.

  16. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  17. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty....

  18. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Feb-23...

  19. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    There has been a decline in the rate of hysterectomies in Denmark in general over the last thirteen years, together with a rise in the number of supravaginal operations over the last two years. The literature concerning the relative merits of the supravaginal and the total abdominal operation is ...... indicate a reduced frequency of orgasm after the total hysterectomy compared with the supravaginal operation. When there are technical problems peroperatively with an increased urologic risk the supravaginal operation is recommended....

  20. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  1. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  2. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  3. Reliable scar scoring system to assess photographs of burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecott, Gabriel A; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M; Branski, Ludwik K; Hegde, Sachin; Kraft, Robert; Williams, Felicia N; Maldonado, Susana A; Rivero, Haidy G; Rodriguez-Escobar, Noe; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-12-01

    Several scar-scoring scales exist to clinically monitor burn scar development and maturation. Although scoring scars through direct clinical examination is ideal, scars must sometimes be scored from photographs. No scar scale currently exists for the latter purpose. We modified a previously described scar scale (Yeong et al., J Burn Care Rehabil 1997) and tested the reliability of this new scale in assessing burn scars from photographs. The new scale consisted of three parameters as follows: scar height, surface appearance, and color mismatch. Each parameter was assigned a score of 1 (best) to 4 (worst), generating a total score of 3-12. Five physicians with burns training scored 120 representative photographs using the original and modified scales. Reliability was analyzed using coefficient of agreement, Cronbach alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient, variance, and coefficient of variance. Analysis of variance was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Color mismatch and scar height scores were validated by analyzing actual height and color differences. The intraclass correlation coefficient, the coefficient of agreement, and Cronbach alpha were higher for the modified scale than those of the original scale. The original scale produced more variance than that in the modified scale. Subanalysis demonstrated that, for all categories, the modified scale had greater correlation and reliability than the original scale. The correlation between color mismatch scores and actual color differences was 0.84 and between scar height scores and actual height was 0.81. The modified scar scale is a simple, reliable, and useful scale for evaluating photographs of burn patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Computer-Assisted Automated Scoring of Polysomnograms Using the Somnolyzer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjabi, Naresh M; Shifa, Naima; Dorffner, Georg; Patil, Susheel; Pien, Grace; Aurora, Rashmi N

    2015-10-01

    Manual scoring of polysomnograms is a time-consuming and tedious process. To expedite the scoring of polysomnograms, several computerized algorithms for automated scoring have been developed. The overarching goal of this study was to determine the validity of the Somnolyzer system, an automated system for scoring polysomnograms. The analysis sample comprised of 97 sleep studies. Each polysomnogram was manually scored by certified technologists from four sleep laboratories and concurrently subjected to automated scoring by the Somnolyzer system. Agreement between manual and automated scoring was examined. Sleep staging and scoring of disordered breathing events was conducted using the 2007 American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria. Clinical sleep laboratories. A high degree of agreement was noted between manual and automated scoring of the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). The average correlation between the manually scored AHI across the four clinical sites was 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.90-0.93). Similarly, the average correlation between the manual and Somnolyzer-scored AHI values was 0.93 (95% confidence interval: 0.91-0.96). Thus, interscorer correlation between the manually scored results was no different than that derived from manual and automated scoring. Substantial concordance in the arousal index, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency between manual and automated scoring was also observed. In contrast, differences were noted between manually and automated scored percentages of sleep stages N1, N2, and N3. Automated analysis of polysomnograms using the Somnolyzer system provides results that are comparable to manual scoring for commonly used metrics in sleep medicine. Although differences exist between manual versus automated scoring for specific sleep stages, the level of agreement between manual and automated scoring is not significantly different than that between any two human scorers. In light of the burden associated with manual scoring, automated

  5. Linkage between company scores and stock returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saban Celik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on company scores conducted at firm-level, generally concluded that there exists a positive relation between company scores and stock returns. Motivated by these studies, this study examines the relationship between company scores (Corporate Governance Score, Economic Score, Environmental Score, and Social Score and stock returns, both at portfolio-level analysis and firm-level cross-sectional regressions. In portfolio-level analysis, stocks are sorted based on each company scores and quintile portfolio are formed with different levels of company scores. Then, existence and significance of raw returns and risk-adjusted returns difference between portfolios with the extreme company scores (portfolio 10 and portfolio 1 is tested. In addition, firm-level cross-sectional regression is performed to examine the significance of company scores effects with control variables. While portfolio-level analysis results indicate that there is no significant relation between company scores and stock returns; firm-level analysis indicates that economic, environmental, and social scores have effect on stock returns, however, significance and direction of these effects change, depending on the included control variables in the cross-sectional regression.

  6. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  7. Cardiovascular risk scores for coronary atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Murat; Kardesoglu, Ejder; Aparci, Mustafa; Isilak, Zafer; Uz, Omer; Yiginer, Omer; Ozmen, Namik; Cingozbay, Bekir Yilmaz; Uzun, Mehmet; Cebeci, Bekir Sitki

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare frequently used cardiovascular risk scores in predicting the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and 3-vessel disease. In 350 consecutive patients (218 men and 132 women) who underwent coronary angiography, the cardiovascular risk level was determined using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), the Modified Framingham Risk Score (MFRS), the Prospective Cardiovascular Münster (PROCAM) score, and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). The area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic curves showed that FRS had more predictive value than the other scores for CAD (area under curve, 0.76, P MFRS, PROCAM, and SCORE) may predict the presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis.The FRS had better predictive value than the other scores.

  8. SCORE DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY: THE CONVERGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Explores the role of digital scorewriters in today's culture, education, and music industry and media environment. The main principle of the development of software is not only publishing innovation (relating to the sheet music, and integration into the area of composition, arrangement, education, creative process for works based on digital technology (films, television and radio broadcasting, Internet, audio and video art. Therefore the own convergence of musically-computer technology is a total phenomenon: notation program combined with means MIDI-sequencer, audio and video editor. The article contains the unique interview with the creator of music notation processors.

  9. Total versus subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Anna Birthe

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications, with regard to urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, quality of life (SF-36), constipation, prolapse, satisfaction with sexual life, and pelvic pain at 1-year postoperative. Eighty...... women chose total and 105 women chose subtotal abdominal hysterectomy. No significant differences were found between the 2 operation methods in any of the outcome measures at 12 months. Fourteen women (15%) from the subtotal abdominal hysterectomy group experienced vaginal bleeding and three women had...

  10. Qualità totale e mobilità totale Total Quality and Total Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission’s White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on

  11. Nursing Activities Score and Acute Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Filipe Utuari de Andrade; Watanabe, Mirian; Fonseca, Cassiane Dezoti da; Padilha, Katia Grillo; Vattimo, Maria de Fátima Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    to evaluate the nursing workload in intensive care patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). A quantitative study, conducted in an intensive care unit, from April to August of 2015. The Nursing Activities Score (NAS) and Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) were used to measure nursing workload and to classify the stage of AKI, respectively. A total of 190 patients were included. Patients who developed AKI (44.2%) had higher NAS when compared to those without AKI (43.7% vs 40.7%), p <0.001. Patients with stage 1, 2 and 3 AKI showed higher NAS than those without AKI. A relationship was identified between stage 2 and 3 with those without AKI (p = 0.002 and p <0.001). The NAS was associated with the presence of AKI, the score increased with the progression of the stages, and it was associated with AKI, stage 2 and 3. avaliar a carga de trabalho de enfermagem em pacientes de terapia intensiva com lesão renal aguda (LRA). estudo quantitativo, em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, no período de abril a agosto de 2015. O Nursing Activities Score (NAS) e o Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) foram utilizados para medir a carga de trabalho de enfermagem e classificar o estágio da LRA, respectivamente. foram incluídos 190 pacientes. Os pacientes que desenvolveram LRA (44,2%) possuíam NAS superiores quando comparados aos sem LRA (43,7% vs 40,7%), p<0,001. Os pacientes com LRA nos estágios 1, 2 e 3 de LRA demonstraram NAS superiores aos sem LRA, houve relação entre os estágios 2 e 3 com os sem LRA, p=0,002 e p<0,001. o NAS apresentou associação com a existência de LRA, visto que seu valor aumenta com a progressão dos estágios, tendo associação com os estágios 2 e 3 de LRA.

  12. High Baseline Postconcussion Symptom Scores and Concussion Outcomes in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Aimee; Sufrinko, Alicia; Elbin, R J; Covassin, Tracey; Collins, Micky; Kontos, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    Some healthy athletes report high levels of baseline concussion symptoms, which may be attributable to several factors (eg, illness, personality, somaticizing). However, the role of baseline symptoms in outcomes after sport-related concussion (SRC) has not been empirically examined. To determine if athletes with high symptom scores at baseline performed worse than athletes without baseline symptoms on neurocognitive testing after SRC. Cohort study. High school and collegiate athletic programs. A total of 670 high school and collegiate athletes participated in the study. Participants were divided into groups with either no baseline symptoms (Postconcussion Symptom Scale [PCSS] score = 0, n = 247) or a high level of baseline symptoms (PCSS score > 18 [top 10% of sample], n = 68). Participants were evaluated at baseline and 2 to 7 days after SRC with the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test and PCSS. Outcome measures were Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test composite scores (verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor processing speed, and reaction time) and total symptom score on the PCSS. The groups were compared using repeated-measures analyses of variance with Bonferroni correction to assess interactions between group and time for symptoms and neurocognitive impairment. The no-symptoms group represented 38% of the original sample, whereas the high-symptoms group represented 11% of the sample. The high-symptoms group experienced a larger decline from preinjury to postinjury than the no-symptoms group in verbal (P = .03) and visual memory (P = .05). However, total concussion-symptom scores increased from preinjury to postinjury for the no-symptoms group (P = .001) but remained stable for the high-symptoms group. Reported baseline symptoms may help identify athletes at risk for worse outcomes after SRC. Clinicians should examine baseline symptom levels to better identify patients for earlier referral and treatment for their

  13. Risk score for contrast induced nephropathy following percutaneous coronary intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghani, Amal Abdel; Tohamy, Khalid Y.

    2009-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is an important cause of acute renal failure. Identification of risk factors of CIN and creating a simple risk scoring for CIN after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is important. A prospective single center study was conducted in Kuwait chest disease hospital. All patients admitted to chest disease hospital for PCI from March to May 2005 were included in the study. Total of 247 patients were randomly assigned for the development dataset and 100 for the validation set using the simple random method. The overall occurrence of CIN in the development set was 5.52%. Using multivariate analysis; basal Serum creatinine, shock, female gender, multivessel PCI, and diabetes mellitus were identified as risk factors. Scores assigned to different variables yielded basal creatinine > 115 micron mol/L with the highest score(7), followed by shock (3), female gender, multivessel PCI and diabetes mellitus had the same score (2). Patients were further risk stratified into low risk score ( 1 2). The developed CIN model demonstrated good discriminative power in the validation population. In conclusion, use of a simple risk score for CIN can predict the probability of CIN after PCI; this however needs further validation in larger multicenter trials. (author)

  14. Interobserver variability of the neurological optimality score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monincx, W. M.; Smolders-de Haas, H.; Bonsel, G. J.; Zondervan, H. A.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the interobserver reliability of the neurological optimality score. The neurological optimality score of 21 full term healthy, neurologically normal newborn infants was determined by two well trained observers. The interclass correlation coefficient was 0.31. Kappa for optimality (score of

  15. Semiparametric score level fusion: Gaussian copula approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susyanyo, N.; Klaassen, C.A.J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2015-01-01

    Score level fusion is an appealing method for combining multi-algorithms, multi- representations, and multi-modality biometrics due to its simplicity. Often, scores are assumed to be independent, but even for dependent scores, accord- ing to the Neyman-Pearson lemma, the likelihood ratio is the

  16. An Objective Fluctuation Score for Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Malcolm K.; McGregor, Sarah; Bergquist, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Establishing the presence and severity of fluctuations is important in managing Parkinson’s Disease yet there is no reliable, objective means of doing this. In this study we have evaluated a Fluctuation Score derived from variations in dyskinesia and bradykinesia scores produced by an accelerometry based system. Methods The Fluctuation Score was produced by summing the interquartile range of bradykinesia scores and dyskinesia scores produced every 2 minutes between 0900-1800 for at least 6 days by the accelerometry based system and expressing it as an algorithm. Results This Score could distinguish between fluctuating and non-fluctuating patients with high sensitivity and selectivity and was significant lower following activation of deep brain stimulators. The scores following deep brain stimulation lay in a band just above the score separating fluctuators from non-fluctuators, suggesting a range representing adequate motor control. When compared with control subjects the score of newly diagnosed patients show a loss of fluctuation with onset of PD. The score was calculated in subjects whose duration of disease was known and this showed that newly diagnosed patients soon develop higher scores which either fall under or within the range representing adequate motor control or instead go on to develop more severe fluctuations. Conclusion The Fluctuation Score described here promises to be a useful tool for identifying patients whose fluctuations are progressing and may require therapeutic changes. It also shows promise as a useful research tool. Further studies are required to more accurately identify therapeutic targets and ranges. PMID:25928634

  17. Breaking of scored tablets : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, E; Barends, D M; Frijlink, H W

    The literature was reviewed regarding advantages, problems and performance indicators of score lines. Scored tablets provide dose flexibility, ease of swallowing and may reduce the costs of medication. However, many patients are confronted with scored tablets that are broken unequally and with

  18. Validation of Automated Scoring of Science Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Rios, Joseph A.; Heilman, Michael; Gerard, Libby; Linn, Marcia C.

    2016-01-01

    Constructed response items can both measure the coherence of student ideas and serve as reflective experiences to strengthen instruction. We report on new automated scoring technologies that can reduce the cost and complexity of scoring constructed-response items. This study explored the accuracy of c-rater-ML, an automated scoring engine…

  19. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  20. Total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novack, D.H.; Kiley, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The multitude of papers and conferences in recent years on the use of very large megavoltage radiation fields indicates an increased interest in total body, hemibody, and total nodal radiotherapy for various clinical situations. These include high dose total body irradiation (TBI) to destroy the bone marrow and leukemic cells and provide immunosuppression prior to a bone marrow transplant, high dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) prior to bone marrow transplantation in severe aplastic anemia, low dose TBI in the treatment of lymphocytic leukemias or lymphomas, and hemibody irradiation (HBI) in the treatment of advanced multiple myeloma. Although accurate provision of a specific dose and the desired degree of dose homogeneity are two of the physicist's major considerations for all radiotherapy techniques, these tasks are even more demanding for large field radiotherapy. Because most large field radiotherapy is done at an extended distance for complex patient geometries, basic dosimetry data measured at the standard distance (isocenter) must be verified or supplemented. This paper discusses some of the special dosimetric problems of large field radiotherapy, with specific examples given of the dosimetry of the TBI program for bone marrow transplant at the authors' hospital

  1. Total design of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of design as an art made not only for the people, but also by the people is an old dream going back at least to William Morris. It is, however, reappearing vigoriously in many kinds of design activism and grows out of the visions of a Total Design of society. The ideas of participation b...

  2. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  3. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  4. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental methods using real photon beams for measurements of total photonuclear absorption cross section σ(Tot : E/sub γ/) are recalled. Most recent σ(Tot : E/sub γ/)results for complex nuclei and in the nucleon resonance region are presented

  5. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  6. Total Water Management - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  7. A comparative study on assessment procedures and metric properties of two scoring systems of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised items: standard and modified scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattin, Davide; Lovaglio, Piergiorgio; Brenna, Greta; Covelli, Venusia; Rossi Sebastiano, Davide; Duran, Dunja; Minati, Ludovico; Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Rosazza, Cristina; Bersano, Anna; Nigri, Anna; Ferraro, Stefania; Leonardi, Matilde

    2017-09-01

    The study compared the metric characteristics (discriminant capacity and factorial structure) of two different methods for scoring the items of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised and it analysed scale scores collected using the standard assessment procedure and a new proposed method. Cross sectional design/methodological study. Inpatient, neurological unit. A total of 153 patients with disorders of consciousness were consecutively enrolled between 2011 and 2013. All patients were assessed with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised using standard (rater 1) and inverted (rater 2) procedures. Coma Recovery Scale-Revised score, number of cognitive and reflex behaviours and diagnosis. Regarding patient assessment, rater 1 using standard and rater 2 using inverted procedures obtained the same best scores for each subscale of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised for all patients, so no clinical (and statistical) difference was found between the two procedures. In 11 patients (7.7%), rater 2 noted that some Coma Recovery Scale-Revised codified behavioural responses were not found during assessment, although higher response categories were present. A total of 51 (36%) patients presented the same Coma Recovery Scale-Revised scores of 7 or 8 using a standard score, whereas no overlap was found using the modified score. Unidimensionality was confirmed for both score systems. The Coma Recovery Scale Modified Score showed a higher discriminant capacity than the standard score and a monofactorial structure was also supported. The inverted assessment procedure could be a useful evaluation method for the assessment of patients with disorder of consciousness diagnosis.

  8. Total 2003 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the 2003 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, 4. quarter 2003 results, full year 2003 results, upstream (key figures, proved reserves), downstream key figures, chemicals key figures, parent company accounts and proposed dividends, 2004 sensitivities, summary and outlook, operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2003: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refinery throughput by region, refined product sales by region, chemicals), impact of allocating contribution of Cepsa to net operating income by business segment: equity in income (loss) and affiliates and other items, Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  9. TOTAL PERFORMANCE SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca ȘERBAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of the Balanced Scorecard from a measurement instrument to a strategic performance management tool and to highlight the advantages of implementing the Total Performance Scorecard, especially for Human Resource Management. The study has been accomplished using the methodology of bibliographic study and various secondary sources. Implementing the classical Balanced Scorecard indicated over the years, repeatedly failure. It can be indicated that the crucial level is determined by the learning and growth perspective. It has been developed from a human perspective, which focused on staff satisfaction, innovation perspective with focus on future developments. Integrating the Total Performance Scorecard in an overall framework assures the company’s success, by keeping track of the individual goals, the company’s objectives and strategic directions. Like this, individual identity can be linked to corporate brand, individual aspirations to business goals and individual learning objectives to needed organizational capabilities.

  10. Totally parallel multilevel algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1988-01-01

    Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.

  11. Total space in resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonacina, I.; Galesi, N.; Thapen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2016), s. 1894-1909 ISSN 0097-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : total space * resolution random CNFs * proof complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/15M1023269

  12. MFTF TOTAL benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, J.H.

    1979-06-01

    A benchmark of the TOTAL data base management system as applied to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) data base was implemented and run in February and March of 1979. The benchmark was run on an Interdata 8/32 and involved the following tasks: (1) data base design, (2) data base generation, (3) data base load, and (4) develop and implement programs to simulate MFTF usage of the data base

  13. Total - annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities and results of TOTAL S.A., french society on oil and gas. It deals with statistics, the managers, key information on financial data and risk factors, information on the Company, unresolved Staff Comments, employees, major Shareholders, consolidated statements, markets, security, financial risks, defaults dividend arrearages and delinquencies, controls and procedures, code of ethics and financial statements. (A.L.B.)

  14. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  15. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  16. Key performance indicators score (KPIs-score) based on clinical and laboratorial parameters can establish benchmarks for internal quality control in an ART program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, José G; Petersen, Claudia G; Mauri, Ana L; Vagnini, Laura D; Renzi, Adriana; Petersen, Bruna; Mattila, M C; Comar, Vanessa A; Ricci, Juliana; Dieamant, Felipe; Oliveira, João Batista A; Baruffi, Ricardo L R

    2017-06-01

    KPIs have been employed for internal quality control (IQC) in ART. However, clinical KPIs (C-KPIs) such as age, AMH and number of oocytes collected are never added to laboratory KPIs (L-KPIs), such as fertilization rate and morphological quality of the embryos for analysis, even though the final endpoint is the evaluation of clinical pregnancy rates. This paper analyzed if a KPIs-score strategy with clinical and laboratorial parameters could be used to establish benchmarks for IQC in ART cycles. In this prospective cohort study, 280 patients (36.4±4.3years) underwent ART. The total KPIs-score was obtained by the analysis of age, AMH (AMH Gen II ELISA/pre-mixing modified, Beckman Coulter Inc.), number of metaphase-II oocytes, fertilization rates and morphological quality of the embryonic lot. The total KPIs-score (C-KPIs+L-KPIs) was correlated with the presence or absence of clinical pregnancy. The relationship between the C-KPIs and L-KPIs scores was analyzed to establish quality standards, to increase the performance of clinical and laboratorial processes in ART. The logistic regression model (LRM), with respect to pregnancy and total KPIs-score (280 patients/102 clinical pregnancies), yielded an odds ratio of 1.24 (95%CI = 1.16-1.32). There was also a significant difference (pclinical pregnancies (total KPIs-score=20.4±3.7) and the group without clinical pregnancies (total KPIs-score=15.9±5). Clinical pregnancy probabilities (CPP) can be obtained using the LRM (prediction key) with the total KPIs-score as a predictor variable. The mean C-KPIs and L-KPIs scores obtained in the pregnancy group were 11.9±2.9 and 8.5±1.7, respectively. Routinely, in all cases where the C-KPIs score was ≥9, after the procedure, the L-KPIs score obtained was ≤6, a revision of the laboratory procedure was performed to assess quality standards. This total KPIs-score could set up benchmarks for clinical pregnancy. Moreover, IQC can use C-KPIs and L-KPIs scores to detect problems

  17. External Validation and Evaluation of Reliability and Validity of the Modified Seoul National University Renal Stone Complexity Scoring System to Predict Stone-Free Status After Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juhyun; Kang, Minyong; Jeong, Chang Wook; Oh, Sohee; Lee, Jeong Woo; Lee, Seung Bae; Son, Hwancheol; Jeong, Hyeon; Cho, Sung Yong

    2015-08-01

    The modified Seoul National University Renal Stone Complexity scoring system (S-ReSC-R) for retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) was developed as a tool to predict stone-free rate (SFR) after RIRS. We externally validated the S-ReSC-R. We retrospectively reviewed 159 patients who underwent RIRS. The S-ReSC-R was assigned from 1 to 12 according to the location and number of sites involved. The stone-free status was defined as no evidence of a stone or with clinically insignificant residual fragment stones less than 2 mm. Interobserver and test-retest reliabilities were evaluated. Statistical performance of the prediction model was assessed by its predictive accuracy, predictive probability, and clinical usefulness. Overall SFR was 73.0%. The SFRs were 86.7%, 70.2%, and 48.6% in low-score (1-2), intermediate-score (3-4), and high-score (5-12) groups, respectively (pR revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.731 (95% CI 0.650-0.813). The AUC of the three-titered S-ReSC-R was 0.701 (95% CI 0.609-0.794). The calibration plot showed that the predicted probability of SFR had a concordance comparable to that of observed frequency. The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test revealed a p-value of 0.01 for the S-ReSC-R and 0.90 for the three-titered S-ReSC-R. Interobserver and test-retest reliabilities revealed an almost perfect level of agreement. The present study proved the predictive value of S-ReSC-R to predict SFR following RIRS in an independent cohort. Interobserver and test-retest reliabilities confirmed that S-ReSC-R was reliable and valid.

  18. Oswestry Disability Index scoring made easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, A; Baker, D; Disney, S; Pynsent, P B

    2008-09-01

    Low back pain effects up to 80% of the population at some time during their active life. Questionnaires are available to help measure pain and disability. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is the most commonly used outcome measure for low back pain. The aim of this study was to see if training in completing the ODI forms improved the scoring accuracy. The last 100 ODI forms completed in a hospital's spinal clinic were reviewed retrospectively and errors in the scoring were identified. Staff members involved in scoring the questionnaire were made aware of the errors and the correct method of scoring explained. A chart was created with all possible scores to aid the staff with scoring. A prospective audit on 50 questionnaires was subsequently performed. The retrospective study showed that 33 of the 100 forms had been incorrectly scored. All questionnaires where one or more sections were not completed by the patient were incorrectly scored. A scoring chart was developed and staff training was implemented. This reduced the error rate to 14% in the prospective audit. Clinicians applying outcome measures should read the appropriate literature to ensure they understand the scoring system. Staff must then be given adequate training in the application of the questionnaires.

