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Sample records for total flow system

  1. An updated fracture-flow model for total-system performance assessment of Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauthier, J.H. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Improvements have been made to the fracture-flow model being used in the total-system performance assessment of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The ``weeps model`` now includes (1) weeps of varied sizes, (2) flow-pattern fluctuations caused by climate change, and (3) flow-pattern perturbations caused by repository heat generation. Comparison with the original weeps model indicates that allowing weeps of varied sizes substantially reduces the number of weeps and the number of containers contacted by weeps. However, flow-pattern perturbations caused by either climate change or repository heat generation greatly increases the number of containers contacted by weeps. In preliminary total-system calculations, using a phenomenological container-failure and radionuclide-release model, the weeps model predicts that radionuclide releases from a high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain will be below the EPA standard specified in 40 CFR 191, but that the maximum radiation dose to an individual could be significant. Specific data from the site are required to determine the validity of the weep-flow mechanism and to better determine the parameters to which the dose calculation is sensitive.

  2. An updated fracture-flow model for total-system performance assessment of Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    Improvements have been made to the fracture-flow model being used in the total-system performance assessment of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The open-quotes weeps modelclose quotes now includes (1) weeps of varied sizes, (2) flow-pattern fluctuations caused by climate change, and (3) flow-pattern perturbations caused by repository heat generation. Comparison with the original weeps model indicates that allowing weeps of varied sizes substantially reduces the number of weeps and the number of containers contacted by weeps. However, flow-pattern perturbations caused by either climate change or repository heat generation greatly increases the number of containers contacted by weeps. In preliminary total-system calculations, using a phenomenological container-failure and radionuclide-release model, the weeps model predicts that radionuclide releases from a high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain will be below the EPA standard specified in 40 CFR 191, but that the maximum radiation dose to an individual could be significant. Specific data from the site are required to determine the validity of the weep-flow mechanism and to better determine the parameters to which the dose calculation is sensitive

  3. An updated fracture-flow model for total-system performance assessment of Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    Improvements have been made to the fracture-flow model being used in the total-system performance assessment of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The ''weeps model'' now includes (1) weeps of varied sizes, (2) flow-pattern fluctuations caused by climate change, and (3) flow-pattern perturbations caused by repository heat generation. Comparison with the original weeps model indicates that allowing weeps of varied sizes substantially reduces the number of weeps and the number of containers contacted by weeps. However, flow-pattern perturbations caused by either climate change or repository heat generation greatly increases the number of containers contacted by weeps. In preliminary total-system calculations, using a phenomenological container-failure and radionuclide-release model, the weeps model predicts that radionuclide releases from a high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain will be below the EPA standard specified in 40 CFR 191, but that the maximum radiation dose to an individual could be significant. Specific data from the site are required to determine the validity of the weep-flow mechanism and to better determine the parameters to which the dose calculation is sensitive

  4. Mass flow discharge and total temperature characterisation of a pyrotechnic gas generator formulation for airbag systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neutz, Jochen; Koenig, Andreas [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Chemische Technologie ICT, Pfinztal (Germany); Knauss, Helmut; Jordan, Sebastian; Roediger, Tim; Smorodsky, Boris [Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany). Institut fuer Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik; Bluemcke, Erich Walter [AUDI AG, Department I/EK-523, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The mass flow characteristics of gas generators for airbag applications have to comply with a number of requirements for an optimal deployment of the airbag itself. Up to now, the mass flow was determined from pressure time histories of so-called can tests. This procedure suffers from the missing knowledge on the temperature of the generated gas entering the can. A new test setup described in this paper could overcome this problem by providing highly time resolved information on the gas's total temperature and the mass flow of the generator. The test setup consisted of a combustion chamber with a specially designed Laval nozzle in combination with a temperature sensor of high time resolution. The results showed a high time resolved temperature signal, which was disturbed by the formation of a slag layer on the sensor. Plausibility considerations with experimentally and thermodynamically determined combustion temperatures led to satisfying results for the overall temperature as characteristic parameter of airbag inflating gases flows from pyrotechnics. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. Determination of Free and Total Sulfites in Wine using an Automatic Flow Injection Analysis System with Voltammetric Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Luís Moreira; Pacheco, João Grosso; Magalhães, Paulo Jorge; Rodrigues, José António; Barros, Aquiles Araújo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract An automated Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) system based on a initial analyte separation by gas-diffusion and subsequent determination by square-wave voltammetry (SWV) in a flow cell is proposed for the determination of total and free content of sulphur dioxide (SO2) in wine. The proposed method was compared with two iodometric methodologies (the Ripper method and the simplified method commonly used by the wine industry). The developed method shown repeatability (RSD lower ...

  6. Flow cytometry total cell counts : A field study assessing microbiological water quality and growth in unchlorinated drinking water distribution systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, G.; Van der Mark, E.J.; Verberk, J.Q.; Van Dijk, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    e objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A

  7. Detection of Total Phenol in Green and Black Teas by Flow Injection System and Unmodified Screen Printed Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Luiz de Mattos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A flow injection system using an unmodified gold screen-printed electrode was employed for total phenol determination in black and green teas. In order to avoid passivation of the electrode surface due to the redox reaction, preoxidation of the sample was realized by hexacyanoferrate(III followed by addition of an EDTA solution. The complex formed in the presence of EDTA minimizes or avoids polymerization of the oxidized phenols. The previously filtered tea sample and hexacyanoferrate(III reagent were introduced simultaneously into two-carrier streams producing two reproducible zones. At confluence point, the pre-oxidation of the phenolic compounds occurs while this zone flows through the coiled reactor and receives the EDTA solution before phenol detection. The consumption of ferricyanide was monitorized at 360 mV versus Ag/AgCl and reflected the total amount of phenolic compounds present in the sample. Results were reported as gallic acid equivalents (GAEs. The proposed system is robust, versatile, environmentally-friendly (since the reactive is used only in the presence of the sample, and allows the analysis of about 35–40 samples per hour with detection limit = 1 mg/L without the necessity for surface cleaning after each measurement. Precise results are in agreement with those obtained by the Folin-Ciocalteu method.

  8. Detection of Total Phenol in Green and Black Teas by Flow Injection System and Unmodified Screen Printed Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos, Ivanildo Luiz; Zagal, José Heraclito

    2010-01-01

    A flow injection system using an unmodified gold screen-printed electrode was employed for total phenol determination in black and green teas. In order to avoid passivation of the electrode surface due to the redox reaction, preoxidation of the sample was realized by hexacyanoferrate(III) followed by addition of an EDTA solution. The complex formed in the presence of EDTA minimizes or avoids polymerization of the oxidized phenols. The previously filtered tea sample and hexacyanoferrate(III) reagent were introduced simultaneously into two-carrier streams producing two reproducible zones. At confluence point, the pre-oxidation of the phenolic compounds occurs while this zone flows through the coiled reactor and receives the EDTA solution before phenol detection. The consumption of ferricyanide was monitorized at 360 mV versus Ag/AgCl and reflected the total amount of phenolic compounds present in the sample. Results were reported as gallic acid equivalents (GAEs). The proposed system is robust, versatile, environmentally-friendly (since the reactive is used only in the presence of the sample), and allows the analysis of about 35–40 samples per hour with detection limit = 1 mg/L without the necessity for surface cleaning after each measurement. Precise results are in agreement with those obtained by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. PMID:21461407

  9. A total analytical system featuring a novel solid-liquid extraction chamber for solid sample flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C; Santos, João Rodrigo; Rangel, António O S S

    2016-11-01

    In this work, a total flow analysis system based on a novel solid-liquid extraction chamber is presented. This strategy enables all the main experimental procedures for the analysis of a solid sample to be performed automatically: enrichment of the liquid extract, sample treatment, filtration of the liquid extract from the solid sample, directing the extract towards detection, and finally cleansing of the chamber for the following solid sample to be analyzed. The chamber designed to be incorporated in the flow manifold presents two main features: it accommodates stirring bars for enhancing the extraction process, and it presents replaceable solid sample containers (a spare part of the solid-liquid extraction chamber) to easily replace the solid sample and therefore enhance sample analysis throughput. The chamber performance was assessed using two different solid samples, an ion exchanger resin and vegetable samples, focussing on proton and nitrate ion extraction, respectively. The main figures of merit achieved were relative standard deviation (RSD) and relative error values below 7 % for all determinations. The determination rate for vegetable samples was ca. 12 samples h -1 . The proposed strategy may be exploited to perform automatically the analysis of solid samples as it embodies a simple automatic strategy of a very important but time-consuming and laborious analytical operation. Graphical abstract TAS for solid liquid extraction and nitrate potentiometric determination of vegetable samples.

  10. Flow Cytometry Total Cell Counts: A Field Study Assessing Microbiological Water Quality and Growth in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-year sampling program was carried out in two distribution systems in The Netherlands. Results demonstrated that, in both systems, the biomass differences measured by ATP were not significant. TCC differences were also not significant in treatment plant 1, but decreased slightly in treatment plant 2. TCC values were found to be higher at temperatures above 15°C than at temperatures below 15°C. The correlation study of parameters describing biostability found no relationship among TCC, heterotrophic plate counts, and Aeromonas. Also no relationship was found between TCC and ATP. Some correlation was found between the subgroup of high nucleic acid content bacteria and ATP (R2=0.63. Overall, the results demonstrated that TCC is a valuable parameter to assess the drinking water biological quality and regrowth; it can directly and sensitively quantify biomass, detect small changes, and can be used to determine the subgroup of active HNA bacteria that are related to ATP.

  11. Flow Cytometry Total Cell Counts: A Field Study Assessing Microbiological Water Quality and Growth in Unchlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G.; Van der Mark, E. J.; Verberk, J. Q. J. C.; Van Dijk, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of flow cytometry total cell counts (TCCs) as a parameter to assess microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems and to determine the relationships between different parameters describing the biostability of treated water. A one-year sampling program was carried out in two distribution systems in The Netherlands. Results demonstrated that, in both systems, the biomass differences measured by ATP were not significant. TCC differences were also not significant in treatment plant 1, but decreased slightly in treatment plant 2. TCC values were found to be higher at temperatures above 15°C than at temperatures below 15°C. The correlation study of parameters describing biostability found no relationship among TCC, heterotrophic plate counts, and Aeromonas. Also no relationship was found between TCC and ATP. Some correlation was found between the subgroup of high nucleic acid content bacteria and ATP (R 2 = 0.63). Overall, the results demonstrated that TCC is a valuable parameter to assess the drinking water biological quality and regrowth; it can directly and sensitively quantify biomass, detect small changes, and can be used to determine the subgroup of active HNA bacteria that are related to ATP. PMID:23819117

  12. Determination of Total Selenium in Infant Formulas: Comparison of the Performance of FIA and MCFA Flow Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Pistón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two flow methods, based, respectively, on flow-injection analysis (FIA and on multicommutated flow analysis (MCFA, were compared with regard to their use for the determination of total selenium in infant formulas by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The method based on multicommutation provided lower detection and quantification limits (0.08 and 0.27 μg L−1 compared to 0.59 and 1.95 μ L−1, resp., higher sampling frequency (160 versus. 70 samples per hour, and reduced reagent consumption. Linearity, precision, and accuracy were similar for the two methods compared. It was concluded that, while both methods proved to be appropriate for the purpose, the MCFA-based method exhibited a better performance.

  13. ANALYSIS AND ACCOUNTING OF TOTAL CASH FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELANIA ELENA MICULEAC

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reach the objective of supplying some relevant information regarding the liquidity inflows and outflows during a financial exercise, the total cash flow analysis must include the analysis of result cashable from operation, of payments and receipts related to the investment and of financing decisions of the last exercise, as well as the analysis of treasury variation (of cash items. The management of total cash flows ensures the correlation of current liquidness flows as consequence of receipts with the payments ’flows, in order to provide payment continuity of mature obligations.

  14. Simultaneous photometric determination of albumin and total protein in animal blood plasma employing a multicommutated flow system to carried out on line dilution and reagents solutions handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Gilmara C.; Reis, Boaventura F.

    2004-02-01

    An automatic flow procedure for the simultaneous determination of albumin and total protein in blood plasma samples is proposed. The flow network comprised a set of three-way solenoid valves assembled to implement the multicommutation. The flow set up was controlled by means of a computer equipped with an electronic interface card which running a software wrote in QUICKBASIC 4.5 performed on line programmed dilution to allow the determination of both albumin and total protein in blood plasma. The photometric methods based on Bromocresol Green and Biuret reagents were selected for determination of albumin and total protein, respectively. Two LEDs based photometers coupled together the flow cells were employed as detector. After the adjustment of the operational parameters the proposed system presented the following features: an analytical throughput of 45 sample processing per hour for two analytes; relative standard deviations of 1.5 and 0.8% ( n=10) for a typical sample presenting 34 g l -1 albumin and 90 g l -1 total protein, respectively; linear responses ranging from 0 to 15 g l -1 albumin ( r=0.998) and total protein ( r=0.999); sample and reagents consumption, 140 μl serum solution, 0.015 mg VBC and 0.432 mg CuSO 4 per determination, respectively. Applying the paired t-test between results obtained using the proposed system and reference methods no significant difference at 95 and 90% confidence level for albumin and total protein, respectively, were observed.

  15. Axial Dispersion Model for Solid Flow in Liquid Suspension in System of Two Mixers in Total Recycle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermáková, Jiřina; Scargiali, F.; Siyakatshana, N.; Kudrna, V.; Brucato, A.; Machoň, V.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 2 (2006), s. 101-107 ISSN 1385-8947 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : residence time distribution * dispersion model * flow mixer Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.594, year: 2006

  16. Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Mi Seon

    2007-06-15

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the

  17. Total System Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Mi Seon

    2007-06-01

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the comprehensive

  18. Vega flow assurance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Marit; Munaweera, Sampath

    2010-07-01

    Vega is a gas condensate field located at the west coast of Norway and developed as a tie-in to the Gjoea platform. Operator is Statoil, production startup is estimated to the end of 2010. Flow assurance challenges are high reservoir pressure and temperature, hydrate and wax control, liquid accumulation and monitoring the well/template production rates. The Vega Flow Assurance System (FAS) is a software that supports monitoring and operation of the field. The FAS is based FlowManagerTM designed for real time systems. This is a flexible tool with its own steady state multiphase- and flow assurance models. Due to the long flowlines lines and the dynamic behavior, the multiphase flow simulator OLGA is also integrated in the system. Vega FAS will be used as: - An online monitoring tool - An offline what-if simulation and validation tool - An advisory control system for well production allocation. (Author)

  19. Flow energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsyan, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    A cost-effective hydropower system called here Flow Energy Converter was developed, patented, manufactured and tested for water pumping, electricity generation and other purposes especially useful for the rural communities. The system consists of water-driven turbine with plane-surface blades, power transmission means and pump and/or generator. Working sample of the Flow Energy Converter was designed and manufactured at the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics

  20. The total flow concept for geothermal energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    A geothermal development project has been initiated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) to emphasize development of methods for recovery and conversion of the energy in geothermal deposits of hot brines. Temperatures of these waters vary from 150 C to more than 300 C with dissolved solids content ranging from less than 0.1% to over 25% by weight. Of particular interest are the deposits of high-temperature/high-salinity brines, as well as less saline brines, known to occur in the Salton Trough of California. Development of this resource will depend on resolution of the technical problems of brine handling, scale and precipitation control, and corrosion/erosion resistant systems for efficient conversion of thermal to electrical energy. Research experience to date has shown these problems to be severe. Hence, the LLL program emphasizes development of an entirely different approach called the Total Flow concept.

  1. On total variation flows with H-1 penalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderli, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    We analyze the time flow of a version of the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi [5] model for image restoration using the bounded variation semi-norm with H-1 penalty. We will define an appropriate weak solution of the time flow and prove existence and uniqueness of the solution using the method of semigroups, as used by Andreu, Ballester, Caselles, Mazön [1] for their analysis of total variation flow without penalty. We also note two interesting properties for the time solutions.

  2. Measurement of cerebral blood flow by intravenous xenon-133 technique and a mobile system. Reproducibility using the Obrist model compared to total curve analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Holstein, P; Lassen, N A

    1986-01-01

    was considerably more reproducible than CBF level. Using a single detector instead of five regional values averaged as the hemispheric flow increased standard deviation of CBF level by 10-20%, while the variation in asymmetry was doubled. In optimal measuring conditions the two models revealed no significant...... differences, but in low flow situations the artifact model yielded significantly more stable results. The present apparatus, equipped with 3-5 detectors covering each hemisphere, offers the opportunity of performing serial CBF measurements in situations not otherwise feasible.......The recent development of a mobile 10 detector unit, using i.v. Xenon-133 technique, has made it possible to perform repeated bedside measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Test-retest studies were carried out in 38 atherosclerotic subjects, in order to evaluate the reproducibility of CBF level...

  3. Lymphatic System Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James E., Jr.; Bertram, Christopher D.

    2018-01-01

    The supply of oxygen and nutrients to tissues is performed by the blood system and involves a net leakage of fluid outward at the capillary level. One of the principal functions of the lymphatic system is to gather this fluid and return it to the blood system to maintain overall fluid balance. Fluid in the interstitial spaces is often at subatmospheric pressure, and the return points into the venous system are at pressures of approximately 20 cmH2O. This adverse pressure difference is overcome by the active pumping of collecting lymphatic vessels, which feature closely spaced one-way valves and contractile muscle cells in their walls. Passive vessel squeezing causes further pumping. The dynamics of lymphatic pumping have been investigated experimentally and mathematically, revealing complex behaviors that indicate that the system performance is robust against minor perturbations in pressure and flow. More serious disruptions can lead to incurable swelling of tissues called lymphedema.

