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Sample records for total glutathione content

  1. Glutathione content in sperm cells of infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Fafula

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperproduction of reactive oxygen species can damage sperm cells and is considered to be one of the mechanisms of male infertility. Cell protection from the damaging effects of free radicals and lipid peroxidation products is generally determined by the degree of antioxidant protection. Glutathione is non-enzymatic antioxidant which plays an important protective role against oxidative damages and lipid peroxidation. The aim of the present work is to determine the content of reduced and oxidized glutathione in sperm cells of infertile men. Semen samples from 20 fertile men (normozoospermics and 72 infertile patients (12 oligozoospermics, 17 asthenozoospermics, 10 oligoasthenozoosper­mics and 33 leucocytospermic were used. The total, oxidized (GSSG and reduced (GSH glutathione levels were measured spectrophotometrically. The levels of total glutathione were significantly lower in the spermatozoa of patients with oligozoo-, asthenozoo- and oligoasthenozoospermia than in the control. Infertile groups showed significantly decreased values of reduced glutathione in sperm cells vs. fertile men, indicating an alteration of oxidative status. The oxidized glutathione levels in sperm cells of infertile men did not differ from those of normozoospermic men with proven fertility. The GSH/GSSG ratio was significantly decreased in the oligo-, astheno- and oligoasthenozoospermic groups compared to the normozoospermic group. In patients with leucocytospermia the GSH/GSSG ratio was lower but these changes were not significant. In addition, glutathione peroxidase activity in sperm cells was decreased in patients with oligozoo-, astenozoo-, oligoastenozoospermia and with leucocytospermia. The most significant changes in glutathione peroxidase activity were observed in infertile men with leucocytospermia. Decreased GSH/GSSG ratio indicates a decline in redox-potential of the glutathione system in sperm cells of men with decreased fertilizing potential

  2. Reduction of intracellular glutathione content and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, O.; Schans, G.P. van der; Roos-Verheij, W.S.D.

    1986-05-01

    The intracellular glutathione (GSH) content in HeLa, CHO and V79 cells was reduced by incubating the cells in growth medium containing buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) or diethyl maleate (DEM). Clonogenicity, single strand DNA breaks (ssb) and double strand DNA breaks (dsb) were used as criteria for radiation induced damage after X- or γ irradiation. In survival experiments DEM gave a slightly larger sensitization although it gave a smaller reduction of the intracellular GSH. In general, sensitization was larger for dsb than for ssb, also the reduction of the OER was generally larger for dsb than for ssb. This may be due to the higher dose rate in case of dsb experiments resulting in a higher rate of radiochemical oxygen consumption. In general, no effect was found on post-irradiation repair of ssb and dsb. (Auth.)

  3. Reduction of intracellular glutathione content and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, O.; Schans, G.P. van der; Roos-Verheij, W.S.D.

    1986-01-01

    The intracellular glutathione (GSH) content of HeLa, CHO and V79 cells was reduced by incubating the cells in growth medium containing buthionine sulphoximine or diethyl maleate (DEM). Clonogenicity, single-strand DNA breaks (ssb) and double-strand DNA breaks (dsb) were used as criteria for radiation-induced damage after X- or γ-irradiation. In survival experiments, DEM gave a slightly larger sensitization although it gave a smaller reduction of the intracellular GSH. In general, sensitization was larger for dsb than for ssb, also the reduction of the o.e.r. was generally larger for dsb than for ssb. This may be due to the higher dose rate in case of dsb experiments resulting in a higher rate of radiochemical oxygen consumption. In general, no effect was found on post-irradiation repair of ssb and dsb. (author)

  4. Glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noctor, Graham; Queval, Guillaume; Mhamdi, Amna; Chaouch, Sejir; Foyer, Christine H

    2011-01-01

    Glutathione is a simple sulfur compound composed of three amino acids and the major non-protein thiol in many organisms, including plants. The functions of glutathione are manifold but notably include redox-homeostatic buffering. Glutathione status is modulated by oxidants as well as by nutritional and other factors, and can influence protein structure and activity through changes in thiol-disulfide balance. For these reasons, glutathione is a transducer that integrates environmental information into the cellular network. While the mechanistic details of this function remain to be fully elucidated, accumulating evidence points to important roles for glutathione and glutathione-dependent proteins in phytohormone signaling and in defense against biotic stress. Work in Arabidopsis is beginning to identify the processes that govern glutathione status and that link it to signaling pathways. As well as providing an overview of the components that regulate glutathione homeostasis (synthesis, degradation, transport, and redox turnover), the present discussion considers the roles of this metabolite in physiological processes such as light signaling, cell death, and defense against microbial pathogen and herbivores.

  5. A Lipid Transfer Protein Increases the Glutathione Content and Enhances Arabidopsis Resistance to a Trichothecene Mycotoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E McLaughlin

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB or scab is one of the most important plant diseases worldwide, affecting wheat, barley and other small grains. Trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON accumulate in the grain, presenting a food safety risk and health hazard to humans and animals. Despite considerable breeding efforts, highly resistant wheat or barley cultivars are not available. We screened an activation tagged Arabidopsis thaliana population for resistance to trichothecin (Tcin, a type B trichothecene in the same class as DON. Here we show that one of the resistant lines identified, trichothecene resistant 1 (trr1 contains a T-DNA insertion upstream of two nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP genes, AtLTP4.4 and AtLTP4.5. Expression of both nsLTP genes was induced in trr1 over 10-fold relative to wild type. Overexpression of AtLTP4.4 provided greater resistance to Tcin than AtLTP4.5 in Arabidopsis thaliana and in Saccharomyces cerevisiae relative to wild type or vector transformed lines, suggesting a conserved protection mechanism. Tcin treatment increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production in Arabidopsis and ROS stain was associated with the chloroplast, the cell wall and the apoplast. ROS levels were attenuated in Arabidopsis and in yeast overexpressing AtLTP4.4 relative to the controls. Exogenous addition of glutathione and other antioxidants enhanced resistance of Arabidopsis to Tcin while the addition of buthionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, increased sensitivity, suggesting that resistance was mediated by glutathione. Total glutathione content was significantly higher in Arabidopsis and in yeast overexpressing AtLTP4.4 relative to the controls, highlighting the importance of AtLTP4.4 in maintaining the redox state. These results demonstrate that trichothecenes cause ROS accumulation and overexpression of AtLTP4.4 protects against trichothecene-induced oxidative stress by increasing the glutathione

  6. Cadmium induced changes in subcellular glutathione contents within glandular trichomes of Cucurbita pepo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Dagmar; Müller, Maria; Zellnig, Günther; Zechmann, Bernd

    2010-07-01

    Plants cope with cadmium (Cd) stress by complexation with phytochelatins (Pc), metallothioneins and glutathione and sequestration within vacuoles. Especially glutathione was found to play a major role in Cd detoxification as Cd shows a high binding affinity towards thiols and as glutathione is a precursor for Pc synthesis. In the present study, we have used an immunohistochemical approach combined with computer-supported transmission electron microscopy in order to measure changes in the subcellular distribution of glutathione during Cd-stress in mesophyll cells and cells of different glandular trichomes (long and short stalked) of Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca GREB: . Even though no ultrastructural alterations were observed in leaf and glandular trichome cells after the treatment of plants with 50 microM cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) for 48 h, all cells showed a large decrease in glutathione contents. The strongest decrease was found in nuclei and the cytosol (up to 76%) in glandular trichomes which are considered as a major side of Cd accumulation in leaves. The ratio of glutathione between the cytosol and nuclei and the other cell compartments was strongly decreased only in glandular trichomes (more than 50%) indicating that glutathione in these two cell compartments is especially important for the detoxification of Cd in glandular trichomes. Additionally, these data indicate that large amounts of Cd are withdrawn from nuclei during Cd exposure. The present study gives a detailed insight into the compartment-specific importance of glutathione during Cd exposure in mesophyll cells and glandular trichomes of C. pepo L. plants.

  7. [Contents of total flavonoids in Rhizoma Arisaematis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, S S; Lin, H Y; Zhou, Y X; Wei, L X

    2001-06-01

    Comparing the contents of total flavonoides of Rhizoma Arisaematis, which collected in different time, regions, different varieties and processed. Determining the contents by ultraviolet spectro-photometry. The contents were found in the following sequence: 1. the end of July, the begin of July, August, September; 2. Beijing, Shanxi, Sichuan, Anhui; 3. Arisaema erubenscens, A. heterophyllum, A. amurense; 4. unprocessed product, processed product.

  8. US-Total Electron Content Product (USTEC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The US Total Electron Content (US-TEC) product is designed to specify TEC over the Continental US (CONUS) in near real-time. The product uses a Kalman Filter data...

  9. Flavonoid, hesperidine, total phenolic contents and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additionally, the antioxidant activities were also determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. C. hystrix had the highest flavonoid and total phenolic contents while C. aurantifolia had the highest hesperidine content. The antioxidant activity of ...

  10. [The effect of gamma rays on glutathion and ascorbic acid content in rabbit lenses (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zygulska-Mach, H; Mach, Z

    1975-01-01

    It is pointed out that the partner non radiated eye is also influenced after employment of high radiation on an eye. The authors radiated rabbit eyes with gamma rays employing Stallard-applicators and determined the glutathion and ascorbic acid content in the lenses. The lenses of the partner eye were also examined for comparison. In those eyes which were directly radiated there was a fall of concentration of the two substances indirectly proportional to the dose of rays employed. In the partner eyes which were not directly subjected to direct radiation there were changes of similar character which were however not so much pronounced. The role of glutathion and ascorbic acid in lens metabolism is pointed out.

  11. Total cysteine and glutathione determination in hemolymph of individual adult D. melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borra, Srivani, E-mail: sborra3@uic.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 845 West Taylor Street, 4323 SES, MC 111, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Featherstone, David E., E-mail: def@uic.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, 840 West Taylor Street, SEL 4311, M/C 067, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Laboratory of Integrative Neuroscience, University of Illinois at Chicago, 840 West Taylor Street, SEL 4311, M/C 067, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Shippy, Scott A., E-mail: sshippy@uic.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, 845 West Taylor Street, 5417 SES, MC 111, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Laboratory of Integrative Neuroscience, University of Illinois at Chicago, 840 West Taylor Street, SEL 4311, M/C 067, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Method for highly volume variant, nL sample assay of biological relevant thiols. • Defined capillary lengths used to deliver nL sample and reagent volumes. • Optimized reagent concentrations, reaction times and temperatures for thiol assay. • Total cysteine and glutathione measured from hemolymph of individual fruit flies. - Abstract: Determination of thiols, glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) are important due to their roles in oxidative stress and aging. Oxidants such as soluble O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} promote oxidation of thiols to disulfide (-S-S-) bonded dimers affecting quantitation accuracy. The method presented here reduces disulfide-bonded species followed by fluorescence labelling of the 29.5 (±18.2) nL hemolymph volumes of individual adult Drosophila Melanogaster. The availability of only tens of nanoliter (nL) samples that are also highly volume variant requires efficient sample handling to improve thiol measurements while minimizing sample dilution. The optimized method presented here utilizes defined lengths of capillaries to meter tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine reducing reagent and monobromobimane derivatizing reagent volumes enabling Cys and GSH quantitation with only 20-fold dilution. The nL assay developed here was optimized with respect to reagent concentrations, sample dilution, reaction times and temperatures. Separation and identification of the nL thiol mixtures were obtained with capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence. To demonstrate the capability of this method total Cys and total GSH were measured in the hemolymph collected from individual adult D. Melanogaster. The thiol measurements were used to compare a mutant fly strain with a non-functional cystine–glutamate transporter (xCT) to its background control. The mutant fly, genderblind (gb), carries a non-functional gene for a protein similar to mammalian xCT whose function is not fully understood. Average concentrations obtained for mutant

  12. High performance liquid chromatographic assay for the quantitation of total glutathione in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abukhalaf, Imad K.; Silvestrov, Natalia A.; Menter, Julian M.; von Deutsch, Daniel A.; Bayorh, Mohamed A.; Socci, Robin R.; Ganafa, Agaba A.

    2002-01-01

    A simple and widely used homocysteine HPLC procedure was applied for the HPLC identification and quantitation of glutathione in plasma. The method, which utilizes SBDF as a derivatizing agent utilizes only 50 microl of sample volume. Linear quantitative response curve was generated for glutathione over a concentration range of 0.3125-62.50 micromol/l. Linear regression analysis of the standard curve exhibited correlation coefficient of 0.999. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) values were 5.0 and 15 pmol, respectively. Glutathione recovery using this method was nearly complete (above 96%). Intra-assay and inter-assay precision studies reflected a high level of reliability and reproducibility of the method. The applicability of the method for the quantitation of glutathione was demonstrated successfully using human and rat plasma samples.

  13. Decrease in glutathione content in boar sperm after cryopreservation. Effect of the addition of reduced glutathione to the freezing and thawing extenders.

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    Gadea, Joaquín; Sellés, Elena; Marco, Marco Antonio; Coy, Pilar; Matás, Carmen; Romar, Raquel; Ruiz, Salvador

    2004-08-01

    Although glutathione content in boar spermatozoa has been previously reported, the effect of reduced glutathione (GSH) on semen parameters and the fertilizing ability of boar spermatozoa after cryopreservation has never been evaluated. In this study, GSH content was determined in ejaculated boar spermatozoa before and after cryopreservation. Semen samples were centrifuged and GSH content in the resulting pellet monitored spectrophotometrically. The fertilizing ability of frozen-thawed boar sperm was also tested in vitro by incubating sperm with in vitro matured oocytes obtained from gilts. GSH content in fresh semen was 3.84 +/- 0.21 nM GSH/10(8) sperm. Following semen cryopreservation, there was a 32% decrease in GSH content (P boars and after various preservation protocols (P = 0.0102 ). The effect of addition of GSH to the freezing and thawing extenders was also evaluated. Addition of 5 mM GSH to the freezing extender did not have a significant effect on standard semen parameters or sperm fertilizing ability after thawing. In contrast, when GSH was added to the thawing extender, a dose-dependent tendency to increase in sperm fertilizing ability was observed, although no differences were observed in standard semen parameters. In summary, (i) there was a loss in GSH content after cryopreservation of boar semen; (ii) addition of GSH to the freezing extender did not result in any improvement in either standard semen parameters or sperm fertilizing ability; and (iii) addition of GSH to the thawing extender resulted in a significant increase in sperm fertilizing ability. Nevertheless, future studies must conclude if this is the case for all boars. Furthermore, since addition of GSH to the thawing extender did not result in an improvement in standard semen parameters, this suggests that during the thawing process, GSH prevents damage of a sperm property that is critical in the fertilization process but that is not measured in the routine semen analysis.

  14. Relationship between oxidizable fatty acid content and level of antioxidant glutathione peroxidases in marine fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Jeffrey M.; Hyndman, Kelly A.; Kriska, Tamas; Girotti, Albert W.; Crockett, Elizabeth L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Biological membranes can be protected from lipid peroxidation by antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT) and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases 1 and 4 (GPx1 and GPx4). Unlike GPx1, GPx4 can directly detoxify lipid hydroperoxides in membranes without prior action of phospholipase A2. We hypothesized that (1) GPx4 is enhanced in species that contain elevated levels of highly oxidizable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and (2) activities of antioxidant enzymes are prioritized to meet species-specific oxidative stresses. In this study we examined (i) activities of the oxidative enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and antioxidant (CAT, GPx1 and GPx4) enzymes, (ii) GPx4 protein expression, and (iii) phospholipid composition in livers of five species of marine fish (Myxine glutinosa, Petromyzon marinus, Squalus acanthias, Fundulus heteroclitus and Myoxocephalus octodecemspinosus) that contain a range of PUFA. GPx4 activity was, on average, 5.8 times higher in F. heteroclitus and S. acanthias than in the other three marine fish species sampled. Similarly, activities of CAT and GPx1 were highest in S. acanthias and F. heteroclitus, respectively. GPx4 activity for all species correlates with membrane unsaturation, as well as oxidative activity as indicated by CS. These data support our hypothesis that GPx4 level in marine fish is a function, at least in part, of high PUFA content in these animals. GPx1 activity was also correlated with membrane unsaturation, indicating that marine species partition resources among glutathione-dependent defenses for protection from the initial oxidative insult (e.g. H2O2) and to repair damaged lipids within biological membranes. PMID:22031739

  15. Radiobiological studies with a series of human cell lines of varying glutathione content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astor, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of decreased levels of intracellular glutathione (GSH) on the radiosensitivity of aerated and hypoxic cells was studied using human skin fibroblasts obtained from patients affected with the inborn error of metabolism, 5-oxoprolinuria. The oxygen enhancement ratios (OER) were determined for four cell lines obtained from a single family, SR and SUR (heterozygous parents) and GM3877 and GM3878 (affected homozygous siblings). Glutathione values ranged from 7.4 to 130% of control values. Only GM3877 with a GSH value 7.4% of control exhibited a reduced OER of 1.9 compared with a control value of 3. These results suggest that a reduction in OER is observed only when GSH levels reach extremely low values. (author)

  16. Radiobiological studies with a series of human cell lines of varying glutathione content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astor, M.B. (Columbia Univ., New York (USA). Radiological Research Lab.)

    1984-08-01

    The effect of decreased levels of intracellular glutathione (GSH) on the radiosensitivity of aerated and hypoxic cells was studied using human skin fibroblasts obtained from patients affected with the inborn error of metabolism, 5-oxoprolinuria. The oxygen enhancement ratios (OER) were determined for four cell lines obtained from a single family, SR and SUR (heterozygous parents) and GM3877 and GM3878 (affected homozygous siblings). Glutathione values ranged from 7.4 to 130% of control values. Only GM3877 with a GSH value 7.4% of control exhibited a reduced OER of 1.9 compared with a control value of 3. These results suggest that a reduction in OER is observed only when GSH levels reach extremely low values.

  17. Effect of cellular glutathione content on the induction of DNA double strand breaks by 25 MeV electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankenberg, D.; Kistler, M.; Eckhardt-Schupp, F.

    1987-08-01

    The effect of endogenous glutathione (GSH) on the induction of DNA double strand breaks (dsb) by 25 MeV electrons was investigated using stationary haploid yeast cells defective in ..gamma..-glutamyl-cysteine-synthetase (gsh 1) containing less than 5 per cent of the normal GSH content. In gsh 1 cells the induction of dsb is increased by a factor of 1.5 under oxic and 1.8 under anoxic irradiation conditions whereas the oxygen enhancement ratio was only slightly decreased (1.9) compared to wild-type cells (2.4).

  18. Effect of cellular glutathione content on the induction of DNA double strand breaks by 25 MeV electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenberg, D.; Kistler, M.; Eckhardt-Schupp, F.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of endogenous glutathione (GSH) on the induction of DNA double strand breaks (dsb) by 25 MeV electrons was investigated using stationary haploid yeast cells defective in γ-glutamyl-cysteine-synthetase (gsh 1) containing less than 5 per cent of the normal GSH content. In gsh 1 cells the induction of dsb is increased by a factor of 1.5 under oxic and 1.8 under anoxic irradiation conditions whereas the oxygen enhancement ratio was only slightly decreased (1.9) compared to wild-type cells (2.4). (author)

  19. Comparison of total phenolic content and composition of individual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A successful peanut breeding to obtain genotypes with greater phenolic content requires information on type and content of phenolic compounds in parental peanut genotypes. The aim of this study was to investigate the total phenolic contents and phenolic acid profiles of 15 Valencia-type peanut genotypes both in peanut ...

  20. Correlation between endogenous glutathione content and sensitivity of cultured human skin cells to radiation at defined wavelengths in the solar ultraviolet range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrrell, R.M.; Pidoux, M.

    1988-01-01

    Glutathione depletion of cultured human skin fibroblasts by treatment with buthionine-S.R.-sulfoximine (BSO) sensitises them to solar UV radiation. We now show that there is a close quantitative correlation between cellular glutathione content and sensitivity to radiation at 365 nm. A weaker correlation is observed when cells are depleted of glutathione using diethylmaleimide. Both fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes derived from the same foreskin biopsy are sensitised to radiation at 313 nm by glutathione depletion. At low to intermediate fluence levels, 10 mM cysteamine present during irradiation at 302 nm is able to almost completely reverse the sensitising effects of glutathione depletion suggesting that the endogenous thiol protects against radiation at this wavelength by a free radical scavenging mechanism. At 313 nm, the sensitisation is not reversed by cysteamine suggesting that glutathione plays a more specific role in protection against radiation at longer wavelengths. Xeroderma pigmentosum group A fibroblasts (excision deficient) are also sensitised to radiation at 313 and 365 nm by depletion of glutathione. The results provide further evidence that endogenous glutathione is involved in protecting human skin cells against a wide range of solar radiation damage. (author)

  1. The effect of seedling chilling on glutathione content, catalase and peroxidase activity in Brassica oleracea L. var. italica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wojciechowska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to determine the possible relationship between Brassica oleracea var. italica seedlings stored at 2°C in the dark for seven and fourteen days, respectively, and the level of certain antioxidant parameters in particular organs. A parallel objective of the experiment was to determine if the reaction of seedlings to low temperature might be persistent in fully developed plants until harvest time. After 14 days of chilling a significant increase in the glutathione content was observed in the seedling leaves in comparison to the non-chilled plants. During vegetation in field conditions this effect was maintained in leaves up to the stage of formation of flower buds. At harvest the highest content of glutathione was demonstrated in broccoli heads, obtained from plants, which were previously chilled in the seedling phase for two weeks. Peroxidase activity in broccoli seedlings increased each year of the three-year study due to the duration of the cooling time, whereas in the case of catalase the changes were not so distinct. At harvest time the activity of both enzymes in the leaves and flower buds fluctuated according to the particular year of study.

  2. Interspecific variation in total phenolic content in temperate brown algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Mannino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae synthesize secondary metabolites such as polyphenols that function as defense and protection mechanisms. Among brown algae, Fucales and Dictyotales (Phaeophyceae contain the highest levels of phenolic compounds, mainly phlorotannins, that play multiple roles. Four temperate brown algae (Cystoseira amentacea, Cystoseira compressa, Dictyopteris polypodioides and Padina pavonica were studied for total phenolic contents. Total phenolic content was determined colorimetrically with the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Significant differences in total phenolic content were observed between leathery and sheetlike algae and also within each morphological group. Among the four species, the sheet-like alga D. polypodioides, living in the upper infralittoral zone, showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that total phenolic content in temperate brown algae is influenced by a combination of several factors, such as growth form, depth, and exposition to solar radiation.

  3. Chlorophyll meter reading and total nitrogen content applied as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ana Mascarello

    The present study was aimed to assess the relationship between the reading of the chlorophyll meter and the total nitrogen (N) content ... devices to measure chlorophyll index (SPAD) and N content in the leaf. The nitrogen levels were found ... absorption of other nutrients and the production of carbohydrates. The methods ...

  4. [Relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Teng, Jianbei; Cai, Yi; Liang, Jie; Zhu, Yilin; Wei, Tao

    2011-12-01

    To find out the relativity among starch quantity, polysaccharides content and total alkaloid content of Dendrobium loddigesii. Microscopy-counting process was applied to starch quantity statistics, sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetry was used to assay polysaccharides content and bromocresol green colorimetry was used to assay alkaloid content. Pearson product moment correlation analysis, Kendall's rank correlation analysis and Spearman's concordance coefficient analysis were applied to study their relativity. Extremely significant positive correlation was found between starch quantity and polysaccharides content, and significant negative correlation between alkaloid content and starch quantity was discovered, as well was between alkaloid content and polysaccharides content.

  5. Total and soluble oxalate content of some Indian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh Das, Sumana; Savage, G P

    2012-06-01

    Spices, such as cinnamon, cloves, cardamom, garlic, ginger, cumin, coriander and turmeric are used all over the world as flavouring and colouring ingredients in Indian foods. Previous studies have shown that spices contain variable amounts of total oxalates but there are few reports of soluble oxalate contents. In this study, the total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of ten different spices commonly used in Indian cuisine were measured. Total oxalate content ranged from 194 (nutmeg) to 4,014 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM, while the soluble oxalate contents ranged from 41 (nutmeg) to 3,977 (green cardamom) mg/100 g DM. Overall, the percentage of soluble oxalate content of the spices ranged from 4.7 to 99.1% of the total oxalate content which suggests that some spices present no risk to people liable to kidney stone formation, while other spices can supply significant amounts of soluble oxalates and therefore should be used in moderation.

  6. Minerals and Total Polyphenolic Content of Some Vegetal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana E. TUFEANU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The total polyphenolic content and minerals were determined for chia seeds, Psyllium husks and watermelon rind powder. The minerals content was performed by using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emissions Spectrometer and Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, technique FIAS-Furnace (for Se. The sample with the highest content of polyphenols was chia (2.69 mg GAE/g s. followed by the watermelon rind powder. Reduced amounts of polyphenols were found in the Psyllium husks. Also, the total polyphenol concentration increased with the increase of the extraction time on the ultrasonic water bath. Minerals analysis indicated that powders obtained from chia seeds and watermelon rind contained large amounts of potassium, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. The most abundant mineral in the Psyllium husks powder was found potassium, followed by calcium. In conclusion, these powders can be used as ingredients for functional food and food supplements production due to the high nutritional content and bioactive properties.

  7. Increases of equatorial total electron content (TEC) during magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeboah-Amankwah, D.

    1976-01-01

    This paper is a report on the analysis of equatorial electron content, TEC, during magnetic storms. Storms between 1969 and 1972 have been examined as part of an on-going study of TEC morphology during magnetically disturbed days. The published magnetic Ksup(p) indices and TEC data from the Legon abservatory have been employed. The general picture arising from the analysis is that the total electron content of the ionosphere is significantly enhanced during magnetic storms. (author)

  8. Estimation of Total Body Fat from Potassium-40 Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha Mohamed Taha Ahmed, T.M.T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns on estimation of total body fat from potassium 40 content using total body counting technique. The work performed using fast scan whole body counter. Calibration of that system for K-40 was carried out under assumption that uniformity distribution of radioactivity of potassium was distributed in 10 polyethylene bottles phantom. Different body sizes were represented by 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 polyethylene bottles; each bottle has a volume of 0.04 m3. The counting efficiency for each body size was determined. Lean body weight (LBW) was calculated for ten males and ten females using appropriate mathematical equation. Total Body Potassium, TBK for the same selected group was measured using whole body counter. A mathematical relationship between lean body weight and potassium content was deduced .Fat contents for some individuals were calculated and weight/height ratio was indicated for fatness.

  9. Corneal endothelial glutathione after photodynamic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, D.S.; Riley, M.V.; Csukas, S.; Green, K.

    1982-01-01

    Rabbit corneal endothelial cells perfused with 5 X 10(-6)M rose bengal and exposed to incandescent light demonstrated no alteration of either total of or percent oxidized glutathione after 1 hr. Addition of 5400 U/ml catalase to the perfusing solution had no effect on total glutathione levels but caused a marked reduction in percent oxidized glutathione in corneas exposed to light as well as in those not exposed to light. Substitution of sucrose for glucose in the perfusing solution had no effect on total or percent oxidized glutathione. Perfusion of rabbit corneal endothelium with 0.5 mM chlorpromazine and exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light resulted in no change in total glutathione content. A marked reduction in percent oxidized glutathione occurred, however, in corneas perfused with 0.5 mM chlorpromazine both in the presence and absence of UV light. It is concluded that photodynamically induced swelling of corneas is not the result of a failure of the glutathione redox system

  10. Comparative total phenolic content, anti-lipase and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total phenol values are expressed in terms of Gallic acid equivalent (w/w of dry mass). Aframomum melegueta exhibited the highest phenolic content of 60.4 ± 2.36 mgGAE/g, a percentage antioxidant activity of 86.6 % at 200μg/ml and percentage lipase inhibition of 89% at 1mg/ml while Aframomum danielli revealed a total ...

  11. Response of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of bush ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The positive health benefits associated with tea are made possible by the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds present in tea. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides DC.) and special tea (Monsonia burkeana) were studied. The extractions were done in triplicate using cold ...

  12. Cytotoxicity, Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Annona muricata were extracted using ethanol and the extracts were evaluated for cytotoxicity using Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay. The crude extract showed 73.33 % mortality at 1000 μg/mL concentration and its ...

  13. Chlorophyll meter reading and total nitrogen content applied as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was aimed to assess the relationship between the reading of the chlorophyll meter and the total nitrogen (N) content in the leaf in different parts of the crambe plant, depending on the doses of nitrogen applied to the canopy. Randomized block design in a split plot experimental design was used. The plots ...

  14. Total Phenol amd Flavonoid contents of Crude Extract and Fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic compounds are numerous in plants and are essential part of human diet. Picralima nitida has been extensively used in African folk medicine especially in West Africa. The present study evaluated the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract and fractions of Picralima nitida. The methanol extracts of P.

  15. Appraisal of Total Phenol, Flavonoid Contents, and Antioxidant Potential of Folkloric Lannea coromandelica Using In Vitro and In Vivo Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekeshwar Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the impending antioxidant properties of different extracts of crude methanolic extract (CME of leaves of Lannea coromandelica (L. coromandelica and its two ethyl acetate (EAF and aqueous (AqF subfractions by employing various established in vitro systems and estimation of total phenolic and flavonoid content. The results showed that extract and fractions possessed strong antioxidant activity in vitro and among them, EAF had the strongest antioxidant activity. EAF was confirmed for its highest phenolic content, total flavonoid contents, and total antioxidant capacity. The EAF was found to show remarkable scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH (EC50 63.9 ± 0.64 µg/mL, superoxide radical (EC50 8.2 ± 0.12 mg/mL, and Fe2+ chelating activity (EC50 6.2 ± 0.09 mg/mL. Based on our in vitro results, EAF was investigated for in vivo antioxidant assay. Intragastric administration of the EAF can significantly increase levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione (GSH, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px levels, and decrease malondialdehyde (MDA content in the liver and kidney of CCl4-intoxicated rats. These new evidences show that L. coromandelica bared antioxidant activity.

  16. Enhanced glutathione content allows the in vivo synthesis of fluorescent CdTe nanoparticles by Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P Monrás

    Full Text Available The vast application of fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs or quantum dots (QDs has prompted the development of new, cheap and safer methods that allow generating QDs with improved biocompatibility. In this context, green or biological QDs production represents a still unexplored area. This work reports the intracellular CdTe QDs biosynthesis in bacteria. Escherichia coli overexpressing the gshA gene, involved in glutathione (GSH biosynthesis, was used to produce CdTe QDs. Cells exhibited higher reduced thiols, GSH and Cd/Te contents that allow generating fluorescent intracellular NP-like structures when exposed to CdCl(2 and K(2TeO(3. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that QDs-producing cells accumulate defined structures of various colors, suggesting the production of differently-sized NPs. Purified fluorescent NPs exhibited structural and spectroscopic properties characteristic of CdTe QDs, as size and absorption/emission spectra. Elemental analysis confirmed that biosynthesized QDs were formed by Cd and Te with Cd/Te ratios expected for CdTe QDs. Finally, fluorescent properties of QDs-producing cells, such as color and intensity, were improved by temperature control and the use of reducing buffers.

  17. Total and available metal contents in sediments by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Sobrinho, Gilmar A.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2002-01-01

    In this work the total and available contents of Al, Si, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Zr, Ba, Ce and Pb in sediments from river Atibaia were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence technique. The detection limits for K series varies from 200 ng.mL -1 for Al to 2 ng.mL -1 for Zn while for L series the value varies from 20 ng.mL -1 for Ba to 10 ng.mL -1 for Pb. The samples were submitted to two different processes, in order to obtain the total and biological available metal contents. The information about metal content is a important parameter for a correct evaluation about the hydrologic cycle in Piracicaba basin. All the measure were carried out at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas, SP, Brazil, using a white beam for excitation. (author)

  18. AAS determination of total mercury content in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskalova, M.; Zemberyova, M.

    1997-01-01

    Two methods for determination of total mercury content in environmental samples soils, and sediments, were compared. Dissolution procedure of soils, sediments, and biological material under elevated pressure followed by determination of mercury by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry using a MHS-1 system and direct total mercury determination without any chemical pretreatment from soil samples using a Trace Mercury Analyzer TMA-254 were compared. TMA-254 was also applied for the determination of mercury in various further standard reference materials. Good agreement with certified values of environmental reference materials was obtained. (authors)

  19. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of cinchona ledgeriana leaves ethanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundowo, Andini; Artanti, Nina; Hanafi, M.; Minarti, Primahana, Gian

    2017-11-01

    C ledgeriana is a medicinal plant that contains alkaloids, especially on the barks for commercial production of quinine as antimalarial. The main alkaloids in this plant are cinchonine, cinchonidine, quinine and quinidine. Besides for antiamalarial this plant is also commonly used to treat whooping cough, influenza and dysentery. Compare to other medicinal plants, nowadays only very few studies were conducted in Cinchona species. Our current study aims to determine the content of phytochemical, total phenol and total flavonoids from C. ledgeriana leaves 70% ethanol extract. The extraction was performed by maceration method using 70% ethanol solvent and then fractionated into hexane, ethylacetate and butanol. Phytochemical screening was performed to determine the content of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and alumunium chloride colorimetric methods using gallic acid and quercetin as standards. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The results of phytochemical screening showed that the 70% ethanol extract of C. ledgeriana leaves contained alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. The total phenol and total flavonoids analysis showed that ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total phenol (40.23%) and total flavonoids (65.34%).

  20. Long-term trends in the total electron content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Urbář, Jaroslav; Kozubek, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 16 (2017), s. 8186-8172 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-03909S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : total electron content * long-term trend * solar control Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Climatic research Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2017GL075063/full

  1. Are trends in total electron content (TEC) really positive?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 6 (2013), s. 3831-3835 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/10/1792 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Long-term trends * total electron content Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jgra.50261/abstract

  2. Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy Diem Do

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Limnophila aromatica is commonly used as a spice and a medicinal herb in Southeast Asia. In this study, water and various concentrations (50%, 75%, and 100% of methanol, ethanol, and acetone in water were used as solvent in the extraction of L. aromatica. The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and total flavonoid content of the freeze-dried L. aromatica extracts were investigated using various in vitro assays. The extract obtained by 100% ethanol showed the highest total antioxidant activity, reducing power and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The same extract also exhibited the highest phenolic content (40.5 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of defatted L. aromatica and the highest flavonoid content (31.11 mg quercetin equivalent/g of defatted L. aromatica. The highest extraction yield was obtained by using 50% aqueous acetone. These results indicate that L. aromatica can be used in dietary applications with a potential to reduce oxidative stress.

  3. Enact of Glutathione(GSH/GSSG) Contents of Fermented Ginseng on the γ-irradiated Liver of Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, In Ho

    2006-01-01

    The radioprotective effects of white and fermented ginseng on liver damage induced by 60 Co γ-ray were investigated. To one group of ICR male mice were given white(150 mg/kg/day for 7 days, orally) and fermented ginseng(150 mg/kg/day for 7 days, orally) before 60 Co γ--ray irradiation. To another group were irradiated by 5 Gy(1.01 Gy/min) dose of 60 Co γ--ray. Contrast group were given with saline(0.1 mL). The levels of reduced(GSH) and oxidized(GSSG) glutathione in liver tissue were measured. In the fermented(150 mg/kg) and white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups than irradiation group, the GSH levels were significantly increased, but the GSSG levels were significantly decreased. The ratio of GSSG/total GSH was significantly decreased in the fermented(150 mg/kg) and white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups than irradiation group. In the fermented(150 mg/kg) groups than white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups the GSH levels were significantly increased. The radioprotective effects of fermented(150 mg/kg) groups than white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups were increased.

  4. Enact of Glutathione(GSH/GSSG) Contents of Fermented Ginseng on the {gamma}-irradiated Liver of Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, In Ho [Dept. of Radiology Technology, Jeju Halla College, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    The radioprotective effects of white and fermented ginseng on liver damage induced by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray were investigated. To one group of ICR male mice were given white(150 mg/kg/day for 7 days, orally) and fermented ginseng(150 mg/kg/day for 7 days, orally) before {sup 60}Co {gamma}--ray irradiation. To another group were irradiated by 5 Gy(1.01 Gy/min) dose of {sup 60}Co {gamma}--ray. Contrast group were given with saline(0.1 mL). The levels of reduced(GSH) and oxidized(GSSG) glutathione in liver tissue were measured. In the fermented(150 mg/kg) and white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups than irradiation group, the GSH levels were significantly increased, but the GSSG levels were significantly decreased. The ratio of GSSG/total GSH was significantly decreased in the fermented(150 mg/kg) and white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups than irradiation group. In the fermented(150 mg/kg) groups than white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups the GSH levels were significantly increased. The radioprotective effects of fermented(150 mg/kg) groups than white ginseng(150 mg/kg) groups were increased.

  5. Total body and regional bone mineral content in hemodialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Satoshi; Aratani, Hideyui; Miki, Takami; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Okamura, Terue; Koizumi, Yoshiko; Ochi, Hironobu; Morii, Hirotoshi

    1994-01-01

    Bone mineral content (BMC) in the total body and lumbar spine was evaluated in 126 hemodialysis patients (60 males, 66 females) by dual photon absorptiometry with the Norland DBD 2600. Measurements of: 1) total body BMC divided by lean body mass (BMC TB /LBM), 2) bone mineral density (BMD) of total body, 3) BMD of four regional sections (head, trunk, pelvis, and legs), and 4) BMD of lumbar spine, generally showed a significant decrease in the hemodialysis patients compared to the reference population. However, arm BMD did not show a significant difference between patients and control populations. The z-score of BMC TB /LBM declined significantly throughout the duration of hemodialysis, although that of the lumbar spine BMD did not. It should be noted that the degree of decrease in BMC was more prominent in the total body measurement than in the lumbar spine measurement. There was preferential osteopenia of the total body in the hemodialysis patients. Although the lumbar spine BMD showed a lower value than the control population, the lumbar spine is not the recommended region to monitor the BMD change in hemodialysis patients. (author)

  6. JUICE EXTRACTION FOR TOTAL SOLUBLE SOLIDS CONTENT DETERMINATION IN MELON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The total soluble solids content (TSSC shows high positive correlation with sugars content, and therefore is generally accepted as an important quality trait of fruits. In melon, this evaluation is usually done by grinding a slice of the fruit's pulp in a household food processor, straining the ground material and then proceeding the TSSC determination in the resulting juice. This evaluation is labor-intensive and takes a long time to complete. An alternative process was delineated for obtaining the juice: the pulp of the fruit slice would be transversally cut one or more times, and longitudinally pressed by hand to obtain the juice. The objective of this work was to compare processes for obtaining juice to evaluate TSSC in melons. Fifty, 15, and 15 fruits of the Galia, Yellow, and Cantaloupe type melons were evaluated, respectively. Each fruit was considered as a block, and was longitudinally split into six fractions with similar sizes, which corresponded to the plots. The following treatments were evaluated: fraction without cuts, fractions with one, three, five, or seven transversal cuts, and the fraction treated by the conventional process. It was concluded that the procedure by which the melon slices of Galia, Yellow and Cantaloupe types are pressed for obtaining the juice to evaluate TSSC can overestimate this content. This would probably be due to the fact that the most internal section of the mesocarp presents greater TSSC than the portions closer to the epicarp.

  7. Total antioxidant content of alternatives to refined sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katherine M; Carlsen, Monica H; Blomhoff, Rune

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative damage is implicated in the etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other degenerative disorders. Recent nutritional research has focused on the antioxidant potential of foods, while current dietary recommendations are to increase the intake of antioxidant-rich foods rather than supplement specific nutrients. Many alternatives to refined sugar are available, including raw cane sugar, plant saps/syrups (eg, maple syrup, agave nectar), molasses, honey, and fruit sugars (eg, date sugar). Unrefined sweeteners were hypothesized to contain higher levels of antioxidants, similar to the contrast between whole and refined grain products. To compare the total antioxidant content of natural sweeteners as alternatives to refined sugar. The ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay was used to estimate total antioxidant capacity. Major brands of 12 types of sweeteners as well as refined white sugar and corn syrup were sampled from retail outlets in the United States. Substantial differences in total antioxidant content of different sweeteners were found. Refined sugar, corn syrup, and agave nectar contained minimal antioxidant activity (sugar had a higher FRAP (0.1 mmol/100 g). Dark and blackstrap molasses had the highest FRAP (4.6 to 4.9 mmol/100 g), while maple syrup, brown sugar, and honey showed intermediate antioxidant capacity (0.2 to 0.7 mmol FRAP/100 g). Based on an average intake of 130 g/day refined sugars and the antioxidant activity measured in typical diets, substituting alternative sweeteners could increase antioxidant intake an average of 2.6 mmol/day, similar to the amount found in a serving of berries or nuts. Many readily available alternatives to refined sugar offer the potential benefit of antioxidant activity.

  8. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) testing in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, B. J.; Obregon, R. E.; Ross, H. R.; Hebert, B. J.; Sass, J. P.; Dirschka, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The measured Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems at Stennis Space Center (SSC) have shown wide variations. Examples of these variations include the following: 1) differences between vendor-supplied THC values and those obtained using standard SSC analysis procedures; and 2) increasing THC values over time at an active SSC test stand in both storage and run vessels. A detailed analysis of LOX sampling techniques, analytical instrumentation, and sampling procedures will be presented. Additional data obtained on LOX system operations and LOX delivery trailer THC values during the past 12-24 months will also be discussed. Field test results showing THC levels and the distribution of the THC's in the test stand run tank, modified for THC analysis via dip tubes, will be presented.

  9. Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) Testing in Liquid Oxygen (LOX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, B. J.; Obregon, R. E.; Ross, H. R.; Hebert, B. J.; Sass, J. P.; Dirschka, G. E.

    2016-01-01

    The measured Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems at Stennis Space Center (SSC) have shown wide variations. Examples of these variations include the following: 1) differences between vendor-supplied THC values and those obtained using standard SSC analysis procedures; and 2) increasing THC values over time at an active SSC test stand in both storage and run vessels. A detailed analysis of LOX sampling techniques, analytical instrumentation, and sampling procedures will be presented. Additional data obtained on LOX system operations and LOX delivery trailer THC values during the past 12-24 months will also be discussed. Field test results showing THC levels and the distribution of the THC's in the test stand run tank, modified for THC analysis via dip tubes, will be presented.

  10. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements in the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clináscia Rodrigues Rocha Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and mineral elements of the fruit peel of Myrciaria cauliflora were investigated. The antioxidant capacity was analyzed by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and β-carotene methods. The assays based on the DPPH (EC50 = 3.18 g sample/g DPPH, ABTS•+ (1017 μmol Trolox/g sample, FRAP (1676 µM Fe2SO4/g sample and β-carotene/linoleic acid (70% of oxidation inhibition methods indicated a high antioxidant capacity of the fruit peel extract of the plant. The Folin-Denis method was more efficient in determining the total phenolic compound contents in the different solvents than the Folin-Ciocalteu one. Extractions made with 4:1 methanol-water, 4:1 ethanol-water, 3:2 ethanol-water and 3:2 acetone-water solutions using the Folin-Denis method exhibited high contents of phenolic compounds (18.95, 14.06, 12.93 and 11.99 mg GAE/g, respectively. Potassium was the major element found in the fruit peel, followed by phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and iron, in that order. As a result, the fruit peel of M. cauliflora can be considered as an important source of natural antioxidants and essential elements of easy access for the population and for application in the food industry.

  11. Effect of Pistacia Atlantica Extract on Glutathione Peroxidase Tissue Levels and Total Oxidative Capacity of Liver and Plasma Lipid Profile of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Farzanegi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise causes increased oxygen consumption, leaving cells exposed to oxidative stress. Antioxidants may have a protective effect by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Thus, this study aims to examine the effect of Pistacia atlantica extract on glutathione peroxidase levels and total oxidative capacity of liver and plasma lipid profile of rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 female rats’ weight 155.8±2.7 grams were randomly and equally divided into 4 groups of exercise-saline, control-saline, exercise-mastic, and control-mastic. The exercise groups exercised for 8 weeks (5 days per week, 60 minutes daily, 25 meters per minute, on a zero degree slope. The rats received equal volumes of mastic and saline orally for 4 weeks. Blood and tissue samples were taken 72 hours after the last exercise session. Data were analyzed using one-way variance analysis (ANOVA.Results: Consumption of Pistacia atlantica extract together with endurance exercising for 8 weeks did not significantly affect glutathione peroxidase concentration, total oxidative capacity, LDL, triglyceride, or cholesterol, but significantly reduced HDL (p=0.002.Conclusion: Results showed that antioxidant and lipid profile levels were not affected by consumption of supplements and endurance exercising. However, further studies are required to assess the long term effects of this herbal extract.

  12. Prediction of total electron content using the international reference ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcnamara, L.F.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is an empirical model of the ionosphere based on experimental observations. Rawer et al. (1978) have discussed the goals and status of the IRI. The aim of the IRI is related to the establishment of a compendium of height profiles through the ionosphere for the four main parameters, taking into account plasma density, temperature of ions and electrons, and ion composition. The present model is inadequate in some areas, and the IRI working group has encouraged tests of the model's validity. The present investigation is concerned with a test of the model's ability to reproduce observations of total electron content (TEC) over a wide range of conditions. The TEC observations were obtained with the aid of the Faraday rotation technique, which provides the TEC out to about 2000 km. Tests using the Bent ionospheric model indicate that the altitude range 1000 to 2000 km contributes up to five percent of the TEC. 12 references

  13. Dynamics of total electron content distribution during strong geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafyeva, E. I.; Afraimovich, E. L.; Kosogorov, E. A.

    We worked out a new method of mapping of total electron content TEC equal lines displacement velocity The method is based on the technique of global absolute vertical TEC value mapping Global Ionospheric Maps technique GIM GIM with 2-hours time resolution are available from Internet underline ftp cddisa gsfc nasa gov in standard IONEX-files format We determine the displacement velocity absolute value as well as its wave vector orientation from increments of TEC x y derivatives and TEC time derivative for each standard GIM cell 5 in longitude to 2 5 in latitude Thus we observe global traveling of TEC equal lines but we also can estimate the velocity of these line traveling Using the new method we observed anomalous rapid accumulation of the ionosphere plasma at some confined area due to the depletion of the ionization at the other spacious territories During the main phase of the geomagnetic storm on 29-30 October 2003 very large TEC enhancements appeared in the southwest of North America TEC value in that area reached up to 200 TECU 1 TECU 10 16 m -2 It was found that maximal velocity of TEC equal lines motion exceeded 1500 m s and the mean value of the velocity was about 400 m s Azimuth of wave vectors of TEC equal lines were orientated toward the center of region with anomaly high values of TEC the southwest of North America It should be noted that maximal TEC values during geomagnetically quiet conditions is about 60-80 TECU the value of TEC equal lines

  14. Different roles of glutathione in copper and zinc chelation in Brassica napus roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlobin, Ilya E; Kartashov, Alexander V; Shpakovski, George V

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the specific features of copper and zinc excess action on the roots of canola (Brassica napus L.) plants. Copper rapidly accumulated in canola root cells and reached saturation during several hours of treatment, whereas the root zinc content increased relatively slowly. Excessive copper and zinc entry inside the cell resulted in significant cell damage, as evidenced by alterations in plasmalemma permeability and decreases in cellular enzymatic activity. Zinc excess specifically damaged root hair cells, which correlated with a pronounced elevation of their labile zinc level. In vitro, we showed that reduced glutathione (GSH) readily reacted with copper ions to form complexes with blocked sulfhydryl groups. In contrast, zinc ions were ineffective as glutathione blockers, and glutathione molecules did not lose their specific chemical activity in the presence of Zn 2+ ions. The effect of copper and zinc excess on the glutathione pool in canola root cells was analysed by a combination of biochemical determination of total and oxidized glutathione contents and fluorescent staining of free reduced glutathione with monochlorobimane dye. Excess copper led to dose-dependent diminution of free reduced glutathione contents in the root cells, which could not be explained by the loss of total cellular glutathione or its oxidation. In contrast, we observed little effect of much higher intracellular zinc concentrations on the free reduced glutathione content. We concluded that GSH plays an important role in copper excess, but not zinc excess chelation, in canola root cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term trends in the total electron content (TEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laštovička, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The long-term trends in the total electron content (TEC) have very little been studied. Lean et al. (2011; J. Geophys. Res., 116, A00H04, doi:10.1029/2010JA016378) studied trends in TEC globally based on JPL maps for 1995-2010. However, their trends appear to be too positive, which is not plausible taking into account the trends in other ionospheric parameters. Therefore they prefer the less positive trends calculated under the assumption of the same level of solar activity in solar cycle minima 22/23 and 23/24. However, as it is now clear, this is not a correct assumption. Lastovicka (2013; J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 118, 3831-3835, doi:10.1002/jgra.50261) selected a region around Florence, Italy, as a region with available historical TEC data based on Faraday rotation measurements and remarkably larger than average trends in TEC by Lean et al. (2011). Historical data from Florence provide no trend in TEC. However, foF2 from Juliusruh provide slight negative trends for 1976-1996 but no trends for 1995-2010. Thus the question of reality of trends by Lean et al. (2011) remained open. Here we use TEC from GIM and JPL data for two European regions with high Lean's trends, regions around Florence and around Prague, using 10-14 LT medians, 1998-2015, yearly average values. A classical approach is applied. First a model of solar activity dependence of TEC is constructed separately for each region from all data. Then model data are subtracted from experimental data and analysis is made with residuals. This analysis shows that early data (1998-2001) are by several TECU lower than they should be according to solar activity, the year 2002 is intermediate and in 2003-2015 the data fit well a weak or rather no trend of TEC. The change in TEC data does not seem to be jump-like, it lasted at least a year, if not longer. Thus the positive TEC trends reported by Lean et al. (2011) appear to be affected by data problem; real trends are evidently less positive if any.

  16. Proximate Analysis and Total Lycopene Content of Some Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2017-06-05

    Jun 5, 2017 ... Organic acids dictate the dominant micro flora in foods as many .... The lycopene content of each sample was then estimated (Fish et al., .... by cultivar and scheme of fertilizer application. ... nutritional quality of tomato varieties.

  17. Response of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of bush

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    OF BUSH TEA AND SPECIAL TEA USING DIFFERENT SELECTED. EXTRACTION ... 3,3'digallate and caffeine). Tea leaves have ..... Effects of solvent extraction on phenolic content and ... Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition,.

  18. Determining Total Phenolics, Anthocyanin Content and Ascorbic Acid Content in Some Plum Genotypes Grown in Ardahan Ecological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. ABACI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, total phenol content, total anthocyanin content, brix, pH, titrable acidity and total ascorbic acid content in the five plum genotypes cultivated in Ardahan City are determined and sustenance of the plums are revealed. Total phenol content was determined with folin-ciocalteu’s method, total anthocyanin content was determined with pH differential method and total ascorbic acid was determined with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol method.It is detected that the genotype with the highest brix content (%13.9 and lowest acidity (%0.98 is cancur, the genotype with the lowest brix content (%11 and highest acidity (%2.06 is wild plum, the genotype with the highest content of total anthocyanin, total phenolic substance and ascorbic acid is the wild plum and the genotype with the least content of these is the water plum. As a result of the study, it is revealed that the plum fruit has high levels of phenolic substance, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid content, so it has a high sustenance.

  19. CAMEX-4 DC-8 NEVZOROV TOTAL CONDENSED WATER CONTENT SENSOR V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CAMEX-4 DC-8 Nevzorov Total Condensed Water Content Sensor dataset was collected by the Nevzorov total condensed water content sensor which was used to measure...

  20. [Alternative nutrition and glutathione levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Simoncic, R; Béderová, A; Brtková, A; Magálová, T; Barteková, S

    1999-08-30

    Low protein quality and quantity is reported to be a possible risk of alternative nutrition. Pulses contain 18-41% of methionine in relation to reference protein, moreover, its content in cereals is by one half lower. Therefore vegetarians and vegans may have an insufficient intake of sulphur-containing amino acids that may subsequently affect glutathione values (precursors of its synthesis). In groups of adults on an alternative diet--lactoovovegetarians (n = 47) and vegans (n = 44) aged 19-62 years with average duration on a vegetarian or vegan diet of 7.6 and 4.9 years, respectively, glutathione levels (GSH) were measured in erythrocytes (spectrophotometrically), as well as the activity of GSH-dependent enzymes. As nutritional control (n = 42) served an average sample of omnivores selected from a group of 489 examined, apparently healthy subjects of the same age range living in the same region. One to low protein intake (56% of RDA) exclusively of plant origin significantly lower levels of total proteins were observed in vegans with a 16% frequency of hypoproteinaemia (vs 0% in omnivores). In comparison to omnivores a significantly lower glutathione level was found (4.28 +/- 0.12 vs 4.84 +/- 0.14 mumol/g Hb, P vegan diet also in adult age.

  1. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant capacity of the flowering aerial parts of Astragalus squarrosus was determined by 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferric thiocyanate methods. The phenolic and flavonoid content was also measured. A. squarrosus showed weak free radical scavenging activity with the DPPH ...

  2. L-cysteine efflux in erythrocytes as a function of human age: correlation with reduced glutathione and total anti-oxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prabhanshu; Maurya, Pawan Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Thiol compounds such as cysteine (Cys) and reduced glutathione (GSH) play an important role in human aging and age-related diseases. In erythrocytes, GSH is synthesized by glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine, but the rate of GSH synthesis is determined only by the availability of L-cysteine. Cysteine supplementation has been shown to ameliorate several parameters that are known to degenerate during human aging. We have studied L-cysteine efflux in vitro in human erythrocytes as a function of age by suspending cells in solution containing 10 mM L-cysteine for uptake; later cells were re-suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-glucose to allow efflux. Change in the free sulfhydryl (-SH) concentration was then measured to calculate the rate of efflux. The GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio was taken as a control to study the oxidation/reduction state of the erythrocyte. The total anti-oxidant potential of plasma was measured in terms of ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) values. We have shown a significant (pL-cysteine in erythrocytes during human aging, and the GSH/GSSG ratio decreases as a function of human age. The decline in L-cysteine efflux during aging correlates with the decrease in GSH and the FRAP value. This finding may help to explain the shift in the redox status and low GSH concentration that might determine the rate of L-cysteine efflux observed in erythrocytes and an important factor in the development of oxidative stress in erythrocytes during aging.

  3. Total β-carotene content of orange sweetpotato cultivated under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MFaber

    vitamin A value, percentage contribution towards vitamin A requirements and serving size needed to provide 100% of the vitamin requirements. Months after planting. Root weight c. (g). Total β-. Carotene d. (µg 100 g-1). Vitamin A value e. (µg RAE 100 g-1). %RDA provided by 100 g f. Amount j needed to provide 100%.

  4. [Seasonal changes and response to stress of total flavonoids content of Farfugium japonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dalian; Ma, Yuxin

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the seasonal variation of total flavonoid content of Farfugium japonicum and its response to stress. The total flavonoids of Farfugium japonicum were determined by spectrophotometry in different seasons and under various stressful factors. The total flavonoid content in Farfugium japonicum leaves was the highest, followed by the petiole, and rhizomes (Pseasons (Pwater stress, the total flavonoid content in Farfugium japonicum leaves gradually increased, that in petiole first increased and then decreased,while that in rhizomes decreased (Pstress, the total flavonoid content in leaves, petioles and rhizomes of Farfugium japonicum showed a decreasing trend (Pseasons and that in different parts of the plant has different responses to ecological stressful factors.

  5. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.T.; Cates, M.R.; Franks, L.A.; Kunz, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fissions are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for 239 Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed delayed neutrons

  6. Isolation of the human anionic glutathione S-transferase cDNA and the relation of its gene expression to estrogen-receptor content in primary breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscow, J.A.; Townsend, A.J.; Goldsmith, M.E.; Whang-Peng, J.; Vickers, P.J.; Poisson, R.; Legault-Poisson, S.; Myers, C.E.; Cowan, K.H.

    1988-01-01

    The development of multidrug resistance in MCF7 human breast cancer cells is associated with overexpression of P-glycoprotein, changes in activities of several detoxication enzymes, and loss of hormone sensitivity and estrogen receptors (ERs). The authors have cloned the cDNA for one of the drug-detoxifying enzymes overexpressed in multidrug-resistant MCF7 cells (Adr R MCF7), the anionic isozyme of glutathione S-transferase (GSTπ). Hybridization with this GSTπ cDNA, GSTπ-1, demonstrated that increased GSTπ activity in Adr R MCF7 cells is associated with overexpression but not with amplification of the gene. They mapped the GSTπ gene to human chromosome 11q13 by in situ hybridization. Since multidrug resistance and GSTπ overexpression are associated with the loss of ERs in Adr R MCF7 cells, they examined several other breast cancer cell lines that were not selected for drug resistance. In each of these cell lines they found an inverse association between GSTπ expression and ER content. They also examined RNA from 21 primary breast cancers and found a similar association between GSTπ expression and ER content in vivo. The finding of similar patterns of expression of a drug-detoxifying enzyme and of ERs in vitro as well as in vivo suggests that ER-negative breast cancer cells may have greater protection against antineoplastic agents conferred by GSTπ than ER-positive tumors

  7. TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT ON TOTAL CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT OF CERTAIN AQUATIC MACROPHYTES

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Priti; Vishen Ashish; Wadhwani R; Pandey Y.N

    2012-01-01

    To assess the toxicity of industrial effluents on certain macrophytes, the total chlorophyll content of free floating, submerged and emergent macrophytes were estimated in concentrations of industrial effluents at varying exposure duration. The result revealed reduction in total chlorophyll content of exposed macrophytes at higher concentrations of industrial effluents on prolonged duration.

  8. Biochemical effects of glyphosate based herbicide, Excel Mera 71 on enzyme activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and protein content on teleostean fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Palas; Pal, Sandipan; Mukherjee, Aloke Kumar; Ghosh, Apurba Ratan

    2014-09-01

    Effects of glyphosate based herbicide, Excel Mera 71 at a dose of 17.20mg/l on enzyme activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and protein content were measured in different tissues of two Indian air-breathing teleosts, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) and Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) during an exposure period of 30 days under laboratory condition. AChE activity was significantly increased in all the investigated tissues of both fish species and maximum elevation was observed in brain of H. fossilis, while spinal cord of A. testudineus showed minimum increment. Fishes showed significant increase LPO levels in all the tissues; highest was observed in gill of A. testudineus but lowest LPO level was observed in muscle of H. fossilis. CAT was also enhanced in both the fishes, while GST activity in liver diminished substantially and minimum was observed in liver of A. testudineus. Total protein content showed decreased value in all the tissues, maximum reduction was observed in liver and minimum in brain of A. testudineus and H. fossilis respectively. The results indicated that Excel Mera 71 caused serious alterations in the enzyme activities resulting into severe deterioration of fish health; so, AChE, LPO, CAT and GST can be used as suitable indicators of herbicidal toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Antioxidant capacity and total polyphenol content in different apple varieties cultivated in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Quitral, Vilma; Sepulveda, Marcela; Schwartz, Marco; Kern, Werther

    2014-01-01

    Three apple varieties cultivated in Chile were studied in total polyphenol content by Folin Ciocalteu method and antioxidant capacity by FRAP method: Granny Smith, Royal Gala and Fuji (whole and peeled apples). The total polyphenol content in whole and peeled apples do not show significant differences. The antioxidant capacity of the Granny Smith variety is significantly higher than Royal Gala and Fuji. Apple dehydration at 60 oC for 4 hours to obtain flakes keeps polyphenol content high. The...

  10. Antioxidant properties, total phenolic and total flavonoid content of the Slovak white wines – welschriesling and chardonnay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bajčan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The biologically active compounds in wines, especially phenolics, are responsible for reduced risk of developing chronic diseses (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer disease, etc., due to their antioxidant activities. Twenty six Slovak white wines, produced from different geographical origins, were examined in this study. The antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of two types monovarietal wines - Welschriesling and Chardonnay were evaluated. All three mentioned parameters were determined by UV-VIS absorption spectrometry. The results showed that both types of Slovak white wines were high in polyphenols (average content was 303.2 mg GAE.L-1 in Welschriesling, resp. 355.6 mg GAE.L-1 in Chardonnay and flavonoids (average content was 51.9 mg CE.L-1 in Welschriesling, resp. 60.1 mg CE.L-1 in Chardonnay, as well as a high antioxidant activity (average value was 35.0% inhibition of DPPH in Welschriesling, resp. 43.3% inhibition of DPPH in Chardonnay, comparable to the wines produced in other regions in the world. Among the white wines, Chardonnay had higher content of total polyphenols, as well as flavonoids and higher values of antioxidant activity. Our results confirmed very strong linear correlations between all three analysed parameters (TPC, TFC and AA: TPC and TFC (r = 0.818, AA and TPC (r = 0.699, resp. TFC and AA (r = 0.693.

  11. CAMEX-4 DC-8 NEVZOROV TOTAL CONDENSED WATER CONTENT SENSOR V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nevzorov probe is an instrument that measures the total water content of the sample of air which passes through it. It flew on the NASA DC-8 during the CAMEX-4...

  12. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Radish as Influenced by the Variety and Vegetative Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doinița Borș

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of the variety and vegetative stage on the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of radish. Samples of seeds, sprouts (day-3, day-5 and day-7 and roots of three varieties (red, white and black of radish (Raphanussativus were collected and tested for the above-mentioned parameters. Determination of total phenolic content was performed by Folin-Ciocalteau assay and antioxidant activity by DPPH assay. The total phenolic content ranged between 4.75 and 19.44 mg GAE/g DW and the antioxidant capacity between 12 and 75%. The highest total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity was found in radish sprouts and the lowest in radish roots, and among samples in the black radish variety. 

  13. Comparative Analysis of Total Phenolic Content in Sea Buckthorn Wine and Other Selected Fruit Wines

    OpenAIRE

    Bharti Negi; Gargi Dey

    2009-01-01

    This is the first report from India on a beverage resulting from alcoholic fermentation of the juice of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L) using lab isolated yeast strain. The health promoting potential of the product was evaluated based on its total phenolic content. The most important finding was that under the present fermentation condition, the total phenolic content of the wine product was 689 mg GAE/L. Investigation of influence of bottle ageing on the sea buckthorn wine showed a sl...

  14. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic acid were further analyzed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid content by Dowd method. The M. citrifolia extract by high pressure extraction with ethyl acetate as solvent and spray dried was found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. High total phenolic content was determined in the high pressure extract using ethyl acetate as solvent and vacuum dried. It was interesting to note that ultrasonic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. High pressure extracted M. citrifolia in ethanol was found to express lesser values comparatively. The significant difference in activity among the high pressure extracts was found to be due to the polarity of the solvents used for extraction as M. citrifolia fruit contains relatively larger quantity of non-polar antioxidant compounds. It was also found that the drying methods had significant impact on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.

  15. A study on total phenolics and vitamin c contents of kalecik karasi (vitis vinifera l.) clones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, N.; Keskin, S.