  19. Combination of scoring schemes for protein docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schomburg Dietmar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Docking algorithms are developed to predict in which orientation two proteins are likely to bind under natural conditions. The currently used methods usually consist of a sampling step followed by a scoring step. We developed a weighted geometric correlation based on optimised atom specific weighting factors and combined them with our previously published amino acid specific scoring and with a comprehensive SVM-based scoring function. Results The scoring with the atom specific weighting factors yields better results than the amino acid specific scoring. In combination with SVM-based scoring functions the percentage of complexes for which a near native structure can be predicted within the top 100 ranks increased from 14% with the geometric scoring to 54% with the combination of all scoring functions. Especially for the enzyme-inhibitor complexes the results of the ranking are excellent. For half of these complexes a near-native structure can be predicted within the first 10 proposed structures and for more than 86% of all enzyme-inhibitor complexes within the first 50 predicted structures. Conclusion We were able to develop a combination of different scoring schemes which considers a series of previously described and some new scoring criteria yielding a remarkable improvement of prediction quality.

  20. Forecasting the value of credit scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Shakila; Ahmad, Noryati; Jaffar, Maheran Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, credit scoring system plays an important role in banking sector. This process is important in assessing the creditworthiness of customers requesting credit from banks or other financial institutions. Usually, the credit scoring is used when customers send the application for credit facilities. Based on the score from credit scoring, bank will be able to segregate the "good" clients from "bad" clients. However, in most cases the score is useful at that specific time only and cannot be used to forecast the credit worthiness of the same applicant after that. Hence, bank will not know if "good" clients will always be good all the time or "bad" clients may become "good" clients after certain time. To fill up the gap, this study proposes an equation to forecast the credit scoring of the potential borrowers at a certain time by using the historical score related to the assumption. The Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) is used to measure the accuracy of the forecast scoring. Result shows the forecast scoring is highly accurate as compared to actual credit scoring.

  1. Development of the siriraj clinical asthma score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichyanond, Pakit; Veskitkul, Jittima; Rienmanee, Nuanphong; Pacharn, Punchama; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong

    2013-09-01

    Acute asthmatic attack in children commonly occurs despite the introduction of effective controllers such as inhaled corticosteroids and leukotriene modifiers. Treatment of acute asthmatic attack requires proper evaluation of attack severity and appropriate selection of medical therapy. In children, measurement of lung function is difficult during acute attack and thus clinical asthma scoring may aid physician in making further decision regarding treatment and admission. We enrolled 70 children with acute asthmatic attack with age range from 1 to 12 years (mean ± SD = 51.5 ± 31.8 months) into the study. Twelve selected asthma severity items were assessed by 2 independent observers prior to administration of salbutamol nebulization (up to 3 doses at 20 minutes interval). Decision for further therapy and admission was made by emergency department physician. Three different scoring systems were constructed from items with best validity. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of these scores were assessed. Inter-rater reliability was assessed for each score. Review of previous scoring systems was also conducted and reported. Three severity items had poor validity, i.e., cyanosis, depressed cerebral function, and I:E ratio (p > 0.05). Three items had poor inter-rater reliability, i.e., breath sound quality, air entry, and I:E ratio. These items were omitted and three new clinical scores were constructed from the remaining items. Clinical scoring system comprised retractions, dyspnea, O2 saturation, respiratory rate and wheezing (rangeof score 0-10) gave the best accuracy and inter-rater variability and were chosen for clinical use-Siriraj Clinical Asthma Score (SCAS). A Clinical Asthma Score that is simple, relatively easy to administer and with good validity and variability is essential for treatment of acute asthma in children. Several good candidate scores have been introduced in the past. We described the development of the Siriraj Clinical Asthma Score (SCAS) in

  2. Total Synthesis of Hyperforin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chi P; Maimone, Thomas J

    2015-08-26

    A 10-step total synthesis of the polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol (PPAP) natural product hyperforin from 2-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is reported. This route was enabled by a diketene annulation reaction and an oxidative ring expansion strategy designed to complement the presumed biosynthesis of this complex meroterpene. The described work enables the preparation of a highly substituted bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-1,3,5-trione motif in only six steps and thus serves as a platform for the construction of easily synthesized, highly diverse PPAPs modifiable at every position.

  3. Total quality is people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Confronted by changing market conditions and increased global competition, in 1983 the Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division (CNFD) of Westinghouse Electric embarked on an ambitious plan to make total quality the centerpiece of its long-term business strategy. Five years later, the division's efforts in making continuous quality improvement a way of life among its more than 2,000 employees gained national recognition when it was named a charter recipient of the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award. What CNFD achieved during the 1980s was a cultural transformation, characterized by an empowered work force committed to a common vision. The company's quality program development strategy is described

  4. Total quality accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijašević Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of competitive "battle" shifted from the price towards non-price instruments, above all, towards quality that became the key variable for profitability increase and achievement of better comparative position of a company. Under such conditions, management of a company, which, according to the established and certified system of total quality, strives towards achieving of a better market position, faces the problem of quality cost measurement and determination. Management, above all, cost accounting can help in solving of this problem, but the question is how much of its potential is being used for that purpose.

  5. Total_Aktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2008-01-01

    digitale medier er registreringen og muligheden for at opbevare og håndtere digital data uden begrænsninger. Oplevelse, registrering og bevaring knyttes sammen i en ny museal virkelighed, hvor samlingens særlige dokumentariske karakter og fokus, som er unikt for Museet for Samtidskunst, er i centrum...... at mikse deres personlige drinks. TOTAL_AKTION viser Hørbar#3, som er en videreudvikling af den første version. METASYN af Carl Emil Carlsen: Metadata er centralt for Carl Emil Carlsens projekt, der betragter museets samling som et ”univers” af værker (analoge og digitale), beskrivelser og relationer. I...

  6. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  7. Total Factbook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2003. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  8. Total 2004 fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2004. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  9. TOTAL annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2003 annual report of the Group Total provides economical results and information of the society on the following topics: keys data, the corporate governance (Directors charter, board of directors, audit committee, nomination and remuneration committee, internal control procedures, compensation of directors and executive officers), the corporate social responsibility (environmental stewardship, the future of energy management, the safety enhancement, the human resources, ethics and local development), the investor relations, the management report, the upstream exploration and production, the downstream refining, marketing, trading and shipping, the chemicals and financial and legal information. (A.L.B.)

  10. Total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik M.; Petersen, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful treatment of the osteoarthritic knee, which has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. The indication is a painful osteoarthritic knee with relevant radiographic findings and failure of conservative measures like painkillers and exercise...... surgeon seems to positively influence the rate of surgical complications and implant survival. The painful TKA knee should be thoroughly evaluated, but not revised except if a relevant indication can be established. The most frequent indications for revision are: aseptic loosening, instability, infection...

  11. Relationship between framingham risk score and coronary artery calcium score in asymptomatic Korean individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, So Young; Park, Noh Hyuck; Park, Chan Sub; Seong, Su Ok

    2016-01-01

    We explored the association between Framingham risk score (FRS) and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in asymptomatic Korean individuals. We retrospectively analyzed 2216 participants who underwent routine health screening and CACS using the 64-slice multidetector computed tomography between January 2010 and June 2014. Relationship between CACS and FRS, and factors associated with discrepancy between CACS and FRS were analyzed. CACS and FRS were positively correlated (p < 0.0001). However, in 3.7% of participants with low coronary event risk and high CACS, age, male gender, smoker, hypertension, total cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, and body mass index (BMI; ≥ 35) were associated with the discrepancy. In the diagnostic prediction model for discrepancy, the receiver operating characteristic curve including factors associated with FRS, diastolic blood pressure (≥ 75 mm Hg), diabetes mellitus, and BMI (≥ 35) showed that the area under the curve was 0.854 (95% confidence interval, 0.819–0.890), indicating good sensitivity. Diabetes mellitus or obesity (BMI ≥ 35) compensate for the weakness of FRS and may be potential indicators for application of CACS in asymptomatic Koreans with low coronary event risk

  12. Relationship between framingham risk score and coronary artery calcium score in asymptomatic Korean individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, So Young; Park, Noh Hyuck; Park, Chan Sub; Seong, Su Ok [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    We explored the association between Framingham risk score (FRS) and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in asymptomatic Korean individuals. We retrospectively analyzed 2216 participants who underwent routine health screening and CACS using the 64-slice multidetector computed tomography between January 2010 and June 2014. Relationship between CACS and FRS, and factors associated with discrepancy between CACS and FRS were analyzed. CACS and FRS were positively correlated (p < 0.0001). However, in 3.7% of participants with low coronary event risk and high CACS, age, male gender, smoker, hypertension, total cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, and body mass index (BMI; ≥ 35) were associated with the discrepancy. In the diagnostic prediction model for discrepancy, the receiver operating characteristic curve including factors associated with FRS, diastolic blood pressure (≥ 75 mm Hg), diabetes mellitus, and BMI (≥ 35) showed that the area under the curve was 0.854 (95% confidence interval, 0.819–0.890), indicating good sensitivity. Diabetes mellitus or obesity (BMI ≥ 35) compensate for the weakness of FRS and may be potential indicators for application of CACS in asymptomatic Koreans with low coronary event risk.

  13. A Comparison of Two Scoring Methods for an Automated Speech Scoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming; Higgins, Derrick; Zechner, Klaus; Williamson, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares two alternative scoring methods--multiple regression and classification trees--for an automated speech scoring system used in a practice environment. The two methods were evaluated on two criteria: construct representation and empirical performance in predicting human scores. The empirical performance of the two scoring models…

  14. TOTAL user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  15. Are the MDS-UPDRS-based composite scores clinically applicable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkos, Attila; Kovács, Márton; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Harmat, Márk; Janszky, József; Karádi, Kázmér; Kovács, Norbert

    2018-02-28

    The International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society-sponsored UPDRS (MDS-UPDRS) is a powerful clinical outcome measure. To evaluate the feasibility of various MDS-UPDRS-based composite scores and determine their minimal clinically important difference threshold values. Overall, 1,113 paired investigations of 452 patients were reviewed implementing three different techniques simultaneously. Based on the ordinal regression modeling, the MDS-UPDRS II+III, MDS-UPDRS I+II+III, and the total score of MDS-UPDRS are clinically applicable outcome measures. Any improvement greater than 4.9 points or any worsening more than 4.2 points on MDS-UPDRS II+III represent a minimal, yet clinically meaningful, change. In reference to MDS-UPDRS I+II+III, the smallest changes considered clinically relevant were 6.7 and 5.2 points for improvement and deterioration, respectively. The thresholds for the total score of MDS-UPDRS were 7.1 points for improvement and 6.3 points for worsening. Our findings support the application of various MDS-UPDRS-based composite scores. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2018 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  16. Clinical score and arterial oxygen saturation in children with wheezing associated respiratory illness (WARI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sritippayawan, S; Deerojanawong, J; Prapphal, N

    2000-10-01

    To determine the correlation between clinical score (based on respiratory rate, chest wall retractions, air entry, wheezing, consciousness and audible wheezing) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2: measured by pulse oximetry) as well as the most appropriate total score for predicting hypoxemia (SaO2 WARI). 70 children (1 month-5 years old) hospitalized in the Department of Pediatrics, Chulalongkorn Hospital with the diagnosis of WARI from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 1996 were studied. Half of them were diagnosed to have acute lower respiratory tract infection (LRI) with wheezing while the remainder had reactive airway disease (RAD). Cross sectional, analytical study. In each group of patients, the clinical score and SaO2 were assessed by the same pediatrician throughout the study. The correlation between the clinical signs and SaO2 as well as the cut off point of total score for predicting hypoxemia were analyzed. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of that total score in predicting hypoxemia were also calculated. In both groups of patients (acute LRI with wheezing and RAD group), the clinical signs correlated with SaO2 were wheezing (rs = -0.67 and -0.47 respectively) and chest wall retractions (rs = -0.57 and -0.59 respectively). Total score was also correlated with SaO2 (rs = -0.68 and -0.5 respectively). The cut off point of total score in predicting hypoxemia was 4 providing 80 per cent sensitivity in both groups with accuracy 74.3 per cent and 80 per cent respectively. This clinical score may be used to assess the severity of hypoxemia in WARI patients. Wheezing, chest wall retractions and total score correlated well with SaO2. The total score > 4 was most appropriate in predicting hypoxemia in both children with RAD and wheezing associated with LRI.

  17. [The diagnostic scores for deep venous thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, A

    2015-08-26

    Seven diagnostic scores for the deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of lower limbs are analyzed and compared. Two features make this exer- cise difficult: the problem of distal DVT and of their proximal extension and the status of patients, whether out- or in-patients. The most popular score is the Wells score (1997), modi- fied in 2003. It includes one subjective ele- ment based on clinical judgment. The Primary Care score 12005), less known, has similar pro- perties, but uses only objective data. The pre- sent trend is to associate clinical scores with the dosage of D-Dimers to rule out with a good sensitivity the probability of TVP. For the upper limb DVT, the Constans score (2008) is available, which can also be coupled with D-Dimers testing (Kleinjan).

  18. Scoring of treatment-related late effects in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livsey, Jacqueline E.; Routledge, Jacqueline; Burns, Meriel; Swindell, Rick; Davidson, Susan E.; Cowan, Richard A.; Logue, John P.; Wylie, James P.

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess the correlation between different general and organ specific quality of life and morbidity scoring methods in a cohort of men treated with radical radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Materials and methods: Men who had been treated with radical radiotherapy (50 Gy in 16 fractions over 21 days) for localized prostate cancer more than 3 years previously and who had no evidence of recurrent disease were invited to take part in the study. A total of 101 of 135 invited patients agreed and completed LENT/SOMA, UCLA Prostate Cancer Index, and 36 item RAND Health survey questionnaires. Results: The patients had comparable results with other published series with respect to the UCLA and SF-36 indices. There was significant correlation between the corresponding parts of the UCLA and LENT/SOMA scales (P<0.0005). However, for the same symptoms, a patient tended to score lower (worse) on the UCLA scale in comparison to LENT/SOMA. The relationship between the average LENT/SOMA score and maximum score was also not straightforward with each set of data revealing different information. Conclusions: The LENT/SOMA questions were, in the main, more wide-ranging and informative than the UCLA index. It is helpful to give both the overall and maximum LENT/SOMA scores to most efficiently use all of the data. There may need to be a further LENT/SOMA question to allow both symptoms of tenesmus and faecal urgency to be fully addressed

  19. Scoring an Abstract Contemporary Silent Film

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Crystal

    2014-01-01

    I composed an original digital audio film score with full sound design for a contemporary silent film called Apple Tree. The film is highly conceptual and interpretive and required a very involved, intricate score to successfully tell the story. In the process of scoring this film, I learned new ways to convey an array of contrasting emotions through music and sound. After analyzing the film's emotional journey, I determined that six defining emotions were the foundation on which to build an ...

  20. Screening applicants for risk of poor academic performance: a novel scoring system using preadmission grade point averages and graduate record examination scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an effective screening tool for identifying physician assistant (PA) program applicants at highest risk for poor academic performance. Prior to reviewing applications for the class of 2009, a retrospective analysis of preadmission data took place for the classes of 2006, 2007, and 2008. A single composite score was calculated for each student who matriculated (number of subjects, N=228) incorporating the total undergraduate grade point average (UGPA), the science GPA (SGPA), and the three component Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores: verbal (GRE-V), quantitative (GRE-Q), analytical (GRE-A). Individual applicant scores for each of the five parameters were ranked in descending quintiles. Each applicant's five quintile scores were then added, yielding a total quintile score ranging from 25, which indicated an excellent performance, to 5, which indicated poorer performance. Thirteen of the 228 students had academic difficulty (dismissal, suspension, or one-quarter on academic warning or probation). Twelve of the 13 students having academic difficulty had a preadmission total quintile score 12 (range, 6-14). In response to this descriptive analysis, when selecting applicants for the class of 2009, the admissions committee used the total quintile score for screening applicants for interviews. Analysis of correlations in preadmission, graduate, and postgraduate performance data for the classes of 2009-2013 will continue and may help identify those applicants at risk for academic difficulty. Establishing a threshold total quintile score of applicant GPA and GRE scores may significantly decrease the number of entering PA students at risk for poor academic performance.

  1. The FAt Spondyloarthritis Spine Score (FASSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Zhao, Zheng; Lambert, Robert Gw

    2013-01-01

    an important measure of treatment efficacy as well as a surrogate marker for new bone formation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new scoring method for fat lesions in the spine, the Fat SpA Spine Score (FASSS), which in contrast to the existing scoring method addresses the localization......Studies have shown that fat lesions follow resolution of inflammation in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Fat lesions at vertebral corners have also been shown to predict development of new syndesmophytes. Therefore, scoring of fat lesions in the spine may constitute both...

  2. Recognition Using Classification and Segmentation Scoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kimball, Owen; Ostendorf, Mari; Rohlicek, Robin

    1992-01-01

    .... We describe an approach to connected word recognition that allows the use of segmental information through an explicit decomposition of the recognition criterion into classification and segmentation scoring...

  3. Total process surveillance: (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical reduncancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. (orig.)

  4. Total and EDF invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, St.

    2008-01-01

    So as to prepare the future of their industrial sector,the Total company plans to invest (14 billion Euros in 2008) to increase its production capacities and strengthen in of other activities as the liquefied natural gas and the renewable energies; EDF plans to inject 35 billion Euros over three years to multiply the new projects of power plants (wind turbines, coal in Germany, gas in Great Britain and nuclear power in Flamanville). EDF wants to exploit its knowledge of leader to run more than ten E.P.R.(European pressurized water reactor) in the world before 2020, projects are in examination with China, Great Britain, South Africa and United States. (N.C.)

  5. Total quality at source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiandone, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Total Quality at Source philosophy is based on optimizing the effectiveness of people in achieving ZERO-DEFECT results. In this paper a philosophy of what, I have come to perceive, it takes to get people to perform to the very best of their abilities and thereby achieve the best results they can, is presented. In the examples I shall describe I have played an instrumental role since it has become my belief that any job can always be done better provided that the people doing it can themselves become convinced that they can do better. Clearly there are many ideas on how to do this. The philosophy that I am presenting in this paper is based on my own experience, where I have both participated and observed it being applied; its effectiveness may be judged by the results. (author)

  6. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Modifications of the National Early Warning Score for patients with chronic respiratory disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N. E.; Rasmussen, L. S.; Petersen, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    System (CROS), the Chronic Respiratory Early Warning Score (CREWS) and the Salford NEWS (S-NEWS) affected NEWS total scores and NEWS performance. METHODS: In an observational study, we included patients with chronic respiratory disease. The frequency of use of CROS and the NEWS total score changes caused...... and specialist consultation' total score intervals to lower intervals. CONCLUSION: Capital Region of Denmark NEWS Override System was frequently used in patients with chronic respiratory disease. CROS, CREWS and S-NEWS reduced sensitivity for 48-h mortality and ICU admission. Using the methodology prevalent......BACKGROUND: The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) uses physiological variables to detect deterioration in hospitalized patients. However, patients with chronic respiratory disease may have abnormal variables not requiring interventions. We studied how the Capital Region of Denmark NEWS Override...

  8. Chronic total coronary occlusion: treatment results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk Christensen, Martin; Freeman, Phillip Fischer; Rasmussen, Jeppe Groendal; Villadsen, Anton Boel; Raungaard, Bent; Eggert Jensen, Svend; Thuesen, Leif

    2017-08-01

    To describe the clinical and procedural coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) treatment results in a Nordic PCI centre during the implementation of a CTO treatment program. In a retrospective registry study, we assessed; (1) indication for the procedure, (2) Canadian Cardiovascular Society angina pectoris score (CCS)/New York Heart Association (NYHA) heart failure score, (3) lesion complexity and (4) adverse events during hospital stay and three months following the index procedure. The study cohort included 503 patients (594 lesions). From 2010 to 2013 96% of procedures were performed with antegrade wire-escalation technique and 4% performed using retrograde techniques, from 2013-2016 the corresponding numbers were 83% and 17.0%. The procedural success rate was 69%, increasing from 64% before to 72% (p = .06) after routinely using the retrograde approach. No individual patient characteristic, lesion variable or score was strongly associated with procedural success or failure. There were 4% serious procedure related complications. In patients with PCI of a CTO lesion only, 87% were in CCS or NYHA functional class ≥2 before the index procedure vs. 22% at follow-up. Routine use of retrograde techniques tended to increase the procedural success rate. Clinical results after three months were acceptable, but the complication rate was higher than for non-CTO PCI. Individual patient and lesion characteristics had a low predictability for procedural success. Therefore, clinical symptoms, objective signs of myocardial ischemia and procedural risk should be focus points in coronary chronic total occlusion treatment strategies.

  9. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    An outline review notes recent work on total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as a means of preparing patients for grafts and particularly for bone-marrow transplantation. T.L.I. has proved immunosuppressive in rats, mice, dogs, monkeys and baboons; when given before bone-marrow transplantation, engraftment took place without, or with delayed rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Work with mice has indicated that the thymus needs to be included within the irradiation field, since screening of the thymus reduced skin-graft survival from 50 to 18 days, though irradiation of the thymus alone has proved ineffective. A more lasting tolerance has been observed when T.L.I. is followed by an injection of donor bone marrow. 50% of mice treated in this way accepted allogenic skin grafts for more than 100 days, the animals proving to be stable chimeras with 50% of their peripheral blood lymphocytes being of donor origin. Experiments of a similar nature with dogs and baboons were not so successful. (U.K.)

  10. The total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  11. Equating error in observed-score equating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, error in equating observed scores on two versions of a test is defined as the difference between the transformations that equate the quantiles of their distributions in the sample and population of test takers. But it is argued that if the goal of equating is to adjust the scores of

  12. Correlating continuous assessment scores to junior secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between continuous assessment scores and junior secondary school certificate examination(JSCE) final scores in Imo State. A sample of four hundred students were purposively selected from thirty eight thousand students who took the 1997 JSCE in Imo State. The data used were ...

  13. Summary of Score Changes (in other Tests).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, T. Anne; McCandless, Sam A.

    Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores have declined during the last 14 years. Similar score declines have been observed in many different testing programs, many groups, and tested areas. The declines, while not large in any given year, have been consistent over time, area, and group. The period around 1965 is critical for the interpretation of…

  14. More Issues in Observed-Score Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2013-01-01

    This article is a response to the commentaries on the position paper on observed-score equating by van der Linden (this issue). The response focuses on the more general issues in these commentaries, such as the nature of the observed scores that are equated, the importance of test-theory assumptions in equating, the necessity to use multiple…

  15. Clinical scoring scales in thyroidology: A compendium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This compendium brings together traditional as well as contemporary scoring and grading systems used for the screening and diagnosis of various thyroid diseases, dysfunctions, and complications. The article discusses scores used to help diagnose hypo-and hyperthyroidism, to grade and manage goiter and ophthalmopathy, and to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy.

  16. Semiparametric Copula Models for Biometric Score Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, M.

    2016-01-01

    In biometric recognition systems, biometric samples (images of faces, finger- prints, voices, gaits, etc.) of people are compared and classifiers (matchers) indicate the level of similarity between any pair of samples by a score. If two samples of the same person are compared, a genuine score is

  17. Intelligence Score Profiles of Female Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Shelby Spare; Hart, Kathleen J.; Ficke, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found that male juvenile offenders typically obtain low scores on measures of intelligence, often with a pattern of higher scores on measures of nonverbal relative to verbal tasks. The research on the intelligence performance of female juvenile offenders is limited. This study explored the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  18. Recurrence risk of low Apgar score among term singletons: a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, Sabine; Schaaf, Jelle M.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Mol, Ben W. J.; Ravelli, Anita C. J.

    2014-01-01

    To examine the risk of recurrence of low Apgar score in a subsequent term singleton pregnancy. Population-based cohort study. The Netherlands. A total of 190,725 women with two subsequent singleton term live births between 1999 and 2007. We calculated the recurrence risk of low Apgar score after

  19. The sum of friends’ and lovers’ self-control scores predicts relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vohs, K.D.; Finkenauer, C.; Baumeister, R.F.