  4. Aortic blood flow subtraction: an alternative method for measuring total renal blood flow in conscious dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandgaard, N C F; Andersen, J L; Holstein-Rathlou, N-H

    2002-01-01

    We have measured total renal blood flow (TRBF) as the difference between signals from ultrasound flow probes implanted around the aorta above and below the renal arteries. The repeatability of the method was investigated by repeated, continuous infusions of angiotensin II and endothelin-1 seven...... arterial blood pressure by 49% and decreased TRBF by 12%, providing an increase in renal vascular resistance of 69%. Dynamic analysis showed autoregulation of renal blood flow in the frequency range ... of TRBF by aortic blood flow subtraction is a practical and reliable method that allows direct comparison of excretory function and renal blood flow from two kidneys. The method also allows direct comparison between TRBF and flow in the caudal aorta....

  5. Batch Scheduling for Hybrid Assembly Differentiation Flow Shop to Minimize Total Actual Flow Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulidya, R.; Suprayogi; Wangsaputra, R.; Halim, A. H.

    2018-03-01

    A hybrid assembly differentiation flow shop is a three-stage flow shop consisting of Machining, Assembly and Differentiation Stages and producing different types of products. In the machining stage, parts are processed in batches on different (unrelated) machines. In the assembly stage, each part of the different parts is assembled into an assembly product. Finally, the assembled products will further be processed into different types of final products in the differentiation stage. In this paper, we develop a batch scheduling model for a hybrid assembly differentiation flow shop to minimize the total actual flow time defined as the total times part spent in the shop floor from the arrival times until its due date. We also proposed a heuristic algorithm for solving the problems. The proposed algorithm is tested using a set of hypothetic data. The solution shows that the algorithm can solve the problems effectively.

  6. Dynamic measurements of total hepatic blood flow with Phase Contrast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yzet, Thierry [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Place Victor Pauchet, 80054 Amiens cedex 1 (France)], E-mail: Yzet.Thierry@chu-amiens.fr; Bouzerar, Roger [Department of Imaging and Biophysics, University Hospital, Jules Verne University of Picardie, Place Victor Pauchet, 80054 Amiens cedex 1 (France)], E-mail: bouzerar.roger@chu-amiens.fr; Baledent, Olivier [Department of Imaging and Biophysics, University Hospital, Jules Verne University of Picardie, Place Victor Pauchet, 80054 Amiens cedex 1 (France)], E-mail: Olivier.Baledent@chu-amiens.fr; Renard, Cedric [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Place Victor Pauchet, 80054 Amiens cedex 1 (France)], E-mail: Renard.Cedric@chu-amiens.fr; Lumbala, Didier Mbayo [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Place Victor Pauchet, 80054 Amiens cedex 1 (France)], E-mail: MbayoLumbala.Didier@chu-amiens.fr; Nguyen-Khac, Eric [Mobile Unit of Alcoology, University Hospital, Place Victor Pauchet, 80054 Amiens cedex 1 (France)], E-mail: Nguyen-Khac.Eric@chu-amiens.fr; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc [Department of Visceral and Digestive General Surgery, University Hospital, Place Victor Pauchet, 80054 Amiens cedex 1 (France)], E-mail: regimbeau.jean-marc@chu-amiens.fr; Deramond, H. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, Place Victor Pauchet, 80054 Amiens cedex 1 (France)], E-mail: deramond.herve@chu-amiens.fr; Meyer, Marc-Etienne [Department of Imaging and Biophysics, University Hospital, Jules Verne University of Picardie, Place Victor Pauchet, 80054 Amiens cedex 1 (France)], E-mail: Meyer.Marc-Etienne@chu-amiens.fr

    2010-01-15

    Background/Aims: To measure total hepatic blood flow including portal and proper hepatic artery flows as well as the temporal evolution of the vessel's section during a cardiac cycle. Methods: Twenty healthy subjects, with a mean age of 26 years, were explored. Magnetic resonance imaging blood flow measurements were carried out in the portal vein and the proper hepatic artery. MR studies were performed using a 1.5T imager (General Electric Medical Systems). Gradient-echo 2D Fast Cine Phase Contrast sequences were used with both cardiac and respiratory gatings. Data analysis was performed using a semi-automatic software built in our laboratory. Results: The total hepatic flow rate measured was 1.35 {+-} 0.18 L/min or 19.7 {+-} 4.6 mL/(min kg). The proper hepatic artery provided 19.1% of the total hepatic blood flow entering the liver. Those measurements were in agreement with earlier studies using direct measurements. Mean and maximum velocities were also assessed and a discrepancy between our values and the literature's Doppler data was found. Measurements of the portal vein area have shown a mean variation, defined as a 'pulsatility' index of 18% over a cardiac cycle. Conclusions: We report here proper hepatic artery blood flow rate measurements using MRI. Associated with portal flow measurements, we have shown the feasibility of total hepatic flowmetry using a non-invasive and harmless technique.

  7. Endovascular blood flow measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper an endovascular measurement system used for intraoperative cerebral blood flow monitoring is described. The system is based on a Volcano ComboMap Pressure and Flow System extended with analogue-to-digital converter and PC laptop. A series of measurements performed in patients with cerebrovascular pathologies allows us to introduce “velocity-pressure” and “flow rate-energy flow rate” diagrams as important characteristics of the blood flow. The measurement system presented here can be used as an additional instrument in neurosurgery for assessment and monitoring of the operation procedure. Clinical data obtained with the system are used for construction of mathematical models and patient-specific simulations. The monitoring of the blood flow parameters during endovascular interventions was approved by the Ethics Committee at the Meshalkin Novosibirsk Research Institute of Circulation Pathology and included in certain surgical protocols for pre-, intra- and postoperative examinations.

  8. Identification of material flow systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, G; Deistler, M; Gleiss, A; Glenck, E; Matyus, T

    1997-01-01

    Material Flow Analysis (MFA) has become an important instrument in environmental science and pollution research. In this paper, we look at the MFA problem as a particularly structured system identification problem. Special emphasis is given to the linear, static case, where we describe a procedure for reconciliating the flow measurements and for estimating the unmeasured flows and the transfer coefficients by taking into account a priori restrictions such as balance equations.

  9. MODELLING OF MATERIAL FLOW SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    PÉTER TELEK

    2012-01-01

    Material flow systems are in generally very complex processes. During design, building and operation of complex systems there are many different problems. If these complex processes can be described in a simple model, the tasks will be clearer, better adaptable and easier solvable. As the material flow systems are very different, so using models is a very important aid to create uniform methods and solutions. This paper shows the details of the application possibilities of modelling in the ma...

  10. Turbine exhaust diffuser flow path with region of reduced total flow area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosa, John A.

    2012-12-25

    An exhaust diffuser system and method for a turbine engine includes an inner boundary and an outer boundary with a flow path defined therebetween. The inner boundary is defined at least in part by a hub that has an upstream end and a downstream end. The outer boundary has a region in which the outer boundary extends radially inward toward the hub. The region can begin at a point that is substantially aligned with the downstream end of the hub or, alternatively, at a point that is proximately upstream of the downstream end of the hub. The region directs at least a portion of an exhaust flow in the diffuser toward the hub. As a result, the exhaust diffuser system and method can achieve the performance of a long hub system while enjoying the costs of a short hub system.

  11. Automated multiple flow-injection analysis in clinical chemistry: determination of total protein with Biuret reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shideler, C E; Stewart, K K; Crump, J; Wills, M R; Savory, J; Renoe, B W

    1980-09-01

    We have examined the feasibility of the automated multiple flow-injection technique for application to clinical chemistry by adapting to this system the biuret method for the determination of total protein. Samples were discretely and rapidly introduced into a continuously flowing, nonsegmented reagent stream by means of an automatic sampler and high-pressure injection valve. Pumps operating at 1380-2070 kPa (200-300 psi) were utilized to introduce the biuret reagent and saline diluent into the system separately at flow rates of 72 and 47 microL/s, respectively. Use of 20-microL sample and a 3.0-s reaction-delay coil was adequately sensitive for analysis for total protein by this method. Samples were analyzed at a rate of 150/h with no detectable between-sample carryover. Within-run precision studies yielded relative standard deviations of 2.5% and less. Total protein values obtained by this method correlated well with those obtained by centrifugal analyzer and bubble-segmented continuous-flow biuret methods.

  12. Chronic intestinal ischaemia: measurement of the total splanchnic blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacho, Helle D

    2013-04-01

    A redundant collateral network between the intestinal arteries is present at all times. In case of ischaemia in the gastrointestinal tract, the collateral blood supply can develop further, thus accommodating the demand for oxygen even in the presence of significant stenosis or occlusion of the intestinal arteries without clinical symptoms of intestinal ischaemia. Symptoms of ischemia develop when the genuine and collateral blood supply no longer can accommodate the need for oxygen. Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of obliteration in the intestinal arteries. In chronic intestinal ischaemia (CII), the fasting splanchnic blood flow (SBF) is sufficient, but the postprandial increase in SBF is inadequate and abdominal pain will therefore develop in relation to food intake causing the patient to eat smaller meals at larger intervals with a resulting weight loss. Traditionally, the CII-diagnosis has exclusively been based upon morphology (angiography) of the intestinal arteries; however, substantial discrepancies between CII-symptoms and the presence of atherosclerosis/stenosis in the intestinal arteries have been described repeatedly in the literature impeding the diagnosis of CII. This PhD thesis explores a method to determine the total SBF and its potential use as a diagnostic tool in patients suspected to suffer from CII. The SBF can be measured using a continuous infusion of a tracer and catheterisation of a hepatic vein and an artery. By measuring the SBF before and after a standard meal it is possible to assess the ability or inability to enhance the SBF and thereby diagnosing CII. In Study I, measurement of SBF was tested against angiography in a group of patients suspected to suffer from CII due to pain and weight loss. A very good agreement between the postprandial increase in SBF and angiography was found. The method was validated against a well-established method independent of the hepatic extraction of tracer using pAH in a porcine model (study II

  13. Progress on the design and development of the continuous-flow total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Mariko; Horvath, David J; Mielke, Nicole; Shiose, Akira; Kuban, Barry; Goodin, Mark; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Golding, Leonard A R

    2012-08-01

    Cleveland Clinic's continuous-flow total artificial heart has one motor and one rotating assembly supported by a hydrodynamic bearing. The right hydraulic output is self regulated by passive axial movement of the rotating assembly to balance itself with the left output. The purpose of this article is to present progress in four areas of development: the automatic speed control system, self-regulation to balance right/left inlet pressures and flows, hemolysis testing using calf blood, and coupled electromagnetics (EMAG) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. The relationships between functions of motor power and speed, systemic flow, and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) were used for the sensorless speed control algorithm and demonstrated close correlations. Based on those empirical relationships, systemic flow and SVR were calculated in the system module and showed good correlation with measured pump flow and SVR. The automatic system adjusted the pump's speed to obtain the target flow in response to the calculated SVR. Atrial pressure difference (left minus right atrial pressure) was maintained within ±10 mm Hg for a wide range of SVR/pulmonary vascular resistance ratios, demonstrating a wide margin of self-regulation under fixed-speed mode and 25% sinusoidally modulated speed mode. Hemolysis test results indicated acceptable values (normalized index of hemolysis <0.01 mg/dL). The coupled EMAG/CFD model was validated for use in further device development. © 2012, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2012, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Quantitation by flow microfluorometry of total cellular DNA in Acanthamoeba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulson, P.B.; Tyndall, R.

    1978-01-01

    The DNA content of five speciea of Acanthamoeba was determined by flow microfluorometry. Acanthamoeba castellanii (AC-30), acanthamoeba polyphaga (APG and P-23), acanthamoeba rhysodes, acanthamoeba culbertsoni (A-1), and acanthamoeba royreba were grown in a casitone based medium 24 to 48 hr. The trophozoites were harvested, fixed in 70% ethanol (acidified), pretreated with RNase, stained with propidium diiodide, and evaluated for DNA-bound fluorescence. All species tested had DNA values between 2.0 to 5.0 pg/cell. These results placed DNA/cell values of Acanthamoeba slightly lower than DNA/cell values of other eucaryotic cells and much lower than Amoeba proteus values. These results indicate that FMF may be a useful adjunct in distinguishing Acanthamoeba cells from either eucaryotic cells or some other amoeba. However, differences in DNA/cell between species of Acanthamoeba are small and would not be useful in identification of species.

  15. Pulse-Flow Microencapsulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    The pulse-flow microencapsulation system (PFMS) is an automated system that continuously produces a stream of liquid-filled microcapsules for delivery of therapeutic agents to target tissues. Prior microencapsulation systems have relied on batch processes that involve transfer of batches between different apparatuses for different stages of production followed by sampling for acquisition of quality-control data, including measurements of size. In contrast, the PFMS is a single, microprocessor-controlled system that performs all processing steps, including acquisition of quality-control data. The quality-control data can be used as real-time feedback to ensure the production of large quantities of uniform microcapsules.

  16. Flow NMR of complex systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheler, U.; Bagusat, F. [Leibniz-Inst. fuer Polymerforschung Dresden e.V., Dresden (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    A combination of NMR imaging and pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR is applied to investigate flow. NMR longitudinal relaxation is used to generate contrast in a binary system of oil and water. The spatial distribution of each component and its flow pattern are measured separately. As a model a Couette cell with an additional area of high shear is used as model geometry. While a flat smooth interface is found at rest, the interface become bent under rotation, finally emulgation starts because of the velocity differences between the components. Flow from a submillimeter tube into a wide box and out of the box is investigated as well to understand shear-induced mixing and demixing. (orig.)

  17. Preliminary assessment of the Velocity Pump Reaction Turbine as a geothermal total-flow expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demuth, O.J.

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation was made of the Velocity Pump Reaction Turbine (VPRT) as a total flow expander in a geothermal-electric conversion cycle. Values of geofluid effectiveness of VPRT systems were estimated for conditions consisting of: a 360/sup 0/F geothermal resource, 60/sup 0/F wet-bulb ambient temperature, zero and 0.003 mass concentrations of dissolved noncondensible gas in the geofluid, 100 and 120/sup 0/F condensing temperature, and engine efficiencies ranging from 0.4 to 1.0. Achievable engine efficiencies were estimated to range from 0.47 to 0.77, with plant geofluid effectivenss values ranging as high as 9.5 Watt hr/lbm geofluid. This value is competitive with magnitudes of geofluid effectiveness projected for advanced binary plants, and is on the order of 40% higher than estimates for dual-flash steam systems and other total flow systems reviewed. Because of its potentially high performance and relative simplicity, the VPRT system appears to warrant further investigation toward its use in a well-head geothermal plant. 13 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Oil flow rate measurements using 198Au and total count technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Eduardo R.; Crispim, Verginia R.

    2013-01-01

    In industrial plants, oil and oil compounds are usually transported by closed pipelines with circular cross-section. The use of radiotracers in oil transport and processing industrial facilities allows calibrating flowmeters, measuring mean residence time in cracking columns, locate points of obstruction or leak in underground ducts, as well as investigating flow behavior or industrial processes such as in distillation towers. Inspection techniques using radiotracers are non-destructive, simple, economic and highly accurate. Among them, Total Count, which uses a small amount of radiotracer with known activity, is acknowledged as an absolute technique for flow rate measurement. A viscous fluid transport system, composed by four PVC pipelines with 13m length (12m horizontal and 1m vertical) and 1/2, 3/4, 1 and 2-inch gauges, respectively, interconnected by maneuvering valves was designed and assembled in order to conduct the research. This system was used to simulate different flow conditions of petroleum compounds and for experimental studies of flow profile in the horizontal and upward directions. As 198 Au presents a single photopeak (411,8 keV), it was the radioisotope chosen for oil labeling, in small amounts (6 ml) or around 200 kBq activity, and it was injected in the oil transport lines. A NaI scintillation detector 2'x 2', with well-defined geometry, was used to measure total activity, determine the calibration factor F and, positioned after a homogenization distance and interconnected to a standardized electronic set of nuclear instrumentation modules (NIM), to detect the radioactive cloud. (author)

  19. Total System Performance Assessment Code (TOSPAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.H.; Dudley, A.L.; Skinner, L.H.; Wilson, M.L.; Peters, R.R.