    2014-01-01

    In this study total phenolic and vitamin C contents of the fully ripe berries of 23 clones of Kalecik Karasi which is one of the leading Turkish local red-wine grape cultivar originally grown in Kizilirmak valley near Kalecik/Ankara region were examined under the clone selection project supported by TUBTAK (Project Nr: 107 O 731). High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for vitamin C and spectrophotometer for total phenolics estimation. One way ANOVA was used to compare means of clone for their total phenolic and vitamin C contents. In addition to this univariate method, hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to identify similarity levels among the clones by considering total phenolics and vitamin C content together. Differences among the clones were found statistically significant for both characteristics. Total phenolic contents of the clones varied from 3.310 mg (clone 21) to 3.389 mg (clone 6) as GAE g fw. Vitamin C content ranged from 14.010 mg (clone 6) to 16.500 mg (clone 19) in 100g fw. Furthermore, similarity level for all clones was 83.1% that means variation rate is about 17% among the clones. As a summary of whole data, the first three performing clones are 6 (3.389 mg), 10 (3.374 mg) and 1 (3.365 mg) for total phenolics, and 19 (16.500 mg), 9 (16.020 mg), and 21 (16.015 mg) for vitamin C contents of the berries. (author)

  16. Total protein and lipid contents of canned fish on the Serbian market

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Goran; Mladenović Jelena; Cvijović Milica; Miljković Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Total protein and lipid contents were analysed in 5 samples of canned fish (sardines, Atlantic mackerel fillets, tuna in olive oil, smoked Baltic sprat and herring fillets) available on the Serbian market. Standard methods for the determination of protein (Kjeldahl method) and lipid (Soxhlet method) contents were used on drained samples. The protein content was 21.31% on average, with a range of 18.59% - 24.17%. Total lipids showed considerably large variations (5.49% - 35.20%), and averaged ...

  17. Total phenol content and antioxidant activity of water solutions of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Kopjar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water solutions of extracts were investigated for total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Susceptibility to degradation of water solutions of plant extracts, under light and in the dark, during storage at room temperature was investigated in order to determine their stability prior to their application for fortification of food products. Large dispersion of total phenol (TP content in the investigated model solutions of selected extracts (olive leaves, green tea, red grape, red wine, pine bark PE 5:1, pine bark PE 95 %, resveratrol, ranging from 11.10 mg GAE/100 mL to 92.19 mg GAE/100 mL was observed. Consequently, large dispersion of total flavonoids (TF content (8.89 mg to 61.75 mg CTE/100 mL was also observed. Since phenols have been mostly responsible for antioxidant activity of extracts, in most cases, antioxidant activity followed the TP content. That was proven by estimation of correlation coefficient between the total phenol content and antioxidant activity. Correlation coefficients between investigated parameters ranged from 0.5749 to 0.9604. During storage of 5 weeks at room temperature loss of phenols and flavonoids occurred. Antioxidant activity decreased with the decrease of TP and TF content. Degradations of phenols and flavonoids were more pronounced in samples stored at light.

  18. Assessment of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of Mullein (Verbascum songaricum ecotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The Mullein genus is the largest genus of Scrophulariaceae family which has extensive natural habitat in southwest of Iran. Mullein contains compounds such as phenolic compounds, mucilage, saponins and anthocyanin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of mullein ecotypes in Iran. Methods: Six ecotypes of the Verbascum songaricum were evaluated. Determination of total flavonoid content was performed bythealuminium chloride colourimetric method. The antioxidant activity of the flower extracts was measured using the DPPH method. Results: The results showed that total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were different among ecotypes.  The highest and lowest amounts of total flavonoidwas obtained  from Shermard ecotype (13.42 mg rutin /g DW and Klar ecotypes(10.10 mg rutin /g DW, respectively. The highest amounts of antioxidant activity were obtained from the Shermard ecotype (IC50 246.35 μg/mL. The correlation analysis showed that a significant relation between flavonoid, antioxidant activity and habitat elevation. Conclusion: Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of the samples were affected by habitat climatic.  The present data indicated that the highest antioxidant activity may be due to higher flavonoid content and the habitat elevation was effective on the flavonoid content. Due to the high amounts of flavonoid and antioxidant activity of mullein extract, it seems to be a good herbal option as an antioxidant in complementary therapies.

  19. Solid fat content as a substitute for total polar compound analysis in edible oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The solid fat contents (SFC) of heated edible oil samples were measured and found to correlate positively with total polar compounds (TPC) and inversely with triglyceride concentration. Traditional methods for determination of total polar compounds require a laboratory setting and are time intensiv...

  20. Procyanidin content of grape seed and pomace, and total anthocyanin content of grape pomace as affected by extrusion processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, R C; Howard, L R; Prior, R L

    2009-08-01

    Grape juice processing by-products, grape seed and pomace are a rich source of procyanidins, compounds that may afford protection against chronic disease. This study was undertaken to identify optimal extrusion conditions to enhance the contents of monomers and dimers at the expense of large molecular weight procyanidin oligomers and polymers in grape seed and pomace. Extrusion variables, temperature (160, 170, and 180 degrees C in grape seed, and 160, 170, 180, and 190 degrees C in pomace) and screw speed (100, 150, and 200 rpm in both) were tested using mixtures of grape seed as well as pomace with decorticated white sorghum flour at a ratio of 30 : 70 and moisture content of 45%. Samples of grape seed and pomace were analyzed for procyanidin composition before and after extrusion, and total anthocyanins were determined in pomace. Additionally, chromatograms from diol and normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography were compared for the separation of procyanidins. Extrusion of both grape by-products increased the biologically important monomer and dimers considerably across all temperature and screw speeds. Highest monomer content resulted when extruded at a temperature of 170 degrees C and screw speed of 200 rpm, which were 120% and 80% higher than the unextruded grape seed and pomace, respectively. Increases in monomer and dimer contents were apparently the result of reduced polymer contents, which declined by 27% to 54%, or enhanced extraction facilitated by disruption of the food matrix during extrusion. Extrusion processing reduced total anthocyanins in pomace by 18% to 53%. Extrusion processing can be used to increase procyanidin monomer and dimer contents in grape seed and pomace. Procyanidins in grape by-products have many health benefits, but most are present as large molecular weight compounds, which are poorly absorbed. Extrusion processing appears to be a promising technology to increase levels of the bioactive low molecular weight

  1. Study on optimal fat content in total parenteral nutrition in partially hepatectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, S; Sakabe, S; Hirata, M; Kamuro, H; Asahara, N; Watanabe, M

    1997-04-01

    In order to investigate the optimal fat content for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solutions, male Wistar rats were subjected to 70% hepatectomy and then placed, for five days, on one of five TPN regimens in which fat represented 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%, respectively, of the total calorie content. As serum triglyceride levels in the fat-treated groups were lower than those in the non-treated normal rats, it was concluded that the administered fat was sufficiently hydrolyzed. The greater the fat content, the higher the regeneration rate of the remnant liver. Significant differences were found between the 0%-fat group and 20%-plus fat groups. Hepatic triglyceride level was significantly lower in the 20%-fat group. Hepatic protein level was significantly elevated in all fat-treated groups. Serum phospholipids and total cholesterol due to the lecithin contained in fat emulsion were significantly elevated in the 30 and 40%-fat groups, indicating that fat content of 30 and 40% was excessive. The results suggest that TPN containing fat is superior to fat-free TPN for liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, and that optimal fat content is estimated to be about 20% of total calorie content in the case of this fat emulsion.

  2. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Moh Moh San

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics  mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g extract and total flavonoids  mg quercetin equivalent (QE/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight. These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product.

  3. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of seven local varieties of Rosa indica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Kiran; Ahmed, Maqsood; Khan, Farah

    2018-05-01

    Rosa indica symbol of godness and beauty known for various healing power, has astringent, sedative, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant qualities. Standard methods were used for qualitative detection of phyto-compounds, and quantitative detection of antioxidants was done using DPPH radical scavenging assay, total phenolics and total flavonoids content were expressed in mg GAE/g dry weight and mg QE/g dry weight. Results revealed phyto-compounds presence in all varieties under study however maximum % inhibition was observed by R. indica var pink perfume (94 ± 0.6) with IC50 value 0.3376 ± 0.01 mg/mL. Highest phenolic and flavonoid content was observed in the leaves extract of R. indica var cardinal red, i.e. 3.3553 ± 0.11 (ethanol) mg of Gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight and 3.736 ± 0.001(ethanol) mg of quercetin equivalents (QE)/g dry weight, respectively, at conc. 0.125 mg/mL. Our finding provides evidence that all varieties of rose contain medicinally important bioactive compounds and justifies their use for treatment of different diseases.

  4. Glutathione in plants: an integrated overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noctor, Graham; Mhamdi, Amna; Chaouch, Sejir; Han, Yi; Neukermans, Jenny; Marquez-Garcia, Belen; Queval, Guillaume; Foyer, Christine H

    2012-02-01

    Plants cannot survive without glutathione (γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine) or γ-glutamylcysteine-containing homologues. The reasons why this small molecule is indispensable are not fully understood, but it can be inferred that glutathione has functions in plant development that cannot be performed by other thiols or antioxidants. The known functions of glutathione include roles in biosynthetic pathways, detoxification, antioxidant biochemistry and redox homeostasis. Glutathione can interact in multiple ways with proteins through thiol-disulphide exchange and related processes. Its strategic position between oxidants such as reactive oxygen species and cellular reductants makes the glutathione system perfectly configured for signalling functions. Recent years have witnessed considerable progress in understanding glutathione synthesis, degradation and transport, particularly in relation to cellular redox homeostasis and related signalling under optimal and stress conditions. Here we outline the key recent advances and discuss how alterations in glutathione status, such as those observed during stress, may participate in signal transduction cascades. The discussion highlights some of the issues surrounding the regulation of glutathione contents, the control of glutathione redox potential, and how the functions of glutathione and other thiols are integrated to fine-tune photorespiratory and respiratory metabolism and to modulate phytohormone signalling pathways through appropriate modification of sensitive protein cysteine residues. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. GLUTATHIONE AND ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN THE HEPATOPANCREAS OF CRAYFISH PROCAMBARUS CLARKII (GIRARD, 1852 OF LAKE TRASIMENO (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIA A. C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant parameters, such as total glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glyoxalases, catalase, and some heavy metals such as, lead, cadmium and chromium were examined in hepatopancreas of both sexes of Procambarus clarkii collected seasonally from Lake Trasimeno, from winter 2002-2003 to autumn 2003. Heavy metals content in hepatopancreas in males and females of P. clarkii was low and did not vary through the sampling periods and between sexes. On the contrary, crayfish exhibited sex-dependent differences in levels of some enzyme activities and of total glutathione, and no apparent relationship was found between contaminant burdens and antioxidant indexes in hepatopancreas. Because measured metal concentrations were low, other factors, presumably, were involved in antioxidant variations in P. clarkii and these latter seemed to be affected more by biological and environmental factors, other than those related to pollutants body burdens.

  6. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Piper Betel Linn leaves oil and total phenolic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A. H. A.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Arsad, N. H.; Lee, N. Y.; Idham, Z.; Razak, A. Q. A.

    2016-11-01

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) Extraction was applied to extract piper betel linn leaves. The piper betel leaves oil was used antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anticancer and antistroke. The aim of this study was to optimize the conditions of pressure, temperature and flowrate for oil yield and total phenolic content. The operational conditions of SC-CO2 studied were pressure (10, 20, 30 MPa), temperature (40, 60, 80 °C) and flowrate carbon dioxide (4, 6, 8 mL/min). The constant parameters were average particle size and extraction regime, 355pm and 3.5 hours respectively. First order polynomial expression was used to express the extracted oil while second order polynomial expression was used to express the total phenolic content and the both results were satisfactory. The best conditions to maximize the total extraction oil yields and total phenolic content were 30 MPa, 80 °C and 4.42 mL/min leading to 7.32% of oil and 29.72 MPa, 67.53 °C and 7.98 mL/min leading to 845.085 mg GAE/g sample. In terms of optimum condition with high extraction yield and high total phenolic content in the extracts, the best operating conditions were 30 MPa, 78 °C and 8 mL/min with 7.05% yield and 791.709 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample. The most dominant condition for extraction of oil yield and phenolic content were pressure and CO2 flowrate. The results show a good fit to the proposed model and the optimal conditions obtained were within the experimental range with the value of R2 was 96.13% for percentage yield and 98.52% for total phenolic content.

  7. Measurement of thyroid volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content by CT and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaji, Shunsuke; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Kyouko; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Imanishi et al have developed new CT software for quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine. Using a CT system with the software, we measured volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content of thyroids in 63 controls and 435 patients with various diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules. In controls, all of them showed no difference between the sexes. Although the iodine concentration of the thyroid showed no difference among children, adults and seniles, the volume and total iodine content of the thyroid appeared smaller in children and seniles than in adults. In addition, although the volume and iodine concentration of the thyroid had two peaks in distribution, the total iodine content had almost normal distribution. Normal range of volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content in adults were 5.2-15.5 cm 3 , 0.28831-0.85919 mg/cm 3 and 2.35-11.69 mg, respectively. In thyroid nodule, there is no significant difference in volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content between benign and malignant nodules. All nodules with iodine concentration of less than 0.00007 mg/cm 3 were benign. No thyroid was higher in iodine concentration than the normal range although the thyroid was lower in 78.7% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. In all thyroids with increasing iodine concentration and total iodine content in medication course, thyroidal symptoms and signs were uncontrollable by the medication. In 43.8% of patients with long-period systemic diseases, the thyroid showed abnormality in any of the three. We concluded that quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine by CT could assist the diagnosis of thyroid diseases and decision of therapeutic methods. (author)

  8. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale) based drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayat; Cahyono, B.; Satriadi, H.; Munfarida, S.

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia is a rich spices country, both as a cooking spice and medicine. One of the most abundant commodities is red ginger, where it still less in application. On the other hand, the level of pollution is higher, so antioxidants are needed to protect the body cells from the bad effects of free radicals. The body can not naturally produce antioxidants as needed, so we need to consume foods with high antioxidant content. The purpose of this study is to know the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in red ginger (Zingiber officinale) based drinks. Research design with complete randomized design (RAL) with factorial pattern 3 x 3, as the first factor is red ginger extract and water ratio (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1: 3) and second factor is the type of sugar used (cane sugar, palm sugar and mixed sugar). The results of this study indicate that red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 3 give higher antioxidant. The highest antioxidant obtained in red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 3 and using mixed sugar. That antioxidants value is 88.56%, it is not significant decreased compared to the antioxidant of pure ginger extract that is 91.46%. For higher phenol total content obtained on syrup that uses palm sugar. The highest phenol total content obtained in red ginger extract and water ratio of 1: 1 and using palm sugar. That total phenol content value is 6299 ppm.

  9. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Akter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (p

  10. Evaluation of antibacterial and anthelmintic activities with total phenolic contents of Piper betel leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Kazi Nahid; Karmakar, Palash; Das, Abhijit; Anonna, Shamima Nasrin; Shoma, Sharmin Akter; Sattar, Mohammad Mafruhi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves. Materials and Methods: The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma) at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method. Results: The extract showed significant (pbetel leaves extract, therefore it may be processed for further drug research. PMID:25386394

  11. Total and Free Sugar Content of Canadian Prepackaged Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jodi T.; Schermel, Alyssa; Mills, Christine M.; L’Abbé, Mary R.

    2016-01-01

    A number of recommendations for policy and program interventions to limit excess free sugar consumption have emerged, however there are a lack of data describing the amounts and types of sugar in foods. This study presents an assessment of sugar in Canadian prepackaged foods including: (a) the first systematic calculation of free sugar contents; (b) a comprehensive assessment of total sugar and free sugar levels; and (c) sweetener and free sugar ingredient use, using the University of Toronto’s Food Label Information Program (FLIP) database 2013 (n = 15,342). Food groups with the highest proportion of foods containing free sugar ingredients also had the highest median total sugar and free sugar contents (per 100 g/mL): desserts (94%, 15 g, and 12 g), sugars and sweets (91%, 50 g, and 50 g), and bakery products (83%, 16 g, and 14 g, proportion with free sugar ingredients, median total sugar and free sugar content in Canadian foods, respectively). Free sugar accounted for 64% of total sugar content. Eight of 17 food groups had ≥75% of the total sugar derived from free sugar. Free sugar contributed 20% of calories overall in prepackaged foods and beverages, with the highest at 70% in beverages. These data can be used to inform interventions aimed at limiting free sugar consumption. PMID:27657125

  12. Total and Free Sugar Content of Canadian Prepackaged Foods and Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi T. Bernstein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of recommendations for policy and program interventions to limit excess free sugar consumption have emerged, however there are a lack of data describing the amounts and types of sugar in foods. This study presents an assessment of sugar in Canadian prepackaged foods including: (a the first systematic calculation of free sugar contents; (b a comprehensive assessment of total sugar and free sugar levels; and (c sweetener and free sugar ingredient use, using the University of Toronto’s Food Label Information Program (FLIP database 2013 (n = 15,342. Food groups with the highest proportion of foods containing free sugar ingredients also had the highest median total sugar and free sugar contents (per 100 g/mL: desserts (94%, 15 g, and 12 g, sugars and sweets (91%, 50 g, and 50 g, and bakery products (83%, 16 g, and 14 g, proportion with free sugar ingredients, median total sugar and free sugar content in Canadian foods, respectively. Free sugar accounted for 64% of total sugar content. Eight of 17 food groups had ≥75% of the total sugar derived from free sugar. Free sugar contributed 20% of calories overall in prepackaged foods and beverages, with the highest at 70% in beverages. These data can be used to inform interventions aimed at limiting free sugar consumption.

  13. Modeling of the Ionospheric Scintillation and Total Electron Content Observations during the 21 August 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta-Barua, S.; Gachancipa, J. N.; Deshpande, K.; Herrera, J. A.; Lehmacher, G. A.; Su, Y.; Gyuk, G.; Bust, G. S.; Hampton, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    High concentration of free electrons in the ionosphere can cause fluctuations in incoming electromagnetic waves, such as those from the different Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The behavior of the ionosphere depends on time and location, and it is highly influenced by solar activity. The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of a total solar eclipse on the local ionosphere in terms of ionospheric scintillations, and on the global ionosphere in terms of TEC (Total Electron Content). The studied eclipse occurred on 21 August 2017 across the continental United States. During the eclipse, we expected to see a decrease in the scintillation strength, as well as in the TEC values. As a broader impact part of our recently funded NSF proposal, we temporarily deployed two GNSS receivers on the eclipse's totality path. One GNSS receiver was placed in Clemson, SC. This is a multi-frequency GNSS receiver (NovAtel GPStation-6) capable of measuring high and low rate scintillation data as well as TEC values from four different GNSS systems. We had the receiver operating before, during, and after the solar eclipse to enable the comparison between eclipse and non-eclipse periods. A twin receiver collected data at Daytona Beach, FL during the same time, where an 85% partial solar eclipse was observed. Additionally, we set up a ground receiver onsite in the path of totality in Perryville, Missouri, from which the Adler Planetarium of Chicago launched a high-altitude balloon to capture a 360-degree video of the eclipse from the stratosphere. By analyzing the collected data, this study looks at the effects of partial and total solar eclipse periods on high rate GNSS scintillation data at mid-latitudes, which had not been explored in detail. This study also explores the impact of solar eclipses on signals from different satellite constellations (GPS, GLONASS, and Galileo). Throughout the eclipse, the scintillation values did not appear to have dramatic changes

  14. THE RESEARCH OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLS CONTENT AND THEIR CHANGES IN DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Volnová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants with antioxidant properties. In this work we research the changes in the content of total polyphenols in five varieties of potatoes (Rumelia, Arwen, Megan, Malvína, Erídia. Potatoes were grown at the stage of full maturity from Matejovce nad Hornádom, region of Poprad. Total polyphenols we determined in whole peeled potatoes; in the outside part of peeled potato tubers (1 cm; in inside part of potato tubers (mean 2 cm and in the whole peel-boiled potatoes. The total polyphenols content was determined by spectrophotometry (λ = 765 nm and it was used lyophilized samples in ethanol extracts. In whole peeled potatoes was the content of total polyphenols in the range from 243.34 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Rumelia to 446.38 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Megan, in the outside part of peeled potato tubers was content in the range from 190.45 mg.kg-1 (cv. Rumelia to 446.84 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Malvína and in inside part of potato tubers from 245.51 mg.kg-1 to 446.26 mg.kg-1 DM (Arwen < Rumelia < Megan < Erídia < Malvína. In the whole peel-boiled potatoes was the lowest content of total polyphenols in variety Rumelia (252.5 mg.kg-1 DM and the highest content in variety Megan (440.54 mg.kg-1 DM. Results were statistically evaluated by the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA – Multiple Range Tests, Method: 95.0 percent LSD using statistical software STATGRAPHICS (Centurion XVI.I, USA and the regression and correlation analysis (Microsoft Excel was used.

  15. Total alkaloid content in various fractions of Tabernaemonata sphaerocarpa Bl. (Jembirit) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamah, N.; Ningsih, D. S.

    2017-11-01

    Tabernaemontana sphaerocarpa Bl. (Jembirit) is one of the Apocynaceae family plants containing alkaloid compound. Traditionally, it is used as an anti-inflammatory medicine. It is found to have a new bisindole alkaloid compound that shows a potent cytotoxic activity in human cancer. This study aimed to know the total alkaloid content in some fractions of ethanolic extract of T. sphaerocarpa Bl. leaf powder was extracted by maceration method in 70% ethanol solvent. Then, the extract was fractionated in a separatory funnel using water, ethyl acetate, and hexane. The total alkaloid content in each fraction was analyzed with visible spectrophotometric methods based on the reaction with Bromocresol Green (BCG). The total alkaloids in water fraction and ethyl acetate fraction were (0.0312±0.0009)% and (0.0281±0.0014)%, respectively. Meanwhile, the total alkaloid content in hexane was not detected. The statistical analysis, performed in SPSS, resulted in a significant difference between the total alkaloids in water fraction and ethyl acetate fraction. The total alkaloid in water fraction of T. sphaerocarpa Bl. was higher than the one in ethyl acetate fraction.

  16. Total Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of some Almond (Amygdalus Communis L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildirim Adnan Nurhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the total oil contents and fatty acid compositions of some commercial almond cultivars. The total oil contents changed significantly (p<0.05 by year in all cultivars with the exception of cultivar Ferrastar. Total oil contents were changed from 50.90% (Picantili to 62.01% (Supernova in 2008 and from 52.44% (Lauranne to 63.18% (Cristomorto in 2009. While predominant unsaturated fatty acids were oleic and linoleic acids, predominant saturated fatty acid was palmitic acid. The highest amount of oleic acid was obtained in Glorieta in both 2008 (83.35% and 2009 (72.74%. Linoleic acid content varied by year and the highest content was recorded in Picantili (26.08% in 2008 and Yaltinski (30.01% in 2009. The highest amount of palmitic acid was detected in cultivar Sonora in both years, i.e. as 7.76% in 2008 and 10.11% in 2009. The mean UFA:SFA ratio was 11.73 in 2008 but 7.59 in 2009. Principal component (PC analysis indicated that palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, arachidic acid, unsaturated fatty acid (UFA, saturated fatty acid (SFA and UFA:SFA ratio were primarily responsible for the separation on PC1

  17. Results and Conclusions from the NASA Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe 2009 IRT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reehorst, Andrew; Brinker, David

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed and tested a Total Water Content Isokinetic Sampling Probe. Since, by its nature, it is not sensitive to cloud water particle phase nor size, it is particularly attractive to support super-cooled large droplet and high ice water content aircraft icing studies. The instrument comprises the Sampling Probe, Sample Flow Control, and Water Vapor Measurement subsystems. Results and conclusions are presented from probe tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) during January and February 2009. The use of reference probe heat and the control of air pressure in the water vapor measurement subsystem are discussed. Several run-time error sources were found to produce identifiable signatures that are presented and discussed. Some of the differences between measured Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe and IRT calibration seems to be caused by tunnel humidification and moisture/ice crystal blow around. Droplet size, airspeed, and liquid water content effects also appear to be present in the IRT calibration. Based upon test results, the authors provide recommendations for future Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe development.

  18. Beacon satellite studies and modelling of total electron contents of the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    An attempt is made to highlight some of the beacon satellite studies, particularly those relating to total electron content (TEC) and scintillations, with special attention to Indian subcontinent observations. The modelling of TEC is described. The scope of new experiments for specific problem is indicated. (author). 78 refs., 12 figs

  19. Quantitative analysis of total starch content in wheat flour by reaction headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei-Qi; Gong, Yi-Xian; Yu, Kong-Xian

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposed a new reaction headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) method for efficiently quantifying the total starch content in wheat flours. A certain weight of wheat flour was oxidized by potassium dichromate in an acidic condition in a sealed headspace vial. The results show that the starch in wheat flour can be completely transferred to carbon dioxide at the given conditions (at 100 °C for 40 min) and the total starch content in wheat flour sample can be indirectly quantified by detecting the CO 2 formed from the oxidation reaction. The data showed that the relative standard deviation of the reaction HS-GC method in the precision test was less than 3.06%, and the relative differences between the new method and the reference method (titration method) were no more than 8.90%. The new reaction HS-GC method is automated, accurate, and can be a reliable tool for determining the total starch content in wheat flours in both laboratory and industrial applications. Graphical abstract The total starch content in wheat flour can be indirectly quantified by the GC detection of the CO 2 formed from the oxidation reaction between wheat flour and potassium dichromate in an acidic condition.

  20. The Total Electron Content From InSAR and GNSS: A Midlatitude Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musico, Elvira; Cesaroni, Claudio; Spogli, Luca

    2018-01-01

    The total electron content (TEC) measured from the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and froma dense network of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers are used to assess the capability of InSAR to retrieve ionospheric information, when the tropospheric contribution...

  1. Analysis of total hydrogen content in palm oil and palm kernel oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fast and non-destructive technique based on thermal neutron moderation has been used for determining the total hydrogen content in two types of red palm oil (dzomi and amidze) and palm kernel oil produced by traditio-nal methods in Ghana. An equipment consisting of an 241Am-Be neutron source and 3He neutron ...

  2. Non-destructive Measurement of Total Carotenoid Content in Processed Tomato Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.; Streza, M.; Dóka, O.; Valinger, D.; Luterotti, S.; Ajtony, Zs; Kurtanjek, Z.; Dadarlat, D.

    2015-01-01

    Carotenes found in a diversity of fruits and vegetables are among important natural antioxidants. In a study described in this paper, the total carotenoid content (TCC) in seven different products derived from thermally processed tomatoes was determined using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy

  3. Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents of 56 Wild Fruits from South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bin Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify wild fruits possessing high nutraceutical potential, the antioxidant activities of 56 wild fruits from South China were systematically evaluated. The fat-soluble components were extracted with tetrahydrofuran, and the water-soluble ones were extracted with a 50:3.7:46.3 (v/v methanol-acetic acid-water mixture. The antioxidant capacities of the extracts were evaluated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays, and their total phenolic contents were measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Most of these wild fruits were analyzed for the first time for their antioxidant activities. Generally, these fruits had high antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents. A significant correlation between the FRAP value and the TEAC value suggested that antioxidant components in these wild fruits were capable of reducing oxidants and scavenging free radicals. A high correlation between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content indicated that phenolic compounds could be the main contributors to the measured antioxidant activity. The results showed that fruits of Eucalyptus robusta, Eurya nitida, Melastoma sanguineum, Melaleuca leucadendron, Lagerstroemia indica, Caryota mitis, Lagerstroemia speciosa and Gordonia axillaris possessed the highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents among those tested, and could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants and functional foods. The results obtained are very helpful for the full utilization of these wild fruits.

  4. Complexities of the storm-time characteristics of ionospheric total electron content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The complexities of the storm-time variations of the ionospheric total electron content are briefly reviewed. It is suggested that large variations from storm to storm may be due to irregular flows from the auroral region towards equator. A proper study of such flows needs an elaborate network of TEC measuring instruments. The need of planning and organizing such a network is emphasized

  5. A comparative assessment of antioxidant properties, total phenolic content of einkorn, wheat, barley and their malts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarasi, Attila-Levente; Kun, Szilárd; Tankó, Gabriella; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva; Hegyesné-Vecseri, Beáta

    2015-01-15

    Two einkorn wheat, one barley, three optional winter cultivation wheat and five winter cultivation wheat samples harvested in Hungary in 2011, and their malts were evaluated for their DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation scavenging activity, ferric reduction capacity (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC). All einkorn and barley samples exhibited significant antioxidant activities determined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. The einkorn samples show higher polyphenol content than the other wheat samples. In all cases the barley sample had the highest antioxidant potential and polyphenol content. The einkorn malts had high DPPH and ABTS radical cation scavenging activities, but the phenolic content was lower against wheat samples. There was significant difference between the antioxidant potential of optional and winter cultivation wheat samples except on ABTS scavenging activities. Einkorn wheat is potentially a new raw material to produce organic beer that might have beneficial effects with its increased antioxidant potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of different cooking methods on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Bai, Xue; Zhuang, Yongliang

    2014-11-01

    The influences of cooking methods (steaming, pressure-cooking, microwaving, frying and boiling) on total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of fruit body of Boletus mushrooms (B. aereus, B. badius, B. pinophilus and B. edulis) have been evaluated. The results showed that microwaving was better in retention of total phenolics than other cooking methods, while boiling significantly decreased the contents of total phenolics in samples under study. Effects of different cooking methods on phenolic acids profiles of Boletus mushrooms showed varieties with both the species of mushroom and the cooking method. Effects of cooking treatments on antioxidant activities of Boletus mushrooms were evaluated by in vitro assays of hydroxyl radical (OH·) -scavenging activity, reducing power and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH·) -scavenging activity. Results indicated the changes of antioxidant activities of four Boletus mushrooms were different in five cooking methods. This study could provide some information to encourage food industry to recommend particular cooking methods.

  7. Effect of sulfite treatment on total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide, and total free sulfydryl groups contents in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herken, Emine Nur; Kocamaz, Erdogan; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Kucukatay, Vural

    2009-08-01

    Sulfites, which are commonly used as preservatives, are continuously formed in the body during the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sulfite oxidase (SOX) is an essential enzyme in the pathway of the oxidative degradation of sulfite to sulfate protecting cells from sulfite toxicity. This article investigated the effect of sulfite on total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and total free sulfydryl groups (-SH) levels in normal and SOX-deficient male albino rat plasma. For this purpose, rats were divided into four groups: control, sulfite-treated, SOX-deficient, and sulfite-treated SOX-deficient groups. SOX deficiency was established by feeding rats a low molybdenum diet and adding to their drinking water 200 ppm tungsten. Sulfite (70 mg/kg) was administered to the animals via their drinking water. SOX deficiency together with sulfite treatment caused a significant increase in the plasma LOOH and total oxidant status levels. -SH content of rat plasma significantly decreased by both sulfite treatment and SOX deficiency compared to the control. There was also a significant decrease in plasma TAC level by sulfite treatment. In conclusion, sulfite treatment affects the antioxidant/oxidant balance of the plasma cells of the rats toward oxidants in SOX-deficient groups.

  8. Determination of Glutathione and Its Redox Status in Isolated Vacuoles of Red Beetroot Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Pradedova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The glutathione of the red beetroot vacuoles (Beta vulgaris L. was measured using three well-known methods: the spectrofluorimetric method with orthophthalic aldehyde (OPT; the spectrophotometric method with 5.5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB; the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The content of reduced (GSH and oxidized glutathione (GSSG differed depending on the research method. With OPT the concentration of glutathione was: GSH – 0.059 µmol /mg protein; GSSG – 0.019 µmol/mg protein and total glutathione (GSHtotal – 0.097 µmol/mg protein. In the case of determining with DTNB the concentration of glutathione was: GSH – 0.091 µmol/mg protein; GSSG – 0.031 µmol/mg protein; GSHtotal – 0.153 µmol/mg protein. HPLC-defined concentration of glutathione was lower: GSH – 0.039 µmol/mg protein; GSSG – 0.007 µmol/mg protein; GSHtotal – 0.053 µmol/mg protein. Redox ratio of GSH/GSSG was also dependent on the method of determination: with OPT – 3.11; with DTNB – 2.96 and HPLC – 5.57. Redox ratio of glutathione in vacuoles was much lower than the tissue extracts of red beetroot, which, depending on the method of determination, was: 7.23, 7.16 and 9.22. The results showed the vacuoles of red beetroot parenchyma cells contain glutathione. Despite the low value of the redox ratio GSH/GSSG, in vacuoles the pool of reduced glutathione prevailed over the pool of oxidized glutathione.

  9. Development of a new spectrophotometric method to determine the total aromatic contents in kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harfoush, A.; shlewit, H.

    1996-12-01

    This developed spectrophotometric method is helpful to determine and control the total aromatic contents in kerosene, during the treatment process of kerosene with conc. H sup 2 SO sup 4 and P sup 2 O sup 5 to remove aromatics, which have negative effect on the solvent extraction coefficient KD of uranium from the Syrian phosphoric acid, where kerosene is used as diluent. this method is rapid according to others, and simply, using the standard curve prepared by the separated aromatics from the Syrian kerosene, A =f (C) at 272 nm, we can calculate the aromatic contents in the known samples. (author). 24 Refs., 5 Figs

  10. Understanding the degradation of ascorbic acid and glutathione in relation to the levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. italica cv. Bellstar) during storage and mechanical processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raseetha, Siva; Leong, Sze Ying; Burritt, David John; Oey, Indrawati

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to understand the degradation of ascorbic acid and glutathione content in broccoli florets (Brassica oleracea L. italica cv. Bellstar) during prolonged storage and subsequent mechanical processing. The initial content of total ascorbic acid and glutathione in broccoli florets averaged at 5.18 ± 0.23 and 0.70 ± 0.03 μmol/g fresh weight, respectively. Results showed that the content of ascorbic acid and glutathione in broccoli degraded during storage at 23°C, for at least 4.5-fold after 6 days of storage. On each day of storage, broccoli florets were mechanically processed, but the content of total ascorbic acid and glutathione was not significantly affected. When the mechanically processed broccoli florets were further incubated for up to 6h, the amount of ascorbic acid was greatly reduced as compared to glutathione. To obtain an in-depth understanding on the degradation of ascorbic acid and glutathione, the activity of enzymes involved in plant antioxidative system via ascorbate-glutathione cycle, as a response towards oxidative stress that took place during storage was determined in this study. The content of total ascorbic acid and glutathione in broccoli florets before and after mechanical processing were found to decrease concurrently with the activity of ascorbic acid peroxidase and glutathione reductase over the experimental storage duration. Meanwhile, the effect of oxidative stress on the content of ascorbic acid and glutathione was apparent during the 6h of incubation after mechanical processing. This phenomenon was demonstrated by the level of oxidative stress biomarkers examined, in which the formation of lipid peroxides, protein carbonyls and DNA oxidised products was positively associated with the degradation of total ascorbic acid and glutathione. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Geographical variation in total and inorganic arsenic content of polished (white) rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meharg, Andrew A; Williams, Paul N; Adomako, Eureka; Lawgali, Youssef Y; Deacon, Claire; Villada, Antia; Cambell, Robert C J; Sun, Guoxin; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Feldmann, Joerg; Raab, Andrea; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Islam, Rafiqul; Hossain, Shahid; Yanai, Junta

    2009-03-01

    An extensive data set of total arsenic analysis for 901 polished (white) grain samples, originating from 10 countries from 4 continents, was compiled. The samples represented the baseline (i.e., notspecifically collected from arsenic contaminated areas), and all were for market sale in major conurbations. Median total arsenic contents of rice varied 7-fold, with Egypt (0.04 mg/kg) and India (0.07 mg/kg) having the lowest arsenic content while the U.S. (0.25 mg/kg) and France (0.28 mg/kg) had the highest content. Global distribution of total arsenic in rice was modeled by weighting each country's arsenic distribution by that country's contribution to global production. A subset of 63 samples from Bangladesh, China, India, Italy, and the U.S. was analyzed for arsenic species. The relationship between inorganic arsenic contentversus total arsenic contentsignificantly differed among countries, with Bangladesh and India having the steepest slope in linear regression, and the U.S. having the shallowest slope. Using country-specific rice consumption data, daily intake of inorganic arsenic was estimated and the associated internal cancer risk was calculated using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cancer slope. Median excess internal cancer risks posed by inorganic arsenic ranged 30-fold for the 5 countries examined, being 0.7 per 10,000 for Italians to 22 per 10,000 for Bangladeshis, when a 60 kg person was considered.

  12. Differences among total and in vitro digestible phosphorus content of meat and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Heini; Ekholm, Päivi; Kemi, Virpi; Hirvonen, Tero; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2012-05-01

    Meat and milk products are important sources of dietary phosphorus (P) and protein. The use of P additives is common both in processed cheese and meat products. Measurement of in vitro digestible phosphorus (DP) content of foods may reflect absorbability of P. The objective of this study was to measure both total phosphorus (TP) and DP contents of selected meat and milk products and to compare amounts of TP and DP and the proportion of DP to TP among different foods. TP and DP contents of 21 meat and milk products were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In DP analysis, samples were digested enzymatically, in principle, in the same way as in the alimentary canal before the analyses. The most popular national brands of meat and milk products were chosen for analysis. The highest TP and DP contents were found in processed and hard cheeses; the lowest, in milk and cottage cheese. TP and DP contents in sausages and cold cuts were lower than those in cheeses. Chicken, pork, beef, and rainbow trout contained similar amounts of TP, but slightly more variation was found in their DP contents. Foods containing P additives have a high content of DP. Our study confirms that cottage cheese and unenhanced meats are better choices than processed or hard cheeses, sausages, and cold cuts for chronic kidney disease patients, based on their lower P-to-protein ratios and sodium contents. The results support previous findings of better P absorbability in foods of animal origin than in, for example, legumes. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mineral Composition, Total Phenol Content and Antioxidant Activity of a Macrolichen Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr. Hale (Parmeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Prashith Kekuda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated for the first time mineral composition, total phenol content and antioxidant activity of a foliose macrolichen Everniastrum cirrhatum (Fr. Hale (Parmeliaceae from Bhadra wildlife sanctuary, Karnataka, India. Mineral content of the lichen was estimated by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer after acid digestion. The secondary metabolites were detected by thin layer chromatography (TLC and phytochemical assays. The lichen material was extracted with methanol in soxhlet apparatus. Total phenol content was estimated by folin ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH, Ferric reducing and metal chelating assays. Among the principal elements, calcium was found in high concentration followed by magnesium, potassium and phosphorus. Among trace elements, iron was detected in high amount followed by zinc, manganese and copper. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be dose dependent with an IC50 of 6.73 μg/mL. In ferric reducing assay, the absorbance increased with the concentration of extract suggesting reducing power. The extract exhibited good metal chelating activity with an IC50 value of 29.28 μg/mL. Total phenol content was 101.2 mg tannic acid equivalents per gram of extract. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. TLC revealed atranorin, salazinic acid and protolichesterinic acid. The lichen can be consumed as a source of minerals required for the body as appreciable amount of minerals has been detected. The marked antioxidant activity may be attributed to the presence of phenol content in the extract. Further studies on isolation of metabolites and their bioactivities are under investigation.

  14. Determination of phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Andrographis paniculata using chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzawa, Marzanna; Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kłodzińska, Ewa; Szłyk, Edward

    2015-07-15

    Antioxidant activity, total phenolics content and selected phytochemicals (alkaloids and andrographolides) were determined in Andrographis paniculata and in dietary supplements containing this plant. Antioxidant activity was measured by FRAP, CUPRAC and DPPH procedures and ranged from 503.36 to 6164.09μmol TE/100g d.m. depending on methods, part of plant and kind of dietary supplement. The total phenolics (175.13-1723.79mg GAE/100g) and andrographolides content (19.44-85.13mg/g) in the studied samples were correlated with antioxidant activities determined by CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH (r>0.95, ppaniculata leaves, whereas the lowest in dietary supplement Pn. Moreover principal component analysis, cluster analysis and one-way ANOVA follow by Duncan's tests were also performed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The effect of geomagnetic storm on GPS derived total electron content (TEC) at Varanasi, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, A K

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we studied the effect of geomagnetic storm on Global Positioning System (GPS) derived total electron content (TEC) at low latitude Varanasi (Geomagnetic lat 14 0 , 55' N, geomagnetic long 154 0 E) during the period of May 2007 to April 2008. During this period 2 storms were found, which were occurred on 20 November 2007 and 9 March 2008. In this study vertical total electron content (VTEC) of single Pseudorandom Noise (PRN) and average of VTEC of same PRN before 10 days of storm, which is called background TEC, were used to see the effect of these storms on the variation of TEC. From this study this is found that during the storm of March 2008 the TEC increases in main phase of storm while in the case of November 2007 storm, TEC decreases during the main phase of storm but increases in the recovery phase (next day) of storm.

  16. [Contents mensuration of total alkaloid in Uncaria rhynchophylla by acid dye colorimetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chang-qing; Luo, Bei-liang

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the method of determination of total alkaloids Uncaria rhynchophylla. The Contents of total Alkaloid were determined by Acid dye Colorimetry. Acid dye color conditions: pH3.6 buffer 5.0 ml, bromocresol green liquid 5.0 ml; chloroform extraction three times, each time was exeracted for 2 minutes, put it aside for at least 5 minutes for the determination of the best method. Rhynchophylline 6.018 microg - 108.324 microg in the linear range, Recoveriys rate was 97.19%, RSD was 1.34% (n = 6). The method is simple, highly sensitive and reproducible.

  17. Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of Arisarum vulgare seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjer Kadri; Salah Eddine Djilani; Abdelouaheb Djilani

    2013-01-01

    Background.Arisarum vulgare is screened and its total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid contents were measured. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of the methanol-water (7:3) extract of this plant is evalu- ated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfon- ic)) tests expressed by Vitamin C Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (VCEAC). HPLC analyses are carried out to identify some polyphenols. The aim of this study is to identify, ...

  18. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENTS OF SIX ALLIUM SPECIES GROWING IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfouz Abdel-Gawad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designated to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as evaluation the in vitro antioxidant activity of the defatted methanolic extracts of six Allium species growing in Egypt. Three of them are subspecies of Allium cepa L. (ssp. red onion, ssp. white onion and ssp. green onion, the other three species are Allium sativum L. (garlic, Allium porrum L. (leek and Allium kurrat L. (kurrat baladi. The results exhibited that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have the highest phenolic contents. On the other hand, in vitro antioxidant activity using three methods, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, phosphomolybdate and reducing power assays revealed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have high antioxidant activities. Moreover, there was positive correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of the tested Allium species. Therefore, the two plant species A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum were submitted to fractionation process using chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fractions of the two plants have high phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as have high antioxidant activities. Also, the preliminary phytochemical screening of the tested Allium species showed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion and A. porrum have high quantities of flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and saponins.

  19. Solvent Effect on Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Betula alba and Convolvulus arvensi

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Azman A. Nurul; Husni Shafik; Almajano P. Maria; Gallego G. Maria

    2013-01-01

    The potential of using herbal Betula alba (BA) and Convolvulus arvensis (CA) as a natural antioxidant for food applications were investigated. Each plant extract was prepared by using pure ethanol, different concentration of ethanol aqueous solutions, including 50% and 75%, 50% methanol aqueous and water. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined using Folin–Ciocalteau method and antioxidant activity were analyzed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, trolox equivalent antioxida...

  20. The Content of U .S. Library's Total Quality Management and Its Developmental Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yung Fan

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The total quality management (TQM is a process, a technique, a management style, a goal and a tool. Most important of all, TQM means quality service. However, these are concepts largely unfamiliar to libraries but which seem to have strong potential to offer new insights and strategies in library management. This paper attempts toexpound the theoretical advantages of TQM and the barriers of its application in U.S. libraries. [Article content in Chinese

  1. Evaluation of total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of different verity lupin seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Sulaiman Dalaram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes, including lupins, beans, lentil and chickpea, are one of the most important crops in the world because of their nutritional quality. Lupin seeds have been used as human food and animal feed since ancient times. It was known that antioxidant photochemical in foods have many health benefits including prevention of various diseases associated with oxidative stress such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, neuro-degeneration and diabetes. Lupin grains are rich sources of complex carbohydrates, protein, vitamins and minerals. Antioxidants can be found naturally in foods. Total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity were measured in four varieties of lupin, namely in white lupin, blue lupin, yellow lupin and Mutabilis lupin species. A majority of antioxidants naturally present in foods occur in phenolic structures and especially in flavonoid structures. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. Antioxidant activity was measured by using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. In the present experiment according to the average contents of total polyphenols (TPC in dry matter of lupin seeds there was the following line: L. Angustifolius (blue lupin (696.212 mg GAE.100g-1 > L. Albus (white lupin (614.13 mg GAE.100g-1 > L. Luteus (yellow lupin (467.78 mg GAE.100g-1 > L. Mutabilis (pearl lupin (367.36 mg GAE.100g-1. Based on the measured values of total antioxidant capacity (TAC of lupin samples can be classified as follows: L. Albus (white lupin (43.44% >L. Angustifolius (blue lupin (38.27% >L. Luteus (yellow lupin (22.29% >L. Mutabilis (Pearl lupin (20.80%. The relationship of antioxidant capacity with total polyphenolic was discussed. According to used statistical analyzes. Correlation between the phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity was significantly positive (r = 0.88. Our results confirmed that legumes can be a good source of bioactive compounds in the human nutrition

  2. [Analysis of effect of topographical conditions on content of total alkaloid in Coptidis Rhizoma in Chongqin, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Huang, He; Yang, Yan-fang; Wu, He-zhen

    2014-12-01

    To study ecology suitability rank dividing of the total alkaloid content of Coptis Rhizoma for selecting artificial planting base and high-quality industrial raw material in Chongqing province. Based on the investigation of PCB and DEM data of Chongqing province, the relationship between the total alkaloid content in Coptis Rhizoma and topographical conditions was analyzed by statistical analysis. The geographic information systems (GIS)-based assessment and landscape ecological principles were applied to assess eco logy suitability areas of Coptis Rhizoma in Chongqing. slope, aspect and altitude are main topographical factors that affect the content of the total alkaloid content in Coptis Rhizoma The total alkaloid content in Coptis Rhizoma is higher in the lower altitude, shady slope and bigger slope areas. The total alkaloid content is higher in the south areas of Chongqing province and lower in the northeast. Terrain conditions of the southern region of Chongqing are most suitable for The accumulated of total alkaloid Coptis Rhizoma content.

  3. TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF THE EXTRACT OF EPHEDRA PROCERA FISCH. ET MEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Naser Vahed; Kachouie, Mehrdad Ataie; Pirbalouti, Abdollah Ghasemi; Malekpoor, Fatemeh; Rabei, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Ephedra prcera belonging to the family Ephedraceae is a poison and medicinal plant. The main aim of present study was to determine total phenolic content and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of ethanolic extract from the aerial parts of E. procera collected from a natural habitat in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Southwestern Iran. The total phenolic content of the extract by Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antioxidant activity using DPPH assay were determined. The antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were evaluated against five bacteria, including Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enteobacter aeogenes, Bacillus ceirus and Staphylococcus aureus. Total phenolic content in the extract of E. procera was 0.718 mg tannic acid/g dry weight extract. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract of E. piocera exhibited radical scavenging activity. In addition, the results of this study confirmed that the ethanolic extract of E. procera exhibited antibacterial activity. In conclusion, the extract of E. piocera could be an important source of phenolic components with antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity.

  4. Nitrogen fertilization of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines: yield, total nitrogen content in the leaves and must composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Lorensini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Grapevines grown on sandy soils are subjected to the application of supplemental nitrogen (N; however, there is little information available regarding the impact of these applications on yield, plant nutritional state and must composition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield, nutritional state and must composition of grapevines subjected to N fertilization. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines were subjected to annual applications of 0, 10, 15, 20, 40, 80 and 120 kg N ha-1 in 2008, 2009 and 2010. During the 2008/09, 2009/10 and 2010/11 harvest seasons, leaves were collected during full flowering and when the berries changed color, and the total N content was analyzed. The grape yield and the enological characteristics of the must were evaluated. The response to applied N was low, and the highest Cabernet Sauvignon grape yield was obtained in response to an application of 20 kg N ha-1 year-1. The application of N increased the nutrient content in the leaf collected at full flowering, but it had little effect on the total nutrient content in the must, and it did not affect the enological characteristics of the must, such as soluble solids, pH, total acidity, malic acid and tartaric acid.

  5. Total phenolic content, radical scavenging properties, and essential oil composition of Origanum species from different populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambolena, José S; Zunino, María P; Lucini, Enrique I; Olmedo, Rubén; Banchio, Erika; Bima, Paula J; Zygadlo, Julio A

    2010-01-27

    The aim of this work was to compare the antiradical activity, total phenol content (TPC), and essential oil composition of Origanum vulgare spp. virens, Origanum x applii, Origanum x majoricum, and O. vulgare spp. vulgare cultivated in Argentina in different localities. The experiment was conducted in the research station of La Consulta (INTA-Mendoza), the research station of Santa Lucia (INTA-San Juan), and Agronomy Faculty of National University of La Pampa, from 2007 to 2008. The composition of the essential oils of oregano populations was independent of cultivation conditions. In total, 39 compounds were identified in essential oils of oregano from Argentina by means of GC-MS. Thymol and trans-sabinene hydrate were the most prominent compounds, followed by gamma-terpinene, terpinen-4-ol, and alpha-terpinene. O. vulgare vulgare is the only Origanum studied which is rich in gamma-terpinene. Among tested oregano, O. x majoricum showed the highest essential oil content, 3.9 mg g(-1) dry matter. The plant extract of O. x majoricum had greater total phenol content values, 19.36 mg/g dry weight, than the rest of oregano studied. To find relationships among TPC, free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), and climate variables, canonical correlations were calculated. The results obtained allow us to conclude that 70% of the TPC and FRSA variability can be explained by the climate variables (R(2) = 0.70; p = 8.3 x 10(-6)), the temperature being the most important climatic variable.

  6. 40 CFR 60.4360 - How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... content of the turbine's combustion fuel? 60.4360 Section 60.4360 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4360 How do I determine the total sulfur content of the turbine's combustion fuel? You must monitor the total sulfur content of the...

  7. Total Dietary Fiber Content of Selected Traditional Beverages in Egypt: A Brief Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil H. Aboul-Enein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Escalating obesity rates have become a major public health concern in North Africa and the Middle East. Culturally-congruent dietary health education and strategies continue to be warranted to address this increasing public health crisis. Knowledge and familiarity with traditional foods and their nutritive value would assist public health practitioners in becoming culturally competent when educating on healthy eating patterns. The aim of this study is to provide a brief dietary profile of the total dietary fiber (TDF contents of selected traditional beverages in Egypt. Five cookbooks for Egyptian food recipes were reviewed for traditional beverages. Beverage recipes (n = 19 were selected and reviewed for their TDF content using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (Release 27. The published values for TDF content were tabulated and reported per 100 mL of consumable portions. The highest TDF content was found in carob juice (8.0 g and the lowest found in peppermint tea (0.0 g with an overall TDF mean content of 2.8 g. Traditional beverages could be regarded as important sources of TDF within a healthy Egyptian dietary pattern. Cultural awareness and familiarities to traditional foods and their respective dietary profiles should be encouraged as an objective towards building culturally-competent health professionals and combating obesity in Egypt. Furthermore, developments of a traditional Egyptian food nutrient database for public access should be explored.

  8. Study on the relation between uranium content and total phosphorus in some sudanese phosphate ore samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltayeb, M. A. H.; Mohammed, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work uranium content and total phosphorus were determined in 30 phosphate ore samples collected from Kurun and Uro areas in Nuba Mountains in Sudan. Spectrophotometry technique was used for this purpose. Uranium analysis is based on the use of nitrogen (V) acid for leaching the rock, and treatment with ammonium carbonate solution, whereby uranium (Vi) is kept in solution as its carbonate complex. The ion exchange technique was used for the recovery of uranium. Uranium was eluted from the resin with 1 M hydrochloric acid. In the elute, uranium was determined spectrophotometrically by measurement of absorbance of the yellow uranium (Vi)-8-hydroxyquinolate complex at λ 400 nm. The total phosphorus was measured as (P 2 O 5 %) by treatment of the total liquor with ammonium molybdate solution. The absorbance of the blue complex was measured at λ 880 nm. The results show that a limited relation is existed between uranium content and total phosphorus in phosphate samples from kurun area, which contain 58.8 ppm uranium in average, where there are no relation is existed in phosphate samples from uro area, which contain 200 ppm uranium in average. (Author)

  9. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT OF GRAPE SEEDS AND PEELS FROM ROMANIAN VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina IUGA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grape seeds and peels are valuable by-products from wine production industry that can be valorized in food production. Both grape seeds and peels have a great amount of antioxidants and polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the total phenolic content of red and white grape seeds and peels and to establish the optimal solvent concentration for highest extraction yield. For this purpose, Folin Ciocâlteu method was used to achieve the phenols content and the antioxidant activity was estimated using 2,2 – diphenyl-1-1picrylhydrazyl (DPPH reagent. The total phenolic content ranged from 81.13 mg GAE/g for red peels, 93.47 mg GAE/g for white peels, to 128.47 mg GAE/g for red seeds and 164.70 mg GAE/g for white seeds. The One-Way ANOVA method was used to see if there are differences between the antioxidant activities depending on the solvent concentration. The results showed that the methanol concentration significantly (p < 0.05 influences the antioxidants extraction. The inhibition percent IC50 ranged from 0,24 to 4,37 μg/mL for white peels, from 3,12 to 6,29 μg/mL for red peels, from 5,53 to 5,90 μg/mL for white seeds and from 4,59 to 6,14 μg/mL for red seeds. This study highlighted the possibility to use grape seeds and peels as food ingredients or natural antioxidant to extend the shelf life of food, especial of lipids and lipid-containing foods because of their high antioxidant activity and total phenolic content.

  10. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khairul Alam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC and total polyphenol content (TPC. Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI Sweet Potato 7 (SP7 contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  11. Comparison of the Proximate Composition, Total Carotenoids and Total Polyphenol Content of Nine Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties Grown in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Khairul; Rana, Ziaul Hasan; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2016-09-14

    In an attempt to develop the food composition table for Bangladesh, the nutritional composition of nine varieties of orange-fleshed sweet potato was analyzed together with total carotenoids (TCC) and total polyphenol content (TPC). Each variety showed significant variation in different nutrient contents. The quantification of the TCC and TPC was done by spectrophotometric measurement, and the proximate composition was done by the AOAC method. The obtained results showed that total polyphenol content varied from 94.63 to 136.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fresh weight. Among the selected sweet potatoes, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI) Sweet Potato 7 (SP7) contained the highest, whereas BARI SP6 contained the lowest amount of total polyphenol content. The obtained results also revealed that total carotenoids content ranged from 0.38 to 7.24 mg/100 g fresh weight. BARI SP8 showed the highest total carotenoids content, whereas BARI SP6 showed the lowest. Total carotenoids content was found to be higher in dark orange-colored flesh varieties than their light-colored counterparts. The results of the study indicated that selected sweet potato varieties are rich in protein and carbohydrate, low in fat, high in polyphenol and carotenoids and, thus, could be a good source of dietary antioxidants to prevent free radical damage, which leads to chronic diseases, and also to prevent vitamin A malnutrition.

  12. Total polyphenols contents in different grapevine varieties in highlands of southern brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brighenti Emilio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are one of the main parameters of wine quality and contribute to the organoleptic characteristics, particularly color, astringency and body. In the highlands of southern Brazil, low temperatures and high accumulation of global solar radiation favor the synthesis of total polyphenols in grapes. The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of total polyphenols of 10 white varieties and 13 red varieties produced in high altitude regions of southern Brazil. The vineyard is located in the Experimental Station of Santa Catarina State Agricultural Research and Rural Extension Agency (EPAGRI, in the city of São Joaquim (28° 16′30″S, 49° 56′09″W, Altitude 1,400 m, the evaluations occurred in 2015/2016 growing season. The content of total polyphenols was determined as proposed by Singleton & Rossi (1965, using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, with spectrophotometer readings. Polyphenol content ranged from 283.56 to 1,387.31 mg/L for white varieties, the varieties with the highest concentrations were Greco di Tufo (1,378.31 mg/L, Trebbiano Toscano (995.59 mg/L and Ribola Gialla (737.48 mg/L. For the red varieties, the total polyphenol content ranged from 523.87 to 4,929.57 mg/L, Ancellotta (4,929.57 mg/L, Uva di Troia (2,722.27 mg/L and Croatina (2,410 mg/L stood out for presenting the highest levels.

  13. The Antioxidant Capacities and Total Phenolic Contents of Some Medicinal Plants in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mirzaei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Free radicals are highly reactive molecules may cause great damage to cell membranes and DNA and Result in inducing oxidation DNA mutations leading to cancer, degenerative, and other diseases. Plant antioxidant derived may be preventive of free radical damages. Methods & Materials: The Stems and flower sample of plants air-dried, finely ground and were extracted by ethanol: water (70:30 for 48 h. Extracts were filtered and dried under vacuum. The antioxidant activity of five ethanolic extract of medicinal plants (Descurainia Sophia, Plantago major, Trachyspermum copticum L, Coriandrum sativum and Trigonella foenum-graecum from Iran were analysed by five different methods [1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical, 2,2,azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical cation, Ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP, phosphomolybdenum (PMB and reducing power (RP]. In addition, for determination of antioxidant components total phenolic content was also analyzed. Results: The total phenolic content of medicinal plant ranges from 74 to 154.3 mg Gallic acid/g extract as measured by the Folin–Ciocalteau method. Values of DPPH varied from 15.5 to 19.6 µmol trolex/g. FRAP ranged from 124.2 to 753 µmol of Fe(II/g extract. Antioxidant activity of the Plantago major was always higher compared to the other plants extracts values of total phenols content and antioxidant capacity by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, (154.33 mg GAE/g, 1856 µmol trolox, 750 µmol trolox and 1169 µmol of Fe(II/g, extract respectively. The range of total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum method was 513.3 to 870 µmol trolox/g. The reducing ability of the tested extracts was between 0.31-1.26. Plantago majorwas also highest activity in both tests. Conclusion: This study clearly demonstrated that Plantago major crude extract exhibit significant antioxidant activity.

  14. Comparative study of the total phenol content and antioxidant activity of some medicinal herbal extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hajimehdipoor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines can be used as the potential sources of anti-oxidative compounds to help the treatment of diseases associated to oxidative stress. In this paper, the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP activity of four Lamiaceae herbal extracts, which traditionally applied in oxidative stress related diseases, has been evaluated and total phenolics contents of these extracts determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The aqueous methanol extracts were prepared by percolation method and investigated for antioxidant properties and total phenolics content evaluation. All the extracts showed antioxidant effect from 123.6±4.6 mmol of FeSO4.7H2Oequivalent/100 g dried extract in Scutellaria tornefortii to 551.5±16.0 mmol of FeSO4.7H2Oequivalent/100 g dried extract in Satureja sahendica. Interestingly, although Satureja sahendica exhibited the most antioxidant activity, the highest content of polyphenolics belonged to Stachys byzantina. Taking together, antioxidant activity of the mentioned medicinal plants is not necessarily associated with polyphenolic compounds and might be partially due to the presence of other polar constituents like terpenoid-glycosides in aqueous extracts that traditionally used as decoction.

  15. Determination of fat and total protein content in milk using conventional digital imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2014-04-01

    The applicability of conventional digital imaging to quantitative determination of fat and total protein in cow's milk, based on the phenomenon of light scatter, has been proved. A new algorithm for extracting features from digital images of milk samples has been developed. The algorithm takes into account spatial distribution of light, diffusely transmitted through a sample. The proposed method has been tested on two sample sets prepared from industrial raw milk standards, with variable fat and protein content. Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression on the features calculated from images of monochromatically illuminated milk samples resulted in models with high prediction performance when analysed the sets separately (best models with cross-validated R(2)=0.974 for protein and R(2)=0.973 for fat content). However when analysed the sets jointly with the obtained results were significantly worse (best models with cross-validated R(2)=0.890 for fat content and R(2)=0.720 for protein content). The results have been compared with previously published Vis/SW-NIR spectroscopic study of similar samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Jing; Dong, Bin; Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste...

  17. Determination of fat and total protein content in milk using conventional digital imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucheryavskiy, Sergey; Melenteva, Anastasiia; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    into account spatial distribution of light, diffusely transmitted through a sample. The proposed method has been tested on two sample sets prepared from industrial raw milk standards, with variable fat and protein content. Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression on the features calculated from images......The applicability of conventional digital imaging to quantitative determination of fat and total protein in cow’s milk, based on the phenomenon of light scatter, has been proved. A new algorithm for extracting features from digital images of milk samples has been developed. The algorithm takes...... of monochromatically illuminated milk samples resulted in models with high prediction performance when analysed the sets separately (best models with cross-validated R2=0.974 for protein and R2=0.973 for fat content). However when analysed the sets jointly the obtained results were significantly worse (best models...

  18. Polysaccharides, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activities in different parts of Silybum marianum L. plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Li, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaolei

    2017-01-01

    Silybum marianum L. is used for the production of silymarin, a flavonoid utilized for regenerating damaged hepatic tissues. Herein, the total flavonoid content (TFC) and polysaccharides content (PC) in the roots, main stems, leaves, fruit receptacles, and pappi of Silybum marianum were determined. The antioxidant activities of plant ethanol extracts were assessed to validate the medicinal potential of the various plant parts. The pappi exhibited the highest TFC (17.10 mg rutin/g of dry plant material), followed by the fruit receptacles (15.34 mg/g). The PC varied from 3.57±0.23 to 11.02±0.35 mg glucose /g dry plant material; the highest PC was obtained from the roots. At 50 ug/mL, the pappi ethanol extract showed the highest 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (69.68%), followed by the roots (66.02%).

  19. Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents in edible dried seaweed in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y O; Park, S G; Park, G Y; Choi, S M; Kim, M Y

    2010-01-01

    Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents were determined in 426 samples of seaweed sold in Korea in 2007-08. The average concentrations, expressed in mg kg(-1), dry weight, were: total arsenic 17.4 (less than the limit of detection [LOD] to 88.8), Hg 0.01 (from 0.001 to 0.050), lead 0.7 (less than the LOD to 2.7), and cadmium 0.50 (less than the LOD to 2.9). There were differences in mercury, cadmium, and arsenic content in seaweed between different kinds of products and between coastal areas. The intakes of total mercury, lead, and cadmium for Korean people from seaweed were estimated to be 0.11, 0.65, and 0.45 µg kg(-1) body weight week(-1), respectively. With respect to food safety, consumption of 8.5 g day(-1) of the samples analysed could represent up to 0.2-6.7% of the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes established by the World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, even if Korean people have a high consumption of seaweed, this study confirms the low probability of health risks from these metals via seaweed consumption.

  20. Study on the relation between uranium content and total phosphorus in some sudanese phosphate ore samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, A.A.; Eltayeb, M.A.H.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work uranium content and total phosphorous were determined in 30 phosphate ore samples collected from Kurun and Uro areas in Nuba mountains in sudan. Spectrophotometry technique was used for this purpose. Uranium analysis is based on the use of nitrogen (V) acid for leaching the rock, and treatment with ammonium carbonate solution, whereby uranium (VI) is kept in solution as its carbonate complex. The ion-exchange technique was used for the recovery of uranium. Uranium was eluted from the resin with 1 M hydrochloric acid. In the elute, uranium was determined spectrophotometrically by measurement of the absorbance of the yellow uranium (VI) - 8- hydroxyquinolate complex at λ 400 nm. The total phosphorus was measured as (P 2 O 5 %) by treatment of the leach liquor with ammonium molybdate solution. The absorbance of the blue complex was measured at λ 880 nm. The results show that a limited relation is existed between uranium content and total phosphorus in phosphate samples from Kurun area, which contain 58.8 ppm uranium in average, where there are no relation is existed in phosphate samples samples from Uro area, which contain 200 ppm uranium in average

  1. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yi

    Full Text Available The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  2. Effect of Increasing Total Solids Contents on Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste under Mesophilic Conditions: Performance and Microbial Characteristics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies. PMID:25051352

  3. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jing; Dong, Bin; Jin, Jingwei; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  4. Spatial relationship of 1-meter equatorial spread-F irregularities and depletions in total electron content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, R.T.; Towle, D.M.