    2011-01-01

    What combination of partners' trait self-control levels produces the best relationship outcomes? The authors tested three hypotheses-complementarity (large difference in trait self-control scores), similarity (small difference in self-control scores), and totality (large sum of self-control

  20. Trainee Occupational Therapists Scoring the Barthel ADL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elizabeth; Nugent, Chris; Bond, Raymond; Martin, Suzanne

    2015-09-01

    Within medical applications there are two main types of information design; paper-based and digital information [1]. As technology is constantly changing, information within healthcare management and delivery is continually being transitioned from traditional paper documents to digital and online resources. Activity of Daily Living (ADL) charts are still predominantly paper based and are therefore prone to "human error" [2]. In light of this, an investigation has taken place into the design for reducing the amount of human error, between a paper based ADL, specifically the Barthel Index, and the same ADL created digitally. The digital ADL was developed as an online platform as this offers the best method of data capture for a large group of participants all together [3]. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usability of the Barthel Index ADL in paper format and then reproduce the same ADL digitally. This paper presents the findings of a study involving 26 participants who were familiar with ADL charts, and used three scenarios requiring them to complete both a paper ADL and a digital ADL. An evaluation was undertaken to ascertain if there were any 'human errors' in completing the paper ADL and also to find similarities/differences through using the digital ADL. The results from the study indicated that 22/26 participants agreed that the digital ADL was better, if not the same as a paper based ADL. Further results indicated that participants rate highly the added benefit of the digital ADL being easy to use and also that calculation of assessment scores were performed automatically. Statistically the digital BI offered a 100 % correction rate in the total calculation, in comparison to the paper based BI where it is more common for users to make mathematical calculation errors. Therefore in order to minimise handwriting and calculation errors, the digital BI proved superior than the traditional paper based method.

  1. A new scoring system for predicting survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schild, Steven E; Tan, Angelina D; Wampfler, Jason A; Ross, Helen J; Yang, Ping; Sloan, Jeff A

    2015-01-01

    This analysis was performed to create a scoring system to estimate the survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Data from 1274 NSCLC patients were analyzed to create and validate a scoring system. Univariate (UV) and multivariate (MV) Cox models were used to evaluate the prognostic importance of each baseline factor. Prognostic factors that were significant on both UV and MV analyses were used to develop the score. These included quality of life, age, performance status, primary tumor diameter, nodal status, distant metastases, and smoking cessation. The score for each factor was determined by dividing the 5-year survival rate (%) by 10 and summing these scores to form a total score. MV models and the score were validated using bootstrapping with 1000 iterations from the original samples. The score for each prognostic factor ranged from 1 to 7 points with higher scores reflective of better survival. Total scores (sum of the scores from each independent prognostic factor) of 32–37 correlated with a 5-year survival of 8.3% (95% CI = 0–17.1%), 38–43 correlated with a 5-year survival of 20% (95% CI = 13–27%), 44–47 correlated with a 5-year survival of 48.3% (95% CI = 41.5–55.2%), 48–49 correlated to a 5-year survival of 72.1% (95% CI = 65.6–78.6%), and 50–52 correlated to a 5-year survival of 84.7% (95% CI = 79.6–89.8%). The bootstrap method confirmed the reliability of the score. Prognostic factors significantly associated with survival on both UV and MV analyses were used to construct a valid scoring system that can be used to predict survival of NSCLC patients. Optimally, this score could be used when counseling patients, and designing future trials

  2. Prognostic value of FOUR and GCS scores in determining mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saika, Amrit; Bansal, Sonia; Philip, Mariamma; Devi, Bhagavatula Indira; Shukla, Dhaval P

    2015-09-01

    The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is considered the gold standard for assessment of unconsciousness in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) against which other scales are compared. To overcome the disadvantages of GCS, the Full Outline Of Unresponsiveness (FOUR) score was proposed. We aimed to compare the predictability of FOUR score and GCS for early mortality, after moderate and severe TBI. This is a prospective observational study of patients with moderate and severe TBI. Both FOUR and GCS scores were determined at admission. The primary outcome was mortality at the end of 2 weeks of injury. A total of 138 (117 males) patients were included in the study. Out of these, 17 (12.3 %) patients died within 2 weeks of injury. The mean GCS and FOUR scores were 9.5 (range, 3-13) and 11 (0-16), respectively. The total GCS and FOUR scores were significantly lower in patients who did not survive. At a cut-off score of 7 for FOUR score, the AUC was 0.97, with sensitivity of 97.5 and specificity of 88.2 % (p FOUR scores. The predictive value of the FOUR score on admission of patients with TBI is no better than the GCS score.

  3. [The use of scores in general medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Ursula; Rösli, Andreas; Ballmer, Peter E; Rippin, Sarah Jane

    2013-10-01

    Scores are tools to combine complex information into a numerical value. In General Medicine, there are scores to assist in making diagnoses and prognoses, scores to assist therapeutic decision making and to evaluate therapeutic results and scores to help physicians when informing and advising patients. We review six of the scoring systems that have the greatest utility for the General Physician in hospital-based care and in General Practice. The Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS 2002) tool is designed to identify hospital patients in danger of malnutrition. The aim is to improve the nutritional status of these patients. The CURB-65 score predicts 30-day mortality in patients with community acquired pneumonia. Patients with a low score can be considered for home treatment, patients with an elevated score require hospitalisation and those with a high score should be treated as having severe pneumonia; treatment in the intensive care unit should be considered. The IAS-AGLA score of the Working Group on Lipids and Atherosclerosis of the Swiss Society of Cardiology calculates the 10-year risk of a myocardial infarction for people living in Switzerland. The working group makes recommendations for preventative treatment according to the calculated risk status. The Body Mass Index, which is calculated by dividing the body weight in kilograms by the height in meters squared and then divided into weight categories, is used to classify people as underweight, of normal weight, overweight or obese. The prognostic value of this classification is discussed. The Mini-Mental State Examination allows the physician to assess important cognitive functions in a simple and standardised form. The Glasgow Coma Scale is used to classify the level of consciousness in patients with head injury. It can be used for triage and correlates with prognosis.

  4. Lecture Evaluations by Medical Students: Concepts That Correlate With Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Aaron; Webb, Emily M; Ahearn, Bren; Naeger, David M

    2016-01-01

    The didactic lecture remains one of the most popular teaching formats in medical education; yet, factors that most influence lecturing success in radiology education are unknown. The purpose of this study is to identify patterns of narrative student feedback that are associated with relatively higher and lower evaluation scores. All student evaluations from our core radiology elective during 1 year were compiled. All evaluation comments were tagged, to identify discrete descriptive concepts. Correlation coefficients were calculated, for each tag with mean evaluation scores. Tags that were the most strongly associated with the highest- versus lowest-rated (> or < 1 SD) lectures were identified. A total of 3,262 comments, on 273 lectures, rated by 77 senior medical students, were analyzed. The mean lecture score was 8.96 ± 0.62. Three tags were significantly positively correlated with lecture score: "interactive"; "fun/engaging"; and "practical/important content" (r = 0.39, r = 0.34, and r = 0.32, respectively; all P < .001). More tags (n = 12) were significantly negatively correlated with score; the three tags with the strongest such correlation were: "not interactive"; "poorly structured or unevenly paced"; and "content too detailed or abundant" (r = -0.44, r = -0.39, and r = -0.36, respectively; all P < .001). Analysis of only the highest- and lowest-rated lectures yielded similar results. Several factors were identified that were strongly associated with lecture score. Among the actionable characteristics, interactive lectures with appropriately targeted content (ie, practical/useful) were the most highly rated. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The scoring of arousal in sleep: reliability, validity, and alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Michael H; Doghramji, Karl; Roehrs, Timothy; Stepanski, Edward J; Sheldon, Stephen H; Walters, Arthur S; Wise, Merrill; Chesson, Andrew L

    2007-03-15

    The reliability and validity of EEG arousals and other types of arousal are reviewed. Brief arousals during sleep had been observed for many years, but the evolution of sleep medicine in the 1980s directed new attention to these events. Early studies at that time in animals and humans linked brief EEG arousals and associated fragmentation of sleep to daytime sleepiness and degraded performance. Increasing interest in scoring of EEG arousals led the ASDA to publish a scoring manual in 1992. The current review summarizes numerous studies that have examined scoring reliability for these EEG arousals. Validity of EEG arousals was explored by review of studies that empirically varied arousals and found deficits similar to those found after total sleep deprivation depending upon the rate and extent of sleep fragmentation. Additional data from patients with clinical sleep disorders prior to and after effective treatment has also shown a continuing relationship between reduction in pathology-related arousals and improved sleep and daytime function. Finally, many suggestions have been made to refine arousal scoring to include additional elements (e.g., CAP), change the time frame, or focus on other physiological responses such as heart rate or blood pressure changes. Evidence to support the reliability and validity of these measures is presented. It was concluded that the scoring of EEG arousals has added much to our understanding of the sleep process but that significant work on the neurophysiology of arousal needs to be done. Additional refinement of arousal scoring will provide improved insight into sleep pathology and recovery.

  6. Total recognition discriminability in Huntington's and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Lisa V; Holden, Heather M; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Bondi, Mark W; Woods, Steven Paul; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Salmon, David P; Delis, Dean C; Gilbert, Paul E

    2017-03-01

    Both the original and second editions of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) provide an index of total recognition discriminability (TRD) but respectively utilize nonparametric and parametric formulas to compute the index. However, the degree to which population differences in TRD may vary across applications of these nonparametric and parametric formulas has not been explored. We evaluated individuals with Huntington's disease (HD), individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), healthy middle-aged adults, and healthy older adults who were administered the CVLT-II. Yes/no recognition memory indices were generated, including raw nonparametric TRD scores (as used in CVLT-I) and raw and standardized parametric TRD scores (as used in CVLT-II), as well as false positive (FP) rates. Overall, the patient groups had significantly lower TRD scores than their comparison groups. The application of nonparametric and parametric formulas resulted in comparable effect sizes for all group comparisons on raw TRD scores. Relative to the HD group, the AD group showed comparable standardized parametric TRD scores (despite lower raw nonparametric and parametric TRD scores), whereas the previous CVLT literature has shown that standardized TRD scores are lower in AD than in HD. Possible explanations for the similarity in standardized parametric TRD scores in the HD and AD groups in the present study are discussed, with an emphasis on the importance of evaluating TRD scores in the context of other indices such as FP rates in an effort to fully capture recognition memory function using the CVLT-II.

  7. The use of adaptive equipment following total knee replacement

    OpenAIRE

    McNaught, Jamie; Paul, Lorna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study evaluates the need for adaptive equipment following total knee replacement. There are no recent studies to guide occupational therapists in the optimum time adaptive equipment is required following total knee replacement.\\ud \\ud Method: A non-experimental, concurrent mixed methods approach was used. The study population was patients attending for total knee replacement at a large general hospital. Outcome measures were the Oxford Knee Score, the United Kingdom Functio...

  8. Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS)-Italian version: regression based norms and equivalent scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Mattia; Trojano, Luigi; Trojsi, Francesca; Greco, Roberta; Santoro, Manuela; Basile, Giuseppe; Piscopo, Fausta; D'Iorio, Alfonsina; Patrone, Manila; Femiano, Cinzia; Monsurrò, Mariarosaria; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Santangelo, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive assessment for individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) can be difficult because of frequent occurrence of difficulties with speech, writing, and drawing. The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) is a recent multi-domain neuropsychological screening tool specifically devised for this purpose, and it assesses the following domains: executive functions, social cognition, verbal fluency and language (ALS-specific), but also memory and visuospatial abilities (Non-ALS specific). ECAS total score ranges from 0 (worst performance) to 136 (best performance). Moreover, a brief caregiver interview provides an assessment of behaviour changes and psychotic symptoms usually associated with ALS patients. The aim of the present study was to provide normative values for ECAS total score and sub-scores in a sample of Italian healthy subjects. Two hundred and seventy-seven Italian healthy subjects (151 women and 126 men; age range 30-79 years; educational level from primary school to university) underwent ECAS and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on ECAS total score and sub-scale scores. From the derived linear equation, a correction grid for raw scores was built. Inferential cut-off scores were estimated using a non-parametric technique and equivalent scores (ES) were computed. Correlation analysis showed a good significant correlation between adjusted ECAS total scores with adjusted MoCA total scores (r rho  = 0.669, p < 0.0001). The present study provided normative data for the ECAS in an Italian population useful for both clinical and research purposes.

  9. THE EFFICIENCY OF TENNIS DOUBLES SCORING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Pollard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a family of scoring systems for tennis doubles for testing the hypothesis that pair A is better than pair B versus the alternative hypothesis that pair B is better than A, is established. This family or benchmark of scoring systems can be used as a benchmark against which the efficiency of any doubles scoring system can be assessed. Thus, the formula for the efficiency of any doubles scoring system is derived. As in tennis singles, one scoring system based on the play-the-loser structure is shown to be more efficient than the benchmark systems. An expression for the relative efficiency of two doubles scoring systems is derived. Thus, the relative efficiency of the various scoring systems presently used in doubles can be assessed. The methods of this paper can be extended to a match between two teams of 2, 4, 8, …doubles pairs, so that it is possible to establish a measure for the relative efficiency of the various systems used for tennis contests between teams of players.

  10. A comparison between modified Alvarado score and RIPASA score in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Anand; Singla, Satpaul; Singh, Mohinder; Singla, Deeksha

    2016-12-01

    Acute appendicitis is a common but elusive surgical condition and remains a diagnostic dilemma. It has many clinical mimickers and diagnosis is primarily made on clinical grounds, leading to the evolution of clinical scoring systems for pin pointing the right diagnosis. The modified Alvarado and RIPASA scoring systems are two important scoring systems, for diagnosis of acute appendicitis. We prospectively compared the two scoring systems for diagnosing acute appendicitis in 50 patients presenting with right iliac fossa pain. The RIPASA score correctly classified 88 % of patients with histologically confirmed acute appendicitis compared with 48.0 % with modified Alvarado score, indicating that RIPASA score is more superior to Modified Alvarado score in our clinical settings.

  11. Incapacidad laboral total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz Tabares

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo y retrospectivo con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la incapacidad permanente para el trabajo en el municipio "San Cristóbal" durante el decenio 1982-1991, y se aplicó el método de encuesta por el que se recogieron datos que fueron extraídos del modelo oficial de peritaje médico laboral y de la entrevista con el peritado. Los resultados fueron plasmados en tablas de contingencias donde se relacionan las variables por cada año estudiado, y se aplicó la prueba estadística de chi cuadrado. El número de individuos dictaminados con incapacidad laboral total fue de 693; predominó en reportes el año 1988 con 114 casos y muy discretamente el sexo femenino sobre el masculino, el grupo etáreo de 45 a 54 años con 360 casos y la artrosis como entidad valorada por ortopedia, con análisis estadísticos significativos. No resultó estadísticamente significativo, el predominio de la hipertensión arterial sistémica entre las entidades valoradas por la especialidad de medicina interna como causas de incapacidad laboral. Fue muy significativa la variación del número de dictaminados por la comisión en cada uno de los años estudiados y que el porcentaje de ellos que se encontraban realizando trabajos que demandan esfuerzo físico de moderado a intenso al momento de aplicar la encuesta, ascendió al 64,9.A longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in order to know the behavior of permanent labor disability at the municipality of San Cristóbal during 1982-1991. A survey was done to collect data taken from the official model of medical inspections and from the interview with the disabled worker. The results were shown in contingency tables where the variables are related by every year studied. The chi square statistical test was applied. The number of individuals with labor disability was 693. As for reports, the year 1988 predominated with 114. There was a discreet

  12. The variability in Oxford hip and knee scores in the preoperative period: is there an ideal time to score?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quah, C; Holmes, D; Khan, T; Cockshott, S; Lewis, J; Stephen, A

    2018-01-01

    Background All NHS-funded providers are required to collect and report patient-reported outcome measures for hip and knee arthroplasty. Although there are established guidelines for timing such measures following arthroplasty, there are no specific time-points for collection in the preoperative period. The primary aim of this study was to identify whether there was a significant amount of variability in the Oxford hip and knee scores prior to surgical intervention when completed in the outpatient clinic at the time of listing for arthroplasty or when completed at the preoperative assessment clinic. Methods A prospective cohort study of patients listed for primary hip or knee arthroplasty was conducted. Patients were asked to fill in a preoperative Oxford score in the outpatient clinic at the time of listing. They were then invited to fill in the official outcome measures questionnaire at the preoperative assessment clinic. The postoperative Oxford score was then completed when the patient was seen again at their postoperative follow up in clinic. Results Of the total of 109 patients included in this study period, there were 18 (17%) who had a worse score of 4 or more points difference and 43 (39.4%) who had an improvement of 4 or more points difference when the scores were compared between time of listing at the outpatient and at the preoperative assessment clinic. There was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.0054) in the mean Oxford scores. Conclusions The results of our study suggest that there should be standardisation of timing for completing the preoperative patient-reported outcome measures.

  13. Performance of a novel clinical score, the Pediatric Asthma Severity Score (PASS), in the evaluation of acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Marc H; Stevens, Molly W; Schultz, Theresa R; Scribano, Philip V

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of a new clinical asthma score, the Pediatric Asthma Severity Score (PASS), in children aged 1 through 18 years in an acute clinical setting. This was a prospective cohort study of children treated for acute asthma at two urban pediatric emergency departments (EDs). A total of 852 patients were enrolled at one site and 369 at the second site. Clinical findings were assessed at the start of the ED visit, after one hour of treatment, and at the time of disposition. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) (for patients aged 6 years and older) and pulse oximetry were also measured. Composite scores including three, four, or five clinical findings were evaluated, and the three-item score (wheezing, prolonged expiration, and work of breathing) was selected as the PASS. Interobserver reliability for the PASS was good to excellent (kappa = 0.72 to 0.83). There was a significant correlation between PASS and PEFR (r = 0.27 to 0.37) and pulse oximetry (r = 0.29 to 0.41) at various time points. The PASS was able to discriminate between those patients who did and did not require hospitalization, with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.82. Finally, the PASS was shown to be responsive, with a 48% relative increase in score from start to end of treatment and an overall effect size of 0.62, indicating a moderate to large effect. This clinical score, the PASS, based on three clinical findings, is a reliable and valid measure of asthma severity in children and shows both discriminative and responsive properties. The PASS may be a useful tool to assess acute asthma severity for clinical and research purposes.

  14. Antithrombotic drugs and non-variceal bleeding outcomes and risk scoring systems: comparison of Glasgow Blatchford, Rockall and Charlson scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ali S; McCloskey, Caroline; Craigen, Theresa; Angerson, Wilson J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Antithrombotic drugs (ATDs) cause non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). Risk scoring systems have not been validated in ATD users. We compared Blatchford, Rockall and Charlson scores in predicting outcomes of NVUGIB in ATD users and controls. Methods A total of 2071 patients with NVUGIB were grouped into ATD users (n=851) and controls (n=1220) in a single-centre retrospective analysis. Outcomes included duration of hospital admission, the need for blood transfusion, rebleeding requiring surgery and 30-day mortality. Results Duration of admission correlated with all scores in controls, but correlations were significantly weaker in ATD users. Rank correlation coefficients in control versus ATD: 0.45 vs 0.20 for Blatchford; 0.48 vs 0.32 for Rockall and 0.42 vs 0.26 for Charlson (all p<0.001). The need for transfusion was best predicted by Blatchford (p<0.001 vs Rockall and Charlson in both ATD users and controls), but all scores performed less well in ATD users. Area under the receiver operation characteristic curve (AUC) in control versus ATD: 0.90 vs 0.85 for Blatchford; 0.77 vs 0.61 for Rockall and 0.69 vs 0.56 for Charlson (all p<0.005). In predicting surgery, Rockall performed best; while mortality was best predicted by Charlson with lower AUCs in ATD patients than controls (p<0.05). Stratification showed the scores' performance to be age-dependent. Conclusions Blatchford score was the strongest predictor of transfusion, Rockall's had the strongest correlation with duration of admission and with rebleeding requiring surgery and Charlson was best in predicting 30-day mortality. Modifications of these systems should be explored to improve their efficiency in ATD users. PMID:28839866

  15. SKATE: a docking program that decouples systematic sampling from scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianwen A; Marshall, Garland R

    2010-11-15

    SKATE is a docking prototype that decouples systematic sampling from scoring. This novel approach removes any interdependence between sampling and scoring functions to achieve better sampling and, thus, improves docking accuracy. SKATE systematically samples a ligand's conformational, rotational and translational degrees of freedom, as constrained by a receptor pocket, to find sterically allowed poses. Efficient systematic sampling is achieved by pruning the combinatorial tree using aggregate assembly, discriminant analysis, adaptive sampling, radial sampling, and clustering. Because systematic sampling is decoupled from scoring, the poses generated by SKATE can be ranked by any published, or in-house, scoring function. To test the performance of SKATE, ligands from the Asetex/CDCC set, the Surflex set, and the Vertex set, a total of 266 complexes, were redocked to their respective receptors. The results show that SKATE was able to sample poses within 2 A RMSD of the native structure for 98, 95, and 98% of the cases in the Astex/CDCC, Surflex, and Vertex sets, respectively. Cross-docking accuracy of SKATE was also assessed by docking 10 ligands to thymidine kinase and 73 ligands to cyclin-dependent kinase. 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. IMPACT OF SHOTS ON FINAL SCORE OF A FOOTBALL MATCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Radoman

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The research has been done on a sample of 64 played games on the World championship FIFA, World Cup Germany 2006 and 128 results of the games divided in three integrals according to the score (win, defeat and unresolved score . The analysis is done according to the total number of shots during the game. Considering the results that are got and their interpretations, we could conclude that the results of data analysis in which is used the multi-method of MANOVA analysis and discriminative analysis, has shown that there are significant difference in frequency of the games result (win, defeat or unresolved score in shots element during the game. Even thou the noticed difference in frequency are not equally expressed, the results that are got have insinuated that there are significant differences in followed elements of the football game. Implemented analysis (royev test i T-test have confirmed that in every analyzed elements of the shot there are statistically significant differences in the result of the game (win, defeat, unresolved score and that the differences in shot’s elements are consequence different selection of the tactics and techniques also the ability of their realization in the stage of at tack and defense.