    1992-07-01

    TOSPAC is a computer program that calculates partially saturated groundwater flow with the transport of water-soluble contaminants. TOSPAC Version 1 is restricted to calculations involving one-dimensional, vertical columns of one or more media. TOSPAC was developed to help answer questions surrounding the burial of toxic wastes in arid regions. Burial of wastes in arid regions is attractive because of generally low population densities and little groundwater flow, in the unsaturated zone, to disturb the waste. TOSPAC helps to quantify groundwater flow and the spread of contamination, offering an idea of what could happen in the distant future. Figure 1.1 illustrates the problem TOSPAC was designed to investigate. For groundwater flow, TOSPAC can provide saturations, velocities, and and travel tunes for water in the rock matrix or the fractures in the unsaturated zone. TOSPAC can determine how hydrologic conditions vary when the rate of infiltration changes. For contaminant transport, TOSPAC can compute how much of a contaminant is dissolved in the water and how it is distributed. TOSPAC can determine how fast the solute is moving and the shape of the concentration front. And TOSPAC can be used to investigate how much of the contaminant remains in the inventory of a repository, how much is adsorbed onto the soil or rock matrix, and how much reaches the water table. Effective use of TOSPAC requires knowledge in a number of diverse disciplines, including real groundwater flow and transport, the mathematical models of groundwater flow and transport, real-world data required for the models, and the numerical solution of differential equations. Equally important is a realization of the limitations intrinsic to a computer model of complex physical phenomena. This User's Guide not only describes the mechanics of executing TOSPAC on a computer, but also examines these other topics

  20. Diurnal and seasonal variability in the radial distribution of sap flow: predicting total stem flow in Pinus taeda trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Chelcy R; Goranson, Carol E; Mitchell, Robert J; Will, Rodney E; Teskey, Robert O

    2004-09-01

    We monitored the radial distribution of sap flux density (v; g H2O m(-2) s(-1)) in the sapwood of six plantation-grown Pinus taeda L. trees during wet and dry soil periods. Mean basal diameter of the 32-year-old trees was 33.3 cm. For all trees, the radial distribution of sap flow in the base of the stem (i.e., radial profile) was Gaussian in shape. Sap flow occurred maximally in the outer 4 cm of sapwood, comprising 50-60% of total stem flow (F), and decreased toward the center, with the innermost 4 cm of sapwood (11-15 cm) comprising less than 10% of F. The percent of flow occurring in the outer 4 cm of sapwood was stable with time (average CV 40%). Diurnally, the radial profile changed predictably with time and with total stem flow. Seasonally, the radial profile became less steep as the soil water content (theta) declined from 0.38 to 0.21. Throughout the season, daytime sap flow also decreased as theta decreased; however, nighttime sap flow (an estimate of stored water use) remained relatively constant. As a result, the percentage of stored water use increased as theta declined. Time series analysis of 15-min values of F, theta, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and vapor pressure deficit (D) showed that F lagged behind D by 0-15 min and behind PAR by 15-30 min. Diurnally, the relationship between F and D was much stronger than the relationship between F and PAR, whereas no relationship was found between F and theta. An autoregressive moving average (ARIMA) model estimated that 97% of the variability in F could be predicted by D alone. Although total sap flow in all trees responded similarly to D, we show that the radial distribution of sap flow comprising total flow could change temporally, both on daily and seasonal scales.

  1. An innovative, sensorless, pulsatile, continuous-flow total artificial heart: device design and initial in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Horvath, David J; Massiello, Alex L; Fumoto, Hideyuki; Horai, Tetsuya; Rao, Santosh; Golding, Leonard A R

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a very small, innovative, continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) that passively self-balances left and right pump flows and atrial pressures without sensors. This report details the CFTAH design concept and our initial in vitro data. System performance of the CFTAH was evaluated using a mock circulatory loop to determine the range of systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance (SVR and PVR) levels over which the design goal of a maximum absolute atrial pressure difference of 10 mm Hg is achieved for a steady-state flow condition. Pump speed was then modulated at 2,600 +/- 900 rpm to induce flow and arterial pressure pulsation to evaluate the effects of speed pulsations on the system performance. An automatic control mode was also evaluated. Using only passive self-regulation, pump flows were balanced and absolute atrial pressure differences were maintained at mode adjusted pump speed to achieve targeted pump flows based on sensorless calculations of SVR and CFTAH flow. The initial in vitro testing of the CFTAH with a single, valveless, continuous-flow pump demonstrated its passive self-regulation of flows and atrial pressures and a new automatic control mode. Copyright (c) 2010 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Liquid Flow in Biofilm Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoodley, Paul; deBeer, Dirk; Lewandowski, Zbigniew

    1994-01-01

    A model biofilm consisting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Klebsiella pneumoniae was developed to study the relationships between structural heterogeneity and hydrodynamics. Local fluid velocity in the biofilm system was measured by a noninvasive method of particle image velocimetry, using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Velocity profiles were measured in conduit and porous medium reactors in the presence and absence of biofilm. Liquid flow was observed within biofilm channels; simultaneous imaging of the biofilm allowed the liquid velocity to be related to the physical structure of the biofilm. Images PMID:16349345

  3. An Inexpensive, Fast and Sensitive Quantitative Lateral Flow Magneto-Immunoassay for Total Prostate Specific Antigen

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Jacqueline M.; Wraith, Patrick; Kiely, Janice; Persad, Raj; Hurley, Katrina; Hawkins, Peter; Luxton, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM) to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs) in immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum samples. A detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL was achieved for total PSA using the RCM and is at clinically significant concentrations. Comparison of data obtained in a pilot study from the analysis of seru...

  4. Fluorescent multiplex cell flow systems and methods

    KAUST Repository

    Merzaban, Jasmeen

    2017-06-01

    Systems and methods are provided for simultaneously assaying cell adhesion or cell rolling for multiple cell specimens. One embodiment provides a system for assaying adhesion or cell rolling of multiple cell specimens that includes a confocal imaging system containing a parallel plate flow chamber, a pump in fluid communication with the parallel plate flow chamber via a flow chamber inlet line and a cell suspension in fluid communication with the parallel plate flow chamber via a flow chamber outlet line. The system also includes a laser scanning system in electronic communication with the confocal imaging system, and a computer in communication with the confocal imaging system and laser scanning system. In certain embodiments, the laser scanning system emits multiple electromagnetic wavelengths simultaneously it cause multiple fluorescent labels having different excitation wavelength maximums to fluoresce. The system can simultaneously capture real-time fluorescence images from at least seven cell specimens in the parallel plate flow chamber.

  5. Radionuclides in groundwater flow system understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erőss, Anita; Csondor, Katalin; Horváth, Ákos; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Surbeck, Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Using radionuclides is a novel approach to characterize fluids of groundwater flow systems and understand their mixing. Particularly, in regional discharge areas, where different order flow systems convey waters with different temperature, composition and redox-state to the discharge zone. Radium and uranium are redox-sensitive parameters, which causes fractionation along groundwater flow paths. Discharging waters of regional flow systems are characterized by elevated total dissolved solid content (TDS), temperature and by reducing conditions, and therefore with negligible uranium content, whereas local flow systems have lower TDS and temperature and represent oxidizing environments, and therefore their radium content is low. Due to the short transit time, radon may appear in local systems' discharge, where its source is the soil zone. However, our studies revealed the importance of FeOOH precipitates as local radon sources throughout the adsorption of radium transported by the thermal waters of regional flow systems. These precipitates can form either by direct oxidizing of thermal waters at discharge, or by mixing of waters with different redox state. Therefore elevated radon content often occurs in regional discharge areas as well. This study compares the results of geochemical studies in three thermal karst areas in Hungary, focusing on radionuclides as natural tracers. In the Buda Thermal Karst, the waters of the distinct discharge areas are characterized by different temperature and chemical composition. In the central discharge area both lukewarm (20-35°C, 770-980 mg/l TDS) and thermal waters (40-65°C, 800-1350 mg/l TDS), in the South only thermal water discharge (33-43°C, 1450-1700 mg/l TDS) occur. Radionuclides helped to identify mixing of fluids and to infer the temperature and chemical composition of the end members for the central discharge area. For the southern discharge zone mixing components could not be identified, which suggests different cave

  6. Integrated multi-parameter flow measurement system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; van der Wouden, E.J.; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Sparreboom, Wouter; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2014-01-01

    We have designed and realized an integrated multi-parameter flow measurement system, consisting of an integrated Coriolis and thermal flow sensor, and a pressure sensor. The integrated system enables on-chip measurement, analysis and determination of flow and several physical properties of both

  7. An Inexpensive, Fast and Sensitive Quantitative Lateral Flow Magneto-Immunoassay for Total Prostate Specific Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Jacqueline M.; Wraith, Patrick; Kiely, Janice; Persad, Raj; Hurley, Katrina; Hawkins, Peter; Luxton, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM) to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs) in immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum samples. A detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL was achieved for total PSA using the RCM and is at clinically significant concentrations. Comparison of data obtained in a pilot study from the analysis of serum samples with commercially available immunoassays shows good agreement. The development of a quantitative magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format for total PSA suggests the potential of the RCM to operate with many immunoassay formats. The RCM has the potential to be modified to quantify multiple analytes in this format. This research shows promise for the development of an inexpensive device capable of quantifying multiple analytes at the point-of-care using a magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format. PMID:25587419

  8. A total linearization method for solving viscous free boundary flow problems by the finite element method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, Nicolaas P.; Cuvelier, C.; Segal, A.; van der Zanden, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper a total linearization method is derived for solving steady viscous free boundary flow problems (including capillary effects) by the finite element method. It is shown that the influence of the geometrical unknown in the totally linearized weak formulation can be expressed in terms of

  9. COMPLEX DESIGN OF INTEGRATED MATERIAL FLOW SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    PÉTER TELEK; TAMÁS BÁNYAI

    2013-01-01

    Material flow systems have in generally very complex structure and relations. During design, building and operation of complex systems there are many different problems. This paper shows some usable solution for the design and selection process of material flow systems. We give a short overview about the theoretical principles of the design process, then describe the base design tasks, the possibilities of the using of heuristic algorithms and the modelling of material flow systems. At the en...

  10. Financial impact of a capitation matrix system on total knee and total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Benjamin; Fankhauser, Richard A; Fowler, Terry

    2009-08-01

    Total hip and total knee arthroplasty are high-volume surgical procedures that have a substantial economic impact for the healthcare system. This study analyzes the financial effect of a capitation matrix system on total knee and total hip implant costs over a 1-year period at a community hospital system. The matrix implant levels were based on implant characteristics, correlating increased technological sophistication of the various implants with increased but capitated payment to vendors. In the first year after the implementation of the matrix system, implant costs for the hospital decreased by 26.1% per implant for 369 total hip procedures and also by 26.1% per implant for 934 total knee procedures.

  11. 5th Total System Performance Assessment Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Lee, Youn Myoung; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Sung Ho

    2009-07-01

    Research items on safety assessment of high-level waste repository have been proposed by external invited experts outside KAERI and discussed extensively during the annual 5th performance assessment workshop prepared by safety assessment group in KAERI. This could be useful to set up R and D plans necessary for the next phase of mid- and long-term reaserch area regarding the safety assessment of high-level waste repository. Through the research and the presentation, HLW-related research and development area including such specific research items as current status of HLW safety assessment research, current requirement for the licensing of the repository system, priority on research area, data base building for the safety assessment, source-term modeling as well as safety case, among many others, have been discussed and summarized

  12. Generating pulsatility by pump speed modulation with continuous-flow total artificial heart in awake calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukamachi, Kiyotaka; Karimov, Jamshid H; Sunagawa, Gengo; Horvath, David J; Byram, Nicole; Kuban, Barry D; Dessoffy, Raymond; Sale, Shiva; Golding, Leonard A R; Moazami, Nader

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sinusoidal pump speed modulation of the Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) on hemodynamics and pump flow in an awake chronic calf model. The sinusoidal pump speed modulations, performed on the day of elective sacrifice, were set at ±15 and ± 25% of mean pump speed at 80 bpm in four awake calves with a CFTAH. The systemic and pulmonary arterial pulse pressures increased to 12.0 and 12.3 mmHg (±15% modulation) and to 15.9 and 15.7 mmHg (±25% modulation), respectively. The pulsatility index and surplus hemodynamic energy significantly increased, respectively, to 1.05 and 1346 ergs/cm at ±15% speed modulation and to 1.51 and 3381 ergs/cm at ±25% speed modulation. This study showed that it is feasible to generate pressure pulsatility with pump speed modulation; the platform is suitable for evaluating the physiologic impact of pulsatility and allows determination of the best speed modulations in terms of magnitude, frequency, and profiles.

  13. Image processing system for flow pattern measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushijima, Satoru; Miyanaga, Yoichi; Takeda, Hirofumi

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the development and application of an image processing system for measurements of flow patterns occuring in natural circulation water flows. In this method, the motions of particles scattered in the flow are visualized by a laser light slit and they are recorded on normal video tapes. These image data are converted to digital data with an image processor and then transfered to a large computer. The center points and pathlines of the particle images are numerically analized, and velocity vectors are obtained with these results. In this image processing system, velocity vectors in a vertical plane are measured simultaneously, so that the two dimensional behaviors of various eddies, with low velocity and complicated flow patterns usually observed in natural circulation flows, can be determined almost quantitatively. The measured flow patterns, which were obtained from natural circulation flow experiments, agreed with photographs of the particle movements, and the validity of this measuring system was confirmed in this study. (author)

  14. Effects of exercise and respiration on blood flow in total cavopulmonary connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortdal, V. E.; Emmertsen, K.; Stenbøg, E

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about blood flow and its relationship to respiration during exercise in patients with total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC). METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 11 patients 12.4+/-4.6 years (mean+/-SD) of age 5.9+/-2.8 years (mean+/-SD) after TCPC operation. Real-time MRI ......: In the TCPC, circulation IVC and aortic but not SVC flows increase with supine leg exercise. Inspiration facilitates IVC flow at rest but less so during exercise, when the peripheral pump seems to be more important.......BACKGROUND: Little is known about blood flow and its relationship to respiration during exercise in patients with total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC). METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 11 patients 12.4+/-4.6 years (mean+/-SD) of age 5.9+/-2.8 years (mean+/-SD) after TCPC operation. Real-time MRI...... was used to measure blood flow in the superior vena cava (SVC), inferior vena cava (IVC), and ascending aorta under inspiration and expiration during supine lower-limb exercise (rest, 0.5 and 1.0 W/kg) on an ergometer bicycle. IVC and aortic flow increased from 1.60+/-0.52 and 2.99+/-0.83 L/min per m2...

  15. Flow Sharing Systems for Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T. O.; Hansen, M. R.; Conrad, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This contribution reports about some analytical and simulation/experimental studies carried out on different flow control systems for mobile applications with respect to their ability to do flow sharing. All systems have two parallel actuators and are considered regarding functionality...

  16. Massively parallel data processing for quantitative total flow imaging with optical coherence microscopy and tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylwestrzak, Marcin; Szlag, Daniel; Marchand, Paul J.; Kumar, Ashwin S.; Lasser, Theo

    2017-08-01

    We present an application of massively parallel processing of quantitative flow measurements data acquired using spectral optical coherence microscopy (SOCM). The need for massive signal processing of these particular datasets has been a major hurdle for many applications based on SOCM. In view of this difficulty, we implemented and adapted quantitative total flow estimation algorithms on graphics processing units (GPU) and achieved a 150 fold reduction in processing time when compared to a former CPU implementation. As SOCM constitutes the microscopy counterpart to spectral optical coherence tomography (SOCT), the developed processing procedure can be applied to both imaging modalities. We present the developed DLL library integrated in MATLAB (with an example) and have included the source code for adaptations and future improvements. Catalogue identifier: AFBT_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AFBT_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPLv3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 913552 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 270876249 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: CUDA/C, MATLAB. Computer: Intel x64 CPU, GPU supporting CUDA technology. Operating system: 64-bit Windows 7 Professional. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes, CPU code has been vectorized in MATLAB, CUDA code has been parallelized. RAM: Dependent on users parameters, typically between several gigabytes and several tens of gigabytes Classification: 6.5, 18. Nature of problem: Speed up of data processing in optical coherence microscopy Solution method: Utilization of GPU for massively parallel data processing Additional comments: Compiled DLL library with source code and documentation, example of utilization (MATLAB script with raw data) Running time: 1,8 s for one B-scan (150 × faster in comparison to the CPU

  17. Drain Back, Low Flow Solar Combi Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Drain Back systems with ETC collectors are tested and analyzed in a Danish - Chinese cooperation project. Experiences from early work at DTU, with drain back, low flow systems, was used to design two systems: 1) One laboratory system at DTU and 2) One demonstration system in a single family house...

  18. Two-phase flow in refrigeration systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Junjie; Gan, Zhongxue

    2013-01-01

    Two-Phase Flow in Refrigeration Systems presents recent developments from the authors' extensive research programs on two-phase flow in refrigeration systems. This book covers advanced mass and heat transfer and vapor compression refrigeration systems and shows how the performance of an automotive air-conditioning system is affected through results obtained experimentally and theoretically, specifically with consideration of two-phase flow and oil concentration. The book is ideal for university postgraduate students as a textbook, researchers and professors as an academic reference book, and b

  19. An Inexpensive, Fast and Sensitive Quantitative Lateral Flow Magneto-Immunoassay for Total Prostate Specific Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Barnett

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs in immunochromatographic (lateral flow assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA in serum samples. A detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL was achieved for total PSA using the RCM and is at clinically significant concentrations. Comparison of data obtained in a pilot study from the analysis of serum samples with commercially available immunoassays shows good agreement. The development of a quantitative magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format for total PSA suggests the potential of the RCM to operate with many immunoassay formats. The RCM has the potential to be modified to quantify multiple analytes in this format. This research shows promise for the development of an inexpensive device capable of quantifying multiple analytes at the point-of-care using a magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format.