    1979-01-01

    An experiment was conducted at Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands to investigate the spatial relationship of 1-m equatorial spread-F irregularities to total electron content (TEC) depletions. A high-power radar was operated (1) in a backscatter scan mode to spatially map the distribution of 1-m irregularities, and (2) in a dual-frequency, satellite-track mode to obtain the longitudinal TEC variations. We show that radar backscatter ''plumes'' found in the disturbed, nighttime equatorial ionosphere are longitudinally coincident with TEC depletions. We suggest that the TEC depletions are probably due to the presence of plasma ''bubbles'' in the equatorial F layer

  5. A Regional GPS Receiver Network For Monitoring Mid-latitude Total Electron Content During Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, A.; Cander, Lj. R.

    A regional GPS receiver network has been used for monitoring mid-latitude total elec- tron content (TEC) during ionospheric storms at the current solar maximum. Differ- ent individual storms were examined to study how the temporal patterns of changes develop and how they are related to solar and geomagnetic activity for parameter de- scriptive of plasmaspheric-ionospheric ionisation. Use is then made of computer con- touring techniques to produce snapshot maps of TEC for different study cases. Com- parisons with the local ionosonde data at different phases of the storms enable the storm developments to be studied in detail.

  6. Some results of ionospheric total electron content and scintillation observations at Lunping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.N.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is conducted of the characteristic variations of the ionospheric total electron content (TEC), slab thickness, and scintillation activity observed at Lunping Observatory. The employed data have been obtained by measuring the Faraday rotation angle of the 136.1124 MHz beacon signal transmitted from the Japanese ETS-II geostationary satellite. Diurnal, seasonal, and solar cycle variations of TEC are discussed, taking into account real seasonal variations of TEC and geomagnetic storm effects. Geomagnetic storm effects on the variation of the slab thickness are studied by selecting 90 SC type geomagnetic storms which occurred during the period from March 1977 to June 1980

  7. Reduced glutathione as a persistence indicator of alien plants of the Amelancheir family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Dolgova

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available It was proved that glutathione is an important indicator of the vegetation condition and persistence. According to the amount of glutathione the studied mespilus species are adapted to the environmental conditions. Increase of the glutathione amount is caused by some abiotic factors, e.g. temperature. Some differences of the glutathione content may be explained by the plants species patterns.

  8. Speed associated with plasma pH, oxygen content, total protein and urea in an 80 km race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R M; Hess, T M; Williams, C A; Kronfeld, D S; Griewe-Crandell, K M; Waldron, J E; Graham-Thiers, P M; Gay, L S; Splan, R K; Saker, K E; Harris, P A

    2002-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that endurance performance may be related quantitatively to changes in blood, we measured selected blood variables then determined their reference ranges and associations with speed during an 80 km race. The plan had 46 horses in a 2 x 2 factorial design testing a potassium-free electrolyte mix and a vitamin supplement. Blood samples were collected before the race, at 21, 37, 56 and 80 km, and 20 min after finishing, for assay of haematocrit, plasma pH, pO2, pCO2, [Na+], [K+], [Ca++], [Mg++], [Cl-], lactate, glucose, urea, cortisol, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbate, creatine kinase, aspartate amino transferase, lipid hydroperoxides, total protein, albumin and creatinine, and erythrocyte glutathione and glutathione peroxidase. Data from 34 finishers were analysed statistically. Reference ranges for resting and running horses were wide and overlapping and, therefore, limiting with respect to evaluation of individual horses. Speed correlations were most repeatable, with variables reflecting blood oxygen transport (enabling exercise), acidity and electrolytes (limiting exercise) and total protein (enabling then, perhaps, limiting). Stepwise regressions also included plasma urea concentration (limiting). The association of speed with less plasma acidity and urea suggests the potential for fat adaptation and protein restriction in endurance horses, as found previously in Arabians performing repeated sprints. Conditioning horses fed fat-fortified and protein-restricted diets may not only improve performance but also avoid grain-associated disorders.

  9. Determination of total phenolic compound contents and antioxidant capacity of persimmon skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohamadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the adverse side effects of synthetic antioxidants, the search for natural and safe antioxidants has become crucial. In this study, the total phenolic compound contents and antioxidants activity of persimmon skin was investigated. The extraction was carried out by means of maceration method using ethanol and methanol solvents with ratio of 1 part persimmon skin to 5 parts of solvents. Afterwards, the total phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity was measured. According to the results, ethanolic and methanolic extracts contained 255.6 and 214.15 mg gallic acid per 100 g of persimmon skin, respectively. Moreover, ethanolic extracts showed a higher activity for scavenging free radicals compared to methanolic extracts.

  10. Total and occluded residual gas content inside the nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Sergio C.; Fernandes, Carlos E.; Oliveira, Justine R.; Machado, Joyce F.; Guglielmo, Luisa M.; Bustillos, Oscar V.

    2009-01-01

    This work describes three techniques available to measure total and occluded residual gases inside the UO 2 nuclear fuel pellets. Hydrogen is the major gas compound inside these pellets, due to sintering fabrication process but Nitrogen is present as well, due to storage atmosphere fuel. The total and occluded residual gas content inside these pellets is a mandatory requirement in a quality control to assure the well function of the pellets inside the nuclear reactor. This work describes the Gas Extractor System coupled with mass spectrometry GES/MS, the Gas Extractor System coupled with gas chromatography GES/GC and the total Hydrogen / Nitrogen H/N analyzer as well. In the GES, occlude gases in the UO 2 pellets is determinate using a high temperature vacuum extraction system, in which the minimum limit of detection is in the range 0.002 cc/g. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the amount of gaseous components employs a mass spectrometry or a gas chromatography technique. The total Hydrogen / Nitrogen analyzer employ a thermal conductivity gas detector linked to a gaseous extractor furnace which has a detection limit is in the range 0.005 cc/g. The specification for the residual gas analyses in the nuclear fuel pellets is 0.03 cc/g, all techniques satisfy the requirement but not the nature of the gases due to reaction with the reactor cladding. The present work details the chemical reaction among Hydrogen / Nitrogen and nuclear reactor cladding. (author)

  11. Total flavonoids content in the raw material and aqueous extractives from Bauhinia monandra Kurz (Caesalpiniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana Josane Dantas; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Randau, Karina Perrelli; de Souza, Tatiane Pereira; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the spectrophotometric methodology for determining the total flavonoid content (TFC) in herbal drug and derived products from Bauhinia monandra Kurz. Several analytical parameters from this method grounded on the complex formed between flavonoids and AlCl₃ were evaluated such as herbal amount (0.25 to 1.25 g); solvent composition (ethanol 40 to 80%, v/v); as well as the reaction time and AlCl₃ concentration (2 to 9%, w/v). The method was adjusted to aqueous extractives and its performance studied through precision, linearity and preliminary robustness. The results showed an important dependence of the method response from reaction time, AlCl₃ concentration, sample amount, and solvent mixture. After choosing the optimized condition, the method was applied for the matrixes (herbal material and extractives), showing precision lower than 5% (for both parameters repeatability and intermediate precision), coefficient of determination higher than 0.99, and no important influence could be observed for slight variations from wavelength or AlCl₃ concentration. Thus, it could be concluded that the evaluated analytical procedure was suitable to quantify the total flavonoid content in raw material and aqueous extractives from leaves of B. monandra.

  12. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and biological activities of Cachrys cristata DC. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matejić Jelena S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The total phenolic/flavonoid contents and antioxidant potential of the methanol, ethyl-acetate, acetone and water extracts obtained from the aerial parts and fruits of Cachrys cristata DC.(Apiaceae were compared. The total phenolic contents of the tested extracts were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent. The amounts per g of dry plant extract of gallic acid (GA and quercetin (Qu ranged between 22.60-166.97 mg, and 8.91-46.02 mg, respectively. The antioxidant activity, expressed as IC50, ranged from 1.784-17.621 mg/mL and from 1.01-3.42 mg L(+-ascorbic acid (Vitamin C/g when tested with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and ABTS, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was investigated by the microwell dilution assay, for the most common human gastrointestinal pathogenic bacterial strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC15313, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and yeast Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The results indicate that C. cristata can be regarded as a potential source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173029

  13. Antioxidant, Cytotoxic Activities and Total Phenolic Content of Four Indonesian Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waras Nurcholis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The crude ethanol extracts of four Indonesian medicinal plants namely Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.,Phyllanthus niruri Linn., Andrographis paniculata Ness., and Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. wereexamined for their antioxidant (radical scavenging activity using 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH free radical and cytotoxicity using brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT. The total phenoliccontent was used the Folin-Ciocalteu method. IC50 values for DPPH radical scavenging activityranged from 14.5 to 178.5 μg/ml, with P. niruri having the lowest value and therefore the mostpotent, and C. aeruginosa having the highest value. LC50 values for BSLT ranged from 210.3 to593.2 μg/ml, with C. xanthorrhiza and A. paniculata having the lowest and highest values,respectively. The total phenolic content of the Indonesian plants ranged from 133.0 ±3.7 to863.3±54.7 mg tannic acid equivalent per 1 g extract, with C. aeruginosa and P. niruri having thelowest and highest values, respectively. A positive correlation between free radical scavengingactivity and the content of phenolic compounds was found in the four of Indonesian medicinal plants.

  14. Heavy metal, total arsenic, and inorganic arsenic contents of algae food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almela, C; Algora, S; Benito, V; Clemente, M J; Devesa, V; Súñer, M A; Vélez, D; Montoro, R

    2002-02-13

    The total arsenic, inorganic arsenic, lead, cadmium, and mercury contents of 18 algae food products currently on sale in Spain were determined. The suitability of the analytical methodologies for this type of matrix was confirmed by evaluating their analytical characteristics. The concentration ranges found for each contaminant, expressed in milligrams per kilogram of dry weight, were as follows: total arsenic, 2.3-141; inorganic arsenic, 0.15-88; lead, mercury, 0.004-0.04. There is currently no legislation in Spain regarding contaminants in algae food products, but some of the samples analyzed revealed Cd and inorganic As levels higher than those permitted by legislation in other countries. Given the high concentrations of inorganic As found in Hizikia fusiforme, a daily consumption of 1.7 g of the product would reach the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake recommended by the WHO for an average body weight of 68 kg. A more comprehensive study of the contents and toxicological implications of the inorganic As present in the algae food products currently sold in Spain may be necessary, which might then be the basis for the introduction of specific sales restrictions.

  15. Determination of chemical composition, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of xylanthemum macropodum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samiullah, A.; Tareen, R.B.; Khan, N.; Akber, A.; Ali, I.; Khan, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of the phytochemistry, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the endemic plant of northern Balochistan Xylanthemum Macropodum of the Asteraceae family, is reported for the first time in this document. Chemical composition of Xylanthemum Macropodum was determined using well-established chemical tests and modern spectroscopic techniques. Extracts were taken from the whole plant using methanol and the extracts were tested for phytochemicals (secondary metabolites), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. The phytochemical (biochemical) examination of Xylanthemum Macropodum exposed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, coumarins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, reducing sugars, and quinines. TPC of crude methanolic extract (CME) of plant was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent. The TPC determined was 256mg of tannic acid Eq/g of extract. Antioxidant activities were determined spectrophotometrically using the DPPH assay and Ferric ion (Fe/sup +3/) reducing antioxidant power assay. The potency of the DPPH assay of Xylanthemum Macropodum extract was 68% for the 0.10 mg/ml concentration and the FRAP value of the extract was 3.368 mmol Fe/sup +2//g of extract. Xylanthemum Macropodum has proved to be very rich in secondary metabolites, natural phenolics and has a very potent antioxidant activity. (author)

  16. Volatile flavor compounds, total polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activities of a China gingko wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Xie, Kelin; Zhuang, Haining; Ye, Ran; Fang, Zhongxiang; Feng, Tao

    2015-09-01

    The volatile compounds in gingko wine, a novel functional wine, were extracted by head-space solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) coupled with odor activity value (OAV) and relative odor contribution (ROC) analyses. In addition, the total polyphenolic content of gingko wine was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and its antioxidant capacity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. Fifty-eight compounds were tentatively identified, including 13 esters, 10 alcohols, 11 acids, 12 carbonyl compounds, 2 lactones, 2 phenols, and 8 hydrocarbons. Ethyl hexanoate, ethyl pentanoate, nonanal, ethyl butyrate and ethyl heptanoate were the major contributors to the gingko wine aroma based on the results of OAV and ROC. The total phenols content of the gingko wine was 456 mg/L gallic acid equivalents, and its antioxidant capacity was higher than those of typical Chinese liquors analyzed in this paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Total Flavonoids Content in the Raw Material and Aqueous Extractives from Bauhinia monandra Kurz (Caesalpiniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Josane Dantas Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the spectrophotometric methodology for determining the total flavonoid content (TFC in herbal drug and derived products from Bauhinia monandra Kurz. Several analytical parameters from this method grounded on the complex formed between flavonoids and AlCl3 were evaluated such as herbal amount (0.25 to 1.25 g; solvent composition (ethanol 40 to 80%, v/v; as well as the reaction time and AlCl3 concentration (2 to 9%, w/v. The method was adjusted to aqueous extractives and its performance studied through precision, linearity and preliminary robustness. The results showed an important dependence of the method response from reaction time, AlCl3 concentration, sample amount, and solvent mixture. After choosing the optimized condition, the method was applied for the matrixes (herbal material and extractives, showing precision lower than 5% (for both parameters repeatability and intermediate precision, coefficient of determination higher than 0.99, and no important influence could be observed for slight variations from wavelength or AlCl3 concentration. Thus, it could be concluded that the evaluated analytical procedure was suitable to quantify the total flavonoid content in raw material and aqueous extractives from leaves of B. monandra.

  18. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic contents and biological evaluation of aerial parts of nepeta praetervisa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareed, G.; Afza, N.; Mali, A.; Fareed, N.; Lateef, M.; Iqbal, L.; Mughal, U.R

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the phytochemical screening, total phenolic contents, radical scavenging potential and urease inhibitory activities in various fractions of the aerial parts of Nepeta praetervisa. Sub-fractions (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous) were prepared from the crude methanolic extract using partition chromatography. Phytochemical tests were performed and revealed the presence of various classes of secondary metabolites in various sub-fractions (Table-1). Total phenolic contents of all the fractions were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) reagent and the ethyl acetate sub-fraction was found to possess the highest level of phenolic contents (627.25 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g) as compared to the other fractions. The radical scavenging activity was determined at various concentrations ranging from 2.5 - 0.15 micro g /10 mu L by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) method. At the lowest concentration level, the ethyl acetate sub-fraction showed maximum level of antioxidant activity (78%) compared to BHA used as standard. The decreasing order of activity was ethyl acetate>chloroform>aqueous>n-butanol>methanol>n-hexane. On the other hand when all these fractions were screened for urease inhibition activity using indophenols method, the ethyl acetate sub-fraction showed significant urease inhibitory activity (68 %) compared with the standard thiourea at the concentration of 50 mu g /10 mu L. The decreasing order of activity of various sub-fractions was ethyl acetate>chloroform>hexane>aqueous, while n-butanol sub- fraction was inactive. (author)

  19. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barikmo Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. Methods We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. Results The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. Conclusions This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential

  20. The total antioxidant content of more than 3100 foods, beverages, spices, herbs and supplements used worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. Methods We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name) were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. Results The results demonstrate that there are several thousand-fold differences in antioxidant content of foods. Spices, herbs and supplements include the most antioxidant rich products in our study, some exceptionally high. Berries, fruits, nuts, chocolate, vegetables and products thereof constitute common foods and beverages with high antioxidant values. Conclusions This database is to our best knowledge the most comprehensive Antioxidant Food Database published and it shows that plant-based foods introduce significantly more antioxidants into human diet than non-plant foods. Because of the large variations observed between otherwise comparable food samples the study emphasizes the importance of using a comprehensive database combined with a detailed system for food registration in clinical and epidemiological studies. The present antioxidant database is therefore an essential research tool to further elucidate the potential health effects of

  1. [Contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins as well as composition of saponin monomers of Purple and Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chang-ling; Yang, Sheng-chao; Chen, Zhong-jian; Shen, Yong; Wei, Fu-gang; Wang, Wu; Long, Ting-ju

    2014-10-01

    The contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins as well as the composition of saponin monomers of Purple and Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were studied to compare the medicinal quality and commercial values. Three-year-old Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma was selected as the research materials. The contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins were determined by spectrophotometry. The compositions of saponin monomers were monitored by HPLC. The significance of content differences was determined by variance analysis. The contents of total anthocyanins and total saponins of Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizomawere about 204.85% and 33.86% higher than those of Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma respectively. The Purple and Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma both contained five saponin monomers whose contents were as follows: ginsenoside Rg1 > ginsenoside Rb1 > notoginsenoside R1 > ginsenoside Rd > ginsenoside Re. The contents of notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Re of Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were about 16.03%, 10.83% and 5.39% higher than those of Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma respectively. However, the contents of ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rb1 of Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma were about 0.93% and 3.33% higher than those of Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma respectively. With respect to Green Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, the increase of the total anthocyanins in Purple Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma reached a significant level, but the increases of total saponins, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Re and the decreases of ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rb1 did not. The total anthocyanins accumulation in Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma implies the content increases of the total saponins, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rd and ginsenoside Re, and the slight decreases of ginsenoside Rg1 and ginsenoside Rb1 contents; but the type and relative contents of saponin monomers remain unchanged. The medicinal

  2. Measurement of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of aerial parts of medicinal plant Coronopus didymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Hafiza; Semmar, Nabil; Farman, Muhammad; McCullagh, James S O

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the total phenolic content and compare the antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts and fractions from the aerial parts of Coronopus didymus through various assays. Total phenolic content was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and the in vitro antioxidant activity of a number of different extracts was investigated in a dose-dependent manner with three different methods: the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. A flavone was isolated from the most active ethanolic extract with high antioxidant activity using size exclusion chromatography. IC 50 values were calculated for the DPPH and ABTS methods. The FRAP activity was assessed in terms of μM Fe (II) equivalent. The phenolic content was found to be highest in the ethanol extract (CDA Et; 47.8 mM GAE) and the lowest in the dichloromethane extract (CDA DCM; 3.13 mM GAE). The ethanol extract showed high radical scavenging activity towards DPPH and ABTS radicals with IC 50 values of (7.80 × 10 2 ) and (4.32 × 10 2 ) μg/mL, respectively. The most active ethanol extract had a FRAP value of 1921.7 μM Fe (II) equivalent. The isolated flavone F10C (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxy flavone) was far more effective for scavenging free radicals in the DPPH and ABTS assays with IC 50 of 43.8 and 0.08 μg/mL, than the standard trolox, with IC 50 values of 97.5 and 21.1 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, the flavone F10C and the standard ascorbic acid had FRAP values of 1621.7 and 16 038.0 μM Fe (II) equivalents, respectively. The total phenolic content of extracts in decreasing order is ethanol extract (CDA Et) > acetone extract (CDA ACE) > phenolic extract (CDA MW) > n-hexane extract (CDA nHX)> chloroform extract (CDA CHL) > dichloromethane extract (CDA DCM). The ordering of extracts in terms of antioxidant activity from highest to lowest is CDA Et

  3. Total polyphenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant properties of eight Sida species from Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanya, M D; Pai, Sandeep R; Upadhya, Vinayak; Ankad, Gireesh M; Bhagwat, Shalini S; Hegde, Harsha V

    2015-01-01

    Sida L., is a medicinally important genus, the species of which are widely used in traditional systems of medicine in India. Pharmacologically, roots are known for anti-tumor, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, and many other properties. Phenolic antioxidants help in reducing oxidative stress occurring during treatment of such diseases. The study aimed to evaluate and compare polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of eight selected species of Sida from Western Ghats, India. Methanolic root extracts (10% w/v) of Sida species, viz., S. acuta, S. cordata, S. cordifolia, S. indica, S. mysorensis, S. retusa, S. rhombifolia, and S. spinosa were analyzed. Sida cordifolia possessed highest total phenolic content (TPC: 1.92 ± 0.10 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent/g and 2.13 ± 0.11 mg Tannic Acid Equivalant/g), total flavonoid content (TF: 2.60 ± 0.13 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g) and also possessed highest antioxidant activities in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (51.31 ± 2.57% Radical Scavenging Activity, (RSA); Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 566.25 ± 28.31μM; Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 477.80 ± 23.89 μM) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays (TEAC: 590.67 ± 29.53 μM; AEAC: 600.67 ± 30.03 μM). Unlike DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) activity, 2, 2'-Azinobis (3-ethyl Benzo Thiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid) ABTS(+) antioxidant activity was highest in S. indica (TEAC: 878.44 ± 43.92 μM; AEAC 968.44 ± 48.42 μM). It was significant to note that values of AEAC (μM) for all the antioxidant activities analyzed were higher than that of TEAC. The high contents of phenolic compounds in the root extracts of selected Sida species have direct correlation with their antioxidant properties. Conclusively, roots of S. cordifolia can be considered as the potential source of polyphenols and antioxidants.

  4. Total polyphenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant properties of eight Sida species from Western Ghats, India

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    M D Subramanya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sida L., is a medicinally important genus, the species of which are widely used in traditional systems of medicine in India. Pharmacologically, roots are known for anti-tumor, anti-HIV, hepatoprotective, and many other properties. Phenolic antioxidants help in reducing oxidative stress occurring during treatment of such diseases. Objective: The study aimed to evaluate and compare polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of eight selected species of Sida from Western Ghats, India. Materials and Methods: Methanolic root extracts (10% w/v of Sida species, viz., S. acuta, S. cordata, S. cordifolia, S. indica, S. mysorensis, S. retusa, S. rhombifolia, and S. spinosa were analyzed. Results: Sida cordifolia possessed highest total phenolic content (TPC: 1.92 ± 0.10 mg Caffeic Acid Equivalent/g and 2.13 ± 0.11 mg Tannic Acid Equivalant/g, total flavonoid content (TF: 2.60 ± 0.13 mg Quercetin Equivalent/g and also possessed highest antioxidant activities in 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging (51.31 ± 2.57% Radical Scavenging Activity, (RSA; Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 566.25 ± 28.31μM; Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity: 477.80 ± 23.89 μM and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays (TEAC: 590.67 ± 29.53 μM; AEAC: 600.67 ± 30.03 μM. Unlike DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP activity, 2, 2Ͳ-Azinobis (3-ethyl Benzo Thiazoline-6-Sulfonic acid ABTS + antioxidant activity was highest in S. indica (TEAC: 878.44 ± 43.92 μM; AEAC 968.44 ± 48.42 μM. It was significant to note that values of AEAC (μM for all the antioxidant activities analyzed were higher than that of TEAC. Conclusion: The high contents of phenolic compounds in the root extracts of selected Sida species have direct correlation with their antioxidant properties. Conclusively, roots of S. cordifolia can be considered as the potential source of polyphenols and antioxidants.

  5. Cooking process evaluation on micronutrient and total mercury content in fish species in Manaus, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Luciana; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Vaconcellos, Marina B.A.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated different cooking processes (roasted, cooked and fried) on micronutrient (Ca, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn) and total Hg content in fish species most consumed by Manaus residents and surrounding communities. Twelve different fresh water fish species were purchased at the central receiving market (CEASA) in Manaus and prepared at the INPA Food and Nutrition Laboratory. In total 64 fish samples were analysed. Analytical determinations were performed by Neutron Activation Analysis Technique (NAA) for micronutrients and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV AAS) for total Hg. All analytical methods were developed and validated for precision and accuracy by means of reference material analyses with certified values for the elements determined. The concentration variation of the analyzed elements was: Hg (2392 to 19 μ kg -1 ); K (19187 to 1185 mg kg -1 ); Ca (14590 to 994 mg kg -1 ); Na (18386 to 12850 mg kg -1 ); Fe (5580 to 4 mg kg -1 ); Se (5249 to 129 μg kg -1 ) and Zn (684 to 15 mg kg -1 ). The effect of the different cooking processes on the variation of micronutrient composition was quite significant. On the other hand Hg composition variation seems to be more related to fish species rather than the cooking process itself. As was expected, predatory species presented higher Hg and Se levels. (author)

  6. The antioxidant master glutathione and periodontal health

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    Vivek Kumar Bains

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione, considered to be the master antioxidant (AO, is the most-important redox regulator that controls inflammatory processes, and thus damage to the periodontium. Periodontitis patients have reduced total AO capacity in whole saliva, and lower concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH in serum and gingival crevicular fluid, and periodontal therapy restores the redox balance. Therapeutic considerations for the adjunctive use of glutathione in management of periodontitis, in limiting the tissue damage associated with oxidative stress, and enhancing wound healing cannot be underestimated, but need to be evaluated further through multi-centered randomized controlled trials.

  7. Correction of glutathione deficiency in the lower respiratory tract of HIV seropositive individuals by glutathione aerosol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, K J; Buhl, R; Borok, Z; Roum, J H; Bokser, A D; Grimes, G J; Czerski, D; Cantin, A M; Crystal, R G

    1993-10-01

    Concentrations of glutathione, a ubiquitous tripeptide with immune enhancing and antioxidant properties, are decreased in the blood and lung epithelial lining fluid of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive individuals. Since the lung is the most common site of infection in those who progress to AIDS it is rational to consider whether it is possible to safely augment glutathione levels in the epithelial lining fluid of HIV seropositive individuals, thus potentially improving local host defence. Purified reduced glutathione was delivered by aerosol to HIV seropositive individuals (n = 14) and the glutathione levels in lung epithelial lining fluid were compared before and at one, two, and three hours after aerosol administration. Before treatment total glutathione concentrations in the epithelial lining fluid were approximately 60% of controls. After three days of twice daily doses each of 600 mg reduced glutathione, total glutathione levels in the epithelial lining fluid increased and remained in the normal range for at least three hours after treatment. Strikingly, even though > 95% of the glutathione in the aerosol was in its reduced form, the percentage of oxidised glutathione in epithelial lining fluid increased from 5% before treatment to about 40% three hours after treatment, probably reflecting the use of glutathione as an antioxidant in vivo. No adverse effects were observed. It is feasible and safe to use aerosolised reduced glutathione to augment the deficient glutathione levels of the lower respiratory tract of HIV seropositive individuals. It is rational to evaluate further the efficacy of this tripeptide in improving host defence in HIV seropositive individuals.

  8. Effect of Different Solvents on Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Zizyphus jujube Miller Fruits

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    Gholamhossein Davarynejad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenolic compounds have an ability to scavenge free radicals and cause the balance of reactive oxygen species (ROS in our body. This balance prevents atherosclerosis, coronary heart and cancer diseases. Butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT is a well-known synthetic antioxidant, which is restricted to be used due to its probable toxic effects. Therefore, replacement of synthetic antioxidants with plant materials with high amounts of antioxidant activity, which protect the body from free radicals and many diseases caused by lipid peroxidation, is an appropriate option. ZiziphusjujubaMiller is one of the forty species belonging to Rhamnaceae family, which produces a great deal of industrial raw materials for horticultural, ornamental, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Antioxidants can be extracted by various solvents and extraction methods. Solvent extraction is the most common method used for separating natural antioxidants. Solvent properties undoubtedly play a key role in the extraction of antioxidative compounds. The type and yield of antioxidant extracted have been found to vary as affected by the solvent properties such as polarity, viscosity and vapor pressure. Therefore, it is difficult to develop a unified standard method for the extraction of antioxidants from all plant materials. Materials and Methods: Plant materials Fresh fruits were collected from Birjand, Iran, in late summer 2014. The samples were air dried under the shade at room temperature. Dried fruits were ground by using a mortar and pestle and were separately extracted by distilled water and organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol and acetone (50%, 90% and100% (v/v. After filtering through the Whatman paper #3 and removing the solvents (using a rotary evaporator (BUCHI V-850 and water (using a freeze dryer, (OPERON, FDB-5503, Korea, the dried extracts were stored in refrigerator for further analysis. Determination of Total Phenolic Content (TPC Samples were

  9. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN DAN KADAR FENOLIK TOTAL DARI GANGGANG MERAH (Gracilaria verrucosa L. [Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Red Sea Weed (Gracilaria verrucosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Ninan Lestario*

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content of red sea weed (Gracilaria verrucosa L. from extract of methanol, ethanol, acetone, chloroform and hexane; and the correlation between total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of each extract; then to determine the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotene content of each extract and their correlation with the free radical scavenging activity as well. The antioxidant activity were measured by free radical scavenging method with DPPH and by reducing power method with K4Fe(CN6 as standard, whereas the total phenolic content was measured by Folin Ciocalteu method with gallic acid as standard. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotene were determined by spectrophotometric method based on Lambert-Beer law. The data of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were statistically analyzed by Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD with five kinds of solvents as treatments and five replications. Honestly Significant Difference Test (HSDT was used to compare the difference of treatments; whereas the chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotene content were not statistically analyzed since they were only supplement data. The results showed that the highest of the antioxidant activity by free radical scavenging method was found in acetone extract : 43.43% (BHT: 84.15%; whereas by reducing power method was found in chloroform extract : 0.1756 meq K4Fe(CN6/g extract (BHT : 6.1767 meq K4Fe(CN6/g extract; and the highest of the total phenolic content was also found in acetone extract : 45.29 mg /g extract. There were close correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant activity both by free radical scavenging method and by reducing power method with r (coefficient correlation respectivelly 0.89 and 0.91.Chlorophyll a and carotene had also close correlation with the free radical scaveging activity, but not for chlorophyll b.

  10. Total Content of Carotenoids in Corn Landraces and Their Potential Health Applications

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    Stăncuța Scrob

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research was designed to quantify the carotenoid compounds from the experimental variability of the corn genotypes. The experimental material for the present investigation consisted of 19 corn hybrids from Agricultural Research and Development Station (ARDSTurda, Romania. The experiment was carried out during two seasons 2011 and 2012. Corn hybrids Turda 215, Mold Turda 188, Turda 200, Turda SU 181 and HS 105 were noticed by the fact that in the year of culture 2012, they showed a beginning of accumulation of total content of carotenoids more than 27 µg/g DW as compared to 15 µg/g DW corresponding to the year o culture 2011 due to soil and climate conditions favoring the accumulation of carotenoid compounds. According to our study, the highest concentration of TC was recorded in light yellow, dark yellow and orange hybrids.

  11. Surfactant mediated extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruits juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Kori, Shivpoojan; Parmar, Ankush

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to enhance the extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruit juices by the application of surfactants formulations instead of conventional solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetone). A variety of fruit infusions: apple red delicious (apple (rd)) (Malus domestica), Mcintosh apple (apple (i)) (Malus pumila), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta) and mango (Magnifera indica) were studied. Effect of water, organic solvents and five different aqueous surfactant formulations viz. SDS, Brij-35, Brij-58, Triton X-100 and Span-40 were explored for the extraction of TPC and determining the antioxidant activity (AA). The TPC and AA (%) were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FCA) and DPPH assay, respectively. The effect of surfactant type, concentration and common organic solvents on the extraction of TPC and AA (%) was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometric technique. Among all the extracting systems employed, Brij-58 showed the highest extraction efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatial correlation of the ionsphere total electron content at the equatorial anomaly crest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The spatial correlation of the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) at the equatorial anomaly crest was studied by recording Faraday rotation angle of the ETS-II geostationary satellite at Lunping and Kaohsiung whose subionospheric points are located at 23.0 0 N, 121.0 0 N, and 20.9 0 N, 121.1 0 E, respectively, and are about 280 km apart. The results show that the spatial correlation of TEC at the equatorial crest region is smaller than that at other places. The day-to-day variabilities of TEC differences between two subionospheric points are quite large. The day-to-day variabilities of the fountain effect seem to play an important role

  13. Sibsonian and non-Sibsonian natural neighbour interpolation of the total electron content value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotulak, Kacper; Froń, Adam; Krankowski, Andrzej; Pulido, German Olivares; Henrandez-Pajares, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    In radioastronomy the interferometric measurement between radiotelescopes located relatively close to each other helps removing ionospheric effects. Unfortunately, in case of networks such as LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR), due to long baselines (currently up to 1500 km), interferometric methods fail to provide sufficiently accurate ionosphere delay corrections. Practically it means that systems such as LOFAR need external ionosphere information, coming from Global or Regional Ionospheric Maps (GIMs or RIMs, respectively). Thanks to the technology based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), the scientific community is provided with ionosphere sounding virtually worldwide. In this paper we compare several interpolation methods for RIMs computation based on scattered Vertical Total Electron Content measurements located on one thin ionospheric layer (Ionospheric Pierce Points—IPPs). The results of this work show that methods that take into account the topology of the data distribution (e.g., natural neighbour interpolation) perform better than those based on geometric computation only (e.g., distance-weighted methods).

  14. Increasing Provasculature Complexity in the Arabidopsis Embryo May Increase Total Iron Content in Seeds: A Hypothesis

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    Hannetz Roschzttardtz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anemia due to iron deficiency is a worldwide issue, affecting mainly children and women. Seed iron is a major source of this micronutrient for feeding, however, in most crops these levels are too low to meet daily needs. Thus, increasing iron allocation and its storage in seeds can represent an important step to enhance iron provision for humans and animals. Our knowledge on seed iron homeostasis is mainly based on studies performed in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, where iron accumulates in endodermis cells surrounding the embryo provasculature. It has been reported that cotyledon provasculature pattern complexity can be modified, thus we hypothesize that changes in the complexity of embryo vein patterns may affect total iron content in Arabidopsis seeds. This approach could be used as basis to develop strategies aimed to biofortify seeds.

  15. Characterization of GPS total electron content (GPS-TEC in Antarctica from 2004 to 2011

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    Emília Correia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The vertical total electron content (VTEC obtained from 2004 to 2011 at Comandante Ferraz Brazilian Antarctic Station (62.1°S, 58.4°W is analyzed to study the mean diurnal, seasonal and annual variations. The maximum daytime VTEC had an annual variation that decreased from 2004 to 2008, and then starting to increase in 2009, which followed the variation of the solar activity. The daily VTEC shows good linear correlation with solar radiation intensity, which is also dependent on the solar zenithal angle. The mean diurnal VTEC shows a semiannual variation, with larger peaks in equinoxes for all years; no winter anomaly was observed, and in summer, there was no clear diurnal variation. The semiannual variation of the VTEC is also modulated by solar activity, with larger VTEC peaks when the solar activity was higher.

  16. Total contents of phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and antioxidant capacity of selected traditional Ethiopian alcoholic beverages

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    A. Debebe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the total contents of phenolics, tannins and flavonoids and antioxidant capacity and their relationships in traditional Ethiopian alcoholic beverages. They have been determined utilizing Folin–Ciocalteu assay, aluminum chloride precipitating agent and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay, respectively. The most widely consumed beverages and which have many varieties were selected for this study. These are gesho fermented and non-gesho beverages tella, tej, borde, keribo, birz, korefe and areke. The total phenolic content obtained in gallic acid equivalent (GAE μg mL-1 was: areke (0.2–0.62, tella (10.1–19.1, tej (5.8–9.5, keribo (10.4–14.9, birz (10.5–12.2, korefe (9.2–10.7 and borde (8.4–10.6. The majority of phenolic compounds in the alcoholic beverages are non-tannic and non-flavonoid compounds. The antioxidant capacity obtained in ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE μg mL-1 was: areke (-0.28–284, tella (31.6–201, tej (1.73–73.7, keribo (39.21–90.11, birz (41.95–63.08, korefe (58.25–96.45 and borde (180–217. The variation in the antioxidant activity among the beverages is due to the types and amount of ingredients used, disparity in the preparation process and the types of phenolic compounds found. The relationship between total phenolics and antioxidant activities was investigated using Pearson correlation at 95% confidence level. The results obtained indicate that the non-gesho fermented beverages such as keribo (-0.714, birz (-0.686 and borde (-0.212 have negative antioxidant correlation with the total phenolic, whereas, fermented beverages with gesho such as tella (0.539, tej (0.385 and korefe (0.557 have positive correlations. Areke has an overall positive correlation (0.609, but, the cereal areke which does not have medicinal plants has negative correlation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v30i1.3

  17. Rapid, accurate, and direct determination of total lycopene content in tomato paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicanic, D.; Anese, M.; Luterotti, S.; Dadarlat, D.; Gibkes, J.; Lubbers, M.

    2003-01-01

    Lycopene that imparts red color to the tomato fruit is the most potent antioxidant among carotenes, an important nutrient and also used as a color ingredient in many food formulations. Since cooked and processed foods derived from tomatoes were shown to provide optimal lycopene boost, products such as paste, puree, juice, etc. are nowadays gaining popularity as dietary sources. The analysis of lycopene in tomato paste (partially dehydrated product prepared by vacuum concentrating tomato juice) is carried out using either high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), spectrophotometry, or by evaluating the color. The instability of lycopene during processes of extraction, etc., handling, and disposal of organic solvents makes the preparation of a sample for the analysis a delicate task. Despite a recognized need for accurate and rapid assessment of lycopene in tomato products no such method is available at present. The study described here focuses on a direct determination of a total lycopene content in different tomato pastes by means of the laser optothermal window (LOW) method at 502 nm. The concentration of lycopene in tomato paste ranged between 25 and 150 mg per 100 g product; the results are in excellent agreement with those obtained by spectrophotometry. The time needed to complete LOW analysis is very short, so that decomposition of pigment and the formation of artifacts are minimized. Preliminary results indicate a good degree of reproducibility making the LOW method suitable for routine assays of lycopene content in tomato paste.

  18. Determining total sulfur content in coal by MSC radiometric sulfur meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerw, B; Sikora, T; Golebiowski, W

    1976-01-01

    The MSC radiometric sulfur meter is used to determine total sulfur content in brown and black coals. Sulfur content is determined by measuring intensity of radiation beam which has travelled through a coal sample with the optimum constant surface mass. Construction of the MSC, consisting of a measuring head and the electronic measuring system, is shown in a scheme. AM-241 (with activity of 50 mCi) is the source of radiation. Energy of 25.3 keV (tin disc) is selected as the optimum. The SSU-70 probe with NaJ/Tl crystal is the radiation detector. The black coal sample weighs 10 g and the brown coal sample weighs 18 g. Duration of sulfur determination is 10 min. Error of sulfur determination ranges from plus or minus 0.2% to 0.3%. The results of operational tests of MSC radiometric sulfur meters in black and brown coal mines are discussed. Accuracy of measurement is shown in 5 tables. (8 refs.)

  19. Effect of processing on antioxidant potential and total phenolics content in beet (Beta vulgaris L.

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    Dorivaldo da Silva Raupp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of beet is associated with non-nutritive constituents, such as phenolic compounds. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of two different heat-processing techniques (drying and canned on the antioxidant potential (ABTS and phenolics content of beets. A forced air circulation dehydrator was used for the drying. Drying at high temperatures (100 + 90 °C/5.6 hours; 90 °C/6 hours increased the antioxidant potential of the processed products while mild drying conditions decreased it (80 °C/6 hours; 100 + 70 °C/6 hours or had no effect on it (70 °C/7 hours; 100 + 80 °C/6 hours. For the canned products, the antioxidant potential did not differ according to the pH (4.2 to 3.8 for any of the four acids tested. Some processing methods influenced the antioxidant potential of the processed products, and this was also dependent on changes in the total phenolics content.

  20. Effect of growth stages on total phenolics content and antioxidant activity of Fumaria vaillantii L.

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    L. Mehdizadeh*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Plant extracts and their constituents are known to exert biological effects, especially antioxidant activity. Fumaria vaillantii (Fumariaceae has several therapeutic effects in traditional medicine. Antioxidants are able to protect the human body from oxidative damage connected to the reaction of free radicals. Synthetic antioxidants have toxic and carcinogenic effects on human health; therefore, their application has been limited. Thus, there has been an increasing interest in the natural antioxidant compounds to prevent the foods from deterioration. In this study, the antioxidant activity of F. vaillantii extracts at three stages of growth has been evaluated. Methods: The ethanol extracts from the aerial parts of the plants at different phenological stages were prepared and the total phenolics content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Also, the antioxidant activity were determined by three methods as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, ferric-ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and phosphomolybdenum complex tests. All experiments were carried out in triplicate, and data were subjected to ANOVA according to the SAS software. Results: Total phenolics content of vegetative, budding and flowering stages were 68.38, 71.11 and 56.42 mg GAE/g extract, respectively. Although flowering stage showed the highest antioxidant activity in phosphomolybdenum complex, in DPPH and FRAP methods, it decreased from vegetative to flowering stages. Conclusion: According to the results, the Iranian F. vaillantii extract from vegetative stage was a potential source of natural antioxidants for food and pharmaceutical industries that can be used in different industries.

  1. Measuring GNSS ionospheric total electron content at Concordia, and application to L-band radiometers

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    Vincenzo Romano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the project BIS - Bipolar Ionospheric Scintillation and Total Electron Content Monitoring, the ISACCO-DMC0 and ISACCO-DMC1 permanent monitoring stations were installed in 2008. The principal scope of the stations is to measure the ionospheric total electron content (TEC and to monitor the ionospheric scintillations, using high-sampling-frequency global positioning system (GPS ionospheric scintillation and TEC monitor (GISTM receivers. The disturbances that the ionosphere can induce on the electromagnetic signals emitted by the Global Navigation Satellite System constellations are due to the presence of electron density anomalies in the ionosphere, which are particularly frequent at high latitudes, where the upper atmosphere is highly sensitive to perturbations coming from outer space. With the development of present and future low-frequency space-borne microwave missions (e.g., Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity [SMOS], Aquarius, and Soil Moisture Active Passive missions, there is an increasing need to estimate the effects of the ionosphere on the propagation of electromagnetic waves that affects satellite measurements. As an example, how the TEC data collected at Concordia station are useful for the calibration of the European Space Agency SMOS data within the framework of an experiment promoted by the European Space Agency (known as DOMEX will be discussed. The present report shows the ability of the GISTM station to monitor ionospheric scintillation and TEC, which indicates that only the use of continuous GPS measurements can provide accurate information on TEC variability, which is necessary for continuous calibration of satellite data.

  2. Effect of total cementitious content on shear strength of high-volume fly ash concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arezoumandi, Mahdi; Volz, Jeffery S.; Ortega, Carlos A.; Myers, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Existing design standards conservatively predicted the capacity of the HVFAC beams. ► In general, the HVFAC beams exceeded the code predicted shear strengths. ► The cementitious content did not have effect on the shear behavior of the HVFAC beams. - Abstract: The production of portland cement – the key ingredient in concrete – generates a significant amount of carbon dioxide. However, due to its incredible versatility, availability, and relatively low cost, concrete is the most consumed manmade material on the planet. One method of reducing concrete’s contribution to greenhouse gas emissions is the use of fly ash to replace a significant amount of the cement. This paper compares two experimental studies that were conducted to investigate the shear strength of full-scale beams constructed with high-volume fly ash concrete (HVFAC) – concrete with at least 50% of the cement replaced with fly ash. The primary difference between the two studies involved the amount of cementitious material, with one mix having a relatively high total cementitious content (502 kg/m 3 ) and the other mix having a relatively low total cementitious content (337 kg/m 3 ). Both mixes utilized a 70% replacement of portland cement with a Class C fly ash. Each of these experimental programs consisted of eight beams (six without shear reinforcing and two with shear reinforcing in the form of stirrups) with three different longitudinal reinforcement ratios. The beams were tested under a simply supported four-point loading condition. The experimental shear strengths of the beams were compared with both the shear provisions of selected standards (US, Australia, Canada, Europe, and Japan) and a shear database of conventional concrete (CC) specimens. Furthermore, statistical data analyses (both parametric and nonparametric) were performed to evaluate whether or not there is any statistically significant difference between the shear strength of both mixes. Results of these

  3. Total Contents and Sequential Extraction of Heavy Metals in Soils Irrigated with Wastewater, Akaki, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitamo, Daniel; Itana, Fisseha; Olsson, Mats

    2007-02-01

    The Akaki River, laden with untreated wastes from domestic, industrial, and commercial sources, serves as a source of water for irrigating vegetable farms. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of waste-water irrigation on the level of heavy metals and to predict their potential mobility and bioavailability. Zn and V had the highest, whereas Hg the lowest, concentrations observed in the soils. The average contents of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, V, and Hg of both soils; and Pb and Se from Fluvisol surpassed the mean + 2 SD of the corresponding levels reported for their uncontaminated counterparts. Apparently, irrigation with waste water for the last few decades has contributed to the observed higher concentrations of the above elements in the study soils (Vertisol and Fluvisol) when compared to uncontaminated Vertisol and Fluvisol. On the other hand, Vertisol accommodated comparatively higher average levels of Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, etc V, and Cd, whereas high contents of Pb and Se were observed in Fluvisol. Alternatively, comparable levels of Co and Hg were found in either soil. Except for Ni, Cr, and Cd in contaminated Vertisol, heavy metals in the soils were not significantly affected by the depth (0-20 and 30-50 cm). When the same element from the two soils was compared, the levels of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn, V, Cd at 0-20 cm; and Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Zn at 30-50 cm were significantly different. Organic carbon (in both soils), CEC (Fluvisol), and clay (Vertisol) exhibited significant positive correspondences with the total heavy metal levels. Conversely, Se and Hg contents revealed perceptible associations with carbonate and pH. The exchangeable fraction was dominated by Hg and Cd, whereas the carbonate fraction was abounded with Cd, Pb, and Co. conversely, V and Pb displayed strong affinity to reducible fraction, where as Cr, Cu, Zn, and Ni dominated the oxidizable fraction. Cr, Hg, Se, and Zn (in both soils) showed preference to the residual fraction

  4. Effect of cold storage on total phenolics content, antioxidant activity and vitamin C level of selected potato clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külen, Oktay; Stushnoff, Cecil; Holm, David G

    2013-08-15

    Twelve Colorado-grown specialty potato clones were evaluated for total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and ascorbic acid content at harvest and after 2, 4, 6 and 7 months cold storage at 4 °C. Potato clones were categorized as pigmented ('CO97226-2R/R', 'CO99364-3R/R', 'CO97215-2P/P', 'CO97216-3P/P', 'CO97227-2P/P', 'CO97222-1R/R', 'Purple Majesty', 'Mountain Rose' and 'All Blue'), yellow ('Yukon Gold') and white fleshed ('Russet Nugget', 'Russet Burbank'). Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to estimate total phenolic content, and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS(•+) ) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•) ) radical scavenging assays were used to estimate antioxidant capacity. Pigmented potato genotypes had significantly higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity at all data points than yellow- and white-fleshed cultivars. Vitamin C content was higher in 'Yukon Gold' than in the other clones. The highest level of vitamin C in all clones was at harvest and after 2 months in cold storage. Vitamin C content in all potato clones dropped rapidly with longer intervals of cold storage. Although total phenolic content and antioxidant activity fluctuated during cold storage, after 7 months of cold storage their levels were slightly higher than at harvest. Total phenolic content was better correlated with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)/ABTS(•+) than the TEAC/DPPH(•) radical scavenging assay. Pigmented potato clones had significantly higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity, while the yellow-fleshed potato cultivar 'Yukon Gold' had significantly higher vitamin C content. Vitamin C content decreased in all potato clones during cold storage, while total phenolics increased in pigmented clones. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Total Nitorgen Content from Earthworm (Eisenia Foetida Using The Kjeldahl Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarina Zakaria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the fish aquaculture management, fish feed is identified as a major problem. The high cost and scarcity of fishmeal in formulated feeds have led to the use of other protein sources such as earthworms and animal by-product. Earthworm is an alternative protein source to replace the fish meal in the fish feed formulation. In this study, total nitrogen content in earthworm powder is determined using the Kjeldahl method by employing the statistical software, Full Factorial Design (FFD which could provide the significant information about the studied parameters. The parameters are the digestion time (min and the volume of sulfuric acid (H2SO4 (ml. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA, the volume of H2SO4and the interaction between digestion time and the volume of H2SO4arefound to be important parameters in the nitrogen determination process via the Kjeldahl method. The highest nitrogen content obtained was 12.23% when using 15 ml H2SO4 and 60 mins of digestion time. The value of R2 is 0.9986 which shows that the selected parameters (the digestion time and the volume of H2SO4 and its corresponding levels are highly correlated to the percentage nitrogen content in earthworm powder using the Kjeldahl method. ABSTRAK:Dalam pengurusan akuakultur ikan, makanan telah dikenalpasti sebagai masalah utama. Kos yang tinggi serta kekurangan sumber makanan telah menggalakkan pencarian sumber protein baru seperti cacing tanah dan hasil sampingan sembelihan haiwan ternakan. Cacing adalah sumber protein alternatif menggantikan ramuan ikan (fish meal dalam formulasi makanan ikan. Dalam kajian ini, kandungan jumlah nitrogen dalam serbuk cacing tanah telah dianalisa menggunakan kaedah Kjeldahl dengan menggunapakai perisian statistikal iaitu Full Factorial Design (FFD yang boleh memberikan maklumat yang penting berkenaan dengan parameter-parameter yang dikaji. Parameter-parameter tersebut adalah masa pencernaan (min dan isipadu asid sulfurik (H2SO4 (ml. Daripada

  6. Pharmacological Evaluation of Total Alkaloids from Nux Vomica: Effect of Reducing Strychnine Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of improving the therapeutic efficacy of the total alkaloid fraction (TAF extracted from processed nux vomica by reducing the strychnine contents. Most strychnine was removed from TAF to obtain the modified total alkaloid fraction (MTAF. The toxicity and pharmacokinetics of TAF and MTAF were further investigated and compared besides their antitumor, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The results showed that the ratios of brucine to strychnine were 1:2.05 and 2.2:1 for TAF and MTAF, respectively, and the toxicity of TAF was about 3.17-fold higher than that of MTAF. Compared to brucine alone, the elimination of brucine was found to be inhibited by other alkaloids in TAF or MTAF except strychnine. Significantly increased pharmacological activities when administered by the oral route were obtained with MTAF in comparison to TAF and nux vomica powder (NVP. In summary, MTAF might replace NVP and TAF in the clinical application of Chinese medicine to obtain much higher efficacy.

  7. Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and Antiproliferative Activities and Total Polyphenol Contents of the Extracts of Geissospermum reticulatum Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna J. Sajkowska-Kozielewicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geissospermum species are medically important plants due to their health-promoting effects. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant ability and antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of infusions, tinctures, and ethanolic extracts of Geissospermum reticulatum barks in relation to the contents of total phenolics and flavonoids. Seven samples of barks were collected in various regions of Peruvian Amazonia. We found that the amount of total phenolics in the studied products varied from 212.40 ± 0.69 to 1253.92 ± 11.20 mg GAE/kg. In our study there is a correlation (R2=0.7947 between the results of antioxidants assays: FRAP and ORAC for tinctures, infusions, and ethanolic extracts of G. reticulatum barks. We have also observed antiproliferative activities of the ethanolic extracts on normal T-cells. These extracts have caused death on malignant cell lines (THP-1 and HL-60 and this data correlates well with their antioxidant capacity measured by ORAC method. Interestingly, the highest concentration of the ethanolic extract was not toxic in the zebrafish embryo developmental assay. Our results indicate that G. reticulatum is rich in antioxidants and have cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties. The data suggests potential immunosuppressive role of the extracts. This is the first study presenting the results of chemical and biological analysis of multiple preparations from G. reticulatum.

  8. Correlation of radial bone mineral content with total body calcium in chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Caselnova, R.C.; Asad, S.N.; Letteri, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Loss of bone mineral of the skeleton in renal disease can be measured directly by total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA), and also by an absorptiometric technique applied to the appendicular skeleton (radius). In the present study the results of these two techniques are compared in 25 patients with renal insufficiency, 53 patients with end-stage renal failure on dialysis, and 24 normal control subjects. It is apparent that there is good correlation between total body calcium (TBCa) and bone mineral content (BMC) in all groups studied. The correlation in the normal contrast group was 0.944 as compared to 0.919 for the renal patients and 0.892 for patients with end-stage renal failure on dialysis. In order to measure the relative deficit in TBCa in individual patients from the absolute Ca measurement, it is necessary to normalize the data for sex, age, and skeletal size. For this purpose, an empirically derived relationship was used to predict the normal skeletal Ca in each subject, based on weight, height, sex, and age. The measured TBCa divided by the predicted TBCa is referred to as the calcium ratio. This ratio is useful in expressing the relative deficit of Ca in individual renal patients. In similar manner, BMC data were normalized, with the same relationship used to obtain BMC ratios. The normalization procedures allow both the TBCa and BMC measurements to be used to quantitate the Ca deficit in individual patients with renal insufficiency

  9. Effect of nutrients on total lipid content and fatty acids profile of Scenedesmus obliquus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Zarei Darki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effect of nutrients on the total lipid content and fatty acid profile of Scenedesmus obliquus isolated from the south coast of the Caspian Sea was evaluated. The nutritional compositions of the media impacted the growth rate and biomass of S. obliquus that ranged from 0.175 day-1 to 0.209 day-1and 0.92 gr·l-1 to 1.79 gr·l-1, respectively. The alga grew better in the medium which was characterized by higher levels of sodium and trace elements such as Fe, Mn, Mo, and Co and poor in N and P as compared with the other media. The highest level of the total lipid (32% and the highest values of saturated fatty acids, in particular palmitic acid also were positively correlated with these nutrients. Peaks in polyunsaturated fatty acids (43.7 %, especially α-linolenic acid (28.4% were related to N and P, but its correlation with K and Mg was more evident. The most important factors correlated with high amount of monounsaturated fatty acids were also N and P, followed by K and Mg to a lesser extent. This study demonstrated that the same algal strain may be a source of different amount of fatty acids, depending on the composition of the culture medium.

  10. Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Blepharis edulis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddese Mahboubi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Blepharis edulis is traditionally used as an antiseptic, purgative, aphrodisiac and anti-inflammatory agent. The extractsof plant aerial parts were screened for total phenolic content (TPC gallic acid equivalents (GAE, total flavonoid compound(TFC quercetin equivalents (QE, antioxidant capacity and its antimicrobial activity by micro broth dilution assay. The 50%-inhibition values of BHT and 70% (v/v aqueous ethanol, 70% (v/v aqueous methanol, methanol, and water extracts of B.edulis according to the DPPH method were found to be 19.6, 71.2, 73.7, 81.4, and 218.4 g/ml, respectively. TPC ranged from38.9 to 102.7 mg GAE/g dry extracts. The antimicrobial activity showed that yeast and fungi were sensitive and resistantmicroorganisms to the extracts. The 70%-methanol extract showed more drastic antimicrobial activity than the others. Theantimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract is the same as of the methanolic extract; water extract had the weakest antimicrobialactivity.

  11. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged...

  12. Total carbon content and humic substances quality in selected subtypes of Cambisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Petrášová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cambisols cover an estimated 45% of agricultural soils in the Czech Republic. We aimed our work at stabile forms of organic carbon and humic substances quality in Cambisols under different types of soil management (grassland and arable soil. Object of our study were the following subtypes of Cambisols: Eutric Cambisol (locality Vatín – arable soil, Eutric Cambisol (locality Vatín – grassland, Haplic Cambisol (locality Náměšť n/Oslavou – arable soil, Leptic Cambisol (locality Ocmanice – grassland, Haplic Cambisol (locality Nové Město na Moravě – arable soil, Haplic Cambisol (locality Přemyslov – Tři Kameny – grassland, Arenic Cambisol (locality Pocoucov – arable soil, Dystric Cambisol (locality Sněžné – arable soil, Dystric Cambisol (locality Velká Skrovnice – arable soil, Dystric Cambisol (locality Vojnův Městec – arable soil. Non-destructive spectroscopic methods such as UV-VIS spectroscopy, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS and 13C NMR spectroscopy for humic substances (HS quality assessment were used. Total organic carbon (TOC content was determined by oxidimetric titration. Fractionation of HS was made by short fractionation method. Isolation of pure humic ­acids (HA preparation was made according to the standard IHSS method.Results showed that TOC and humus content varied from 2.70 % (grassland to 1.3 % (arable soil. Ave­ra­ge HS sum was 8.4 mg / kg in grassland and 6.4 mg / kg in arable soil. Average HA sum was 3.6 mg / kg in grassland and 3 mg / kg in arable soil. Fulvic acids (FA content was 4.7 mg / kg in grassland and 3.7 mg / kg in arable soil. HS quality was low and very similar for all studied samples. HA/FA ratio low (< 1. HS absorbance in UV-VIS spectral range was low and similar in all studied samples. Higher absorption in this spectral range was closely connected with higher HS content. Also in 2D-synchronous fluorescence scan spectra

  13. The state of glutathion system of blood, brain and liver of white rats after chronic gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petushok, N.Eh.; Lashak, L.K.; Trebukhina, R.V.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of 3-fold gamma-irradiation in total dose 0,75 Gy on the glutathion system in different periods after exposure (1 hour, 1 day, 1 and 4 weeks) in blood, brain and liver of white rats were studied. It was concluded that liver and brain have higher ability to maintain the stability of antioxidant system than blood has. After shot disturbances caused by irradiation in brain and liver the state of glutathion system of detoxication has normalized, while concentration of malonic dialdehyde was raised in all terms. The most pronounced changes of antioxidant system were registered in blood at early terms (1 hour) after irradiation that was manifested in increasing of reduced glutathion content, raising of glutathion reductase and catalase activity. In remote period the activity of this system in blood was exhausted

  14. Changes of reduced glutathion, glutathion reductase, and glutathione peroxidase after radiation in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erden, M.; Bor, N.M.

    1984-01-01

    In this series of experiments the protective action of reduced glutathion due to ionizing radiation has been studied. In the experimental group 18 guinea pigs were exposed to successive radiations of 150 rad 3 or 4 days apart. Total dose given amounted to 750 rad which is the LD50 for guinea pigs. Blood samples were taken 30 min after each exposure. The control series were sham radiated but otherwise treated identically. The cells of the removed blood samples were separated by centrifugation and were subjected to the reduced glutathion stability test. GSSGR, GPer, and LDH enzyme activities were also measured of which the latter served as a marked enzyme. It was found that LDH did not show any alteration after radiation. The reduced glutathion stability test showed a consistent but minor reduction (P greater than 0.05), in the experimental group. GSSGR enzyme activity on the other hand was reduced significantly (from 176.48 +/- 11.32 to 41.34 +/- 1.17 IU/ml of packed erythrocytes, P less than 0.001) in the same group. GPer activity showed a consistent but minor elevation during the early phase of the experimental group. It was later increased significantly beginning after 600 rad total radiation on the fourth session (P less than 0.050)

  15. Studies on the relationship between the radiation resistance and glutathione content of human and rodent cells after treatment with dexamethasone in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, B.C.; Jinks, S.

    1985-01-01

    a 20 pre-treatment of human cells from normal (foetal lung) or malignant origin (glioma, lines U118 MG and U251 MG and bladder carcinoma, line EJ) with dexamethasone failed to increase their radiation resistance in vitro despite a 2-fold increase in the GSH content of a glioma cell line, U251 MG, and a small but significant increase in the GSH content of EJ bladder carcinoma cells. In contrast, there was a correlation between an increase in radiation resistance and an elevated GSH content of rodent cells (Chinese hamster lung, line V-79-379A; ovary, line CHO; rat hepatoma line HTC, and mouse neuroblastoma, line NB413A) after a similar pre-treatment. The results suggest that enhancement of radiation resistance cannot be directly ascribed to an elevated GSH content in steroid-treated cells. On the bases of these data it is unlikely that the efficacy of radiotherapy will be diminished amongst patients receiving concomitant treatment with dexamethasone. However, in vivo testing is required to confirm these findings. (author)

  16. Total Content of Phenolics and Antioxidant Activity in Crispbreads with Plant By-product addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrade Daiga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable processing in food industry results in significant amount of by-products – peel, mark, bark, seeds still rich in bioactive compounds. Apple, carrot and pumpkin peel and mark may be used for production of crispbreads as functional ingredients. The objective of this study is to investigate the stability of total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity after high temperature and short time (HTST extrusion cooking of a wheat and rice-based crispbreads with addition of apple, carrot and pumpkin by-products obtained after juice extraxtion and dried. Raw materials for crispbread production were wheat flour, rice flour, wheat bran (72%, 24% and 4% respectively with addition of microwave–vacuum dried by-product powder in different amount (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%. Extrusion process was performed by using a laboratory singlescrew extruder GÖTTFERT 1 screw Extrusiometer L series (Germany. Total phenolic content (TPC was determined using the Folin Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by free radical 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH antioxidant scavenging activity using a modified colorimetric method. Comparing different raw formulations, it was observed that the TPC of the apple by-product flour was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than in carrot and pumpkin flour. TPC in cereal-based crispbread was 36.06±1.15 before extrusion and 13.90±1.01 mg GAEg-1 DW (milligram Gallic acid equivalent per 100 g of dry weight (mg GAE 100 g−1 DW after extrusion. Addition of apple BPF increased TPC in crispbreads to 106.25±2.08, carrot BPF 84.73±3.45 and pumpkin BPF to 108.82±1.04 mg GAEg−1 DW. Antioxidant activity of control sample was 1.07±0.01mg TE (Trolox equivalents g−1 DW but in samples with addition of 20% apple by-products, it reached 3.77±0.02 TE g−1 DW for samples wih 20% carrot by-products reached 2.52±0.03TE g−1 DW and for samples wih 20% pumpkin by-products reached 3.77±0.02 TE g−1 DW.

  17. Some measurements of total electron content made with the ATS-6 radio beacon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.; Degenhardt, W.; Hartmann, G.K.

    1978-01-01

    The paper deals with some measurements made with the radio beacon on board the ATS-6 satellite in the American and European sectors. Measurements of the slant electron content, the Faraday content, and the plasmaspheric (or residual) content, made under different geographic and geomagnetic conditions, are discussed and compared

  18. A compact XRF unit for determining total sulphur content in coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumitra, T.; Chankow, N.; Punnachaiya, S.; Srisatit, S.

    1994-01-01

    A microcomputer based x-ray fluorescence (XRF) unit was developed for off-line determination of total sulphur content in coal samples. The unit consisted of the x-ray exciting/measuring set and the microcomputer with a plug-in interface card. An Fe-55 radioisotope was used as the exciting source while a krypton-filled proportional counter was used to measure x-rays from the samples. The x-ray spectrum was simultaneously displayed on the microcomputer screen. For quantitative determination of sulphur, the intensities of sulphur K x-rays as well as calcium K x-rays and scattered x-rays were taken into account. The unit was tested with finely-ground, dried and compressed lignite, subbituminous and bituminous samples. If was found that for low-calcium coals, the results were in good agreement with those obtained from the standard chemical analysis method within ± 0.2% and within ± 0.5%S for high-calcium coals. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  19. Total flavonoid content and formulation antioxidant cream stem of jatropha multifida l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Franyoto, Yuvianti; Kusmita, Lia; Mutmainah; Demma Angrena, Riega

    2018-05-01

    Free radical induced oxidative stress that influences the occurrence of various degenerative diseases such as cancer, coronary heart disease and premature aging. Stems of Jatropha multifida L are known to contain flavanoid compounds have antioxidant activity. A study has been carried out to determine antioxidant potential of stems of Jatropha multifida L. Initially, material was macerated gradually with ethanol. The extract obtained was filtered and evaporated. Determination of total flavanoid contents (TFC) using spectrophotometric methods. The antioxidant potential of this extract was evaluated by 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. In the DPPH radical-scavenging activities, the extract had the antioxidant activity (IC50 = 72 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The results showed the extracts of Jatropha multifida L. could be considered as natural antioxidants and may be useful for curing diseases arising from oxidative deterioration. The formulation comprises with 5% of extract and was formulated using fusion method. The evaluation of the formulated cream showed good results and can be good potential for cosmetic product development.

  20. Development of a method to determine the total C-14 content in saturated salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucks, C.; Prautsch, C.