  17. Facilitating the Interpretation of English Language Proficiency Scores: Combining Scale Anchoring and Test Score Mapping Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald; Schedl, Mary; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, for the benefit of both test takers and test score users, enhanced "TOEFL ITP"® test score reports that go beyond the simple numerical scores that are currently reported. To do so, we applied traditional scale anchoring (proficiency scaling) to item difficulty data in order to develop performance…

  18. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire: score validity among medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Thompson, Warren G; Thomas, Kris G

    2011-12-01

    The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) purports to measure motivation using the expectancy-value model. Although it is widely used in other fields, this instrument has received little study in health professions education. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of MSLQ scores. We conducted a validity study evaluating the relationships of MSLQ scores to other variables and their internal structure (reliability and factor analysis). Participants included 210 internal medicine and family medicine residents participating in a web-based course on ambulatory medicine at an academic medical centre. Measurements included pre-course MSLQ scores, pre- and post-module motivation surveys, post-module knowledge test and post-module Instructional Materials Motivation Survey (IMMS) scores. Internal consistency was universally high for all MSLQ items together (Cronbach's α = 0.93) and for each domain (α ≥ 0.67). Total MSLQ scores showed statistically significant positive associations with post-test knowledge scores. For example, a 1-point rise in total MSLQ score was associated with a 4.4% increase in post-test scores (β = 4.4; p motivation and satisfaction. Scores on MSLQ domains demonstrated associations that generally aligned with our hypotheses. Self-efficacy and control of learning belief scores demonstrated the strongest domain-specific relationships with knowledge scores (β = 2.9 for both). Confirmatory factor analysis showed a borderline model fit. Follow-up exploratory factor analysis revealed the scores of five factors (self-efficacy, intrinsic interest, test anxiety, extrinsic goals, attribution) demonstrated psychometric and predictive properties similar to those of the original scales. Scores on the MSLQ are reliable and predict meaningful outcomes. However, the factor structure suggests a simplified model might better fit the empiric data. Future research might consider how assessing and responding to motivation could enhance

  19. Martial arts intervention decreases pain scores in children with malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, Martin H; Thomas, Ronald; Cohen, Cindy; Bluth, Amanda C; Goldberg, Elimelech

    2016-01-01

    Martial arts intervention in disease has been mostly limited to adult inflammatory, musculoskeletal, or motor diseases, where a mechanical intervention effects positive change. However, the application and benefit to pain management in childhood malignancy are not well described. Here, we assess the effects of defined martial arts intervention in children with cancer with respect to their pain perception and management. Sixty-four children with childhood malignancies were enrolled in a martial arts program, which encompassed both meditation and movement modalities. Pain scores (0-10) were recorded pre- and post- 1-hour session intervention. Pain scores were crossed by total visits and tabulated by whether participant pain reduced at least 1 unit, stayed the same, or increased in intensity immediately after (post) participation session. Differences in pain scores were further compared by age and sex. Prepain and postpain scale data were measured for 64 participants, 43 males (67.2%) and 21 females (32.8%), ranging from 3 years to 19 years. Preintervention and postintervention data were obtained for 223 individual session visits. Mean number of patient participation visits was 1.8±1.6 (range one to nine visits). Of 116 individual measured sessions where the participants began with a pain score of at least 1, pain intensity reduced ≥1 unit in 85.3% (99/116) of visits, remained the same in 7.8% (9/116), and increased in 6.9% (8/116). For the majority (96.3%; 77/80) of sessions, participants began with a prepain intensity score of at least 5-10 with reduction in pain intensity following the session. The overall mean pain score presession visit was reduced bŷ40% (pre: 5.95±2.64 and post: 3.03±2.45 [95% CI: 2.34-3.50]; P ≤0.001). Median pain intensity scores had greater reductions with increased age of participants (3-6 years [-1], 7-10 years [-2], 11-14 years [-3], and 15-19 years [-4]). Martial arts intervention can provide a useful modality to decrease pain in

  20. Surgical Apgar Score Predicts Post- Laparatomy Complications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    calculated Surgical Apgar Scores for 152 patients during a 6-month study ... major postoperative complications and/or death within. 30 days of ... respond to and control hemodynamic changes during a ... abdominal injury (18.42%). Intestinal ...

  1. Budget Scoring: An Impediment to Alternative Financing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Summers, Donald E; San Miguel, Joseph G

    2007-01-01

    .... One of the major impediments to using alternative forms of procurement financing for acquiring defense capabilities is in the budgetary treatment, or scoring, of these initiatives by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO...

  2. Film scoring today - Theory, practice and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Flach, Paula Sophie

    2012-01-01

    This thesis considers film scoring by taking a closer look at the theoretical discourse throughout the last decades, examining current production practice of film music and showcasing a musical analysis of the film Inception (2010).

  3. Climiate Resilience Screening Index and Domain Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CRSI and related-domain scores for all 50 states and 3135 counties in the U.S. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: They are already available within the...

  4. Development and validation of the International Hidradenitis Suppurativa Severity Score System (IHS4), a novel dynamic scoring system to assess HS severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zouboulis, C C; Tzellos, T; Kyrgidis, A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A validated tool for the dynamic severity assessment of hidradenitis suppurativa/acne inversa (HS) is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a novel dynamic scoring system to assess the severity of HS. METHODS: A Delphi voting procedure was conducted among the members......, as well as examination for correlation (Spearman's rho) and agreement (Cohen's kappa) with existing scores, were engaged to recognize the variables for a new International HS4 (IHS4) that was established by a second Delphi round. RESULTS: Consensus HS4 was based on number of skin lesions, number of skin....... Three candidate scores were presented to the second Delphi round. The resulting IHS4 score is arrived at by the number of nodules (multiplied by 1) plus the number of abscesses (multiplied by 2) plus the number of draining tunnels (multiplied by 4). A total score of 3 or less signifies mild, 4...

  5. A novel scoring system for predicting adherent placenta in women with placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimura, Kenji; Morizane, Mayumi; Deguchi, Masashi; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Tanaka, Utaru; Ueno, Yoshiko; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Tetsuo; Sugimura, Kazuro; Yamada, Hideto

    2018-04-01

    Placenta previa (PP) is one of the most significant risk factors for adherent placenta (AP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of a novel scoring system for predicting AP in pregnant women with PP. This prospective cohort study enrolled 175 women with PP. The placenta previa with adherent placenta score (PPAP score) is composed of 2 categories: (1) past history of cesarean section (CS), surgical abortion, and/or uterine surgery; and (2) ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Each category is graded as 0, 1, 2, or 4 points, yielding a total score between 0 and 24. When women with PP had PPAP score ≥8, they were considered to be at a high risk for AP and received placement of preoperative internal iliac artery occlusion balloon catheters. If they were found to have AP during CS, they underwent hysterectomy or placenta removal using advanced bipolar with balloon catheter occlusion. The predictive accuracy of PPAP score was evaluated. In total, 23 of the 175 women with PP were diagnosed as having AP, histopathologically or clinically. Twenty-one of 24 women with PPAP score ≥8 had AP, whereas two of 151 women with PPAP score PPAP scoring system may be useful for predicting AP in women with PP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Peritumoral Artery Scoring System: a Novel Scoring System to Predict Renal Function Outcome after Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiyun; Wu, Guangyu; Huang, Jiwei; Shi, Oumin; Kong, Wen; Chen, Yonghui; Xu, Jianrong; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Jin; Huang, Yiran

    2017-06-06

    The present study aimed to assess the impact of peritumoral artery characteristics on renal function outcome prediction using a novel Peritumoral Artery Scoring System based on computed tomography arteriography. Peritumoral artery characteristics and renal function were evaluated in 220 patients who underwent laparoscopic partial nephrectomy and then validate in 51 patients with split and total glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In particular, peritumoral artery classification and diameter were measured to assign arteries into low, moderate, and high Peritumoral Artery Scoring System risk categories. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were then used to determine risk factors for major renal functional decline. The Peritumoral Artery Scoring System and four other nephrometry systems were compared using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The Peritumoral Artery Scoring System was significantly superior to the other systems for predicting postoperative renal function decline (p system was a superior independent predictor of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline (area-under-the-curve = 0.865, p renal function outcome after laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

  7. Model for predicting the injury severity score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Shuichi; Oshima, Kiyohiro; Murata, Masato; Kaneko, Minoru; Aoki, Makoto; Kanbe, Masahiko; Nakamura, Takuro; Ohyama, Yoshio; Tamura, Jun'ichi

    2015-07-01

    To determine the formula that predicts the injury severity score from parameters that are obtained in the emergency department at arrival. We reviewed the medical records of trauma patients who were transferred to the emergency department of Gunma University Hospital between January 2010 and December 2010. The injury severity score, age, mean blood pressure, heart rate, Glasgow coma scale, hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cell count, platelet count, fibrinogen, international normalized ratio of prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and fibrin degradation products, were examined in those patients on arrival. To determine the formula that predicts the injury severity score, multiple linear regression analysis was carried out. The injury severity score was set as the dependent variable, and the other parameters were set as candidate objective variables. IBM spss Statistics 20 was used for the statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at P  Watson ratio was 2.200. A formula for predicting the injury severity score in trauma patients was developed with ordinary parameters such as fibrin degradation products and mean blood pressure. This formula is useful because we can predict the injury severity score easily in the emergency department.

  8. Technology Performance Level (TPL) Scoring Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Jochem [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Jesse D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Costello, Ronan [Wave Venture, Penstraze (United Kingdom); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Babarit, Aurelien [Ecole Centrale de Nantes (France). Lab. of Research in Hydrodynamics, Energetics, and Atmospheric Environment (LHEEA); Neilson, Kim [Ramboll, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bittencourt, Claudio [DNV GL, London (United Kingdom); Kennedy, Ben [Wave Venture, Penstraze (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-01

    Three different ways of combining scores are used in the revised formulation. These are arithmetic mean, geometric mean and multiplication with normalisation. Arithmetic mean is used when combining scores that measure similar attributes, e.g. used for combining costs. The arithmetic mean has the property that it is similar to a logical OR, e.g. when combining costs it does not matter what the individual costs are only what the combined cost is. Geometric mean and Multiplication are used when combining scores that measure disparate attributes. Multiplication is similar to a logical AND, it is used to combine ‘must haves.’ As a result, this method is more punitive than the geometric mean; to get a good score in the combined result it is necessary to have a good score in ALL of the inputs. e.g. the different types of survivability are ‘must haves.’ On balance, the revised TPL is probably less punitive than the previous spreadsheet, multiplication is used sparingly as a method of combining scores. This is in line with the feedback of the Wave Energy Prize judges.

  9. Robust LOD scores for variance component-based linkage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blangero, J; Williams, J T; Almasy, L

    2000-01-01

    The variance component method is now widely used for linkage analysis of quantitative traits. Although this approach offers many advantages, the importance of the underlying assumption of multivariate normality of the trait distribution within pedigrees has not been studied extensively. Simulation studies have shown that traits with leptokurtic distributions yield linkage test statistics that exhibit excessive Type I error when analyzed naively. We derive analytical formulae relating the deviation from the expected asymptotic distribution of the lod score to the kurtosis and total heritability of the quantitative trait. A simple correction constant yields a robust lod score for any deviation from normality and for any pedigree structure, and effectively eliminates the problem of inflated Type I error due to misspecification of the underlying probability model in variance component-based linkage analysis.

  10. Scoring radiologic characteristics to predict proliferative potential in meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiba, Tetsuo; Hashimoto, Naoya; Maruno, Motohiko; Izumoto, Shuichi; Suzuki, Tsuyoshi; Kagawa, Naoki; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the feasibility of using radiologic characteristics to predict the proliferative potential in meningiomas. Our statistical analysis revealed that the presence of peritumoral edema, an ambiguous brain-tumor border, and irregular tumor shape were significantly correlated with a higher MIB-1 staining index (SI) value. We developed the following scoring system for specific features in each tumor: peritumoral edema (tumor with edema=1, tumor without edema=0); brain-tumor border (tumor with any ambiguous border=1, tumor circumscribed by a distinct rim=0); and tumor shape (tumor with irregular shape=1, tumor with smooth shape=0). Using Spearman's correlation coefficient analysis, we found a significant correlation (P<0.005) between total score calculated for each patient and SI value. Our findings suggest that the proliferative potential of meningiomas can be predicted using a less invasive preoperative examination focusing on the presence of peritumoral edema, ambiguous brain-tumor border, and irregular tumor shape. (author)

  11. GalaxyDock BP2 score: a hybrid scoring function for accurate protein-ligand docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Minkyung; Shin, Woong-Hee; Chung, Hwan Won; Seok, Chaok

    2017-07-01

    Protein-ligand docking is a useful tool for providing atomic-level understanding of protein functions in nature and design principles for artificial ligands or proteins with desired properties. The ability to identify the true binding pose of a ligand to a target protein among numerous possible candidate poses is an essential requirement for successful protein-ligand docking. Many previously developed docking scoring functions were trained to reproduce experimental binding affinities and were also used for scoring binding poses. However, in this study, we developed a new docking scoring function, called GalaxyDock BP2 Score, by directly training the scoring power of binding poses. This function is a hybrid of physics-based, empirical, and knowledge-based score terms that are balanced to strengthen the advantages of each component. The performance of the new scoring function exhibits significant improvement over existing scoring functions in decoy pose discrimination tests. In addition, when the score is used with the GalaxyDock2 protein-ligand docking program, it outperformed other state-of-the-art docking programs in docking tests on the Astex diverse set, the Cross2009 benchmark set, and the Astex non-native set. GalaxyDock BP2 Score and GalaxyDock2 with this score are freely available at http://galaxy.seoklab.org/softwares/galaxydock.html.

  12. Backside wear in modern total knee designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, Prakash; Furman, Bridgette D; Cottrell, Jocelyn M; Wright, Timothy M

    2007-02-01

    Although modularity affords various options to the orthopedic surgeon, these benefits come at a price. The unintended bearing surface between the back surface of the tibial insert and the metallic tray results in micromotion leading to polyethylene wear debris. The objective of this study was to examine the backside wear of tibial inserts from three modern total knee designs with very different locking mechanisms: Insall-Burstein II (IB II), Optetrak, and Advance. A random sample of 71 inserts were obtained from our institution's retrieval collection and examined to assess the extent of wear, depth of wear, and wear damage modes. Patient records were also obtained to determine patient age, body mass index, length of implantation, and reason for revision. Modes of wear damage (abrasion, burnishing, scratching, delamination, third body debris, surface deformation, and pitting) were then scored in each zone from 0 to 3 (0 = 0%, 1 = 0-10%, 2 = 10-50%, and 3 = >50%). The depth of wear was subjectively identified as removal of manufacturing identification markings stamped onto the inferior surface of the polyethylene. Both Advance and IB II polyethylene inserts showed significantly higher scores for backside wear than the Optetrak inserts. All IB II and Advance implants showed evidence of backside wear, whereas 17% (5 out of 30) of the retrieved Optetrak implants had no observable wear. There were no significant differences when comparing the depth of wear score between designs. The locking mechanism greatly affects the propensity for wear and should be considered when choosing a knee implant system.

  13. All-cause mortality in asymptomatic persons with extensive Agatston scores above 1000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jaideep; Blaha, Michael J; McEvoy, John W; Qadir, Sadia; Tota-Maharaj, Rajesh; Shaw, Leslee J; Rumberger, John A; Callister, Tracy Q; Berman, Daniel S; Min, James K; Raggi, Paolo; Agatston, Arthur A; Blumenthal, Roger S; Budoff, Matthew J; Nasir, Khurram

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment in the extensive calcified plaque phenotype has been limited by small sample size. We studied all-cause mortality rates among asymptomatic patients with markedly elevated Agatston scores > 1000. We studied a clinical cohort of 44,052 asymptomatic patients referred for coronary calcium scans. Mean follow-up was 5.6 years (range, 1-13 years). All-cause mortality rates were calculated after stratifying by Agatston score (0, 1-1000, 1001-1500, 1500-2000, and >2000). A multivariable Cox regression model adjusting for self-reported traditional risk factors was created to assess the relative mortality hazard of Agatston scores 1001 to 1500, 1501 to 2000, and >2000. With the use of post-estimation modeling, we assessed for the presence of an upper threshold of risk with high Agatston scores. A total of 1593 patients (4% of total population) had Agatston score > 1000. There was a continuous graded decrease in estimated 10-year survival across increasing Agatston score, continuing when Agatston score > 1000 (Agatston score 1001-1500, 78%; Agatston score 1501-2000, 74%; Agatston score > 2000, 51%). After multivariable adjustment, Agatston scores 1001 to 1500, 1501 to 2000, and >2000 were associated with an 8.05-, 7.45-, and 13.26-fold greater mortality risk, respectively, than for Agatston score of 0. Compared with Agatston score 1001 to 1500, Agatston score 1501 to 2000 had a similar all-cause mortality risk, whereas Agatston score > 2000 had an increased relative risk (Agatston score 1501-2000: hazard ratio [HR], 1.01 [95% CI, 0.67-1.51]; Agatston score > 2000: HR, 1.79 [95% CI, 1.30-2.46]). Graphical assessment of the predicted survival model suggests no upper threshold for risk associated with calcified plaque in coronary arteries. Increasing calcified plaque in coronary arteries continues to predict a graded decrease in survival among patients with extensive Agatston score > 1000 with no apparent upper threshold. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. MODIFIED ALVARADO SCORING IN ACUTE APPENDICITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varadarajan Sujath

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acute appendicitis is one of the most common surgical emergencies with a lifetime presentation of approximately 1 in 7. Its incidence is 1.5-1.9/1000 in males and females. Surgery for acute appendicitis is based on history, clinical examination and laboratory investigations (e.g. WBC count. Imaging techniques add very little to the efficacy in the diagnosis of appendix. A negative appendicectomy rate of 20-40% has been reported in literature. A difficulty in diagnosis is experienced in very young patients and females of reproductive age. The diagnostic accuracy in assessing acute appendicitis has not improved in spite of rapid advances in management. MATERIALS AND METHODS The modified Alvarado score was applied and assessed for its accuracy in preparation diagnosis of acute appendicitis in 50 patients. The aim of our study is to understand the various presentations of acute appendicitis including the age and gender incidence and the application of the modified Alvarado scoring system in our hospital setup and assessment of the efficacy of the score. RESULTS Our study shows that most involved age group is 3 rd decade with male preponderance. On application of Alvarado score, nausea and vomiting present in 50% and anorexia in 30%, leucocytosis was found in 75% of cases. Sensitivity and specificity of our study were 65% and 40% respectively with positive predictive value of 85% and negative predictive value of 15%. CONCLUSION This study showed that clinical scoring like the Alvarado score can be a cheap and quick tool to apply in emergency departments to rule out acute appendicitis. The implementation of modified Alvarado score is simple and cost effective.

  15. Heart valve surgery: EuroSCORE vs. EuroSCORE II vs. Society of Thoracic Surgeons score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sharoz Rabbani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background This is a validation study comparing the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE II with the previous additive (AES and logistic EuroSCORE (LES and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons’ (STS risk prediction algorithm, for patients undergoing valve replacement with or without bypass in Pakistan. Patients and Methods Clinical data of 576 patients undergoing valve replacement surgery between 2006 and 2013 were retrospectively collected and individual expected risks of death were calculated by all four risk prediction algorithms. Performance of these risk algorithms was evaluated in terms of discrimination and calibration. Results There were 28 deaths (4.8% among 576 patients, which was lower than the predicted mortality of 5.16%, 6.96% and 4.94% by AES, LES and EuroSCORE II but was higher than 2.13% predicted by STS scoring system. For single and double valve replacement procedures, EuroSCORE II was the best predictor of mortality with highest Hosmer and Lemmeshow test (H-L p value (0.346 to 0.689 and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (0.637 to 0.898. For valve plus concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG patients actual mortality was 1.88%. STS calculator came out to be the best predictor of mortality for this subgroup with H-L p value (0.480 to 0.884 and ROC (0.657 to 0.775. Conclusions For Pakistani population EuroSCORE II is an accurate predictor for individual operative risk in patients undergoing isolated valve surgery, whereas STS performs better in the valve plus CABG group.

  16. The relationship of live animal muscular and skeletal scores, ultrasound measurements and carcass classification scores with carcass composition and value in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, S B; Drennan, M J; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2009-11-01

    scores/measurements and carcass classification scores, explained an appreciable amount of the total variation in carcass meat, fat and bone proportions and carcass value, and a moderate amount of the variation in proportion of high-value meat cuts in the carcass.

  17. Optimizing Scoring and Sampling Methods for Assessing Built Neighborhood Environment Quality in Residential Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Brimpong, Joel; Coffey, Nathan; Ayers, Colby; Berrigan, David; Yingling, Leah R.; Thomas, Samantha; Mitchell, Valerie; Ahuja, Chaarushi; Rivers, Joshua; Hartz, Jacob; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.

    2017-01-01

    Optimization of existing measurement tools is necessary to explore links between aspects of the neighborhood built environment and health behaviors or outcomes. We evaluate a scoring method for virtual neighborhood audits utilizing the Active Neighborhood Checklist (the Checklist), a neighborhood audit measure, and assess street segment representativeness in low-income neighborhoods. Eighty-two home neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. Cardiovascular Health/Needs Assessment (NCT01927783) participants were audited using Google Street View imagery and the Checklist (five sections with 89 total questions). Twelve street segments per home address were assessed for (1) Land-Use Type; (2) Public Transportation Availability; (3) Street Characteristics; (4) Environment Quality and (5) Sidewalks/Walking/Biking features. Checklist items were scored 0–2 points/question. A combinations algorithm was developed to assess street segments’ representativeness. Spearman correlations were calculated between built environment quality scores and Walk Score®, a validated neighborhood walkability measure. Street segment quality scores ranged 10–47 (Mean = 29.4 ± 6.9) and overall neighborhood quality scores, 172–475 (Mean = 352.3 ± 63.6). Walk scores® ranged 0–91 (Mean = 46.7 ± 26.3). Street segment combinations’ correlation coefficients ranged 0.75–1.0. Significant positive correlations were found between overall neighborhood quality scores, four of the five Checklist subsection scores, and Walk Scores® (r = 0.62, p health behaviors and outcomes. PMID:28282878

  18. WebScore: An Effective Page Scoring Approach for Uncertain Web Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojie Qiao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To effectively score pages with uncertainty in web social networks, we first proposed a new concept called transition probability matrix and formally defined the uncertainty in web social networks. Second, we proposed a hybrid page scoring algorithm, called WebScore, based on the PageRank algorithm and three centrality measures including degree, betweenness, and closeness. Particularly,WebScore takes into a full consideration of the uncertainty of web social networks by computing the transition probability from one page to another. The basic idea ofWebScore is to: (1 integrate uncertainty into PageRank in order to accurately rank pages, and (2 apply the centrality measures to calculate the importance of pages in web social networks. In order to verify the performance of WebScore, we developed a web social network analysis system which can partition web pages into distinct groups and score them in an effective fashion. Finally, we conducted extensive experiments on real data and the results show that WebScore is effective at scoring uncertain pages with less time deficiency than PageRank and centrality measures based page scoring algorithms.

  19. The PER (Preoperative Esophagectomy Risk) Score: A Simple Risk Score to Predict Short-Term and Long-Term Outcome in Patients with Surgically Treated Esophageal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeh, Matthias; Metze, Johannes; Uzunoglu, Faik G; Nentwich, Michael; Ghadban, Tarik; Wellner, Ullrich; Bockhorn, Maximilian; Kluge, Stefan; Izbicki, Jakob R; Vashist, Yogesh K

    2016-02-01

    Esophageal resection in patients with esophageal cancer (EC) is still associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. We aimed to develop a simple preoperative risk score for the prediction of short-term and long-term outcomes for patients with EC treated by esophageal resection. In total, 498 patients suffering from esophageal carcinoma, who underwent esophageal resection, were included in this retrospective cohort study. Three preoperative esophagectomy risk (PER) groups were defined based on preoperative functional evaluation of different organ systems by validated tools (revised cardiac risk index, model for end-stage liver disease score, and pulmonary function test). Clinicopathological parameters, morbidity, and mortality as well as disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were correlated to the PER score. The PER score significantly predicted the short-term outcome of patients with EC who underwent esophageal resection. PER 2 and PER 3 patients had at least double the risk of morbidity and mortality compared to PER 1 patients. Furthermore, a higher PER score was associated with shorter DFS (P PER score was identified as an independent predictor of tumor recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] 2.1; P PER score allows preoperative objective allocation of patients with EC into different risk categories for morbidity, mortality, and long-term outcomes. Thus, multicenter studies are needed for independent validation of the PER score.

  20. The R.I.R.S. scoring system: An innovative scoring system for predicting stone-free rate following retrograde intrarenal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yinglong; Li, Deng; Chen, Lei; Xu, Yaoting; Zhang, Dingguo; Shao, Yi; Lu, Jun

    2017-11-21

    To establish and internally validate an innovative R.I.R.S. scoring system that allows urologists to preoperatively estimate the stone-free rate (SFR) after retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). This study included 382 eligible samples from a total 573 patients who underwent RIRS from January 2014 to December 2016. Four reproducible factors in the R.I.R.S. scoring system, including renal stone density, inferior pole stone, renal infundibular length and stone burden, were measured based on preoperative computed tomography of urography to evaluate the possibility of stone clearance after RIRS. The median cumulative diameter of the stones was 14 mm, and the interquartile range was 10 to 21. The SFR on postoperative day 1 in the present cohort was 61.5% (235 of 382), and the final SFR after 1 month was 73.6% (281 of 382). We established an innovative scoring system to evaluate SFR after RIRS using four preoperative characteristics. The range of the R.I.R.S. scoring system was 4 to 10. The overall score showed a great significance of stone-free status (p R.I.R.S. scoring system was 0.904. The R.I.R.S. scoring system is associated with SFR after RIRS. This innovative scoring system can preoperatively assess treatment success after intrarenal surgery and can be used for preoperative surgical arrangement and comparisons of outcomes among different centers and within a center over time.