  20. Total Quality Management and the System Safety Secretary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Suzan E.

    1993-01-01

    The system safety secretary is a valuable member of the system safety team. As downsizing occurs to meet economic constraints, the Total Quality Management (TQM) approach is frequently adopted as a formula for success and, in some cases, for survival.

  1. Improvement of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer sensitivity by flowing nitrogen gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imashuku, Susumu; Tee, Deh Ping; Kawai, Jun

    2012-07-01

    The intensity of Ar Kα line was reduced by a factor of 17 times by flowing more than 400 mL min- 1 of N2 gas through gas pipe placed at the gap between the X-ray detector and the sample stage of the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer. The signal-to-background ratios of characteristic X-rays with energies less than 8 keV were improved by flowing N2 gas owing to the reduction of peak pileups related to the Ar Kα peak. The improvement of the signal-to-background ratios became significant as the energies of the characteristic X-rays approached that of the Ar Kα line (2.96 keV) for characteristic X-rays with energies less than 5 keV. When 1 μL of solution containing 10 mg L- 1 cadmium (10 ng) was measured with the TXRF spectrometer by flowing N2 gas, Cd Lα line was clearly observed, although the Cd Lα line overlapped with the Ar K lines without flowing N2 gas. The lower limit of detection of cadmium evaluated from the Cd Lα line was improved from 7.0 to 2.2 ng by flowing N2 gas. This N2 gas flowing technique can be applied to trace element analysis of cadmium in solutions which do not contain potassium such as leaching solutions from products containing cadmium in TXRF and conventional XRF measurements.

  2. Anterior knee pain after total knee arthroplasty: does it correlate with patellar blood flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Sandro; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios S; Hartel, Maximilian; Kohlhof, Hendrik; Roeder, Christoph; Eggli, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) disturbs patellar blood flow, an unintended accompaniment to TKA that may be a cause of postoperative anterior knee pain. We examine whether disrupted patellar blood flow correlates with anterior knee pain following TKA. In 50 patients (21 men, 29 women) undergoing TKA, we compared patellar blood flow at flexions 0° to 30°, 60°, 90°, and 110° before and after medial parapatellar arthrotomy to pre- and postoperative anterior knee pain scores by means of a laser Doppler flowmeter (LDF) probe. Anterior knee pain was assessed using the pain intensity numeric rating scale (NRS) of 0-10 (0-no, 10-worst pain). Based on the NRS pain values, patients were divided into two main groups: group A (n = 34) with no pain or discomfort (NRS range 0-4) and group B (n = 16) with anterior knee pain (NRS range 5-10). Patients of group B demonstrated a significant decrease in blood flow before arthrotomy at flexions from 0° to 90°, and 110° and from 0° to 60°, 90°, and 110° after arthrotomy. For group A, a significant decrease in blood flow was detected at flexions from 0° to 90°, and 110° before and after arthrotomy. For both groups, medial arthrotomy did not have a statistically significant influence on patellar blood flow (margin of significance P anterior knee pain (mean NRS 7.1 ± 1.7). At 2-year follow-up, pain significantly decreased (NRS 3.1 ± 2.1) and only 4 of the 16 patients (25%) complained of moderate anterior pain (average NRS 5.7 ± 0.5), while 8 of 16 (50%) patients reported discomfort (mean NRS 3.5 ± 1.8) around the patella. Patients in group A also demonstrated a significant decrease in pain intensity (from NRS 1.5 ± 1.4 preoperatively to NRS 0.4 ± 1.5 at 2-year follow-up). Statistical analysis demonstrated no statistically significant correlation between pre-arthrotomy/post-arthrotomy patellar blood flow and the presence of preoperative and postoperative anterior knee pain. Only the degree of flexion had an influence on

  3. Multisyringe flow injection lab-on-valve systems coupled to hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry for on-line bead-injection preconcentration and determination of total inorganic arsenic in environmental waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald

    stream network is assembled for accurate handling of solutions and on-line post column derivatization of the eluate for the generation of the volatile species. The potential of the new hyphenated technique for environmental assays was ascertained via the determination of ultratrace levels of total...... and 10% KI. The eluate merges downstream with a defined plug of sodium tetrahydroborate (0.3% w/v) for generation of arsine, which is subsequently quantified by AFS. An oxidation agent, namely 2x10-6 M potassium permanganate, was employed for the quantitative oxidation of As(III) to As(V) in the samples...

  4. Forecasting models for flow and total dissolved solids in Karoun river-Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmani, Mohammad Hassan; Salmani Jajaei, Efat

    2016-04-01

    Water quality is one of the most important factors contributing to a healthy life. From the water quality management point of view, TDS (total dissolved solids) is the most important factor and many water developing plans have been implemented in recognition of this factor. However, these plans have not been perfect and very successful in overcoming the poor water quality problem, so there are a good volume of related studies in the literature. We study TDS and the water flow of the Karoun river in southwest Iran. We collected the necessary time series data from the Harmaleh station located in the river. We present two Univariate Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Movement Average (ARIMA) models to forecast TDS and water flow in this river. Then, we build up a Transfer Function (TF) model to formulate the TDS as a function of water flow volume. A performance comparison between the Seasonal ARIMA and the TF models are presented.

  5. The closed circuit and the low flow systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Parthasarathy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A breathing system is defined as an assembly of components, which delivers gases from the anesthesia machine to the patients′ airways. When the components are arranged as a circle, it is termed a circle system. The flow of exhaled gases is unidirectional in the system. The system contains a component (absorber, which absorbs exhaled carbon dioxide and it is not necessary to give high fresh gas flows as in Mapleson systems. When the adjustable pressure limiting (APL valve is closed and all the exhaled gases without carbon dioxide are returned to the patient, the system becomes a totally closed one. Such a circle system can be used with flows as low as 250 to 500 mL and clinically can be termed as low-flow systems. The components of the circle system can be arranged in different ways with adherence to basic rules: (1 Unidirectional valve must be present between the reservoir bag and the patient on both inspiratory and expiratory sides; (2 fresh gas must not enter the system between the expiratory unidirectional valve and the patient; and (3 the APL valve must not be placed between the patient and the inspiratory unidirectional valve. The functional analysis is explained in detail. During the function, the arrangement of components is significant only at higher fresh gas flows. With the introduction of low resistance valves, improved soda lime canisters and low dead space connectors, the use of less complicated pediatric circle systems is gaining popularity to anesthetize children. There are bidirectional flow systems with carbon dioxide absorption. The Waters to and fro system, a classic example of bidirectional flow systems with a canister to absorb carbon dioxide, is valveless and portable. It was widely used in the past and now is only of historical importance.

  6. VLT Data Flow System Begins Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    conceived as a complex digital facility to explore the Universe. In order for astronomers to be able to use this marvellous research tool in the most efficient manner possible, the VLT computer software and hardware systems must guarantee a smooth flow of scientific information through the entire system. This process starts when the astronomers submit well-considered proposals for observing time and it ends with large volumes of valuable astronomical data being distributed to the international astronomical community. For this, ESO has produced an integrated collection of software and hardware, known as the VLT Data Flow System (DFS) , that manages and facilitates the flow of scientific information within the VLT Observatory. Early information about this new concept was published as ESO Press Release 12/96 and extensive tests were first carried out at ESOs 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla, cf. ESO Press Release 03/97 [1]. The VLT DFS is a complete (end-to-end) system that guarantees the highest data quality by optimization of the observing process and repeated checks that identify and eliminate any problems. It also introduces automatic calibration of the data, i.e. the removal of external effects introduced by the atmospheric conditions at the time of the observations, as well as the momentary state of the telescope and the instruments. From Proposals to Observations In order to obtain observing time with ESO telescopes, also with the VLT, astronomers must submit a detailed observing proposal to the ESO Observing Programmes Committee (OPC) . It meets twice a year and ranks the proposals according to scientific merit. More than 1000 proposals are submitted each year, mostly by astronomers from the ESO members states and Chile; the competition is fierce and only a fraction of the total demand for observing time can be fulfilled. During the submission of observing proposals, DFS software tools available over the World Wide Web enable the astronomers to simulate

  7. Compressed-air flow control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Ki Wan; Chapin, Stephen C; Pregibon, Daniel C; Baah, David; Floyd-Smith, Tamara M; Doyle, Patrick S

    2011-02-21

    We present the construction and operation of a compressed-air driven flow system that can be used for a variety of microfluidic applications that require rapid dynamic response and precise control of multiple inlet streams. With the use of inexpensive and readily available parts, we describe how to assemble this versatile control system and further explore its utility in continuous- and pulsed-flow microfluidic procedures for the synthesis and analysis of microparticles.

  8. Bioinspired sensory systems for local flow characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvert, Brendan; Chen, Kevin; Kanso, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that many aquatic organisms sense differential hydrodynamic signals.This sensory information is decoded to extract relevant flow properties. This task is challenging because it relies on local and partial measurements, whereas classical flow characterization methods depend on an external observer to reconstruct global flow fields. Here, we introduce a mathematical model in which a bioinspired sensory array measuring differences in local flow velocities characterizes the flow type and intensity. We linearize the flow field around the sensory array and express the velocity gradient tensor in terms of frame-independent parameters. We develop decoding algorithms that allow the sensory system to characterize the local flow and discuss the conditions under which this is possible. We apply this framework to the canonical problem of a circular cylinder in uniform flow, finding excellent agreement between sensed and actual properties. Our results imply that combining suitable velocity sensors with physics-based methods for decoding sensory measurements leads to a powerful approach for understanding and developing underwater sensory systems.

  9. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  10. Application of Total Quality Management System in Thai Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prueangphitchayathon, Setthiya; Tesaputa, Kowat; Somprach, Kanokorn

    2015-01-01

    The present study seeks to develop a total quality management (TQM) system that can be applied to primary schools. The approach focuses on customer orientation, total involvement of all constituencies and continuous improvement. TQM principles were studied and synthesized according to case studies of the best practices in 3 primary schools (small,…

  11. Aortopulmonary collateral flow quantification by MR at rest and during continuous submaximal exercise in patients with total cavopulmonary connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkrtchyan, Naira; Frank, Yvonne; Steinlechner, Eva; Calavrezos, Lenika; Meierhofer, Christian; Hager, Alfred; Martinoff, Stefan; Ewert, Peter; Stern, Heiko

    2017-11-06

    Aortopulmonary collateral flow is considered to have significant impact on the outcome of patients with single ventricle circulation and total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC). There is little information on collateral flow during exercise. To quantify aortopulmonary collateral flow at rest and during continuous submaximal exercise in clinical patients doing well with TCPC. Prospective, case controlled. Thirteen patients with TCPC (17 (11-37) years) and 13 age and sex-matched healthy controls (18 (11-38) years). 1.5T; free breathing; phase sensitive gradient echo sequence. Blood flow in the ascending and descending aorta and superior vena cava were measured at rest and during continuous submaximal physical exercise in patients and controls. Systemic blood flow (Q s ) was assumed to be represented by the sum of flow in the superior caval vein (Q svc ) and the descending aorta (Q AoD ) at the diaphragm level. Aortopulmonary collateral flow (Q coll ) was calculated by subtracting Q s from flow in the ascending aorta (Q AoA ). Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon test for comparison between groups and between rest and exercise. Absolute collateral flow in TCPC patients at rest was 0.4 l/min/m 2 (-0.1-1.2), corresponding to 14% (-2-42) of Q s . Collateral flow did not change during exercise (difference -0.01 (-0.7-1.0) l/min/m 2 , P = 0.97). TCPC patients had significantly lower Q s at rest (2.5 (1.6-4.1) vs. 3.5 (2.6-4.8) l/min/m 2 , P = 0.001) and during submaximal exercise (3.2 (2.0-6.0) vs. 4.8 (3.3-6.9) l/min/m 2 , P = 0.001), compared to healthy controls. The increase in Q s with exercise was also significantly lower in patients than in healthy controls (median 0.6 vs. 1.2 l/min/m 2 , P collateral flow at rest (14% of Q s ) compared to healthy controls, which does not change during submaximal exercise. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Modular load flow for restructured power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hariharan, M V; Gupta, Pragati P

    2016-01-01

    In the subject of power systems, authors felt that a re-look is necessary at some conventional methods of analysis. In this book, the authors have subjected the time-honoured load flow to a close scrutiny. Authors have discovered and discussed a new load flow procedure – Modular Load Flow. Modular Load Flow explores use of power – a scalar – as source for electrical circuits which are conventionally analysed by means of phasors – the ac voltages or currents. The method embeds Kirchhoff’s circuit laws as topological property into its scalar equations and results in a unique wonderland where phase angles do not exist! Generators are shown to have their own worlds which can be superimposed to obtain the state of the composite power system. The treatment is useful in restructured power systems where stakeholders and the system operators may desire to know individual generator contributions in line flows and line losses for commercial reasons. Solution in Modular Load Flow consists of explicit expression...

  13. Improvement of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer sensitivity by flowing nitrogen gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imashuku, Susumu, E-mail: imashuku.susumu.2m@kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tee, Deh Ping; Kawai, Jun

    2012-07-15

    The intensity of Ar K{alpha} line was reduced by a factor of 17 times by flowing more than 400 mL min{sup -1} of N{sub 2} gas through gas pipe placed at the gap between the X-ray detector and the sample stage of the total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer. The signal-to-background ratios of characteristic X-rays with energies less than 8 keV were improved by flowing N{sub 2} gas owing to the reduction of peak pileups related to the Ar K{alpha} peak. The improvement of the signal-to-background ratios became significant as the energies of the characteristic X-rays approached that of the Ar K{alpha} line (2.96 keV) for characteristic X-rays with energies less than 5 keV. When 1 {mu}L of solution containing 10 mg L{sup -1} cadmium (10 ng) was measured with the TXRF spectrometer by flowing N{sub 2} gas, Cd L{alpha} line was clearly observed, although the Cd L{alpha} line overlapped with the Ar K lines without flowing N{sub 2} gas. The lower limit of detection of cadmium evaluated from the Cd L{alpha} line was improved from 7.0 to 2.2 ng by flowing N{sub 2} gas. This N{sub 2} gas flowing technique can be applied to trace element analysis of cadmium in solutions which do not contain potassium such as leaching solutions from products containing cadmium in TXRF and conventional XRF measurements. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intensity of Ar K{alpha} line was decreased by a factor of 17 times by flowing N{sub 2} gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S/N of characteristic X-rays with energies less than 8 keV were improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection limit of cadmium calculated from Cd L{alpha} line was improved from 7.0 to 2.2 ng by flowing N{sub 2} gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This technique can be applied to trace element analysis of Cd in leaching solutions.

  14. Determination of total bacterial count in raw milk by flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Samaržija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic flow cytometry as routine method for total bacterial count determination of raw ex-farm milk has recently been accepted in Croatia. This method significantly differs from the reference method (Standard Plate Count mostly in the presentation of the results obtained. Therefore, this paper summarized experiences in the application of flow cytometry in the dairy laboratories practice. The principle and the practice of the method, methodological details and factors influencing the results were described. In order to avoid problems regarding the interpretation of the results, which aregeneral problems of the quantitative microbiology, this article try to explain an appropriate conversion of the results with regards to SPC/ml, as an official method for the bacteriological quality proposal by the national legislation.

  15. Physically Related Coordinate System for Compressible Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Wu, Zi-Niu

    In this paper we apply the unified coordinate system developed by Hui and his co-workers to the steady compressible flow computation in such a way that the grid is generated physically and automatically. At the beginning of computation one only needs to build a narrow layer of grids near the left boundary. It is demonstrated that by continuously injecting layers of grid in the inflow boundary, the grid will gradually fill up the entire flow domain.