    2016-01-01

    This two-step method described here for the determination of the total carbon-14 content in saturated salt solutions is divided in the analysis of the carbon-14 in the evaporable and the non-evaporable fraction. After driving off the inorganic carbon by acidification, the volatile carbon compounds and volatile decomposition products follow with rising temperature inside the sample vessel in a mild stream of oxygen to a tube furnace equipped with CuO catalyst for oxidizing the carbon compounds to CO 2 at a temperature of 800 C. Water is condensed out with an intensive condenser and the released CO 2 is absorbed in a wash bottle filled with sodium hydroxide. Similarly, an aliquot of the evaporation residue is put in the first zone of the tube furnace during the second step of the analysis. After heating the catalyst in the second zone of the furnace to 800 C the residue is heated stepwise to 800 C. By proceeding in this way, the non-volatile compounds are decomposed or oxidised in the oxygen stream and finally completely oxidized by the aid of the catalyst. The released CO 2 is again absorbed in another wash bottle. The carbonate of each fraction is then precipitated as BaCO 3 separately. Finally, the precipitate is washed, dried, finely grounded and covered with toluene scintillation cocktail for measurement in a LSC. The detection limit is about 0,2 Bq/l for a sample volume of 250 ml.

  1. Effect of electrojet on the total electron content of the ionosphere over the Indian subcontinent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, M.R.; Rastogi, R.G.; Vats, H.O.

    1977-01-01

    It is stated that the satellite radio beacon method of measuring total electron content (TEC) along a chain of spaced stations near the 'equatorial anomaly' has been used to continuously monitor the latitudinal extent of the anomaly. A clear dependence of the strength of the anomaly upon the electrojet intensity, with an approximately two-hour time delay, was established. By 'equatorial anomaly' is meant the anomalous latitudinal distribution of electron density in the F2 region, as observed by Appleton (J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.; 5:348 (1954)). It has been shown that the equatorial anomaly in TEC over India is positively correlated with the electrojet strength. Observations of the diurnal development of the equatorial anomaly in TEC are here described, together with magnetometer records indicating the strength of the equatorial electrojet, leading to records of the TEC anomaly. The observations were made on three days in May 1976, using radio beacon signals from the geostationary satellite ATS-6 received at a number of locations in India. Association of the diurnal development of the equatorial anomaly in TEC with electrojet strength were clearly established. (U.K.)

  2. Phytochemistry, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and anti-inflammatory activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Jing; Villani, Thomas S; Guo, Yue; Qi, Yadong; Chin, Kit; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Simon, James E; Wu, Qingli

    2016-01-01

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous separation, and determination of natural compounds including phenolic acids and flavonoids in the leaves of Hibiscus sabdariffa. By analyzing the UV and MS data, and comparison with authenticated standards, 10 polyphenols including neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides were identified together with 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural. Major constituents in the leaves of 25 different populations from worldwide accessions were quantified and compared with each other. The total phenolic content of each accession was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu assay, ranging from 18.98 ± 2.7 to 29.9 ± 0.5 mg GAE/g. Their in vitro antioxidant activities were measured by ABTS radical cation decolorization assay, varying from 17.5 to 152.5 ± 18.8 μmol Trolox/g. After the treatment of H. sabdariffa leaf extract, the reduction of LPS-induced NO production dose-dependently in RAW 264.7 cell indicates the extract's potential anti-inflammatory activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Determination of total protein content in soya-bean milk via visual moving reaction boundary titration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chengye; Wang, Houyu; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Liuyin; Cao, Chengxi

    2013-11-01

    A visual, rapid and accurate moving reaction boundary titration (MRBT) method was used for the determination of the total protein in soya-bean milk. During the process, moving reaction boundary (MRB) was formed by hydroxyl ions in the catholyte and soya-bean milk proteins immobilized in polyacrylamide gel (PAG), and an acid-base indicator was used to denote the boundary motion. The velocity of MRB has a relationship with protein concentration, which was used to obtain a standard curve. By paired t-test, there was no significant difference of the protein content between MRBT and Kjeldahl method at 95% confidence interval. The procedure of MRBT method required about 10 min, and it had linearity in the range of 2.0-14.0 g/L, low limit of detection (0.05 g/L), good precision (RSD of intra-day < 1.90% and inter-day < 4.39%), and high recoveries (97.41%-99.91%). In addition, non-protein nitrogen (NPN) such as melamine added into the soya-bean milk had weak influence on MRBT results.

  4. Acidulant and oven type affect total anthocyanin content of blue corn cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Walker, Chuck E; Faubion, Jon M

    2011-01-15

    Anthocyanins, pink to purple water-soluble flavonoids, are naturally occurring pigments with claimed health benefits. However, they are sensitive to degradation by high pH, light and temperature. Blue corn (maize) contains high levels of anthocyanins. Cookies are popular snacks and might serve as a vehicle to deliver antioxidants. A cookie formula with a high level of blue corn was developed with added acidulents and baked in ovens with different heat transfer coefficients. The best whole-grain blue corn flour/wheat pastry flour ratio (80:20 w/w), guar gum level (10 g kg(-1), flour weight basis) and water level (215 g kg(-1), flour weight basis) were determined based on response surface methodology analysis. The interactions of citric and lactic acids and glucono-δ-lactone with three oven types having different heat transfer coefficients (impingement oven 179 °C/4 min, reel oven 204 °C/10 min and convection oven 182 °C/4 min) influenced the total anthocyanin content (TAC) remaining in blue corn-containing cookies after baking. Cookies baked with citric acid in the convection oven retained the maximum TAC (227 ± 3 mg kg(-1)). By baking rapidly at lower temperatures and adding acidulents, it may be possible to increase residual natural source antioxidants in baked foods. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Mapping the total electron content over Malaysia using Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahari, S.; Abdullah, M.; Bouya, Z.; Musa, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    The ionosphere over Malaysia is unique because of her location which is in close proximity to the geomagnetic equator and is in the equatorial regions. In this region, the magnetic field is horizontally oriented from south to north and field aligned direction is in the meridional plane (ExB) which becomes the source of equatorial ionospheric anomaly occurrence such as plasma bubble, fountain effects and others. Until today, there is no model that has been developed over Malaysia to study the ionosphere. Due to that, the main objective of this paper is to develop a new technique for mapping the total electron content (TEC) from GPS measurements. Data by myRTKnet network of GPS receiver over Malaysia were used in this study. A new methodology, based on modified spherical cap harmonic analysis (SCHA), was developed to estimate diurnal vertical TEC over the region using GPS observations. The SCHA model is based on longitudinal expansion in Fourier series and fractional Legendre co-latitudinal functions over a spherical cap-like region. The TEC map with spatial resolution of 0.15 ° x 0.15 ° in latitude and longitude with the time resolution of 30 seconds are derived. TEC maps from the SCHA model were compared with the global ionospheric map and other regional models. Result shows that during low solar activity, SCHA model had a better mapping with the accuracy of less than 1 TECU compared to other regional models.

  6. Observations in equatorial anomaly region of total electron content enhancements and depletions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dashora

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A GSV 4004A GPS receiver has been operational near the crest of the equatorial anomaly at Udaipur, India for some time now. The receiver provides the line-of-sight total electron content (TEC, the phase and amplitude scintillation index, σφ and S4, respectively. This paper presents the first results on the nighttime TEC depletions associated with the equatorial spread F in the Indian zone. The TEC depletions are found to be very well correlated with the increased S4 index. A new feature of low-latitude TEC is also reported, concerning the observation of isolated and localized TEC enhancements in the nighttime low-latitude ionosphere. The TEC enhancements are not correlated with the S4 index. The TEC enhancements have also been observed along with the TEC depletions. The TEC enhancements have been interpreted as the manifestation of the plasma density enhancements reported by Le et al. (2003.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Equatorial ionosphere; Ionospheric irregularities

  7. On forecasting ionospheric total electron content responses to high-speed solar wind streams

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    Meng Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions in the ionosphere have become increasingly important to forecast, since more and more spaceborne and ground-based technological systems rely on ionospheric weather. Here we explore the feasibility of ionospheric forecasts with the current generation of physics-based models. In particular, we focus on total electron content (TEC predictions using the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM. Simulations are configured in a forecast mode and performed for four typical high-speed-stream events during 2007–2012. The simulated TECs are quantified through a metric, which divides the globe into a number of local regions and robustly differentiates between quiet and disturbed periods. Proposed forecast products are hourly global maps color-coded by the TEC disturbance level of each local region. To assess the forecasts, we compare the simulated TEC disturbances with global TEC maps derived from Global Positioning System (GPS satellite observations. The forecast performance is found to be merely acceptable, with a large number of regions where the observed variations are not captured by the simulations. Examples of model-data agreements and disagreements are investigated in detail, aiming to understand the model behavior and improve future forecasts. For one event, we identify two adjacent regions with similar TEC observations but significant differences in how local chemistry versus plasma transport contribute to electron density changes in the simulation. Suggestions for further analysis are described.

  8. GPS scintillations and total electron content climatology in the southern low, middle and high latitude regions

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    Luca Spogli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several groups have installed high-frequency sampling receivers in the southern middle and high latitude regions, to monitor ionospheric scintillations and the total electron content (TEC changes. Taking advantage of the archive of continuous and systematic observations of the ionosphere on L-band by means of signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS, we present the first attempt at ionospheric scintillation and TEC mapping from Latin America to Antarctica. The climatology of the area considered is derived through Ground-Based Scintillation Climatology, a method that can identify ionospheric sectors in which scintillations are more likely to occur. This study also introduces the novel ionospheric scintillation 'hot-spot' analysis. This analysis first identifies the crucial areas of the ionosphere in terms of enhanced probability of scintillation occurrence, and then it studies the seasonal variation of the main scintillation and TEC-related parameters. The results produced by this sophisticated analysis give significant indications of the spatial/ temporal recurrences of plasma irregularities, which contributes to the extending of current knowledge of the mechanisms that cause scintillations, and consequently to the development of efficient tools to forecast space-weather-related ionospheric events.

  9. Ionospheric earthquake effects detection based on Total Electron Content (TEC) GPS Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunardi, Bambang; Muslim, Buldan; Eka Sakya, Andi; Rohadi, Supriyanto; Sulastri; Murjaya, Jaya

    2018-03-01

    Advances in science and technology showed that ground-based GPS receiver was able to detect ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) disturbances caused by various natural phenomena such as earthquakes. One study of Tohoku (Japan) earthquake, March 11, 2011, magnitude M 9.0 showed TEC fluctuations observed from GPS observation network spread around the disaster area. This paper discussed the ionospheric earthquake effects detection using TEC GPS data. The case studies taken were Kebumen earthquake, January 25, 2014, magnitude M 6.2, Sumba earthquake, February 12, 2016, M 6.2 and Halmahera earthquake, February 17, 2016, M 6.1. TEC-GIM (Global Ionosphere Map) correlation methods for 31 days were used to monitor TEC anomaly in ionosphere. To ensure the geomagnetic disturbances due to solar activity, we also compare with Dst index in the same time window. The results showed anomalous ratio of correlation coefficient deviation to its standard deviation upon occurrences of Kebumen and Sumba earthquake, but not detected a similar anomaly for the Halmahera earthquake. It was needed a continous monitoring of TEC GPS data to detect the earthquake effects in ionosphere. This study giving hope in strengthening the earthquake effect early warning system using TEC GPS data. The method development of continuous TEC GPS observation derived from GPS observation network that already exists in Indonesia is needed to support earthquake effects early warning systems.

  10. Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Equisetum arvense L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukrić Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Equisetum arvense L. harvested in a polluted urban area were investigated. The total phenolic content determined by a modified Folin-Ciocalteu method was 335.8 mg of GEA/g of the dried ethanol extract. Antioxidant activity determined by FRAP method was 28.7 mM Fe(II/g of extract, whereas antioxidant activity index for stable DPPH free radicals was 3.86. The results were compared with control antioxidants (gallic acid, vitamin C, BHA and BHT. Antimicrobial activity was tested by monitoring the impact of different extract concentrations through measuring the change in optical density of bacterial suspension over time and by determining MIC and MBC using macrodilution method. E. arvense extract has been effective on the tested microorganisms depending on the concentration and exposure time. The extract had the strongest antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, with MIC and MBC of 11.14 mg/mL and 22.28 mg/mL respectively, and the weakest effect on Bacillus cereus, with MIC of 89.10 mg/mL.

  11. Empirical forecast of quiet time ionospheric Total Electron Content maps over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badeke, Ronny; Borries, Claudia; Hoque, Mainul M.; Minkwitz, David

    2018-06-01

    An accurate forecast of the atmospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) is helpful to investigate space weather influences on the ionosphere and technical applications like satellite-receiver radio links. The purpose of this work is to compare four empirical methods for a 24-h forecast of vertical TEC maps over Europe under geomagnetically quiet conditions. TEC map data are obtained from the Space Weather Application Center Ionosphere (SWACI) and the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC). The time-series methods Standard Persistence Model (SPM), a 27 day median model (MediMod) and a Fourier Series Expansion are compared to maps for the entire year of 2015. As a representative of the climatological coefficient models the forecast performance of the Global Neustrelitz TEC model (NTCM-GL) is also investigated. Time periods of magnetic storms, which are identified with the Dst index, are excluded from the validation. By calculating the TEC values with the most recent maps, the time-series methods perform slightly better than the coefficient model NTCM-GL. The benefit of NTCM-GL is its independence on observational TEC data. Amongst the time-series methods mentioned, MediMod delivers the best overall performance regarding accuracy and data gap handling. Quiet-time SWACI maps can be forecasted accurately and in real-time by the MediMod time-series approach.

  12. Unbiased total electron content (UTEC), their fluctuations, and correlation with seismic activity over Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornely, Pierre-Richard; Hughes, John

    2018-02-01

    Earthquakes are among the most dangerous events that occur on earth and many scientists have been investigating the underlying processes that take place before earthquakes occur. These investigations are fueling efforts towards developing both single and multiple parameter earthquake forecasting methods based on earthquake precursors. One potential earthquake precursor parameter that has received significant attention within the last few years is the ionospheric total electron content (TEC). Despite its growing popularity as an earthquake precursor, TEC has been under great scrutiny because of the underlying biases associated with the process of acquiring and processing TEC data. Future work in the field will need to demonstrate our ability to acquire TEC data with the least amount of biases possible thereby preserving the integrity of the data. This paper describes a process for removing biases using raw TEC data from the standard Rinex files obtained from any global positioning satellites system. The process is based on developing an unbiased TEC (UTEC) data and model that can be more adaptable to serving as a precursor signal for earthquake forecasting. The model was used during the days and hours leading to the earthquake off the coast of Tohoku, Japan on March 11, 2011 with interesting results. The model takes advantage of the large amount of data available from the GPS Earth Observation Network of Japan to display near real-time UTEC data as the earthquake approaches and for a period of time after the earthquake occurred.

  13. Total phosphorus, phytate phosphorus contents and the correlation of phytates with amylose in selected edible beans in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerthana Sivakumaran

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytate a major anti nutritional factors in legumes and it accounts for larger portion of the total phosphorus, while limiting the bioavailablity of certain divalent cations to the human body. Legumes of eleven varieties cultivated in Sri Lanka, Mung bean (MI5, MI6, Cowpea (Waruni, MICP1, Bombay, Dhawala, ANKCP1, Soybean (MISB1, Pb1 and Horse gram (ANKBlack, ANKBrown were analyzed for phosphorus content and phytate content. Total phosphorus content was quantified by dry ashing followed by spectrophotometrical measurement of the blue colour intensity of acid soluble phosphate with sodium molybdate in the presence of ascorbic acid while phytate phosphorus using anion exchange chromatographic technique followed by spectrometrical measurement of the digested organic phosphorus and amylose content by Simple Iodine-Colourimetric method. Where the least value for phosphorus was observed 275.04 ±1.44 mg.100g-1 in ANKBlack (Horse gram and the highest in MISB1 (Soyabean with 654.94 ±0.05 mg.100g-1. The phytate phosphorus content (which is a ratio of phyate to total phosphorus was highest in Dhawala (Cowpea. The phytate phosphorus (which is a ratio of phyate to total phosphorus was highest in Dhawala with 67.42% and least in Bombay (Cowpea with 24.87%. The amylose content of the legumes was least in Pb1 with 8.71 ±0.13 mg.100mg-1 and the highest in MI6 22.58 ±0.71 mg.100mg-1. The correlation between phyate and total phosphorus was significant (p <0.05 and positive (r = 0.62. Similarly the correlation coefficient for phytate phosphorus and total phosphorus was significant (p <0.05 and positive (r = 0.63. Amylose content of legumes was significantly correlated negatively (p <0.05 with the total phytates content (r = -0.82.

  14. The Addition of White Turmeric (Curcuma zedoaria Concentrated Base on Quality Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenol, Protein Content and Salt Content of Salted Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu’addimah Mu’addimah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research was to determine the effect of Curcuma zedoaria concentrated addition on quality antioxidant activity, total phenols, protein content and salt content of salted egg. The materials were duck’s egg, water, salt, and essence of white turmeric. The method was experiment using Complete Randomized Design (CRD with five treatments and three for replications. The Curcuma zedoaria juice research were divided into P0 (0%, P1 (10%, P2 (20%, P3 (30% and P4 (40%. Data was analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and then continued by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT, if it was found significant effect among treatmeants. The result showed that the addition of Curcuma zedoaria juice indicated highly significant different effect (P<0.01 on antioxidant activity, protein content and salt content, but significantly effect (P<0.05 on total phenol. The best treatment was the addition of Curcuma zedoaria juice 40% were indicated of antioxidant activity, total phenol, protein content and the salt content was 99.80 mg/g, 0.16%, 9.96%, 2.43% respectively.

  15. Effect of glutathione aerosol on oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borok, Z; Buhl, R; Grimes, G J; Bokser, A D; Hubbard, R C; Holroyd, K J; Roum, J H; Czerski, D B; Cantin, A M; Crystal, R G

    1991-07-27

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterised by alveolar inflammation, exaggerated release of oxidants, and subnormal concentrations of the antioxidant glutathione in respiratory epithelial lining fluid (ELF). Glutathione (600 mg twice daily for 3 days) was given by aerosol to 10 patients with IPF. Total ELF glutathione rose transiently, ELF oxidised glutathione concentrations increased, and there was a decrease in spontaneous superoxide anion release by alveolar macrophages. Thus, glutathione by aerosol could be a means of reversing the oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in IPF.

  16. Effect of polyphenol oxidase (PPO and air treatments on total phenol and tannin content of cocoa nibs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito Edy Sousa de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa flavour is greatly influenced by polyphenols. These compounds undergo a series of transformations during cocoa processing leading to the characteristic cocoa flavour. The use of exogenous polyphenol oxidase (PPO proved to be useful to reduce polyphenol content in cocoa nibs. The effect of a PPO associated or not with air over total phenol and tannin content was evaluated. Cocoa nibs were autoclaved and treated with a PPO or water in the absence or presence of an air flow for 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 hours. Total phenol content was reduced in PPO or water treatments, but when associated with air there was an increase in phenol content. Tannin content was reduced only by the treatment with water and air.

  17. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of commercial Noni (Morinda citrifolia L. juice and its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bramorski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant Morinda citrifolia L. (noni has been the focus of many recent studies due to its potential effects on treatment and prevention of several diseases. However, there are few in vivo and in vitro studies concerning its composition and antioxidant capacity. The aim of the present study was to determine the total polyphenol content (TPC and antioxidant capacity of a juice commercialized as noni juice, but containing grape, blueberry and noni fruits. Commercial noni juice was compared against its separate constituents of blueberry and grape juice. Folin-Ciocalteu and DPPH• methods were used to determine the concentration of total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity, respectively. Commercial noni juice presented higher values of TPC (91.90 mg of gallic acid/100 mL juice and antioxidant activity (5.85 mmol/L compared to its 5% diluted constituents. Concentrated blueberry juice presented higher TPC and antioxidant activity than the other juices analyzed. Considering that the blueberry and grape juices account for only 10% in the composition of commercial noni juice, it can be inferred that these two components contribute significantly to the antioxidant activity. Therefore, additional studies are necessary in order to elucidate the contribution of the noni juice as an antioxidant.A planta Morinda citrifolia L. tem sido objeto de muitas pesquisas decorrente de seus efeitos benéficos no tratamento e prevenção de muitas doenças. No entanto, são escassos os estudos in vivo e in vitro sobre os compostos presentes e sua capacidade de atuar como antioxidante. Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar o índice de polifenóis totais (IPT e a capacidade antioxidante do suco de noni comercial, constituído de uva, mirtilo e a fruta do noni. O suco de noni comercial foi comparado com seus constituintes (mirtilo e suco de uva separadamente. Os métodos Folin-Ciocalteu e DPPH• foram utilizados para determinar a concentração de polifen

  18. Estimation of salivary flow rate, pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries severity, age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pallavi; Reddy, N Venugopal; Rao, V Arun Prasad; Saxena, Aditya; Chaudhary, C P

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium, total protein content and total antioxidant capacity in relation to dental caries, age and gender. The study population consisted of 120 healthy children aged 7-15 years that was further divided into two groups: 7-10 years and 11-15 years. In this 60 children with DMFS/dfs = 0 and 60 children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 were included. The subjects were divided into two groups; Group A: Children with DMFS/dfs = 0 (caries-free) Group B: Children with DMFS/dfs ≥5 (caries active). Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from all groups. Flow rates were determined, and samples analyzed for pH, buffer capacity, calcium, total protein and total antioxidant status. Salivary antioxidant activity is measured with spectrophotometer by an adaptation of 2,2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) assays. The mean difference of the two groups; caries-free and caries active were proved to be statistically significant (P salivary calcium, total protein and total antioxidant level for both the sexes in the age group 7-10 years and for the age 11-15 years the mean difference of the two groups were proved to be statistically significant (P salivary calcium level for both the sexes. Salivary total protein and total antioxidant level were proved to be statistically significant for male children only. In general, total protein and total antioxidants in saliva were increased with caries activity. Calcium content of saliva was found to be more in caries-free group and increased with age.

  19. Analysis of Total Electron Content and Electron Density Profile during Different Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapagain, N. P.; Rana, B.; Adhikari, B.

    2017-12-01

    Total Electron content (TEC) and electron density are the key parameters in the mitigation of ionospheric effects on radio communication system. Detail study of the TEC and electron density variations has been carried out during geomagnetic storms, with longitude and latitude, for four different locations: (13˚N -17˚N, 88˚E -98˚E), (30˚N-50˚N, 120˚W -95˚W), (29˚S-26˚S, 167˚W-163˚W,) and (60˚S-45˚S, 120˚W-105˚W) using the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite observations. In order to find the geomagnetic activity, the solar wind parameters such as north-south component of inter planetary magnetic field (Bz), plasma drift velocity (Vsw), flow pressure (nPa), AE, Dst and Kp indices were obtained from Operating Mission as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) web system. The data for geomagnetic indices have been correlated with the TEC and electron density for four different events of geomagnetic storms on 6 April 2008, 27 March 2008, 4 September 2008, and 11 October 2008. The result illustrates that the observed TEC and electron density profile significantly vary with longitudes and latitudes. This study illustrates that the values of TEC and the vertical electron density profile are influenced by the solar wind parameters associated with solar activities. The peak values of electron density and TEC increase as the geomagnetic storms become stronger. Similarly, the electron density profile varies with altitudes, which peaks around the altitude range of about 250- 350 km, depending on the strength of geomagnetic storms. The results clearly show that the peak electron density shifted to higher altitude (from about 250 km to 350 km) as the geomagnetic disturbances becomes stronger.

  20. Seismic based characterization of total organic content from the marine Sembar shale, Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Omer; Hussain, Tahir; Ullah, Matee; Bhatti, Asher Samuel; Ali, Aamir

    2018-02-01

    The exploration and production of unconventional resources has increased significantly over the past few years around the globe to fulfill growing energy demands. Hydrocarbon potential of these unconventional petroleum systems depends on the presence of significant organic matter; their thermal maturity and the quality of present hydrocarbons i.e. gas or oil shale. In this work, we present a workflow for estimating Total Organic Content (TOC) from seismic reflection data. To achieve the objective of this study, we have chosen a classic potential candidate for exploration of unconventional reserves, the shale of the Sembar Formation, Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan. Our method includes the estimation of TOC from the well data using the Passey's ΔlogR and Schwarzkofp's methods. From seismic data, maps of Relative Acoustic Impedance (RAI) are extracted at maximum and minimum TOC zones within the Sembar Formation. A geostatistical trend with good correlation coefficient (R2) for cross-plots between TOC and RAI at well locations is used for estimation of seismic based TOC at the reservoir scale. Our results suggest a good calibration of TOC values from seismic at well locations. The estimated TOC values range from 1 to 4% showing that the shale of the Sembar Formation lies in the range of good to excellent unconventional oil/gas play within the context of TOC. This methodology of source rock evaluation provides a spatial distribution of TOC at the reservoir scale as compared to the conventional distribution generated from samples collected over sparse wells. The approach presented in this work has wider applications for source rock evaluation in other similar petroliferous basins worldwide.

  1. Arsenic speciation in total contents and bioaccessible fractions in atmospheric particles related to human intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Minjuan; Chen, Xunwen; Zhao, Yinge; Yu Chan, Chuen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xuemei; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-01-01

    Speciation of inorganic trivalent arsenicals (iAs III ), inorganic pentavalent arsenicals (iAs V ), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in total arsenic (As) content and its bioaccessible fractions contained in road dust, household air-conditioning (AC) filter dust and PM 2.5 was investigated. Inorganic As, especially iAs V , was observed as the dominant species. Physiologically based extraction test (PBET), an in-vitro gastrointestinal method, was used to estimate the oral As bioaccessibility in coarse particles and the species present in the oral bioaccessible fraction. A composite lung simulating serum was used to mimic the pulmonary condition to extract the respiratory bioaccessible As and its species in PM 2.5 . Reduction of iAs V to iAs III occurred in both in-vitro gastrointestinal and lung simulating extraction models. The inorganic As species was the exclusive species for absorption through ingestion and inhalation of atmospheric particles, which was an important exposure route to inorganic As, in addition to drinking water and food consumption. - Highlights: • Inorganic As species was the predominant species in dust and airborne particles. • Existence of iAs III in dust and airborne particles increases human health risks. • Reduction from iAs V to iAs III occurred through in-vitro gastrointestinal model. • Reduction from iAs V to iAs III occurred in the simulating pulmonary region. • Atmospheric particles were important exposure sources of inorganic As. - Atmospheric particles are important exposure sources of inorganic As, of which the bioaccessibility is dependent on the extraction phases and models used

  2. Storm-time total electron content and its response to penetration electric fields over South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. de Siqueira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the response of the ionosphere due to the severe magnetic storm of 7–10 November 2004 is investigated by analyzing GPS Total Electron Content (TEC maps constructed for the South America sector. In order to verify the disturbed zonal electric fields in South America during the superstorm, ionospheric vertical drift data obtained from modeling results are used in the analysis. The vertical drifts were inferred from ΔH magnetometer data (Jicamarca-Piura following the methodology presented by Anderson et al. (2004. Also used were vertical drifts measured by the Jicamarca ISR. Data from a digisonde located at São Luís, Brazil (2.33° S, 44.2° W, dip latitude 0.25° are presented to complement the Jicamarca equatorial data. Penetration electric fields were observed by the comparison between the equatorial vertical drifts and the Interplanetary Electric Field (IEF. The TEC maps obtained from GPS data reflect the ionospheric response over the South America low-latitude and equatorial region. They reveal unexpected plasma distributions and TEC levels during the main phase of the superstorm on 7 November, which is coincident with the local post-sunset hours. At this time an increase in the pre-reversal enhancement was expected to develop the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA but we observed the absence of EIA. The results also reveal well known characteristics of the plasma distributions on 8, 9, and 10 November. The emphasized features are the expansion and intensification of EIA due to prompt penetration electric fields on 9 November and the inhibition of EIA during post-sunset hours on 7, 8, and 10 November. One important result is that the TEC maps provided a bi-dimensional view of the ionospheric changes offering a spatial description of the electrodynamics involved, which is an advantage over TEC measured by isolated GPS receivers.

  3. Variations of total electron content in the equatorial anomaly region in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, V. Rajesh; Tripathi, N. K.; Arunpold, Sanit; Raju, Durairaju Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of total electron content (TEC), derived by analyzing dual frequency Novatel GSV4004 GPS receiver's data which were installed by the SCINDA project, located at the Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok (AITB, 14.079N, 100.612E) and Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (CHGM, 18.480N, 98.570E) with magnetic latitude of 4.13°N and 8.61°N respectively in Thailand, for the year 2011. These two stations are separated by 657 km in the equatorial anomaly region. The highest TEC values occurred from 1500 to 1900 LT throughout the study period. The diurnal, monthly and seasonal GPS-TEC have been plotted and analyzed. The diurnal peaks in GPS-TEC is observed to be maximum during equinoctial months (March, April, September and October) and minimum in solstice months (January, February, June, July and December). These high TEC values have been attributed to the solar extreme ultra-violet ionization coupled with the upward vertical E × B drift. A comparison of both station's TEC has been carried out and found that CHGM station experiences higher values of TEC than AITB station, due to formation of ionization crest over the CHGM station. Also, TEC values have shown increasing trend due to approaching solar maximum. These results from both stations were also compared with the TEC derived from the International Reference Ionosphere's (IRI) recently released, IRI-2012 model. Results have shown positive correlation with IRI-2012 model. Although, IRI-model does not show any response to geomagnetic activity, the IRI model normally remains smooth and underestimates TEC during a storm.

  4. Evaluation of geomagnetic storm effects on the GPS derived Total Electron Content (TEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, P K; Atulkar, Roshni; Mansoori, Azad A; Khan, Parvaiz A; Bhawre, Purushottam; Tripathi, Sharad C; Khatarkar, Prakash; Bhardwaj, Shivangi; Aslam, A M; Waheed, Malik A; Gwal, A K

    2015-01-01

    The geomagnetic storm represents the most outstanding example of solar wind- magnetospheric interaction, which causes global disturbances in the geomagnetic field as well as triggers ionospheric disturbances. We study the behaviour of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) during the geomagnetic storms. For this investigation we have selected 47 intense geomagnetic storms (Dst ≤ -100nT) that were observed during the solar cycle 23 i.e. during 1998- 2006. We then categorized these storms into four categories depending upon their solar sources like Magnetic Cloud (MC), Co-rotating Interaction Region (CIR), SH+ICME and SH+MC. We then studied the behaviour of ionospheric TEC at a mid latitude station Usuda (36.13N, 138.36E), Japan during these storm events produced by four different solar sources. During our study we found that the smooth variations in TEC are replaced by rapid fluctuations and the value of TEC is strongly enhanced during the time of these storms belonging to all the four categories. However, the greatest enhancements in TEC are produced during those geomagnetic storms which are either caused by Sheath driven Magnetic cloud (SH+MC) or Sheath driven ICME (SH+ICME). We also derived the correlation between the TEC enhancements produced during storms of each category with the minimum Dst. We found the strongest correlation exists for the SH+ICME category followed by SH+MC, MC and finally CIR. Since the most intense storms were either caused by SH+ICME or SH+MC while the least intense storms were caused by CIR, consequently the correlation was strongest with SH+ICME and SH+MC and least with CIR. (paper)

  5. Elevated oxidized glutathione in cystinotic proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Martijn J G; de Graaf-Hess, Adriana; Blom, Henk J; Dijkman, Henry B P M; Monnens, Leo A; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Levtchenko, Elena N

    2005-11-18

    Cystinosis, the most frequent cause of inborn Fanconi syndrome, is characterized by the lysosomal cystine accumulation, caused by mutations in the CTNS gene. To elucidate the pathogenesis of cystinosis, we cultured proximal tubular cells from urine of cystinotic patients (n = 9) and healthy controls (n = 9), followed by immortalization with human papilloma virus (HPV E6/E7). Obtained cell lines displayed basolateral polarization, alkaline phosphatase activity, and presence of aminopeptidase N (CD-13) and megalin, confirming their proximal tubular origin. Cystinotic cell lines exhibited elevated cystine levels (0.86 +/- 0.95 nmol/mg versus 0.09 +/- 0.01 nmol/mg protein in controls, p = 0.03). Oxidized glutathione was elevated in cystinotic cells (1.16 +/- 0.83 nmol/mg versus 0.29 +/- 0.18 nmol/mg protein, p = 0.04), while total glutathione, free cysteine, and ATP contents were normal in these cells. In conclusion, elevated oxidized glutathione in cystinotic proximal tubular epithelial cell lines suggests increased oxidative stress, which may contribute to tubular dysfunction in cystinosis.

  6. Influence of gamma-irradiation on the total volatile acids content in strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, O.A.; Piccini, J.L.; Quaranta, H.O.; Perez, S.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine if there exist some kind of correlation between the evolution of the organoleptic characteristics of control and irradiated strawberry and the measured volatile acids content. Affirmative results would suggest that the V.A. content really corresponds to a quality index of the fruit. (orig./AJ)

  7. Membrane accessibility of glutathione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Almudena; Eljack, N., D.; Sani, ND

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of the ion pumping activity of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase is crucial to the survival of animal cells. Recent evidence has suggested that the activity of the enzyme could be controlled by glutathionylation of cysteine residue 45 of the β-subunit. Crystal structures so far available indicate...... that this cysteine is in a transmembrane domain of the protein. Here we have analysed via fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy as well as molecular dynamics simulations whether glutathione is able to penetrate into the interior of a lipid membrane. No evidence for any penetration of glutathione into the membrane...

  8. Genotypic-dependent effects of N fertilizer, glutathione, silicon, zinc, and selenium on proteomic profiles, amino acid contents, and quality of rice genotypes with contrasting grain Cd accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fangbin; Fu, Manman; Wang, Runfeng; Cheng, Wangda; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

    2017-07-01

    Soil heavy metal (HM) contamination has posed a serious problem for safe food production. For restricting the translocation of HM into grain, many proteins were regulated to involve in the process. To identify these proteins, 2D-based proteomic analysis was carried out using different rice genotypes with distinct Cd accumulation in grains and as affected by an alleviating regulator (AR) in field experiments. AR application improved grain quality, with increased contents in Glu, Cys, His, Pro, and protein. Twenty-six low-grain HM accumulation-associated protein species were identified and categorized as physiological functions via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry. Among these proteins, 8, 9, and 9 proteins exhibited higher accumulation, lower accumulation, and unchanged accumulation, respectively, in Xiushui817 (low accumulator) vs R8097 (high accumulator) under control conditions but showed differential accumulation patterns after AR application. These proteins included sucrose synthase 3, alanine aminotransferase, glutelin, cupin family protein, and zinc finger CCCH domain-containing protein 32. The differential expression of these protein species might contribute to decreased HM accumulation in grain via decreasing the protein accumulation which had high affinity to HM or regulating energy metabolism and signal transduction. Our findings provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of low-grain HM accumulation in rice and possible utilization of candidate protein species in developing low-grain HM accumulation genotypes.

  9. Study of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of various leaves crude extracts of locally grown Thymus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; AL-Raqmi, Khulood Ahmed Salim; AL-Mijizy, Zawan Hamood; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim

    2013-09-01

    To prepare various crude extracts using different polarities of solvent and to quantitatively evaluate their total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of Thymus vulgaris collected from Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman. The leave sample was extracted with methanol and evaporated. Then it was defatted with water and extracted with different polarities organic solvents with increasing polarities. The prepare hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol crude extracts were used for their evaluation of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening study. The established conventional methods were used for quantitative determination of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening. Phytochemical screening for various crude extracts were tested and shown positive result for flavonoids, saponins and steroids compounds. The result for total phenol content was the highest in butanol and the lowest in methanol crude extract whereas the total flavonoids contents was the highest in methanol and the lowest hexane crude extract. The crude extracts from locally grown Thymus vulgaris showed high concentration of flavonoids and it could be used as antibiotics for different curable and uncurable diseases.

  10. Evaluation and comparison of the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of selected species of the genus Allium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna LENKOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The species of the genus Allium are very important crops for human health. They contain many health beneficial substances, such as polyphenols (especially flavonoids, sulphur compounds, vitamins, mineral substances and substances with antioxidant activity. This work has focused on the comparison of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of selected species of the genus Allium – garlic (Allium sativum L., chives (Allium schoenoprasum L., ramson (Allium ursinum L. and red, yellow and white onion (Allium cepa L.. Samples of plant material were collected at the stage of full maturity in the area of Nitra. Total polyphenols content was determined using the spectrophotometric method of Folin-Ciocalteu agents. Determined the content of total polyphenols were in the range 444.3 - 1591 mg*kg-1. Total polyphenols content in the observed crops declined in the following order: chives > red onion > garlic > yellow onion > ramson > white onion. Antioxidant activity was measured by the spectrophotometric method using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl. Determined the value of antioxidant activity ranged 12.29 – 76.57%. Antioxidant activity observed in crops declined in the following order: chives > ramson > red onion > yellow onion > garlic > white onion. In all the analysed crop plants was confirmed by the strong dependence of the antioxidant activity and the total content of polyphenolic substances.

  11. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months.

    Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at

  12. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months. Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at middle

  13. Total electron content responses to HILDCAAs and geomagnetic storms over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara de Siqueira Negreti, Patricia; Rodrigues de Paula, Eurico; Nicoli Candido, Claudia Maria

    2017-12-01

    Total electron content (TEC) is extensively used to monitor the ionospheric behavior under geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. This subject is of greatest importance for space weather applications. Under disturbed conditions the two main sources of electric fields, which are responsible for changes in the plasma drifts and for current perturbations, are the short-lived prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs) and the longer-lasting ionospheric disturbance dynamo (DD) electric fields. Both mechanisms modulate the TEC around the globe and the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) at low latitudes. In this work we computed vertical absolute TEC over the low latitude of South America. The analysis was performed considering HILDCAA (high-intensity, long-duration, continuous auroral electrojet (AE) activity) events and geomagnetic storms. The characteristics of storm-time TEC and HILDCAA-associated TEC will be presented and discussed. For both case studies presented in this work (March and August 2013) the HILDCAA event follows a geomagnetic storm, and then a global scenario of geomagnetic disturbances will be discussed. Solar wind parameters, geomagnetic indices, O / N2 ratios retrieved by GUVI instrument onboard the TIMED satellite and TEC observations will be analyzed and discussed. Data from the RBMC/IBGE (Brazil) and IGS GNSS networks were used to calculate TEC over South America. We show that a HILDCAA event may generate larger TEC differences compared to the TEC observed during the main phase of the precedent geomagnetic storm; thus, a HILDCAA event may be more effective for ionospheric response in comparison to moderate geomagnetic storms, considering the seasonal conditions. During the August HILDCAA event, TEC enhancements from ˜ 25 to 80 % (compared to quiet time) were observed. These enhancements are much higher than the quiet-time variability observed in the ionosphere. We show that ionosphere is quite sensitive to solar wind forcing and

  14. Features of annual and semiannual variations derived from the global ionospheric maps of total electron content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we use the NASA-JPL global ionospheric maps of total electron content (TEC, firstly to construct TEC maps (TEC vs. magnetic local time MLT, and magnetic latitude MLAT in the interval from 1999 to 2005. These TEC maps were, in turn, used to estimate the annual-to-mean amplitude ratio, A1, and the semiannual-to-mean amplitude ratio, A2, as well as the latitudinal symmetrical and asymmetrical parts, A' and A" of A1. Thus, we investigated in detail the TEC climatology from maps of these indices, with an emphasis on the quantitative presentation for local time and latitudinal changes in the seasonal, annual and semiannual anomalies of the ionospheric TEC. Then we took the TEC value at 14:00 LT to examine various anomalies at a global scale following the same procedure. Results reveal similar features appearing in NmF2, such as that the seasonal anomaly is more significant in the near-pole regions than in the far-pole regions and the reverse is true for the semiannual anomaly; the winter anomaly has least a chance to be observed at the South America and South Pacific areas. The most impressive feature is that the equinoctial asymmetry is most prominent at the East Asian and South Australian areas. Through the analysis of the TIMED GUVI columnar [O/N2] data, we have investigated to what extent the seasonal, annual and semiannual variations can be explained by their counterparts in [O/N2]. Results revealed that the [O/N2] variation is a major contributor to the daytime winter anomaly of TEC, and it also contributes to some of the semiannual and annual anomalies. The contribution to the anomalies unexplained by the [O/N2] data could possibly be due to the dynamics associated with thermospheric winds and electric fields.

  15. Total electron content responses to HILDCAAs and geomagnetic storms over South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. de Siqueira Negreti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Total electron content (TEC is extensively used to monitor the ionospheric behavior under geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. This subject is of greatest importance for space weather applications. Under disturbed conditions the two main sources of electric fields, which are responsible for changes in the plasma drifts and for current perturbations, are the short-lived prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs and the longer-lasting ionospheric disturbance dynamo (DD electric fields. Both mechanisms modulate the TEC around the globe and the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA at low latitudes. In this work we computed vertical absolute TEC over the low latitude of South America. The analysis was performed considering HILDCAA (high-intensity, long-duration, continuous auroral electrojet (AE activity events and geomagnetic storms. The characteristics of storm-time TEC and HILDCAA-associated TEC will be presented and discussed. For both case studies presented in this work (March and August 2013 the HILDCAA event follows a geomagnetic storm, and then a global scenario of geomagnetic disturbances will be discussed. Solar wind parameters, geomagnetic indices, O ∕ N2 ratios retrieved by GUVI instrument onboard the TIMED satellite and TEC observations will be analyzed and discussed. Data from the RBMC/IBGE (Brazil and IGS GNSS networks were used to calculate TEC over South America. We show that a HILDCAA event may generate larger TEC differences compared to the TEC observed during the main phase of the precedent geomagnetic storm; thus, a HILDCAA event may be more effective for ionospheric response in comparison to moderate geomagnetic storms, considering the seasonal conditions. During the August HILDCAA event, TEC enhancements from  ∼  25 to 80 % (compared to quiet time were observed. These enhancements are much higher than the quiet-time variability observed in the ionosphere. We show that ionosphere is quite sensitive to

  16. Total phenolic content, consumer acceptance, and instrumental analysis of bread made with grape seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Clifford; Ross, Carolyn F

    2011-09-01

    Grape seed flour (GSF) from grape pomace, a waste product generated during winemaking, was explored for use in bread production due to its potential health benefits. This study evaluated the consumer acceptance and physical properties of bread, including total phenolic content (TPC), made with varying levels of GSF. Dough and breads were prepared using different levels of replacement of hard red spring wheat flour (HRS) with GSF (0 to 10 g GSF/100 g HRS) and stored for 0, 2, or 6 wk at -20 °C. Replacement of 10 g GSF/100 g HRS increased the bread TPC from 0.064 mg tannic acid/g dry weight to 4.25 mg tannic acid/g dry weight. Consumer acceptance and instrumental analyses were used to investigate changes in sensory and texture properties due to GSF replacement. Replacement above 5 g GSF/100 g HRS decreased the loaf brightness and volume, with an increase in the bread hardness and porosity. Generally, breads containing ≥ 7.5 g GSF/100 g HRS were characterized by lower consumer acceptance. A reduction in overall and bitterness acceptance was observed in bread at 10 g GSF/100 g HRS, with decreased acceptance of astringency and sweetness at 7.5 and 10 g GSF/100 g HRS. Based on these results, the replacement of 5 g GSF/100 g HRS is recommended for the production of fortified breads with acceptable physical and sensory properties and high TPC activity compared to refined bread. This study shows that grape seed flour (GSF) can be used to replace hard red spring wheat flour (HRS) in bread production, with moderate impact on the physical and sensory properties of the bread. Replacement of up to 10 g GSF/100 g HRS significantly decreased overall consumer acceptance of the bread, with lower consumer acceptance of sweetness and astringency at 7.5 and 10 g GSF/100 g HRS. Thus, a replacement value of 5 g GSF/100 g HRS is recommended for the production of fortified breads. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Fruit quality, anthocyanin and total phenolic contents, and antioxidant activities of 45 blueberry cultivars grown in Suwon, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Gook; Kim, Hong Lim; Kim, Su Jin; Park, Kyo-Sun

    2013-09-01

    Blueberry fruits from 45 commercial cultivars (39 northern highbush and 6 half highbush blueberry) grown in Suwon, Korea were analyzed for fruit size, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Fruit characteristics varied widely among the 45 blueberry cultivars. Fruit weight ranged from 0.9 to 3.6 g, soluble solids content from 8.3 to 14.3 °Brix, and titratable acidity from 0.8% to 3.6%. Antioxidant activity ranged from 0.7 to 2.1 mg of quercetin equivalents per gram of fresh berries in different blueberry cultivars. Among the 45 blueberry cultivars, high amounts of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and high antioxidant activity were observed in 'Elliott', 'Rubel', 'Rancocas', and 'Friendship'.

  18. Optimization and validation of Folin-Ciocalteu method for the determination of total polyphenol content of Pu-erh tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musci, Marilena; Yao, Shicong

    2017-12-01

    Pu-erh tea is a post-fermented tea that has recently gained popularity worldwide, due to potential health benefits related to the antioxidant activity resulting from its high polyphenolic content. The Folin-Ciocalteu method is a simple, rapid, and inexpensive assay widely applied for the determination of total polyphenol content. Over the past years, it has been subjected to many modifications, often without any systematic optimization or validation. In our study, we sought to optimize the Folin-Ciocalteu method, evaluate quality parameters including linearity, precision and stability, and then apply the optimized model to determine the total polyphenol content of 57 Chinese teas, including green tea, aged and ripened Pu-erh tea. Our optimized Folin-Ciocalteu method reduced analysis time, allowed for the analysis of a large number of samples, to discriminate among the different teas, and to assess the effect of the post-fermentation process on polyphenol content.

  19. Uranyl complexes of glutathione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzotto, A [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Padua (Italy). Lab. di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Radioelementi

    1977-01-01

    Dioxouranium(VI) complexes of the tripeptide glutathione having different molar ratios were prepared and studied by IR, PMR, electronic absorption and circular dichroism spectra. The results indicate that coordination occurs at the carboxylato groups, acting as monodentate ligands, whereas no significant interaction with the amino and sulfhydrylic groups takes place.

  20. Comparative Analysis of ?-Oryzanol, ?-Glucan, Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Fermented Rice Bran of Different Varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Tae-Dong; Shin, Gi-Hae; Kim, Jae-Min; Choi, Sun-Il; Lee, Jin-Ha; Lee, Sang Jong; Park, Seon Ju; Woo, Koan Sik; Oh, Sea Kwan; Lee, Ok-Hawn

    2017-01-01

    Rice bran, a by-product derived from processing rice, is a rich source of bioactive compounds. Recent studies have suggested that the fermentation can improve their biological activities. This study aimed to determined the level of γ-oryzanol, β-glucan and total phenol contents of fermented rice bran from 21 Korean varieties, as well as to evaluate their antioxidant activities. We also assessed the validation of the analytical method for determining γ-oryzanol content in fermented rice brans....

  1. Effects of Xe Gas Content and Total Gas Pressure on the Discharge Characteristics of Colour Plasma Display Panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Wenbo; Han Mengju; Liang Zhihu

    2006-01-01

    The effects of the Xe gas content and total gas pressure on the discharge characteristics of colour plasma display panels including the sustaining voltage margin, white-field chromaticity, discharge time lag (DTL), discharge current peak, and full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of the discharge current pulse, are experimentally studied. The results indicate that as the Xe gas content in the He-Ne-Xe gas mixture or total pressure increases, the sustaining voltage margin increases, the white-field chromaticity improves, and the discharge current peak has a maximum value, while DTL and FWHM have a minimum value. The mean electron energy in the gas mixture discharge is also calculated through a numerical solution of Boltzmann equation. The experimental results are explained from a view of the mean electron energy variations with the Xe gas content and total gas pressure

  2. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Barleria buxifolia on Indian adult earthworms and estimation of total flavonoid content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purna A. Chander

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the anthelmintic activity of Barleria buxifolia leaf and to estimate the total flavonoid content. Methods: The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts were prepared and these were analyzed for total flavonoid content by aluminium chloride colorimetric method and Pheretima posthuma was used for anthelmintic activity by using the different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 80 and 100 mg/mL. Results: All the investigational extracts showed an anthelmintic activity at concentration of 10 mg/mL. The ethanolic extract of 100 mg/mL has produced an significant effect (P<0.001 when compared to aqueous extract. The total flavonoid content was found to be 5.67 mg QE/100 g. Conclusions: From the above study, the leaf extract has shown a good anthelmintic activity.

  3. Influence of different extracts addition on total phenols, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of blackberry juice during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Bilić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigation of influence of different extracts addition on total phenols, anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity and percent of polymeric colour of blackberry juice during storage of 52 days at 4 °C. Anthocyanin content of control sample (blackberry juice without extracts addition was 149.91 mg/L. Samples with addition of extracts (olive leaf, pine bark PE 5:1, pine bark PE 95 %, green tea, red wine PE 30 %, red wine PE 4:1 and bioflavonoids had higher anthocyanin content (from 152.42 to 161.19 mg/L in comparison to control sample. Sample with addition of bioflavonoids had the highest anthocyanin content. Samples with addition of extracts had much higher total phenol content and antioxidant activity than control sample, what was expected since extracts are rich in phenols. During storage decrease of phenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity occurred in higher or lesser extent, depending on extract type addition. Anthocyanin content in control sample was 119.85 mg/L. Samples with addition of bioflavonoids, olive leaf, pine bark PE 5:1 and red wine PE 4:1 had lower (from 103.44 to 118.84 mg/L, while other samples had higher (from 131.99 to 135.57 mg/L anthocyanin content than control sample. After storage, decrease of anthocyanins was followed with increase of percent of polymeric colour, with exception of samples with addition of green tea.

  4. Total Phenolics, Flavonoids, Tannin Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivated on Different Wastes and Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşenur Yılmaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the usage possibilities of some agro-industrial wastes such as; peanut wastes, potatoes farm wastes, walnut and orange tree sawdust in Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation were investigated and total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin content and antioxidant properties of these methanolic mushroom extracts were examined. For the determination of the total phenolic contents, the Folin-Ciocalteau procedure was used. The content of total flavonoid present in the methanolic extracts was measured using a spectrophotometric assay. Condensed tannins were determined according to the method by Julkunen-Tıtto. The antioxidant capacity was determined using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and free radical scavenging activity of DPPH. The highest total phenolic content (2.672 ± 0.003 mg GAE/g was found in mushroom cultivated on walnut sawdust. The highest condensed tannin (1.011 ± 0.088 CE mg/g and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP (12.332 ± 0.017 μmol FeSO4.7H2O/g were observed in the same mushroom extract. The highest total flavonoid and free radical scavenging activity of DPPH were found in extract of mushroom cultivated on potatoes handle. Bioactive properties of P. ostreatus cultivated on walnut tree sawdust were generally exhibited remarkable results.

  5. Effects of reduced glutathion and vitamin c on cisplatin-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glutathione peroxidase [GSHPx], catalase [CAT], glutathione reductase [GSHR] activities and gene expression, glutathione [GSH] content) and lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde, MDA) in rat liver tissue were measured. CDDP hepatotoxicity was manifested by an increase in serum ALT and AST, elevation of MDA ...

  6. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Shanmei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV combined with auto scale(AS, the partial least square regression (PLSR model was established using the full spectral range, which had the best prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9124, Rp2 of 0.8816, RMSECV of 1.5889, and RMSEP of 1.7719, respectively. After the optimum wavelengths which is closely related to the TVB-N content of beef samples was obtained using the competitive adaptive re-weighted (CARS algorithm, a new PLSR model was established using the optimum wavelengths, which had outstanding prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9235, Rp2 of 0.9241, RMSECV of 1.4881, and RMSEP of 1.4882, respectively.The study showed that HSI is a powerful technique to predict the TVB-N content in beef by a nondestructive way.

  7. Variability of total and mobile element contents in ash derived from biomass combustion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Száková, J.; Ochecová, P.; Hanzlíček, Tomáš; Perná, Ivana; Tlustoš, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 11 (2013), s. 1376-1385 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI102A207 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : biomass combustion * fly ash * bottom ash * element contents Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  8. Compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd eZechmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The tripeptide thiol glutathione (γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine is the most important sulfur containing antioxidant in plants and essential for plant defense against abiotic and biotic stress conditions. It is involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, redox signaling, the modulation of defense gene expression and important for the regulation of enzymatic activities. Even though changes in glutathione contents are well documented in plants and its roles in plant defense are well established, still too little is known about its compartment specific importance during abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Due to technical advances in the visualization of glutathione and the redox state of plants through microscopical methods some progress was made in the last few years in studying the importance of subcellular glutathione contents during stress conditions in plants. This review summarizes the data available on compartment specific importance of glutathione in the protection against abiotic and biotic stress conditions such as high light stress, exposure to cadmium, drought, and pathogen attack (Pseudomonas, Botrytis, Tobacco Mosaic Virus. The data will be discussed in connection with the subcellular accumulation of ROS during these conditions and glutathione synthesis which are both highly compartment specific (e.g. glutathione synthesis takes place in chloroplasts and the cytosol. Thus this review will reveal the compartment specific importance of glutathione during abiotic and biotic stress conditions.

  9. In vitro callus culture of Heliotropium indicum Linn. for assessment of total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Muthusamy Senthil; Chaudhury, Shibani; Balachandran, Srinivasan

    2014-12-01

    The total phenolic and flavonoid content and percentage of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of callus and in vivo plant parts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. were estimated. Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) 2.0 mg/l with benzyladenine (BA) 0.5 mg/l showed the highest amount of callus biomass (1.87 g/tube). The morphology of callus was significantly different according to the plant growth regulators and their concentrations used in the medium. The highest amount of total phenolic (21.70 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram (GAE/g)) and flavonoid (4.90 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g)) content and the maximum percentage (77.78 %) of radical scavenging activity were estimated in the extract of inflorescence. The synergistic effect of NAA (2.0 mg/l) and BA (0.5 mg/l) enhances the synthesis of total phenolic (9.20 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (1.25 mg QE/g) content in the callus tissue. The callus produced by the same concentration shows 45.24 % of free radical scavenging activity. While comparing the various concentrations of NAA with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) for the production of callus biomass, total phenolic and flavonoid content and free radical scavenging activity, all the concentrations of NAA were found to be superior than those of 2,4-D.

  10. Contents and retentions of free and total purine bases in lamb meat cooked by several household methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anfossi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about the content of total and free purine bases in muscle foods and their retentions upon cooking have been since long established (Brulé et al., 1988. Recently, though, an important rôle has been acknowledged to dietary sources of preformed purines for the growth of tissues with a rapid turnover and for optimal function of the cellular immune response, up to the point that the positive features of these nutrients seem to outweigh by far the negative ones (ILSI, 1998. Scanty information exists about the total purine content of raw ovine meat, the only available sources of data being a survey by Herbel and Montag (1987 on purine and pyrimidine contents of protein-rich foods and the comprehensive collection of food composition tables compiled by Scherz and Senser (1994...

  11. Total phenolic contents and free-radical scavenging activities of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and grape products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Serhat; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra

    2013-03-01

    Grape is one of the world's largest fruit crops, with an approximate annual production of 58 million metric tons, and it is well known that the grape skins, seeds and stems, waste products generated during wine and grape juice processing, are rich sources of polyphenols. It contains flavonoids, phenolic acids and stilbenes. In this study, we tried to determine antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of grape and grape products (fresh fruit, seed, dried fruit, molasses, pestil, vinegar) of ethanol and water extracts. Antioxidant properties of extracts were investigated by DPPH(√), ABTS(√+), superoxide, H(2)O(2) scavenging, reducing power, metal chelating activity and determination of total phenolic contents. The seed extracts revealed highest ABTS(√+), DPPH(√), H(2)O(2) scavenging and reducing power activities. Furthermore, these extracts showed higher total phenolic contents than other grape product extracts.

  12. EVALUATION OF TOTAL MERCURY CONTENT IN MUSCLE TISSUE OF MARINE FISH AND ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Bajčan; Július Árvay; Janette Musilová

    2013-01-01

    Nowdays, a degree of contamination by heavy metals can be observed in the environment. Heavy metals have serious effects on all living organisms because they can accumulate in lethal or sublethal concentrations in the various parts of food chain and so they can cause different health problems like cardiovascular and cancer diseases. Marine fish and animals are one of the bigges source of mercury in human food. Therefore this work is focused to the rate of mercury content in muscle tisuues of ...

  13. EVALUATION OF TOTAL MERCURY CONTENT IN MUSCLE TISSUE OF MARINE FISH AND ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bajčan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays, a degree of contamination by heavy metals can be observed in the environment. Heavy metals have serious effects on all living organisms because they can accumulate in lethal or sublethal concentrations in the various parts of food chain and so they can cause different health problems like cardiovascular and cancer diseases. Marine fish and animals are one of the bigges source of mercury in human food. Therefore this work is focused to the rate of mercury content in muscle tisuues of marine fish and animals. We analyzed mainly frozen or otherwise preserved marine fish and animals that were purchased in retail network in Slovakia. Mercury content in samples was analyzed by cold vapor AAS with mercury analyser AMA254. The contents of mercury in analysed samples were in the interval 0.0057 – 0,697 mg.kg-1. Our results shows, that no analyzed samples of marine fish and animals had over-limit concetration of Hg, so they are safe for human nutrition.

  14. The measurement of the total electron content applied to the observation of medium scale gravity wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, L.; Bertin, F.; Testud, J.

    1976-01-01

    The interpretation of the measurements of the integrated electron content in terms of gravity wave requires (1) a gravity wave model at thermospheric altitudes; (2) a gravity wave-ionization interaction model in the F-region of the ionosphere; and (3) a computing program for the resulting perturbation on the integrated electron content between the satellite and the earth station used. The gravity wave model considered in this paper takes into account the dissipative effects (viscosity, thermal conduction) which become very importanr above 250 km altitude and the effect of the base wind which is capable of affecting deeply the propagation of the waves of medium scale. Starting with this model, the domains of frequencies and the wavelength of atmospheric waves which may exist in the upper atmosphere are considered. The interaction of such waves and the ionization is examined. The theoretical results give information particularly on the selectivity of the ionospheric response to the wave passage. The deduced selectivity of the models appears to be smaller than that given by other authors who used simplified gravity wave models. The method for computing the perturbation of the of the integrated electron content introduced by the wave passage is given for a geostationary satellite. Computational results are presented for application to the case of medium scale gravity waves. (author)

  15. The content of total polyphenols, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in selected varieties of quince (Cydonia oblonga mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judita Bystrická

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quince fruit (Cydonia oblonga Miller is an important source of bioactive compounds, especially of polyphenolic compounds, phenolic acids, flavonoids also of minerals and vitamins. This compounds exhibit health promoting properties including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic and cardioprotective properties. Quine fruit have a high therapeutic value, can be used as good sources of antioxidants. This study provides some knowledge about content of total polyphenols, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity in selected varieties of quince fruit samples. Four quince fruit cultivars (Semenáč, Konstantinopler Apfelquitte, Cydora Robusta, Mammut were analysed. The content of the total polyphenols (TPC was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR at 765 nm using spectrophotometer. Ascorbic acid (AsA content was determined using standard HPLC gradient method. Antioxidant activity (AA was measures using a compound DPPH˙(2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The content of (TPC in fresh samples of quince fruit ranged from 661 ±11.60 mg.kg-1 to 1044 ±11.03 mg.kg-1 and content of AsA were in interval from 151 ±0.58 mg.kg-1 to 215 ±0.75 mg.kg-1. The values of antioxidant activity in quince fruit samples were in range from 26.90 ±0.61% to 49.14 ±0.38%. Statistically significant highest content TPC, AsA and AA was recorded in cultivar Konstaninopler Apfelquitte and statistically lowest content was recorded in cultivar Semenáč. The content of TPC, AsA and AA beside the variety may be affected by many factors also climatic conditions and the agrochemical composition of the soil. 

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on the total nitrogen and protein content in body during different stages of silkworm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, N.; Malinova, K.; Binkh, N.T.

    1996-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation of eggs of silk moth in B 2 stage in doses of 1.00, 2.00 and 3.00 Gy on the changes of total nitrogen and protein content during different stages of Bombyx mori L. development. Highest levels of total nitrogen and protein were found in silk gland 14.032-14.355 mg%, followed by pupae - 7.448-8.092 and 46.550-48.906 mg%, moths after egg laying - 6.650-7.825 and 41.563-48.906 mg% and silkworm hemolymph - 6.920-6.980 and 43.250-43.625 mg%, respectively. The irradiation of eggs with 2.00 and 3,00 Gy gamma rays stimulated the increase of total nitrogen and protein content in silk gland by 6.66-7.3% compared to non-irradiated eggs of the same breed. 14 refs., 3 tabs. (author)

  17. Skylarks trade size and energy content in weed seeds to maximize total ingested lipid biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaba, Sabrina; Collas, Claire; Powolny, Thibaut; Bretagnolle, François; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    The trade-off between forage quality and quantity has been particularly studied in herbivore organisms, but much less for seed eating animals, in particular seed-eating birds which constitute the bulk of wintering passerines in European farmlands. The skylark is one of the commonest farmland birds in winter, mainly feeding on seeds. We focus on weed seeds for conservation and management purposes. Weed seeds form the bulk of the diet of skylarks during winter period, and although this is still a matter for discussion, weed seed predation by granivorous has been suggested as an alternative to herbicides used to regulate weed populations in arable crops. Our objectives were to identify whether weed seed traits govern foraging decisions of skylarks, and to characterize key seed traits with respect to size, which is related to searching and handling time, and lipid content, which is essential for migratory birds. We combined a single-offer experiment and a multiple-offer one to test for feeding preferences of the birds by estimating seed intake on weed seed species differing in their seed size and seed lipid content. Our results showed (1) a selective preference for smaller seeds above a threshold of seed size or seed size difference in the pair and, (2) a significant effect of seed lipid biomass suggesting a trade-off between foraging for smaller seeds and selecting seeds rich in lipids. Skylarks foraging decision thus seems to be mainly based on seed size, that is presumably a 'proxy' for weed seed energy content. However, there are clearly many possible combinations of morphological and physiological traits that must play crucial role in the plant-bird interaction such as toxic compound or seed coat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Total mercury and methyl-mercury contents and accumulation in polar microbial mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Antonio; Rochera, Carlos; Hennebelle, Raphaëlle; Ferrari, Christophe; Quesada, Antonio

    2015-03-15

    Although polar regions are considered isolated and pristine areas, the organisms that inhabit these zones are exposed to global pollution. Heavy metals, such as mercury, are global pollutants and can reach almost any location on Earth. Mercury may come from natural, volcanic or geological sources, or result from anthropogenic sources, in particular industrial or mining activities. In this study, we have investigated one of the most prominent biological non-marine communities in both polar regions, microbial mats, in terms of their Hg and methyl-mercury (MeHg) concentrations and accumulation capacities. The main hypotheses posed argued on the importance of different factors, and to test them, we have measured Hg concentrations in microbial mats that were collected from 6 locations in different ecological situations. For this purpose, the direct anthropogenic impacts, volcanic influences, proximity to the seashore, latitudinal gradients and C contents were investigated. Our results show that, other than the direct anthropogenic influence, none of the other hypotheses alone satisfactorily explains the Hg content in microbial mats. In contrast, the MeHg contents were noticeably different between the investigated locations, with a higher proportion of MeHg on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (Antarctica) and a lower proportion on Ward Hunt Island (High Arctic). Furthermore, our results from in situ experiments indicated that the microbial mats from South Shetland Islands could quickly accumulate (48 h) Hg when Hg dissolved salts were supplied. Over short-term periods, these mats do not transform Hg into MeHg under field conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of the total nitrate content of thorium nitrate solution with a selective electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirkner, F.M.