  1. Pediatric blunt cerebrovascular injury: the McGovern screening score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Joseph P; Venkataraman, Sidish S; Turkmani, Ali H; Zhu, Liang; Kerr, Marcia L; Patel, Rajan P; Ugalde, Irma T; Fletcher, Stephen A; Sandberg, David I; Cox, Charles S; Kitagawa, Ryan S; Day, Arthur L; Shah, Manish N

    2018-03-16

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to assess the incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) at a busy Level 1 trauma center and to develop a tool for accurately predicting pediatric BCVI and the need for diagnostic testing. METHODS This is a retrospective cohort study of a prospectively collected database of pediatric patients who had sustained blunt trauma (patient age range 0-15 years) and were treated at a Level 1 trauma center between 2005 and 2015. Digital subtraction angiography, MR angiography, or CT angiography was used to confirm BCVI. Recently, the Utah score has emerged as a screening tool specifically targeted toward evaluating BCVI risk in the pediatric population. Using logistical regression and adding mechanism of injury as a logit, the McGovern score was able to use the Utah score as a starting point to create a more sensitive screening tool to identify which pediatric trauma patients should receive angiographic imaging due to a high risk for BCVI. RESULTS A total of 12,614 patients (mean age 6.6 years) were admitted with blunt trauma and prospectively registered in the trauma database. Of these, 460 (3.6%) patients underwent angiography after blunt trauma: 295 (64.1%), 107 (23.3%), 6 (1.3%), and 52 (11.3%) patients underwent CT angiography, MR angiography, digital subtraction angiography, and a combination of imaging modalities, respectively. The BCVI incidence (n = 21; 0.17%) was lower than that in a comparable adult group (p tools for BCVI, misclassified 6 (28.6%), 6 (28.6%), 7 (33.3%), and 10 (47.6%) patients with BCVI, respectively, as "low risk" and not in need of subsequent angiographic imaging. By incorporating the mechanism of injury into the score, the McGovern score only misclassified 4 (19.0%) children, all of whom were managed conservatively with no treatment or aspirin. CONCLUSIONS With a low incidence of pediatric BCVI and a nonsurgical treatment paradigm, a more conservative approach

  2. Gambling scores for earthquake predictions and forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiancang

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a new method, namely the gambling score, for scoring the performance earthquake forecasts or predictions. Unlike most other scoring procedures that require a regular scheme of forecast and treat each earthquake equally, regardless their magnitude, this new scoring method compensates the risk that the forecaster has taken. Starting with a certain number of reputation points, once a forecaster makes a prediction or forecast, he is assumed to have betted some points of his reputation. The reference model, which plays the role of the house, determines how many reputation points the forecaster can gain if he succeeds, according to a fair rule, and also takes away the reputation points betted by the forecaster if he loses. This method is also extended to the continuous case of point process models, where the reputation points betted by the forecaster become a continuous mass on the space-time-magnitude range of interest. We also calculate the upper bound of the gambling score when the true model is a renewal process, the stress release model or the ETAS model and when the reference model is the Poisson model.

  3. Quality scores for 32,000 genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Miriam L.; Hyatt, Doug; Jun, Se-Ran

    2014-01-01

    Background More than 80% of the microbial genomes in GenBank are of ‘draft’ quality (12,553 draft vs. 2,679 finished, as of October, 2013). We have examined all the microbial DNA sequences available for complete, draft, and Sequence Read Archive genomes in GenBank as well as three other major...... public databases, and assigned quality scores for more than 30,000 prokaryotic genome sequences. Results Scores were assigned using four categories: the completeness of the assembly, the presence of full-length rRNA genes, tRNA composition and the presence of a set of 102 conserved genes in prokaryotes....... Most (~88%) of the genomes had quality scores of 0.8 or better and can be safely used for standard comparative genomics analysis. We compared genomes across factors that may influence the score. We found that although sequencing depth coverage of over 100x did not ensure a better score, sequencing read...

  4. An ultrasound score for knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riecke, B F; Christensen, R.; Torp-Pedersen, S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop standardized musculoskeletal ultrasound (MUS) procedures and scoring for detecting knee osteoarthritis (OA) and test the MUS score's ability to discern various degrees of knee OA, in comparison with plain radiography and the 'Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score' (KOOS......) domains as comparators. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of MUS examinations in 45 patients with knee OA. Validity, reliability, and reproducibility were evaluated. RESULTS: MUS examination for knee OA consists of five separate domains assessing (1) predominantly morphological changes in the medial...... coefficients ranging from 0.75 to 0.97 for the five domains. Construct validity was confirmed with statistically significant correlation coefficients (0.47-0.81, P knee OA. In comparison with standing radiographs...

  5. Assessing spelling in kindergarten: further comparison of scoring metrics and their relation to reading skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Nathan H; Oslund, Eric L; Simmons, Leslie E; Simmons, Deborah

    2014-02-01

    Early reading and spelling development share foundational skills, yet spelling assessment is underutilized in evaluating early reading. This study extended research comparing the degree to which methods for scoring spelling skills at the end of kindergarten were associated with reading skills measured at the same time as well as at the end of first grade. Five strategies for scoring spelling responses were compared: totaling the number of words spelled correctly, totaling the number of correct letter sounds, totaling the number of correct letter sequences, using a rubric for scoring invented spellings, and calculating the Spelling Sensitivity Score (Masterson & Apel, 2010b). Students (N=287) who were identified at kindergarten entry as at risk for reading difficulty and who had received supplemental reading intervention were administered a standardized spelling assessment in the spring of kindergarten, and measures of phonological awareness, decoding, word recognition, and reading fluency were administered concurrently and at the end of first grade. The five spelling scoring metrics were similar in their strong relations with factors summarizing reading subskills (phonological awareness, decoding, and word reading) on a concurrent basis. Furthermore, when predicting first-grade reading skills based on spring-of-kindergarten performance, spelling scores from all five metrics explained unique variance over the autoregressive effects of kindergarten word identification. The practical advantages of using a brief spelling assessment for early reading evaluation and the relative tradeoffs of each scoring metric are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Scoring Mental Health Quality of Life With the SF-36 in Patients With and Without Diabetes Foot Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Junho; Del Core, Michael A; Wukich, Dane K; Liu, George T; Lalli, Trapper; VanPelt, Michael D; La Fontaine, Javier; Lavery, Lawrence A; Raspovic, Katherine M

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if using orthogonal and oblique factor analysis detect changes in health-related quality of life differently in diabetic patients on the Short Form-36 (SF-36) survey. A total of 155 patients had diabetic foot complications (DFC), and 145 patients had no DFCs. The SF-36 Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores were calculated using scoring coefficients determined by orthogonal and oblique rotation principle component analyses of the subscales. The DFC group had lower orthogonal ( P < .00001) and oblique PCS scores ( P < .00001). However, despite lower Mental Health subscale scores in the patients with DFCs, orthogonal MCS scores ( P = .156) did not differ. In contrast, the oblique MCS scores reflected the difference in the Mental Health subscale ( P = .0005). Orthogonal and oblique PCS scores did not differ significantly. However, orthogonal MCS scores were significantly higher than oblique MCS scores in those with DFCs ( P = .0004) and without DFCs ( P = .005). The shorter, 12-item SF-12 survey demonstrated similar results. Poorer physical function leads to higher orthogonal MCS scores than if determined by oblique scoring coefficients since Physical Function, Bodily Pain, and General Health are weighted more negatively in orthogonal coefficients when calculating the MCS score. Oblique scoring coefficients may address this issue, but further study is necessary to confirm whether oblique MCS scores accurately represent the mental health of patients with diabetic foot disease.

  7. Assigning Numerical Scores to Linguistic Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Campión

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study different methods of scoring linguistic expressions defined on a finite set, in the search for a linear order that ranks all those possible expressions. Among them, particular attention is paid to the canonical extension, and its representability through distances in a graph plus some suitable penalization of imprecision. The relationship between this setting and the classical problems of numerical representability of orderings, as well as extension of orderings from a set to a superset is also explored. Finally, aggregation procedures of qualitative rankings and scorings are also analyzed.

  8. What Do Test Scores Really Mean? A Latent Class Analysis of Danish Test Score Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; McIntosh, James

    2014-01-01

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyze a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-55, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scores...... of intelligence explain a significant proportion of the variation in test scores. This adds to the complexity of interpreting test scores and suggests that school culture and possible incentive problems make it more di¢ cult to understand what the tests measure....

  9. NCACO-score: An effective main-chain dependent scoring function for structure modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xiaoxi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of effective scoring functions is a critical component to the success of protein structure modeling. Previously, many efforts have been dedicated to the development of scoring functions. Despite these efforts, development of an effective scoring function that can achieve both good accuracy and fast speed still presents a grand challenge. Results Based on a coarse-grained representation of a protein structure by using only four main-chain atoms: N, Cα, C and O, we develop a knowledge-based scoring function, called NCACO-score, that integrates different structural information to rapidly model protein structure from sequence. In testing on the Decoys'R'Us sets, we found that NCACO-score can effectively recognize native conformers from their decoys. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NCACO-score can effectively guide fragment assembly for protein structure prediction, which has achieved a good performance in building the structure models for hard targets from CASP8 in terms of both accuracy and speed. Conclusions Although NCACO-score is developed based on a coarse-grained model, it is able to discriminate native conformers from decoy conformers with high accuracy. NCACO is a very effective scoring function for structure modeling.

  10. Algorithm improvement program nuclide identification algorithm scoring criteria and scoring application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enghauser, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) Algorithm Improvement Program (AIP) is to facilitate gamma-radiation detector nuclide identification algorithm development, improvement, and validation. Accordingly, scoring criteria have been developed to objectively assess the performance of nuclide identification algorithms. In addition, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application for automated nuclide identification scoring has been developed. This report provides an overview of the equations, nuclide weighting factors, nuclide equivalencies, and configuration weighting factors used by the application for scoring nuclide identification algorithm performance. Furthermore, this report presents a general overview of the nuclide identification algorithm scoring application including illustrative examples.

  11. RENZI SCORE FOR OBSTRUCTED DEFECATION SYNDROME - VALIDATION OF THE PORTUGUESE VERSION ACCORDING TO THE COSMIN CHECKLIST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Ana Celia; Dias, Sara; Santa-Cruz, André; Rolanda, Carla

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the Obstructed Defecation Syndrome score (ODS score) was developed and validated by Renzi to assess clinical staging and to allow evaluation and comparison of the efficacy of treatment of this disorder. Our goal is to validate the Portuguese version of Renzi ODS score, according to the Consensus based Standards for the selection of the Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist. Following guidelines for cross-cultural validity, Renzi ODS score was translated into the Portuguese language. Then, a group of patients and healthy controls were invited to fill in the Renzi ODS score at baseline, after 2 weeks and 3 months, respectively. We assessed internal consistency, reliability and measurement error, content and construct validity, responsiveness and interpretability. A total of 113 individuals (77 patients; 36 healthy controls) completed the questionnaire. Seventy and 30 patients repeated the Renzi ODS score after 2 weeks and 3 months respectively. Factor analysis confirmed the unidimensionality of the scale. Cronbach's α coefficient of 0.77 supported item's homogeneity. Weighted quadratic kappa of 0.89 established test-retest reliability. The smallest detectable change at the individual level was 2.66 and at the group level was 0.30. Renzi ODS score and the total (-0.32) and physical (-0.43) SF-36 scores correlated negatively. Patient and control's groups significantly differed (11 points). The change score of Renzi ODS score between baseline and 3 months correlated negatively with the clinical evolution (-0.86). ROC analysis showed minimal important change of 2.00 with AUC 0.97. Neither floor nor ceiling effects were observed. This work validated the Portuguese version of Renzi ODS score. We can now use this reliable, responsive, and interpretable (at the group level) tool to evaluate Portuguese ODS patients.

  12. Physiological scoring: an aid to emergency medical services transport decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challen, Kirsty; Walter, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Attendance at UK emergency departments is rising steadily despite the proliferation of alternative unscheduled care providers. Evidence is mixed on the willingness of emergency medical services (EMS) providers to decline to transport patients and the safety of incorporating such an option into EMS provision. Physiologically based Early Warning Scores are in use in many hospitals and emergency departments, but not yet have been proven to be of benefit in the prehospital arena. The use of a physiological-social scoring system could safely identify patients calling EMS who might be diverted from the emergency department to an alternative, unscheduled, care provider. This was a retrospective, cohort study of patients with a presenting complaint of "shortness of breath" or "difficulty breathing" transported to the emergency department by EMS. Retrospective calculation of a physiological social score (PMEWS) based on first recorded data from EMS records was performed. Outcome measures of hospital admission and need for physiologically stabilizing treatment in the emergency department also were performed. A total of 215 records were analyzed. One hundred thirty-nine (65%) patients were admitted from the emergency department or received physiologically stabilizing treatment in the emergency department. Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUROC) for hospital admission was 0.697 and for admission or physiologically stabilizing treatment was 0.710. No patient scoringemergency department to alternative, unscheduled, care providers.

  13. Scoring ultrasound synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Terslev, Lene; Aegerter, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop a consensus-based ultrasound (US) definition and quantification system for synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: A multistep, iterative approach was used to: (1) evaluate the baseline agreement on defining and scoring synovitis according to the usual practice...

  14. Multilevel Analysis of Student Civics Knowledge Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Chris; Miyazaki, Yasuo

    2018-01-01

    Compositional effects of scholarly culture classroom/school climate on civic knowledge scores of 9th graders in the United States were examined using the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) 1999 Civic Education Study data. Following Evans et al. (2010, 2014), we conceived that the number of books at home,…

  15. Normalization of the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy score ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-09

    May 9, 2016 ... influenced by age, education levels, and gender.[5] Till date, the PHES ... and death. MHE also increases the risk of development ... large circles beginning from each row on the left and working to the right. The test score is the ...

  16. SCORE - Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Moses, Dan; Romoli, Marco

    The Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment - SCORE - is a The Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment - SCORE - is a coronagraph for multi-wavelength imaging of the coronal Lyman-alpha lines, HeII 30.4 nm and HI 121.6 nm, and for the broad.band visible-light emission of the polarized K-corona. SCORE has flown successfully in 2009 acquiring the first images of the HeII line-emission from the extended corona. The simultaneous observation of the coronal Lyman-alpha HI 121.6 nm, has allowed the first determination of the absolute helium abundance in the extended corona. This presentation will describe the lesson learned from the first flight and will illustrate the preparations and the science perspectives for the second re-flight approved by NASA and scheduled for 2016. The SCORE optical design is flexible enough to be able to accommodate different experimental configurations with minor modifications. This presentation will describe one of such configurations that could include a polarimeter for the observation the expected Hanle effect in the coronal Lyman-alpha HI line. The linear polarization by resonance scattering of coronal permitted line-emission in the ultraviolet (UV) can be modified by magnetic fields through the Hanle effect. Thus, space-based UV spectro-polarimetry would provide an additional new tool for the diagnostics of coronal magnetism.

  17. Effects of heterogeneity on bank efficiency scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J. W. B.; Koetter, M.; Kolari, J. W.; Kool, C. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Bank efficiency estimates often serve as a proxy of managerial skill since they quantify sub-optimal production choices. But such deviations can also be due to omitted systematic differences among banks. In this study, we examine the effects of heterogeneity on bank efficiency scores. We compare

  18. Correlation between International Prostate Symptom Score and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-23

    Jul 23, 2016 ... International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and uroflowmetry in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms-benign prostatic ... cause of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in the male geriatric population.[1] ... age and results in LUTS in about 10% of elderly men.[1]. BPH causes morbidity through the urinary ...

  19. Local Observed-Score Kernel Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Marie; van der Linden, Wim J.; von Davier, Alina A.

    2014-01-01

    Three local observed-score kernel equating methods that integrate methods from the local equating and kernel equating frameworks are proposed. The new methods were compared with their earlier counterparts with respect to such measures as bias--as defined by Lord's criterion of equity--and percent relative error. The local kernel item response…

  20. Novel Semiquantitative Bone Marrow Oedema Score and Fracture Score for the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of the Active Charcot Foot in Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacock, L.; Donaldson, Ana; Isaac, A.; Briody, A.; Ramnarine, R.; Edmonds, M. E.; Elias, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    There are no accepted methods to grade bone marrow oedema (BMO) and fracture on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in Charcot osteoarthropathy. The aim was to devise semiquantitative BMO and fracture scores on foot and ankle MRI scans in diabetic patients with active osteoarthropathy and to assess the agreement in using these scores. Three radiologists assessed 45 scans (Siemens Avanto 1.5T, dedicated foot and ankle coil) and scored independently twenty-two bones (proximal phalanges, medial and lateral sesamoids, metatarsals, tarsals, distal tibial plafond, and medial and lateral malleoli) for BMO (0—no oedema, 1—oedema  50% of bone volume) and fracture (0—no fracture, 1—fracture, and 2—collapse/fragmentation). Interobserver agreement and intraobserver agreement were measured using multilevel modelling and intraclass correlation (ICC). The interobserver agreement for the total BMO and fracture scores was very good (ICC = 0.83, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.76, 0.91) and good (ICC = 0.62; 95% CI 0.48, 0.76), respectively. The intraobserver agreement for the total BMO and fracture scores was good (ICC = 0.78, 95% CI 0.6, 0.95) and fair to moderate (ICC = 0.44; 95% CI 0.14, 0.74), respectively. The proposed BMO and fracture scores are reliable and can be used to grade the extent of bone damage in the active Charcot foot. PMID:29230422

  1. Avaliação do EuroSCORE como preditor de mortalidade em cirurgia cardíaca valvar no Instituto do Coração de Pernambuco Assesment of the EuroSCORE as a predictor for mortality in valve cardiac surgery at the Heart Institute of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Newton Guimarães Andrade

    2010-03-01

    included in the study. Hospital death was the end-point of the study. In order to assess the applicability of the EuroSCORE it was used the non parametric test of Mann-Whitney. The calibration of the model was measured by comparing the morbidity observed with that expected, using the Hosmer-Lemeshow Test of Goodness of Fit. The accuracy of the model was evaluated by the ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: The comparison of expected and observed mortality, by Hosmer-Lemershow test, showed good predictive capacity (P = 0.767 as well as when compared to each value of addictive EuroSCORE (P = 0,455. The area of ROC curve was 0.731 (IC 95%, 0.660 - 0.793 with P 6 included 131 patients, with a mortality of 20.6%. The regression logistic analyses allowed to identify the following risk-factors for death: age > 60 years, gender female, previous operation, active endocarditis, associated surgery of the thoracic aorta and extra-cardiac arteriopathy. CONCLUSION: The EuroSCORE, a simple and objective method, proved to be a satisfactory predictor of operative mortality and risk factors for death in patients submitted to valve cardiac operations in the Heart Institute of Pernambuco.

  2. Morphologic and functional scoring of cystic fibrosis lung disease using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichinger, Monika; Optazaite, Daiva-Elzbieta; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Hintze, Christian; Biederer, Jürgen; Niemann, Anne; Mall, Marcus A.; Wielpütz, Mark O.; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Puderbach, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gains increasing importance in the assessment of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. The aim of this study was to develop a morpho-functional MR-scoring-system and to evaluate its intra- and inter-observer reproducibility and clinical practicability to monitor CF lung disease over a broad severity range from infancy to adulthood. 35 CF patients with broad age range (mean 15.3 years; range 0.5–42) were examined by morphological and functional MRI. Lobe based analysis was performed for parameters bronchiectasis/bronchial-wall-thickening, mucus plugging, abscesses/sacculations, consolidations, special findings and perfusion defects. The maximum global score was 72. Two experienced radiologists scored the images at two time points (interval 10 weeks). Upper and lower limits of agreement, concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), total deviation index and coverage probability were calculated for global, morphology, function, component and lobar scores. Global scores ranged from 6 to 47. Intra- and inter-reader agreement for global scores were good (CCC: 0.98 (R1), 0.94 (R2), 0.97 (R1/R2)) and were comparable between high and low scores. Our results indicate that the proposed morpho-functional MR-scoring-system is reproducible and applicable for semi-quantitative evaluation of a large spectrum of CF lung disease severity. This scoring-system can be applied for the routine assessment of CF lung disease and maybe as endpoint for clinical trials.

  3. Depressive status explains a significant amount of the variance in COPD assessment test (CAT) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Molina, Jesús; Quintano, José Antonio; Campuzano, Anna; Pérez, Joselín; Roncero, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    COPD assessment test (CAT) is a short, easy-to-complete health status tool that has been incorporated into the multidimensional assessment of COPD in order to guide therapy; therefore, it is important to understand the factors determining CAT scores. This is a post hoc analysis of a cross-sectional, observational study conducted in respiratory medicine departments and primary care centers in Spain with the aim of identifying the factors determining CAT scores, focusing particularly on the cognitive status measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and levels of depression measured by the short Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A total of 684 COPD patients were analyzed; 84.1% were men, the mean age of patients was 68.7 years, and the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%) was 55.1%. Mean CAT score was 21.8. CAT scores correlated with the MMSE score (Pearson's coefficient r =-0.371) and the BDI ( r =0.620), both p CAT scores and explained 45% of the variability. However, a model including only MMSE and BDI scores explained up to 40% and BDI alone explained 38% of the CAT variance. CAT scores are associated with clinical variables of severity of COPD. However, cognitive status and, in particular, the level of depression explain a larger percentage of the variance in the CAT scores than the usual COPD clinical severity variables.

  4. SIRS score on admission and initial concentration of IL-6 as severe acute pancreatitis outcome predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoric, Pavle; Pavle, Gregoric; Sijacki, Ana; Ana, Sijacki; Stankovic, Sanja; Sanja, Stankovic; Radenkovic, Dejan; Dejan, Radenkovic; Ivancevic, Nenad; Nenad, Ivancevic; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Aleksandar, Karamarkovic; Popovic, Nada; Nada, Popovic; Karadzic, Borivoje; Borivoje, Karadzic; Stijak, Lazar; Stefanovic, Branislav; Branislav, Stefanovic; Milosevic, Zoran; Zoran, Milosević; Bajec, Djordje; Djordje, Bajec

    2010-01-01

    Early recognition of severe form of acute pancreatitis is important because these patients need more agressive diagnostic and therapeutical approach an can develope systemic complications such as: sepsis, coagulopathy, Acute Lung Injury (ALI), Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS), Multiple Organ Failure (MOF). To determine role of the combination of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) score and serum Interleukin-6 (IL-6) level on admission as predictor of illness severity and outcome of Severe Acute Pancreatitis (SAP). We evaluated 234 patients with first onset of SAP appears in last twenty four hours. A total of 77 (33%) patients died. SIRS score and serum IL-6 concentration were measured in first hour after admission. In 105 patients with SIRS score 3 and higher, initial measured IL-6 levels were significantly higher than in the group of remaining 129 patients (72 +/- 67 pg/mL, vs 18 +/- 15 pg/mL). All nonsurvivals were in the first group, with SIRS score 3 and 4 and initial IL-6 concentration 113 +/- 27 pg/mL. The values of C-reactive Protein (CRP) measured after 48h, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score on admission and Ranson score showed the similar correlation, but serum amylase level did not correlate significantly with Ranson score, IL-6 concentration and APACHE II score. The combination of SIRS score on admission and IL-6 serum concentration can be early, predictor of illness severity and outcome in SAP.