  16. Acceleration of coupled granular flow and fluid flow simulations in pebble bed energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanheng, E-mail: liy19@rpi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY (United States); Ji, Wei, E-mail: jiw2@rpi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Fast simulation of coupled pebble flow and coolant flow in PBR systems is studied. ► Dimension reduction based on axisymmetric geometry shows significant speedup. ► Relaxation of coupling frequency is investigated and an optimal range is determined. ► A total of 80% efficiency increase is achieved by the two fast strategies. ► Fast strategies can be applied to simulating other general fluidized bed systems. -- Abstract: Fast and accurate approaches to simulating the coupled particle flow and fluid flow are of importance to the analysis of large particle-fluid systems. This is especially needed when one tries to simulate pebble flow and coolant flow in Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) energy systems on a routine basis. As one of the Generation IV designs, the PBR design is a promising nuclear energy system with high fuel performance and inherent safety. A typical PBR core can be modeled as a particle-fluid system with strong interactions among pebbles, coolants and reactor walls. In previous works, the coupled Discrete Element Method (DEM)-Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach has been investigated and applied to modeling PBR systems. However, the DEM-CFD approach is computationally expensive due to large amounts of pebbles in PBR systems. This greatly restricts the PBR analysis for the real time prediction and inclusion of more physics. In this work, based on the symmetry of the PBR geometry and the slow motion characteristics of the pebble flow, two acceleration strategies are proposed. First, a simplified 3D-DEM/2D-CFD approach is proposed to speed up the DEM-CFD simulation without loss of accuracy. Pebble flow is simulated by a full 3D DEM, while the coolant flow field is calculated with a 2D CFD simulation by averaging variables along the annular direction in the cylindrical and annular geometries. Second, based on the slow motion of pebble flow, the impact of the coupling frequency on the computation accuracy and efficiency is

  17. Acceleration of coupled granular flow and fluid flow simulations in pebble bed energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanheng; Ji, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fast simulation of coupled pebble flow and coolant flow in PBR systems is studied. ► Dimension reduction based on axisymmetric geometry shows significant speedup. ► Relaxation of coupling frequency is investigated and an optimal range is determined. ► A total of 80% efficiency increase is achieved by the two fast strategies. ► Fast strategies can be applied to simulating other general fluidized bed systems. -- Abstract: Fast and accurate approaches to simulating the coupled particle flow and fluid flow are of importance to the analysis of large particle-fluid systems. This is especially needed when one tries to simulate pebble flow and coolant flow in Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) energy systems on a routine basis. As one of the Generation IV designs, the PBR design is a promising nuclear energy system with high fuel performance and inherent safety. A typical PBR core can be modeled as a particle-fluid system with strong interactions among pebbles, coolants and reactor walls. In previous works, the coupled Discrete Element Method (DEM)-Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach has been investigated and applied to modeling PBR systems. However, the DEM-CFD approach is computationally expensive due to large amounts of pebbles in PBR systems. This greatly restricts the PBR analysis for the real time prediction and inclusion of more physics. In this work, based on the symmetry of the PBR geometry and the slow motion characteristics of the pebble flow, two acceleration strategies are proposed. First, a simplified 3D-DEM/2D-CFD approach is proposed to speed up the DEM-CFD simulation without loss of accuracy. Pebble flow is simulated by a full 3D DEM, while the coolant flow field is calculated with a 2D CFD simulation by averaging variables along the annular direction in the cylindrical and annular geometries. Second, based on the slow motion of pebble flow, the impact of the coupling frequency on the computation accuracy and efficiency is

  18. Preliminary installment of total picture archiving and communication systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, E.; Takanashi, S.; Suda, Y.; Furui, S.; Yoshida, H.; Hosaka, Y.; Fukui, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper studied the image quality of various medical digital images and to install a small but total image management and communication system to file images. The system consists of a filing system with a laser scanning digitizer (2,000 x 2,000 x 8 bits), an optical disk (3.8 GB), two HD CRTs, and a 1.6 GB magnetic disk. This system can file on-line the images from a second filing system with FCR (on-line) and a Konica direct imaging system during treatment and follow-up, a CCD TV simulator system for a remote after-loading system, a dose map on CT and MR images through a self-made treatment planning system on the PC level, a CCD TV (RGB) system for local lesions, and portal images, through the imaging plate, for brachytherapy

  19. From Traffic Flow to Economic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, M.

    The optimal velocity model which is applied to traffic flow phenomena explains a spontaneous formation of traffic congestion. We discuss why the model works well in describing both free-flow and congested flow states in a unified way. The essential ingredient is that our model takes account of a sort of time delay in reacting to a given stimulus. This causes instability of many-body system, and yields a kind of phase transition above a certain critical density. Especially there appears a limit cycle on the phase space along which individual vehicle moves, and they show cyclic behavior. Once that we recognize the mechanism the same idea can be applied to a variety of phenomena which show cyclic behavior observed in many-body systems. As an example of such applications, we investigate business cycles commonly observed in economic system. We further discuss a possible origin of a kind of cyclic behavior observed in climate change.

  20. Micro Total Analysis Systems: Microfluidic aspects, integration concept and applications

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, Albert; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this contribution three aspects of miniaturized total analysis systems (µTAS) are described and discussed in detail. First, an overview of microfabricated components for fluid handling is given. A description of the importance of sampling- and fluid-handling techniques is followed by details of microvalves, micropumps and micro flowchannels. Secondly, the problems associated with system integration are discussed. As a solution for the realization of microfluidic- and micro analysis systems...

  1. Operational data flow between hydrological forecasting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Femke; de Kleermaeker, Simone; van Loenen, Arnejan; Gijsbers, Peter; Bogaard, Tom; Twigt, Daniel; Heynert, Karel

    2014-05-01

    One of the major challenges in operational forecasting is organizing and controlling the flow of data. In the Water Management Centre for the Netherlands several FEWS (Flood Early Warning Systems) have been set up for operational use. The six systems specialize in different areas, namely i) fluvial flooding, ii) water distribution during droughts, iii) real time control of canal water levels and gauges, iv) coastal flooding, v) lake management and flooding and vi) water management in the delta area. These systems obtain data partly from the same but also from different data sources. Each individual system uses (different) models and pre and post processing steps that have been optimized for the most important parameters. It is crucial to exchange data and forecasts in an efficient way between the systems, for example to use as boundaries in model runs. This paper will describe the methods and challenges that we face in organizing the data flow between these systems.

  2. Creating innovative environment in total quality management system within companies

    OpenAIRE

    Mitreva, Elizabeta

    2009-01-01

    The decision for development of the quality providing system could go in line with the company’s expansion and with the concept of the total quality management (TQM). The most diligent-untouchable assets within the companies are referring to the relation with the customers/consumers, employee’s skills and their knowledge and building an organizational culture tending towards innovations, problem solving and total working promotion. The paper discusses attitude of companies in Mace...

  3. Gas diffusion-flow injection determination of total inorganic carbon in water using tungsten oxide electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monser, L; Adhoum, N; Sadok, S

    2004-02-06

    A novel gas diffusion-flow injection method has been developed for the rapid and sensitive determination of total inorganic carbon (TIC) in water. The method is based on the diffusion of CO(2) across gas permeable membrane from a donor stream containing 0.1M HCl to an acceptor stream of sodium acetate (10(-5)moll(-1) and pH 10). The CO(2) trapped in the acceptor stream passes through an electrochemical flow cell contains a tungsten oxide wire and a silver/silver chloride electrode, where it was sensitively detected. The parameters affecting the sensitivity of the electrode such as buffer concentration, pH, flow rate and injected volume were studied in detail. The electrode response was linear in the concentration range from 5 to 100mugml(-1) CO(3)(2-) with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.998. Precision (R.S.D.) was 1.42% for 20mugml(-1) standard solution of CO(3)(2-) (n=10). The detection limit was 0.20mugml(-1) CO(3)(2-). The method was evaluated by the injection of real natural water samples and an average recovery of 100.1% was obtained. The sampling rate was 30 samplesh(-1). The method is simple, feasible with satisfactory accuracy and precision and thus could be used for monitoring TIC in water.

  4. Associations between total cerebral blood flow and age related changes of the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan C G M van Es

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although total cerebral blood flow (tCBF is known to be related to age, less is known regarding the associations between tCBF and the morphologic changes of the brain accompanying cerebral aging. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether total cerebral blood flow (tCBF is related to white matter hyperintensity (WMH volume and/or cerebral atrophy. Furthermore, we investigate whether tCBF should be expressed in mL/min, as was done in all previous MR studies, or in mL/100 mL/min, which yielded good results in precious SPECT, PET and perfusion MRI studies investigating regional cerebral blood flow. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were included from the nested MRI sub-study of the PROSPER study. Dual fast spin echo and FLAIR images were obtained in all patients. In addition, single slice phase contrast MR angiography was used for flow measurements in the internal carotids and vertebral arteries. tCBF was expressed in both mL/min and mL/100 mL/min. RESULTS: We found a significant correlation between tCBF in mL/min and both age (r = -.124; p = ptotal WMH volume (r = -.069; p = .148. When tCBF was expressed in mL/100 mL/min the correlation between tCBF and age was no longer found (r = -.001; p = .985. Multivariate regression analyses corrected for age showed a significant correlation between tCBF in mL/100 mL/min and WMH volume (r = -.106; p = .044. No significant association between tCBF in mL/100 mL/min and %-atrophy was found. CONCLUSION: From this study we conclude that, when evaluating tCBF alterations due to various pathologies, tCBF should in mL/100 mL/min instead of mL/min. Furthermore, changes or differences in WMH volume should be accounted for.

  5. On the conditional total stability of equilibrium for mechanical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Salvadori

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the problem of observability, properties of total stability restricted to classes of perturbations of the governing equations are discussed for the equilibrium of holonomic mechanical systems. These systems are subject to positional conservative and dissipative forces. The particular case of a null dissipation is included. The perturbations to which the total stability is restricted are those obtained by modifying the kinetic energy, the potential of the conservative force, and the dissipative terms, without altering the Lagrangian form of the equations of the motion.

  6. Optimized design of total energy systems: The RETE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alia, P.; Dallavalle, F.; Denard, C.; Sanson, F.; Veneziani, S.; Spagni, G.

    1980-05-01

    The RETE (Reggio Emilia Total Energy) project is discussed. The total energy system (TES) was developed to achieve the maximum quality matching on the thermal energy side between plant and user and perform an open scheme on the electrical energy side by connection with the Italian electrical network. The most significant qualitative considerations at the basis of the plant economic energy optimization and the selection of the operating criterion most fitting the user consumption characteristics and the external system constraints are reported. The design methodology described results in a TES that: in energy terms achieves a total efficiency evaluated on a yearly basis to be equal to about 78 percent and a fuel saving of about 28 percent and in economic terms allows a recovery of the investment required as to conventional solutions, in about seven years.

  7. Micro Total Analysis Systems: Microfluidic aspects, integration concept and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Albert; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this contribution three aspects of miniaturized total analysis systems (µTAS) are described and discussed in detail. First, an overview of microfabricated components for fluid handling is given. A description of the importance of sampling- and fluid-handling techniques is followed by details of

  8. 21 CFR 862.1165 - Catecholamines (total) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catecholamines (total) test system. 862.1165 Section 862.1165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1275 - Estrogens (total, nonpregnancy) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estrogens (total, nonpregnancy) test system. 862.1275 Section 862.1275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1470 - Lipid (total) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... used in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases involving lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lipid (total) test system. 862.1470 Section 862.1470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  11. The impact of a total reward system of work engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Hoole

    2016-11-01

    Research purpose: The overall purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between total rewards and work engagement in a South African context and to determine which reward categories predict work engagement. The study further endeavoured to determine whether gender and age had a moderating effect on the relationship between total rewards and engagement. Motivation for the study: Statistics report that less than 30% of all working people are optimally engaged in their work. Considering that individuals spend more than a third of their lives at work committing themselves emotionally, physically and psychologically – research indicates that employees are no longer satisfied with traditional reward systems and want to feel valued and appreciated. Research approach, design and method: In this quantitative, cross-sectional research design using a non-probability convenience and purposive sampling strategy, 318 questionnaires were collected and analysed from financial institutions in Gauteng in which opinions were sought on the importance of different types of rewards structures and preferences, and how engaged they are in their workplace. The 17-item UWES and Nienaber total reward preference model were the chosen measuring instruments. Main findings: A small statistically significant correlation (r = 0.25; p < 0.05; small effect was found between total rewards and work engagement, and 12% of the variance of work engagement was explained. Only performance and career management significantly predicted work engagement. Practical/Managerial implications: Although small, the significant correlation between total rewards and work engagement implies that total rewards are important motivators for employees in the workplace. Of the total rewards scales tested, only performance and career management significantly predicted work engagement, suggesting that more research is needed. Organisations seeking to implement total reward strategies should pay specific

  12. Computer-based anthropometrical system for total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Nieto, B; Sánchez-Doblado, F; Terrón, J A; Arráns, R; Errazquin, L

    1997-05-01

    For total body irradiation (TBI) dose calculation requirements, anatomical information about the whole body is needed. Despite the fact that video image grabbing techniques are used by some treatment planning systems for standard radiotherapy, there are no such systems designed to generate anatomical parameters for TBI planning. The paper describes an anthropometrical computerised system based on video image grabbing which was purpose-built to provide anatomical data for a PC-based TBI planning system. Using software, the system controls the acquisition and digitalisation of the images (external images of the patient in treatment position) and the measurement procedure itself (on the external images or the digital CT information). An ASCII file, readable by the TBI planning system, is generated to store the required parameters of the dose calculation points, i.e. depth, backscatter tissue thickness, thickness of inhomogeneity, off-axis distance (OAD) and source to skin distance (SSD).

  13. Total System Performance Assessment: Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.D. Mattie

    1999-06-23

    The purpose of this calculation is to document total system performance assessment modeling of Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) Feature IV. Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations for EDA IV are based on the TSPA-VA Base Case which has been modified with a quartz sand invert, quartz sand backfill, line loading and 21 PWR waste packages that have 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistant material (CRM) drip shields that are placed over a 30 cm thick carbon steel (A5 16) waste package with an integral filler material (CRWMS M&O 1999a & 1999b). This document details the changes and assumptions made to the VA reference Performance Assessment Model (CRWMS M&O 1998a) to incorporate the design changes detailed for EDA IV. The performance measure for this evaluation is the expected value dose-rate history at 20 km from the repository boundary.

  14. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeish, J.

    2003-01-01

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document

  15. Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2002-09-13

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issue (KTI) agreements, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (CNWRA 2002 [158449]), and 10 CFR Part 63. This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are utilized in this document.

  16. Total lymphoid irradiation in refractory systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Chetrit, E.; Gross, D.J.; Braverman, A.; Weshler, Z.; Fuks, Z.; Slavin, S.; Eliakim, M.

    1986-07-01

    In two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, conventional therapy was considered to have failed because of persistent disease activity and unacceptable side effects. Both were treated with total lymphoid irradiation without clinical benefit, despite adequate immunosuppression as documented by markedly reduced numbers of circulating T lymphocytes and T-lymphocyte-dependent proliferative responses in vitro. The first patient developed herpes zoster, gram-negative septicemia, neurologic symptoms, and deterioration of lupus nephritis. The second patient developed massive bronchopneumonia, necrotic cutaneous lesions, and progressive nephritis and died 2 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. These observations, although limited to two patients, indicate that total lymphoid irradiation in patients with severe systemic lupus erythematosus should be regarded as strictly experimental.

  17. Total lymphoid irradiation in refractory systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Chetrit, E.; Gross, D.J.; Braverman, A.; Weshler, Z.; Fuks, Z.; Slavin, S.; Eliakim, M.

    1986-01-01

    In two patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, conventional therapy was considered to have failed because of persistent disease activity and unacceptable side effects. Both were treated with total lymphoid irradiation without clinical benefit, despite adequate immunosuppression as documented by markedly reduced numbers of circulating T lymphocytes and T-lymphocyte-dependent proliferative responses in vitro. The first patient developed herpes zoster, gram-negative septicemia, neurologic symptoms, and deterioration of lupus nephritis. The second patient developed massive bronchopneumonia, necrotic cutaneous lesions, and progressive nephritis and died 2 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. These observations, although limited to two patients, indicate that total lymphoid irradiation in patients with severe systemic lupus erythematosus should be regarded as strictly experimental

  18. Gingival blood flow under total combs by functional pressure evaluated with laser-Doppler flowmetry, a non-invasive method of blood flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengl, St.

    1996-09-01

    Gingival blood flow under total-combs by functional pressure evaluated with Laser-Doppler Flowmetry, a non-invasive method of blood flow measurement. Microcirculation of gum's capillary system can be measured non-invasive by Laser-Doppler-Flowmetry (LDF). Circulation, defined by the number of floating erythrocytes per unit of time, is measured by a fibro-optical Laser-Doppler-Flowmetry. The task was to examine, if there is any change of gum's circulation during strain and relief. Circulation on defined measurepoints, divided on the four quadrants, was determined among maximal strain and subsequent relief, on one probationer (complete denture bearer). Before every measure session systemic pressure was taken. LDF-value was taken on top of jaw-comb, in doing so, to get reproducible result and a satisfying fixation of the probe, there was made an artificial limb of the upper and lower comb. In the upper comb a dynamometer-box, which determined minimal and maximal comb pressure, was integrated. The received results of the LDF-measurement, expressed as perfusion units (PU) were lower under applied pressure than by pressure points more distant. Hyperemia, resulting during relief, seemed the more intense, the less perfusion was before. This new, non-invasive kind of circulation measurement seems to be quite predestined to be used for gingival diagnostic under artificial limb in the future. (author)

  19. Total controllability for nonlinear perturbed discrete systems | Nse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assume G to be a target set in En, the n-dimensional Euclidean space. A control system is said to be totally G-controllable if each point of the state space En can be steered to G in finite time t1 (0≤ t1≤∞) and thereafter stabilized in G for all time t2 ≥ t1 (t2≤ ∞). In this paper we adopt Leray-Schauder fixed point ...

  20. Development of a totally integrated severe accident training system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ko Ryu; Park, Sun Hee; Choi, Young; Kim, Dong Ha

    2006-01-01

    Recently KAERI has developed the severe accident management guidance to establish the Korea standard severe accident management system. On the other hand the PC-based severe accident training simulator SATS has been developed, which uses the MELCOR code as the simulation engine. The simulator SATS graphically displays and simulates the severe accidents with interactive user commands. Especially the control capability of SATS could make a severe accident training course more interesting and effective. In this paper we will describe the development and functions of the electrical guidance module, HyperKAMG, and the SATS-HyperKAMG linkage system designed for a totally integrated and automated severe accident training. (author)

  1. Economics of human performance and systems total ownership cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onkham, Wilawan; Karwowski, Waldemar; Ahram, Tareq Z

    2012-01-01

    Financial costs of investing in people is associated with training, acquisition, recruiting, and resolving human errors have a significant impact on increased total ownership costs. These costs can also affect the exaggerate budgets and delayed schedules. The study of human performance economical assessment in the system acquisition process enhances the visibility of hidden cost drivers which support program management informed decisions. This paper presents the literature review of human total ownership cost (HTOC) and cost impacts on overall system performance. Economic value assessment models such as cost benefit analysis, risk-cost tradeoff analysis, expected value of utility function analysis (EV), growth readiness matrix, multi-attribute utility technique, and multi-regressions model were introduced to reflect the HTOC and human performance-technology tradeoffs in terms of the dollar value. The human total ownership regression model introduces to address the influencing human performance cost component measurement. Results from this study will increase understanding of relevant cost drivers in the system acquisition process over the long term.