    1979-01-01

    The nitrate content of thorium nitrate solutions is determined with a liquid membrane nitrate selective electrode utilizing the known addition method in 0.1 M potassium fluoride medium as ionic strength adjustor. It is studied the influence of pH and the presence of chloride, sulphate, phosphate, meta-silicate, thorium, rare earths, iron, titanium, uranium and zirconium at the same concentrations as for the aqueous feed solutions in the thorium purification process. The method is tested in synthetic samples and in samples proceeding from nitric dissolutions of thorium hidroxide and thorium oxicarbonate utilized as thorium concentrates to be purified [pt

  20. Analysis of total hydrogen content in palm oil and palm kernel oil using thermal neutron moderation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaho, E.H.K.; Dagadu, C.P.K.; Maaku, B.T.; Anim-Sampong, S.; Kyere, A.W.K.; Jonah, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    A fast and non-destructive technique based on thermal neutron moderation has been used for determining the total hydrogen content in two types of red palm oil (dzomi and amidze) and palm kernel oil produced by traditional methods in Ghana. An equipment consisting of an 241 Am-Be neutron source and 3 He neutron detector was used in the investigation. The equipment was originally designed for detection of liquid levels in petrochemical and other process industries. Standards in the form of liquid hydrocarbons were used to obtain calibration lines for thermal neutron reflection parameter as a function of hydrogen content. Measured reflection parameters with respective hydrogen content with or without heat treatment of the three edible palm oils available on the market were compared with a brand cooking oil (frytol). The average total hydrogen content in the local oil samples prior to heating was measured to be 11.62 w% which compared well with acceptable value of 12 w% for palm oils in the sub-region. After heat treatment, the frytol oil (produced through bleaching process) had the least loss of hydrogen content of 0.26% in comparison with palm kernel oil of 0.44% followed by dzomi of 1.96% and by amidze of 3.22%. (author)

  1. Determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant activitity of methanol extract of Maranta arundinacea L fresh leaf and tuber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusbandari, A.; Susanti, H.

    2017-11-01

    Maranta arundinacea L is one of herbaceous plants in Indonesia which have flavonoid content. Flavonoids has antioxidants activity by inhibition of free radical oxidation reactions. The study aims were to determination total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of methanol extract of fresh leaf and tuber of M. arundinacea L by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The methanol extracts were obtained with maceration and remaseration method of fresh leaves and tubers. The total phenolic content was assayed with visible spectrophotometric using Folin Ciocalteau reagent. The antioxidant activity was assayed with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) compared to gallic acid. The results showed that methanol extract of tuber and fresh leaf of M. arundinacea L contained phenolic compound with total phenolic content (TPC) in fresh tuber of 3.881±0.064 (% GAE) and fresh leaf is 6.518±0.163 (% b/b GAE). IC50 value from fresh tuber is 1.780±0.0005 μg/mL and IC50 fresh leaf values of 0.274±0.0004 μg/mL while the standard gallic acid is IC50 of 0.640±0.0002 μg/mL.

  2. Effect of processing and cooking on total and soluble oxalate content in frozen root vegetables prepared for consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. LISIEWSKA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The oxalate content of beetroot, carrot, celeriac and parsnip after freezing by traditional and modified methods (the latter resulting in a convenience food product, and after the preparation of frozen products for consumption was evaluated. The highest content of total and soluble oxalates (105 and 82 mg 100 g-1 fresh matter was found in beetroot. The lowest proportion (55% of soluble oxalates was noted in celeriac; this proportion was higher in the remaining vegetables, being broadly similar for each of them. Blanching brought about a significant decrease in total and soluble oxalates in fresh vegetables. Cooking resulted in a higher loss of oxalates. The level of oxalates in products prepared for consumption directly after freezing approximated that before freezing. Compared with the content before freezing, vegetables prepared for consumption by cooking after frozen storage contained less oxalates, except for total oxalates in parsnip and soluble oxalates in beetroot and celeriac. The highest ratio of oxalates to calcium was found in raw beetroot; it was two times lower in raw carrot; five times lower in raw celeriac; and eight times lower in raw parsnip. These ratios were lower after technological and culinary processing. The percentage of oxalate bound calcium depended on the species; this parameter was not significantly affected by the procedures applied. The true retention of oxalates according to Judprasong et al. (2006 was lower than retention calculated taking its content in 100 g fresh matter into account.;

  3. Measurements of the total-body potassium contents. Application of reference value with the whole-body counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Training Radiological Technicians; Saegusa, Kenji; Arimizu, Noboru; Kuniyasu, Yoshio; Itoh, Hisao

    2001-08-01

    The total-body potassium contents were measured in 405 healthy volunteers and 186 patients with whole body counter in Chiba University Hospital. The total-body potassium contents was expressed by the reference value (R value). The R value was calculated as measured potassium contents (g) divided by the body surface area (m{sup 2}) and adjusted by age and sex of healthy persons. The R value was 100.65{+-}9.22% in 405 healthy volunteers. Those of each disease were as follows: liver cirrhosis; 94.24{+-}11.22%, chronic hepatitis; 95.74{+-}11.24%, hyperthyroidism; 99.37{+-}10.8%, periodic paralysis; 82.0{+-}9.01%, Barter's syndrome; 93.99{+-}9.86%, myasthenia gravis; 97.34{+-}6.42% and hypo-potassemia; 90.64{+-}11.76%, respectively. The R values of other diseases such as uterine cancer, breast cancer, anemia, hypertension were 97.78{+-}11.5%, 99.22{+-}8.88%, 96.64{+-}12.73%, 98.5{+-}9.63% respectively. Fourteen patients showed especially lower R values under 75%. These were 1 liver cirrhosis, 3 hypertension, 1 diabetes mellitus, 3 hypo-potassemia, 1 periodic paralysis, 2 Barter's syndrome, 2 chemical poisoning, and 1 breast cancer. Follow-up study was performed in some patients with the lower R values. The result of follow-up study showed that there was a relationship between improvement of symptoms and increase of total body potassium contents. (author)

  4. Exploiting direct and indirect methods for the detection of the total carotenoid content in dried pasta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.D.; Végvári, G.; Buijnsters, J.G.; Spruijt, R.B.; Luterotti, S.

    2010-01-01

    The total carotenoid concentration (TCC) of several commercially available dried pastas prepared with or without eggs was assessed by means of the two well-established destructive approaches [spectrophotometry (SP) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)] and three non-destructive, direct

  5. Combined effect of heat treatment and humidity on total polyphenol content of tartary buckwheat wholeflour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea BRUNORI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor crops are gaining new interest due to the high content of bioactive compounds available in their grain and the consequent opportunity to be employed as ingredients for the production of healthy foodstuff. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn. grain is rich in flavonoids, the most important being represented by rutin, a compound possessing a high health value. When processing bakery products added with Tartary buckwheat whole flour, the key point is to prevent rutin from being hydrolysed to quercetin. In this view, a combination of heat treatment and controlled humidity level was applied for different lengths of time, in the attempt to deactivate the enzymes catalysing the reaction. Tartary buckwheat grain contains other polyphenols also capable to confer health properties. This class of compounds has been associated with the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and osteoporosis. In this study it was observed how the physical treatments meant to preserve rutin would influence the overall content of polyphenols in Tartary buckwheat whole flour and dough.

  6. Total Content of Polyphenols and Antioxidant Activity of Different Melliferous Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pasca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study polyphenols content and antioxidant activity of melliferous plants for the following: mint (Mentha pulegium, burdock (Arctium lappa, comfrey (Symphytum officinale, plantain (Pantago lanceolata, thyme (Thymus vulgaris, sage (Salvia officinalis, marigold (Calendula officinalis, small marshmallow (Althaea officinalis, echinacea (Echinaceea angustifolia and black popular (Populus nigra were investigated, using two different extraction methods. High content of polyphenols and flavones were extracted from Populus nigra, with an average of both extractions 23.14 mg GAE/g and 78.07 mg QE/g flavones. Among the studied plants, Arctium lappa registered the highest antioxidant activity (0.129 mmol Trolox/mL in alcoholic extract and Echinaceea angustifolia with a value of 0.122 mmol Trolox/mL in aqueous extract. The lowest values were recorded for the antioxidant activity of Althaea officinalis (alcoholic extract and Arctium lappa (aqueous extract. The results show that Arctium lappa, Echinaceea angustifolia and Populus nigra can be considered melliferous plants for their high biologically active compounds potential and bee products (honey and pollen that having the composition of these plants will have high antioxidant and antibacterial properties.

  7. Total electron content measurements at Gauhati using 140 MHz ATS-6 transmissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, T.R.; Singh, L.; Minakshi Devi; Barbara, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    The amplitude and phase of 140 MHz transmissions from geostationary satellite ATS-6 (0 0 N, 35 0 E) have been recorded at Gauhati (26.16 0 N; 91.75 0 E) for the period Nov. 1975 to Aug. 1976. The calibration technique for geostationary satellite Faraday rotation measurements suggested by Checcacci and Giorgeo has been improved and generalized. It is then utilized to remove the n ambiguity in Faraday rotation values and also to estimate the correct value of diurnal minimum Faraday rotation angle so that the recorded Faraday rotation values can be converted into electron content values. Typical diurnal variation curves have been obtained for all the months except for equinoxes when the satellite transmission was off very often due to ecliptic conditions and hence no complete diurnal curves could be obtained for these months. It has been found that though December and January behave like typical winter months, the month of November is more like an equinoctial month. Similarly, though June and July behave like typical summer months, the month of May is more or less similar to equinoxes. The characteristic features of the diurnal and seasonal behaviour of the electron content have been discussed. (author)

  8. Total flavonoids content and biochemical screening of the leaves of tropical endemic medicinal plant Merremia borneensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dawood Shah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The developing and under developed countries mostly rely on traditional medicines. This herbal or traditional medicine involves the use of different types of organic extracts or the bioactive chemical constituents. This type of biochemical investigation provides health care at an affordable cost. This survey such as ethnomedicine keenly represents one of the best avenues in searching new economic plants for medicines. Keeping this view in mind, the present study is carried out in Merremia borneensis leaves of University Malaysia Sabah, Sabah, Malaysia. The plant has several beneficial properties, such as antioxidant activity. The dry powder of the leaves of M. borneensis was extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous ethanol. The flavonoids content of the extracts was determined by Willet method. The flavonoids content of the extracts as quercetin equivalents was found to be highest in aqueous ethanol (53.28% followed by chloroform (38.83%, ethyl acetate (24.51%, butanol (12.54% and hexane extract (3.44%. The results suggest the presence of phytochemical properties in the leaves, which are used in curing the ailments.

  9. Antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents of Myrciaria floribunda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS A.C. TIETBOHL

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Myrciaria floribunda (H. West ex Willd. O. Berg, Myrtaceae, is a native plant species of the Atlantic Rain Forest, from north to south of Brazil. The lyophilized ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of M. floribunda was investigated for its antiproliferative activity in tumor cell lines, antioxidant capacity and its total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents. Antiproliferative activity was tested in vitro against seven human cancer cells and against immortalized human skin keratinocytes line (HaCat, no cancer cell. Antioxidant activity was determined using 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC assays and total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin contents were determined by spectrophotometric techniques. Ethyl acetate extract of M. floribunda exhibited antiproliferative activity against cancer cell lines with total growth inhibition (TGI between 69.70 and 172.10 µg/mL. For HaCat cell, TGI value was 213.60 µg/mL. M. floribunda showed a strong antioxidant potential: EC50 of 45.89±0.42 µg/mL and 0.55±0.05 mmol TE/g for DPPH and ORAC, respectively. Total phenolic content was 0.23±0.013g gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g extract and exhibited 13.10±1.60% of tannins content. The content of flavonoid was 24.08±0.44% expressed as rutin equivalents. These results provide a direction for further researches about the antitumoral potential of M. floribunda.

  10. Thioacetamide-induced changes in the body weight, kidney weight and the total nucleic acids content of kidney of mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakoori, Abdul Rauf; Ashraf, Fauzia.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of thioacetamide (TAA) on the body weight, kidney weight and the total nucleic acids content of kidney of mouse were studied. TAA 1% and 2% solutions were injected intraperitoneally, twice with an interval of 24 hours in two different batches of male mice. In this way one batch received a total dose of 100 mg TAA/Kg body wt. while the other got a total dose of 200 mg TAA/Kg. Both the body as well as kidney weights decrease after TAA treatment. A total dose of 200 mg/Kg is a stronger inhibitor of growth as compared with that of 100 mg/Kg. The nucleic acids content show an increase after the drug treatment. The ribonucleic acid content of kidney increased from an average value of 4.30+0.14 mg/g kidney to 4.60+-0.22 mg/g kidney after 1% TAA treatment. The increase in 2% TAA treated mice is slightly more prominent. The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) content of kidney are likewise affected. After an initial increase in 1% TAA-treated animals, the DNA content gradually fall down to normal control values. Administration of 2% TAA solution causes an average increase of 21% i.e. from 1.93+-0.19 mg/g kidney wt to 2.26+-0.23 mg/g kidney wt. The size of cell, nucleus and nucleolus also increased after drug treatment, which mainly occurred during the first 24 hours of the post-treatment period

  11. Glutathione synthesis and homeostasis in isolated type II alveolar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, K.; Warshaw, J.B.; Prough, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    After isolation of Type II cells from neonatal rat lung, the glutathione (GSH) levels in these cells were greatly depressed. The total glutathione content could be increased 5-fold within 12-24 h by incubating the cells in media containing sulfur amino acids. Similarly, the activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase was low immediately after isolation, but was increased 2-fold during the first 24 h culture. Addition of either GSH or GSSG to the culture media increased the GSH content of Type II cells 2-2.5-fold. Buthionine sulfoximine and NaF prevented this replenishment of GSH during 24 h culture. When the rates of de novo synthesis of GSH and GSSG from 35 S-cysteine were measured, the amounts of newly formed GSH decreased to 80% in the presence of GSH or GSSG. This suggests that exogenous GSH/GSSG can be taken up by the Type II cells to replenish the intracellular pool of GSH. Methionine was not as effective as cysteine in the synthesis of GSH. These results suggest that GSH levels in the isolated Type II cell can be maintained by de novo synthesis or uptake of exogenous GSH. Most of the GSH synthesized from cysteine, however, was excreted into the media of the cultured cells indicative of a potential role for the type II cell in export of the non-protein thiol

  12. Total Protein Content Determination of Microalgal Biomass by Elemental Nitrogen Analysis and a Dedicated Nitrogen-to-Protein Conversion Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurens, Lieve M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olstad-Thompson, Jessica L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Templeton, David W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-02

    Accurately determining protein content is important in the valorization of algal biomass in food, feed, and fuel markets, where these values are used for component balance calculations. Conversion of elemental nitrogen to protein is a well-accepted and widely practiced method, but depends on developing an applicable nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor. The methodology reported here covers the quantitative assessment of the total nitrogen content of algal biomass and a description of the methodology that underpins the accurate de novo calculation of a dedicated nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor.

  13. Total phytosterol content in drug materials and extracts from roots of Acanthospermum hispidum by UV-VIS spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa B. D. C. Araújo

    Full Text Available Acanthospermum hispidum DC., Asteraceae, is widely used in folk medicine in Brazil to treat respiratory diseases; this biological property has been attributed to its phytosterol content. This study evaluated the spectrophotometric assay method to quantify the total phytosterol content in raw materials and extracts from roots of A. hispidum. The procedure was based on the quantification at 625 nm after the Liebermann-Burchard reaction. The method was evaluated for linearity, repeatability, intermediate precision, accuracy and robustness. The date indicated that the procedure is a valid analytical tool for materials and herbal derivatives from A. hispidum.

  14. The impact of drying techniques on phenolic compound, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of oat flour tarhana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Değirmencioğlu, Nurcan; Gürbüz, Ozan; Herken, Emine Nur; Yıldız, Aysun Yurdunuseven

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the changes in phenolic composition, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tarhanas supplemented with oat flour (OF) at the levels of 20-100% (w/w) after three drying treatments (sun-, oven-, and microwave drying) were investigated. A total of seventeen phenolic standards have been screened in tarhanas, and the most abundant flavonol and phenolic acid compounds were kaempferol (23.62mg/g) and 3-hydroxy-4-metoxy cinnamic acid (9.60mg/g). The total phenolic content amount gradually increased with the addition of OF to tarhana, but decidedly higher total phenolic content was found in samples oven dried at 55°C as compared with other methods. The microwave- and oven dried tarhana samples showed higher TEACDPPH and TEACABTS values than those dried with the other methods, respectively, in higher OF amounts. Consequently, oven- and microwave-drying can be recommended to retain the highest for phenolic compounds as well as maximal antioxidant capacity in OF supplemented tarhana samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microwave digestion for determination content of iron and zinc total in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Trejos, Paulina

    2012-01-01

    The food digestion procedure was optimized by means of a microwave oven, to quantify the iron and total zinc in different matrices by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The optimum amount of concentrated HNO 3 was analyzed at 65% to digest sample mass determined by assessment of the percentage of recovery obtained with different amount of HNO 3 . The results have not differed from those obtained by officially recommended methods of acid digestion in open systems and calcination. (author) [es

  16. Total, Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Contents of Ripe Green and Golden Kiwifruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hà Vũ Hồng Nguyễn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green (Actinidia deliciosa L. and golden (Actinidia chinensis L. were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. The pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. Total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 M HCL at 21 °C for 15 min and soluble oxalates extracted at 21 °C in water for 15 min from each fraction. The total and soluble oxalate compositions of each fraction were determined using ion exchange HPLC chromatography. The pulp of golden kiwifruit contained lower amounts of total oxalates (15.7 vs. 19.3 mg/100 g FW and higher amounts of soluble oxalates (8.5 vs. 7.6 mg/100 g FW when compared to the green cultivar. The skin of the green cultivar contained lower levels of insoluble oxalates (36.9 vs. 43.6 mg/100 g FW, while the seeds of the green cultivar contained higher levels of insoluble oxalates 106.7 vs. 84.7 mg/100 g FW.

  17. Total, Soluble and Insoluble Oxalate Contents of Ripe Green and Golden Kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyễn, Hà Vũ Hồng; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2013-03-05

    Three bulk samples of two different cultivars of kiwifruit, green ( Actinidia deliciosa L . ) and golden ( Actinidia chinensis L . ) were bought ripe, ready to eat from a local market. The aim of the study was to determine the oxalate composition of each of the three fractions of kiwifruit, namely skin, pulp and seeds. The pulp consisted of 90.4% of the edible portion of the two cultivars while the skin and seeds made up a mean of 8.0% and 1.6% respectively. Total oxalate was extracted with 2.0 M HCL at 21 °C for 15 min and soluble oxalates extracted at 21 °C in water for 15 min from each fraction. The total and soluble oxalate compositions of each fraction were determined using ion exchange HPLC chromatography. The pulp of golden kiwifruit contained lower amounts of total oxalates (15.7 vs. 19.3 mg/100 g FW) and higher amounts of soluble oxalates (8.5 vs. 7.6 mg/100 g FW) when compared to the green cultivar. The skin of the green cultivar contained lower levels of insoluble oxalates (36.9 vs. 43.6 mg/100 g FW), while the seeds of the green cultivar contained higher levels of insoluble oxalates 106.7 vs. 84.7 mg/100 g FW.

  18. Fermentation and complex enzyme hydrolysis for improving the total soluble phenolic contents, flavonoid aglycones contents and bio-activities of guava leaves tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Luo, You; Wu, Yanan; Liu, Yan; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2018-10-30

    There are both soluble and insoluble-bound forms of phenolics in tea-leaf products. In order to increase total soluble phenolics contents, guava leaves tea (GLT) was first fermented with Monascus anka and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and then hydrolyzed with complex enzymes. The changes in phenolics profiles, antioxidant activities and inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase in processed GLT were investigated. Compared with the un-fermented GLT, fermentation and complex enzymatic processing (FE) significantly increased the total phenolics, total flavonoids, quercetin and kaempferol contents by 2.1, 2.0, 13.0 and 6.8 times, respectively. After the FE, a major proportion of phenolics existed in the soluble form. Quercetin was released in the highest amount among different phenolics. In addition, soluble phenolic extracts from GLT following FE exhibited a highest antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase. The paper suggested an improved method for processing GLT into high-value products rich in phenolics and flavonoids aglycones with enhanced health benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of total solids content on biohydrogen production and lactic acid accumulation during dark fermentation of organic waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Anish; Trably, Eric; Frunzo, Luigi; Pirozzi, Francesco; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni; Cazier, Elisabeth A; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-01-01

    Production of biohydrogen and related metabolic by-products was investigated in Solid State Dark Fermentation (SSDF) of food waste (FW) and wheat straw (WS). The effect of the total solids (TS) content and H 2 partial pressure (pp H2 ), two of the main operating factors of SSDF, were investigated. Batch tests with FW at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% TS showed considerable effects of the TS on metabolites distribution. H 2 production was strongly inhibited for TS contents higher than 15% with a concomitant accumulation of lactic acid and a decrease in substrate conversion. Varying the pp H2 had no significant effect on the conversion products and overall degradation of FW and WS, suggesting that pp H2 was not the main limiting factor in SSDF. This study showed that the conversion of complex substrates by SSDF depends on the substrate type and is limited by the TS content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of biological activities and total phenolic contents of flowers of jasminum humile and roots of dorema aucheri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Farooq, U.; Ullah, F.; Iqbal, J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate in vitro antioxidant, NO scavenging, and antibacterial activities as well as total phenolic contents of different extracts of flowers of Jasminum humile and roots of Dorema aucheri. The plant extracts showed significant antioxidant activity, having IC50 values comparable to those of references used in each assay and also inhibited accumulation of nitrite in vitro. The plant extracts yielded phenolic contents and showed significant antibacterial activity. The observed antioxidant potential and phenolic contents of the extracts showed that flowers of J. humile and roots of D. aucheri are potential source of natural antioxidants that may help to retard oxidative degradation and microbial growth in food industry. (author)

  1. Microwave digestion for determination of iron and zinc content of total food

    OpenAIRE

    Silva-Trejos, Paulina

    2012-01-01

    En el presente estudio se optimizó el procedimiento de digestión de alimentos por medio de un horno de microondas, para cuantificar el hierro y el zinc totales en diferentes matrices por espectroscopía de absorción atómica. Se analizó la cantidad óptima de HNO3 concentrado al 65% para digerir determinada masa de muestra por evaluación del porcentaje de recuperación obtenido con diferente cantidad de HNO3. Los resultados no difieren de los obtenidos por los métodos recomendados oficialmente de...

  2. Changes in total viable count and TVB-N content in marinated chicken breast fillets during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltić, T.; Ćirić, J.; Velebit, B.; Petronijević, R.; Lakićević, B.; Đorđević, V.; Janković, V.

    2017-09-01

    Marination is a popular technique for enhancing meat properties. Depending on the marinade type and ingredients added, marination can improve sensory, chemical and microbiological quality of meat products. In this study, the total viable count and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content in marinated chicken breast fillets were investigated. The possible correlation between bacterial growth and formation of TVB-N was also tested. Chicken breast fillets were immersed in a solution of table salt (as a control) orthree different marinades,which consisted of table salt, sodium tripolyphosphate and/or sodium citrate, and stored in air for nine days at 4±1°C. Analyses of the total viable count and TVB-N were performed on days0, 3, 6 and 9 day of storage. The total viable count gradually increased in all examined groups, and statistically significant differences (pchicken were significantly higher (pchicken marinated with sodium citrate was established (pchicken marinated with sodium tripolyphosphate.

  3. Effect of temperature, time, and milling process on yield, flavonoid, and total phenolic content of Zingiber officinale water extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyani, R.; Kosasih, W.; Ningrum, D. R.; Pudjiraharti, S.

    2017-03-01

    Several parameters such as temperature, time of extraction, and size of simplicia play significant role in medicinal herb extraction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of those parameters on yield extract, flavonoid, and total phenolic content in water extract of Zingiber officinale. The temperatures used were 50, 70 and 90°C and the extraction times were 30, 60 and 90 min. Z. officinale in the form of powder and chips were used to study the effect of milling treatment. The correlation among those variables was analysed using ANOVA two-way factors without replication. The result showed that time and temperature did not influence the yield of extract of Powder simplicia. However, time of extraction influenced the extract of simplicia treated without milling process. On the other hand, flavonoid and total phenolic content were not influenced by temperature, time, and milling treatment.

  4. The effect of whisky and wine consumption on total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of plasma from healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duthie, GG; Pedersen, M W; PC, Morrice

    1998-01-01

    wine, malt whisky or unmatured 'new make'spirit. Each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart, consuming one of the beverages each time. Bloodsamples were obtained from the anticubital vein at intervals up to 4h after consumption of the beverages when a urinesample was also obtained....... RESULTS: Within 30 min of consumption of the wine and whisky, there was a similar andsignificant increase in plasma total phenol content and antioxidant capacity as determined by the ferric reducing capacityof plasma (FRAP). No changes were observed following consumption of 'new make' spirit. CONCLUSIONS......OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 100 ml of whisky or red wine by healthy male subjects increasedplasma total phenol content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: A Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effectswhereby, after an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 100 ml of red...

  5. Statistical mixture design selective extraction of compounds with antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content from Trichilia catigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonni, Audrey Alesandra Stinghen Garcia; Longhini, Renata; Lopes, Gisely Cristiny; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Scarminio, Ieda Spacino

    2012-03-16

    Statistical design mixtures of water, methanol, acetone and ethanol were used to extract material from Trichilia catigua (Meliaceae) barks to study the effects of different solvents and their mixtures on its yield, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. The experimental results and their response surface models showed that quaternary mixtures with approximately equal proportions of all four solvents provided the highest yields, total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of the crude extracts followed by ternary design mixtures. Principal component and hierarchical clustering analysis of the HPLC-DAD spectra of the chromatographic peaks of 1:1:1:1 water-methanol-acetone-ethanol mixture extracts indicate the presence of cinchonains, gallic acid derivatives, natural polyphenols, flavanoids, catechins, and epicatechins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Total and regional bone mineral content in healthy Spanish subjects by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguado Henche, S.; Rodriguez Torres, R.; Clemente de Arriba, C.; Gomez Pellico, L.

    2008-01-01

    This is an observational cross-sectional study. The aim of the present study was to describe and analyze patterns of change in total and regional bone mineral content in relation to age and gender in a sedentary Spanish sample population (from the Community of Madrid). The age range of the sample population was from birth to 80 years. One thousand one hundred twenty healthy subjects were recruited and divided into 16 groups according to age. Each subject underwent whole-body densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. An analysis was made of the amount of bone mineral content (BMC) in the whole body and in different regions: the head, trunk, upper limbs, and lower limbs. Gender differences in mean values for upper limbs and lower limbs are statistically significant between 16 and 70 years of age. For the head and trunk, the mean BMC values show the most significant gender differences between 16 and 25 years of age (p≤0.001). Total bone mineral content (TBMC) and TBMC-to-height ratio show significant gender differences between 16 and 70 years of age. In females, TBMC values increase up to 20 years of age and in males up to 25 years of age. We have determined an evolutionary normal pattern of bone mineral content in urban Spanish people. (orig.)

  7. Total and regional bone mineral content in healthy Spanish subjects by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado Henche, S.; Rodriguez Torres, R.; Clemente de Arriba, C.; Gomez Pellico, L. [Universidad de Alcala, Departamento de Anatomia y Embriologia Humana, Facultad de Medicina, Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    This is an observational cross-sectional study. The aim of the present study was to describe and analyze patterns of change in total and regional bone mineral content in relation to age and gender in a sedentary Spanish sample population (from the Community of Madrid). The age range of the sample population was from birth to 80 years. One thousand one hundred twenty healthy subjects were recruited and divided into 16 groups according to age. Each subject underwent whole-body densitometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. An analysis was made of the amount of bone mineral content (BMC) in the whole body and in different regions: the head, trunk, upper limbs, and lower limbs. Gender differences in mean values for upper limbs and lower limbs are statistically significant between 16 and 70 years of age. For the head and trunk, the mean BMC values show the most significant gender differences between 16 and 25 years of age (p{<=}0.001). Total bone mineral content (TBMC) and TBMC-to-height ratio show significant gender differences between 16 and 70 years of age. In females, TBMC values increase up to 20 years of age and in males up to 25 years of age. We have determined an evolutionary normal pattern of bone mineral content in urban Spanish people. (orig.)

  8. Effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. by-product on the quality and total phenol content of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroua Boubaker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Legume flours, due to their phenol and fibre content, are ideal ingredients for improving the nutritional value of bakery products. In this study, artichoke stem powder (ASP was used to substitute 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10% of wheat flour for making breads. Proximate composition of wheat flour and ASP were determined. Bread qualities and total phenols content were analyzed and compared with those of wheat bread. Results show that ASP contained 10.37% moisture, 10.28% ash, 11.53% protein, 0.86% fat, 51.29% fibre and 1350 mg EAG/100g d.m. ASP addition considerably modified the bread quality: altered appearance and texture, darker crumb and more intense odour were observed. From the sensory evaluation, tastes of bread with higher content of ASP (7.5 and 10% were the most acceptable for assessors. Total phenol contents of breads significantly increased with the addition of ASP. Therefore ASP may be considered as valuable ingredients for industrial manufacture of functional foods.

  9. Response of Glutathione and Glutathione S-transferase in Rice Seedlings Exposed to Cadmium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-hua ZHANG

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A hydroponic culture experiment was done to investigate the effect of Cd stress on glutathione content (GSH and glutathione S-transferase (GST, EC 2.5.1.18 activity in rice seedlings. The rice growth was severely inhibited when Cd level in the solution was higher than 10 mg/L. In rice shoots, GSH content and GST activity increased with the increasing Cd level, while in roots, GST was obviously inhibited by Cd treatments. Compared with shoots, the rice roots had higher GSH content and GST activity, indicating the ability of Cd detoxification was much higher in roots than in shoots. There was a significant correlation between Cd level and GSH content or GST activity, suggesting that both parameters may be used as biomarkers of Cd stress in rice.

  10. The relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content and bone marrow adipose tissue in early-pubertal girls

    OpenAIRE

    L Newton, Anna; J Hanks, Lynae; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of the physiologic relevance of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) during growth may promote understanding of the bone-fat axis and confluence with metabolic factors. The objective of this pilot investigation was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content (BMC) and femoral BMAT during childhood and underlying metabolic determinants and (2) to determine if the relationships differ by race. Participants included white and non-Hispanic bla...

  11. Tsallis non-extensive statistical mechanics in the ionospheric detrended total electron content during quiet and storm periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsua, B. O.; Laoye, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the Tsallis non-extensive q-statistics in ionospheric dynamics was investigated using the total electron content (TEC) obtained from two Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver stations. This investigation was carried out considering the geomagnetically quiet and storm periods. The micro density variation of the ionospheric total electron content was extracted from the TEC data by method of detrending. The detrended total electron content, which represent the variation in the internal dynamics of the system was further analyzed using for non-extensive statistical mechanics using the q-Gaussian methods. Our results reveals that for all the analyzed data sets the Tsallis Gaussian probability distribution (q-Gaussian) with value q > 1 were obtained. It was observed that there is no distinct difference in pattern between the values of qquiet and qstorm. However the values of q varies with geophysical conditions and possibly with local dynamics for the two stations. Also observed are the asymmetric pattern of the q-Gaussian and a highly significant level of correlation for the q-index values obtained for the storm periods compared to the quiet periods between the two GPS receiver stations where the TEC was measured. The factors responsible for this variation can be mostly attributed to the varying mechanisms resulting in the self-reorganization of the system dynamics during the storm periods. The result shows the existence of long range correlation for both quiet and storm periods for the two stations.

  12. Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in leaves and stems extract of cultivated and wild tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, Hetty; Kustiawan, Wawan; Kusuma, Irawan W.; Marjenah

    2017-02-01

    Tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack) is a name given by Dayak Tribe who lived in Borneo-Kalimantan and it is belongs to the moraceae. Almost all of the parts of F. deltoidea plant is widely used as a medicinal property. The total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity from cultivated and wild F. deltoidea leaves and stems extract were assessed. Total flavonoid content was estimated by using Aluminium chloride colorimetric method and expressed as catechin equivalents (mg CE g-1 extract) and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) method. The content of total flavonoid of leaves and stems (430.77 and 371.80 µg CE mg-1 extract) of cultivated F. deltoidea were higher than in the wild leaves and stems (114.82 and 66.67 µg CE mg-1 extract). The IC50 of leaves extract of cultivated and wild F. deltoidea, based on the DPPH assay, has a strong antioxidant activity (34.19 and 39.31 µg mL-1 extract) as compared to stems extract. These results showed that the cultivated F. deltoidea are suitable source for medicinal properties and the leaves could be exploited as source of natural antioxidants.

  13. Essential element contents in food groups from the second Brazilian total diet study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrogi, J.B.; Avegliano, R.P.; Maihara, V.A.

    2016-01-01

    Total diet study (TDS) has been considered as one of the most appropriate approaches to estimate dietary exposure of essential elements. This paper presents preliminary results of concentrations and average dietary daily intakes of Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn from the 2nd Brazilian TDS. Nineteen groups from a Food List which represents the daily intake of the population from the Brazilian southeastern region were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The dietary daily intake values for Ca (641 mg), Fe (19.6 mg), K (2738 mg), Na (2466 mg), Se (56.4 μg), and Zn (15.3 mg) were higher than the 1st Brazilian TDS. (author)

  14. Evaluation of body composition and nitrogen content of renal patients on chronic dialysis as determined by total body neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Brennan, B.L.; Yasumura, S.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Ellis, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    Total body protein (nitrogen), body cell mass (potassium), fat, and water were measured in 15 renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Total body nitrogen was measured by means of prompt γ neutron activation analysis; total body water was determined with tritium labeled water; total body potassium was measured by whole body counting. The extracellular water was determined by a technique utilizing the measurement of total body chloride and plasma chloride. When compared with corresponding values of a control group of the same age, sex, and height, the protein content, body cell mass, and total body fat of the MHD patients were within the normal range. The only significant change was an increase in the extracellular water/body cell mass ratio in the male MHD patients compared to the control. The lack of significant difference of the nitrogen values of the MHD patients compared to matched controls suggests that dialysis minimizes any residual effects of uremic toxicity or protein-calorie malnutrition. These findings further suggest that there is a need to reevaluate the traditional anthropometric and biochemical standards of nutritional status for MHD patients. It was concluded that it is particularly important to measure protein stores of MHD patients with low protein intake to ascertain nutritional status. Finally, in vivo measurement of total body nitrogen and potassium for determination of body composition provides a simple, direct, and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of MHD patients

  15. Evaluation and comparison of the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in garlic (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Lenková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. is one of the oldest cultivated plants in the world and highly valued throughout the ages as a culinary spice. It is a hardy perennial belonging to the Alliaceae family. The garlic bulb is the most commonly used portion of the plant, composed of 5 - 20 individual. It is a very good source of manganese, selenium, vitamin C and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine. In addition, garlic is a good source of other minerals, including phosphorous, calcium, potassium, iron and copper. Many of the perceived therapeutic effects of garlic are thought to be due to its active ingredient allicin. This sulphur-containing compound gives garlic its distinctive pungent smell and taste. Garlic possesses antiviral, antibacterial, anti-fungal properties allowing it to stand against all infections. This work has focused on the evaluation and comparison of total content of polyphenols and antioxidant activity in five varieties of garlic - Mojmír, Záhorský, Lukan, Havran and Makoi. Samples of plant material were collected at the stage of full maturity in the area of Nitra. The total content of polyphenols was determined using the spectrophotometric method of Folin-Ciocalteu agents. Determined the content of total polyphenols in garlic were in the range 621.13 mg.kg-1 (Záhorský to 763.28 mg.kg-1 (Havran. Total polyphenols content in garlic declined in the following order: Havran >Mojmír >Makoi >Lukan >Záhorský. Antioxidant activity was measured by the spectrophotometric method using a compound DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl. Statistically significant highest value of antioxidant was recorded in 20.22% (Mojmír and the lowest value was in 13.61% (Záhorský. The values of antioxidant activity observed in the varieties of garlic may be arranged as follows: Mojmír >Havran >Lukan >Makoi >Záhorský. In all the analysed varieties of garlic was confirmed by the strong dependence of the antioxidant activity and the total content of polyphenols.

  16. Effect of total solids content on methane and volatile fatty acid production in anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Flavia; d'Antonio, Giuseppe; Esposito, Giovanni; Fabbricino, Massimiliano; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L; Pirozzi, Francesco; Pontoni, Ludovico

    2014-10-01

    This work investigates the role of the moisture content on anaerobic digestion of food waste, as representative of rapidly biodegradable substrates, analysing the role of volatile fatty acid production on process kinetics. A range of total solids from 4.5% to 19.2% is considered in order to compare methane yields and kinetics of reactors operated under wet to dry conditions. The experimental results show a reduction of the specific final methane yield of 4.3% and 40.8% in semi-dry and dry conditions compared with wet conditions. A decreasing trend of the specific initial methane production rate is observed when increasing the total solids concentration. Because of lack of water, volatile fatty acids accumulation occurs during the first step of the process at semi-dry and dry conditions, which is considered to be responsible for the reduction of process kinetic rates. The total volatile fatty acids concentration and speciation are proposed as indicators of process development at different total solids content. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Determination of the antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of seeds from three commercial varieties of culinary dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Mistrello

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Date seeds are a major waste product of the date industry that could offer potentially valuable material for the production of useful food ingredients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the seeds of three date varieties of the UK market (Deglet Nour, Khouat Allig, and Zahidi for their proximate composition, total phenolic (TPC, total flavonoid (TFC contents and total antioxidant capacity (TAC with a view to their eventual industrial application. Carbohydrates were present in the highest concentrations varying between 74.13 and 76.54 g 100 g-1 of date seed powder (DSP on dry weight (DW basis, followed in descending order by fats (7.64-8.84 g 100 g-1 and proteins (4.35-5.51 g 100 g-1. Potassium was found in high amounts with values ranging between 280.55 and 293.13 mg 100 g-1. The majority of the total phenolic content (2058-2984 mg GAE 100 g-1 was assumed to be composed of flavonoids (1271-1932 mg CAE 100 g-1. These families of dietary phenolics may be the major ones responsible for the high antioxidant capacity reported in date seeds, which varied from 12540 and 27699 µmol TE 100 g-1. These results suggest that date seeds can be considered a potential raw material for natural, active ingredients for food applications as well as an unexplored source of novel nutraceuticals and dietary supplements.

  18. Fluctuations in phenolic content, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids and antioxidant activity of fruit beverages during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castro-López

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stability of the total phenolic content, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and antioxidant activity in eight fruit beverages was analyzed. The influence of storage temperature (4, 8 and 11 °C during the product shelf-life (20 days was evaluated. Pomegranate Juice presented the highest values for antioxidant activity by DPPH·− assay (552.93 ± 6.00 GAE μg mL−1, total carotenoids (3.18 ± 0.11 βCE μg mL−1, and total phenolic content (3967.07 ± 2.47 GAE μg mL−1; while Splash Blend recorded the highest levels of ascorbic acid (607.39 ± 2.13 AAE μg mL−1. The antioxidant capacity was stable at 4 and 8 °C for the first 8 days of storage; while carotenoids and ascorbic acid were slightly degraded through the storage time, possibly due to oxidation and/or reactions with other compounds. The results suggest that the observed variation during testing could be related to storage conditions of the final product.

  19. Determination of in vitro total phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract of Echium amoenum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi H

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In traditional and modern medicine, active ingredients of medicinal plants have many applications in food, pharmaceutical, medical and industry. Antioxidants are compounds that prevent the oxidation process in the cell. Echium amoenum L. is a plant which grows in the mountainous regions of Mazandaran. This plant has different biological effects such as sedation, anti-inflammation, antidepressant and cancer preventive properties in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the total phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract of E.amoenum plant. Methods:In this experimental laboratory study the content of total phenolic Using the folin-siokalatio reactive at 760 nm wavelength and flavonoid With the use of aluminum chloride reagent at 420nm of E.amoenum extract were measured and antioxidant capacities of different concentrations of the extract were evaluated. Results: The results showed that total phenolic content of the extract was 429±2μg gallic acid equivalent/ml and flavonoid content was 148.56±1.52μg quercetin equivalent/ml, respectively. The radical scavenging activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl hydrate (DPPH,inhibitory concentration of 50%(IC50,was determined 178.11 μg/ml. Assessment of the reducing ability of extract showed that the extract had more activity than vitamin C. The percent nitric oxide trap inhibition of the extract was 57.89% and power iron chelating properties was 51.74%,that showed statistically significant difference in comparison with vitamin C and Quercetin (P=0.0473 and (P=0.0096 respectively. Conclusion: According to the results, E.amoenum extract had remarkable antioxidant capacity and can be proposed as an antioxidant compound used in the manufacture of food and pharmaceutical products.

  20. Measurements of the total-body potassium contents. Application of reference value with the whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Saegusa, Kenji; Arimizu, Noboru; Kuniyasu, Yoshio; Itoh, Hisao

    2001-01-01

    The total-body potassium contents were measured in 405 healthy volunteers and 186 patients with whole body counter in Chiba University Hospital. The total-body potassium contents was expressed by the reference value (R value). The R value was calculated as measured potassium contents (g) divided by the body surface area (m 2 ) and adjusted by age and sex of healthy persons. The R value was 100.65±9.22% in 405 healthy volunteers. Those of each disease were as follows: liver cirrhosis; 94.24±11.22%, chronic hepatitis; 95.74±11.24%, hyperthyroidism; 99.37±10.8%, periodic paralysis; 82.0±9.01%, Barter's syndrome; 93.99±9.86%, myasthenia gravis; 97.34±6.42% and hypo-potassemia; 90.64±11.76%, respectively. The R values of other diseases such as uterine cancer, breast cancer, anemia, hypertension were 97.78±11.5%, 99.22±8.88%, 96.64±12.73%, 98.5±9.63% respectively. Fourteen patients showed especially lower R values under 75%. These were 1 liver cirrhosis, 3 hypertension, 1 diabetes mellitus, 3 hypo-potassemia, 1 periodic paralysis, 2 Barter's syndrome, 2 chemical poisoning, and 1 breast cancer. Follow-up study was performed in some patients with the lower R values. The result of follow-up study showed that there was a relationship between improvement of symptoms and increase of total body potassium contents. (author)

  1. Enhanced MODIS Atmospheric Total Water Vapour Content Trends in Response to Arctic Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunya Alraddawi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the strength of the water vapour feedback within Arctic climate change, 15 years of the total column-integrated density of water vapour (TCWV from the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS are analysed. Arctic TCWV distribution, trends, and anomalies for the 2001–2015 period, broken down into seasons and months, are analysed. Enhanced local spring TCWV trends above the terrestrial Arctic regions are discussed in relation to land snow cover and vegetation changes. Upward TCWV trends above the oceanic areas are discussed in lien with sea ice extent and sea surface temperature changes. Increased winter TCWV (up to 40% south of the Svalbard archipelago are observed; these trends are probably driven by a local warming and sea ice extent decline. Similarly, the Barents/Kara regions underwent wet trends (up to 40%, also associated with winter/fall local sea ice loss. Positive late summer TCWV trends above the western Greenland and Beaufort seas (about 20% result from enhanced upper ocean warming and thereby a local coastal decline in ice extent. The Mackenzie and Siberia enhanced TCWV trends (about 25% during spring are found to be associated with coincident decreased snow cover and increased vegetation, as a result of the earlier melt onset. Results show drier summers in the Eurasia and western Alaska regions, thought to be affected by changes in albedo from changing vegetation. Other TCWV anomalies are also presented and discussed in relation to the dramatic decline in sea ice extent and the exceptional rise in sea surface temperature.

  2. Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    secondary levels. In subject matter didactics, the question of content is more developed, but it is still mostly confined to teaching on lower levels. As for higher education didactics, discussions on selection of content are almost non-existent on the programmatic level. Nevertheless, teachers are forced...... curriculum, in higher education, and to generate analytical categories and criteria for selection of content, which can be used for systematic didactical reflection. The larger project also concerns reflection on and clarification of the concept of content, including the relation between content at the level......Aim, content and methods are fundamental categories of both theoretical and practical general didactics. A quick glance in recent pedagogical literature on higher education, however, reveals a strong preoccupation with methods, i.e. how teaching should be organized socially (Biggs & Tang, 2007...

  3. Effect of extrusion-cooking in total carotenoids content in cream and orange flesh sweet potato cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos José de O Fonseca

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas is a food crop that supplies energy, minerals and vitamins C and B. Some cultivars are very rich in carotenoids (pro-vitamin A. In this study were evaluated and compared the total carotenoids content of two cultivars and the losses on the dehydrated extruded sweet potato flour. Samples from organic and conventional crops were analyzed, in the form of fresh and dehydrated extruded samples. Total carotenoids content of the fresh product, expressed on wet basis, was of 437 µg 100 g-1 for the cream cultivar and 10,12 µg 100 g-1 for the orange cultivar. After dehydration, losses of total carotenoids were of 41% and 38%, respectively. The fresh orange cultivar presented high total carotenoids content in comparison to the cream cultivar. The extruded orange sweet potato flour showed the lowest losses in total carotenoids. Therefore, the processed flour of orange sweet potato could be used to obtain pre-gelatinized extruded flour with high total carotenoids content.A batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas é um alimento fonte rico em energia, minerais, vitaminas C e B. Algumas cultivares são ricas em pró-vitamina A. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar e comparar o conteúdo de carotenóides totais em duas cultivares de batata-doce e determinar suas perdas na obtenção da farinha desidratada e processada por extrusão. Foram analisadas amostras de sistema de cultivo orgânico e convencional, tanto as frescas como as extrusadas desidratadas. O conteúdo de carotenóides totais do produto fresco, expressos em base úmida, foi de 437 µg 100 g-1 para a cultivar creme e de 10,120 µg 100g-1 para a cultivar alaranjada. Após o processo de desidratação das amostras, as perdas de carotenóides totais foram de 41% para a batata-doce creme e 38% para a alaranjada, respectivamente. Os resultados indicaram alto conteúdo de carotenóides totais para a cultivar alaranjada fresca, quando comparado com a cultivar creme. A amostra de

  4. Mechanism-based biomarker gene sets for glutathione depletion-related hepatotoxicity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Weihua; Mizukawa, Yumiko; Nakatsu, Noriyuki; Minowa, Yosuke; Yamada, Hiroshi; Ohno, Yasuo; Urushidani, Tetsuro

    2010-01-01

    Chemical-induced glutathione depletion is thought to be caused by two types of toxicological mechanisms: PHO-type glutathione depletion [glutathione conjugated with chemicals such as phorone (PHO) or diethyl maleate (DEM)], and BSO-type glutathione depletion [i.e., glutathione synthesis inhibited by chemicals such as L-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO)]. In order to identify mechanism-based biomarker gene sets for glutathione depletion in rat liver, male SD rats were treated with various chemicals including PHO (40, 120 and 400 mg/kg), DEM (80, 240 and 800 mg/kg), BSO (150, 450 and 1500 mg/kg), and bromobenzene (BBZ, 10, 100 and 300 mg/kg). Liver samples were taken 3, 6, 9 and 24 h after administration and examined for hepatic glutathione content, physiological and pathological changes, and gene expression changes using Affymetrix GeneChip Arrays. To identify differentially expressed probe sets in response to glutathione depletion, we focused on the following two courses of events for the two types of mechanisms of glutathione depletion: a) gene expression changes occurring simultaneously in response to glutathione depletion, and b) gene expression changes after glutathione was depleted. The gene expression profiles of the identified probe sets for the two types of glutathione depletion differed markedly at times during and after glutathione depletion, whereas Srxn1 was markedly increased for both types as glutathione was depleted, suggesting that Srxn1 is a key molecule in oxidative stress related to glutathione. The extracted probe sets were refined and verified using various compounds including 13 additional positive or negative compounds, and they established two useful marker sets. One contained three probe sets (Akr7a3, Trib3 and Gstp1) that could detect conjugation-type glutathione depletors any time within 24 h after dosing, and the other contained 14 probe sets that could detect glutathione depletors by any mechanism. These two sets, with appropriate scoring

  5. Determination of total plutonium content in spent nuclear fuel assemblies with the differential die-away self-interrogation instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, Alexis C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 500 S State St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Henzl, Vladimir; Menlove, Howard O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Belian, Anthony P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Flaska, Marek; Pozzi, Sara A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 500 S State St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2014-11-11

    As a part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel project, we simulate the response of the Differential Die-away Self-Interrogation (DDSI) instrument to determine total elemental plutonium content in an assayed spent nuclear fuel assembly (SFA). We apply recently developed concepts that relate total plutonium mass with SFA multiplication and passive neutron count rate. In this work, the multiplication of the SFA is determined from the die-away time in the early time domain of the Rossi-Alpha distributions measured directly by the DDSI instrument. We utilize MCNP to test the method against 44 pressurized water reactor SFAs from a simulated spent fuel library with a wide dynamic range of characteristic parameters such as initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time. Under ideal conditions, discounting possible errors of a real world measurement, a root mean square agreement between true and determined total Pu mass of 2.1% is achieved.

  6. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.

  7. Rapid determination of carbohydrates, ash, and extractives contents of straw using attenuated total reflectance fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Yukihiro; Mazza, Giuseppe

    2011-06-22

    Analysis of the chemical components of lignocellulosic biomass is essential to understanding its potential for utilization. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and partial least-squares regression were used for rapid measurement of the carbohydrate (total glycans; glucan; xylan; galactan; arabinan; mannan), ash, and extractives content of triticale and wheat straws. Calibration models for total glycans, glucan, and extractives showed good and excellent predictive performance on the basis of slope, r², RPD, and R/SEP criteria. The xylan model showed good and acceptable predictive performance. However, the ash model was evaluated as providing only approximate quantification and screening. The models for galactan, arabinan, and mannan indicated poor and insufficient prediction for application. Most models could predict both triticale and wheat straw samples with the same degree of accuracy. Mid-infrared spectroscopic techniques coupled with partial least-squares regression can be used for rapid prediction of total glycans, glucan, xylan, and extractives in triticale and wheat straw samples.

  8. Comparison of total water vapour content in the Arctic derived from GNSS, AIRS, MODIS and SCIAMACHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alraddawi, Dunya; Sarkissian, Alain; Keckhut, Philippe; Bock, Olivier; Noël, Stefan; Bekki, Slimane; Irbah, Abdenour; Meftah, Mustapha; Claud, Chantal

    2018-05-01

    Atmospheric water vapour plays a key role in the Arctic radiation budget, hydrological cycle and hence climate, but its measurement with high accuracy remains an important challenge. Total column water vapour (TCWV) datasets derived from ground-based GNSS measurements are used to assess the quality of different existing satellite TCWV datasets, namely from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY). The comparisons between GNSS and satellite data are carried out for three reference Arctic observation sites (Sodankylä, Ny-Ålesund and Thule) where long homogeneous GNSS time series of more than a decade (2001-2014) are available. We select hourly GNSS data that are coincident with overpasses of the different satellites over the three sites and then average them into monthly means that are compared with monthly mean satellite products for different seasons. The agreement between GNSS and satellite time series is generally within 5 % at all sites for most conditions. The weakest correlations are found during summer. Among all the satellite data, AIRS shows the best agreement with GNSS time series, though AIRS TCWV is often slightly too high in drier atmospheres (i.e. high-latitude stations during autumn and winter). SCIAMACHY TCWV data are generally drier than GNSS measurements at all the stations during the summer. This study suggests that these biases are associated with cloud cover, especially at Ny-Ålesund and Thule. The dry biases of MODIS and SCIAMACHY observations are most pronounced at Sodankylä during the snow season (from October to March). Regarding SCIAMACHY, this bias is possibly linked to the fact that the SCIAMACHY TCWV retrieval does not take accurately into account the variations in surface albedo, notably in the presence of snow with a nearby canopy as in Sodankylä. The MODIS bias at Sodankylä is found

  9. Variability in the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat contents in fast-food products across ten countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddeen, Nida; Fitt, Emily; Edney, Louise; Dunford, Elizabeth; Neal, Bruce; Jebb, Susan A

    2015-11-01

    Fast foods are often energy dense and offered in large serving sizes. Observational data have linked the consumption of fast foods to an increased risk of obesity and related diseases. We surveyed the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat contents, and serving sizes, of fast-food items from five major chains across ten countries, comparing product categories as well as specific food items available in most countries. MRC Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK. Data for 2961 food and drink products were collected, with most from Canada (n 550) and fewest from the United Arab Emirates (n 106). There was considerable variability in energy and fat contents of fast foods across countries, reflecting both the portfolio of products and serving size variability. Differences in total energy between countries were particularly noted for chicken dishes (649-1197 kJ/100 g) and sandwiches (552-1050 kJ/100g). When comparing the same product between countries variations were consistently observed in total energy and fat contents (g/100 g); for example, extreme variation in McDonald's Chicken McNuggets with 12 g total fat/100 g in Germany compared with 21·1 g/100 g in New Zealand. These cross-country variations highlight the possibility for further product reformulation in many countries to reduce nutrients of concern and improve the nutritional profiles of fast-food products around the world. Standardisation of serving sizes towards the lower end of the range would also help to reduce the risk of overconsumption.

  10. Variability in the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat content in fast food products across ten countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddeen, Nida; Fitt, Emily; Edney, Louise; Dunford, Elizabeth; Neal, Bruce; Jebb, Susan A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fast foods are often energy dense and offered in large serving sizes. Observational data has linked the consumption of fast food to an increased risk of obesity and related diseases. Design We surveyed the reported energy, total fat and saturated fat contents, and serving sizes, of fast food items from five major chains across 10 countries, comparing product categories as well as specific food items available in most countries. Setting MRC Human Nutrition Research (HNR), Cambridge Subjects Data for 2961 food and drink products were collected, with most from Canada (n=550) and fewest from United Arab Emirates (n=106). Results There was considerable variability in energy and fat content of fast food across countries, reflecting both the portfolio of products, and serving size variability. Differences in total energy between countries were particularly noted for chicken dishes (649-1197kJ/100g) and sandwiches (552-1050kJ/100g). When comparing the same product between countries variations were consistently observed in total energy and fat content (g/100g) with extreme variation in McDonald’s Chicken McNuggets with 12g total fat (g/100g) in Germany compared to 21.1g in New Zealand. Conclusions These cross-country variations highlight the possibility for further product reformulation in many countries to reduce nutrients of concern and improve the nutritional profiles of fast food products around the world. Standardisation of serving sizes towards the lower end of the range would also help to reduce the risk of overconsumption. PMID:25702788

  11. Effect of vitamin C and E supplementation on total antioxidant content of human breastmilk and infant urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarban, Asghar; Toroghi, Mahsa Mostafavi; Asli, Marziye; Jafari, Masumeh; Vejdan, Morteza; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza

    2015-05-01

    After delivery and birth, mothers and neonates are exposed to oxidative stress. The present study examined the effect of supplementation of the diet of breastfeeding mothers with vitamin C and E to improve the antioxidant content of breastmilk and evidence of antioxidant activity in infant urine. The subjects were 60 healthy lactating breastfeeding mothers and their infants 1-6 months of age. They were randomly allocated to a control group (n=30) consuming a free diet or an experimental group (n=30) consuming a free diet supplemented each day with effervescent tablets of vitamin C (500 mg) and chewable tablets of vitamin E (100 IU). After 30 days, the total antioxidant content of the mothers' breastmilk and evidence of antioxidant activity in the infants' urine were measured by the ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay. The free radical scavenging activity of the urine samples was measured by the α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl method. Differences pre- and postintervention were compared within and between the groups. Significantly higher levels of antioxidants in the breastmilk (610±295.5 to 716±237.5 μmol/L) and infant urine (43.2±21.8 to 75.0±49.2 μmol/mg creatinine) were observed in the experimental group over the control group (pvitamin C and E supplements appears to have a positive effect on total antioxidant content of breastmilk and evidence of antioxidant activity in infant urine.

  12. Use of INAA in the preparation of a set soil Reference Materials with certified values of total element contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Horakova, J.; Soukal, L.

    1997-01-01

    A set of certified Reference Materials was prepared consisting of four natural agricultural soils with normal (n) and elevated (e) levels of element contents: CRM 7001 Light Sandy Soil (n), CRM 7002 Light Sandy Soil (e), CRM 7003 Silty Clay Loam (n), and CRM 7004 Loam (e). In these materials, certified and/or information values of the total contents of the elements As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn, and their fractions extractable by aqua regia, boiling and cold 2M nitric acid were derived from an interlaboratory comparison in which 28 laboratories participated. Highly precise and accurate procedures of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were employed for homogeneity testing and also for certification of the total element contents. For comparation purposes, NIST SRM-2704 Buffalo River Sediment was analyzed by INAA, as well. The INAA results obtained compared very well with the certified and/or information values for four soil CRMs and also with NIST values for SRM-2704. From this agreement, a very high reliability of the new soil CRMs can be inferred. (author)

  13. Total and Free Sugar Content of Pre-Packaged Foods and Non-Alcoholic Beverages in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Zupanič

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific evidence of the association between free sugar consumption and several adverse health effects has led many public health institutions to take measures to limit the intake of added or free sugar. Monitoring the efficiency of such policies and the amount of free sugar consumed requires precise knowledge of free sugar content in different food products. To meet this need, our cross-sectional study aimed at assessing free sugar content for 10,674 pre-packaged food items available from major Slovenian food stores during data collection in 2015. Together, 52.6% of all analyzed products contained free sugar, which accounted for an average of 57.5% of the total sugar content. Food categories with the highest median free sugar content were: honey and syrups (78.0 g/100 g, jellies (62.9 g/100 g, chocolate and sweets (44.6 g/100 g, jam and spreads (35.9 g/100 g, and cereal bars (23.8 g/100 g. Using year-round sales data provided by the retailers, the data showed that chocolate, sweets, and soft drinks alone accounted for more than 50% of all free sugar sold on the Slovenian market. The results of this study can be used to prepare more targeted interventions and efficient dietary recommendations.

  14. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic content and phytotoxic activity of corn (Zea mays) extracts against some indicator species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hiwa M

    2018-03-01

    Allelopathic effects of corn (Zea mays) extracts was studied, against seed germination and seedling growth of Phalaris minor, Helianthus annuus, Triticumaestivum, Sorghum halepense, Z. mays. Bioassay results showed that aqueous extracts of corn root and shoot, markedly affected seed germination, and other parameters compared with related controls. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of various phytochemicals such as tannins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and alkaloids in both roots and shoot aqueous extracts. However, saponins were only present in the shoot aqueous extract, while in shoot ethanol extracts, only terpenoids and alkaloids were detected. Additionally, total polyphenolic (TPC) content in aqueous extracts of corn root and shoot, plus ethanol extracts of corn shoot were determined using an Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Results revealed TPC content of the corn shoot aqueous extract showed the highest yield, compared to other extracts. These findings suggest that phytochemicals present in Z. mays extracts may contribute to allelopathy effect.

  15. Effects of seeding date and seeding rate on yield, proximate composition and total tannins content of two Kabuli chickpea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ruggeri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted in open field to assess the effect of seeding season and density on the yield, the chemical composition and the accumulation of total tannins in grains of two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cultivars (Pascià and Sultano. Environmental conditions and genetic factors considerably affected grain yield, nutrient and total tannins content of chickpea seeds, giving a considerable range in its qualitative characteristics. Results confirmed cultivar selection as a central factor when a late autumn-early winter sowing is performed. In effect, a more marked resistance to Ascochyta blight (AB of Sultano, allowed better agronomic performances when favourable-to-AB climatic conditions occur. Winter sowing appeared to be the best choice in the Mediterranean environment when cultivating to maximise the grain yield (+19%. Spring sowing improved crude protein (+10% and crude fibre (+8% content, whereas it did not significantly affect the accumulation of anti-nutrients compounds such as total tannins. The most appropriate seeding rate was 70 seeds m–2, considering that plant density had relatively little effect on the parameters studied.

  16. Effect of rosella ( Hibiscus sabdariffa L ) extract on glutathione-S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the effect of rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L) extract on glutathione-S-trasferase (GST) activity and its hepatoprotective effect. Methods: A total of 25 rats were divided randomly into 5 groups (5 rats per group). Group I served as the baseline, group II was the negative control group, while groups III, IV and ...

  17. A significant positive correlation between endogenous trans-zeatin content and total arsenic in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris cretica var. nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuemei; Yang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Hongbin; Li, Qinchun; Wang, Haijuan; Li, Yanyan

    2017-04-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to compare the content of endogenous trans-zeatin (Z), plant arsenic (As) uptake and physiological indices in the fronds of As-hyperaccumulator (Pteris cretica var. nervosa) and non-hyperaccumulator (Pteris ensiformis). Furthermore, a stepwise regression method was used to study the relationship among determined indices, and the time-course effect of main indices was also investigated under 100mg/kg As stress with time extension. In the 100-200mg/kg As treatments, plant height showed no significant difference and endogenous Z content significantly increased in P. cretica var. nervosa compared to the control, but a significant decrease of height and endogenous Z was observed in P. ensiformis. The concentrations of As (III) and As (V) increased significantly in the fronds of two plants, but this increase was much higher in P. cretica var. nervosa. Compared to the control, the contents of chlorophyll and soluble protein were significantly increased in P. cretica var. nervosa but decreased in P. ensiformis in the 200mg/kg As treatment, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the contents of endogenous Z and total As in P. cretica var. nervosa, but such a correlation was not found in P. ensiformis. Additionally, in the time-course effect experiment, a peak value of each index was appeared in the 43rd day in two plants, except for chlorophyll in P. ensiformis, but this value was significantly higher in P. cretica var. nervosa than that in P. ensiformis. In conclusion, a higher endogenous Z content contributed to As accumulation of P. cretica var. nervosa under As stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The structure of the latidudinal total electron content (T.E.C.). Gradients over mid-latitude stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keroub, I.H.

    1976-01-01

    New results concerning the day gradients of Total Electron Contents (T.E.C.) in Haifa region were obtained by the method specific for the determination of TEC in the transverse zone. The latitudinal gradients thus obtained agree with the results obtained by topside sounding (Alouette 1 satellite). A quantitative explanation of the results yielded by the classical counting method is presented. Il implies that all day TEC data obtained by the counting methods in stations situated at middle geomagnetic latitudes such as Haifa, must be corrected

  19. Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobal, Alfred Bogomir; Prezelj, Marija; Horvat, Milena; Krsnik, Mladen; Gibicar, Darija; Osredkar, Josko

    2008-01-01

    Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the interaction of inorganic mercury (Hg) and glutathione. However, human studies are limited. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of remote long-term intermittent occupational elemental Hg vapour (Hg o ) exposure on erythrocyte glutathione levels and some antioxidative enzyme activities in ex-mercury miners in the period after exposure. The study included 49 ex-mercury miners divided into subgroups of 28 still active, Hg o -not-exposed miners and 21 elderly retired miners, and 41 controls, age-matched to the miners subgroup. The control workers were taken from 'mercury-free works'. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulphide glutathione (GSSG) concentrations in haemolysed erythrocytes were determined by capillary electrophoresis, while total glutathione (total GSH) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were calculated from the determined values. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in erythrocytes were measured using commercially available reagent kits, while urine Hg (U-Hg) concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption (CVAAS). No correlation of present U-Hg levels, GSH, GSSG, and antioxidative enzymes with remote occupational biological exposure indices were found. The mean CAT activity in miners and retired miners was significantly higher (p o could be an inductive and additive response to maintain the balance between GSH and antioxidative enzymes in interaction with the Hg body burden accumulated during remote occupational exposure, which does not represent a severely increased oxidative stress

  20. Dynamic effect of total solid content, low substrate/inoculum ratio and particle size on solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, J-C; Escudié, R; Bernet, N; Delgenes, J-P; Steyer, J-P; Dumas, C

    2013-09-01

    Among all the process parameters of solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD), total solid content (TS), inoculation (S/X ratio) and size of the organic solid particles can be optimized to improve methane yield and process stability. To evaluate the effects of each parameter and their interactions on methane production, a three level Box-Behnken experimental design was implemented in SS-AD batch tests degrading wheat straw by adjusting: TS content from 15% to 25%, S/X ratio (in volatile solids) between 28 and 47 and particle size with a mean diameter ranging from 0.1 to 1.4mm. A dynamic analysis of the methane production indicates that the S/X ratio has only an effect during the start-up phase of the SS-AD. During the growing phase, TS content becomes the main parameter governing the methane production and its strong interaction with the particle size suggests the important role of water compartmentation on SS-AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. TOTAL AND FRACTIONAL CONTENTS OF PROTEINS IN BEAN SEEDS UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF VARIED FERTILISATION WITH MICROELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech KOZERA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over 2003-2005 at the Experiment Station at Wierzchucinek at the University of Technology and Life Sciences in Bydgoszcz, there was performed a strict one-factor micro-plot experiment in split-splot design. The factor tested was a type of microelements [n=5: Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo, B]. The microelements were foliar sprayed in a chelated form, as the series of Symfonia fertilizers. The study aimed at comparing the effect of five agricultural-engineering basic microelements on the contents and protein composition of the seeds of Aura cultivar. The fertilization applied, boron and manganese in particular, showed an effect on the increase in the contents of total protein in bean seeds. It also modified the fractional composition of the bean seed protein. There was observed a clear increase in the fraction of albumins and globulins in seeds as a result of the microelements applied, except for boron. The fertilization with molybdenum, boron, copper and zinc reduced the content of glutelins, and the sum of glulelins and prolamines in the bean seeds.