  5. New clinical score to diagnose nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulzi Fernanda BU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most frequent disease associated with abnormal liver tests that is characterized by a wide spectrum of liver damage, ranging from simple macro vesicular steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH, cirrhosis or liver carcinoma. Liver biopsy is the most precise test to differentiate NASH from other stages of NAFLD, but it is an invasive and expensive method. This study aimed to create a clinical laboratory score capable of identify individual with NASH in severely obese patients submitted to bariatric surgery. Methods The medical records from 66 patients submitted to gastroplasty were reviewed. Their chemistry profile, abdominal ultrasound (US and liver biopsy done during the surgical procedure were analyzed. Patients were classified into 2 groups according to liver biopsy: Non-NASH group - those patients without NAFLD or with grade I, II or III steatosis; and NASH group - those with steatohepatitis or fibrosis. The t-test was used to compare each variable with normal distribution between NASH and Non-NASH groups. When comparing proportions of categorical variables, we used chi-square or z-test, where appropriate. A p-value Results 83% of patients with obesity grades II or III showed NAFLD, and the majority was asymptomatic. Total Cholesterol (TC≥200 mg/dL, alanine aminotransferase (ALT ≥30, AST/ALT ratio (AAR≤ 1, gammaglutaril-transferase (γGT≥30 U/L and abdominal US, compatible with steatosis, showed association with NASH group. We proposed 2 scores: Complete score (TC, ALT, AAR, γGT and US and the simplified score, where US was not included. The combination of biochemical and imaging results improved accuracy to 84.4% the recognition of NASH (sensitivity 70%, specificity 88.6%, NPV 91.2%, PPV 63. 6%. Conclusion Alterations in TC, ALT, AAR, γGT and US are related to the most risk for NASH. The combination of biochemical and imaging results improved accuracy to 84.4% the

  6. The scoring of movements in sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Arthur S; Lavigne, Gilles; Hening, Wayne; Picchietti, Daniel L; Allen, Richard P; Chokroverty, Sudhansu; Kushida, Clete A; Bliwise, Donald L; Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2007-03-15

    The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) has separated sleep-related movement disorders into simple, repetitive movement disorders (such as periodic limb movements in sleep [PLMS], sleep bruxism, and rhythmic movement disorder) and parasomnias (such as REM sleep behavior disorder and disorders of partial arousal, e.g., sleep walking, confusional arousals, night terrors). Many of the parasomnias are characterized by complex behaviors in sleep that appear purposeful, goal directed and voluntary but are outside the conscious awareness of the individual and therefore inappropriate. All of the sleep-related movement disorders described here have specific polysomnographic findings. For the purposes of developing and/or revising specifications and polysomnographic scoring rules, the AASM Scoring Manual Task Force on Movements in Sleep reviewed background literature and executed evidence grading of 81 relevant articles obtained by a literature search of published articles between 1966 and 2004. Subsequent evidence grading identified limited evidence for reliability and/or validity for polysomnographic scoring criteria for periodic limb movements in sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder, and sleep bruxism. Published scoring criteria for rhythmic movement disorder, excessive fragmentary myoclonus, and hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation were empirical and based on descriptive studies. The literature review disclosed no published evidence defining clinical consequences of excessive fragmentary myoclonus or hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation. Because of limited or absent evidence for reliability and/or validity, a standardized RAND/UCLA consensus process was employed for recommendation of specific rules for the scoring of sleep-associated movements.

  7. Validation of dengue infection severity score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongpan S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Surangrat Pongpan,1,2 Jayanton Patumanond,3 Apichart Wisitwong,4 Chamaiporn Tawichasri,5 Sirianong Namwongprom1,6 1Clinical Epidemiology Program, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Occupational Medicine, Phrae Hospital, Phrae, Thailand; 3Clinical Epidemiology Program, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Department of Social Medicine, Sawanpracharak Hospital, Nakorn Sawan, Thailand; 5Clinical Epidemiology Society at Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 6Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Objective: To validate a simple scoring system to classify dengue viral infection severity to patients in different settings. Methods: The developed scoring system derived from 777 patients from three tertiary-care hospitals was applied to 400 patients in the validation data obtained from another three tertiary-care hospitals. Percentage of correct classification, underestimation, and overestimation was compared. The score discriminative performance in the two datasets was compared by analysis of areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: Patients in the validation data were different from those in the development data in some aspects. In the validation data, classifying patients into three severity levels (dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome yielded 50.8% correct prediction (versus 60.7% in the development data, with clinically acceptable underestimation (18.6% versus 25.7% and overestimation (30.8% versus 13.5%. Despite the difference in predictive performances between the validation and the development data, the overall prediction of the scoring system is considered high. Conclusion: The developed severity score may be applied to classify patients with dengue viral infection into three severity levels with clinically acceptable under- or overestimation. Its impact when used in routine

  8. Radiological score for hemorrhage in the patients with portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wei; Wang, Yi; Cao, Ya-Juan; Xie, Min; Ding, Yi-Tao; Zhang, Ming; Yu, De-Cai

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the risk factors from radiological indices for hemorrhage in the patients with portal hypertension and weight risk factors. We retrospectively analyzed all cases of portal hypertension with hepatitis B from June 2008 to June 2014 in Nanjing Drum Tower hospital. Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, portal vein thrombosis, or portal hypertension with other causes, such as autoimmune hepatitis, pancreatitis, or hematological diseases were excluded. Ninety-eight patients were recruited and divided into hemorrhage and non-hemorrhage groups. There were no statistical differences in clinical indexes such as age, prothrombin time, serum albumin, serum creatinine, serum sodium, hemameba, and blood platelet count. However, the differences were statistically significant in total bilirubin, hemoglobin, and liver function with the p values of 0.023, 0.000, and 0.039 respectively. For radiological indices, hemorrhage was correlated with diameter of inferior mesenteric vein (P=0.0528), posterior gastric vein (P=0.0283), and esophageal varices scores (P=0.0221). Logistic procedure was used to construct the model with stepwise selection and finally inferior mesenteric vein, posterior gastric vein, esophageal varices, and short gastric vein were enrolled into the model. These veins were scored according to the diameters and the rates of hemorrhage were increased with the score. We then validated the model with 26 patents from July 2014 to December 2014. The AUC value was 0.8849 in ROC curves for this radiological model. A risk model was constructed including inferior mesenteric vein, esophageal varices, posterior gastric vein, and short gastric vein. This radiological scoring model may be a valuable indicator for hemorrhage of portal hypertension.

  9. Revised scoring and improved reliability for the Communication Patterns Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Alexander O; Christensen, Andrew; Baucom, Donald H; Epstein, Norman B; Baucom, Brian R W

    2017-07-01

    The Communication Patterns Questionnaire (CPQ; Christensen, 1987) is a widely used self-report measure of couple communication behavior and is well validated for assessing the demand/withdraw interaction pattern, which is a robust predictor of poor relationship and individual outcomes (Schrodt, Witt, & Shimkowski, 2014). However, no studies have examined the CPQ's factor structure using analytic techniques sufficient by modern standards, nor have any studies replicated the factor structure using additional samples. Further, the current scoring system uses fewer than half of the total items for its 4 subscales, despite the existence of unused items that have content conceptually consistent with those subscales. These characteristics of the CPQ have likely contributed to findings that subscale scores are often troubled by suboptimal psychometric properties such as low internal reliability (e.g., Christensen, Eldridge, Catta-Preta, Lim, & Santagata, 2006). The present study uses exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on 4 samples to reexamine the factor structure of the CPQ to improve scale score reliability and to determine if including more items in the subscales is warranted. Results indicate that a 3-factor solution (constructive communication and 2 demand/withdraw scales) provides the best fit for the data. That factor structure was confirmed in the replication samples. Compared with the original scales, the revised scales include additional items that expand the conceptual range of the constructs, substantially improve reliability of scale scores, and demonstrate stronger associations with relationship satisfaction and sensitivity to change in therapy. Implications for research and treatment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. [Design of a preoperative predictive score for choledocholithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno Lledó, Jose; Ibáñez Cirión, Jose Luis; Torregrosa Gallud, Antonio; López Andújar, Rafael

    2014-11-01

    Choledocholithiasis is the most common cause of obstructive jaundice and occurs in 5-10% of patients with cholelithiasis. To design a preoperative predictive score for choledocholithiasis. A prospective study was carried out in 556 patients admitted to our department for biliary disease. Preoperative clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound variables were compared between patients without choledocholithiasis and 65 patients with this diagnosis. A multivariate logistic analysis was performed to obtain a predictive model of choledocholithiasis, determining sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Predictors of choledocholithiasis were the presence of a prior history of biliary disease (history of biliary colic, acute cholecystitis, choledocholithiasis or acute biliary pancreatitis) (p=0.021, OR=2.225, 95% CI: 1.130-4.381), total bilirubin values >4mg/dl (p=0.046, OR=2.403, 95% CI: 1.106-5.685), alkaline phosphatase values >150mg/dl (p=0.022 income, OR=2.631, 95%: 1.386-6.231), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) values >100mg/dl (p=0.035, OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.345-5.850), and an ultrasound finding of biliary duct >8mm (p=0.034, OR=3.063 95% CI: 1086-8649). A score superior to 5 had a specificity and PPV of 100% for detecting choledocholithiasis and a score less than 3 had a sensitivity and NPV of 100% for excluding this diagnosis. The preoperative score can exclude or confirm the presence of choledocholithiasis and allows patients to directly benefit from laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) or prior endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  11. [Circadian rhythm : Influence on Epworth Sleepiness Scale score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, M; Bedorf, A; Rohrmeier, C; Kühnel, T; Herzog, B; Bremert, T; Plontke, S; Plößl, S

    2017-02-01

    The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) is frequently used to determine daytime sleepiness in patients with sleep-disordered breathing. It is still unclear whether different levels of alertness induced by the circadian rhythm influence ESS score. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of circadian rhythm-dependent alertness on ESS performance. In a monocentric prospective noninterventional observation study, 97 patients with suspected sleep-disordered breathing were investigated with respect to daytime sleepiness in temporal relationship to polysomnographic examination and treatment. The Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) served as references for the detection of present sleepiness at three different measurement times (morning, noon, evening), prior to and following a diagnostic polysomnography night as well as after a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration night (9 measurements in total). The KSS, SSS, and ESS were performed at these times in a randomized order. The KSS and SSS scores revealed a circadian rhythm-dependent curve with increased sleepiness at noon and in the evening. Following a diagnostic polysomnography night, the scores were increased compared to the measurements prior to the night. After the CPAP titration night, sleepiness in the morning was reduced. KSS and SSS reflect the changes in alertness induced by the circadian rhythm. The ESS score war neither altered by the intra-daily nor by the inter-daily changes in the level of alertness. According to the present data, the ESS serves as a reliable instrument to detect the level of daytime sleepiness independently of the circadian rhythm-dependent level of alertness.

  12. [German validation of the Acute Cystitis Symptom Score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidjanov, J F; Pilatz, A; Abdufattaev, U A; Wiltink, J; Weidner, W; Naber, K G; Wagenlehner, F

    2015-09-01

    The Uzbek version of the Acute Cystitis Symptom Score (ACSS) was developed as a simple self-reporting questionnaire to improve diagnosis and therapy of women with acute cystitis (AC). The purpose of this work was to validate the ACSS in the German language. The ACSS consists of 18 questions in four subscales: (1) typical symptoms, (2) differential diagnosis, (3) quality of life, and (4) additional circumstances. Translation of the ACSS into German was performed according to international guidelines. For the validation process 36 German-speaking women (age: 18-90 years), with and without symptoms of AC, were included in the study. Classification of participants into two groups (patients or controls) was based on the presence or absence of typical symptoms and significant bacteriuria (≥ 10(3) CFU/ml). Statistical evaluations of reliability, validity, and predictive ability were performed. ROC curve analysis was performed to assess sensitivity and specificity of ACSS and its subscales. The Mann-Whitney's U test and t-test were used to compare the scores of the groups. Of the 36 German-speaking women (age: 40 ± 19 years), 19 were diagnosed with AC (patient group), while 17 women served as controls. Cronbach's α for the German ACSS total scale was 0.87. A threshold score of ≥ 6 points in category 1 (typical symptoms) significantly predicted AC (sensitivity 94.7%, specificity 82.4%). There were no significant differences in ACSS scores in patients and controls compared to the original Uzbek version of the ACSS. The German version of the ACSS showed a high reliability and validity. Therefore, the German version of the ACSS can be reliably used in clinical practice and research for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of patients suffering from AC.

  13. Development of the Crohn's disease digestive damage score, the Lémann score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pariente, Benjamin; Cosnes, Jacques; Danese, Silvio

    2011-01-01

    is to outline the methods to develop an instrument that can measure cumulative bowel damage. The project is being conducted by the International Program to develop New Indexes in Crohn's disease (IPNIC) group. This instrument, called the Crohn's Disease Digestive Damage Score (the Lémann score), should take...

  14. Relationship between Students' Scores on Research Methods and Statistics, and Undergraduate Project Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossai, Peter Agbadobi Uloku

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between students' scores on Research Methods and statistics, and undergraduate project at the final year. The purpose was to find out whether students matched knowledge of research with project-writing skill. The study adopted an expost facto correlational design. Scores on Research Methods and Statistics for…

  15. Total hip replacement for Mseleni Joint Disease undertaken in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    found that hip surgery in this setting is of great benefit to Mseleni Joint Disease ... Conclusions: Hip surgery in this setting is of great benefit to the Mseleni Joint Disease patients but further attention .... The total hip score was divided into pain.

  16. Comparative changes in monthly blood urea nitrogen, total protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the comparative changes in the monthly blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration, total protein (TP) concentration in blood serum and the body condition score of Nguni cows and heifers raised on sweetveld. Twenty-four clinically healthy animals in different parities, namely Parity ...

  17. Is there a relation between priapism occurring after penile doppler ultrasonography and international erectile function index score and erection hardness score levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Mehmet Giray; Öztürk, Ahmet

    2017-12-01

    The relation between Erection Hardness Score (EHS) and The International Erectile Function Index (IIEF) Questionnaire- Erectile Function Domain Score (IIEF-EF score) used in erectile dysfunction (ED) evaluation and the prevalence of priapism after penile Doppler ultrasonography (PDU) was examined in this study. A total of 62 patients who had PDU were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups; there were 33 patients in IIEF-EF score ≤10, EHS 10, EHS ≥2 group (Group 2). The two groups separated according to their scores were compared for age, body mass index (BMI), prevalence of priapism, vascular comorbidities and duration of erection. When compared to Group 2, median age, rate of vascular comorbidities rate and BMI were detected to be higher in Group 1 with IIEF-EF score ≤10 and EHS 10 and EHS ≥2 (p<0.001, p=0.027, p=0.049 respectively). High IIEF-EF and EHS scores, younger ages and lower rates of vascular comorbidities in patients from whom PDU was demanded increase the prevalence of priapism.

  18. Walk Score(TM), Perceived Neighborhood Walkability, and walking in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckel, Peter; Milczarski, William

    2015-03-01

    To investigate both the Walk Score(TM) and a self-reported measure of neighborhood walkability ("Perceived Neighborhood Walkability") as estimators of transport and recreational walking among Americans. The study is based upon a survey of a nationally-representative sample of 1224 American adults. The survey gauged walking for both transport and recreation and included a self-reported measure of neighborhood walkability and each respondent's Walk Score(TM). Binary logistic and linear regression analyses were performed on the data. The Walk Score(TM) is associated with walking for transport, but not recreational walking nor total walking. Perceived Neighborhood Walkability is associated with transport, recreational and total walking. Perceived Neighborhood Walkability captures the experiential nature of walking more than the Walk Score(TM).

  19. Poor WOMAC scores in contralateral knee negatively impact TKA outcomes: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Timothy L; Soheili, Aydin C; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2014-08-01

    While total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has been shown to have excellent outcomes, a significant proportion of patients experience relatively poor post-operative function. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the level of osteoarthritic symptoms in the contralateral knee at the time of TKA is associated with poorer post-operative outcomes in the operated knee. Using longitudinal cohort data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI), we included 171 patients who received a unilateral TKA. We compared pre-operative Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores in the contralateral knee to post-operative WOMAC scores in the index knee. Pre-operative contralateral knee WOMAC scores were associated with post-operative index knee WOMAC Total scores, indicating that the health of the pre-operative contralateral knee is a significant factor in TKA outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Coronary artery calcification scores improve contrast-induced nephropathy risk assessment in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osugi, Naohiro; Suzuki, Susumu; Shibata, Yohei; Tatami, Yosuke; Harata, Shingo; Ota, Tomoyuki; Hayashi, Mutsuharu; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Ishii, Hideki; Shimizu, Atsuya; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2017-06-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictive value of CAC scores for the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) after cardiac catheterization in non-dialyzed CKD patients. The present study evaluated a total of 140 CKD patients who underwent cardiac catheterization. Patients were stratified into two groups based on the optimal cut-off value of the CAC score, which was graded by a non-triggered, routine diagnostic chest computed tomography scan: CAC score ≥8 (high CAC group); and CAC score 10 % in the baseline serum cystatin C level at 24 h after contrast administration. The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate levels were 41.1 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , and the mean contrast dose administered was 37.5 mL. Patients with high CAC scores exhibited a higher incidence of CIN than patients with low CAC scores (25.5 vs. 3.2 %, p < 0.001). After multivariate adjustment for confounders, the CAC score predicted CIN (odds ratio 1.68, 95 % confidence interval 1.28-2.21, p < 0.001). Moreover, the C-index for CIN prediction significantly increased when the CAC scores were added to the Mehran risk score (0.855 vs. 0.760, p = 0.023). CAC scores, as evaluated using semi-quantitative methods, are a simple and powerful predictor of CIN. Incorporating the CAC score in the Mehran risk score significantly improved the predictive ability to predict CIN incidence.

  1. Predicting Outcome in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) Utilizing the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, F A; Lo, B W Y; Akoth, E; Silvaggio, J; Kaufmann, A M; Teitelbaum, J; West, M

    2017-12-01

    Existing scoring systems for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients fail to accurately predict patient outcome. Our goal was to prospectively study the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) score as applied to newly admitted aneurysmal SAH patients. All adult patients presenting to Health Sciences Center in Winnipeg from January 2013 to July 2015 (2.5 year period) with aneurysmal SAH were prospectively enrolled in this study. All patients were followed up to 6 months. FOUR score was calculated upon admission, with repeat calculation at 7 and 14 days. The primary outcomes were: mortality, as well as dichotomized 1- and 6-month Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) values. Sixty-four patients were included, with a mean age of 54.2 years (range 26-85 years). The mean FOUR score upon admission pre- and post-external ventricular drain (EVD) was 10.3 (range 0-16) and 11.1 (range 3-16), respectively. There was a statistically significant association between pre-EVD FOUR score (total, eye, respiratory and motor sub-scores) with mortality, 1-month GOS, and 6-month GOS/mRS (p FOUR scores were associated with mortality, 1-month GOS/mRS, and 6-month GOS/mRS (p FOUR scores were associated with 6-month GOS (p FOUR score was associated with the development of clinical vasospasm (p FOUR score at admission and day 7 post-SAH is associated with mortality, 1-month GOS/mRS, and 6-month GOS/mRS. The FOUR score at day 14 post-SAH is associated with 6-month GOS. The brainstem sub-score was not associated with 1- or 6-month primary outcomes.

  2. The RIPASA score for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis: A comparison with the modified Alvarado score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barrientos, C Z; Aquino-González, A; Heredia-Montaño, M; Navarro-Tovar, F; Pineda-Espinosa, M A; Espinosa de Santillana, I A

    2018-02-06

    Acute appendicitis is the first cause of surgical emergencies. It is still a difficult diagnosis to make, especially in young persons, the elderly, and in reproductive-age women, in whom a series of inflammatory conditions can have signs and symptoms similar to those of acute appendicitis. Different scoring systems have been created to increase diagnostic accuracy, and they are inexpensive, noninvasive, and easy to use and reproduce. The modified Alvarado score is probably the most widely used and accepted in emergency services worldwide. On the other hand, the RIPASA score was formulated in 2010 and has greater sensitivity and specificity. There are very few studies conducted in Mexico that compare the different scoring systems for appendicitis. The aim of our article was to compare the modified Alvarado score and the RIPASA score in the diagnosis of patients with abdominal pain and suspected acute appendicitis. An observational, analytic, and prolective study was conducted within the time frame of July 2002 and February 2014 at the Hospital Universitario de Puebla. The questionnaires used for the evaluation process were applied to the patients suspected of having appendicitis. The RIPASA score with 8.5 as the optimal cutoff value: ROC curve (area .595), sensitivity (93.3%), specificity (8.3%), PPV (91.8%), NPV (10.1%). Modified Alvarado score with 6 as the optimal cutoff value: ROC curve (area .719), sensitivity (75%), specificity (41.6%), PPV (93.7%), NPV (12.5%). The RIPASA score showed no advantages over the modified Alvarado score when applied to patients presenting with suspected acute appendicitis. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of Serum Concentrations of Total Cholesterol and Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most dangerous tropical diseases that complicates HIV infection in Nigeria to date. Over two million Nigerians are known to be infected with TB and many more are at risk of the infection. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol and total lipid of 117 female TB patients attending chest clinic at ...

  4. Changes in total and differential white cell counts, total lymphocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Published reports on the possible changes in the various immune cell populations, especially the total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts, during the menstrual cycle in Nigerian female subjects are relatively scarce. Aim: To determine possible changes in the total and differential white blood cell [WBC] counts, ...

  5. Translation, cross-culturally adaptation and validation of the Danish version of Oxford Hip Score (OHS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Aksel

    there was no properly translated, adapted and validated Danish language version available, a translation to Danish, cross-culturally adaptation and validation of the Danish Oxford Hip Score was warranted. Material and Methods: We translated and cross-culturally adapted the Oxford Hip Score into Danish, in accordance......Objective: The Oxford Hip Score is a patient reported outcome questionnaire designed to assess pain and function in patients undergoing total hip arthroplaty (THA). The Oxford Hip Score is valid, reliable and consistent, and different language versions have been developed. Since.......9 % ceiling effect on this cohort of postoperative patients. Only in 1.2 % of the patients no sum score could be calculated, due to missing items. In relation to construct validity 80 % of predefined hypothesis were confirmed. The different items had an intraclass correlation in the range of 0...

  6. Correlation between Ranson score and red cell distribution width in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Murat Özgür; Çelik, Canbert; Yüksel, Cemil; Yıldız, Barış Doğu; Tez, Mesut

    2017-03-01

    Ranson's criteria are widely used to evaluate severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) has been demonstrated to be useful marker to predict mortality in these patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate correlation between Ranson score and RDW in patients with AP. Total of 202 patients with AP were included in the study. Patients were classified as mild or severe AP, based on presence of organ failure for more than 48 hours and/or local complications. Forty patients (19.8%) were diagnosed as severe AP. High sensitivity and specificity values were obtained from receiver operating characteristic curve for initial RDW and Ranson score in predicting severe AP. Ranson ≥4 was selected cut-off value for Ranson score and 14% was limit for RDW. RDW at time of admission was correlated with 48-hour Ranson score (r=0.22; pdisadvantages of multifactorial scoring systems.