  2. Internal Logistics System Selection with Total Cost of Ownership Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Inês; Pimentel, Carina; Godina, Radu; Matias, João C. O.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper a methodology was followed in order to support the decision-making of one industrial unit regarding its internal logistics system. The addressed factory was facing issues with their internal logistics approach. Some alternatives were pointed out and a proper total cost of ownership (TCO) analysis was developed. This analysis was taken in order to demonstrate the more cost-effective solution for the internal logistics system. This tool is more and more valued by the companies, due to their willing to reduce the costs that are associated with the way of doing business. Despite the proposal of the best choice for the internal logistics system of the enterprise, this study also intends to present some conclusions about the match between the nature of the industrial unit and the logistics systems that best fit the requirements of those.

  3. A Total Information Management System For All Medical Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimette, Donald; Nudelman, Sol; Ramsby, Gale; Spackman, Thomas

    1985-09-01

    A PACS has been designed for the University of Connecticut Health Center to serve all departments acquiring images for diagnosis, surgery and therapy. It incorporates a multiple community communications architecture to provide complete information management for medical images, medical data and departmental administrative matter. The system is modular and expandable. It permits an initial installation for radiology and subsequent expansion to include other departments at the Health Center, beginning with internal medicine, surgery, ophthalmology and dentistry. The design permits sufficient expansion to offer the potential for accepting the additional burden of a hospital information system. Primary parameters that led to this system design were based on the anticipation that departments in time could achieve generating 60 to 90% of their images suited to insertion in a PACS, that a high network throughput for large block image transfers would be essen-tial and that total system reliability was fundamental to success.

  4. Modelling of electrical power systems for power flow analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogo, Joao Roberto [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The industry systems in Brazil are responsible for a consumption of over 50% (fifty per cent) of the total electrical power generated: therefore, they are import loads in power flow studies, and their modeling should be as much the best. Usually, in power flow studies, the industry systems are modeled by taking the influence of the power (active and reactive) and of the current on the voltage into account. Since the inducting motors, within the industry systems, represent at least 50% (fifty per cent) of the power consumption, and a large part of them is oversize, it is proposed to represent the industry systems as a function of the characteristic of power on shaft versus voltage into account. Since the induction motors, within the industry systems, represent at least 50% (fifty per cent) of the power consumption, and a large part of them is oversized, it is proposed to represent the industry systems as a function of the characteristics of power on shaft versus voltage for the analysis of power systems, aiming a load flow study. Thereafter, a model of an equivalent motor which has a basis the typical performance curve of an induction motor is present. This model is obtained from empirical parameters, surveyed from a population of over 1000 motors. (author) 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. Hydrogen production from methane using an RF plasma source in total nonambipolar flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longmier, Benjamin W; Gallimore, Alec D; Hershkowitz, Noah

    2012-01-01

    A radio-frequency (RF) helicon plasma reaction chamber (HPRC) is developed and used to decompose methane gas into high-purity hydrogen gas and solid carbon in the form of graphite. A single-turn (m = 0) helicon antenna, operated at 13.56 MHz, and a 100 G dipole magnetic field are used to excite a helicon mode in a nonthermal plasma, creating plasma densities exceeding 10 13 cm −3 using 8–20 SCCM methane gas at up to 1300 W of RF power. The HPRC device takes advantage of a uniform large amplitude electron sheath across the exit aperture. At this aperture, all of the incident electron flux from the plasma is extracted and all ions are reflected back into the source. In this way, only neutrals and electrons are allowed out of the reaction chamber, enhancing the breakdown of methane into deposited carbon and hydrogen gas that escapes. A methane decomposition percentage of 99.99 ± 0.06% is demonstrated using 1300 W of RF power and a methane gas flow rate of 8 SCCM. A total nonambipolar flow of particles maximizes the recirculation of ions, and leads to the very high degree of molecular decomposition achieved in this proof-of-concept device. The HPRC in its present proof-of-concept form requires 37× more energy per kg of H 2 produced, compared with steam-methane reformation, though this energy comparison does not include the energy required to sequester the emitted CO 2 during the steam–methane reformation cycle.

  6. Transport and flow characteristics of an oscillating cylindrical fiber for total artificial lung application

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan

    2017-06-28

    Mass transport and fluid dynamics characteristics in the vicinity of an oscillating cylindrical fiber with an imposed pulsatile inflow condition are computationally investigated in the present study. The work is motivated by a recently proposed design modification to the Total Artificial Lung (TAL) device, which is expected to provide better gas exchange. Navier–Stokes computations, coupled with convection–diffusion equation are performed to assess flow dynamics and mass transport behavior around the oscillating fiber. The oscillations and the pulsatile free stream velocity are represented by two sinusoidal functions. The resulting non-dimensional parameters are Keulegan–Carpenter number (KC), Schmidt number (Sc), Reynolds number (Re), pulsatile inflow amplitude (), and amplitude of cylinder oscillation (). Results are computed for , Sc = 1000, Re = 5 and 10, and 0.7 and 0.25 5.25. The pulsatile inflow parameters correspond to the flow velocities found in human pulmonary artery while matching the operating TAL Reynolds number. Mass transport from the surface of the cylinder to the bulk fluid is found to be primarily dependent on the size of surface vortices created by the movement of the cylinder. Time-averaged surface Sherwood number (Sh) is dependent on the amplitude and KC of cylinder oscillation. Compared to the fixed cylinder case, a significant gain up to 380% in Sh is achieved by oscillating the cylinder even at the small displacement amplitude (AD = 0.75D). Moreover, with decrease in KC the oscillating cylinder exhibits a lower drag amplitude compared with the fixed cylinder case. Inflow pulsation amplitude has minor effects on the mass transport characteristics. However, an increase in results in an increase in the amplitude of the periodic drag force on the cylinder. This rise in the drag amplitude is similar to that measured for the fixed cylinder case. Quantifications of shear stress distribution in the bulk fluid suggest that the physiological

  7. Impact of enhanced flow on the flow system and wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The excess flow on low depth wetlands may cause overflows and destroy both the ecosystem and the livelihood of the local people. In this study, the pattern identification capability of neuro-genetic models was used to estimate the impact of the excess flow on sewage-fed wetlands. Two neural network models were created ...

  8. Reactor core flow rate control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Hitoshi; Tanikawa, Naoshi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Miyakawa, Tetsuya.

    1996-01-01

    When an internal pump is started by a variable frequency power source device, if magnetic fields of an AC generator are introduced after the rated speed is reached, neutron flux high scram occurs by abrupt increase of a reactor core flow rate. Then, in the present invention, magnetic fields for the AC generator are introduced at a speed previously set at which the fluctuation range of the reactor core flow rate (neutron flux) by the start up of the internal pump is within an allowable value. Since increase of the speed of the internal pump upon its start up is suppressed to determine the change of the reactor core flow rate within an allowable range, increase of neutron fluxes is suppressed to enable stable start up. Then, since transition boiling of fuels caused by abrupt decrease of the reactor core flow rate upon occurrence of abnormality in an external electric power system is prevented, and the magnetic fields for the AC generator are introduced in such a manner to put the speed increase fluctuation range of the internal pump upon start up within an allowable value, neutron flux high scram is not caused to enable stable start-up. (N.H.)

  9. Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness. [Geothermally heated]. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogleman, S.F.; Fisher, L.A.; Black, A.R.; Singh, D.P.

    1977-05-01

    An engineering and economic study was made to determine a practical balance of selected agribusiness subsystems resulting in realistic estimated produce yields for a geothermally heated system known as the Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness. The subsystem cycles for an average application at an unspecified hydrothermal resources site in the western United States utilize waste and by-products from their companion cycles insofar as practicable. Based on conservative estimates of current controlled environment yields, produce wholesale market prices, production costs, and capital investment required, it appears that the family-operation-sized TERSA module presents the potential for marginal recovery of all capital investment costs. In addition to family- or small-cooperative-farming groups, TERSA has potential users in food-oriented corporations and large-cooperative-agribusiness operations. The following topics are considered in detail: greenhouse tomatoes and cucumbers; fish farming; mushroom culture; biogas generation; integration methodology; hydrothermal fluids and heat exchanger selection; and the system. 133 references. (MHR)

  10. Influence of systemic factors in use of total prostheses

    OpenAIRE

    Lima Chaves, Carolina de Andrade [UNESP; Zardo Trindade, Flávia [UNESP; Sgavioli Massucato, Elaine Maria [UNESP; Mollo Junior, Francisco de Assis [UNESP; Compagnoni, Marco Antonio [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    Considerando la posible influencia de las enfermedades sistémicas y de los medicamentos utilizados para su tratamiento en la cavidad bucal, el presente estudio se propone realizar una revisión de la literatura sobre el tema, enfatizando la influencia de estos factores en el uso de las prótesis totales (PTs), con el fin de proporcionar al cirujano-dentista un mejor conocimiento científico para la realización de ese tipo de tratamiento rehabilitador.According to the possible influence of system...

  11. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Glenn O.; Ferrell, Regina K.; Kercel, Stephen W.; Abston, Ruth A.

    1995-01-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a traffic flow wide-area surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  12. Issues associated with a total systems approach to designing dependable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisholm, G.H.

    1995-01-01

    A total system approach, developed by the nuclear-reactor-safety community, is extrapolated to the design of complex, critical systems. The essential properties of these systems are described, and a generic paradigm for subsequent designs is proposed

  13. Total hydrocarbon content (THC) testing in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, B. J.; Obregon, R. E.; Ross, H. R.; Hebert, B. J.; Sass, J. P.; Dirschka, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The measured Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) levels in liquid oxygen (LOX) systems at Stennis Space Center (SSC) have shown wide variations. Examples of these variations include the following: 1) differences between vendor-supplied THC values and those obtained using standard SSC analysis procedures; and 2) increasing THC values over time at an active SSC test stand in both storage and run vessels. A detailed analysis of LOX sampling techniques, analytical instrumentation, and sampling procedures will be presented. Additional data obtained on LOX system operations and LOX delivery trailer THC values during the past 12-24 months will also be discussed. Field test results showing THC levels and the distribution of the THC's in the test stand run tank, modified for THC analysis via dip tubes, will be presented.

  14. Profiling Total Viable Bacteria in a Hemodialysis Water Treatment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihua; Zhu, Xuan; Zhang, Menglu; Wang, Yuxin; Lv, Tianyu; Zhang, Shenghua; Yu, Xin

    2017-05-28

    Culture-dependent methods, such as heterotrophic plate counting (HPC), are usually applied to evaluate the bacteriological quality of hemodialysis water. However, these methods cannot detect the uncultured or viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria, both of which may be quantitatively predominant throughout the hemodialysis water treatment system. Therefore, propidium monoazide (PMA)-qPCR associated with HPC was used together to profile the distribution of the total viable bacteria in such a system. Moreover, high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was utilized to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. The HPC results indicated that the total bacterial counts conformed to the standards, yet the bacteria amounts were abruptly enhanced after carbon filter treatment. Nevertheless, the bacterial counts detected by PMA-qPCR, with the highest levels of 2.14 × 10 7 copies/100 ml in softener water, were much higher than the corresponding HPC results, which demonstrated the occurrence of numerous uncultured or VBNC bacteria among the entire system before reverse osmosis (RO). In addition, the microbial community structure was very different and the diversity was enhanced after the carbon filter. Although the diversity was minimized after RO treatment, pathogens such as Escherichia could still be detected in the RO effluent. In general, both the amounts of bacteria and the complexity of microbial community in the hemodialysis water treatment system revealed by molecular approaches were much higher than by traditional method. These results suggested the higher health risk potential for hemodialysis patients from the up-to-standard water. The treatment process could also be optimized, based on the results of this study.

  15. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2003-12-08

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document.

  16. Aqueous electrolytes for redox flow battery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2017-10-17

    An aqueous redox flow battery system includes an aqueous catholyte and an aqueous anolyte. The aqueous catholyte may comprise (i) an optionally substituted thiourea or a nitroxyl radical compound and (ii) a catholyte aqueous supporting solution. The aqueous anolyte may comprise (i) metal cations or a viologen compound and (ii) an anolyte aqueous supporting solution. The catholyte aqueous supporting solution and the anolyte aqueous supporting solution independently may comprise (i) a proton source, (ii) a halide source, or (iii) a proton source and a halide source.

  17. Total quality environmental management: Integrating environmental and quality management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carley, J.A.; Kubala, G.; Hudson, T. [and others

    1996-11-01

    As the oilfield industry strives to globally sustain continuous movement of environmental and quality performance, companies have come to realize Total Quality Environmental Management (TQEM) is essential in product research, development manufacturing and services. As our industry endeavors to continuously improve, more emphasis is being placed upon the management systems we apply such as ISO 14000 and ISO 9000. These standards are tools for improving environmental and quality performance, meeting customer requirements, and increasing profitability. lbs paper presents actual examples of the successful integration of environmental and quality management systems into an operational TQEM system. Also presented are pilot study evaluations of the draft ISO 14000 standards by two certified ISO 9000 facilities. Examples of continuous improvement and cross-functional teams as means to merge environment and quality management into the functions of process control, corrective and preventive action, document control, and waste management are presented. Results and improvements from facilities involved with TQEM discussed along with their strategies and progress in consolidating the environmental and quality programs into a single, viable management system. The case histories from various facilities demonstrate the implementation of TQEM and in TQEM promotes a cleaner environment, reduces costs, con- serves energy and raw materials, minimizes pollutants and wastes, and reduces redundant paperwork.

  18. Viscosity-adjusted estimation of pressure head and pump flow with quasi-pulsatile modulation of rotary blood pump for a total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurimoto, Terumi; Hara, Shintaro; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Ono, Toshiya; Abe, Yusuke

    2016-09-01

    Estimation of pressure and flow has been an important subject for developing implantable artificial hearts. To realize real-time viscosity-adjusted estimation of pressure head and pump flow for a total artificial heart, we propose the table estimation method with quasi-pulsatile modulation of rotary blood pump in which systolic high flow and diastolic low flow phased are generated. The table estimation method utilizes three kinds of tables: viscosity, pressure and flow tables. Viscosity is estimated from the characteristic that differential value in motor speed between systolic and diastolic phases varies depending on viscosity. Potential of this estimation method was investigated using mock circulation system. Glycerin solution diluted with salty water was used to adjust viscosity of fluid. In verification of this method using continuous flow data, fairly good estimation could be possible when differential pulse width modulation (PWM) value of the motor between systolic and diastolic phases was high. In estimation under quasi-pulsatile condition, inertia correction was provided and fairly good estimation was possible when the differential PWM value was high, which was not different from the verification results using continuous flow data. In the experiment of real-time estimation applying moving average method to the estimated viscosity, fair estimation could be possible when the differential PWM value was high, showing that real-time viscosity-adjusted estimation of pressure head and pump flow would be possible with this novel estimation method when the differential PWM value would be set high.

  19. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain -- SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W.; Gauthier, J.H.

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone. Probabilistic analyses are performed for aqueous and gaseous flow and transport, human intrusion, and basaltic magmatic activity. Results of the calculations lead to a number of recommendations concerning studies related to site characterization. Primary among these are the recommendations to obtain better information on percolation flux at Yucca Mountain, on the presence or absence of flowing fractures, and on physical and chemical processes influencing gaseous flow. Near-field thermal and chemical processes, and waste-container degradation are also areas where additional investigations may reduce important uncertainties. Recommendations for repository and waste-package design studies are: (1) to evaluate the performance implications of large-size containers, and (2) to investigate in more detail the implications of high repository thermal power output on the adjacent host rock and on the spent fuel

  20. Control of District Heating System with Flow-dependent Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Ledesma, Jorge Val; Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose

    2017-01-01

    All flow systems are subject to transport delays, which are governed by the flow rates in the system. When the flow rates themselves are control inputs, the system becomes subject to input-dependent state delays, which poses significant theoretical problems. In an earlier paper, we proposed...