  2. Influence of physical activity on the metabolism and the total body content of sodium and potassium in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, J.K.; Yasumura, A.; Aloia, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise (EX) and immobilization (IMB) on the absorption, excretion and total body content of sodium (TBNa) and potassium (TBK). Female Sprague Dawley rats 5 weeks old were divided into four groups: EX; Control (CON); EX with pair feeding to the level equal to the CON (EX-P); IMB by sciatica denervation. The nutritional balance study data was taken 5 weeks into the experimental period and the animals were sacrificed after 5 additional weeks of experimentation. The carcasses were kept frozen and used for total body composition by neutron activation. The results of the total body composition show that EX resulted in an increase, IMB resulted in a decrease, of the TBNa and TBK. There was no significant difference in TBNa of TBK, between the EX and the EX-P groups even though, the food intake was higher in the EX group. The results of the nutritional balance study confirmed the results of the total body composition

  3. Electrochemical sensing of total antioxidant capacity and polyphenol content in wine samples using amperometry online-coupled with microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubec, Petr; Bancirova, Martina; Halouzka, Vladimir; Lojek, Antonin; Ciz, Milan; Denev, Petko; Cibicek, Norbert; Vacek, Jan; Vostalova, Jitka; Ulrichova, Jitka; Hrbac, Jan

    2012-08-15

    This work describes the method for total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and/or total content of phenolics (TCP) analysis in wines using microdialysis online-coupled with amperometric detection using a carbon microfiber working electrode. The system was tested on 10 selected wine samples, and the results were compared with total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and chemiluminescent determination of total antioxidant capacity (CL-TAC) methods using Trolox and catechin as standards. Microdialysis online-coupled with amperometric detection gives similar results to the widely used cyclic voltammetry methodology and closely correlates with ORAC and TRAP. The problem of electrode fouling is overcome by the introduction of an electrochemical cleaning step (1-2 min at the potential of 0 V vs Ag/AgCl). Such a procedure is sufficient to fully regenerate the electrode response for both red and white wine samples as well as catechin/Trolox standards. The appropriate size of microdialysis probes enables easy automation of the electrochemical TAC/TCP measurement using 96-well microtitration plates.

  4. Observation of total electron content and irregularities in electron density using GHz band radiowaves emitted from satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Tadahiko; Fujita, Masaharu; Awaka, Jun.

    1978-01-01

    The experiments to investigate the influence of troposphere on millimeter and sub-millimeter wave propagation were carried out, using the engineering test satellite -- 2 (ETS-2) which became the Japanese first stationary satellite and carries the transmitter emitting beacon waves of 1.7, 11.5 and 34.5 GHz coherent each other. By these experiments, it was found that the waves of 1.7 and 11.5 GHz were affected by the ionosphere. The measurement of total electron content using GHz band waves was the first trial in the world, and is capable of grasping its change with higher accuracy than conventional methods. Scintillation of 1.7 GHz is mainly the phenomenon during night, and it was revealed that it has a peak at 22.30 local time and occurred through the radiowave scattering owing to the irregularities of the ionosphere. It is also suggested that some plasma instability is generated in the place where electron density gradient in the ionosphere is large, and the irregularities of fine scale are produced, assuming from GHz band scintillations at the time of magnetic storm. The relations among wave number spectrum, scintillation frequency spectrum and S4 index (statistical quantity to give estimate for scintillation amplitude) can be derived by the weak scattering theory (Simple scattering theory). As seen above, the diagnosis of plasma disturbances in the ionosphere is feasible by the simultaneous observations of total electron content and scintillation. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. Increase of content and bioactivity of total phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds through solid state fermentation by Bacillus clausii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochín-Medina, Jesús J; Ramírez, Karina; Rangel-Peraza, Jesús G; Bustos-Terrones, Yaneth A

    2018-03-01

    Spent coffee grounds are waste material generated during coffee beverage preparation. This by-product disposal causes a negative environmental impact, in addition to the loss of a rich source of nutrients and bioactive compounds. A rotating central composition design was used to determine the optimal conditions for the bioactivity of phenolic compounds obtained after the solid state fermentation of spent coffee grounds by Bacillus clausii . To achieve this, temperature and fermentation time were varied according to the experimental design and the total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity were determined. Surface response methodology showed that optimum bioprocessing conditions were a temperature of 37 °C and a fermentation time of 39 h. Under these conditions, total phenolic and flavonoid contents increased by 36 and 13%, respectively, in fermented extracts as compared to non-fermented. In addition, the antioxidant activity was increased by 15% and higher antimicrobial activity was observed against Gram positive and negative bacteria. These data demonstrated that bioprocessing optimization of spent coffee grounds using the surface response methodology was an important tool to improve phenolic extraction, which could be used as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agents incorporated into different types of food products.

  6. Total Phenolic, Flavonoid, Tomatine, and Tomatidine Contents and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts of Tomato Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Beltrán, Norma Patricia; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Cira-Chávez, Luis Alberto; Estrada-Alvarado, María Isabel; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; López-Mata, Marco Antonio; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette; Ayala-Zavala, J. Fernando; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of extracts of different fractions of two tomato plant cultivars. The stems, roots, leaves, and whole-plant fractions were evaluated. Tomatine and tomatidine were identified by HPLC-DAD. The leaf extracts from the two varieties showed the highest flavonoids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and total phenolics contents and the highest antioxidant activity determined by DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC. A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant capacities of the extracts and the total phenolic, flavonoid, and chlorophyll contents. The Pitenza variety extracts inhibited the growth of pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria ivanovii, yielding inhibition halos of 8.0 to 12.9 mm in diameter and MIC values of 12.5 to 3.125 mg/mL. These results suggest that tomato plant shows well potential as sources of various bioactive compounds, antioxidants, and antimicrobials. PMID:26609308

  7. Ultratrace element contents in rat tissues: Comparative analysis of serum and hair as indicative matrices of the total body burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skalny Anatoly V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of ultratrace elements in rat tissues and to perform a comparative analysis of hair and serum as potential bioindicators of the total ultratrace element content. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow containing 0.006±0.000, 0.001±0.000, 0.017±0.002, 0.382±0.031, 0.168±0.014, 3.211±0.134, 0.095±0.006, 0.000±0.000, 6.675±0.336, 15.327±0.564, 0.002±0.000, and 1.185±0.202 μg/g of silver (Ag, gold (Au, cesium (Cs, gallium (Ga, germanium (Ge, lanthanum (La, niobium (Nb, platinum (Pt, rubidium (Rb, titanium (Ti, thallium (Tland zirconium (Zr, respectively, from weaning to 3 months old. The ultratrace element content in the liver, kidney, muscle, heart, serum and hair was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data indicate that the highest concentrations of most of the studied elements (Ti, Zr, Ge, Nb, tungsten (W, La, uranium (U, Ag, Au, Pt are in hair, whereas the lowest were observed in the serum. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between concentrations in the hair and other tissues for Cs, Ti, Nb, Tl, La, U and Au. At the same time, serum Cs, Rb, Ti, Ge, Nb, W, Ga, Tl and La concentrations significantly correlated with the tissue content of the respective ultratrace elements. It can be concluded that hair may be used as a potential bioindicator for certain ultratrace element content in the mammalian organism.

  8. Role of glutathione in tolerance to arsenite in Salvinia molesta, an aquatic fern

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    Adinan Alves da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In many plant species, tolerance to toxic metals is highly dependent on glutathione, an essential metabolite for cellular detoxification. We evaluated the responses of glutathione metabolism to arsenite (AsIII in Salvinia molesta, an aquatic fern that has unexplored phytoremediation potential. Plants were exposed to different AsIII concentrations in nutrient solution for 24 h. AsIII caused cell membrane damage to submerged leaves, indicating oxidative stress. There was an increase in the glutathione content and ϒ-glutamylcysteine synthetase enzyme activity in the submerged and floating leaves. The glutathione peroxidase and glutathione sulfotransferase enzymes also showed increased activity in both plant parts, whereas glutathione reductase only showed increased activity in the submerged leaves. These findings suggest an important role for glutathione in the protection of S. molesta against the toxic effects of AsIII, with more effective tolerance responses in the floating leaves.

  9. Evaluation of extreme ionospheric total electron content gradient associated with plasma bubbles for GNSS Ground-Based Augmentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S.; Yoshihara, T.

    2017-08-01

    Associated with plasma bubbles, extreme spatial gradients in ionospheric total electron content (TEC) were observed on 8 April 2008 at Ishigaki (24.3°N, 124.2°E, +19.6° magnetic latitude), Japan. The largest gradient was 3.38 TECU km-1 (total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2), which is equivalent to an ionospheric delay gradient of 540 mm km-1 at the GPS L1 frequency (1.57542 GHz). This value is confirmed by using multiple estimating methods. The observed value exceeds the maximum ionospheric gradient that has ever been observed (412 mm km-1 or 2.59 TECU km-1) to be associated with a severe magnetic storm. It also exceeds the assumed maximum value (500 mm km-1 or 3.08 TECU km-1) which was used to validate the draft international standard for Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Ground-Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) to support Category II/III approaches and landings. The steepest part of this extreme gradient had a scale size of 5.3 km, and the front-normal velocities were estimated to be 71 m s-1 with a wavefront-normal direction of east-northeastward. The total width of the transition region from outside to inside the plasma bubble was estimated to be 35.3 km. The gradient of relatively small spatial scale size may fall between an aircraft and a GBAS ground subsystem and may be undetectable by both aircraft and ground.

  10. Glutathione and Mitochondria

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    Vicent eRibas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione (GSH is the main nonprotein thiol in cells whose functions are dependent on the redox-active thiol of its cysteine moiety that serves as a cofactor for a number of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. While synthesized exclusively in the cytosol from its constituent amino acids, GSH is distributed in different compartments, including mitochondria where its concentration in the matrix equals that of the cytosol. This feature and its negative charge at physiological pH imply the existence of specific carriers to import GSH from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix, where it plays a key role in defense against respiration-induced reactive oxygen species and in the detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides and electrophiles. Moreover, as mitochondria play a central strategic role in the activation and mode of cell death, mitochondrial GSH has been shown to critically regulate the level of sensitization to secondary hits that induce mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and release of proteins confined in the intermembrane space that once in the cytosol engage the molecular machinery of cell death. In this review, we summarize recent data on the regulation of mitochondrial GSH and its role in cell death and prevalent human diseases, such as cancer, fatty liver disease and Alzheimer’s disease.

  11. Glutathione, Glutaredoxins, and Iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Carsten; Lillig, Christopher Horst

    2017-11-20

    Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant cellular low-molecular-weight thiol in the majority of organisms in all kingdoms of life. Therefore, functions of GSH and disturbed regulation of its concentration are associated with numerous physiological and pathological situations. Recent Advances: The function of GSH as redox buffer or antioxidant is increasingly being questioned. New functions, especially functions connected to the cellular iron homeostasis, were elucidated. Via the formation of iron complexes, GSH is an important player in all aspects of iron metabolism: sensing and regulation of iron levels, iron trafficking, and biosynthesis of iron cofactors. The variety of GSH coordinated iron complexes and their functions with a special focus on FeS-glutaredoxins are summarized in this review. Interestingly, GSH analogues that function as major low-molecular-weight thiols in organisms lacking GSH resemble the functions in iron homeostasis. Since these iron-related functions are most likely also connected to thiol redox chemistry, it is difficult to distinguish between mechanisms related to either redox or iron metabolisms. The ability of GSH to coordinate iron in different complexes with or without proteins needs further investigation. The discovery of new Fe-GSH complexes and their physiological functions will significantly advance our understanding of cellular iron homeostasis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 1235-1251.

  12. [The activity of glutathione antioxidant system at melaksen and valdoxan action under experimental hyperthyroidism in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbenko, M V; Popova, T N; Shul'gin, K K; Popov, S S

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of glutathione antioxidant system activity and diene conjugates content in rats liver and blood serum at the influence of melaksen and valdoxan under experimental hyperthyroidism (EG) has been revealed. It has been established that the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GP) and glutathione transferase (GT), growing at pathological conditions, change to the side of control value at these substunces introduction. Reduced glutathione content (GSH) at melaxen and valdoxan action increased compared with values under the pathology, that, obviously, could be associated with a reduction of its spending on the detoxication of free radical oxidation (FRO) toxic products. Diene conjugates level in rats liver and blood serum, increasing at experimental hyperthyroidism conditions, under introduction of melatonin level correcting drugs, also approached to the control meaning. Results of the study indicate on positive effect of melaxen and valdoxan on free radical homeostasis, that appears to be accompanied by decrease of load on the glutathione antioxidant system in comparison with the pathology.

  13. Behavior of the ionosphere total electronic content in Sao Jose dos Campos during magnetic storms in 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, E.R. de; Abdu, M.A.; Kantor, I.J.

    1983-07-01

    Faraday rotation data from 1980, obtained with a polarimeter at Sao Jose dos Campos (23 0 S, 46 0 W), were analyzed during periods occurring magnetic storms. In order to select these periods, the magnetic index Dst was used. It was observed that during magnetic storms preceeded by a few calm days, an increase in the Total Electron Content (TEC) is observed during the storm main phase, relative to the mean of the magnetic calm days (positive phase). Afterwards, during the storms recovery phase, a decrease was registered relative to the average (negative phase). This TEC behaviour, observed at low latitudes storms, is typical of the behaviour over medium latitudes. But, when several storms occur with few intervening days between them, the positive phase seems to prevail. This indicates an inibition of the source of the negative phase. This work discusses the possible origins of the positive and negative phases. (Author) [pt

  14. Deep depletions of total electron content associated with severe mid-latitude gigahertz scintillations during geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, T.; Kumagai, H.

    1985-01-01

    Using 136-MHz Faraday rotation data obtained at three closely spaced stations, we present evidence that severe nightime gigahertz scintillations, which appear rarely at mid-latitudes around Japan only during geomagnetic storm conditions, are closely associated with deep depletions of total electron content (TEC). The TEC depletions amount to 2--8 x 10 16 el/m 2 (10--30% of the background TEC), and their durations range from 10 min to 1 hour. These depletions move northeastward or eastward with velocities between 60 and 260 m/s. The depletions are probably not counterparts of the equatorial bubbles but seem to be formed in localized regions around Japan under complicated and peculiar ionospheric conditions. There is an indication that the oscillation of the F region caused by large-scale TID's propagating from north to south (approx.600 m/s) may initiate the generation of the depletion

  15. Direct determination of lycopene content in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Yuwana; Schwartz, Steven J; Francis, David; Baldauf, Nathan A; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2006-01-01

    Lycopene is a potent antioxidant that has been shown to play critical roles in disease prevention. Efficient assays for detection and quantification of lycopene are desirable as alternatives to time- and labor-intensive methods. Attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy was used for quantification of lycopene in tomato varieties. Calibration models were developed by partial least-squares regression (PLSR) using quantitative measures of lycopene concentration from liquid chromatography as reference method. IR spectra showed a distinct marker band at 957 cm(-1) for trans Carbon-Hydrogen (CH) deformation vibration of lycopene. PLSR models predicted the lycopene content accurately and reproducibly with a correlation coefficient (sigma) of 0.96 and standard error of cross-validation ATR-IR spectroscopy allowed for rapid, simple, and accurate determination of lycopene in tomatoes with minimal sample preparation. Results suggest that the ATR-IR method is applicable for high-throughput quantitative analysis and screening for lycopene in tomatoes.

  16. Cardboard proportions and total solids contents as driving factors in dry co-fermentation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Bernet, Nicolas; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the co-substrate proportions (0-60% of cardboard in dry basis) and the initial total solid contents (20-40%) on the batch fermentation performance. Maximum hydrogen yields were obtained when mono-fermenting food waste at high solids contents (89mlH 2 ·gVS -1 ). The hydrogen yields were lower when increasing the proportions of cardboard. The lower hydrogen yields at higher proportions of cardboard were translated into higher yields of caproic acid (up to 70.1gCOD·kgCOD bio -1 ), produced by consumption of acetic acid and hydrogen. The highest substrate conversions were achieved at low proportions of cardboard, indicating a stabilization effect due to higher buffering capacities in co-fermentation. Clostridiales were predominant in all operational conditions. This study opens up new possibilities for using the cardboard proportions for controlling the production of high added-value products in dry co-fermentation of food waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of total soluble solids content (TSSC and endogenous pH in antimicrobials of pediatric use

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    Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of liquid pharmaceutical preparations is a daily occurrence for some children. Evidences show a significant relation between the intake of oral sucrose based medicines and an increase incidence in dental caries. Aim: This in vitro experimental study evaluated the Total Soluble Solids Content (TSSC by means of Brix scale refractometry and the endogenous pH of antimicrobials of pediatric use presented as oral suspensions. Materials and Methods: Nine medications (6 chemotherapics and 3 antibiotics were evaluated by random experiment with 3 repetitions for each sample. The analysis of TSSC readings were performed by Brix refractometry using the Abbé refractometer, and the pH values were determined by potentiometry. Results: The mean TSS contents ranged from 11.73 (Keflaxina to 63.83 (Azitromed. The minimum and maximum mean pH values were 4.12 (Keflaxina and 10.97 (Zitroneo, respectively. Conclusions: The chemotherapic antimicrobials evaluated in this study presented the highest TSSC means, while the antibiotics showed pHs below the values considered as critical, which may contribute to the development of caries lesions in case of inadequate administration of these medications to children.

  18. Technological properties, antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of pigmented chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiras-Palazuelos, Mar J; Ochoa-Lugo, Mirna I; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; López-Valenzuela, José A; Mora-Rochín, Saraid; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Garzón-Tiznado, José A; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc

    2013-02-01

    Chickpeas are rich sources of highly nutritious protein and dietary fibre; the health benefits of consuming legumes such as antioxidant activity (AoxA) could be effective for the expansion of their food uses. The technological properties and antioxidant potential of five pigmented chickpea cultivars were evaluated. Protein content of the grains varied from 24.9 to 27.4 g/100 g sample (dw). The cooking time (CT) of the whole grains ranged from 90.5 to 218.5 min; the lowest CT corresponded to Black ICC3761 cultivar. The total phenolic content (TPC) and AoxA [oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value] varied from 1.23 to 1.51 mg GAE/g sample (dw) and from 5011 to 5756 μmol TE/100 g sample (dw), respectively; Red ICC13124 showed the highest ORAC value. The differences in technological properties and AoxA among cultivars could be used in chickpea breeding programmes. Chickpea cultivars could contribute significantly to the management and/or prevention of degenerative diseases associated with free radical damage.

  19. Estimation of total phenolic content, cytotoxicity and in-vitro antioxidant activity of stem bark of Moringa oleifera

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    Kumbhare MR

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the phytochemical constituents, total phenolic content, cytotoxicity and invitro antioxidant activity of stem bark extracts of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera (Moringaceae. Methods: Brine shrimp lethality (BSL bioassay was used to investigate the cytotoxic effects. DPPH and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity was used to demonstrate antioxidant activity. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and alkaloids. The LC 50 values were obtained for extracts as 850 毺 g/mL for petroleum ether extract, 800 毺 g/mL for chloroform extract and 900 毺 g/mL for methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the methanolic extract was 50.72% w/w, equivalent to gallic acid. Petroleum ether, chloroform and methanolic extracts of M. oleifera and standard ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of DPPH radical with an IC 50 of 124.75, 112.08, 54.34 and 13.86 毺 g/mL, respectively. Methanolic extract was found to be good scavenger of DPPH radical. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanolic extracts of M. oleifera and ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of nitric oxide radical with an IC 50 of 93.32, 65.12, 54.83 and 12.59 毺 g/mL, respectively. Ethyl acetate soluble fraction was found to be good scavenger of nitric oxide radical. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the crude extracts of M. oleifera is a potential source of natural antioxidants, and this justifies its uses in folkloric medicines.

  20. Changes in total phenol, flavonoid contents and anti-Lactobacillus activity of Callisia fragrans due to extraction solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thom; Cao, Diem Kieu; Pham, Thanh Vy; Huynh, Tan Dat; Ta, Nhat Thuy Anh; Nguyen, Ngoc Thao Linh; Nguyen, Huu Thanh; Le, Hue Huong; Bui, Anh Vo; Truong, Dieu-Hien

    2018-04-01

    Callisia fragrans is a wonder herb with many medicinal properties such as burn, dental diseases, cancer diseases and arthritis in folk medicine. It is noted that the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of traditional plants depend on not only the extracting method but also the solvent used for extraction. In this study, the effect of five extraction solvents (i.e., distilled water, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% ethyl acetate, and 80% chloroform) on yield, total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of Callisia leaves was determined. Besides, changes in anti-Lactobacillus fermentum activity of C. fragrans freeze-dried extract was also evaluated using disk-diffusion method. The recovery percentage of extractable yield of fresh leaves are ranged from 11.93% w/w for distilled water extract to 16.60% w/w for aqueous ethanol extracts. The yield of 80% aqueous methanol extract (16.27% w/w) is only slightly less than that of the ethanol extract. Significant differences were observed among TPC and TFC obtaining by 80% methanol (0.0522% and 0.0335% w/w, respectively) compared to other solvents (p < 0.05). TPC and TFC of C. fragrans extracts increase in the following order: distilled water < 80% chloroform < 80% ethyl acetate < 80% ethanol < 80% methanol. The results revealed that 80% aqueous methanol Calissia extracts has moderate inhibition (9.0 mm of inhibition zone for 1.5 mg/mL of extracts) of L. fermentum compared to standard antibacterial agent. Based on the study results, it can be concluded that the yield, TPC and TFC of C. frgrans extract varied with the extracting solvent. It also showed that Callisia extracts can prevent dental caries by inhibiting the growth of L. fermentum, towards new insights for treatment of dental caries.

  1. Joint estimation of vertical total electron content (VTEC) and satellite differential code biases (SDCBs) using low-cost receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baocheng; Teunissen, Peter J. G.; Yuan, Yunbin; Zhang, Hongxing; Li, Min

    2018-04-01

    Vertical total electron content (VTEC) parameters estimated using global navigation satellite system (GNSS) data are of great interest for ionosphere sensing. Satellite differential code biases (SDCBs) account for one source of error which, if left uncorrected, can deteriorate performance of positioning, timing and other applications. The customary approach to estimate VTEC along with SDCBs from dual-frequency GNSS data, hereinafter referred to as DF approach, consists of two sequential steps. The first step seeks to retrieve ionospheric observables through the carrier-to-code leveling technique. This observable, related to the slant total electron content (STEC) along the satellite-receiver line-of-sight, is biased also by the SDCBs and the receiver differential code biases (RDCBs). By means of thin-layer ionospheric model, in the second step one is able to isolate the VTEC, the SDCBs and the RDCBs from the ionospheric observables. In this work, we present a single-frequency (SF) approach, enabling the joint estimation of VTEC and SDCBs using low-cost receivers; this approach is also based on two steps and it differs from the DF approach only in the first step, where we turn to the precise point positioning technique to retrieve from the single-frequency GNSS data the ionospheric observables, interpreted as the combination of the STEC, the SDCBs and the biased receiver clocks at the pivot epoch. Our numerical analyses clarify how SF approach performs when being applied to GPS L1 data collected by a single receiver under both calm and disturbed ionospheric conditions. The daily time series of zenith VTEC estimates has an accuracy ranging from a few tenths of a TEC unit (TECU) to approximately 2 TECU. For 73-96% of GPS satellites in view, the daily estimates of SDCBs do not deviate, in absolute value, more than 1 ns from their ground truth values published by the Centre for Orbit Determination in Europe.

  2. Evaluation of extracts and essential oil from Callistemon viminalis leaves: antibacterial and antioxidant activities, total phenolic and flavonoid contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed Z M; Ali, Hayssam M; El-Shanhorey, Nader A; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed

    2013-10-01

    To investigate antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Callistemon viminalis (C. viminalis) leaves. The essential oil of C. viminalis leaves obtained by hydro-distillation was analyzed by GC/MS. Different extracts were tested for total phenolic and flavonoid contents and in vitro antioxidant (DPPH assay) and antibacterial (agar disc diffusion and 96-well micro-plates methods) actives. Fourteen components were identified in the essential oil, representing 98.94% of the total oil. The major components were 1,8-cineole (64.53%) and α-pinene (9.69%). Leaf essential oil exhibited the highest antioxidant activity of (88.60±1.51)% comparable to gallic acid, a standard compound [(80.00±2.12)%]. Additionally, the biggest zone of inhibitions against the studied bacterial strains was observed by the essential oil when compared to the standard antibiotic (tetracycline). The crude methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction had a significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains. It can be suggested that C. viminalis is a great potential source of antibacterial and antioxidant compounds useful for new antimicrobial drugs from the natural basis. The present study revealed that the essential oil as well as the methanol extracts and ethyl acetate fraction of C. viminalis leaves exhibited highly significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High-Density Genetic Map Construction and Stem Total Polysaccharide Content-Related QTL Exploration for Chinese Endemic Dendrobium (Orchidaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiangjie; Liu, Yuyang; Xu, Jing; Mei, Ziwei; Shi, Yujun; Liu, Pengli; He, Jianbo; Wang, Xiaotong; Meng, Yijun; Feng, Shangguo; Shen, Chenjia; Wang, Huizhong

    2018-01-01

    Plants of the Dendrobium genus are orchids with not only ornamental value but also high medicinal value. To understand the genetic basis of variations in active ingredients of the stem total polysaccharide contents (STPCs) among different Dendrobium species, it is of paramount importance to understand the mechanism of STPC formation and identify genes affecting its process at the whole genome level. Here, we report the first high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) integrated genetic map with a good genome coverage of Dendrobium. The specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) technology led to identification of 7,013,400 SNPs from 1,503,626 high-quality SLAF markers from two parents (Dendrobium moniliforme ♀ × Dendrobium officinale ♂) and their interspecific F1 hybrid population. The final genetic map contained 8, 573 SLAF markers, covering 19 linkage groups (LGs). This genetic map spanned a length of 2,737.49 cM, where the average distance between markers is 0.32 cM. In total, 5 quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to STPC were identified, 3 of which have candidate genes within the confidence intervals of these stable QTLs based on the D. officinale genome sequence. This study will build a foundation up for the mapping of other medicinal-related traits and provide an important reference for the molecular breeding of these Chinese herb. PMID:29636767

  4. The relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content and bone marrow adipose tissue in early-pubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Newton, Anna; J Hanks, Lynae; Davis, Michelle; Casazza, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of the physiologic relevance of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) during growth may promote understanding of the bone-fat axis and confluence with metabolic factors. The objective of this pilot investigation was two-fold: (1) to evaluate the relationships among total body fat, bone mineral content (BMC) and femoral BMAT during childhood and underlying metabolic determinants and (2) to determine if the relationships differ by race. Participants included white and non-Hispanic black girls (n=59) ages 4-10 years. Femoral BMAT volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, BMC and body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Metabolic parameters were assessed in the fasted state. Total fat and BMC were positively associated with BMAT; however, simultaneous inclusion of BMC and body fat in the statistical model attenuated the association between BMC and BMAT. Differences in BMAT volume were observed, non-Hispanic black girls exhibiting marginally greater BMAT at age eight (P=0.05) and white girls exhibiting greater BMAT at age ten (PBMAT and leptin (P=0.02) and adiponectin (P=0.002) in white girls while BMAT and insulin were inversely related in non-Hispanic black girls (P=0.008). Our findings revealed a positive relationship between BMAT, body fat and BMC, although body fat, respective to leptin, contributed partly to the relationship between BMAT and BMC. Despite large differences in total fat between non-Hispanic black and white, the relationship between BMAT and BMC was similar to white girls. However, this relationship appeared to be impacted through different mechanisms according to race.

  5. Total and free fatty acids content during the ripening of artisan and industrially manufactured “Chorizo de cebolla”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco, Inmaculada

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available "Chorizo de cebolla" is a traditional sausage made in the north west of Spain. In four batches manufactured by artisanal methods and 4 manufactured by industrial ones the contents of total and free fatty acids were assessed throughout ripening, taking from every batch samples of the mass before stuffing (0 days and of the sausage after 2, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days of ripening. The profile of total fatty acids of the two types of sausage basically coincide with that found by other authors in pork fat. However, both types of sausage (artisanal and industrial differ significantly (pEl chorizo de cebolla es un embutido tradicional elaborado en el noroeste de España. En cuatro partidas fabricadas por procedimientos artesanales y 4 elaboradas industrialmente se determinó a lo largo de la maduración los contenidos en ácidos grasos totales y libres, tomando en cada partida muestras de masa antes de embutir (0 días y de chorizo a los 2, 7, 14, 21, 28 y 42 días de maduración. El perfil de ácidos grasos totales de los dos tipos de embutidos coincide básicamente con el encontrado por otros autores en grasa de cerdo. Sin embargo, ambos tipos de chorizo (artesanal e industrial difirieron significativamente (p< 0.05 en el porcentaje de ácidos grasos totales saturados e insaturados. Los chorizos elaborados artesanalmente presentaron porcentajes de ácidos grasos saturados significativamente superiores a los encontrados en los chorizos industriales. El contenido en ácidos grasos libres totales experimentó a lo largo de la maduración un incremento significativo (p< 0.05 desde valores medios de 459 ± 243 mg/100 g de grasa en la masa hasta 3687 ± 1670 mg/100 g de grasa en chorizo de 42 días, en los chorizos artesanales, y desde 560 ± 317 mg/100 g de grasa hasta 5157 ± 3673 mg/100 g en los industriales. Debido a la gran variabilidad entre las diferentes partidas, no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los

  6. Multifractal analysis of vertical total electron content (VTEC at equatorial region and low latitude, during low solar activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. A. Bolzan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the multifractal aspects of the GPS data (measured during a period of low solar activity obtained from two Brazilian stations: Belém (01.3° S, 48.3° W and São José dos Campos (SJC (23.2° S, 45.9° W. The results show that the respective geographic sites show important scaling differences as well as similarities when their multifractal signatures for vertical total electron content (VTEC are compared. The f(α spectra have a narrow shape for great scales, which indicates the predominance of deterministic phenomena, such as solar rotation (27 days over intermittent phenomena. Furthermore, the f(α spectra for both sites have a strong multifractality degree at small scales. This strong multifractality degree observed at small scales (1 to 12 h at both sites is because the ionosphere over Brazil is a non-equilibrium system. The differences found were that Belém presented a stronger multifractality at small scales (1 h to 12 h compared with SJC, particularly in 2006. The reason for this behaviour may be associated with the location of Belém, near the geomagnetic equator, where at this location the actions of X-rays, ultraviolet, and another wavelength from the Sun are more direct, strong, and constant throughout the whole year. Although the SJC site is near ionospheric equatorial anomaly (IEA peaks, this interpretation could explain the higher values found for the intermittent parameter μ for Belém compared with SJC. Belém also showed the presence of one or two flattening regions for f(α spectra at the same scales mentioned before. These differences and similarities also were interpreted in terms of the IEA content, where this phenomenon is an important source of intermittence due the presence of the VTEC peaks at ±20° geomagnetic latitudes.

  7. Simultaneous Effects of Total Solids Content, Milk Base, Heat Treatment Temperature and Sample Temperature on the Rheological Properties of Plain Stirred Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Converti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was used to establish a relationship between total solids content, milk base, heat treatment temperature, and sample temperature, and consistency index, flow behaviour index, and apparent viscosity of plain stirred yogurts. Statistical treatments resulted in developments of mathematical models. All samples presented shear thinning fluid behaviour. The increase of the content of total solids (9.3–22.7 % and milk base heat treatment temperature (81.6–98.4 °C resulted in a significant increase in consistency index and a decrease in flow behaviour index. Increase in the sample temperature (1.6–18.4 °C caused a decrease in consistency index and increase in flow behaviour index. Apparent viscosity was directly related to the content of total solids. Rheological properties of yogurt were highly dependent on the content of total solids in milk.

  8. Case study on total electron content enhancements at low latitudes during low geomagnetic activities before the storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libo Liu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes the ionospheric total electron content (TEC is significantly enhanced during low geomagnetic activities before storms. In this article, we investigate the characteristics of those interesting TEC enhancements using regional and global TEC data. We analyzed the low-latitude TEC enhancement events that occurred around longitude 120° E on 10 February 2004, 21 January 2004, and 4 March 2001, respectively. The TEC data are derived from regional Global Positioning System (GPS observations in the Asia/Australia sector as well as global ionospheric maps (GIMs produced by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL. Strong enhancements under low geomagnetic activity before the storms are simultaneously presented at low latitudes in the Asia/Australia sector in regional TEC and JPL GIMs. These TEC enhancements are shown to be regional events with longitudinal and latitudinal extent. The regions of TEC enhancements during these events are confined at narrow longitude ranges around longitude 120° E. The latitudinal belts of maxima of enhancements locate around the northern and southern equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA crests, which are consistent with those low-latitude events presented by Liu et al. (2008. During the 4 March 2001 event, the total plasma density Ni observed by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP spacecraft F13 at 840 km altitude are of considerably higher values on 4 March than on the previous day in the TEC enhanced regions. Some TEC enhancement events are possibly due to contributions from auroral/magnetospheric origins; while there are also quasi-periodic enhancement events not related to geomagnetic activity and associated probably with planetary wave type oscillations (e.g. the 6 January 1998 event. Further investigation is warrented to identify/separate contributions from possible sources.

  9. Contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor IJRED

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available International Journal of Renewable Energy Development www.ijred.com Volume 1             Number 3            October 2012                ISSN 2252- 4940   CONTENTS OF ARTICLES page Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study 65-73 C.O.C. Oko , E.O. Diemuodeke, N.F. Omunakwe, and E. Nnamdi     Development of Formaldehyde Adsorption using Modified Activated Carbon – A Review 75-80 W.D.P Rengga , M. Sudibandriyo and M. Nasikin     Process Optimization for Ethyl Ester Production in Fixed Bed Reactor Using Calcium Oxide Impregnated Palm Shell Activated Carbon (CaO/PSAC 81-86 A. Buasri , B. Ksapabutr, M. Panapoy and N. Chaiyut     Wind Resource Assessment in Abadan Airport in Iran 87-97 Mojtaba Nedaei       The Energy Processing by Power Electronics and its Impact on Power Quality 99-105 J. E. Rocha and B. W. D. C. Sanchez       First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration 107-113 A. Merzic , M. Music, and M. Rascic   Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine 115-122 N. Shrivastava,  , S.N. Varma and M. Pandey  

  10. Content of Total Phenolics, Flavan-3-Ols and Proanthocyanidins, Oxidative Stability and Antioxidant Capacity of Chocolate During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draženka Komes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant (AO capacity of chocolates with 27, 44 and 75 % cocoa was assessed after production and during twelve months of storage by direct current (DC polarographic assay, based on the decrease of anodic current caused by the formation of hydroxo-perhydroxyl mercury(II complex (HPMC in alkaline solutions of hydrogen peroxide at potentials of mercury oxidation, and two spectrophotometric assays. Relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI was calculated by taking the average value of the AO assay (the sample mass in all assays was identical. Oxidative stability of chocolate fat was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Measured parameters and RACI were correlated mutually and with the content of total phenols (Folin-Ciocalteu assay, flavan-3-ols (vanillin and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde assay and proanthocyanidins (modified Bate-Smith assay. During storage, the studied functional and health-related characteristics remained unchanged. Amongst applied AO assays, the DC polarographic one, whose validity was confirmed by two-way ANOVA and F-test, correlated most significantly with oxidative stability (oxidation onset temperature and induction time. In addition, principal component analysis was applied to characterise chocolate types.

  11. Content of Total Phenolics, Flavan-3-Ols and Proanthocyanidins, Oxidative Stability and Antioxidant Capacity of Chocolate During Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komes, Draženka; Gorjanović, Stanislava; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Pezo, Lato; Pastor, Ferenc; Ostojić, Sanja; Popov-Raljić, Jovanka; Sužnjević, Desanka

    2016-01-01

    Summary Antioxidant (AO) capacity of chocolates with 27, 44 and 75% cocoa was assessed after production and during twelve months of storage by direct current (DC) polarographic assay, based on the decrease of anodic current caused by the formation of hydroxo-perhydroxyl mercury(II) complex (HPMC) in alkaline solutions of hydrogen peroxide at potentials of mercury oxidation, and two spectrophotometric assays. Relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI) was calculated by taking the average value of the AO assay (the sample mass in all assays was identical). Oxidative stability of chocolate fat was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Measured parameters and RACI were correlated mutually and with the content of total phenols (Folin-Ciocalteu assay), flavan-3-ols (vanillin and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde assay) and proanthocyanidins (modified Bate-Smith assay). During storage, the studied functional and health-related characteristics remained unchanged. Amongst applied AO assays, the DC polarographic one, whose validity was confirmed by two-way ANOVA and F-test, correlated most significantly with oxidative stability (oxidation onset temperature and induction time). In addition, principal component analysis was applied to characterise chocolate types. PMID:27904388

  12. Computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty marketing and patient education: an evaluation of quality, content and accuracy of related websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, Shai S; Bronson, Michael J; Moucha, Calin S

    2016-10-01

    The internet is increasingly being used as a resource for health-related information by the general public. We sought to establish the authorship, content and accuracy of the information available online regarding computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty (CA-TKA). One hundred fifty search results from three leading search engines available online (Google, Yahoo!, Bing) from ten different countries worldwide were reviewed. While private physicians/groups authored 50.7 % of the websites, only 17.3 % were authored by a hospital/university. As compared to traditional TKA, 59.3 % of the websites claimed that navigated TKA offers better longevity, 46.6 % claimed accelerated recovery and 26 % claimed fewer complications. Only 11.3 % mentioned the prolonged operating room time required, and only 15.3 % noted the current lack of long-term evidence in support of this technology. Patients seeking information regarding CA-TKA through the major search engines are likely to encounter websites presenting a narrow, unscientific, viewpoint of the present technology, putting emphasis on unsubstantiated benefits while disregarding potential drawbacks. Survey of Materials-Internet.

  13. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of pomegranate juice and whey based novel beverage fermented by kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabokbar, Nayereh; Khodaiyan, Faramarz

    2016-01-01

    Mixture of pomegranate juice and whey was evaluated as a potential substrate for production of a novel beverage by kefir grains. The effects of two different variables, fermentation, temperature (19 and 25 °C) and kefir grain amount (5 %w/v and 8 %w/v), on total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activities of beverage were examined during a fermentation time of 32 h. TPC and antioxidant activities including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power, inhibition effect upon linoleic acid autoxidation and inhibition effect upon ascorbate autoxidation increased significantly (p < 0.05) during fermentation, but metal chelating effect showed no significant difference. The highest increases were observed when the temperature of 25 °C and kefir grain amount of 8 %w/v were applied. Results proved antioxidant activities of beverages were desirable and fermentation by kefir grains has the ability to enhance these antioxidant activities, as compared with unfermented beverage. Also pomegranate juice and whey were suitable media for producing a novel dairy-juice beverage.

  14. Investigation of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents, and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities from Baeckea frutescens Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisa, K.; Nurhayati, S.; Apriyana, W.; Indrianingsih, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    Baeckea frutescens L. is a medicinal plant endemic to the tropical area and it has been used by locals for topical and oral ailments. This study investigated total phenolic and flavonoid contents and also evaluated in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of of Baeckea frutescens crude extracts. These extracts were assessed for their antibacterial activities against strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella thypii, and Pseudomonas aureginosa by the broth micro-dilution methods using a modified tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay). Baeckea frutescens crude extracts were also tested against the stable DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) free-radical. The results indicated that Baeckea frutescens water and ethanol extracts possesed remarkable antibacterial activity with the minimum inhibitory concentration less than 100 μg/ml against Escherichia coli and Salmonella thypi. On the evaluation of the antioxidant activity via DPPH assay, Baeckea frutescens ethanol extracts exhibited a good antioxidant activity with IC50 less than 50 μg/ml and Baeckea frutescens water extracts showed a moderate antioxidant activity with IC50 less than 100 μg/ml.

  15. Latitude-Time Total Electron Content Anomalies as Precursors to Japan's Large Earthquakes Associated with Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Woei Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to determine whether principal component analysis (PCA can be used to process latitude-time ionospheric TEC data on a monthly basis to identify earthquake associated TEC anomalies. PCA is applied to latitude-time (mean-of-a-month ionospheric total electron content (TEC records collected from the Japan GEONET network to detect TEC anomalies associated with 18 earthquakes in Japan (M≥6.0 from 2000 to 2005. According to the results, PCA was able to discriminate clear TEC anomalies in the months when all 18 earthquakes occurred. After reviewing months when no M≥6.0 earthquakes occurred but geomagnetic storm activity was present, it is possible that the maximal principal eigenvalues PCA returned for these 18 earthquakes indicate earthquake associated TEC anomalies. Previously PCA has been used to discriminate earthquake-associated TEC anomalies recognized by other researchers, who found that statistical association between large earthquakes and TEC anomalies could be established in the 5 days before earthquake nucleation; however, since PCA uses the characteristics of principal eigenvalues to determine earthquake related TEC anomalies, it is possible to show that such anomalies existed earlier than this 5-day statistical window.

  16. Investigation of the Effects of Solar and Geomagnetic Changes on the Total Electron Content: Mid-Latitude Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukavak, Mustafa; Yalcinkaya, Mualla

    2016-04-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is used as an important tool for ionosphere monitoring and obtaining the Total Electron Content (TEC). GPS satellites, positioned in the Earth's orbit, are used as sensors to investigate the space weather conditions. In this study, solar and geomagnetic activity variations were investigated between the dates 1 March-30 June 2015 for the mid-latitude region. GPS-TEC variations were calculated for each selected International GNSS Service (IGS) station in Europe. GNSS data was obtained from Crustal Dynamics Data and Information System (CDDIS) archive. Solar and geomagnetic activity indices (Kp, F10.7 ve Dst) were obtained from the Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Canadian Space Weather Forecast Centre (CSWFC) and Data Analysis Center for geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University (WDC) archives. GPS-TEC variations were determined for the quiet periods of the solar and geomagnetic activities. GPS-TEC changes were then compared with respect to the quiet periods of the solar and geomagnetic activities. Global Ionosphere Maps (GIM) IONEX files, obtained from the IGS analysis center, was used to check the robustness of the GPS-TEC variations. The investigations revealed that it is possible to use the GPS-TEC data for monitoring the ionospheric disturbances.

  17. Global Three-Dimensional Ionospheric Data Assimilation Model Using Ground-based GPS and Radio Occultation Total Electron Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jann-Yenq Liu, Tiger; Lin, Chi-Yen; Matsuo, Tomoko; Lin, Charles C. H.; Tsai, Ho-Fang; Chen, Chao-Yen

    2017-04-01

    An ionospheric data assimilation approach presented here is based on the Gauss-Markov Kalman filter with International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) as the background model and designed to assimilate the total electron content (TEC) observed from ground-based GPS receivers and space-based radio occultation (RO) of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C) or FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 (F7/C2). The Kalman filter consists of the forecast step according to Gauss-Markov process and measurement update step. Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) show that the Gauss-Markov Kalman filter procedure can increase the accuracy of the data assimilation analysis over the procedure consisting of the measurement update step alone. Moreover, in comparing to F3/C, the dense F7/C2 RO observation can further increase the model accuracy significantly. Validating the data assimilation results with the vertical TEC in Global Ionosphere Maps and that derived from ground-based GPS measurements, as well as the ionospheric F2-peak height and electron density sounded by ionosondes is also carried out. Both the OSSE results and the observation validations confirm that the developed data assimilation model can be used to reconstruct the three-dimensional electron density in the ionosphere satisfactorily.

  18. Piezoelectric immunosensors for the detection of individual antibiotics and the total content of penicillin antibiotics in foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaseva, N A; Ermolaeva, T N

    2014-03-01

    Piezoelectric immunosensors on the basis of homologous and group-specificantibodies have been developed for detecting penicillin G, ampicillin, and the total content of penicillin antibiotics. The receptor coating of the sensor was obtained by the immobilization of penicillin G or ampicillin hapten-protein conjugates on the polypyrrole film obtained by electropolymerization and activated by glutaraldehyde. The affinity constants and the cross reactivity coefficients have been calculated. This made it possible to estimate the affinity and specificity of the polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies used. The calibration curves are linear in the range of concentrations 2.5-250.0 ng ml(-1) (penicillin G), 2.5-500.0 ng ml(-1) (ampicillin), and 1-500 ng ml(-1) (group of penicillin). The limits of detection are 0.8 ng ml(-1), 3.9 ng ml(-1), which are lower than MRL, established for penicillin antibiotics. The sensors were tested in detecting penicillins in milk, pork, beef, liver. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of ultraviolet treatment on enzymatic activity and total phenolic content of minimally processed potato slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Li Shing; Lasekan, Ola; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Hashim, Norhashila

    2016-07-01

    In this work, potato slices were exposed to different doses of UV-C irradiation (i.e. 2.28, 6.84, 11.41, and 13.68 kJ m -2 ) with or without pretreatment [i.e. ascorbic acid and calcium chloride (AACCl) dip] and stored at 4 ± 1 °C. Changes in enzymatic activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), as well as total phenolic content (TPC) were investigated after 0, 3, 7 and 10 days of storage. Results showed that untreated and UV-C treated potato slices at 13.68 kJ m -2 dosage level showed significantly higher PPO, POD and PAL activities. Conversely, untreated potato slices showed the lowest TPC during storage period. Potato slices subjected to AACCl dip plus UV-C at 6.84 kJ m -2 produced lower PPO, POD and PAL activities, as well as maintained a high TPC during storage.

  20. Fast and Simple Analytical Method for Direct Determination of Total Chlorine Content in Polyglycerol by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakóbik-Kolon, Agata; Milewski, Andrzej; Dydo, Piotr; Witczak, Magdalena; Bok-Badura, Joanna

    2018-02-23

    The fast and simple method for total chlorine determination in polyglycerols using low resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) without the need for additional equipment and time-consuming sample decomposition was evaluated. Linear calibration curve for 35 Cl isotope in the concentration range 20-800 µg/L was observed. Limits of detection and quantification equaled to 15 µg/L and 44 µg/L, respectively. This corresponds to possibility of detection 3 µg/g and determination 9 µg/g of chlorine in polyglycerol using studied conditions (0.5% matrix-polyglycerol samples diluted or dissolved with water to an overall concentration of 0.5%). Matrix effects as well as the effect of chlorine origin have been evaluated. The presence of 0.5% (m/m) of matrix species similar to polyglycerol (polyethylene glycol-PEG) did not influence the chlorine determination for PEGs with average molecular weights (MW) up to 2000 Da. Good precision and accuracy of the chlorine content determination was achieved regardless on its origin (inorganic/organic). High analyte recovery level and low relative standard deviation values were observed for real polyglycerol samples spiked with chloride. Additionally, the Combustion Ion Chromatography System was used as a reference method. The results confirmed high accuracy and precision of the tested method.

  1. Analysis of ionospheric vertical total electron content before the 1 April 2014 Mw 8.2 Chile earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Ma, Yifang; Zhou, Xiaohui; Li, Zhao; An, Xiangdong; Wang, Kaihua

    2017-11-01

    This paper studies ionospheric vertical total electron content (VTEC) variations before the 1 April 2014 Mw 8.2 Chile earthquake. VTEC derived from 14 global positioning system (GPS) stations and global ionospheric map (GIM) were used to analyze ionospheric variations before the earthquake using the sliding interquartile range method, and the results showed that significant positive VTEC anomalies occurred on 28 March. To explore possible causes of these anomalies, effects of solar and geomagnetic activities were examined, and VTEC variations during 17 March to 31 March in 2009-2013 were cross-compared. Also, VTEC for a full year before the earthquake was investigated. The results indicated that the anomalies were weakly associated with high solar activities and geomagnetic storms and that the anomalies were not normal seasonal and diurnal variations. An analysis of the spatial distribution of the observed anomalies was also presented, and it demonstrated that the anomalies specifically appeared around the epicenter on 28 March. We suggest that the observed anomalies may be associated with the subsequent Chile earthquake. Equatorial anomaly variations were analyzed to discuss the possible physical mechanism, and results showed that the equatorial anomaly unusually increased on 28 March, which indicates that anomalous electric fields generated in the earthquake preparation area and the meridional wind are possible causes of the observed ionospheric anomalies.

  2. Comparison of mapped and measured total ionospheric electron content using global positioning system and beacon satellite observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanyi, G.E.; Roth, T.

    1988-01-01

    Total ionospheric electron contents (TEC) were measured by global positioning system (GPS) dual-frequency receivers developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The measurements included P-code (precise ranging code) and carrier phase data for six GPS satellites during multiple five-hour observing sessions. A set of these GPS TEC measurements were mapped from the GPS lines of sight to the line of sight of a Faraday beacon satellite by statistically fitting the TEC data to a simple model of the ionosphere. The mapped GPS TEC values were compared with the Faraday rotation measurements. Because GPS transmitter offsets are different for each satellite and because some GPS receiver offsets were uncalibrated, the sums of the satellite and receiver offsets were estimated simultaneously with the TEC in a least squares procedure. The accuracy of this estimation procedure is evaluated indicating that the error of the GPS-determined line of sight TEC can be at or below 1 x 10 to the 16th el/sq cm. Consequently, the current level of accuracy is comparable to the Faraday rotation technique; however, GPS provides superior sky coverage. 15 references

  3. Histochemical Localization of Glutathione Dependent NBT-Reductase in Mouse Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective Localization of the glutathione dependent Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reductase in fresh frozen sections of mouse skin and possible dependence of NBT reductase on tissue thiol levels has been investigated. Methods The fresh frozen tissue sections (8m thickness) were prepared and incubated in medium containing NBT, reduced glutathione (GSH) and phosphate buffer. The staining for GSH was performed with mercury orange. Results  The activity of the NBT-reductase in mouse skin has been found to be localized in the areas rich in glutathione and actively proliferating area of the skin. Conclusion The activity of the NBT-reductase seems to be dependent on the glutathione contents.

  4. Active biomonitoring of a subtropical river using glutathione-S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Active biomonitoring of a subtropical river using glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and heat shock proteins (HSP 70) in. Oreochromis niloticusas surrogate biomarkers of metal contamination. Victor Kurauone Muposhi1, Beaven Utete1*, Idah Sithole-Niang2 and Stanley Mukangenyama2. 1Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, ...

  5. Study on the change of total fat content and fatty acid composition of the ethanol extract from cooking drips of thunnus thynnus by ionizing irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Sub; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Cheon Woo; Kim, Ju Bong [Dongwon Research and Development Center, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young Jung [Division of Food Science, Jinju International University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Jin [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a gamma irradiation (GM) and an electron-beam irradiation (EB) on the total fat content and fatty acid composition of ethanol extract from cooking drips of Thunnus thynnus (ECT). The total fat content of samples were determined by fat extraction (Folch method) and fatty acid composition was by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after fat extraction. The results showed that total fat contents were not changed by GM and EB up to the dose of 50 kGy. The content of unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) such as vaccenic acid and DHA, was decreased by irradiation. But, the content of palmitoleic acid was not changed by GM. In contrast, the content of saturated fatty acids(SFA) such as myristic acid and palmitic acid, was increased by the irradiation. But, the content of stearic acid was decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Also, it has been shown that the GM had further affected the change of fatty acid content than EB.

  6. Study on the change of total fat content and fatty acid composition of the ethanol extract from cooking drips of thunnus thynnus by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Sub; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Yoo, Cheon Woo; Kim, Ju Bong; Hwang, Young Jung; Chung, Young Jin

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a gamma irradiation (GM) and an electron-beam irradiation (EB) on the total fat content and fatty acid composition of ethanol extract from cooking drips of Thunnus thynnus (ECT). The total fat content of samples were determined by fat extraction (Folch method) and fatty acid composition was by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after fat extraction. The results showed that total fat contents were not changed by GM and EB up to the dose of 50 kGy. The content of unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) such as vaccenic acid and DHA, was decreased by irradiation. But, the content of palmitoleic acid was not changed by GM. In contrast, the content of saturated fatty acids(SFA) such as myristic acid and palmitic acid, was increased by the irradiation. But, the content of stearic acid was decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Also, it has been shown that the GM had further affected the change of fatty acid content than EB

  7. The effect of glucose stimulation on 45calcium uptake of rat pancreatic islets and their total calcium content as measured by a fluorometric micro-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, G.H.J.; Wiegman, J.B.; Konijnendijk, W.

    1982-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated 45 calcium uptake and total calcium content of rat pancreatic islets has been studied, using a new fluorometric micro-method to estimate total calcium. Extracellular calcium was separated from incubated tissue by a rapid micro-filtration procedure. Islets incubated up to 60 min with calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l and glucose 2.5 mmol/l maintained the same calcium content (670 +- 7.5 pmol/μg DNA). When the glucose concentration was raised to 15 mmol/l no change in the total calcium content could be detected. On incubation with glucose 2.5 mmol/l in the absence of calcium, the calcium content decreased to 488 +- 27 pmol/μg DNA. On incubation with 45 calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l for 5 or 30 min at 2.5 mmol/l glucose, islets exchanged 21 +- 2 and 28 +- 1% of their total calcium content and, at 15 mmol/l glucose, 30 +- 3 and 45 +- 2%, respectively. Thus, islet calcium has a high turn-over rate. Glucose stimulation results in an increase of the calcium uptake without enhancing the total calcium content and hence must increase the calcium-exchangeable pool. (orig.)

  8. Discrimination of tsunamigenic earthquakes by ionospheric sounding using GNSS observations of total electron content from the Sumatran GPS Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manta, F.; Feng, L.; Occhipinti, G.; Taisne, B.; Hill, E.

    2017-12-01

    Tsunami earthquakes generate tsunamis larger than expected for their seismic magnitude. They rupture the shallow megathrust, which is usually at significant distance from land-based monitoring networks. This distance presents a challenge in accurately estimating the magnitude and source extent of tsunami earthquakes. Whether these parameters can be estimated reliably is critical to the success of tsunami early warning systems. In this work, we investigate the potential role of using GNSS-observed ionospheric total electron content (TEC) to discriminate tsunami earthquakes, by introducing for the first time the TEC Intensity Index (TECII) for rapidly identify tsunamigenic earthquakes. We examine two Mw 7.8 megathrust events along the Sumatran subduction zone with data from the Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr). Both events triggered a tsunami alert that was canceled later. The Banyaks event (April 6th, 2010) did not generate a tsunami and caused only minor earthquake-related damage to infrastructure. On the contrary, the Mentawai event (October 25th, 2010) produced a large tsunami with run-up heights of >16 m along the southwestern coasts of the Pagai Islands. The tsunami claimed more than 400 lives. The primary difference between the two events was the depth of rupture: the Mentawai event ruptured a very shallow (earthquake (TECII = 1.14) and a characteristic signature of a tsunami 40 minutes after the event. These two signals reveal the large surface displacement at the rupture, and the consequent destructive tsunami. This comparative study of two earthquakes with the same magnitude at different depths highlights the potential role of ionospheric monitoring by GNSS to tsunami early warning systems

  9. Preservation of cocoa antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, flavan-3-ols, and procyanidin content in foods prepared with cocoa powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, L; Miller, K B; Apgar, J; Sweigart, D S; Stuart, D A; McHale, N; Ou, B; Kondo, M; Hurst, W J

    2009-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of common cooking processes on cocoa flavanols. Antioxidant activity, total polyphenols (TP), flavanol monomers, and procyanidin oligomers were determined in chocolate frosting, a hot cocoa drink, chocolate cookies, and chocolate cake made with natural cocoa powder. Recoveries of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins ranged from 86% to over 100% in the chocolate frosting, hot cocoa drink, and chocolate cookies. Losses were greatest in the chocolate cake with recoveries ranging from 5% for epicatechin to 54% for antioxidant activity. The causes of losses in baked chocolate cakes were investigated by exchanging baking soda with baking powder or combinations of the 2 leavening agents. Use of baking soda as a leavening agent was associated with increased pH and darkening color of cakes. Losses of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins were associated with an increased extractable pH of the baked cakes. Chocolate cakes made with baking powder for leavening resulted in an average extractable pH of 6.2 with essentially complete retention of antioxidant activity and flavanol content, but with reduced cake heights and lighter cake color. Commercially available chocolate cake mixes had final pHs above 8.3 and contained no detectable monomeric flavanols after baking. These results suggest that baking soda causes an increase in pH and subsequent destruction of flavanol compounds and antioxidant activity. Use of an appropriate leavening agent to moderate the final cake pH to approximately 7.25 or less results in both good leavening and preservation of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins.

  10. New method to determine the total carbonyl functional group content in extractable particulate organic matter by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, J; Zheng, W; Marchand, N; Wortham, H

    2008-08-01

    A functional group analysis method was developed to determine the quantitative content of carbonyl functional groups in atmospheric particulate organic matter (POM) using constant neutral loss scanning-tandem mass spectrometry (CNLS-MS/MS). The neutral loss method consists in monitoring the loss of a neutral fragment produced by the fragmentation of a precursor ion in a collision cell. The only ions detected are the daughter ions resulting from the loss of the neutral fragment under study. Then, scanning the loss of a neutral fragment characteristic of a functional group enables the selective detection of the compounds bearing the chemical function under study within a complex mixture. The selective detection of carbonyl functional groups was achieved after derivatization with pentafluorophenylhydrazine (PFPH) by monitoring the neutral loss of C(6)F(5)N (181 amu), which was characteristic of a large panel of derivatized carbonyl compounds. The method was tested on 25 reference mixtures of different composition, all containing 24 carbonyl compounds at randomly determined concentrations. The repeatability and calibration tests were satisfying as they resulted in a relative standard deviation below 5% and a linear range between 0.01 and 0.65 mM with a calculated detection limit of 0.0035 mM. Also, the relative deviation induced by changing the composition of the mixture while keeping the total concentration of carbonyl functional groups constant was less than 20%. These reliability experiments demonstrate the high robustness of the developed procedure for accurate carbonyl functional group measurement, which was applied to atmospheric POM samples. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. An empirical model of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) near the crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajra, Rajkumar; Chakraborty, Shyamal Kumar; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; DasGupta, Ashish; Echer, Ezequiel; Brum, Christiano G. M.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Sobral, José Humberto Andrade

    2016-07-01

    We present a geomagnetic quiet time (Dst > -50 nT) empirical model of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) for the northern equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) crest over Calcutta, India. The model is based on the 1980-1990 TEC measurements from the geostationary Engineering Test Satellite-2 (ETS-2) at the Haringhata (University of Calcutta, India: 22.58° N, 88.38° E geographic; 12.09° N, 160.46° E geomagnetic) ionospheric field station using the technique of Faraday rotation of plane polarized VHF (136.11 MHz) signals. The ground station is situated virtually underneath the northern EIA crest. The monthly mean TEC increases linearly with F10.7 solar ionizing flux, with a significantly high correlation coefficient (r = 0.89-0.99) between the two. For the same solar flux level, the TEC values are found to be significantly different between the descending and ascending phases of the solar cycle. This ionospheric hysteresis effect depends on the local time as well as on the solar flux level. On an annual scale, TEC exhibits semiannual variations with maximum TEC values occurring during the two equinoxes and minimum at summer solstice. The semiannual variation is strongest during local noon with a summer-to-equinox variability of ~50-100 TEC units. The diurnal pattern of TEC is characterized by a pre-sunrise (0400-0500 LT) minimum and near-noon (1300-1400 LT) maximum. Equatorial electrodynamics is dominated by the equatorial electrojet which in turn controls the daytime TEC variation and its maximum. We combine these long-term analyses to develop an empirical model of monthly mean TEC. The model is validated using both ETS-2 measurements and recent GNSS measurements. It is found that the present model efficiently estimates the TEC values within a 1-σ range from the observed mean values.

  12. An empirical model of ionospheric total electron content (TEC near the crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajra Rajkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a geomagnetic quiet time (Dst > −50 nT empirical model of ionospheric total electron content (TEC for the northern equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA crest over Calcutta, India. The model is based on the 1980–1990 TEC measurements from the geostationary Engineering Test Satellite-2 (ETS-2 at the Haringhata (University of Calcutta, India: 22.58° N, 88.38° E geographic; 12.09° N, 160.46° E geomagnetic ionospheric field station using the technique of Faraday rotation of plane polarized VHF (136.11 MHz signals. The ground station is situated virtually underneath the northern EIA crest. The monthly mean TEC increases linearly with F10.7 solar ionizing flux, with a significantly high correlation coefficient (r = 0.89–0.99 between the two. For the same solar flux level, the TEC values are found to be significantly different between the descending and ascending phases of the solar cycle. This ionospheric hysteresis effect depends on the local time as well as on the solar flux level. On an annual scale, TEC exhibits semiannual variations with maximum TEC values occurring during the two equinoxes and minimum at summer solstice. The semiannual variation is strongest during local noon with a summer-to-equinox variability of ~50–100 TEC units. The diurnal pattern of TEC is characterized by a pre-sunrise (0400–0500 LT minimum and near-noon (1300–1400 LT maximum. Equatorial electrodynamics is dominated by the equatorial electrojet which in turn controls the daytime TEC variation and its maximum. We combine these long-term analyses to develop an empirical model of monthly mean TEC. The model is validated using both ETS-2 measurements and recent GNSS measurements. It is found that the present model efficiently estimates the TEC values within a 1-σ range from the observed mean values.

  13. Performance evaluation of linear time-series ionospheric Total Electron Content model over low latitude Indian GPS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbakuti, J. R. K. Kumar; Venkata Ratnam, D.