  7. Risk scoring for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Kunal N; Persell, Stephen D; Perel, Pablo; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Berendsen, Mark A; Huffman, Mark D

    2017-03-14

    The current paradigm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) emphasises absolute risk assessment to guide treatment decisions in primary prevention. Although the derivation and validation of multivariable risk assessment tools, or CVD risk scores, have attracted considerable attention, their effect on clinical outcomes is uncertain. To assess the effects of evaluating and providing CVD risk scores in adults without prevalent CVD on cardiovascular outcomes, risk factor levels, preventive medication prescribing, and health behaviours. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library (2016, Issue 2), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to March week 1 2016), Embase (embase.com) (1974 to 15 March 2016), and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S) (1990 to 15 March 2016). We imposed no language restrictions. We searched clinical trial registers in March 2016 and handsearched reference lists of primary studies to identify additional reports. We included randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing the systematic provision of CVD risk scores by a clinician, healthcare professional, or healthcare system compared with usual care (i.e. no systematic provision of CVD risk scores) in adults without CVD. Three review authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and evaluated study quality. We used the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool to assess study limitations. The primary outcomes were: CVD events, change in CVD risk factor levels (total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and multivariable CVD risk), and adverse events. Secondary outcomes included: lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medication prescribing in higher-risk people. We calculated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MD) or standardised mean differences (SMD) for continuous data using 95% confidence intervals. We used a fixed-effects model when heterogeneity (I²) was at least 50% and a random-effects model for substantial heterogeneity

  8. Predictive values of D-dimer assay, GRACE scores and TIMI scores for adverse outcome in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satilmisoglu, Muhammet Hulusi; Ozyilmaz, Sinem Ozbay; Gul, Mehmet; Ak Yildirim, Hayriye; Kayapinar, Osman; Gokturk, Kadir; Aksu, Huseyin; Erkanli, Korhan; Eksik, Abdurrahman

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the predictive values of D-dimer assay, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk scores for adverse outcome in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Patients and methods A total of 234 patients (mean age: 57.2±11.7 years, 75.2% were males) hospitalized with NSTEMI were included. Data on D-dimer assay, GRACE and TIMI risk scores were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the risk factors predicting increased mortality. Results Median D-dimer levels were 349.5 (48.0–7,210.0) ng/mL, the average TIMI score was 3.2±1.2 and the GRACE score was 90.4±27.6 with high GRACE scores (>118) in 17.5% of patients. The GRACE score was correlated positively with both the D-dimer assay (r=0.215, P=0.01) and TIMI scores (r=0.504, P=0.000). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that higher creatinine levels (odds ratio =18.465, 95% confidence interval: 1.059–322.084, P=0.046) constituted the only significant predictor of increased mortality risk with no predictive values for age, D-dimer assay, ejection fraction, glucose, hemoglobin A1c, sodium, albumin or total cholesterol levels for mortality. Conclusion Serum creatinine levels constituted the sole independent determinant of mortality risk, with no significant values for D-dimer assay, GRACE or TIMI scores for predicting the risk of mortality in NSTEMI patients. PMID:28408834

  9. A Prognostic Scoring Tool for Cesarean Organ/Space Surgical Site Infections: Derivation and Internal Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assawapalanggool, Srisuda; Kasatpibal, Nongyao; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Arora, Rajin; Suntornlimsiri, Watcharin

    Organ/space surgical site infections (SSIs) are serious complications after cesarean delivery. However, no scoring tool to predict these complications has yet been developed. This study sought to develop and validate a prognostic scoring tool for cesarean organ/space SSIs. Data for case and non-case of cesarean organ/space SSI between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 from a tertiary care hospital in Thailand were analyzed. Stepwise multivariable logistic regression was used to select the best predictor combination and their coefficients were transformed to a risk scoring tool. The likelihood ratio of positive for each risk category and the area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves were analyzed on total scores. Internal validation using bootstrap re-sampling was tested for reproducibility. The predictors of 243 organ/space SSIs from 4,988 eligible cesarean delivery cases comprised the presence of foul-smelling amniotic fluid (four points), vaginal examination five or more times before incision (two points), wound class III or greater (two points), being referred from local setting (two points), hemoglobin less than 11 g/dL (one point), and ethnic minorities (one point). The likelihood ratio of cesarean organ/space SSIs with 95% confidence interval among low (total score of 0-1 point), medium (total score of 2-5 points), and high risk (total score of ≥6 points) categories were 0.11 (0.07-0.19), 1.03 (0.89-1.18), and 13.25 (10.87-16.14), respectively. Both AUROCs of the derivation and validation data were comparable (87.57% versus 86.08%; p = 0.418). This scoring tool showed a high predictive ability regarding cesarean organ/space SSIs on the derivation data and reproducibility was demonstrated on internal validation. It could assist practitioners prioritize patient care and management depending on risk category and decrease SSI rates in cesarean deliveries.

  10. Early rehabilitation after elective total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi, Claudio; Caspani, Patrick; Bruggi, Marco; Carlisi, Ettore; Scolè, Donatella; Benazzo, Francesco; Dalla Toffola, Elena

    2017-10-18

    Outcomes after TKA surgery are supposed to be related to the intensity and type of post-operative rehabilitation. Aim of this paper is to describe our early rehabilitation protocol following TKA with mini-invasive surgery in the immediate post-operative period and analyze functional recovery and changes in pain scores in these patients. in this observational study, data were collected on 215 total knee arthroplasty patients referred to Orthopedics and Traumatology inpatient ward from July 2012 to January 2014, treated with the same early start rehabilitation protocol. We recorded times to reach functional goals (sitting, standing and assisted ambulation) and pain after the treatment. length of hospital stay in TKA was 4.6±1.8 days, with a rehabilitation treatment lenght of 3.3±1.3 days. The mean time needed to achieve the sitting position was 2.3±0.7 days, to reach the standing position was 2.6±1.0 days to reach the walking functional goal was 2.9±1.0 days.  Pain NRS scores remained below 4 in the first and second post-operative day and below 3 from the third post-operative day. Our study confirms that rehabilitation started as soon as 24 hours after surgery with mini-invasive approach, enables early verticalization of patients and early recovery of walking with a good control of pain.

  11. Expectations in patients with total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Burcu; Unver, Bayram; Karatosun, Vasfi

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is to decrease pain and restore functional knee joint. Current hypotheses indicate higher knee flexion is required in terms of life style, culture and expectations in Eastern communities. Therefore, society-specific features related to life style and cultural habits are needed. The objective of this study was to investigate the expectations of patients undergoing TKA. The study included 131 patients (18 male, 113 female; mean age: 66.2 ± 8.3 years) who underwent cemented TKA due to knee osteoarthritis. All patients were operated by the same surgeon using the same implant and surgical technique. Patients were evaluated using the Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee score, a 15-item clinical knee assessment questionnaire and the HSS knee arthroplasty expectation questionnaire. Mean HSS score for the right knee was 89.2 ± 10.5 and for the left knee was 89.6 ± 9.4. The two most expected outcomes were improvements in pain (99.2%) and gait (96.2%) and the two least expected outcomes were improvements in psychological well-being (22.9%) and communicative skills (35.1%). Expectations were not affected by education and working conditions. Patients' most expected outcomes were improvement in pain and restoration of function (gait, climbing stairs and no need of assistive devices), similar to Western and American communities.

  12. Scoring Rules for Subjective Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    The theoretical literature has a rich characterization of scoring rules for eliciting the subjective beliefs that an individual has for continuous events, but under the restrictive assumption of risk neutrality. It is well known that risk aversion can dramatically affect the incentives to correctly...... report the true subjective probability of a binary event, even under Subjective Expected Utility. To address this one can “calibrate” inferences about true subjective probabilities from elicited subjective probabilities over binary events, recognizing the incentives that risk averse agents have...... to distort reports. We characterize the comparable implications of the general case of a risk averse agent when facing a popular scoring rule over continuous events, and find that these concerns do not apply with anything like the same force. For empirically plausible levels of risk aversion, one can...

  13. Credit scoring analysis using kernel discriminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiharih, T.; Mukid, M. A.; Mustafid

    2018-05-01

    Credit scoring model is an important tool for reducing the risk of wrong decisions when granting credit facilities to applicants. This paper investigate the performance of kernel discriminant model in assessing customer credit risk. Kernel discriminant analysis is a non- parametric method which means that it does not require any assumptions about the probability distribution of the input. The main ingredient is a kernel that allows an efficient computation of Fisher discriminant. We use several kernel such as normal, epanechnikov, biweight, and triweight. The models accuracy was compared each other using data from a financial institution in Indonesia. The results show that kernel discriminant can be an alternative method that can be used to determine who is eligible for a credit loan. In the data we use, it shows that a normal kernel is relevant to be selected for credit scoring using kernel discriminant model. Sensitivity and specificity reach to 0.5556 and 0.5488 respectively.

  14. Psychometric properties of the Cumulated Ambulation Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferriero, Giorgio; Kristensen, Morten T; Invernizzi, Marco

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In the geriatric population, independent mobility is a key factor in determining readiness for discharge following acute hospitalization. The Cumulated Ambulation Score (CAS) is a potentially valuable score that allows day-to-day measurements of basic mobility. The CAS was developed...... and validated in older patients with hip fracture as an early postoperative predictor of short-term outcome, but it is also used to assess geriatric in-patients with acute medical illness. Despite the fast- accumulating literature on the CAS, to date no systematic review synthesizing its psychometric properties....... Of 49 studies identified, 17 examined the psychometric properties of the CAS. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Most papers dealt with patients after hip fracture surgery, and only 4 studies assessed the CAS psychometric characteristics also in geriatric in-patients with acute medical illness. Two versions of CAS...

  15. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Danish version of the Oxford hip score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, A; Odgaard, Anders; Overgaard, S

    2012-01-01

    missing to calculate a sum score. Construct validity was adequate and 80% of our predefined hypotheses regarding the correlation between scores on the Danish OHS and the other questionnaires were confirmed. The intraclass correlation (ICC) of the different items ranged from 0.80 to 0.95 and the average......Objectives The Oxford hip score (OHS) is a 12-item questionnaire designed and developed to assess function and pain from the perspective of patients who are undergoing total hip replacement (THR). The OHS has been shown to be consistent, reliable, valid and sensitive to clinical change following...

  16. Interpreting Quality of Life after Brain Injury Scores: Cross-Walk with the Short Form-36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lindsay; Marsden-Loftus, Isaac; Koskinen, Sanna; Bakx, Wilbert; Bullinger, Monika; Formisano, Rita; Maas, Andrew; Neugebauer, Edmund; Powell, Jane; Sarajuuri, Jaana; Sasse, Nadine; von Steinbuechel, Nicole; von Wild, Klaus; Truelle, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    The Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) instruments are traumatic brain injury (TBI)-specific assessments of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), with established validity and reliability. The purpose of the study is to help improve the interpretability of the two QOLIBRI summary scores (the QOLIBRI Total score and the QOLBRI Overall Scale [OS] score). An analysis was conducted of 761 patients with TBI who took part in the QOLIBRI validation studies. A cross-walk between QOLIBRI scores and the SF-36 Mental Component Summary norm-based scoring system was performed using geometric mean regression analysis. The exercise supports a previous suggestion that QOLIBRI Total scores GOSE), as a measure of global function, are presented in the form of means and standard deviations that allow comparison with other studies, and data on age and sex are presented for the QOLIBRI-OS. While bearing in mind the potential imprecision of the comparison, the findings provide a framework for evaluating QOLIBRI summary scores in relation to generic HRQoL that improves their interpretability.

  17. Dichotomous scoring of Trails B in patients referred for a dementia evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Andrew L; Livingston, Ronald B; Smernoff, Eric N; Waits, Bethany L; Harris, James B; Davis, Kent M

    2010-04-01

    The Trail Making Test is a popular neuropsychological test and its interpretation has traditionally used time-based scores. This study examined an alternative approach to scoring that is simply based on the examinees' ability to complete the test. If an examinee is able to complete Trails B successfully, they are coded as "completers"; if not, they are coded as "noncompleters." To assess this approach to scoring Trails B, the performance of 97 diagnostically heterogeneous individuals referred for a dementia evaluation was examined. In this sample, 55 individuals successfully completed Trails B and 42 individuals were unable to complete it. Point-biserial correlations indicated a moderate-to-strong association (r(pb)=.73) between the Trails B completion variable and the Total Scale score of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neurological Status (RBANS), which was larger than the correlation between the Trails B time-based score and the RBANS Total Scale score (r(pb)=.60). As a screen for dementia status, Trails B completion showed a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 100% in this sample. These results suggest that dichotomous scoring of Trails B might provide a brief and clinically useful measure of dementia status.

  18. Quality of life after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canovas, F; Dagneaux, L

    2018-02-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) results in a high degree of patient satisfaction, as it provides patients with considerable medium- and long-term benefits in terms of quality of life, pain relief and function. Nevertheless, the literature reports that up to 30% of patients are dissatisfied. This dissatisfaction is directly related to the patients' quality of life, which they deem insufficient. Their quality of life depends on many physical, behavioural, social and psychological factors that are not taken into account by functional outcome scores. After describing the principles of quality of life evaluation after TKA, we will assess the effects of patient-related factors, the surgical technique and postoperative program through an exhaustive review of the literature. Patient expectations after TKA will then be outlined, particularly return to work and return to sports. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. PhishScore: Hacking Phishers' Minds

    OpenAIRE

    Marchal, Samuel; François, Jérôme; State, Radu; Engel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growth of prevention techniques, phishing remains an important threat since the principal countermeasures in use are still based on reactive URL blacklisting. This technique is inefficient due to the short lifetime of phishing Web sites, making recent approaches relying on real-time or proactive phishing URLs detection techniques more appropriate. In this paper we introduce PhishScore, an automated real-time phishing detection system. We observed that phishing URLs usually have fe...

  20. Credit Scoring Problem Based on Regression Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Khassawneh, Bashar Suhil Jad Allah

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This thesis provides an explanatory introduction to the regression models of data mining and contains basic definitions of key terms in the linear, multiple and logistic regression models. Meanwhile, the aim of this study is to illustrate fitting models for the credit scoring problem using simple linear, multiple linear and logistic regression models and also to analyze the found model functions by statistical tools. Keywords: Data mining, linear regression, logistic regression....

  1. Fingerprint Recognition Using Minutia Score Matching

    OpenAIRE

    J, Ravi.; Raja, K. B.; R, Venugopal. K.

    2010-01-01

    The popular Biometric used to authenticate a person is Fingerprint which is unique and permanent throughout a person’s life. A minutia matching is widely used for fingerprint recognition and can be classified as ridge ending and ridge bifurcation. In this paper we projected Fingerprint Recognition using Minutia Score Matching method (FRMSM). For Fingerprint thinning, the Block Filter is used, which scans the image at the boundary to preserves the quality of the image and extract the minutiae ...

  2. Gender, Stereotype Threat and Mathematics Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Tsui; Xiao Y. Xu; Edmond Venator

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Stereotype threat has repeatedly been shown to depress womens scores on difficult math tests. An attempt to replicate these findings in China found no support for the stereotype threat hypothesis. Our math test was characterized as being personally important for the student participants, an atypical condition in most stereotype threat laboratory research. Approach: To evaluate the effects of this personal demand, we conducted three experiments. Results: ...

  3. MODELING CREDIT RISK THROUGH CREDIT SCORING

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Cantemir CALIN; Oana Cristina POPOVICI

    2014-01-01

    Credit risk governs all financial transactions and it is defined as the risk of suffering a loss due to certain shifts in the credit quality of a counterpart. Credit risk literature gravitates around two main modeling approaches: the structural approach and the reduced form approach. In addition to these perspectives, credit risk assessment has been conducted through a series of techniques such as credit scoring models, which form the traditional approach. This paper examines the evolution of...

  4. Superior cold recycling : The score project

    OpenAIRE

    LESUEUR, D; POTTI, JJ; SOUTHWELL, C; WALTER, J; CRUZ, M; DELFOSSE, F; ECKMANN, B; FIEDLER, J; RACEK, I; SIMONSSON, B; PLACIN, F; SERRANO, J; RUIZ, A; KALAAJI, A; ATTANE, P

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop Environmentally Friendly Construction Technologies (EFCT) and as part of the 5th Framework Program of Research and Development, the European Community has decided to finance a research project on cold recycling, entitled SCORE "Superior COld REcycling based on benefits of bituminous microemulsions and foamed bitumen. A EFCT system for the rehabilitation and the maintenance of roads". This research project gathers organizations from all over Europe, from industrial partners...

  5. North Korean refugee doctors' preliminary examination scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Uk Chae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Although there have been studies emphasizing the re-education of North Korean (NK doctors for post-unification of the Korean Peninsula, study on the content and scope of such re-education has yet to be conducted. Researchers intended to set the content and scope of re-education by a comparative analysis for the scores of the preliminary examination, which is comparable to the Korean Medical Licensing Examination (KMLE. Methods The scores of the first and second preliminary exams were analyzed by subject using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The passing status of the group of NK doctors for KMLE in recent 3 years were investigated. The multiple-choice-question (MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of South Korean (SK medical students by two times of the standard deviation of the scores of SK medical students were selected to investigate the relevant reasons. Results The average scores of nearly all subjects were improved in the second exam compared with the first exam. The passing rate of the group of NK doctors was 75%. The number of MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of SK medical students was 51 (6.38%. NK doctors’ lack of understandings for Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Therapeutics, Prenatal Care, and Managed Care Programs was suggested as the possible reason. Conclusion The education of integrated courses focusing on Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures and Therapeutics, and apprenticeship-style training for clinical practice of core subjects are needed. Special lectures on the Preventive Medicine are likely to be required also.

  6. What do educational test scores really measure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyze a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-55 and tested in 1968. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. The bulk of unobservable effects are uncorrelate......, and possible incentive problems make it more difficult to elicit true values of what the tests measure....

  7. Clinical use of the ABO-Scoring Index: reliability and subtraction frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, William S; Carlson, Sean K; Baumrind, Sheldon; Poulton, Donald R

    2003-10-01

    This study tested the reliability and subtraction frequency of the study model-scoring system of the American Board of Orthodontists (ABO). We used a sample of 36 posttreatment study models that were selected randomly from six different orthodontic offices. Intrajudge and interjudge reliability was calculated using nonparametric statistics (Spearman rank coefficient, Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests). We found differences ranging from 3 to 6 subtraction points (total score) for intrajudge scoring between two sessions. For overall total ABO score, the average correlation was .77. Intrajudge correlation was greatest for occlusal relationships and least for interproximal contacts. Interjudge correlation for ABO score averaged r = .85. Correlation was greatest for buccolingual inclination and least for overjet. The data show that some judges, on average, were much more lenient than others and that this resulted in a range of total scores between 19.7 and 27.5. Most of the deductions were found in the buccal segments and most were related to the second molars. We present these findings in the context of clinicians preparing for the ABO phase III examination and for orthodontists in their ongoing evaluation of clinical results.

  8. Wearable PPG sensor based alertness scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Jishnu; Bhowmik, Tanmoy; Sahoo, Saswata; Tiwari, Vijay Narayan

    2017-07-01

    Quantifying mental alertness in today's world is important as it enables the person to adopt lifestyle changes for better work efficiency. Miniaturized sensors in wearable devices have facilitated detection/monitoring of mental alertness. Photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors through Heart Rate Variability (HRV) offer one such opportunity by providing information about one's daily alertness levels without requiring any manual interference from the user. In this paper, a smartwatch based alertness estimation system is proposed. Data collected from PPG sensor of smartwatch is processed and fed to machine learning based model to get a continuous alertness score. Utility functions are designed based on statistical analysis to give a quality score on different stages of alertness such as awake, long sleep and short duration power nap. An intelligent data collection approach is proposed in collaboration with the motion sensor in the smartwatch to reduce battery drainage. Overall, our proposed wearable based system provides a detailed analysis of alertness over a period in a systematic and optimized manner. We were able to achieve an accuracy of 80.1% for sleep/awake classification along with alertness score. This opens up the possibility for quantifying alertness levels using a single PPG sensor for better management of health related activities including sleep.

  9. High throughput sample processing and automated scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar eBrunborg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The comet assay is a sensitive and versatile method for assessing DNA damage in cells. In the traditional version of the assay, there are many manual steps involved and few samples can be treated in one experiment. High throughput modifications have been developed during recent years, and they are reviewed and discussed. These modifications include accelerated scoring of comets; other important elements that have been studied and adapted to high throughput are cultivation and manipulation of cells or tissues before and after exposure, and freezing of treated samples until comet analysis and scoring. High throughput methods save time and money but they are useful also for other reasons: large-scale experiments may be performed which are otherwise not practicable (e.g., analysis of many organs from exposed animals, and human biomonitoring studies, and automation gives more uniform sample treatment and less dependence on operator performance. The high throughput modifications now available vary largely in their versatility, capacity, complexity and costs. The bottleneck for further increase of throughput appears to be the scoring.

  10. Resiliency scoring for business continuity plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Anna; Anderson, Jamie

    Through this paper readers will learn of a scoring methodology, referred to as resiliency scoring, which enables the evaluation of business continuity plans based upon analysis of their alignment with a predefined set of criteria that can be customised and are adaptable to the needs of any organisation. This patent pending tool has been successful in driving engagement and is a powerful resource to improve reporting capabilities, identify risks and gauge organisational resilience. The role of business continuity professionals is to aid their organisations in planning and preparedness activities aimed at mitigating the impacts of potential disruptions and ensuring critical business functions can continue in the event of unforeseen circumstances. This may seem like a daunting task for what can typically be a small team of individuals. For this reason, it is important to be able to leverage industry standards, documented best practices and effective tools to streamline and support your continuity programme. The resiliency scoring methodology developed and implemented at Target has proven to be a valuable tool in taking the organisation's continuity programme to the next level. This paper will detail how the tool was developed and provide guidance on how it can be customised to fit your organisation's unique needs.

  11. Soetomo score: score model in early identification of acute haemorrhagic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Hasan Machfoed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: On financial or facility constraints of brain imaging, score model is used to predict the occurrence of acute haemorrhagic stroke. Accordingly, this study attempts to develop a new score model, called Soetomo score. Material and methods: The researchers performed a cross-sectional study of 176 acute stroke patients with onset of ≤24 hours who visited emergency unit of Dr. Soetomo Hospital from July 14th to December 14th, 2014. The diagnosis of haemorrhagic stroke was confirmed by head computed tomography scan. There were seven predictors of haemorrhagic stroke which were analysed by using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Furthermore, a multiple discriminant analysis resulted in an equation of Soetomo score model. The receiver operating characteristic procedure resulted in the values of area under curve and intersection point identifying haemorrhagic stroke. Afterward, the diagnostic test value was determined. Results: The equation of Soetomo score model was (3 × loss of consciousness + (3.5 × headache + (4 × vomiting − 4.5. Area under curve value of this score was 88.5% (95% confidence interval = 83.3–93.7%. In the Soetomo score model value of ≥−0.75, the score reached the sensitivity of 82.9%, specificity of 83%, positive predictive value of 78.8%, negative predictive value of 86.5%, positive likelihood ratio of 4.88, negative likelihood ratio of 0.21, false negative of 17.1%, false positive of 17%, and accuracy of 83%. Conclusions: The Soetomo score model value of ≥−0.75 can identify acute haemorrhagic stroke properly on the financial or facility constrains of brain imaging.

  12. Methods to score vertebral deformities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lems, W. F.; Jahangier, Z. N.; Raymakers, J. A.; Jacobs, J. W.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    The objective was to compare four different scoring methods for vertebral deformities: the semiquantitative Kleerekoper score and three quantitative scores (according to Minne, Melton and Raymakers) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral

  13. Total hip arthroplasty in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alma Becic; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Overgaard, Søren

    2005-01-01

    The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs.......The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs....

  14. Congruences of totally geodesic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plebanski, J.F.; Rozga, K.

    1989-01-01

    A general theory of congruences of totally geodesic surfaces is presented. In particular their classification, based on the properties of induced affine connections, is provided. In the four-dimensional case canonical forms of the metric tensor admitting congruences of two-dimensional totally geodesic surfaces of rank one are given. Finally, congruences of two-dimensional extremal surfaces are studied. (author)

  15. siMS Score: Simple Method for Quantifying Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatovic, Ivan; Vukovic, Rade; Culafic, Djordje; Gajic, Milan; Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate siMS score and siMS risk score, novel continuous metabolic syndrome scores as methods for quantification of metabolic status and risk. Developed siMS score was calculated using formula: siMS score = 2*Waist/Height + Gly/5.6 + Tg/1.7 + TAsystolic/130-HDL/1.02 or 1.28 (for male or female subjects, respectively). siMS risk score was calculated using formula: siMS risk score = siMS score * age/45 or 50 (for male or female subjects, respectively) * family history of cardio/cerebro-vascular events (event = 1.2, no event = 1). A sample of 528 obese and non-obese participants was used to validate siMS score and siMS risk score. Scores calculated as sum of z-scores (each component of metabolic syndrome regressed with age and gender) and sum of scores derived from principal component analysis (PCA) were used for evaluation of siMS score. Variants were made by replacing glucose with HOMA in calculations. Framingham score was used for evaluation of siMS risk score. Correlation between siMS score with sum of z-scores and weighted sum of factors of PCA was high (r = 0.866 and r = 0.822, respectively). Correlation between siMS risk score and log transformed Framingham score was medium to high for age groups 18+,30+ and 35+ (0.835, 0.707 and 0.667, respectively). siMS score and siMS risk score showed high correlation with more complex scores. Demonstrated accuracy together with superior simplicity and the ability to evaluate and follow-up individual patients makes siMS and siMS risk scores very convenient for use in clinical practice and research as well.