  1. Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-10-02

    As mandated in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been investigating a candidate site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether it is suitable for development of the nation's first repository for permanent geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 directed that only Yucca Mountain be characterized to evaluate the site's suitability. Three main components of the DOE site characterization program are testing, design, and performance assessment. These program components consist of: Investigation of natural features and processes by analyzing data collected from field tests conducted above and below ground and from laboratory tests of rock, gas, and water samples Design of a repository and waste packages tailored to the site features, supported by laboratory testing of candidate materials for waste packages and design related testing in the underground tunnels where waste would be emplaced Quantitative estimates of the performance of the total repository system, over a range of possible conditions and for different repository configurations, by means of computer modeling techniques that are based on site and materials testing data and accepted principles of physics and chemistry. To date, DOE has completed and documented four major iterations of total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site: TSPA-91 (Barnard et al. 1992), TSPA-93 (Wilson et al. 1994; CRWMS M and O 1994), TSPA-95 (CRWMS M and O 1995), and the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) (DOE 1998a, Volume 3). Each successive TSPA iteration has advanced the technical understanding of the performance attributes of the natural features and processes and enhanced engineering designs. The next major iteration of TSPA is to be conducted in support of the next major programmatic milestone for the DOE, namely the

  2. FY 1984 annual report on the research and development of automatic sewing systems. Total systems; 1984 nendo jido hosei system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Total system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-03-01

    The automatic sewing system technique research association has been commissioned by the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology for (research and development of automatic sewing systems). This program covers R and D of the elementary techniques for total systems and sewing preparation/processing, sewing/assembling, cloth handling, and system management/control. This report describes the results of the R and D efforts for the total systems. For producing diversified products in small quantities, which is the object of this R and D program, the target is set to reduce processing time by at least 50% from the current level. The efforts to achieve this target by solving the problems involved therein are made from the side of developing FMS and FA procedures, and apparel side. The program for the former investigates the required functions of individual sub-systems that constitute the total system, to clarify the technical targets of the core elementary techniques for each sub-system. The program for the latter analyzes the sewing steps for producing diversified clothes types, specifications for automatic operation, integration, standardization and coding of the steps, and so on, based on the results of studies on basic apparel types. (NEDO)

  3. Distribution in flowing reaction-diffusion systems

    KAUST Repository

    Kamimura, Atsushi

    2009-12-28

    A power-law distribution is found in the density profile of reacting systems A+B→C+D and 2A→2C under a flow in two and three dimensions. Different densities of reactants A and B are fixed at both ends. For the reaction A+B, the concentration of reactants asymptotically decay in space as x-1/2 and x-3/4 in two dimensions and three dimensions, respectively. For 2A, it decays as log (x) /x in two dimensions. The decay of A+B is explained considering the effect of segregation of reactants in the isotropic case. The decay for 2A is explained by the marginal behavior of two-dimensional diffusion. A logarithmic divergence of the diffusion constant with system size is found in two dimensions. © 2009 The American Physical Society.

  4. Commercial applications of solar total energy systems. Volume 4. Appendices. Final report. [Solar Total Energy System Evaluation Program (STESEP) code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boobar, M.G.; McFarland, B.L.; Nalbandian, S.J.; Willcox, W.W.; French, E.P.; Smith, K.E.

    1978-07-01

    A methodology has been developed by Atomics International under contract to the Department of Energy to define the applicability of solar total energy systems (STES) to the commercial sector (e.g., retail stores, shopping centers, offices, etc.) in the United States. Candidate STES concepts were selected to provide on-site power generation capability, as well as thermal energy for both heating and cooling applications. Each concept was evaluated on the basis of its cost effectiveness (i.e., as compared to other concepts) and its ability to ultimately penetrate and capture a significant segment of this market, thereby resulting in a saving of fossil fuel resources. This volume contains the appendices. Topics include deterministic insolation model computer code; building energy usage data; computer simulation programs for building energy demand analysis; model buildings for STES evaluation; Solar Total Energy System Evaluation Program (STESEP) computer code; transient simulation of STES concept; solar data tape analysis; program listings and sample output for use with TRNSYS; transient simulation, and financial parameters sensitivities. (WHK)

  5. A water flow calorimeter calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    Neutral beam systems are instrumented by several water flow calorimeter systems, and some means is needed to verify the accuracy of such systems and diagnose their failures. This report describes a calibration system for these calorimeters. The calibrator consists of two 24 kilowatt circulation water heaters, with associated controls and instrumentation. The unit can supply power from 0 to 48 kW in five coarse steps and one fine range. Energy is controlled by varying the power and the time of operation of the heaters. The power is measured by means of precision power transducers, and the energy is measured by integrating the power with respect to time. The accuracy of the energy measurement is better than 0.5% when the power supplied is near full scale, and the energy resolution is better than 1 kilojoule. The maximum energy delivered is approximately 50 megajoules. The calorimetry loop to be calibrated is opened, and the calibrator is put in series with the calorimeter heat source. The calorimeter is then operated in its normal fashion, with the calibrator used as the heat source. The calibrator can also be used in a stand alone mode to calibrate calorimeter sensors removed from systems

  6. A CFD Case Study of a Fan Stage with Split Flow Path Subject to Total Pressure Distortion Inflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Wai-Ming

    2017-01-01

    This report is the documentation of the work performed under the Hypersonic Project of the NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program. It was funded through Task Number NNC10E444T under GESS-2 Contract NNC06BA07B. The objective of the task is to develop advanced computational tools for the simulation of multi-stage turbomachinery in support of aeropropulsion. This includes work elements in extending the TURBO code and validating the multi-stage URANS (Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) simulation results with the experimental data. The unsteady CFD (Computation Fluid Dynamics) calculations were performed in full wheel mode with and without screen generated total pressure distortion at the computational inflow boundary, as well as in single passage phase lag mode for uniform inflow. The experimental data were provided by NASA from the single stage RTA (Revolutionary Turbine Accelerator) fan test program.Significant non-uniform flow condition at the fan-face of the aeropropulsion system is frequentlyencountered in many of the advanced aerospace vehicles. These propulsion systems can be eithera podded or an embedded design employed in HWB (Hybrid Wing Body) airframe concept. It isalso a topic of interest in military applications, in which advanced air vehicles have already deployedsome form of embedded propulsion systems in their design because of the requirementsof compact and low observable inlets. Even in the conventional airframe/engine design, the fancould operate under such condition when the air vehicle is undergoing rapid maneuvering action.It is believed that a better understanding of the fan’s aerodynamic and aeromechanical responseto this type of operating condition or off design operation would be beneficial to designing distortiontolerant blades for improved engine operability.The objective for this research is to assess the capability of turbomachinery code as an analysistool in understanding the effects and evaluating the impact of flow distortion

  7. An analysis of total quality management in Aeronautical Systems Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudle, Mark D.

    1991-09-01

    This study investigated the major schools of thought on various aspects of quality management and quality improvement. Areas covered included definitions of waste and quality, views on the cost of quality, tools and techniques used for quality improvement, and management philosophies and frameworks for continuous improvement. In addition, this study analyzed the structure and training content of the current Total Quality Management program at Aeronautical Systems Division (ASD). Pre- and post-test surveys on employee attitudes toward organizational effectiveness were analyzed from the Advanced Cruise Missile System Program Office (SPO), the F-15 SPO, and the ASD Deputy Chief of Staff for Human Resources (ASD/DP). Data was supplemented with semi-structured, personal interviews with ASD personnel involved in TQM. Survey analysis showed that the ACM SPO significantly improved, ASD/DP significantly digressed, and the F-15 SPO remained basically consistent. This led to the conclusion that ASD allows too much flexibility in the implementation of TQM in the three-letter organizations.

  8. Redox flow cell energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    NASA-Redox systems are electrochemical storage devices that use two fully soluble Redox couples, anode and cathode fluids, as active electrode materials separated by a highly selective ion exchange membrane. The reactants are contained in large storage tanks and pumped through a stack of Redox flow cells where the electrochemical reactions (reduction and oxidation) take place at porous carbon felt electrodes. A string or stack of these power producing cells is connected in series in a bipolar manner. Redox energy storage systems promise to be inexpensive and possess many features that provide for flexible design, long life, high reliability and minimal operation and maintenance costs. These features include independent sizing of power and storage capacity requirements and inclusion within the cell stack of a cell that monitors the state of charge of the system as a whole, and a rebalance cell which permits continuous correction to be made for minor side reactions that would tend to result in the anode fluid and cathode fluids becoming electrochemically out of balance. These system features are described and discussed.

  9. Control concept for autonomous changeable material flow systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wilke, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Today’s material flow systems for mass customization or dynamic productions are usually realized with manual transportation systems. However new concepts in the domain of material flow and device control like function-oriented modularization and intelligent multi-agent-systems offer the possibility to employ changeable and automated material flow systems in dynamic production structures. These systems need the ability to react on unplanned and unexpected events autonomously.

  10. Mathematical Modeling of Electrolyte Flow Dynamic Patterns and Volumetric Flow Penetrations in the Flow Channel over Porous Electrode Layered System in Vanadium Flow Battery with Serpentine Flow Field Design

    OpenAIRE

    Ke, Xinyou; Prahl, Joseph M.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Savinell, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a two-dimensional mathematical model is developed to study the flow patterns and volumetric flow penetrations in the flow channel over the porous electrode layered system in vanadium flow battery with serpentine flow field design. The flow distributions at the interface between the flow channel and porous electrode are examined. It is found that the non-linear pressure distributions can distinguish the interface flow distributions under the ideal plug flow and ideal parabolic fl...

  11. Status of Systemic To Pulmonary Arterial Collateral Flow After the Fontan Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, Kevin K.; Harris, Matthew A.; Glatz, Andrew C.; Gillespie, Matthew J.; DiMaria, Michael V.; Harrison, Neil E.; Dori, Yoav; Keller, Marc S.; Rome, Jonathan J.; Fogel, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    We recently validated a method of quantifying systemic to pulmonary arterial collateral flow using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging velocity mapping (PC-MRI). Cross-sectional data suggest decreased collateral flow in patients with total cavopulmonary connections (TCPC) compared to those with superior cavopulmonary connections (SCPC). However, no studies have examined serial changes in collateral flow from SCPC to TCPC in the same patients. We sought to examine differences in collater...

  12. 3-D steady analysis of flow in CRDM sewerage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yan; Liang Tiebo; Chen Zhihui; Zhao Jing; Zhang Yulong

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain the flow state during sewer condition in Reactor and CRDM Sewerage system (RSE), this paper analyzes the 3-D steady flow in RSE by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. In the premise that the pressure drop of the RSE is known, the mass flow rate, the velocity and the type of flow in the system is obtained with the inverse method, which is proposed and validated to be applicable in the paper. The result shows that in the sewerage conditions, the type of flow in the RSE is turbulence flow, which is helpful to sewer drain. The study results give an reference for the design of RSE. (authors)

  13. Total System Performance Assessment: Enhanced Design Alternative V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N. Erb; S. Miller; V. Vallikat

    1999-01-01

    This calculation documents the total system performance assessment modeling of Enhanced Design Analysis (EDA) V. EDA V is based on the TSPA-VA base design which has been modified with higher thermal loading, a quartz sand invert, and line loading with 21 PWR waste packages that have 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistance material (CRM) drip shields placed over dual-layer waste packages composed of 'inside out' VA reference material (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This document details the changes and assumptions made to the VA reference Performance Assessment Model (CRWMS M and O 1998a) to incorporate the design changes detailed for EDA V. The performance measure for this evaluation is expected value dose-rate history. Time histories of dose rate are presented for EDA V and a Defense in Depth (DID) analysis base on EDA V. Additional details concerning the Enhanced Design Alternative II are provided in the 'LADS 3-12 Requests' interoffice correspondence (CRWMS M and O 1999a)

  14. Obtaining Internet Flow Statistics by Volunteer-Based System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Bujlow, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    and groups of users, and as such be useful also for segmentation of users intro groups. We present results with data collected from real users over several months; in particular we demonstrate how the system can be used for studying flow characteristics - the amount of TCP and UDP flows, average flow lengths......, and average flow durations. The paper is concluded with a discussion on what further statistics can be made, and the further development of the system....

  15. Effects of Uncertainty and Spatial Variability on Seepage into Drifts in the Yucca Mountain Total system Performance Assessment Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinich, D. A.; Wilson, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Seepage into the repository drifts is an important factor in total-system performance. Uncertainty and spatial variability are considered in the seepage calculations. The base-case results show 13.6% of the waste packages (WPs) have seepage. For 5th percentile uncertainty, 4.5% of the WPs have seepage and the seepage flow decreased by a factor of 2. For 95th percentile uncertainty, 21.5% of the WPs have seepage and the seepage flow increased by a factor of 2. Ignoring spatial variability resulted in seepage on 100% of the WPs, with a factor of 3 increase in the seepage flow

  16. Clarifying the anatomy and physiology of totally anomalous systemic venous connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Juneja, Rajnish; Anderson, Robert H; Gulati, Gurpreet S; Devagorou, Velayoudam

    2017-01-01

    The description of totally anomalous systemic venous connection is limited to case reports. In this review, we seek to clarify anatomic, physiologic, and hemodynamic aspects of this extremely rare anomaly. We also present findings of two patients in whom connection of all the systemic veins was anomalous. In the first patient, with usual atrial arrangement, all systemic veins, including the coronary sinus, were connected anomalously to the morphologically left atrium. Limited left-to-right shunt across an atrial septal defect provided the only source of blood flow to the lungs. The diagnosis was established by saline contrast echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. Extreme hypoplasia of the right ventricle precluded corrective surgery, so we performed a bidirectional Glenn operation, along with atrial septectomy. The second patient had isomerism of the left atrial appendages, which creates problems in the definition in anatomic terms since the connection of the systemic veins can never be normal anatomically when both atriums possess a morphologically left appendage. Our patient, nonetheless, had all the systemic and pulmonary veins, connected to the left-sided atrial chamber which then connected to the left ventricle, thus producing hemodynamics of totally anomalous systemic venous connection. We propose an algorithm for evaluation of this hemodynamic combination and discuss management options. We also intend to clarify the potential differences between connection and drainage, with particular attention to the arrangement of atrial appendages. Even though the hemodynamics may be comparable, in anatomic terms, both systemic and pulmonary venoatrial connection will always be anomalous with isomeric atrial appendages.

  17. System identification on two-phase flow stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shaorong; Zhang Youjie; Wang Dazhong; Bo Jinghai; Wang Fei

    1996-01-01

    The theoretical principle, experimental method and results of interrelation analysis identification for the instability of two-phase flow are described. A completely new concept of test technology and method on two-phase flow stability was developed by using he theory of information science on system stability and system identification for two-phase flow stability in thermo-physics field. Application of this method would make it possible to identify instability boundary of two-phase flow under stable operation conditions of two-phase flow system. The experiment was carried out on the thermohydraulic test system HRTL-5. Using reverse repeated pseudo-random sequences of heating power as input signal sources and flow rate as response function in the test, the two-phase flow stability and stability margin of the natural circulation system are investigated. The effectiveness and feasibility of identifying two-phase flow stability by using this system identification method were experimentally demonstrated. Basic data required for mathematics modeling of two-phase flow and analysis of two-phase flow stability were obtained, which are useful for analyzing, monitoring of the system operation condition, and forecasting of two-phase flow stability in engineering system

  18. System modeling of waste flow in energy planning | Njoku | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of waste flow in energy system planning was investigated by adopting integrated systems enginee-ring approach. The system model was considered at multiple levels of hierarchy. Waste flow in energy plann-ing process was viewed as a system arranged or organized that plans and policies as controlled ...

  19. Entropy generation in the flow system generated in between two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 18 October 2007; revised 20 March 2009. Abstract. Thermodynamic irreversibility in the flow system provides infor- mation on the energy and power losses in the system. Minimization of entropy generation in the flow system enables for the parametric optimization of the system operation. In the present study, ...

  20. Pressure-Flow and Free-Flow Discharge Modes in Closed-Loop Sewage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupin, R. V.; Pham, N. M.; Chupin, V. R.

    2017-11-01

    The paper discusses flow modeling in closed-loop sewage systems. These systems take place in reconstruction and development of sewage systems. The waste flow values which are distributed over individual closed-loop sewers are proposed to be determined on the basis of the solution of the conservation equation for mass and energy. This article presents these equations for the cases of pressure-flow and free-flow of drains and calculating examples of all these cases. The issues of improving the reliability of sewage systems by transferring them to a closed-loop structure are considered.

  1. Novel simplified hourly energy flow models for photovoltaic power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Tamer; Elmenreich, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed an energy flow model for standalone PV system using MATLAB line code. • We developed an energy flow model for hybrid PV/wind system using MATLAB line code. • We developed an energy flow model for hybrid PV/diesel system using MATLAB line code. - Abstract: This paper presents simplified energy flow models for photovoltaic (PV) power systems using MATLAB. Three types of PV power system are taken into consideration namely standalone PV systems, hybrid PV/wind systems and hybrid PV/diesel systems. The logic of the energy flow for each PV power system is discussed first and then the MATLAB line codes for these models are provided and explained. The results prove the accuracy of the proposed models. Such models help modeling and sizing PV systems

  2. Influence of the Total Gas Flow at Different Reaction Times for CVD-Graphene Synthesis on Polycrystalline Nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Lavin-Lopez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the total gas flow (CH4+H2 during the reaction step for different reaction times for CVD-graphene synthesis on polycrystalline nickel foil using an atmospheric pressure set-up is reported. A thickness value related to number of graphene layers in each of the synthesized samples was determined using an Excel-VBA application. This method assigned a thickness value between 1 and 1000 and provided information on the percentage of each type of graphene (monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer deposited onto the polycrystalline nickel sheet. The influence of the total gas flow during the reaction step and the reaction time was studied in detail. Optical microscopy showed that samples were covered with different types of graphene, such as multilayer, few-layer, bilayer, and monolayer graphene. The synthesis variables were optimized according to the thickness value and the results were verified by Raman spectroscopy. The best conditions were obtained with a reaction temperature of 980°C, a CH4/H2 flow rate ratio of 0.07 v/v, a reaction time of 1 minute, and a total gas flow of 80 NmL/min. In the sample obtained under the optimized conditions, 80% of the area was covered with monolayer graphene and less than 1% with multilayer graphene.