    2017-10-01

    Precise modeling of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) is a critical aspect of Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) services intended for the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) applications as well as Earth Observation System (EOS), satellite communication, and space weather forecasting applications. In this paper, linear time series modeling has been carried out on ionospheric TEC at two different locations at Koneru Lakshmaiah University (KLU), Guntur (geographic 16.44° N, 80.62° E; geomagnetic 7.55° N) and Bangalore (geographic 12.97° N, 77.59° E; geomagnetic 4.53° N) at the northern low-latitude region, for the year 2013 in the 24th solar cycle. The impact of the solar and geomagnetic activity on periodic oscillations of TEC has been investigated. Results confirm that the correlation coefficient of the estimated TEC from the linear model TEC and the observed GPS-TEC is around 93%. Solar activity is the key component that influences ionospheric daily averaged TEC while periodic component reveals the seasonal dependency of TEC. Furthermore, it is observed that the influence of geomagnetic activity component on TEC is different at both the latitudes. The accuracy of the model has been assessed by comparing the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 model TEC and TEC measurements. Moreover, the absence of winter anomaly is remarkable, as determined by the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between the linear model TEC and GPS-TEC. On the contrary, the IRI2012 model TEC evidently failed to predict the absence of winter anomaly in the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) crest region. The outcome of this work will be useful for improving the ionospheric now-casting models under various geophysical conditions.

  14. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of air-dried cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. at different ripeness stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Narváez-Cuenca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Because the use of drying at high temperatures might negatively affect the functional properties of fruits, the effect of air-drying at 60°C on the total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant capacity (AOC of cape gooseberry fruit was evaluated at three ripeness stages. The AOC was evaluated with 2,2'-azino-bis(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS , ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and beta-carotene-linoleate assays. The TPC and AOC increased in the fresh fruit as the ripeness stage increased. The TPC increased from 401.8±19.8 to 569.3±22.3 mg GA E/100 g dry weight (DW. The AOC values obtained with ABTS in the fresh fruit (ranging from 79.4±4.5 to 132.7±12.9 mumol trolox/g fruit DW were comparable to those obtained with FRAP (ranging from 82.9±16.3 to 153.9±31.7 mumol trolox/g fruit DW. The values assessed with DPPH ranged from 21.0±3.2 to 34.1±5.1 mumol trolox/g fruit DW. The beta-carotene-linoleate assay gave values ranging from 5.8±1.1 to 12.7±2.0 mumol a-tocoferol/g fruit DW. Air-drying the cape gooseberry fruit had a small influence on the TPC. The air-dried fruit had AOC values ranging from 27 to 164% of the value of the fresh fruit. While the ABTS assay produced higher values in the air-dried fruit than in the fresh fruit, the FRAP, DPPH, and beta-carotene-linoleate assays resulted in lower values in the air-dried fruit.

  15. Effect of different types of processing on the total phenolic compound content, antioxidant capacity, and saponin content of Chenopodium quinoa Willd grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Júlia; Spanier, Luciana Pio; Botelho, Fabiana Torma; Gularte, Márcia Arocha; Helbig, Elizabete

    2016-10-15

    The effects of five processing forms on the content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, and saponin content in quinoa grains were evaluated. The processes included washing, washing followed by hydration, cooking (with or without pressure), and toasting. The highest content of phenolic compounds was obtained after cooking under pressure; however, these compounds also increased with grain washing. The toasting process caused the greatest loss. The antioxidant capacity of the grains was similarly affected by the processing techniques. According to the amount of saponins, the grains were classified as bitter. Washing caused a reduction in these compounds, but the levels remained unchanged after cooking (with and without) pressure and toasting; however, they significantly increased after hydration. Cooking, especially with pressure, had greater effects than the other processes, and potentiated the functional properties of quinoa grains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bran data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and profiles of proanthocyanidins and whole grain physical traits of 32 red and purple rice varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsuan Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals in red and purple bran rice have potential health benefit to humans. We determined the phytochemicals in brans of 32 red and purple global rice varieties. The description of the origin and physical traits of the whole grain (color, length, width, thickness and 100-kernel weight of this germplasm collection are provided along with data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and total proanthocyanidin contents. The contents and proportions of individual oligomers, from degree of polymerization of monomers to 14-mers, and polymers in bran of these 32 rice varieties are presented (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.04.004 [1]. Keywords: Purple rice, Red rice, Black rice, Proanthocyanidins, Tannins, Flavonoids, Rice bran

  17. Glutathione treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhoff, K; Ranek, L; Mantoni, M

    1992-01-01

    This prospective study was undertaken to substantiate observations that glutathione (GSH) inhibits or reverses tumor growth in humans with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a neoplasm with an extremely poor prognosis. Eight patients with biopsy-proven HCC not amenable to surgery were given 5 g of GSH...

  18. Evaluation of the isoflavone and total phenolic contents of kefir-fermented soymilk storage and after the in vitro digestive system simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fernandes, Meg; Sanches Lima, Fernando; Rodrigues, Daniele; Handa, Cintia; Guelfi, Marcela; Garcia, Sandra; Ida, Elza Iouko

    2017-08-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the isoflavone and total phenolic contents in kefir-fermented soymilk storage and after the in vitro digestive system simulation (DSS). Soymilk was fermented with kefir culture (0.02UC/L) at 25°C for 15h and stored at 4°C for 4days. After the fermentation and storage, the isoflavone and total phenolic contents were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry, respectively. The cell viability of lactic acid bacteria and yeast was evaluated. Fermentation promoted an increase of approximately 3log CFU/g cycles of the microorganisms and the storage process did not alter the aglycone isoflavones and total phenolic contents. The content of aglycone isoflavones increased 2-fold, and the total phenolic content increased 9-fold. Therefore, kefir-fermented soymilk is a good source of aglycone isoflavones and phenolics, since the content of these substances was increased significantly after the in vitro digestive system simulation of the product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Glutathione role in gallium induced toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asim

    2012-01-26

    GSH) present in tissues. It is very important and interesting to study the reaction of gallium nitrate and glutathione as biomarker of glutathione role in detoxification and conjugation in whole blood components (plasma and ...

  20. Avocado oil induces long-term alleviation of oxidative damage in kidney mitochondria from type 2 diabetic rats by improving glutathione status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Figueroa-García, María Del Consuelo; García-Berumen, Claudia Isabel; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Mejía-Barajas, Jorge A; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Hyperglycemia and mitochondrial ROS overproduction have been identified as key factors involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy. This has encouraged the search for strategies decreasing glucose levels and long-term improvement of redox status of glutathione, the main antioxidant counteracting mitochondrial damage. Previously, we have shown that avocado oil improves redox status of glutathione in liver and brain mitochondria from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats; however, the long-term effects of avocado oil and its hypoglycemic effect cannot be evaluated because this model displays low survival and insulin depletion. Therefore, we tested during 1 year the effects of avocado oil on glycemia, ROS levels, lipid peroxidation and glutathione status in kidney mitochondria from type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Diabetic rats exhibited glycemia of 120-186 mg/dL the first 9 months with a further increase to 250-300 mg/dL. Avocado oil decreased hyperglycemia at intermediate levels between diabetic and control rats. Diabetic rats displayed augmented lipid peroxidation and depletion of reduced glutathione throughout the study, while increased ROS generation was observed at the 3rd and 12th months along with diminished content of total glutathione at the 6th and 12th months. Avocado oil ameliorated all these defects and augmented the mitochondrial content of oleic acid. The beneficial effects of avocado oil are discussed in terms of the hypoglycemic effect of oleic acid and the probable dependence of glutathione transport on lipid peroxidation and thiol oxidation of mitochondrial carriers.

  1. Prolonged fasting increases glutathione biosynthesis in postweaned northern elephant seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Forman, Henry Jay; Crocker, Daniel E.; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Northern elephant seals experience prolonged periods of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting) while breeding, molting or weaning. The postweaning fast in elephant seals is characterized by increases in the renin–angiotensin system, expression of the oxidant-producing protein Nox4, and NADPH oxidase activity; however, these increases are not correlated with increased oxidative damage or inflammation. Glutathione (GSH) is a potent reductant and a cofactor for glutathione peroxidases (GPx), glutathione-S transferases (GST) and 1-cys peroxiredoxin (PrxVI) and thus contributes to the removal of hydroperoxides, preventing oxidative damage. The effects of prolonged food deprivation on the GSH system are not well described in mammals. To test our hypothesis that GSH biosynthesis increases with fasting in postweaned elephant seals, we measured circulating and muscle GSH content at the early and late phases of the postweaning fast in elephant seals along with the activity/protein content of glutamate-cysteine ligase [GCL; catalytic (GCLc) and modulatory (GCLm) subunits], γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), glutathione disulphide reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), GST and PrxVI, as well as plasma changes in γ-glutamyl amino acids, glutamate and glutamine. GSH increased two- to four-fold with fasting along with a 40–50% increase in the content of GCLm and GCLc, a 75% increase in GGT activity, a two- to 2.5-fold increase in GR, G6PDH and GST activities and a 30% increase in PrxVI content. Plasma γ-glutamyl glutamine, γ-glutamyl isoleucine and γ-glutamyl methionine also increased with fasting whereas glutamate and glutamine decreased. Results indicate that GSH biosynthesis increases with fasting and that GSH contributes to counteracting hydroperoxide production, preventing oxidative damage in fasting seals. PMID:21430206

  2. Comparative Analysis of γ-Oryzanol, β-Glucan, Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Fermented Rice Bran of Different Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Tae-Dong; Shin, Gi-Hae; Kim, Jae-Min; Choi, Sun-Il; Lee, Jin-Ha; Lee, Sang Jong; Park, Seon Ju; Woo, Koan Sik; Oh, Sea Kwan; Lee, Ok-Hawn

    2017-06-03

    Rice bran, a by-product derived from processing rice, is a rich source of bioactive compounds. Recent studies have suggested that the fermentation can improve their biological activities. This study aimed to determined the level of γ-oryzanol, β-glucan and total phenol contents of fermented rice bran from 21 Korean varieties, as well as to evaluate their antioxidant activities. We also assessed the validation of the analytical method for determining γ-oryzanol content in fermented rice brans. Among the fermented rice brans, the Haedam rice bran contained the highest level of total phenol content (156.08 mg gallic acid equivalents/g), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity (71.30%) and ORAC (Oxygen radical absorbance capacity) value (1101.31 μM trolox equivalents/g). Furthermore, the fermented Migwang rice bran showed the highest level of γ-oryzanol content (294.77 ± 6.74 mg/100 g).

  3. Large enhancements in low latitude total electron content during 15 May 2005 geomagnetic storm in Indian zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dashora

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Results pertaining to the response of the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere to a major geomagnetic storm that occurred on 15 May 2005 are presented. These results are also the first from the Indian zone in terms of (i GPS derived total electron content (TEC variations following the storm (ii Local low latitude electrodynamics response to penetration of high latitude convection electric field (iii effect of storm induced traveling atmospheric disturbances (TAD's on GPS-TEC in equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA zone. Data set comprising of ionospheric TEC obtained from GPS measurements, ionograms from an EIA zone station, New Delhi (Geog. Lat. 28.42° N, Geog. Long. 77.21° E, ground based magnetometers in equatorial and low latitude stations and solar wind data obtained from Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE has been used in the present study. GPS receivers located at Udaipur (Geog. Lat. 24.73° N, Geog. Long. 73.73° E and Hyderabad (Geog. Lat. 17.33° N, Geog. Long. 78.47° E have been used for wider spatial coverage in the Indian zone. Storm induced features in vertical TEC (VTEC have been obtained comparing them with the mean VTEC of quiet days. Variations in solar wind parameters, as obtained from ACE and in the SYM-H index, indicate that the storm commenced on 15 May 2005 at 02:39 UT. The main phase of the storm commenced at 06:00 UT on 15 May with a sudden southward turning of the Z-component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF-Bz and subsequent decrease in SYM-H index. The dawn-to-dusk convection electric field of high latitude origin penetrated to low and equatorial latitudes simultaneously as corroborated by the magnetometer data from the Indian zone. Subsequent northward turning of the IMF-Bz, and the penetration of the dusk-to-dawn electric field over the dip equator is also discernible. Response of the low latitude ionosphere to this storm may be characterized in terms of (i enhanced background level of VTEC as compared to

  4. Large enhancements in low latitude total electron content during 15 May 2005 geomagnetic storm in Indian zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dashora

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Results pertaining to the response of the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere to a major geomagnetic storm that occurred on 15 May 2005 are presented. These results are also the first from the Indian zone in terms of (i GPS derived total electron content (TEC variations following the storm (ii Local low latitude electrodynamics response to penetration of high latitude convection electric field (iii effect of storm induced traveling atmospheric disturbances (TAD's on GPS-TEC in equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA zone.

    Data set comprising of ionospheric TEC obtained from GPS measurements, ionograms from an EIA zone station, New Delhi (Geog. Lat. 28.42° N, Geog. Long. 77.21° E, ground based magnetometers in equatorial and low latitude stations and solar wind data obtained from Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE has been used in the present study. GPS receivers located at Udaipur (Geog. Lat. 24.73° N, Geog. Long. 73.73° E and Hyderabad (Geog. Lat. 17.33° N, Geog. Long. 78.47° E have been used for wider spatial coverage in the Indian zone. Storm induced features in vertical TEC (VTEC have been obtained comparing them with the mean VTEC of quiet days. Variations in solar wind parameters, as obtained from ACE and in the SYM-H index, indicate that the storm commenced on 15 May 2005 at 02:39 UT. The main phase of the storm commenced at 06:00 UT on 15 May with a sudden southward turning of the Z-component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF-Bz and subsequent decrease in SYM-H index. The dawn-to-dusk convection electric field of high latitude origin penetrated to low and equatorial latitudes simultaneously as corroborated by the magnetometer data from the Indian zone. Subsequent northward turning of the IMF-Bz, and the penetration of the dusk-to-dawn electric field over the dip equator is also discernible. Response of the low latitude ionosphere to this storm may be characterized in terms of (i

  5. A new strategy for umbilical cord blood collection developed at the first Colombian public cord blood bank increases total nucleated cell content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, Diana; Triviño, Lady; Galindo, Cristian; Franco, Leidy; Salguero, Gustavo; Camacho, Bernardo; Perdomo-Arciniegas, Ana-María

    2017-09-01

    The total nucleated cell dosage of umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an important factor in determining successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after a minimum human leukocyte antigen donor-recipient match. The northern South American population is in need of a new-generation cord blood bank that cryopreserves only units with high total nucleated cell content, thereby increasing the likelihood of use. Colombia set up a public cord blood bank in 2014; and, as a result of its research for improving high total nucleated cell content, a new strategy for UCB collection was developed. Data from 2933 collected and 759 cryopreserved cord blood units between 2014 and 2015 were analyzed. The correlation of donor and collection variables with cellularity was evaluated. Moreover, blood volume, cell content, CD34+ count, clonogenic capacity, and microbial contamination were assessed comparing the new method, which combines in utero and ex utero techniques, with the conventional strategies. Multivariate analysis confirmed a correlation between neonatal birth weight and cell content. The new collection method increased total nucleated cell content in approximately 26% and did not alter pre-cryopreservation and post-thaw cell recovery, viability, or clonogenic ability. Furthermore, it showed a remarkably low microbial contamination rate (1.2%). The strategy for UCB collection developed at the first Colombian public cord blood bank increases total nucleated cell content and does not affect unit quality. The existence of this bank is a remarkable breakthrough for Latin-American patients in need of this kind of transplantation. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  6. The effect of N-2-cyano-ethylamphetamine. HCl on total lipid contents of placenta and some material and fetal tissues of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulay, L; Oliveira-Filho, R M; Siciliano, S F; Kulay, M N

    1978-12-01

    Female rats received 1.25 mg/kg body weight of N-2-cyano-ethylamphetamine. HCl (Fenproporex chlorhydrate) by oral route, once daily from the 5th to the 21st day of pregnancy, and compared to untreated pregnant rats, showed an increased total lipid content in maternal blood and fetal hearts; liver and heart have had total lipids decrease, while in placenta and fetal livers they were not observed significant differences.

  7. Effect of the ionizing radiation and aging time on total flavonoids contents in Brazilian sugarcane spirit composed with green propolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Antonio S.; Alencar, Severino M. de; Tiveron, Ana P.; Prado, Adna; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Veiga, Lucimara F. da; Aguiar, Claudio L. de; Baptista, Aparecido S.; Horii, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product from vegetable origin, but, this substance, in general, is collected in the beehives. This product is largely known because its heath benefit attributed to its biological properties. On the other hand, Brazilian sugarcane spirit, 'cachaca', is an interesting alcoholic beverage with an increasing importance in the segment in many markets in the world. Therefore, was evaluating the addition of the propolis into cachaca and the effect of ionizing radiation on propolis compounds with biological properties. Samples of cachaca with propolis used in irradiation experiments were prepared from cachaca (40 deg GL) composed with propolis (0.1%). Eight treatments, with four repetitions each, were considered in this study. Three doses of ionizing energy from electron beam and gamma radiation from 60 Co were applied on the cachaca samples, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy, with the goal to accelerate the aging time of the cachaca. The sugarcane spirits samples were storage during two periods (immediately after the radiation treatment and 30 months after the treatments) and their flavonoids contents were analyzed. Flavonoids contents in sugarcane spirit were statistically different between both storage time. The samples of cachaca treated with electron beam at 2.0 kGy presented the highest reduction in flavonoids contents, approximately 30.0 % in relation to the first analysis time. In conclusion, the time of storage to promote reduction on the flavonoids contents and the ionizing radiation also promoted reduction on the contents of these compounds, mainly in the first period of storage. (author)

  8. Effect of the ionizing radiation and aging time on total flavonoids contents in Brazilian sugarcane spirit composed with green propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Antonio S.; Alencar, Severino M. de; Tiveron, Ana P.; Prado, Adna; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Veiga, Lucimara F. da; Aguiar, Claudio L. de; Baptista, Aparecido S.; Horii, Jorge [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao], e-mail: asbaptis@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: alencar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: anptiver@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: adprado@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: kbergamas@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: lcfernan@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: claguiar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: pmatao@gmail.com, e-mail: jhorii@esalq.usp.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Propolis is a natural product from vegetable origin, but, this substance, in general, is collected in the beehives. This product is largely known because its heath benefit attributed to its biological properties. On the other hand, Brazilian sugarcane spirit, 'cachaca', is an interesting alcoholic beverage with an increasing importance in the segment in many markets in the world. Therefore, was evaluating the addition of the propolis into cachaca and the effect of ionizing radiation on propolis compounds with biological properties. Samples of cachaca with propolis used in irradiation experiments were prepared from cachaca (40 deg GL) composed with propolis (0.1%). Eight treatments, with four repetitions each, were considered in this study. Three doses of ionizing energy from electron beam and gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co were applied on the cachaca samples, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy, with the goal to accelerate the aging time of the cachaca. The sugarcane spirits samples were storage during two periods (immediately after the radiation treatment and 30 months after the treatments) and their flavonoids contents were analyzed. Flavonoids contents in sugarcane spirit were statistically different between both storage time. The samples of cachaca treated with electron beam at 2.0 kGy presented the highest reduction in flavonoids contents, approximately 30.0 % in relation to the first analysis time. In conclusion, the time of storage to promote reduction on the flavonoids contents and the ionizing radiation also promoted reduction on the contents of these compounds, mainly in the first period of storage. (author)

  9. Determination of total polyphenolic content in red wines by means of the combined He-Ne laser optothermal window and Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.

    2002-01-01

    The He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) and the concept of optothermal window (OW), a variant of the open photoacoustic cell, were combined with the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetry assay to quantitate phenolics in four red wines. The total polyphenolic content in selected red wines varied between 786 and 1630 mg/L

  10. Thiamin and riboflavin vitamers in human milk: effects of lipid-based nutrient supplementation and stage of lactation on vitamer secretion and contributions to total vitamin content

    Science.gov (United States)

    While thiamin and riboflavin in breast milk have been analyzed for over 50 years, less attention has been given to the different forms of each vitamin. Thiamin-monophosphate (TMP) and free thiamin contribute to total thiamin content; flavin adenine-dinucleotide (FAD) and free riboflavin are the main...

  11. Transient changes in milk production efficiency and bacterial community composition resulting from near-total exchange of ruminal contents between high- and low-efficiency Holstein cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if milk production efficiency (MPE) is altered by near-total exchange of ruminal contents between high- (HE) and low-MPE (LE) cows and to characterize ruminal bacterial community composition (BCC) prior to exchange and over time post-exchange. Three pai...

  12. Effect of climate change on phytochemical diversity, total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity of Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Yadav, Amita; Yadav, Manila; Yadav, Jaya Parkash

    2017-01-25

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of climate change on phytochemicals, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant potential of methanolic extracts of Aloe vera collected from different climatic zones of the India. Crude methanolic extracts of A. vera from the different states of India were screened for presence of various phytochemicals, total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content was tested by Folin-Ciocalteau reagent based assay whilst DPPH free radical scavenging assay, metal chelating assay, hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay, reducing power assay and β carotene-linoleic assay were used to assess the antioxidant potential of A. vera methanolic leaf extracts. Alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, and terpenes were the main phytochemicals presents in all accessions. A significant positive correlation was found between TPC and antioxidant activity of different accessions. Extracts of highland and semi-arid zones possessed maximum antioxidant potential. Accessions from tropical zones showed the least antioxidant activity in all assays. It could be concluded that different agro-climatic conditions have effects on the phytochemicals, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant potential of the A. vera plant. The results reveal that A. vera can be a potential source of novel natural antioxidant compounds.

  13. Molecular diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis: Does adjustment for total bacterial load or human cellular content improve diagnostic performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, E L; Garland, S M; Bradshaw, C S; Law, M G; Vodstrcil, L A; Hocking, J S; Fairley, C K; Tabrizi, S N

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the utility of quantitative PCR assays for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and found that while the best model utilized bacterial copy number adjusted for total bacterial load (sensitivity=98%, specificity=93%, AUC=0.95[95%CI=0.93,0.97]), adjusting for total bacterial or human cell load did not consistently increase the diagnostic performance of the assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of gravimetric, creamatocrit and esterified fatty acid methods for determination of total fat content in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jian; Gay, Melvin C L; Lai, Ching Tat; Trengove, Robert D; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2017-02-15

    The gravimetric method is considered the gold standard for measuring the fat content of human milk. However, it is labor intensive and requires large volumes of human milk. Other methods, such as creamatocrit and esterified fatty acid assay (EFA), have also been used widely in fat analysis. However, these methods have not been compared concurrently with the gravimetric method. Comparison of the three methods was conducted with human milk of varying fat content. Correlations between these methods were high (r(2)=0.99). Statistical differences (Pmethods. Overall, stronger correlation with lower mean (4.73g/L) and percentage differences (5.16%) was observed with the creamatocrit than the EFA method when compared to the gravimetric method. Furthermore, the ease of operation and real-time analysis make the creamatocrit method preferable. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Physicochemical characterization, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in 'Gala' apples subjected to different UV-C radiation doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Gabrielle Dias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-C radiation is a food preservation method aimed to extend the life of the product, inactivate microorganisms, and stimulate the synthesis of phenolic compounds. This study aimed to physicochemically characterize and evaluate the antioxidant activity and phenolic content of ‘Gala’ apples subjected to different UV-C radiation doses.The fruits were harvested, sanitized, selected and inserted into a UV-C radiation chamber, and different radiation doses were applied as follows:0 KJ m-2 (0 min., 0.68 KJ m-2 (2 minutes,2.73 KJ m-2 (4 minutes, and 4.10 KJ m-2 (6 minutes. The apples were stored for 120 days at 5 ± 1°C and analyzed after 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of storage. Radiation doses had no influence on parameters, such as weight loss, firmness and Hue angle, and physicochemical aspects, such as pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity and the soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio. The 4.10 KJ m-2 dose was effective and increased the phenolic content and antioxidant activity for up to 90 days while maintaining the content of vitamin C during storage.

  16. Changes in total lipids and fatty acid contents in sterilized flies of the onion bulb fly, Eumerus Amoenus loew (Diptera; Syrphidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souka, S.; Hegazy, R.A.; El-Saeadi, A.A.; Abdel-Salam, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The changes in total lipids and fatty acid composition of the 5 day-old adults sterilized as 5,6 and 7 day-old pupae, reared on onion, were determined. Females of E. Amoenus adults contained significantly higher (1.8 folds) total lipid than males. Percent reduction in lipid contents increased by sterilization. The relative abundance of the fatty acids C 16, C 18:1, C 18:2 and C 14 was similar in both sexes. The content of total saturated fatty acid decreased in males sterilized as pupae 5 and 6 day-old, however, different data were observed for those irradiated as 7 day-old pupae. 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Total fatty acid content of the plasma membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is more responsible for ethanol tolerance than the degree of unsaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Na-Rae; Choi, Wonja

    2011-03-01

    The effect of change in unsaturated fatty acid composition on ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae overexpressing ScOLE1 (∆9 fatty acid desaturase gene of S. cerevisiae), CaFAD2 (∆12 fatty acid desaturase gene of Candida albicans), or CaFAD3 (ω3 fatty acid desaturase gene of C. albicans) was examined. ScOLE1 over-expression increased the total unsaturated fatty acid content and enhanced ethanol tolerance, compared with a control strain. In contrast, overexpression of CaFAD2 and CaFAD3, which led to production of linoleic acid (18:2) and α-linolenic acid (18:3), respectively, neither changed total unsaturated fatty acids nor enhanced ethanol tolerance. The total unsaturated fatty acid content rather than the degree of unsaturation is thus an important factor for ethanol tolerance.

  18. Effects of Physically Effective Neutral Detergent Fiber Content on Intake, Digestibility, and Chewing Activity in Fattening Heifer Fed Total Mixed Ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Rae Oh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF content in total mixed ration (TMR on dry matter intake, digestibility, and chewing activity in fattening Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae heifers. The experiment was designed as a replicated 3×3 Latin square using 12 heifers. Fattening heifers were offered one of three diets [high (T1, medium (T2, and low (T3 peNDF] obtained by different mixing times (3, 10, and 25 min for the same TMR feed. The peNDF content of TMR was determined by multiplying the proportion of dry matter retained by a 1.18 mm-screen in a Penn State Particle Separator by the dietary NDF content. The peNDF1.18 content was 30.36%, 29.20%, and 27.50% for the T1, T2, and T3 diets, respectively (p<0.05. Dry matter intake was not affected by peNDF content in TMR. Total weight gain in T1 group was significantly higher (p<0.05 than in T2 and T3 groups. However, weight gain did not differ between T2 and T3 groups. The feed conversion ratio decreased with an increase in the peNDF content (T1: 12.18, T2: 14.17, and T3: 14.01 g/g. An increase in the peNDF content of TMR was associated with a linear increase in the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber (p<0.05. Also, an increase in peNDF content of the TMR resulted in a linear increase in the number of chews in eating and ruminating (p<0.05, and consequently in the number of total chews (p<0.05. These results indicate that peNDF content affects digestibility and chewing activity. Consequently, the peNDF content of TMR should be considered for improving feed efficiency, digestibility, body weight gain, and performance in fattening heifers.

  19. Two Methods of Determining Total Phenolic Content of Foods and Juices in a General, Organic, and Biological (GOB) Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Lee Alan; Leung, Sam H.; Puderbaugh, Amy; Angel, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    The determination of total phenolics in foods and fruit juices was used successfully as a laboratory experiment in our undergraduate general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry course. Two different colorimetric methods were used over three years and comparative student results indicate that a ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) indicator…

  20. Total phenol content of guava fruit and development of an in vitro regeneration protocol amenable to genetic improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total soluble phenolics in two white (‘Allahabad Safeda’ and ‘Lucknow-49’), two pink (‘Beaumont’ and ‘Gushiken Sweet’), and three red fleshed (‘Ka Hua Kola’, ‘Ruby Supreme’ and ‘Red Fleshed’) guava (Psidium guajava. L.) fruits were assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. ‘Allahabad Safeda’ and...

  1. Analysis of vanadium slags, roasted and leached products. Determination of contents of total vanadium, chromium, sodium, and soluble vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasek, Z.

    1975-01-01

    Accurate, rapid and simple methods were elaborated of determining total vanadium, chromium, and sodium in vanadium slags, and in roasted and leached products in one sample batch. The analysis was conducted in a teflon vial using inorganic acids. A method od determining soluble vanadium in similar materials was also elaborated and verified. (B.S.)

  2. Impaired glutathione synthesis in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gysin, René; Kraftsik, Rudolf; Sandell, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex multifactorial brain disorder with a genetic component. Convergent evidence has implicated oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) deficits in the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of the present study was to test whether schizophrenia is associated with a deficit...... of GSH synthesis. Cultured skin fibroblasts from schizophrenia patients and control subjects were challenged with oxidative stress, and parameters of the rate-limiting enzyme for the GSH synthesis, the glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), were measured. Stressed cells of patients had a 26% (P = 0.......002) decreased GCL activity as compared with controls. This reduction correlated with a 29% (P schizophrenia in two...

  3. NMR evaluation of total statin content and HMG-CoA reductase inhibition in red yeast rice (Monascus spp. food supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachenmeier Dirk W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red yeast rice (i.e., rice fermented with Monascus spp., as a food supplement, is claimed to be blood cholesterol-lowering. The red yeast rice constituent monacolin K, also known as lovastatin, is an inhibitor of the hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA reductase. This article aims to develop a sensitive nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR method to determine the total statin content of red yeast rice products. Methods The total statin content was determined by a 400 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopic method, based on the integration of the multiplet at δ 5.37-5.32 ppm of a hydrogen at the hexahydronaphthalene moiety in comparison to an external calibration with lovastatin. The activity of HMG-CoA reductase was measured by a commercial spectrophotometric assay kit. Results The NMR detection limit for total statins was 6 mg/L (equivalent to 0.3 mg/capsule, if two capsules are dissolved in 50 mL ethanol. The relative standard deviations were consistently lower than 11%. The total statin concentrations of five red yeast rice supplements were between 1.5 and 25.2 mg per specified daily dose. A dose-dependent inhibition of the HMG-CoA reductase enzyme activity by the red yeast rice products was demonstrated. Conclusion A simple and direct NMR assay was developed to determine the total statin content in red yeast rice. The assay can be applied for the determination of statin content for the regulatory control of red yeast rice products.

  4. Mitochondrial Swelling Induced by Glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehninger, Albert L.; Schneider, Marion

    1959-01-01

    Reduced glutathione, in concentrations approximating those occurring in intact rat liver, causes swelling of rat liver mitochondria in vitro which is different in kinetics and extent from that yielded by L-thyroxine. The effect is also given by cysteine, which is more active, and reduced coenzyme A, but not by L-ascorbate, cystine, or oxidized glutathione. The optimum pH is 6.5, whereas thyroxine-induced swelling is optimal at pH 7.5. The GSH-induced swelling is not inhibited by DNP or dicumarol, nor by high concentrations of sucrose, serum albumin, or polyvinylpyrrolidone, in contrast to thyroxine-induced swelling. ATP inhibits the GSH swelling, but ADP and AMP are ineffective. Mn-+ is a very potent inhibitor, but Mg++ is ineffective. Ethylenediaminetetraacetate is also an effective inhibitor of GSH-induced swelling. The respiratory inhibitors amytal and antimycin A do not inhibit the swelling action of GSH, but cyanide does; these findings are consistent with the view that the oxidation-reduction state of the respiratory chain between cytochrome c and oxygen is a determinant of GSH-induced swelling. Reversal of GSH-induced swelling by osmotic means or by ATP in KCl media could not be observed. Large losses of nucleotides and protein occur during the swelling by GSH, suggesting that the action is irreversible. The characteristically drastic swelling action of GSH could be prevented if L-thyroxine was also present in the medium. PMID:13630941

  5. Evaluation of free water and water activity measurements as functional alternatives to total moisture content in broiler excreta and litter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoeven-Hangoor, E; Rademaker, C J; Paton, N D; Verstegen, M W A; Hendriks, W H

    2014-07-01

    Litter moisture contents vary greatly between and within practical poultry barns. The current experiment was designed to measure the effects of 8 different dietary characteristics on litter and excreta moisture content. Additionally, free water content and water activity of the excreta and litter were evaluated as additional quality measures. The dietary treatments consisted of nonstarch polysaccharide content (NSP; corn vs. wheat), particle size of insoluble fiber (coarse vs. finely ground oat hulls), viscosity of a nonfermentable fiber (low- and high-viscosity carboxymethyl cellulose), inclusion of a clay mineral (sepiolite), and inclusion of a laxative electrolyte (MgSO4). The 8 treatments were randomly assigned to cages within blocks, resulting in 12 replicates per treatment with 6 birds per replicate. Limited effects of the dietary treatments were noted on excreta and litter water activity, and indications were observed that this measurement is limited in high-moisture samples. Increasing dietary NSP content by feeding a corn-based diet (low NSP) compared with a wheat-based diet (high NSP) increased water intake, excreta moisture and free water, and litter moisture content. Adding insoluble fibers to the wheat-based diet reduced excreta and litter moisture content, as well as litter water activity. Fine grinding of the oat hulls diminished the effect on litter moisture and water activity. However, excreta moisture and free water content were similar when fed finely or coarsely ground oat hulls. The effects of changing viscosity and adding a clay mineral or laxative deviated from results observed in previous studies. Findings of the current experiment indicate a potential for excreta free water measurement as an additional parameter to assess excreta quality besides total moisture. The exact implication of this parameter warrants further investigation. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Selenium concentrations and enzyme activities of glutathione metabolism in wild long-tailed ducks and common eiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Flint, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships of selenium (Se) concentrations in whole blood with plasma activities of total glutathione peroxidase, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were studied in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and common eiders (Somateria mollissima) sampled along the Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska, USA. Blood Se concentrations were >8 μg/g wet weight in both species. Linear regression revealed that the activities of total and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase were significantly related to Se concentrations only in long-tailed ducks, raising the possibility that these birds were experiencing early oxidative stress.

  7. Measurement of total electron content of midlatitude ionosphere and protonosphere via Faraday rotation and group relay techniques using transmission from geostationary satellites ATS-3 and ATS-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Measurement of integrated columnar electron content and total electron content for the local ionosphere and the overlying protonosphere via Faraday rotation and group delay techniques has proven very useful. A field station was established having the geographic location of 31.5 deg N latitude and 91.06 deg W longitude to accomplish these objectives. A polarimeter receiving system was set up in the beginning to measure the Faraday rotation of 137.35 MHz radio signal from geostationary satellite ATS 3 to yield the integrated columnar electron content of the local ionosphere. The measurement was continued regularly, and the analysis of the data thus collected provided a synopsis of the statistical variation of the ionosphere along with the transient variations that occurred during the periods of geomagnetic and other disturbances.

  8. Expression of Glutathione Peroxidase and Glutathione Reductase and Level of Free Radical Processes under Toxic Hepatitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Y. Iskusnykh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between intensity of free radical processes estimated by biochemiluminesce parameters, content of lipoperoxidation products, and changes of glutathione peroxidase (GP, EC 1.11.1.9 and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2 activities at rats liver injury, after 12, 36, 70, 96, 110, and 125 hours & tetrachloromethane administration have been investigated. The histological examination of the liver sections of rats showed that prominent hepatocytes with marked vacuolisation and inflammatory cells which were arranged around the necrotic tissue are more at 96 h after exposure to CCl4. Moreover maximum increase in GR and GP activities, 2.1 and 2.5 times, respectively, was observed at 96 h after exposure to CCl4, what coincided with the maximum of free radical oxidation processes. Using a combination of reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction, expression of the glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase genes (Gpx1 and Gsr was analyzed by the determination of their respective mRNAs in the rat liver tissue under toxic hepatitis conditions. The analyses of Gpx1 and Gsr expression revealed that the transcript levels increased in 2.5- and 3.0-folds, respectively. Western blot analysis revealed that the amounts of hepatic Gpx1 and Gsr proteins increased considerably after CCl4 administration. It can be proposed that the overexpression of these enzymes could be a mechanism of enhancement of hepatocytes tolerance to oxidative stress.

  9. Comparison of total polyphenols content and antioxidant potential of wines from ‘Welschriesling’ and ‘Sauvignon Blanc’ varieties during ageing on fine lees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Lužar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are key components of wine, since they contribute to wine characteristics such as colour, astringency and bitterness. They also act like antioxidants, with mechanisms involving free-radical scavenging that could prevent cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The aim of the present work was to compare the obtained results of total polyphenols content and antioxidant potential (AOP of several white wines (welschriesling and sauvignon blanc during ageing on fine lees. The total polyphenols content decreased in average for 16.1 % in welschriesling wines and for 18.7 % in sauvignon blanc wines in the period of three months of wine ageing on lees. In the same period AOP of wines decreased in average for 16.0 % in welschriesling wines and for 8.0 % in sauvignon blanc wines. Expectedly, the samples with added oak chips in grape must had higher antioxidant potential than others.

  10. Prophylactic action of Alpha-tocopherol against Gamma irradiation changes in total lipid and phospholipid contents of brain cerebral hemispheres in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdy, A M; Helen, N S; Roushdy, H M [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt)

    1987-12-31

    Male albino rats were intraperitoneally injected with Gamma tocopherol (vitamin E) at 10 mg/100 g animal body weight, 2 hr, before irradiation exposure. exposure. Rats were then exposed to a whole body dose of gamma irradiation at 7 Gy. Rats were sacrificed 1, 3, 7 and 10 days post irradiation. The two cerebral hemispheres were taken to determine the phospholipids and total lipid contents. whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 7 Gy caused a significant decrease in the levels of both phospholipids and total lipid contents in the cerebral hemispheres on the 3 rd, 7 Th, and 10 Th days post-irradiation, the decrease was insignificant on the 1 st day post exposure. The variations were less pronounced in rats treated with vitamin E. The results obtained were discussed in view of the relevant literature. 2 tabs.

  11. Expression of phytoene synthase1 and carotene desaturase crtI genes result in an increase in the total carotenoids content in transgenic elite wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Ling; Wang, Cheng; Chen, Ling; Liu, Huijuan; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2009-09-23

    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies, such as the lack of vitamin A, are a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Carotenoids in food can function as provitamin A in humans, while grains of Chinese elite wheat cultivars generally have low carotenoid contents. To increase the carotenoid contents in common wheat endosperm, transgenic wheat has been generated by expressing the maize y1 gene encoding phytoene synthase driven by a endosperm-specific 1Dx5 promoter in the elite wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety EM12, together with the bacterial phytoene desaturase crtI gene from Erwinia uredovora under the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter control. A clear increase of the carotenoid content was detected in the endosperms of transgenic wheat that visually showed a light yellow color. The total carotenoids content was increased up to 10.8-fold as compared with the nontransgenic EM12 cultivar. To test whether the variability of total carotenoid content in different transgenic lines was due to differences in the transgene copy number or expression pattern, Southern hybridization and semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analyses were curried out. The results showed that transgene copy numbers and transcript levels did not associate well with carotenoid contents. The expression patterns of endogenous carotenoid genes, such as the phytoene synthases and carotene desaturases, were also investigated in wild-type and transgenic wheat lines. No significant changes in expression levels of these genes were detected in the transgenic endosperms, indicating that the increase in carotenoid transgenic wheat endosperms resulted from the expression of transgenes.

  12. Determination of antioxidant activities, total phenolic and flavanoid contents in Bougainvillea glabra bracts at various methanol concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markandan, Shalini; Abdullah, Aminah; Musa, Khalid Hamid; Subramaniam, Vimala; Stockham, Katherine

    2016-11-01

    The Bougainvillea glabra bract was extracted using three ratios of methanolic solvents at 50%, 70% and 100%. In this study, the methanolic extracts of B. glabra bract were evaluated for antioxidant properties and quantification of phenolics and flavanoids. Methanol at 100% was the highest extraction efficiency among three other methanolic with yield value of 38%. The content of phenolics and flavonoids of B. glabra bracts in methanol 100% were 63.92±0.90 GAE mg/100g and 249.53±26.20 QE mg/100g respectively. The antioxidant activity was measured using three different bioassays namely, DPPH, ABTS and FRAP. The results were expressed as mg Trolox equivalent per 100 g where Trolox is a vitamin E analog. Among these methanol extracts, highest antioxidant capacity was observed in the pure methanol concentration. Positive correlation was observed in B. glabra bract between DPPH assay and TPC, r2=1.00. The methanol extract at 100% was rich in polyphenolics, which indicating that the B. glabra bract has the potential to be recommended as a good dietary source of natural antioxidants.

  13. Reduced glutathione and glutathione disulfide in the blood of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhen-Hua; Tian, Guo-Li; Huang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Yan-Min; Xu, Hong-Ping

    2017-07-20

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is commonly detected during mass screening for neonatal disease. We developed a method to measure reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for detecting G6PD deficiency. The concentration of GSH and the GSH/GSSG ratio in newborn dry-blood-spot (DBS) screening and in blood plus sodium citrate for test confirmation were examined by MS/MS using labeled glycine as an internal standard. G6PD-deficient newborns had a lower GSH content (242.9 ± 15.9 μmol/L)and GSH/GSSG ratio (14.9 ± 7.2) than neonatal controls (370.0 ± 53.2 μmol/L and 46.7 ± 19.6, respectively). Although the results showed a significance of P blood measured using MS/MS on the first day of sample preparation are consistent with G6PD activity and are helpful for diagnosing G6PD deficiency.

  14. Comparative Analysis of γ-Oryzanol, β-Glucan, Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Fermented Rice Bran of Different Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Dong Jung

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran, a by-product derived from processing rice, is a rich source of bioactive compounds. Recent studies have suggested that the fermentation can improve their biological activities. This study aimed to determined the level of γ-oryzanol, β-glucan and total phenol contents of fermented rice bran from 21 Korean varieties, as well as to evaluate their antioxidant activities. We also assessed the validation of the analytical method for determining γ-oryzanol content in fermented rice brans. Among the fermented rice brans, the Haedam rice bran contained the highest level of total phenol content (156.08 mg gallic acid equivalents/g, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (71.30% and ORAC (Oxygen radical absorbance capacity value (1101.31 μM trolox equivalents/g. Furthermore, the fermented Migwang rice bran showed the highest level of γ-oryzanol content (294.77 ± 6.74 mg/100 g.

  15. ESTIMATION OF pH, TOTAL ACID AND ETHANOL CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE ALCOHOL-CONTAINING MOUTHWASHES AND ITS EFFECT ON SALIVARY pH

    OpenAIRE

    Rafi Shaik; Sharath Pocha Reddy; Sameeulla Shaik; Sarah Emerald Sheela Nemalladinne; Dandu Sivasai Prasad Reddy; Kotu Nagavenkata Sai Praveen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Use of mouthwash has become widespread as a part of routine oral hygiene. Mouthwashes may have deleterious effects on oral tissues because of its low pH, high acid content and use of ethanol as an antiseptic agent. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional experimental study was conducted among 48 undergraduate dental students. Eight commercially available alcohol-containing mouthwashes, which are available in Indian market were selected for which the pH, total acid an...

  16. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents of n-butanol extract of Samanea saman leaf and the antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Wiwik Susanah; Swantara, I. Made Dira; Asih, I. A. Raka Astiti; Sinarsih, Ni Ketut; Suteja, I. Kadek Pater

    2016-03-01

    Total flavonoid and phenolic contents in some natural products was suspected of having a positive correlation to its activity in inhibiting the growth of bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the total flavonoid and phenolic contents of n-butanol extract of Samanea saman leaf, and to evaluate the antibacterial activity towards Escherechia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Extraction of compounds was done by ethanol 96%, followed by fractionation into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. Determination of total flavonoid and phenolic contents was done by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer using standard of quersetin and galic acid respectively. In addition, antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar disc diffusion method. Extraction of 1000 g of Samanea saman leaf was obtained 80 g of ethanol extracts, fractionation of the extract was obtained 8.02 g of n-hexane extracts, 7.11 g of ethyl acetate extracts, 13.5 g of n-butanol extracts, and 14.16 g of aqueous extracts. Phytochemical screening of the n-butanol extracts revealed the presence of flavonoid and phenolic compounds. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents were successively 43.5798 mg QE/100g and 34.0180 mg GAE/100g. The butanol extracts inhibited the growth of S.aureus higher than the growth of E.coli. At the concentration of 2, 4, 6, 8 % (b/v), and positive control (meropenem μg/disc), inhibition zone towards S. aureus was successively 5.67, 9.33, 10.33, 12.00, and 32.33 mm, while the inhibition zone towards E. coli was1.33, 3.33, 4.33, 5.43, and 34.00 mm.

  17. In vitro total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of essential oil, various organic extracts from the leaves of tropical medicinal plant Tetrastigma from Sabah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M Amzad; Shah, Muhammad Dawood; Gnanaraj, Charles; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2011-09-01

    To detect the in vitro total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of essential oil, various organic extracts from the leaves of tropical medicinal plant Tetrastigma from Sabah. The dry powder leaves of Tetrastigma were extracted with different organic solvent such as hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous methanol. The total phenolic and total flavonoids contents of the essential oil and various organic extracts such as hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous ethanol were determined by Folin - Ciocalteu method and the assayed antioxidant activity was determined in vitro models such as antioxidant capacity by radical scavenging activity using α, α-diphenyl- β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The total phenolic contents of the essential oil and different extracts as gallic acid equivalents were found to be highest in methanol extract (386.22 mg/g) followed by ethyl acetate (190.89 mg/g), chloroform (175.89 mg/g), hexane (173.44 mg/g), and butanol extract (131.72 mg/g) and the phenolic contents not detected in essential oil. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil and different extracts as ascorbic acid standard was in the order of methanol extract > ethyl acetate extract >chloroform> butanol > hexane extract also the antioxidant activity was not detected in essential oil. The findings show that the extent of antioxidant activity of the essential oil and all extracts are in accordance with the amount of phenolics present in that extract. Leaves of Tetrastigma being rich in phenolics may provide a good source of antioxidant. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Improved stress tolerance and productivity in transgenic rice plants constitutively expressing the Oryza sativa glutathione synthetase OsGS under paddy field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Im; Kim, Young-Saeng; Kim, Jin-Ju; Mok, Ji-Eun; Kim, Yul-Ho; Park, Hyang-Mi; Kim, Il-Sup; Yoon, Ho-Sung

    2017-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species, which increase under various environmental stresses, have deleterious effects on plants. An important antioxidant, glutathione, is used to detoxify reactive oxygen species in plant cells and is mainly produced by two enzymes: gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS) and glutathione synthetase (GS). To evaluate the functional roles of the glutathione synthetase gene (OsGS) in rice, we generated four independent transgenic rice plants (TG1-TG4) that overexpressed OsGS under the control of the constitutively expressed OsCc1 promoter. When grown under natural paddy field conditions, the TG rice plants exhibited greater growth development, higher chlorophyll content, and higher GSH/GSSH ratios than control wild-type (WT) rice plants. Subsequently, the TG rice plants enhanced redox homeostasis by preventing hydroperoxide-mediated membrane damage, which improved their adaptation to environmental stresses. As a result, TG rice plants improved rice grain yield and total biomass following increases in panicle number and number of spikelets per panicle, despite differences in climate during the cultivation periods of 2014 and 2015. Overall, our results indicate that OsGS overexpression improved redox homeostasis by enhancing the glutathione pool, which resulted in greater tolerance to environmental stresses in the paddy fields. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Effect of soy lecithin on total cholesterol content, fatty acid composition and carcass characteristics in the Longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers (Korean native cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang Zi; Park, Byung Ki; Hong, Byuong Chon; Ahn, Jun Sang; Shin, Jong Suh

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of soy lecithin on the total cholesterol content, the fatty acid composition and carcass characteristics in the Longissimus dorsi in Hanwoo steers. Hanwoo steers (24 head) were fed two diets: Control (CON) (concentrate + alcohol-fermented feed (AFF)) and soy lecithin treatment (CON + soy lecithin at 0.5% of the AFF). Soy lecithin treatment increased average daily gain, serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the blood. A lower cholesterol concentration was found in the Longissimus dorsi for the soy lecithin diet compared to the CON diet. With respect to the marbling score and quality grade of Longissimus dorsi, soy lecithin supplementation significantly increased the C20:5n3, C22:4 and polyunsaturated fatty acids contents compared to the CON diet. Soy lecithin supplementation would alter the total cholesterol content, polyunsaturated fatty acid profile and meat quality of Longissimus dorsi. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Evaluation of a semi-automated computer algorithm for measuring total fat and visceral fat content in lambs undergoing in vivo whole body computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Alana J; Scrivani, Peter V; Boisclair, Yves R; Reeves, Anthony P; Ramos-Nieves, Jose M; Xie, Yiting; Erb, Hollis N

    2017-10-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is a suitable tool for measuring body fat, since it is non-destructive and can be used to differentiate metabolically active visceral fat from total body fat. Whole body analysis of body fat is likely to be more accurate than single CT slice estimates of body fat. The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between semi-automated computer analysis of whole body volumetric CT data and conventional proximate (chemical) analysis of body fat in lambs. Data were collected prospectively from 12 lambs that underwent duplicate whole body CT, followed by slaughter and carcass analysis by dissection and chemical analysis. Agreement between methods for quantification of total and visceral fat was assessed by Bland-Altman plot analysis. The repeatability of CT was assessed for these measures using the mean difference of duplicated measures. When compared to chemical analysis, CT systematically underestimated total and visceral fat contents by more than 10% of the mean fat weight. Therefore, carcass analysis and semi-automated CT computer measurements were not interchangeable for quantifying body fat content without the use of a correction factor. CT acquisition was repeatable, with a mean difference of repeated measures being close to zero. Therefore, uncorrected whole body CT might have an application for assessment of relative changes in fat content, especially in growing lambs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Total IgE and eotaxin (CCL11) contents in tears of patients suffering from seasonal allergic conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eperon, Simone; Berguiga, Marouen; Ballabeni, Pierluigi; Guex-Crosier, Catherine; Guex-Crosier, Yan

    2014-09-01

    To prospectively investigate patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (SAC) during the pollen season and test associations between tears total IgE, eotaxin concentrations, and SAC severity. Enrolled patients presented ocular symptoms and clinical signs of SAC at the time of presentation. Ocular itching, hyperaemia, chemosis, eyelid swelling, and tearing were scored, and the sum of these scores was defined as the clinical score. Conjunctival papillae were separately graded. We measured eotaxin concentration in tears by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and total tear IgE by Lacrytest strip. Among thirty patients (30 eyes), 11 showed neither tear IgE nor tear eotaxin, while 15 out of 19 patients with positive IgE values presented a positive amount of eotaxin in their tears (Fisher's test: p tear IgE, we observed a lower conjunctival papilla grade than in patients whose tears contained some amount of IgE (trend test: p = 0.032). In the 15 patients whose tear eotaxin concentration was null, tear IgE concentration was 5.3 ± 3.5 arbitrary units; in the other 15 patients whose eotaxin was positive, IgE reached 21 ± 4.3 arbitrary U (Mann-Whitney: p tear IgE concentrations of both groups did not differ statistically significantly (p = 0.947). If IgE and eotaxin secreted in tears are major contributors in SAC pathogenesis, they however act at different steps of the process.

  2. The critical micelle concentration of lecithin in bulk oils and medium chain triacylglycerol is influenced by moisture content and total polar materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JiSu; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2018-09-30

    Effects of different moisture contents and oxidised compounds on the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of lecithin were determined in bulk oils and in medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT). CMC of lecithin in MCT was significantly higher than that in other vegetable oils including olive, soybean, corn, and rapeseed oils (p < 0.05). Presence of moisture significantly affected the CMC of lecithin in MCT (p < 0.05). CMC of lecithin was high when the moisture content was below 900 ppm, whereas at a moisture content of 1000 ppm, CMC of lecithin decreased significantly (p < 0.05), and then started to increase. Addition of total polar materials (TPM), which are oxidation products, at 3 and 5% concentrations, decreased CMC of lecithin significantly (p < 0.05) in MCT, compared to when 0, 1, and 1.5% of TPM was added to MCT. As the degree of oxidation increased in corn oil, CMC of lecithin gradually decreased. Additionally, under different moisture contents, corn oils showed a similar pattern of CMC of lecithin in MCT, whereas oxidised corn oil had a little lower CMC of lecithin than unoxidised corn oil. The results clearly showed that the concentration of lecithin for the formation of micelles is greatly influenced by the presence of oxidation products and the moisture content in bulk oils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlation Between Total Flavonoid Contents and Macrophage Phagocytosis Activity of Fractions From Faloak (Sterculia quadrifida R.Br. Barks Ethanolic Extract In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Munawaroh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available On Timor island, Nusa Tenggara Timur, faloak barks (Sterculia quadrifida R.Br. has been used empirically to restore stamina. Faloak bark ethanolic extract proved to have immunomodulatory activity in vitro, which can increase macrophage phagocytosis activity. This research aimed: (i to determine the immunomodulatory active fraction of faloak bark ethanolic extract, (ii to determine the total flavonoid contents of faloak extract and fractions, and (iii to evaluate the correlation of the total flavonoid contents of those extract and fractions with their macrophage phagocytosis activity. The simplisia powder is macerated with 96% ethanol. The extract was dissolved in methanol:water (9:1v/v was then subsequently partitioned with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and water to obtain n-hexane fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, water fraction, and insoluble fraction. Faloak extract and fractions at concentration 62,5; 125; 250; 500μg/mL were tested for their effect on the peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis of Balb/c mice in vitro by the latex beads method. Phagocytosis capacity and phagocytosis index were analyzed using one-way anova and post hoc Tukey HSD test with 95% confidence level. The results showed that ethyl acetate fraction had the highest macrophage phagocytosis capacity and the highest total flavonoid content compared to other fractions. The highest macrophage phagocytosis capacity of ethyl acetate fraction at concentration of 250 μg/mL was 51,94±4,67%, this value was significantly different from cell control (7,50±1,29%, negative controls of 0,0625% dimethylsulphoxide (6,25±0,36%, as well as positive control of 200 μg/mL echinaceae extract syrup® (9,97±0,33%. The total flavonoid content of ethyl acetate fraction determined by aluminum chloride method was 4,290±0.029 mg of quercetin equivalent/g fraction. There was a positive and strong correlation between the total flavonoid content of these extract and fractions with their macrophage

  4. Individual carotenoid content of SRM 1548 total diet and influence of storage temperature, lyophilization, and irradiation on dietary carotenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, N.E.; Wise, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    A modified version of the AOAC procedure for the extraction of carotenoids from mixed feeds was coupled with an isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) method to measure individual carotenoids in SRM 1548 total diet and in a high-carotenoid mixed diet (HCMD). The major carotenoids identified in SRM 1548 were lycopene, beta-carotene, lutein, alpha-carotene, and zeaxanthin in descending order of concentration. The concentration of all carotenoids in SRM 1548 decreased as storage temperature increased. Significant differences in carotenoid concentrations occurred between -80 and 4 degrees C storage temperatures. Lyophilization of the HCMD significantly decreased beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations and produced an apparent increase in xanthophyll concentrations. Exposure to gamma-irradiation significantly decreased alpha-carotene and beta-carotene concentrations and led to an apparent increase in P-cryptoxanthin. SRM 1548 was found to be unsuitable for use as a reference material for carotenoid measurements, while HCMD has greater potential as a reference material

  5. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content in Fruit Tissues from Accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero Pepper at Different Stages of Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth A. Castro-Concha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k’an-iik (orange and MR8H (red, at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC value of 55.59 μmols TE g−1 FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g−1 FW. The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities.

  6. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content in Fruit Tissues from Accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero Pepper) at Different Stages of Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyub-Che, Jemina; Moo-Mukul, Angel; Vazquez-Flota, Felipe A.; Miranda-Ham, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k'an-iik (orange) and MR8H (red), at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) value of 55.59 μmols TE g−1 FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g−1 FW). The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities. PMID:24683361

  7. Effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber content on dry matter intake, digestibility, and chewing activity in Korean native goats ( fed with total mixed ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Young Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was to determine proper physical traits in the diet for goats by investigating the effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF content on dry matter intake (DMI, digestibility, and chewing activity in black goats fed with total mixed ration (TMR. Methods Six growing wethers of Korean native black goats (Capra hircus coreanae aged 8 months and weighing between 26.9 kg and 27.1 kg (27.03±5.05 kg were used in this experiment. Three diets of varying peNDF content were obtained by original TMR (T1, 12,000 rpm grinding (T2, and 15,500 rpm grinding (T3 of the same TMR diet. The peNDF1.18 content of the experimental diets was 23.85%, 21.71%, and 16.22% for T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Results Average daily gain (ADG was higher in T2 group compared to those of the control and T3 groups, but ADG and DMI were not affected by the dietary particle size and peNDF content. Also, there was no difference between apparent nutrient digestibility of dry matter, crude fiber, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber. Although there was no significant difference, rumination and total chewing time were associated with decreased peNDF content. Conclusion The feeding of peNDF-based TMR showed no impact on apparent nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance. Further studies are required with a wider range of dietary peNDF level and particle size to better identify the effect of dietary peNDF and particle size on chewing activity and performance in goats.

  8. Antioxidant activity, the content of total phenols and flavonoids in the ethanol extracts of Mentha longifolia (L. Hudson dried by the use of different techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisavljević Dragana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have examined the yield of extracted substances obtained by means of extraction using 70 % ethanol (v/v, the content of total phenols and flavonoids, as well as the antioxidant activity of the extracts obtained from the samples of the herbs dried by means of different techniques. Wild mint Mentha longifolia (L. Hudson was dried naturally in a laboratory oven at a temperature of 45 °C and in an absorptive low temperature condensation oven at 35°C. The highest yield of extracts was obtained from the naturally dried herbs and the lowest from the herbs dried in the low temperature condensation drying oven. The content of total phenols and flavonoids was determined by spectrophotometric methods with an FC reagent and by the complexation reaction with aluminium-chloride, respectively. The extract of the naturally dried herbs had the highest overall content of phenols (113.8±2.0 mg of gallic acid/g of the dry extract and flavonoids (106.7±0.3 mg of rutin/g of the dry extract. The highest antioxidant activity determined by the FRAP and DPPH assay was determined in the extracts obtained from naturally dried herbs (2.76±0.15 mmol Fe2+/mg of the dry extract and EC50=0.022±0.001 mg/ml, while the lowest was obtained from the extracts of herbs dried in the laboratory oven (1.13±0.11 mmol Fe2+/mg of the dry extract and EC50=0.033±0.001 mg/ml. The HPLC-DAD analysis result show that the greatest content of phenolic compounds show extract obtained from naturally dried plant material. The dominant phenolic component in the all extracts is Kaempferol 3-O-glucoside. The content of all phenolic compound strongly depend on the drying conditions.

  9. Glutathione, cell proliferation and differentiation | Ashtiani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All organisms require an equivalent source for living. Reduced glutathione is the most abundant thiol containing protein in mammalian cells and organs. Glutathione was discovered by Hopkins in 1924 who published his findings in JBC. It is a three peptide containing glutamic acid, cystein and glycin and is found in reduced ...

  10. A study on the total phenols content and antioxidant activity of essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic plant Merremia borneensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amzad Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is planned to determine the antioxidant activity and total phenols content of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of the endemic plant Merremia borneensis. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were examined by three different methods, DPPH, β-carotene and reducing power assays. In all methods, aqueous ethanol extract exhibited a higher activity potential than that of other extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol and the essential oil. As assumed, the amount of total phenolics was very high in this extract. Chloroform extract has been found to be rich in flavonoids. A positive result was observed between the antioxidant activity potential and total flavonoid levels of the extracts.

  11. Novel determination of the total phenolic content in crude plant extracts by the use of 1H NMR of the -OH spectral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerantzaki, A.A.; Tsiafoulis, C.G.; Charisiadis, P.; Kontogianni, V.G.; Gerothanassis, I.P.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for the determination of the total phenolic content using 1 H NMR spectroscopy in the -OH spectral region is presented. The use of DMSO-d 6 , which is an aprotic and strongly hydrogen bonding solvent, allows the 'appearance' of the relative sharp resonances of phenolic hydroxyl protons in the region of 8-14 ppm. The determination of the total phenolic -OH content requires three steps: (i) a 1D 1 H NMR spectrum is obtained in DMSO-d 6 ; (ii) a subsequent 1D 1 H NMR spectrum is recorded with irradiation of the residual water signal which results in the elimination or reduction of the phenolic -OH groups, due to proton exchange; and (iii) 1D 1 H NMR spectra are recorded with the addition of a progressively increased amount of salt, NaHCO 3 , which results in extensive linebroadening of the COOH resonances thus allowing the discrimination of the phenolic from the carboxylic acid signals. Integration, with respect to the internal standard TSP-d 4 , of the signal resonances between 14 and 8 ppm in spectrum (i) which are either eliminated or reduced in intensity in steps (ii) and (iii) allows the quantitation of the total phenolic content. The method was applied to model compounds, a mixture of them and several extracts of natural products. The results of the proposed 1 H NMR method were compared to the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) reagent method. Additionally, since 1 H NMR refers to the total phenolic hydroxyl protons, a reaction factor, A e , is proposed that corresponds to the hydroxyl reactivity. The 1 H NMR method is rapid and accurate bearing the inherent advantages of the NMR spectroscopy and can be applied directly in complex extracts. Furthermore, it can be applied in a wide range of matrixes from crude plant extracts and food products to biological samples.

  12. Upregulation of cellular glutathione levels in human ABCB5- and murine Abcb5-transfected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Shingo; Hongama, Keita; Hanaya, Kengo; Yoshida, Ryota; Kawanobe, Takaaki; Katayama, Kazuhiro; Noguchi, Kohji; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2015-12-15

    Previously, we have demonstrated that human ABCB5 is a full-sized ATP-binding cassette transporter that shares strong homology with ABCB1/P-glycoprotein. ABCB5-transfected cells showed resistance to taxanes and anthracyclines. Herein, we further screened ABCB5 substrates, and explored the mechanism of resistance. Sensitivity of the cells to test compounds was evaluated using cell growth inhibition assay. Cellular levels of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), glutathione and amino acids were measured using HPLC and an enzyme-based assay. Cellular and vesicular transport of glutathione was evaluated by a radiolabeled substrate. Expression levels of glutathione-metabolizing enzymes were assessed by RT-PCR. Human ABCB5-transfected 293/B5-11 cells and murine Abcb5-transfected 293/mb5-8 cells showed 6.5- and 14-fold higher resistance to BSO than the mock-transfected 293/mock cells, respectively. BSO is an inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCL), which is a key enzyme of glutathione synthesis. 293/B5-11 and 293/mb5-8 cells also showed resistance to methionine sulfoximine, another GCL inhibitor. A cellular uptake experiment revealed that BSO accumulation in 293/B5-11 and 293/mb5-8 cells was similar to that in 293/mock cells, suggesting that BSO is not an ABCB5 substrate. The cellular glutathione content in 293/B5-11 and 293/mb5-8 cells was significantly higher than that in 293/mock cells. Evaluation of the BSO effect on the cellular glutathione content showed that compared with 293/mock cells the BSO concentration required for a 50 % reduction in glutathione content in 293/B5-11 and 293/mb5-8 cells was approximately 2- to 3-fold higher. This result suggests that the BSO resistance of the ABCB5- and Abcb5-transfected cells can be attributed to the reduced effect of BSO on the transfectants. Cellular and vesicular transport assays showed that the transport of radiolabeled glutathione in 293/B5-11 cells was similar to that in 293/mock cells. The mRNA expression of genes

  13. Total content and bioavailability of plant essential nutrients and heavy metals in top-soils of an industrialized area of Northwestern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouchas, Pantelis; Avramidis, Pavlos; Salachas, Georgios; Koulopoulos, Athanasios; Christodoulopoulou, Kyriaki; Liopa-Tsakalidi, Aglaia

    2017-04-01

    Thirty surface soil samples from northwestern Greece in the Ptolemais-Kozani basin, were collected and analyzed for their total content in thirteen elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) by ICP-AES and bioavailable content from a plant nutrition scope of view for (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Zn) by AAS and colorimetric techniques. Particle size distribution, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) and the magnetic susceptibility, in a low and a high frequency (at 47kHz and 0.47kHz), of soil samples were measured also in order to correlate the results. Total carbonates were tested by the pressure technique (BD Inventions, FOGII digital soil calcimeter). The concentrations of these elements were compared with international standards and guidelines. The results indicated that Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb are found enriched in the top soils of the study area, mainly as a consequence of natural processes from the surrounding rocks. Moreover, the bioavailability of some of these elements with a plant nutrition interest was tested and results indicate that they do not pose an immediate threat to the environment or crops as it all demonstrated values in an adequate range. Magnetic susceptibility in low and high frequency was correlated with clay content.