  16. Scoring system development for prediction of extravesical bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prelević Rade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Staging of bladder cancer is crucial for optimal management of the disease. However, clinical staging is not perfectly accurate. The aim of this study was to derive a simple scoring system in prediction of pathological advanced muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC. Methods. Logistic regression and bootstrap methods were used to create an integer score for estimating the risk in prediction of pathological advanced MIBC using precystectomy clinicopathological data: demographic, initial transurethral resection (TUR [grade, stage, multiplicity of tumors, lymphovascular invasion (LVI], hydronephrosis, abdominal and pelvic CT radiography (size of the tumor, tumor base width, and pathological stage after radical cystectomy (RC. Advanced MIBC in surgical specimen was defined as pT3-4 tumor. Receiving operating characteristic (ROC curve quantified the area under curve (AUC as predictive accuracy. Clinical usefulness was assessed by using decision curve analysis. Results. This single-center retrospective study included 233 adult patients with BC undergoing RC at the Military Medical Academy, Belgrade. Organ confined disease was observed in 101 (43.3% patients, and 132 (56.7% had advanced MIBC. In multivariable analysis, 3 risk factors most strongly associated with advanced MIBC: grade of initial TUR [odds ratio (OR = 4.7], LVI (OR = 2, and hydronephrosis (OR = 3.9. The resultant total possible score ranged from 0 to 15, with the cut-off value of > 8 points, the AUC was 0.795, showing good discriminatory ability. The model showed excellent calibration. Decision curve analysis showed a net benefit across all threshold probabilities and clinical usefulness of the model. Conclusion. We developed a unique scoring system which could assist in predicting advanced MIBC in patients before RC. The scoring system showed good performance characteristics and introducing of such a tool into daily clinical decision-making may lead to more appropriate

  17. Standardized UXO Demonstration Site Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 690

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry, Jr; Archiable, Robert; McClung, Christina; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and by the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Scoring Committee...

  18. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid Scoring Record #833

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina; Burch, William; McDonnell, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. This Scoring Record was coordinated by Dennis Teefy and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  19. Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Woods Scoring Record Number 486

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Open Field. The scoring record was coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  20. siMS Score: Simple Method for Quantifying Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Soldatovic, Ivan; Vukovic, Rade; Culafic, Djordje; Gajic, Milan; Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate siMS score and siMS risk score, novel continuous metabolic syndrome scores as methods for quantification of metabolic status and risk. Materials and Methods Developed siMS score was calculated using formula: siMS score = 2*Waist/Height + Gly/5.6 + Tg/1.7 + TAsystolic/130?HDL/1.02 or 1.28 (for male or female subjects, respectively). siMS risk score was calculated using formula: siMS risk score = siMS score * age/45 or 50 (for male or female subjects, respectively) * famil...

  1. Optimizing Scoring and Sampling Methods for Assessing Built Neighborhood Environment Quality in Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Adu-Brimpong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of existing measurement tools is necessary to explore links between aspects of the neighborhood built environment and health behaviors or outcomes. We evaluate a scoring method for virtual neighborhood audits utilizing the Active Neighborhood Checklist (the Checklist, a neighborhood audit measure, and assess street segment representativeness in low-income neighborhoods. Eighty-two home neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. Cardiovascular Health/Needs Assessment (NCT01927783 participants were audited using Google Street View imagery and the Checklist (five sections with 89 total questions. Twelve street segments per home address were assessed for (1 Land-Use Type; (2 Public Transportation Availability; (3 Street Characteristics; (4 Environment Quality and (5 Sidewalks/Walking/Biking features. Checklist items were scored 0–2 points/question. A combinations algorithm was developed to assess street segments’ representativeness. Spearman correlations were calculated between built environment quality scores and Walk Score®, a validated neighborhood walkability measure. Street segment quality scores ranged 10–47 (Mean = 29.4 ± 6.9 and overall neighborhood quality scores, 172–475 (Mean = 352.3 ± 63.6. Walk scores® ranged 0–91 (Mean = 46.7 ± 26.3. Street segment combinations’ correlation coefficients ranged 0.75–1.0. Significant positive correlations were found between overall neighborhood quality scores, four of the five Checklist subsection scores, and Walk Scores® (r = 0.62, p < 0.001. This scoring method adequately captures neighborhood features in low-income, residential areas and may aid in delineating impact of specific built environment features on health behaviors and outcomes.

  2. Does the emergency surgery score accurately predict outcomes in emergent laparotomies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peponis, Thomas; Bohnen, Jordan D; Sangji, Naveen F; Nandan, Anirudh R; Han, Kelsey; Lee, Jarone; Yeh, D Dante; de Moya, Marc A; Velmahos, George C; Chang, David C; Kaafarani, Haytham M A

    2017-08-01

    The emergency surgery score is a mortality-risk calculator for emergency general operation patients. We sought to examine whether the emergency surgery score predicts 30-day morbidity and mortality in a high-risk group of patients undergoing emergent laparotomy. Using the 2011-2012 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, we identified all patients who underwent emergent laparotomy using (1) the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program definition of "emergent," and (2) all Current Procedural Terminology codes denoting a laparotomy, excluding aortic aneurysm rupture. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to measure the correlation (c-statistic) between the emergency surgery score and (1) 30-day mortality, and (2) 30-day morbidity after emergent laparotomy. As sensitivity analyses, the correlation between the emergency surgery score and 30-day mortality was also evaluated in prespecified subgroups based on Current Procedural Terminology codes. A total of 26,410 emergent laparotomy patients were included. Thirty-day mortality and morbidity were 10.2% and 43.8%, respectively. The emergency surgery score correlated well with mortality (c-statistic = 0.84); scores of 1, 11, and 22 correlated with mortalities of 0.4%, 39%, and 100%, respectively. Similarly, the emergency surgery score correlated well with morbidity (c-statistic = 0.74); scores of 0, 7, and 11 correlated with complication rates of 13%, 58%, and 79%, respectively. The morbidity rates plateaued for scores higher than 11. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the emergency surgery score effectively predicts mortality in patients undergoing emergent (1) splenic, (2) gastroduodenal, (3) intestinal, (4) hepatobiliary, or (5) incarcerated ventral hernia operation. The emergency surgery score accurately predicts outcomes in all types of emergent laparotomy patients and may prove valuable as a bedside decision

  3. Desempenho de seis modelos de predição prognóstica em pacientes críticos que receberam suporte renal extracorpóreo Performance of six prognostic scores in critically ILL patients receiving renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R. Maccariello

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Não existe consenso sobre qual modelo prognóstico deva ser utilizado em pacientes com disfunção renal aguda (DRA. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho de seis escores de prognóstico em pacientes que necessitaram de suporte renal. MÉTODO: Coorte prospectiva de pacientes internados nas unidades de terapia intensiva (UTI de três hospitais terciários que necessitaram de suporte renal por DRA durante 32 meses. Foram excluídos os pacientes crônicos em programa de diálise ou com BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is no consensus about prognostic scores for use in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of six prognostic scores in predicting hospital mortality in patients with AKI and need for renal replacement therapy (RRT. METHODS: Prospective cohort of patients admitted to the intensive care units (ICU of three tertiary care hospitals that required RRT for AKI over a 32-month period. Patients with end-stage renal disease and those with ICU stay < 24h were excluded. Data from the first 24h of ICU admission were used to calculate SAPS II and APACHE II scores, and data from the first 24h of RRT were used in the calculation of LOD, ODIN, Liaño and Mehta scores. Discrimination was evaluated using the area under ROC curve (AUROC and calibration using the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. The hospital mortality was the end-point of interest. RESULTS: 467 patients were evaluated. Hospital mortality rate was 75%. Mean SAPS II and APACHE II scores were 48.5 ±11.2 and 27.4 ± 6.3 points, and median LOD score was 7 (5-8 points. Except for Mehta score (p = 0.001, calibration was appropriate in all models. However, discrimination was uniformly unsatisfactory; AUROC ranged from 0.60 for ODIN to 0.72 for SAPS II and Mehta scores. In addition, except for Mehta, all models tended to underestimate hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Organ dysfunction, general and

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of guys Hospital stroke score (allen score) in acute supratentorial thrombotic/haemorrhagic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulfiqar, A.; Toori, K. U.; Khan, S. S.; Hamza, M. I. M.; Zaman, S. U.

    2006-01-01

    A consecutive series of 103 patients, 58% male with mean age of 62 year (range 40-75 years), admitted with supratentorial stroke in our teaching hospital were studied. All patients had Computer Tomography scan brain done after clinical evaluation and application of Allen stroke score. Computer Tomography Scan confirmed thrombotic stroke in 55 (53%) patients and haemorrhagic stroke in 48 (47%) patients. Out of the 55 patients with definitive thrombotic stroke on Computer Tomography Scan, Allen stroke score suggested infarction in 67%, haemorrhage in 6% and remained inconclusive in 27% of cases. In 48 patients with definitive haemorrhagic stroke on Computer Tomography Scan, Allen stroke score suggested haemorrhage in 60%, infarction in 11% and remained inconclusive in 29% of cases. The overall accuracy of Allen stroke score was 66%. (author)

  5. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  6. A Novel Scoring System Approach to Assess Patients with Lyme Disease (Nutech Functional Score)

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta Shroff; Petra Hopf-Seidel

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: A bacterial infection by Borrelia burgdorferi referred to as Lyme disease (LD) or borreliosis is transmitted mostly by a bite of the tick Ixodes scapularis in the USA and Ixodes ricinus in Europe. Various tests are used for the diagnosis of LD, but their results are often unreliable. We compiled a list of clinically visible and patient-reported symptoms that are associated with LD. Based on this list, we developed a novel scoring system. Methodology: Nutech functional Score (NF...

  7. External validation of the NOBLADS score, a risk scoring system for severe acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Aoki

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the generalizability of NOBLADS, a severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB prediction model which we had previously derived when working at a different institution, using an external validation cohort. NOBLADS comprises the following factors: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, no diarrhea, no abdominal tenderness, blood pressure ≤ 100 mmHg, antiplatelet drug use, albumin < 3.0 g/dL, disease score ≥ 2, and syncope.We retrospectively analyzed 511 patients emergently hospitalized for acute LGIB at the University of Tokyo Hospital, from January 2009 to August 2016. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROCs-AUCs for severe bleeding (continuous and/or recurrent bleeding were compared between the original derivation cohort and the external validation cohort.Severe LGIB occurred in 44% of patients. Several clinical factors were significantly different between the external and derivation cohorts (p < 0.05, including background, laboratory data, NOBLADS scores, and diagnosis. The NOBLADS score predicted the severity of LGIB with an AUC value of 0.74 in the external validation cohort and one of 0.77 in the derivation cohort. In the external validation cohort, the score predicted the risk for blood transfusion need (AUC, 0.71, but was not adequate for predicting intervention need (AUC, 0.54. The in-hospital mortality rate was higher in patients with a score ≥ 5 than in those with a score < 5 (AUC, 0.83.Although the external validation cohort clinically differed from the derivation cohort in many ways, we confirmed the moderately high generalizability of NOBLADS, a clinical risk score for severe LGIB. Appropriate triage using this score may support early decision-making in various hospitals.

  8. The Veterans Affairs Cardiac Risk Score: Recalibrating the Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Score for Applied Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Jeremy B; Wiitala, Wyndy L; Zawistowski, Matthew; Hofer, Timothy P; Bentley, Douglas; Hayward, Rodney A

    2017-09-01

    Accurately estimating cardiovascular risk is fundamental to good decision-making in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, but risk scores developed in one population often perform poorly in dissimilar populations. We sought to examine whether a large integrated health system can use their electronic health data to better predict individual patients' risk of developing CVD. We created a cohort using all patients ages 45-80 who used Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) ambulatory care services in 2006 with no history of CVD, heart failure, or loop diuretics. Our outcome variable was new-onset CVD in 2007-2011. We then developed a series of recalibrated scores, including a fully refit "VA Risk Score-CVD (VARS-CVD)." We tested the different scores using standard measures of prediction quality. For the 1,512,092 patients in the study, the Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score had similar discrimination as the VARS-CVD (c-statistic of 0.66 in men and 0.73 in women), but the Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease model had poor calibration, predicting 63% more events than observed. Calibration was excellent in the fully recalibrated VARS-CVD tool, but simpler techniques tested proved less reliable. We found that local electronic health record data can be used to estimate CVD better than an established risk score based on research populations. Recalibration improved estimates dramatically, and the type of recalibration was important. Such tools can also easily be integrated into health system's electronic health record and can be more readily updated.

  9. Revisiting the utility of technical performance scores following tetralogy of Fallot repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodin, Daud; Mavrothalassitis, Orestes; Haberer, Kim; Sunderji, Sherzana; Quek, Ruben G W; Peyvandi, Shabnam; Moon-Grady, Anita; Karamlou, Tara

    2017-08-01

    Although an important quality metric, current technical performance scores may not be generalizable and may omit operative factors that influence outcomes. We examined factors not included in current technical performance scores that may contribute to increased postoperative length of stay, major complications, and cost after primary repair of tetralogy of Fallot. This is a retrospective single site study of patients younger than age 2 years with tetralogy of Fallot undergoing complete repair between 2007 and 2015. Medical record data and discharge echocardiograms were reviewed to ascertain component and composite technical performance scores. Primary outcomes included postoperative length of stay, major complications, and total hospital costs. Multivariable logistic and linear regression identified determinants of each outcome. Patient population (n = 115) had a median postoperative length of stay of 8 days (interquartile range, 6-10 days), and a median total cost of $71,147. Major complications occurred in 33 patients (29%) with 1 death. Technical performance scores assigned were optimum in 28 patients (25%), adequate in 59 patients (52%), and inadequate in 26 patients (23%). Neither technical performance score components nor composite scores were associated with increased postoperative length of stay. Optimum or adequate repairs versus inadequate had equal risk of a complication (P = .79), and equivalent mean total cost ($100,000 vs $187,000; P = .25). Longer cardiopulmonary bypass time per 1-minute increase (P technical performance scores were not associated with selected outcomes in our postoperative population. Although returning to bypass and bypass length are not included as components in the current score, these are important factors influencing complications and resource use in our population. Revisions anticipated from a prospective trial should consider including these variables. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery

  10. Validation study of the Forgotten Joint Score-12 as a universal patient-reported outcome measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mikio; Baba, Tomonori; Homma, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Hideo; Ochi, Hironori; Yuasa, Takahito; Behrend, Henrik; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    The Forgotten Joint Score-12 (FJS-12) is for patients to forget their artificial joint and is reportedly a useful patient-reported outcome tool for artificial joints. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the FJS-12 is as useful as the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) or the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Hip Disease Evaluation Questionnaire (JHEQ) in Japan. All patients who visited our hospital's hip joint specialists following unilateral THA from August 2013 to July 2014 were evaluated. Medical staff members other than physicians administered three questionnaires. Items evaluated were (1) the reliability of the FJS-12 and (2) correlations between the FJS-12 and the total and subscale scores of the WOMAC or JHEQ. Of 130 patients, 22 were excluded. Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.97 for the FJS-12. The FJS-12 showed a significantly lower score than the WOMAC or JHEQ (p < 0.01). The FJS-12 was moderately correlated with the total WOMAC score (r = 0.522) and its subscale scores for "stiffness" (r = 0.401) and "function" (r = 0.539) and was weakly correlated with the score for "pain" (r = 0.289). The FJS-12 was favorably correlated with the total JHEQ score (r = 0.686) and its subscale scores (r = 0.530-0.643). The FJS-12 was correlated with and showed reliability similar to that of the JHEQ and WOMAC. The FJS-12, which is not affected by culture or lifestyle, may be useful in Japan.

  11. Pediatric siMS score: A new, simple and accurate continuous metabolic syndrome score for everyday use in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Rade; Milenkovic, Tatjana; Stojan, George; Vukovic, Ana; Mitrovic, Katarina; Todorovic, Sladjana; Soldatovic, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    The dichotomous nature of the current definition of metabolic syndrome (MS) in youth results in loss of information. On the other hand, the calculation of continuous MS scores using standardized residuals in linear regression (Z scores) or factor scores of principal component analysis (PCA) is highly impractical for clinical use. Recently, a novel, easily calculated continuous MS score called siMS score was developed based on the IDF MS criteria for the adult population. To develop a Pediatric siMS score (PsiMS), a modified continuous MS score for use in the obese youth, based on the original siMS score, while keeping the score as simple as possible and retaining high correlation with more complex scores. The database consisted of clinical data on 153 obese (BMI ≥95th percentile) children and adolescents. Continuous MS scores were calculated using Z scores and PCA, as well as the original siMS score. Four variants of PsiMS score were developed in accordance with IDF criteria for MS in youth and correlation of these scores with PCA and Z score derived MS continuous scores was assessed. PsiMS score calculated using formula: (2xWaist/Height) + (Glucose(mmol/l)/5.6) + (triglycerides(mmol/l)/1.7) + (Systolic BP/130)-(HDL(mmol/l)/1.02) showed the highest correlation with most of the complex continuous scores (0.792-0.901). The original siMS score also showed high correlation with continuous MS scores. PsiMS score represents a practical and accurate score for the evaluation of MS in the obese youth. The original siMS score should be used when evaluating large cohorts consisting of both adults and children.

  12. The Effect of English Language on Multiple Choice Question Scores of Thai Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phisalprapa, Pochamana; Muangkaew, Wayuda; Assanasen, Jintana; Kunavisarut, Tada; Thongngarm, Torpong; Ruchutrakool, Theera; Kobwanthanakun, Surapon; Dejsomritrutai, Wanchai

    2016-04-01

    Universities in Thailand are preparing for Thailand's integration into the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by increasing the number of tests in English language. English language is not the native language of Thailand Differences in English language proficiency may affect scores among test-takers, even when subject knowledge among test-takers is comparable and may falsely represent the knowledge level of the test-taker. To study the impact of English language multiple choice test questions on test scores of medical students. The final examination of fourth-year medical students completing internal medicine rotation contains 120 multiple choice questions (MCQ). The languages used on the test are Thai and English at a ratio of 3:1. Individual scores of tests taken in both languages were collected and the effect of English language on MCQ was analyzed Individual MCQ scores were then compared with individual student English language proficiency and student grade point average (GPA). Two hundred ninety five fourth-year medical students were enrolled. The mean percentage of MCQ scores in Thai and English were significantly different (65.0 ± 8.4 and 56.5 ± 12.4, respectively, p English was fair (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.41, p English than in Thai language. Students were classified into six grade categories (A, B+, B, C+, C, and D+), which cumulatively measured total internal medicine rotation performance score plus final examination score. MCQ scores from Thai language examination were more closely correlated with total course grades than were the scores from English language examination (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.73 (p English proficiency score was very high, at 3.71 ± 0.35 from a total of 4.00. Mean student GPA was 3.40 ± 0.33 from a possible 4.00. English language MCQ examination scores were more highly associated with GPA than with English language proficiency. The use of English language multiple choice question test may decrease scores

  13. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score for Evaluating Organ Failure and Outcome of Severe Maternal Morbidity in Obstetric Intensive Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Oliveira-Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the performance of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score in cases of severe maternal morbidity (SMM. Design. Retrospective study of diagnostic validation. Setting. An obstetric intensive care unit (ICU in Brazil. Population. 673 women with SMM. Main Outcome Measures. mortality and SOFA score. Methods. Organ failure was evaluated according to maximum score for each one of its six components. The total maximum SOFA score was calculated using the poorest result of each component, reflecting the maximum degree of alteration in systemic organ function. Results. highest total maximum SOFA score was associated with mortality, 12.06 ± 5.47 for women who died and 1.87 ± 2.56 for survivors. There was also a significant correlation between the number of failing organs and maternal mortality, ranging from 0.2% (no failure to 85.7% (≥3 organs. Analysis of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (AUC confirmed the excellent performance of total maximum SOFA score for cases of SMM (AUC = 0.958. Conclusions. Total maximum SOFA score proved to be an effective tool for evaluating severity and estimating prognosis in cases of SMM. Maximum SOFA score may be used to conceptually define and stratify the degree of severity in cases of SMM.

  14. On Individual Differences in Person Perception: Raters' Personality Traits Relate to Their Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Scoring Tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Audrey K.; Rufino, Katrina A.; Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Jackson, Rebecca L.; Murrie, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated raters' personality traits in relation to scores they assigned to offenders using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). A total of 22 participants, including graduate students and faculty members in clinical psychology programs, completed a PCL-R training session, independently scored four criminal offenders using the…

  15. Scoring function to predict solubility mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutsch Christopher

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutagenesis is commonly used to engineer proteins with desirable properties not present in the wild type (WT protein, such as increased or decreased stability, reactivity, or solubility. Experimentalists often have to choose a small subset of mutations from a large number of candidates to obtain the desired change, and computational techniques are invaluable to make the choices. While several such methods have been proposed to predict stability and reactivity mutagenesis, solubility has not received much attention. Results We use concepts from computational geometry to define a three body scoring function that predicts the change in protein solubility due to mutations. The scoring function captures both sequence and structure information. By exploring the literature, we have assembled a substantial database of 137 single- and multiple-point solubility mutations. Our database is the largest such collection with structural information known so far. We optimize the scoring function using linear programming (LP methods to derive its weights based on training. Starting with default values of 1, we find weights in the range [0,2] so that predictions of increase or decrease in solubility are optimized. We compare the LP method to the standard machine learning techniques of support vector machines (SVM and the Lasso. Using statistics for leave-one-out (LOO, 10-fold, and 3-fold cross validations (CV for training and prediction, we demonstrate that the LP method performs the best overall. For the LOOCV, the LP method has an overall accuracy of 81%. Availability Executables of programs, tables of weights, and datasets of mutants are available from the following web page: http://www.wsu.edu/~kbala/OptSolMut.html.

  16. Best waveform score for diagnosing keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Luz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To test whether corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF can discriminate between keratoconus and normal eyes and to evaluate whether the averages of two consecutive measurements perform differently from the one with the best waveform score (WS for diagnosing keratoconus. METHODS: ORA measurements for one eye per individual were selected randomly from 53 normal patients and from 27 patients with keratoconus. Two groups were considered the average (CH-Avg, CRF-Avg and best waveform score (CH-WS, CRF-WS groups. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate whether the variables had similar distributions in the Normal and Keratoconus groups. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves were calculated for each parameter to assess the efficacy for diagnosing keratoconus and the same obtained for each variable were compared pairwise using the Hanley-McNeil test. RESULTS: The CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS and CRF-WS differed significantly between the normal and keratoconus groups (p<0.001. The areas under the ROC curve (AUROC for CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS, and CRF-WS were 0.824, 0.873, 0.891, and 0.931, respectively. CH-WS and CRF-WS had significantly better AUROCs than CH-Avg and CRF-Avg, respectively (p=0.001 and 0.002. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the biomechanical properties of the cornea through the ORA method has proved to be an important aid in the diagnosis of keratoconus, regardless of the method used. The best waveform score (WS measurements were superior to the average of consecutive ORA measurements for diagnosing keratoconus.

  17. Setting pass scores for clinical skills assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Liu, Keh-Min

    2008-12-01

    In a clinical skills assessment, the decision to pass or fail an examinee should be based on the test content or on the examinees' performance. The process of deciding a pass score is known as setting a standard of the examination. This requires a properly selected panel of expert judges and a suitable standard setting method, which best fits the purpose of the examination. Six standard setting methods that are often used in clinical skills assessment are described to provide an overview of the standard setting process.

  18. Setting Pass Scores for Clinical Skills Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In a clinical skills assessment, the decision to pass or fail an examinee should be based on the test content or on the examinees' performance. The process of deciding a pass score is known as setting a standard of the examination. This requires a properly selected panel of expert judges and a suitable standard setting method, which best fits the purpose of the examination. Six standard setting methods that are often used in clinical skills assessment are described to provide an overview of the standard setting process.

  19. Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC) database integrates premarket and postmarket data about medical devices. It includes information pulled from CDRH databases...

  20. Nutritional management after total laryngectomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    28 September 2010 with a known diagnosis of cancer of the larynx. The patient, who underwent a total laryngectomy on 13 October, had a tracheostomy inserted .... status, leading to improved quality of life and better response to treatment.4.