  14. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Types of Chocolate, Milk, Semisweet, Dark, and Soy, in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, and Cerebellum of Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Medeiros, Niara; Koslowsky Marder, Roberta; Farias Wohlenberg, Mariane; Funchal, Cláudia; Dani, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidation (carbonyl), sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings. PMID:26649198

  15. Effect of five year storage on total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of almond (Amygdalus communisL.) hull and shell from different genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi Dolatabadi, Khadijeh Sadat; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Hosseini, Siavash; Jahanban Esfahlan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Almond (Prunus amygdalus) hull and shell are agricultural by-products that are a source of phenolic compounds.The processing of almond produce shell and hull, accounts for more than 50% by dry weight of the almond fruits. Recently, more studies have focused on the influence of storage conditions and postharvest handling on the nutritional quality of fruits, especially the antioxidant phenolics. In this study, influence of long-term storage (five years) on the total phenolic and antioxidant capacity of almond hull and shell from different genotypes was evaluated. The fruits of subjected genotypes were collected and their hull and shell were separated. They were dried and reduced to fine powder. This powder stored at room temperature for five years. The total phenolic content (TPC) and bioactivities (antioxidant potential: DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging and reducing power) of extracts were evaluated using spectrophotometric methods. It was found that TPC content and bioactivity levels in the stored almond hull and shell were different, compared to the hulls and shells which were evaluated in 2007. S1-4 genotype had the highest TPC and reducing power in its hull and shell.Low correlation coefficient was observed between phenolic content and the DPPH radical scavenging percentage in hull and shell extract. For the first time, results of this investigation showed that storage can influence the antioxidant and antiradical potential of almond hull and shell.

  16. Effect of domestic processing on total and extractable calcium and zinc content of bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S K; Sehgal, S

    1999-01-01

    Bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum graecum) stored in polyethylene bags and without packaging for 24 or 48 hours in a refrigerator at 5 or 30 degrees C in polyethylene bags. The fresh leaves were also dried (oven and sun); blanched (5, 10 or 15 min) and cooked in an open pan and a pressure cooker. The processed leaves were analyzed for total and extractable calcium and zinc content. The Ca and Zn content of these leaves varied from 970 to 2230 and 10.50 to 12.30 mg/100 g DM and the percentage HCl-extractability was 80.34 to 83.04 and 82.43 to 83.90, respectively. Non significant effects of drying and storage were observed on total Ca and Zn content and HCl-extractability while blanching and cooking resulted in significant improvement of HCl-extractability of these two minerals. Thus, cooking and blanching are good ways to improve the HCl-extractability of Ca and Zn.

  17. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Types of Chocolate, Milk, Semisweet, Dark, and Soy, in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, and Cerebellum of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niara da Silva Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS, protein oxidation (carbonyl, sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings.

  18. Effect of five year storage on total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of almond (Amygdalus communisL. hull and shell from different genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Sadat Moosavi Dolatabadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Almond (Prunus amygdalus hull and shell are agricultural by-products that are a source of phenolic compounds.The processing of almond produce shell and hull, accounts for more than 50% by dry weight of the almond fruits. Recently, more studies have focused on the influence of storage conditions and postharvest handling on the nutritional quality of fruits, especially the antioxidant phenolics. In this study, influence of long-term storage (five years on the total phenolic and antioxidant capacity of almond hull and shell from different genotypes was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The fruits of subjected genotypes were collected and their hull and shell were separated. They were dried and reduced to fine powder. This powder stored at room temperature for five years. The total phenolic content (TPC and bioactivities (antioxidant potential: DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging and reducing power of extracts were evaluated using spectrophotometric methods. Results: It was found that TPC content and bioactivity levels in the stored almond hull and shell were different, compared to the hulls and shells which were evaluated in 2007. S1-4 genotype had the highest TPC and reducing power in its hull and shell.Low correlation coefficient was observed between phenolic content and the DPPH radical scavenging percentage in hull and shell extract. Conclusions: For the first time, results of this investigation showed that storage can influence the antioxidant and antiradical potential of almond hull and shell.

  19. Water contents of samples from the Nevada Test Site: total, free (natural state to 1050C), and more tightly bonded (105 to 7000C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawloski, G.A.

    1981-05-01

    To help confirm correct functioning of an epithermal neutron sonde, we measured tightly bonded water content of selected Nevada Test Site (NTS) drill holes. Tuff and alluvium samples were dried overnight at 105 0 C. The samples were then heated for 45 min in a split tube furnace at 700 0 C. The water that came off due to this heating was collected and the amount recorded. The error in this procedure is +- 0.59 wt %. Total water can be calculated for samples from analyses of free and tightly bonded water contents. The maximum error in this calculation is equivalent to the error in determining the more tightly bonded water. Average total water content values have been assigned to geologic units. These values, in weight fraction, are alluvium 0.14 +- .05 and tuff 0.19 +- .04. Further division of the tuff gives values of Rainier Mesa 0.15 +- .01, Paintbrush 0.18 +- .03, Tunnel Beds 0.20 +- .04, and Grouse Canyon 0.29 +- .02. Statistically significant differences occur between the tuff and alluvium. Within the tuffs, these differences also occur between Grouse Canyon, Rainier Mesa, and Paintbrush/Tunnel Beds. Paintbrush and Tunnel Beds cannot be distinguished by this method

  20. A regulatory review for products containing glutathione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hidayah Abd Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione is a potent antioxidant as well as has important role for DNA synthesis and repair, protein synthesis, amino acid transport, and enzyme activation. Besides this, Glutathione products are now mainly selling as whitening agent which are mainly marketing through social media (Facebook and different websites. Information is not available whether glutathione product are following the regulatory guidelines of National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau of Malaysia (NPCB for selling, advertisement and promotion. This review was carried out by extracting information about glutathione from scientific database using PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase. Analysis of the available information, case example of glutathione products showed that a brand of glutathione (Glutacaps HQ did not show the product's registration number from NPCB, and also did not show the name, address, contact number of the advertiser, and even not found the name of the manufacture. Without providing the above mentioned information, the product is selling and promoting through social media (fb which is not allowed by the NPCB guidelines part 4.14. So far, only two clinical trials were conducted on glutathione supplementation for 4 weeks duration. There was no serious or systematic adverse effects reported in clinical trials. As the two clinic trials resulted contradictory outcomes, further studies needed for conformation of the clinic benefits of glutathione. Otherwise, random use of glutathione may be risk for the health of the people. Besides, the marketer mainly promoting glutathione as the skin whitening beauty product instead of using as health supplement, it may cause additional and serious risk to the users as the manufacturer not providing sufficient information about the product, its registration number, manufacturing company, etc.

  1. Yi-gan san restores behavioral alterations and a decrease of brain glutathione level in a mouse model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinodan, Manabu; Yamauchi, Takahira; Tatsumi, Kouko; Okuda, Hiroaki; Noriyama, Yoshinobu; Sadamatsu, Miyuki; Kishimoto, Toshifumi; Wanaka, Akio

    2009-01-01

    The traditional Chinese herbal medicine yi-gan san has been used to cure neuropsychological disorders. Schizophrenia can be one of the target diseases of yi-gan san. We aimed at evaluating the possible use of yi-gan san in improving the schizophrenic symptoms of an animal model. Yi-gan san or distilled water was administered to mice born from pregnant mice injected with polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid or phosphate buffered saline. The former is a model of schizophrenia based on the epidemiological data that maternal infection leads to psychotic disorders including schizophrenia in the offspring. Prepulse inhibition and sensitivity to methamphetamine in open field tests were analyzed and the total glutathione content of whole brains was measured. Yi-gan san reversed the decrease in prepulse inhibition, hypersensitivity to methamphetamine and cognitive deficits found in the model mice to the level of control mice. Total glutathione content in whole brains was reduced in the model mice but was restored to normal levels by yi-gan san treatment. These results suggest that yi-gan san may have ameliorating effects on the pathological symptoms of schizophrenia.

  2. Yi-Gan San Restores Behavioral Alterations and a Decrease of Brain Glutathione Level in a Mouse Model of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Makinodan M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Chinese herbal medicine yi-gan san has been used to cure neuropsychological disorders. Schizophrenia can be one of the target diseases of yi-gan san. We aimed at evaluating the possible use of yi-gan san in improving the schizophrenic symptoms of an animal model. Yi-gan san or distilled water was administered to mice born from pregnant mice injected with polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid or phosphate buffered saline. The former is a model of schizophrenia based on the epidemiological data that maternal infection leads to psychotic disorders including schizophrenia in the offspring. Prepulse inhibition and sensitivity to methamphetamine in open field tests were analyzed and the total glutathione content of whole brains was measured. Yi-gan san reversed the decrease in prepulse inhibition, hypersensitivity to methamphetamine and cognitive deficits found in the model mice to the level of control mice. Total glutathione content in whole brains was reduced in the model mice but was restored to normal levels by yi-gan san treatment. These results suggest that yi-gan san may have ameliorating effects on the pathological symptoms of schizophrenia.

  3. Chromium in marine sediment samples from the Ria de Arousa (Galicia, NW of Spain): analysis of the total content in slurries by ETAAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazos-Capeans, P.; Barciela-Alonso, M.C.; Bermejo-Barrera, A.; Bermejo-Barrera, P.

    2004-01-01

    The study attempts to measure the total chromium content in sediments of all the Ria de Arousa (Galicia, NW Spain). The method was developed by analysing slurries by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The metal determination was carried out optimising the electrothermal programme and the concentration of magnesium nitrate as a chemical modifier. What was aimed to be achieved is a general explanation of the chromium content along the estuary because there could be a chromium sink in this marine environment. Results obtained were between 43.4±1.7 μg g -1 and 184.6±26.9 μg g -1 from the end of the Ulla river to the Atlantic Ocean, most of them higher than the background reference levels

  4. Chromium in marine sediment samples from the Ria de Arousa (Galicia, NW of Spain): analysis of the total content in slurries by ETAAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazos-Capeans, P.; Barciela-Alonso, M.C.; Bermejo-Barrera, A.; Bermejo-Barrera, P

    2004-10-25

    The study attempts to measure the total chromium content in sediments of all the Ria de Arousa (Galicia, NW Spain). The method was developed by analysing slurries by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The metal determination was carried out optimising the electrothermal programme and the concentration of magnesium nitrate as a chemical modifier. What was aimed to be achieved is a general explanation of the chromium content along the estuary because there could be a chromium sink in this marine environment. Results obtained were between 43.4{+-}1.7 {mu}g g{sup -1} and 184.6{+-}26.9 {mu}g g{sup -1} from the end of the Ulla river to the Atlantic Ocean, most of them higher than the background reference levels.

  5. From seed to cooked pasta: influence of traditional and non-conventional transformation processes on total antioxidant capacity and phenolic acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Daniela; Ciccoritti, Roberto; Nicoletti, Isabella; Nocente, Francesca; Corradini, Danilo; D'Egidio, Maria Grazia; Taddei, Federica

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the traditional with a non-conventional (i.e. kernel micronisation) durum wheat milling process by monitoring the content of bound, conjugated and free phenolic acids (PAs) and the level of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) occurring in the durum wheat pasta production chain, from seed to cooked pasta. The traditional transformation processes negatively influenced TAC and PA content (40% and 89% decrease from seed to cooked pasta, respectively), mainly during the milling process (25% and 84% decrease of TAC and PA, respectively), which has been related to the removal of external layers of kernels. Conversely, the micronisation applied on durum wheat kernels allowed to obtain whole-wheat pasta that preserved the seed endowment of antioxidant compounds even in cooked pasta. These results indicate the micronisation as a valuable approach to produce pasta with improved nutritional value and potential health-promoting effects compared to the traditional pasta.

  6. An analysis of sodium, total fat and saturated fat contents of packaged food products advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, L; Basch, C H; Ethan, D; Hammond, R; Chiazzese, K

    2014-08-01

    Americans' consumption of sodium, fat, and saturated fat exceed federally recommended limits for these nutrients and has been identified as a preventable leading cause of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. More than 40% of the Bronx population comprises African-Americans, who have increased risk and earlier onset of hypertension and are also genetically predisposed to salt-sensitive hypertension. This study analyzed nutrition information for packaged foods advertised in Bronx-based supermarket circulars. Federally recommended limits for sodium, saturated fat and total fat contents were used to identify foods that were high in these nutrients. The proportion of these products with respect to the total number of packaged foods was calculated. More than a third (35%) and almost a quarter (24%) of the 898 advertised packaged foods were high in saturated fat and sodium respectively. Such foods predominantly included processed meat and fish products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes. Dairy and egg products were the greatest contributors of high saturated fat. Pork and beef products, fast foods, meals, entrees and side dishes had the highest median values for sodium, total fat and saturated fat content. The high proportion of packaged foods that are high in sodium and/or saturated fat promoted through supermarket circulars highlights the need for nutrition education among consumers as well as collaborative public health measures by the food industry, community and government agencies to reduce the amounts of sodium and saturated fat in these products and limit the promotion of foods that are high in these nutrients.

  7. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) for Rapid Determination of Microbial Cell Lipid Content: Correlation with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan-Oropeza, Aaron; Rebois, Rolando; David, Michelle; Moussa, Fathi; Dazzi, Alexandre; Bleton, Jean; Virolle, Marie-Joelle; Deniset-Besseau, Ariane

    2017-10-01

    There is a growing interest worldwide for the production of renewable oil without mobilizing agriculture lands; fast and reliable methods are needed to identify highly oleaginous microorganisms of potential industrial interest. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relevance of attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy to achieve this goal. To do so, the total lipid content of lyophilized samples of five Streptomyces strains with varying lipid content was assessed with two classical quantitative but time-consuming methods, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ATR Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy in transmission mode with KBr pellets and the fast ATR method, often questioned for its lack of reliability. A linear correlation between these three methods was demonstrated allowing the establishment of equations to convert ATR values expressed as CO/amide I ratio, into micrograms of lipid per milligram of biomass. The ATR method proved to be as reliable and quantitative as the classical GC-MS and FT-IR in transmission mode methods but faster and more reproducible than the latter since it involves far less manipulation for sample preparation than the two others. Attenuated total reflection could be regarded as an efficient fast screening method to identify natural or genetically modified oleaginous microorganisms by the scientific community working in the field of bio-lipids.

  8. Vertical distribution of soil extractable organic C and N contents and total C and N stocks in 78-year-old tree plantations in subtropical Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqi; Dong, Haibo; Lan, Zhongming; Bacon, Gary; Hao, Yanbin; Chen, Chengrong

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have focused on the effects of long-term forest plantations on the soil profile of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks. In this study, we selected 78-year-old tree plantations that included three coniferous tree species (i.e., slash pine, hoop pine and kauri pine) and a Eucalyptus species in subtropical Australia. We measured soil extractable organic C (EOC) and N (EON) contents and total C and N stocks under different tree species on the forest floor and along a soil profile to 100 cm depth. The results showed that Eucalyptus had significantly higher soil EOC contents (3.3 Mg ha -1 ) than the other tree species (EOC of 1.9-2.3 Mg ha -1 ) and had significantly higher EON (156 kg ha -1 ) contents than slash pine (107 kg ha -1 ). Eucalyptus had significantly higher soil C (58.9 Mg ha -1 ) and N (2.03 Mg ha -1 ) stocks than the other tree species (22.3-27.6 Mg C ha -1 and 0.71-1.23 Mg N ha -1 ) at 0-100 cm depth. There were no differences in soil C stocks at the 0-100 cm depth among the coniferous tree species. Forest floor C stocks had stronger effects on mineral soil total N stocks than fine root biomass, whereas fine root biomass exerted stronger effects on soil total C stocks at the 0-100 cm depth than forest floor C and N stocks. Our results addressed large differences in soil C and N stocks under different tree species, which can provide useful information for local forest management practices in this region.

  9. A novel plant glutathione S-transferase/peroxidase suppresses Bax lethality in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampranis, S C; Damianova, R; Atallah, M

    2000-01-01

    The mammalian inducer of apoptosis Bax is lethal when expressed in yeast and plant cells. To identify potential inhibitors of Bax in plants we transformed yeast cells expressing Bax with a tomato cDNA library and we selected for cells surviving after the induction of Bax. This genetic screen allows...... for the identification of plant genes, which inhibit either directly or indirectly the lethal phenotype of Bax. Using this method a number of cDNA clones were isolated, the more potent of which encodes a protein homologous to the class theta glutathione S-transferases. This Bax-inhibiting (BI) protein was expressed...... in Escherichia coli and found to possess glutathione S-transferase (GST) and weak glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity. Expression of Bax in yeast decreases the intracellular levels of total glutathione, causes a substantial reduction of total cellular phospholipids, diminishes the mitochondrial membrane...

  10. Correction of glutathione metabolism in the liver of albino rats affected by low radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseenok, A.G.; Slyshenkov, V.S.; Khomich, T.I.; Zimatkina, T.I.; Kanunnikova, N.P.

    1997-01-01

    The levels of total glutathione GSH, GSSG and the activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were studied in the liver of adult albino rats subjected to 3-fold external γ-irradiation throughout 2 weeks at the overall dose of 0.75 Gy after 15 h, 2 and 5 days from the last irradiation. Some animals were injected intraperitoneally with the pantothenate containing complex > 3 times on days 1-3 before the irradiation. The radiation related decrease of GSH, GSH/GSSG and the total glutathione level was prevented by the prophylactic administration of the complex and probably at the expense of the activation of the G-SH biosynthesis and/or transport in the liver by the CoA biosynthetic precursor. (author)

  11. Glutathione protects liver and kidney tissue from cadmium- and lead-provoked lipid peroxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Jasmina M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cd and Pb represent a serious ecological problem due to their soluble nature, their mobility and ability to accumulate in the soil. The exposure to these heavy metals can originate from different sources (drinking water, food, air, and they can make their way into the human body through the respiratory and digestive system. We investigated the effects of glutathione on Cd and Pb accumulation and lipid peroxidation effects in the liver and kidneys of heavy metal intoxicated rats. The content of the marker of lipid peroxidation - malondialdehyde was increased several fold the in tissues of exposed animals, the effects being more pronounced in liver. The treatment of intoxicated animals with glutathione drastically suppressed lipid peroxidation. Our results imply that the application of glutathione may have protective role in heavy metal intoxication by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. However, precaution should be made when it comes to Cd, since it seems that glutathione promoted Cd accumulation in the liver.

  12. Determination of total polyphenolic content in red wines by means of the combined He-Ne laser optothermal window and Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetry assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dóka, Ottó; Bicanic, Dane

    2002-05-01

    The He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) and the concept of optothermal window (OW), a variant of the open photoacoustic cell, were combined with the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetry assay to quantitate phenolics in four red wines. The total polyphenolic content in selected red wines varied between 786 and 1630 mg/L gallic acid equivalent (GAE) as determined by OW-Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetry, which compares well to 778 and 1614 mg/L GAE obtained for the same wines by means of classical spectrophotometry. The originality and merit of OW colorimetry used here is that, unlike what is encountered in conventional spectrometry, no intermediate dilution step is required when total polyhenolics are determined in red wine. The precision, defined as the closeness to each other of 256 replicate readings of the OW signal, is generally better than 2%.

  13. Screening of Six Medicinal Plant Extracts Obtained by Two Conventional Methods and Supercritical CO₂ Extraction Targeted on Coumarin Content, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Radical Scavenging Capacity and Total Phenols Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Maja; Jerković, Igor; Suknović, Dragica; Bilić Rajs, Blanka; Aladić, Krunoslav; Šubarić, Drago; Jokić, Stela

    2017-02-24

    Six medicinal plants Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don, Angelica archangelica L., Lavandula officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Melilotus officinalis L., and Ruta graveolens L. were used. The aim of the study was to compare their extracts obtained by Soxhlet (hexane) extraction, maceration with ethanol (EtOH), and supercritical CO₂ extraction (SC-CO₂) targeted on coumarin content (by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, HPLC-UV), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging capacity, and total phenols (TPs) content (by Folin-Ciocalteu assay). The highest extraction yields were obtained by EtOH, followed by hexane and SC-CO₂. The highest coumarin content (316.37 mg/100 g) was found in M. officinalis EtOH extracts, but its SC-CO₂ extraction yield was very low for further investigation. Coumarin was also found in SC-CO₂ extracts of S. officinalis , R. graveolens , A. archangelica , and L. officinalis . EtOH extracts of all plants exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging capacity. SC-CO₂ extracts exhibited antiradical capacity similar to hexane extracts, while S. officinalis SC-CO₂ extracts were the most potent (95.7%). EtOH extracts contained the most TPs (up to 132.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g from H. italicum ) in comparison to hexane or SC-CO₂ extracts. TPs content was highly correlated to the DPPH scavenging capacity of the extracts. The results indicate that for comprehensive screening of different medicinal plants, various extraction techniques should be used in order to get a better insight into their components content or antiradical capacity.

  14. Screening of Six Medicinal Plant Extracts Obtained by Two Conventional Methods and Supercritical CO2 Extraction Targeted on Coumarin Content, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Radical Scavenging Capacity and Total Phenols Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Molnar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Six medicinal plants Helichrysum italicum (Roth G. Don, Angelica archangelica L., Lavandula officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Melilotus officinalis L., and Ruta graveolens L. were used. The aim of the study was to compare their extracts obtained by Soxhlet (hexane extraction, maceration with ethanol (EtOH, and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2 targeted on coumarin content (by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, HPLC-UV, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH scavenging capacity, and total phenols (TPs content (by Folin–Ciocalteu assay. The highest extraction yields were obtained by EtOH, followed by hexane and SC-CO2. The highest coumarin content (316.37 mg/100 g was found in M. officinalis EtOH extracts, but its SC-CO2 extraction yield was very low for further investigation. Coumarin was also found in SC-CO2 extracts of S. officinalis, R. graveolens, A. archangelica, and L. officinalis. EtOH extracts of all plants exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging capacity. SC-CO2 extracts exhibited antiradical capacity similar to hexane extracts, while S. officinalis SC-CO2 extracts were the most potent (95.7%. EtOH extracts contained the most TPs (up to 132.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g from H. italicum in comparison to hexane or SC-CO2 extracts. TPs content was highly correlated to the DPPH scavenging capacity of the extracts. The results indicate that for comprehensive screening of different medicinal plants, various extraction techniques should be used in order to get a better insight into their components content or antiradical capacity.

  15. Glutathione in Cancer Cell Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Angel L. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, 17 Av. Blasco Ibanez, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Mena, Salvador [Green Molecular SL, Pol. Ind. La Coma-Parc Cientific, 46190 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Estrela, Jose M., E-mail: jose.m.estrela@uv.es [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, 17 Av. Blasco Ibanez, 46010 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-03-11

    Glutathione (L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) in cancer cells is particularly relevant in the regulation of carcinogenic mechanisms; sensitivity against cytotoxic drugs, ionizing radiations, and some cytokines; DNA synthesis; and cell proliferation and death. The intracellular thiol redox state (controlled by GSH) is one of the endogenous effectors involved in regulating the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex and, in consequence, thiol oxidation can be a causal factor in the mitochondrion-based mechanism that leads to cell death. Nevertheless GSH depletion is a common feature not only of apoptosis but also of other types of cell death. Indeed rates of GSH synthesis and fluxes regulate its levels in cellular compartments, and potentially influence switches among different mechanisms of death. How changes in gene expression, post-translational modifications of proteins, and signaling cascades are implicated will be discussed. Furthermore, this review will finally analyze whether GSH depletion may facilitate cancer cell death under in vivo conditions, and how this can be applied to cancer therapy.

  16. Effects of long-term Salix cultivation on total and plant-available contents of Cadmium in the soil - a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Jan; Ledin, S.

    1996-02-01

    The aim of the project was to study how total and plant-available contents of Cadmium in the soil are affected by the large amounts of Cadmium that are removed during the harvesting of Salix. Eight long-term Salix plantations, 8-30 years old, were chosen. At each place soil samples were taken in 4 areas in the stands of Salix and in 4 neighbouring areas with comparable soil conditions, but without Salix (reference areas). Cd in three fractions of different bonding strength were determined in the soil samples. The fractions roughly correspond to the total concentration, the exchangeable fraction, and the fraction dissolved in the soil solution. The result showed a relatively minor effect of the Salix plantation on the total concentrations. In six of eight cases, however, the concentrations tended to be lower in the Salix plantations than in the reference areas. When consideration was given to certain pH differences, the exchangeable, and particularly the most soluble fraction, showed a clear tendency for concentrations to be lower in the Salix stands than in the reference areas.The concentrations in stem samples from growing stands were generally lower than those measured in harvest-mature stems in other studies. The concentrations in foliage were of the same magnitude as those in the stems, implying that there is an important return of Cd to the soil at leaf-fall. The negligible effect on the total content in the soil may depend on uptake occurring both in the topsoil and in the subsoil. Re-circulation via the leaves will also result in redistribution of Cd from the subsoil to the topsoil, compensating the uptake from the topsoil. The conclusion reached was that Salix cultivation results in a reduction of the plant-available Cd in the soil, but the effect is not concentrated to the topsoil. 13 refs, 5 tabs, 4 figs

  17. Effects of elevated root zone CO2 and air temperature on photosynthetic gas exchange, nitrate uptake, and total reduced nitrogen content in aeroponically grown lettuce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Austin, Paul T; Lee, Sing Kong

    2010-09-01

    Effects of elevated root zone (RZ) CO(2) and air temperature on photosynthesis, productivity, nitrate (NO(3)(-)), and total reduced nitrogen (N) content in aeroponically grown lettuce plants were studied. Three weeks after transplanting, four different RZ [CO(2)] concentrations [ambient (360 ppm) and elevated concentrations of 2000, 10,000, and 50,000 ppm] were imposed on plants grown at two air temperature regimes of 28 degrees C/22 degrees C (day/night) and 36 degrees C/30 degrees C. Photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) increased with increasing photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). When grown at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C, all plants accumulated more biomass than at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C. When measured under a PAR >or=600 micromol m(-2) s(-1), elevated RZ [CO(2)] resulted in significantly higher A, lower g(s), and higher midday leaf relative water content in all plants. Under elevated RZ [CO(2)], the increase of biomass was greater in roots than in shoots, causing a lower shoot/root ratio. The percentage increase in growth under elevated RZ [CO(2)] was greater at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C although the total biomass was higher at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C. NO(3)(-) and total reduced N concentrations of shoot and root were significantly higher in all plants under elevated RZ [CO(2)] than under ambient RZ [CO(2)] of 360 ppm at both temperature regimes. At each RZ [CO(2)], NO(3)(-) and total reduced N concentration of shoots were greater at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C than at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C. At all RZ [CO(2)], roots of plants at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C had significantly higher NO(3)(-) and total reduced N concentrations than at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C. Since increased RZ [CO(2)] caused partial stomatal closure, maximal A and maximal g(s) were negatively correlated, with a unique relationship for each air temperature. However, across all RZ [CO(2)] and temperature treatments, there was a close correlation between

  18. An in vitro analysis of the total phenolic content, antioxidant power, physical, physicochemical, and chemical composition of Terminalia Catappa Linn fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigues Marques

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the antioxidant, total phenolic, and physicochemical properties of in vitro Terminalia Catappa Linn (locally called castanhola using the DPPH assay. The castanhola fruits had an average weight of 19.60 ± 0.00 g, combining shell, pulp, and seed weight, and a soluble solids content of 8 °Brix. The chemical composition was determined with predominance of carbohydrates (76,88 ± 0,58%.The titration method was used to determine Vitamin C content using 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCFI, known as reactive Tillmans resulting in no significant levels. Aqueous extracts of castanhola pulp showed a higher concentration of phenolics, 244.33 ± 18.86 GAE.g-1 of fruit, and alcoholic extracts, 142.84 ± 2.09 GAE.g-1 of fruit. EC50 values of the aqueous extract showed a greater ability to scavenge free radicals than the alcoholic extracts. The fruit had a significant content of phenolic compounds and high antioxidant capacity.

  19. Effect of humic acid on the growth, yield, nutrient composition, photosynthetic pigment and total sugar contents of peas (pisum sativum l)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Khan, M.Z.; Hussain, F.; Akhtar, M.E.; Gurmani, A.R.; Khan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of humic acid (HA) applied as soil and foliar at 15, 30 and 45 ppm on the growth, biochemical content, nutrient concentrations and yield of peas. Soil as well as foliar application of HA increased the plant growth and grain yield of peas; however magnitude of increase was higher in soil application than foliar. Highest plant growth and grain yield was achieved with soil application of 15 ppm HA followed by 30 ppm and foliar application of 45 ppm HA respectively. Percentage increase in dry grain yield due to 15 ppm was 37%, with 30 ppm was 29% and foliar application of 45 ppm was 25%. Nutrient concentrations (P, K, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) were increased with soil and foliar application of HA. The concentrations of nutrients were relatively higher in shelf than grain. Maximum concentration of P, K and Fe was obtained with the soil application of HA at 15 ppm. Humic acid applied at 15, 30 as soil as well as foliar application at 45 ppm significantly increased chlorophyll, carotenoid and total sugar content. Our results indicate that soil application of HA at 15 and 30 ppm, while foliar application at 45 ppm can increase growth, nutrients concentration, chlorophyll content and yield of Peas in calcareous soil conditions. (author)

  20. Building global models for fat and total protein content in raw milk based on historical spectroscopic data in the visible and short-wave near infrared range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenteva, Anastasiia; Galyanin, Vladislav; Savenkova, Elena; Bogomolov, Andrey

    2016-07-15

    A large set of fresh cow milk samples collected from many suppliers over a large geographical area in Russia during a year has been analyzed by optical spectroscopy in the range 400-1100 nm in accordance with previously developed scatter-based technique. The global (i.e. resistant to seasonal, genetic, regional and other variations of the milk composition) models for fat and total protein content, which were built using partial least-squares (PLS) regression, exhibit satisfactory prediction performances enabling their practical application in the dairy. The root mean-square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were 0.09 and 0.10 for fat and total protein content, respectively. The issues of raw milk analysis and multivariate modelling based on the historical spectroscopic data have been considered and approaches to the creation of global models and their transfer between the instruments have been proposed. Availability of global models should significantly facilitate the dissemination of optical spectroscopic methods for the laboratory and in-line quantitative milk analysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Olive Oil Total Phenolic Contents and Sensory Sensations Trends during Oven and Microwave Heating Processes and Their Discrimination Using an Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Prata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil has unique organoleptic attributes and its consumption is associated with nutritional and health benefits, which are mainly related to its rich composition in phenolic and volatile compounds. The use of olive oil in heat-induced cooking leads to deep reduction of phenolic and volatile concentrations and to changes of the sensory profiles. This work confirmed that oven and microwave heating significantly reduced total phenolic contents (P value < 0.0001, one-way ANOVA, more pronounced in the latter, together with a significant reduction of the intensity of fruity, sweet, bitter, pungent, and green attributes (P value < 0.0001, Kruskal-Wallis test, particularly for fruity and green sensations. Besides, bitter, fruity, green, and pungent intensities showed a linear dependency with the total phenolic contents (0.8075≤R-Pearson ≤ 0.9694. Finally, the potentiometric electronic tongue together with linear discriminant analysis-simulated annealing algorithm allowed satisfactory discrimination (sensitivities of 94±4%, for repeated K-fold cross-validation of olive oils subjected to intense microwave heating (5–10 min, 160–205°C from those processed under usual cooking conditions (oven heating during 15–60 min or microwave heating during 1.5–3 min, 72–165°C. This could be due to the different responses of the electronic tongue towards olive oils with diverse phenolic and sensory profiles.

  2. Chemical composition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of crude extracts from red chilli seeds (Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Gurnani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of present study were to assess the antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of Capsicum frutescens L. seeds and to characterize the chemical constituents of the crude extracts. The n-hexane and chloroform extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS, which showed the presence of many biologically important volatile constituents, including heterocyclic compounds, β-diketones, hydrocarbons, long chain aliphatic carboxylic acids, and their derivatives, such as esters, hydroxy ester, and aromatic compounds. The amounts of the total phenolic content and the total flavonoid content in same the extracts were in the ranges of 7.95–26.15 gallic acid equivalents (GAE mg/g and 4.64–12.84 rutin equivalents (RU mg/g of dry weight of extract, respectively. In the determination of the in vitro antimicrobial activity, seed extracts prevented the growth of most of the tested pathogens by forming significant inhibition zones. The inhibitory activity was especially remarkable (inhibition zone ≥ 13 mm against Pesudomaonas aeruginosa, Klebsilla pneumonae, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. During the evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activity via DPPH assay, n-hexane and chloroform extracts showed 26.9% and 30.9% free radical scavenging abilities, respectively, at the concentration of 1 mg/mL. Considering these results, C. frutescens seeds can be used as a source of novel antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds.

  3. Total Phenol Content and In Vitro Antioxidant Potential of Helicanthus elastica (Desr. Danser-A Less-explored Indian Mango Mistletoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppala Narayana Sunil Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are an important source of antioxidant molecules like tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, etc., Helicanthus elastica (Desr. Danser (Loranthaceae is one such plant belonging to the category of mistletoe, and grows commonly on the mango trees in India. In the present study, an attempt has been made to assess the antioxidant properties of the plant. Ethanol extract of H. elastica growing on mango tree was studied using different in vitro models. Shade-dried whole plant material was extracted with ethanol by cold percolation. Fifty milligrams of the alcohol extract of H. elastica was weighed and dissolved in 10 ml of methanol. The resultant 5 mg/ml solution was suitably diluted to obtain different concentrations. Total phenol content, reducing power assay, and scavenging of free radicals like nitric oxide, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl were studied by standardized in vitro chemical methods using ascorbic acid as the standard. The total phenol content of the plant was found to be 1.89% w/w. The extract showed good reducing power as well as scavenging of free radicals (nitric oxide, hydroxyl, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide at concentrations ranging from 5 to 100 μg/ml. The study revealed the antioxidant potential of H. elastica.

  4. Seasonal determination of trace and ultra-trace content in Macrocystis pyrifera from San Jorge Gulf (Patagonia) by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Vanesa N.; Riera, Marina; Cerchietti, Luciana; Custo, Graciela; Muniain, Claudia

    2017-05-01

    Seaweed have a great capacity to accumulate heavy metals in their tissues. The chemical characterization of seaweed is important due to their use in environmental monitoring and human or animal food. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the multi-elemental composition of seaweed from San Jorge Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina) by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF). The elements As, Br, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V and Zn were seasonally analyzed and quantified in blades of Macrocystis pyrifera. TXRF showed to be a suitable technique for simultaneous multi-element analysis in this kind of samples. The results revealed seasonal variations in the chemical content for some elements; arsenic content was maximum in summer and autumn, iron concentration increased to the winter and zinc concentration was maximum in autumn. The sum of principal micronutrients (Fe + Zn + Mn + Cu) varied between 114 and 171 mg k- 1 g dw. The total As concentration ranged between 36 and 66 mg kg- 1. Lead, nickel and copper were not detected.

  5. [Prediction of total nitrogen and alkali hydrolysable nitrogen content in loess using hyperspectral data based on correlation analysis and partial least squares regression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu-ying; Wang, Li; Chang, Qing-rui; Wang, Xiao-xing; Shang, Yan

    2015-07-01

    Wuqi County of Shaanxi Province, where the vegetation recovering measures have been carried out for years, was taken as the study area. A total of 100 loess samples from 24 different profiles were collected. Total nitrogen (TN) and alkali hydrolysable nitrogen (AHN) contents of the soil samples were analyzed, and the soil samples were scanned in the visible/near-infrared (VNIR) region of 350-2500 nm in the laboratory. The calibration models were developed between TN and AHN contents and VNIR values based on correlation analysis (CA) and partial least squares regression (PLS). Independent samples validated the calibration models. The results indicated that the optimum model for predicting TN of loess was established by using first derivative of reflectance. The best model for predicting AHN of loess was established by using normal derivative spectra. The optimum TN model could effectively predict TN in loess from 0 to 40 cm, but the optimum AHN model could only roughly predict AHN at the same depth. This study provided a good method for rapidly predicting TN of loess where vegetation recovering measures have been adopted, but prediction of AHN needs to be further studied.

  6. The depletion of nuclear glutathione impairs cell proliferation in 3t3 fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Markovic

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione is considered essential for survival in mammalian cells and yeast but not in prokaryotic cells. The presence of a nuclear pool of glutathione has been demonstrated but its role in cellular proliferation and differentiation is still a matter of debate.We have studied proliferation of 3T3 fibroblasts for a period of 5 days. Cells were treated with two well known depleting agents, diethyl maleate (DEM and buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, and the cellular and nuclear glutathione levels were assessed by analytical and confocal microscopic techniques, respectively. Both agents decreased total cellular glutathione although depletion by BSO was more sustained. However, the nuclear glutathione pool resisted depletion by BSO but not with DEM. Interestingly, cell proliferation was impaired by DEM, but not by BSO. Treating the cells simultaneously with DEM and with glutathione ethyl ester to restore intracellular GSH levels completely prevented the effects of DEM on cell proliferation.Our results demonstrate the importance of nuclear glutathione in the control of cell proliferation in 3T3 fibroblasts and suggest that a reduced nuclear environment is necessary for cells to progress in the cell cycle.

  7. CHANGES IN THE GLUTATHIONE SYSTEM IN P19 EMBRYONAL CARCINOMA CELLS UNDER HYPOXIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Orlov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to modern perceptions, tumor growth, along with oxidative stress formation, is accompanied by hypoxia. Nowadays studying the regulation of cellular molecular system functioning by conformational changes in proteins appears to be a topical issue. Research goal was to evaluate the state of the glutathione system and the level of protein glutathionylation in P19 embryonal carcinoma (EC cells under hypoxic conditions.Material and methods. P19 EC cells (mouse embryonal carcinoma cultured under normoxic and hypox-ic conditions served the research material.The concentration of total, oxidized, reduced and protein-bound glutathione, the reduced to oxidized thiol ratio as well as glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity were determined by spectropho-tometry.Results. Glutathione imbalance was accompanied by a decrease in P19 EC cell redox status under hypox-ic conditions against the backdrop of a rise in protein-bound glutathione.Conclusions. As a result of the conducted study oxidative stress formation was identified when modeling hypoxia in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. The rise in the concentration of protein-bound glutathione may indicate the role of protein glutathionylation in regulation of P19 cell metabolism and functions un-der hypoxia. 

  8. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamate, Wasim Ismail; Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester , third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third trimester and postpartum period. These

  9. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. Aim The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. Materials and Methods A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Results Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third

  10. Measurement of glutathione-protein mixed disulfides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesey, J.C.; Reed, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a sensitive and highly specific assay for the presence of mixed disulfides between protein thiol groups and endogenous thiols has been undertaken. Previous investigations on the concentrations of glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and protein glutathione mixed disulfides (ProSSG) have been of limited usefulness because of the poor specificity of the assays used. Our assay for these forms of glutathione is based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and is an extension of an earlier method. After perchloric acid precipitation, the protein sample is washed with an organic solvent to fully denature the protein. Up to a 10-fold increase in GSH released from fetal bovine serum (FBS) protein has been found when the protein precipitate is washed with ethanol rather than ether, as earlier suggested. Similar effects have been observed with an as yet unidentified thiol which elutes in the chromatography system with a retention volume similar to cysteine

  11. Diversidad genética y contenido de carotenos totales en accesiones de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz Genetic diversity and total carotene content in accessions of the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cruz Morillo C.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz es un arbusto perenne cultivado en África, América Latina y el Sureste asiático, cuya raíz constituye una fuente importante de energía en la dieta humana en países tropicales. Los carotenoides son pigmentos naturales que se encuentran ampliamente distribuidos en la naturaleza. Se reconoce que aproximadamente cincuenta de ellos tienen actividad provitamina A, siendo b-caroteno el de mayor eficiencia para su conversión en vitamina A. El estudio de la variabilidad genética es un procedimiento útil para fortificar, enriquecer o incrementar el contenido de nutrientes de los alimentos o cultivos, entre ellos los carotenos en raíz de yuca mediante procesos de selección y recombinación en programas de mejoramiento que permitan identificar genotipos superiores. En el presente estudio, a partir de la evaluación de la diversidad genética, se generó un dendrograma de accesiones de yuca en el cual se formaron seis grupos con 68% de similitud. La heterocigosidad promedio observada fue de Ht = 0.559. Los análisis de regresión y correlación entre el contenido de carotenos totales y los datos moleculares mostraron que los marcadores que se encuentran correlacionados con altos contenidos de carotenos pertenecen al grupo de ligamiento D del mapa molecular de yuca.Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz is a perennial shrub cultivated in Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia. It is an important dietary source for humans in tropical countries. Carotenoids are natural pigments that are widely distributed in the nature, where about 50 of them have provitamin A activity, b-carotene has been the most efficient. Among the procedures to fortify (enrich or increase the nutritional content of foods or crops cassava varieties, the study of genetic variability of the content of carotenoids in the root is one of the most common to carried out processes of selection and recombination in the breeding program which will allow the

  12. Glutathione Metabolism and Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Smeyne, Michelle; Smeyne, Richard Jay

    2013-01-01

    It has been established that oxidative stress, defined as the condition when the sum of free radicals in a cell exceeds the antioxidant capacity of the cell, contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Glutathione is a ubiquitous thiol tripeptide that acts alone, or in concert with enzymes within cells to reduce superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrites. In this review, we examine the synthesis, metabolism and functional interactions of glutathione, and discuss how...

  13. Glutathione preservation during storage of rat lenses in optisol-GS and castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Thomas; Brøgger-Jensen, Martin Rocho; Johnson, Leif; Kessel, Line

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione concentration in the lens decreases in aging and cataractous lenses, providing a marker for tissue condition. Experimental procedures requiring unfrozen lenses from donor banks rely on transportation in storage medium, affecting lens homeostasis and alterations in glutathione levels. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Optisol-GS and castor oil on lens condition, determined from their ability to maintain glutathione concentrations. Rat lenses were stored in the two types of storage media at varying time intervals up to 3 days. Glutathione concentration was afterwards determined in an enzymatic detection assay, specific for both reduced and oxidized forms. Lenses removed immediately after death exhibited a glutathione concentration of 4.70±0.29 mM. In vitro stored lenses in Optisol-GS lost glutathione quickly, ending with a concentration of 0.60±0.34 mM after 3 days while castor oil stored lenses exhibited a slower decline and ended at 3 times the concentration. A group of lenses were additionally stored under post mortem conditions within the host for 6 hours before its removal. Total glutathione after 6 hours was similar to that of lenses removed immediately after death, but with altered GSH and GSSG concentrations. Subsequent storage of these lenses in media showed changes similar to those in the first series of experiments, albeit to a lesser degree. It was determined that storage in Optisol-GS resulted in a higher loss of glutathione than lenses stored in castor oil. Storage for more than 12 hours reduced glutathione to half its original concentration, and was considered unusable after 24 hours.

  14. Glutathione preservation during storage of rat lenses in optisol-GS and castor oil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Holm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutathione concentration in the lens decreases in aging and cataractous lenses, providing a marker for tissue condition. Experimental procedures requiring unfrozen lenses from donor banks rely on transportation in storage medium, affecting lens homeostasis and alterations in glutathione levels. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Optisol-GS and castor oil on lens condition, determined from their ability to maintain glutathione concentrations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rat lenses were stored in the two types of storage media at varying time intervals up to 3 days. Glutathione concentration was afterwards determined in an enzymatic detection assay, specific for both reduced and oxidized forms. Lenses removed immediately after death exhibited a glutathione concentration of 4.70±0.29 mM. In vitro stored lenses in Optisol-GS lost glutathione quickly, ending with a concentration of 0.60±0.34 mM after 3 days while castor oil stored lenses exhibited a slower decline and ended at 3 times the concentration. A group of lenses were additionally stored under post mortem conditions within the host for 6 hours before its removal. Total glutathione after 6 hours was similar to that of lenses removed immediately after death, but with altered GSH and GSSG concentrations. Subsequent storage of these lenses in media showed changes similar to those in the first series of experiments, albeit to a lesser degree. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It was determined that storage in Optisol-GS resulted in a higher loss of glutathione than lenses stored in castor oil. Storage for more than 12 hours reduced glutathione to half its original concentration, and was considered unusable after 24 hours.

  15. Bienzymatic sensor based on the use of redox enzymes and chitosan-MWCNT nanocomposite. Evaluation of total phenolic content in plant extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconu, M.; Litescu, S.C.; Radu, G.L.

    2011-01-01

    We are presenting a bienzymatic sensor for the determination of polyphenols. An ITO electrode was modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and the enzymes laccase and tyrosinase were co-entrapped into a chitosan matrix. The resulting biosensor was calibrated at -50 mV (vs. the Ag/AgCl reference electrode) using rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and gallic acid as the substrates. The new biosensor resulted in a 10.7-fold increase in response sensitivity and a considerable improvement of the detection limit (42 nM for rosmarinic acid). Fouling of the surface of the biosensor was prevented by applying the surfactant Tween 20. The data recorded in surfactant medium revealed a significant improvement of the operational stability and an enlarged linear concentration ranges (up to 12 μM for rosmarinic acid). The sensor was used to evaluate the total phenolic content from extracts of Salvia officinalis and cultures of Basilicum callus. (author)

  16. Overview of the Performance of the Compact Total Electron Content Sensor (CTECS) on the Space Environmental NanoSatellite Experiment (SENSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, R. L.; Hansel, S.; Stoffel, D.; Ping, D.; Bardeen, J.; Chin, A.; Bielat, S.; Mulligan, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Air Force's Space & Missile Systems Center (SMC) SENSE mission consists of two identical cubesat buses with space weather payloads. One of the goals of the SENSE mission is to demonstrate the operational potential and usefulness of space weather measurements from a cubesat platform. The payloads on the two cubesats include the Cubesat Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (SRI), Wind Ion Neutral Composite Suite (NRL), and Compact Total Electron Content GPS radio occultation sensor (CTECS). After initial contact with both space vehicles (SV), we were able to confirm successful operation of both CTECS. Because of power issues on SV2, only SV1 has provided consistent data. In this presentation, we present an overview of the CTECS sensor. Then we present initial CTECS data, discuss the data quality, and lessons learned.

  17. Analysis of total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins content in Romanian red wines: prediction of antioxidant activities and classification of wines using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosu, Anamaria; Cristea, Vasile-Mircea; Cimpoiu, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    Wine is one of the most consumed beverages over the world containing large quantities of polyphenolic compounds. These compounds are responsible for quality of red wines, influencing the antioxidant activity, astringency, bitterness and colour, their composition in wine being influenced by the varieties, the vintage and the wineries. The aim of the present work is to build software instruments intended to work as data-mining tools for predicting valuable properties of wine and for revealing different wine classes. The developed ANNs are able to reveal the relationships between the concentration of total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tannins content, associated to the antioxidant activity, and the wine distinctive classes determined by the wine variety, harvesting year or winery. The presented ANNs proved to be reliable software tools for assessment or validation of the wine essential characteristics and authenticity and may be further used to establish a database of analytical characteristics of wines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Global distribution of GPS losses of phase lock and total electron content slips during the 2005 May 15 and the 2003 November 20 magnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasyukevich, Yuriy; Astafeva, Elvira; Givetev, Ilya; Maksikov, Aleksey

    2015-12-01

    Using data of worldwide network of GPS receivers we investigated losses of GPS phase lock (LoL) during two strong magnetic storms. At fundamental L1 frequency, LoL density is found to increase up to 0.25 % and at L2 frequency the increase is up to 3 %. This is several times as much compared with the background level. During the 2003 November 20 magnetic storm, the number of total electron content (TEC) slips exceeded the background level ~50 times. During superstorms, the most number of GPS LoL is observed at low and high latitudes. At the same time, the area of numerous TEC slips correspond to auroral oval boundaries.

  19. Vitality Improvement of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied 2- Measured by using ME and At Pase Enzyme Activities and Total Protein Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, M.S.; Shoman, A.A.; Elbermawy, S.M.; Abul Yazid, I.

    2000-01-01

    The present investigation aims at producing sterile adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Wied. Having the best possible vitality through the use of irradiation and /or a mutagenic substances to be used in a sterile insect technique program. Several types of mutagenic that were thought to cause mutations were used as IGR's, temperature, formaldehyde, colchicine, alcohols, serve ral types of larval rearing media and gamma-rays. In a common pathway, malic enzyme (ME) activity, adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) enzyme activity and the total protein contents are studied as direct parameters for measuring vitality of the insect. It was found that there is an increment at levels of these parameters due to the treatment of egg stage by the previously mentioned treatments specially the usage of the rice hulls as a bulking component in the larval rearing media alone or followed by irradiation of the pupal stage with 90 Gy

  20. Total β-activity and the content of most important artificial radionuclides in tissues of fishes from the Jihlava river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, E.; Penaz, M.

    1987-01-01

    The radioactivity of body tissues of fishes that inhabit some typical waterbodies situated in the vicinity of the Dukovany nuclear power plant, namely the Jihlava river, Dalesice water reservoir and Olesna creek, was investigated during 1982-1983. The total β-activity and the content of 90 Sr and 137 Cs isotopes were studied. The values found were very low and comparable to those existing in most non-contaminated waters. The results obtained characterize the period prior to the start of operation of the first reactor of the Dukovany nuclear power plant and thus concern the initial state of the radioactive background of those aquatic ecosystems that may be influenced by the nuclear power plant operation and liquid wastes in the near future. (author). 2 tabs., 45 refs

  1. Antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents of 20 polyherbal remedies used as tonics by folk healers in Phatthalung and Songkhla provinces, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthasri, Wipawee; Puangkeaw, Nuntitporn; Kunworarath, Nongluk; Jaisamut, Patcharawalai; Limsuwan, Surasak; Maneenoon, Katesarin; Choochana, Piyapong; Chusri, Sasitorn

    2018-02-21

    Uses of polyherbal formulations have played a major role in traditional medicine. The present study is focused on the formulations used in traditional Thai folkloric medicine as tonics or bracers. Twenty documented polyherbal mixtures, used as nourishing tonics by the folk healers in Phatthalung and Songkhla provinces in southern Thailand, are targeted. Despite traditional health claims, there is no scientific evidence to support the utilization of polyherbal formulations. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of the polyherbal formulations and a series of antioxidant tests were applied to measure their capability as preventive or chain-breaking antioxidants. In addition, the cytotoxic activity of effective formulations was assayed in Vero cells. Ninety-eight plant species belonging to 45 families were used to prepare the tested formulation. The preliminary results revealed that water extracts of THP-R016 and THP-R019 contain a high level of total phenolic and flavonoid contents and exhibit remarkable antioxidant activities, as tested by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. The extract of THP-R019 also showed the strongest metal chelating activities, whereas THP-R016 extract possessed notable superoxide anion and peroxyl radical scavenging abilities. The data provide evidence that the water extracts of folkloric polyherbal formulations, particularly THP-R016, are a potential source of natural antioxidants, which will be valuable in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. The free radical scavenging of THP-R016 may be due to the contribution of phenolic and flavonoid contents. Useful characteristics for the consumer, such as the phytochemical profiles of active ingredients, cellular based antioxidant properties and beneficial effects in vivo, are under further investigation.

  2. "It's Totally Okay to Be Sad, but Never Lose Hope": Content Analysis of Infertility-Related Videos on YouTube in Relation to Viewer Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Hedrick, Margot; Grunberg, Paul H; Brochu, Felicia; Zelkowitz, Phyllis

    2018-05-23

    Infertility patients frequently use the internet to find fertility-related information and support from people in similar circumstances. YouTube is increasingly used as a source of health-related information and may influence health decision making. There have been no studies examining the content of infertility-related videos on YouTube. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe the content of highly viewed videos on YouTube related to infertility and (2) identify video characteristics that relate to viewer preference. Using the search term "infertility," the 80 top-viewed YouTube videos and their viewing statistics (eg, views, likes, and comments) were collected. Videos that were non-English, unrelated to infertility, or had age restrictions were excluded. Content analysis was used to examine videos, employing a coding rubric that measured the presence or absence of video codes related to purpose, tone, and demographic and fertility characteristics (eg, sex, parity, stage of fertility treatment). A total of 59 videos, with a median of 156,103 views, met the inclusion criteria and were categorized into 35 personal videos (35/59, 59%) and 24 informational-educational videos (24/59, 41%). Personal videos did not differ significantly from informational-educational videos on number of views, dislikes, subscriptions driven, or shares. However, personal videos had significantly more likes (PYouTube is a source of both technical and personal experience-based information about infertility. However, videos that include personal experiences may elicit greater viewer engagement. Positive videos and stories of treatment success may provide hope to viewers but could also create and perpetuate unrealistic expectations about the success rates of fertility treatment. ©Margot Kelly-Hedrick, Paul H Grunberg, Felicia Brochu, Phyllis Zelkowitz. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 23.05.2018.

  3. Thiamin and Riboflavin in Human Milk: Effects of Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplementation and Stage of Lactation on Vitamer Secretion and Contributions to Total Vitamin Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Adair, Linda S; Bentley, Margaret E; Flax, Valerie L; Jamieson, Denise J; Ellington, Sascha R; Tegha, Gerald; Chasela, Charles S; Kamwendo, Debbie; Allen, Lindsay H

    2016-01-01

    While thiamin and riboflavin in breast milk have been analyzed for over 50 years, less attention has been given to the different forms of each vitamin. Thiamin-monophosphate (TMP) and free thiamin contribute to total thiamin content; flavin adenine-dinucleotide (FAD) and free riboflavin are the main contributors to total riboflavin. We analyzed milk collected at 2 (n = 258) or 6 (n = 104), and 24 weeks (n = 362) from HIV-infected Malawian mothers within the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals and Nutrition (BAN) study, randomly assigned at delivery to lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) or a control group, to investigate each vitamer's contribution to total milk vitamin content and the effects of supplementation on the different thiamin and riboflavin vitamers at early and later stages of lactation, and obtain insight into the transport and distribution of these vitamers in human milk. Thiamin vitamers were derivatized into thiochrome-esters and analyzed by high-performance liquid-chromatography-fluorescence-detection (HPLC-FLD). Riboflavin and FAD were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry (ULPC-MS/MS). Thiamin-pyrophosphate (TPP), identified here for the first time in breast milk, contributed 1.9-4.5% to total thiamin. Free thiamin increased significantly from 2/6 to 24 weeks regardless of treatment indicating an active transport of this vitamer in milk. LNS significantly increased TMP and free thiamin only at 2 weeks compared to the control: median 170 versus 151 μg/L (TMP), 13.3 versus 10.5 μg/L (free thiamin, priboflavin was consistently and significantly increased with LNS (range: 14.8-19.6 μg/L (LNS) versus 5.0-7.4 μg/L (control), priboflavin relative amounts from 92-94:6-8% to 85:15%, indicating a preferred secretion of the free form into breast milk. The continuous presence of FAD in breast milk suggests an active transport and secretion system for this vitamer or possibly formation of this co-enymatic form in the

  4. Effects of particle size and dry matter content of a total mixed ration on intraruminal equilibration and net portal flux of volatile fatty acids in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    Effects of physical changes in consistency of ruminal contents on intraruminal equilibration and net portal fluxes of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in dairy cows were studied. Four Danish Holstein cows (121 ± 17 d in milk, 591 ± 24 kg of body weight, mean ± SD) surgically fitted with a ruminal cannula...... and permanent indwelling catheters in the major splanchnic blood vessels were used. The experimental design was a 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial design of treatments. Treatments differed in forage (grass hay) particle size (FPS; 3.0 and 30 mm) and feed dry matter (DM) content of the total mixed...... ration (44.3 and 53.8%). The feed DM did not affect chewing time, ruminal variables, or net portal flux of VFA. However, decreasing the FPS decreased the overall chewing and rumination times by 151 ± 55 and 135 ± 29 min/d, respectively. No effect of the reduced chewing time was observed on ruminal p...

  5. Zinc, copper and lead contents of wines. Comparison between the total concentrations by atomic absorption spectrometry and the concentrations of the free ions by polarography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-B. Fournier

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction of this article, some examples of the use of trace element data in the characterisation of viticultural produce are reminded. This paper described the determination of zinc, copper and lead by two techniques based on radically different principles. The atomic absorption spectrometry, applied after the mineralisation of the samples by wet process, allows the determination of the total element contents in wine. The polarography allows the analysis of the concentrations of these elements that are under labile chemical forms, and which are dissolved under the ionic forms Zn++, Cu++ and Pb++. The wines analysed in this study were produced from three different parcels chosen in relation to their geological qualities. The vines implanted on these parcels are strictly identical, and three fermentation techniques were applied to each lots of grapes. The results obtained shows that the copper is only under ionic form and that the temperature of the fermentation influences the total copper level in the final wine. At the opposite, there is no ion Pb++ in the samples, but a long duration of maceration increases the lead content. Concerning zinc, only the ions Zn++ are present in the wine in case of a short duration of the maceration. When this duration increases, some other chemical forms of zinc are dissolved in addition to the ions Zn++ which are instantaneously dissociated in aqueous solutions. The problem of the contamination of grapes by the materials used, the phytosanitary treatments and the atmospheric pollution is discussed. The knowledge of the proportion of a trace element that is under ionic forms is indispensable to evaluate the bio-availability of the considered element and the toxicologic risks. The advent and the expansion of the electrochemical methods is expected as an important advance in this field of research.

  6. Comparison of total phenolic content, scavenging activity and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS profiles of both young and mature leaves and stems of Andrographis paniculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Lee Suan; Yap, Ken Choy; Jaganath, Indu Bala

    2013-12-01

    The total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of Andrographis paniculata has been investigated to estimate the amount of phenolic compounds and diterpene lactones, respectively in the plant extracts. The stem extracts exhibited higher total phenolic content and scavenging activity than those of the leaf extracts from both young and mature plants. A range of 19.6-47.8 mg extract of A. paniculata from different parts of the plant is equivalent to the scavenging activity exhibited by one mg of standard Trolox. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS was also used to identify simultaneously the phytochemicals from the leaves and stems of both young and mature plant samples. Of the identified compounds, seven of the sixteen diterpene lactones, three of the six flavonoids, five of the six phenolic acids and two cyclic acids are reported here for the first time for this species. Multivariate statistical approaches such as Hierarchiral Component Analysis (HCA) and Principle Component Analysis (PCA) have clustered the plant extracts into the leaf and stem groups, regardless of plant age. Further classification based on the phytochemical profiles revealed that mostly phenolic acids and flavonoids were from the young leaf extracts, and diterpenoids and their glycosides from the mature leaf extracts. However, the phytochemical profiles for the stems of both young and mature plants were not significantly different as presented in the dendrogram of HCA and the score plot of PCA. The marker for mature plants might be the m/z 557 ion (dihydroxyl dimethyl 19-[(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-19-oxo-ent-labda-8(17),13-dien-16,15-olide), whereas the m/z 521 ion (propyl neoandrographolide) could be the marker for leaf extracts.

  7. Effect of In Vitro Digestion on the Total Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of 3 Species of Oregano (Hedeoma patens, Lippia graveolens, Lippia palmeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Grijalva, Erick Paul; Angulo-Escalante, Miguel Angel; León-Félix, Josefina; Heredia, J Basilio

    2017-12-01

    Oregano phenolic compounds have been studied for their anti-inflammatory properties. Nonetheless, after ingestion, the gastrointestinal environment can affect their antioxidant stability and thus their bioactive properties. To evaluate the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion on the phenolic compounds of 3 species of oregano (Hedeoma patens, Lippia graveolens, and Lippia palmeri), the total reducing capacity, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacity were evaluated before and after in vitro GI digestion. In addition, the phenolic compounds of the 3 oregano species were identified and quantified by UPLC-PDA before and after in vitro GI digestion. It was shown that the reducing capacity, flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity were affected by the GI digestion process. Moreover, the phenolic compounds identified were apigenin-7-glucoside, scutellarein, luteolin, luteolin-7-glucoside, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, and their levels were affected by the in vitro GI process. Our results showed that the phenolic compounds from these 3 species of oregano are affected by the in vitro digestion process, and this effect is largely attributable to pH changes. These changes can modify the bioavailability and further anti-inflammatory activity of oregano phenolics, and thus, further research is needed. Oregano is a rich source of polyphenols that have shown bioactive properties like anti-inflammatory potential. However, little is known of the gastrointestinal fate of oregano polyphenols which is imperative to fully understand its bioaccessibility. Our results are important to develop new administration strategies which could help protect the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential and bioaccessibility of such compounds. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Finding Multi-scale Connectivity in Our Geospace Observational System: A New Perspective for Total Electron Content Data Through Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranaghan, R. M.; Mannucci, A. J.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Malik, N.

    2017-12-01

    How do we evolve beyond current traditional methods in order to innovate into the future? In what disruptive innovations will the next frontier of space physics and aeronomy (SPA) be grounded? We believe the answer to these compelling, yet equally challenging, questions lies in a shift of focus: from a narrow, field-specific view to a radically inclusive, interdisciplinary new modus operandi at the intersection of SPA and the information and data sciences. Concretely addressing these broader themes, we present results from a novel technique for knowledge discovery in the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (MIT) system: complex network analysis (NA). We share findings from the first NA of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) data, including hemispheric and interplanetary magnetic field clock angle dependencies [1]. Our work shows that NA complements more traditional approaches for the investigation of TEC structure and dynamics, by both reaffirming well-established understanding, giving credence to the method, and identifying new connections, illustrating the exciting potential. We contextualize these new results through a discussion of the potential of data-driven discovery in the MIT system when innovative data science techniques are embraced. We address implications and potentially disruptive data analysis approaches for SPA in terms of: 1) the future of the geospace observational system; 2) understanding multi-scale phenomena; and 3) machine learning. [1] McGranaghan, R. M., A. J. Mannucci, O. Verkhoglyadova, and N. Malik (2017), Finding multiscale connectivity in our geospace observational system: Network analysis of total electron content, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 122, doi:10.1002/2017JA024202.

  9. Plaque formation reduction with glutathione monoester in mice fed on atherogenic diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Mehboobali, N.; Pervez, S.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the role of glutathione monoester on reducing the development of plaque formation in an animal model. Twenty-four Balb/c mice were divided into 3 equal groups. First group was fed on atherogenic diet alone, while the second group received atherogenic diet plus twice weekly injections of glutathione monoester. The third group was fed on normal diet for mice. After one year, the animals were sacrificed. Blood was analyzed for lipid levels, while liver, kidney, spleen, heart and aorta were removed to study morphological changes. Results: In the groups of mice receiving atherogenic diet (with and without glutathione monoesters), there was significant increase in levels of total cholesterol (p=0.011) and LDL cholesterol (p=0.001) compared to levels of these lipids in mice on normal diet. However, a significant decrease in levels of triglycerides (p=0.01) was observed in the group receiving atherogenic diet along with glutathione monoester. Supplementation with glutathione monoester had the most pronounced effect only on triglyceride levels. Atherosclerotic plaques were seen in heart and/or aorta of mice receiving atherogenic diet. However, such plaques were either totally absent or if seen in an animal, were extremely small and diffuse in the group receiving glutathione monoester along with atherogenic diet. Mice on normal diet had no evidence of any plaque formation. Cholesterol granuloma was seen in liver of mice on atherogenic diet alone. In mice receiving atherogenic diet plus glutathione monoester, no chole