  3. Automatic postural response systems in individuals with congenital total blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, H; Yabe, K

    2001-07-01

    This study examined the effects of the absence of vision from birth on automatic postural responses to platform displacements during stance. Postural responses were induced by producing randomly four types of perturbations which consisted of forward and backward translations, and toe up and down rotations. Nine congenitally totally blind and nine sighted adults served as subjects. EMG signals were recorded from four muscles in the right leg, and reaction time to somatosensory stimuli generated by platform displacements was measured by pushing a hand-held button. To assess the ability to control postural balance, the root mean square (RMS) values for lateral and antero-posterior sway before, during, and after perturbations were calculated. The EMG amplitude in the gastrocnemius muscle of a blind subject was smaller than that of a sighted subject with eyes closed. No significant differences were found between blind and sighted subjects in EMG latencies of the lower extremity muscles in response to perturbations. The blind subjects had significantly faster reaction times to somatosensory stimuli triggered by platform displacements, but in toe down rotations no significant difference was found between blind and sighted subjects. The difference in the EMG latencies and reaction times between the two groups suggests that blindness from birth may not affect the spinal stretch reflex, but may affect a volitional act mediated through the motor cortex. There were also no significant differences in the RMS values for postural sway between blind and sighted subjects with eyes open or closed, although blind subjects swayed more after backward translations than did sighted subjects with eyes open. Results suggest that the ability to control postural balance during perturbations was not affected by vision loss from birth. Our findings suggest that the automatic postural response systems of humans are unaffected by the absence of vision from birth and are rather hard wired.

  4. Dynamic modelling of packaging material flow systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiliyannis, Christos A

    2005-04-01

    A dynamic model has been developed for reused and recycled packaging material flows. It allows a rigorous description of the flows and stocks during the transition to new targets imposed by legislation, product demand variations or even by variations in consumer discard behaviour. Given the annual reuse and recycle frequency and packaging lifetime, the model determines all packaging flows (e.g., consumption and reuse) and variables through which environmental policy is formulated, such as recycling, waste and reuse rates and it identifies the minimum number of variables to be surveyed for complete packaging flow monitoring. Simulation of the transition to the new flow conditions is given for flows of packaging materials in Greece, based on 1995--1998 field inventory and statistical data.

  5. A critical comparison of analytical flow systems exploiting streamlined and pulsed flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ana C B; Santos, Joâo L M; Lima, José L F C; Quintella, Cristina M; Lima, Angelo M V; Zagatto, Elias A G

    2007-07-01

    Multipumping (MPFS) and multicommuted (MCFS) flow systems relying on pulsed and laminar flows were critically compared. The mixing conditions and dispersion associated with both systems were evaluated by simulating the sample with bromocresol green. The molybdenum blue method for phosphate determination in soil extracts was also implemented in both flow systems. Furthermore, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was applied to visualize the dispersing sample; rhodamine B was used as the fluorescent species. The pulsed flow enhanced the mixing of the solutions involved, thus reducing reagent consumption (48 and 96 microl for MPFS and MCFS), and improving sampling rate (67 and 144 h(-1) for MCFS and MPFS). For phosphate determination, results obtained with both systems were precise (r.s.d. < 0.5%; n = 10) and accurate. Analyses of the absorbance vs time/space LIF plots revealed that exploitation of pulsed flow led to a pronounced radial dispersion and to a limited axial dispersion, typical aspects of turbulent flows.

  6. 21 CFR 862.1700 - Total thyroxine test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intended to measure total (free and protein bound) thyroxine (thyroid hormone) in serum and plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. (b...

  7. Total Coliform Rule Distribution System Advisory Committee (TCRDSAC) Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provide information about the TCRDSAC, including its charter, processes and recommendations. The Agency used the Advisory Committee recommendations to develop proposed and final rules that revised the Total Coliform Rule.

  8. Micro Coriolis mass flow sensor for chemical micropropulsion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2012-01-01

    We have designed a micromachined micro Coriolis flow sensor for the measurement of hydrazine (N2H4, High Purity Grade) propellant flow in micro chemical propulsion systems. The sensor measures mass flow up to 10 mg/s for a single thruster or up to 40 mg/s for four thrusters. The sensor will first be

  9. Investigation of the stability of melt flow in gating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels Skat; Larsen, Per

    2011-01-01

    Melt flow in four different gating systems designed for production of brake discs was analysed experimentally and by numerical modelling. In the experiments moulds were fitted with glass fronts and melt flow was recorded on video. The video recordings were compared with modelling of melt flow in ...

  10. Computational Modeling of Flow Control Systems for Aerospace Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear Science Corp. proposes to develop computational methods for designing active flow control systems on aerospace vehicles with the primary objective of...

  11. GAS FLOW CONTROL SYSTEM IN REACTIVE MAGNETRON SPUTTERING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Klimovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available  It is known that the discharge parameters and the chemical composition of the particles flux impinging onto the substrate during a reactive magnetron sputtering are unstable. As a result spontaneous transitions between the «metal» mode of the target surface and the «poisoned» mode of the target surface have been observed. This leads to nonrepeatability of the coating compositions from process to process. The aim of this work is to design a gas flow control system for reactive sputtering processes. The control system allows to maintain a steady nonequilibrium state of the magnetron discharge in transition mode where the chemical state of the target surface is unstable. The intensities of spectral lines of the discharge spectrum are proposed as control parameters. Photodiode detectors were used for registration of intensities of spectral lines. A gas flow control system regulates argon and reactive gas flow automatically, using feedback signals from photodiode detectors on the intensities of the spectral lines, vacuum gauge, ion current sensor, sensors of discharge current and voltage. As an example, the process of reactive magnetron Ti-Al-N deposition is considered. The following discharge parameters are controlled during sputtering a composite target based on Ti with Al cylindrical inserts: current, voltage, total pressure of a gas mixture, substrate temperature, bias voltage and current of the substrate. Nitrogen flow was controlled by the spectral line intensity of titanium TiI 506,5 nm. The value of the line intensity is connected with the value of reactivity. Elemental composition and structure of the Ti-Al-N coatings were studied using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was found, that stoichiometric Ti-Al-N coatings have a globular structure, enhanced hardness and low friction coefficient in contrast to Ti-Al-N coatings with nonstoichiometric composition, which have a

  12. Status of systemic to pulmonary arterial collateral flow after the fontan procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Kevin K; Harris, Matthew A; Glatz, Andrew C; Gillespie, Matthew J; DiMaria, Michael V; Harrison, Neil E; Dori, Yoav; Keller, Marc S; Rome, Jonathan J; Fogel, Mark A

    2015-06-15

    The investigators recently validated a method of quantifying systemic-to-pulmonary arterial collateral flow using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging velocity mapping. Cross-sectional data suggest decreased collateral flow in patients with total cavopulmonary connections (TCPCs) compared with those with superior cavopulmonary connections (SCPCs). However, no studies have examined serial changes in collateral flow from SCPCs to TCPCs in the same patients. The aim of this study was to examine differences in collateral flow between patients with SCPCs and those with TCPCs. Collateral flow was quantified by 2 independent measures from 250 single-ventricle studies in 219 different patients (115 SCPC and 135 TCPC studies, 31 patients with both) and 18 controls, during routine studies using through-plane phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Collateral flow was indexed to body surface area, aortic flow, and pulmonary venous flow. Regardless of indexing method, SCPC patients had significantly higher collateral flow than TCPC patients (1.64 ± 0.8 vs 1.03 ± 0.8 L/min/m(2), p SCPC and TCPC patients demonstrate substantial collateral flow, with SCPC patients having higher collateral flow than TCPC patients overall. On the basis of the paired subset analysis, collateral flow does not decrease in the short term after TCPC completion and trends toward an increase. In the long term, however, collateral flow decreases over time after TCPC completion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Restoring water quality in the polluted Turag-Tongi-Balu river system, Dhaka: Modelling nutrient and total coliform intervention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Paul; Bussi, Gianbattista; Hossain, Mohammed Abed; Dolk, Michaela; Das, Partho; Comber, Sean; Peters, Rebecca; Charles, Katrina J; Hope, Rob; Hossain, Sarwar

    2018-03-08

    River water quality in rapidly urbanising Asian cities threatens to damage the resource base on which human health, economic growth and poverty reduction all depend. Dhaka reflects the challenges and opportunities for balancing these dynamic and complex trade-offs which goals can be achieved through effective policy interventions. There is a serious problem of water pollution in central Dhaka, in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River system in Bangladesh with the river system being one of the most polluted in the world at the moment. A baseline survey of water chemistry and total coliforms has been undertaken and shows dissolved oxygen close to zero in the dry season, high organic loading together with extreme levels of Ammonium-N and total coliform in the water. Models have been applied to assess hydrochemical processes in the river and evaluate alternative strategies for policy and the management of the pollution issues. In particular models of flow, Nitrate-N, Ammonium-N and indicator bacteria (total coliforms) are applied to simulate water quality in the river system. Various scenarios are explored to clean up the river system, including flow augmentation and improved effluent treatment. The model results indicate that improved effluent treatment is likely to have a more significant impact on reducing Ammonium-N and total coliforms than flow augmentation, but a combined strategy would greatly reduce the pollution problems in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River System. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Flow injection gas chromatography with sulfur chemiluminescence detection for the analysis of total sulfur in complex hydrocarbon matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yujuan; Hawryluk, Myron; Gras, Ronda; Shearer, Randall; Luong, Jim

    2018-01-01

    A fast and reliable analytical technique for the determination of total sulfur levels in complex hydrocarbon matrices is introduced. The method employed flow injection technique using a gas chromatograph as a sample introduction device and a gas phase dual-plasma sulfur chemiluminescence detector for sulfur quantification. Using the technique described, total sulfur measurement in challenging hydrocarbon matrices can be achieved in less than 10 s with sample-to-sample time ideal for fast analysis or trace sulfur analysis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Total fusion cross section for the 160+160 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tserruya, I.; Eisen, Y.; Pelte, D.; Gavron, A.; Oeschler, H.; Berndt, D.; Harney, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    Total fusion cross sections Σsub(F) have been measured for 16 0+ 16 0 at bombarding energies 27-66 MeV using the E-Δ or the time-of-flight techniques. The fusion excitation function shows oscillations in agreement with the resonances produced in the total reaction cross section by a surface-transparent potential. The results are compared to those obtained via the γ-ray technique and th importance of direct decay to ground states is discussed. Mass and total angular distributions are well reproduced by statistical model calculations which take angular momentum into account explicitly. Barrier and critical parameters are extracted from the average energy behavior of Σ sub(F). No evidence for shell effects as predicted by Glas and Mosel is found on the measured fusion cross sections. (author)

  16. Security Analysis of the Electronic Management System for a Total Site Utility System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manso Cortes, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Security Analysis of the Electronic Management System (EMS) of a Total Site Utility System as proposed under the scope of the Efenis project. The Efenis project has been funded by the European Commission via the seventh framework programme (EC FP7) with the aim to improve...... process integration by applying novel methods of total site targeting. 16 different international partners, including 10 academic institutions and 6 industrial companies, have been participating in this project. A model of the EMS system is presented with the aim to integrate it on a Total Site Utility...... System in order to achieve a reliable implementation capable of accomplishing the mission of the Efenis project. The results also provide the design, implementation and deployment of a modular security system that helps to provide the security controls recommended during the analysis....

  17. Evolving Systems of Care with Total Clinical Outcomes Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John S.; Epstein, Richard A.; Jordan, Neil

    2010-01-01

    The current article proposes that further specification of the system of care concept is required. Based on the assertions that the system of care concept (a) refers to an ideal as opposed to an observable phenomenon, and (b) is engaged in offering transformational experiences, the authors propose that the system of care definition must be…

  18. Total polyphenols content in white wines on a microfluidic flow injection analyzer with embedded optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscar, Sandoval-Ventura; Fernando, Olguín-Contreras Luis; Del Pilar, Cañizares-Macías María

    2017-04-15

    Absorbance detection in food microdevices has not been thoroughly used due to low levels of sensitivity in measurements. Thus, it is necessary to develop microfluidic methods for improving photometric detection. For this purpose, a simple coupled-optical-fiber-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microdevice was developed, to quantify polyphenols content in white wine employing the Folin-Ciocalteu reaction method. A 6V and 10W halogen lamp with an optical path length of 7mm between optical fibers, which were placed into the microchip, using guides at the outlet of the flow, increased the level of sensitivity during detection. The linear range was from 0.03mmol/L to 0.18mmol/L. Thus, the corresponding equation was: Abs=4.00(±0.16) [tannic acid]+0.17(±0.017). Intra-laboratory repeatability and reproducibility percentages were 2.95% and 6.84%, respectively. Such results were compared to those obtained from applying the conventional flow-injection analysis method, based on the same type of reaction. The relative error between methods was less than 13%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of total evacuation systems for tall buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Ronchi, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief focuses on the use of egress models to assess the optimal strategy for total evacuation in high-rise buildings. It investigates occupant relocation and evacuation strategies involving the exit stairs, elevators, sky bridges and combinations thereof. Chapters review existing information on this topic and describe case study simulations of a multi-component exit strategy. This review provides the architectural design, regulatory and research communities with a thorough understanding of the current and emerging evacuation procedures and possible future options. A model case study simulates seven possible strategies for the total evacuation of two identical twin towers linked with two sky-bridges at different heights. The authors present the layout of the building and the available egress components including both vertical and horizontal egress components, namely stairs, occupant evacuation elevators (OEEs), service elevators, transfer floors and sky-bridges. The evacuation strategies employ a ...

  20. Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goolsby, G.K.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation system. At the conclusion of Title 1 design, air flow rates for the primary and annulus ventilation systems were 960 scfm and 4,400 scfm, respectively, per tank. These design flow rates were capable of removing 1,250,000 Btu/hr from each tank. However, recently completed and ongoing studies have resulted in a design change to reduce the extreme case heat load to 700,000 Btu/hr. This revision of the extreme case heat load, coupled with results of scale model evaporative testing performed by WHC Thermal Hydraulics, allow for a reduction of the design air flow rates for both primary and annulus ventilation systems. Based on the preceding discussion, ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. concludes that the design should incorporate the following design air flow rates: Primary ventilation system--500 scfm maximum and Annulus ventilation system--1,100 scfm maximum. In addition, the minimum air flow rates in the primary and annulus ventilation systems will be investigated during Title 2 design. The results of the Title 2 investigation will determine the range of available temperature control using variable air flows to both ventilation systems

  1. [Purification of total flavonoid glycosides from Hypericum perforatum by macroporous adsorption resin with on-line detection system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-Bo; Jiang, Yong; Zhang, Hong-Quan; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2008-04-01

    To design a macroporous resin chromatography system with on-line detector which can be used to purify total flavonoid glycosides from Hypericum perforatum. Compared with the present detection methods, the ultraviolet detector which can be applied to flow liquid, and a self-made shunt were applied to design the on-line detection system. This system was successfully applied to purify the total flavonoid glycosides from H. perforatum. This on-line detection system was simple and feasible, and the results were accurate and reliable. The purity of total flavonoid glycosides from H. perforatum. separated by this system was higher than 90%. This technique provides a simple and reliable on-line detection method for industrial chromatography purification of TCM extracts, which is the basis of automatic manufactory of TCM purification.

  2. Flow regimes in vertical gas-solid contact systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yerushalmi, J.; Cankurt, N. T.; Geldart, D.; Liss, B.

    1976-01-01

    The flow characteristics in fluidized beds, i.e., gas-solid systems, was studied to determine the flow regimes, the interaction of gas and solid in the various flow regimes and the dependence of this interaction and of transition between flow regimes on the properties of the gas and solid, on the gas and solid flow rates, and on the containing vessel. Fluidized beds with both coarse and fine particles are considered. Test results using high speed photography to view the operation of a 2-dimensional bed are discussed. (LCL)

  3. Effect of Diffuse Luminance Flicker Light Stimulation on Total Retinal Blood Flow Assessed With Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschinger, Gerold C; Schmetterer, Leopold; Fondi, Klemens; Aranha Dos Santos, Valentin; Seidel, Gerald; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Werkmeister, René M

    2017-02-01

    We assess the increase in total retinal blood flow (TRBF) induced by flicker stimulation of the human retina in vivo and investigate the flicker induced hyperemia by means of a vascular flow model of the retinal circulation to study neurovascular coupling (NC). In six healthy subjects, TRBF was measured before and during stimulation with diffuse luminance flicker. Blood flow velocities in retinal vessels were measured via dual-beam bidirectional Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT), retinal vessel diameters were assessed based on FD-OCT phase data. This allowed for the calculation of TRBF before and during visual stimulation. Additionally, a mathematical flow model for the retinal vasculature was adapted to study the implications of diameter variations on retinal perfusion. Measured and simulated perfusion was compared to draw conclusions on the diameter variations in different layers of the vascular tree. The measured mean baseline flow was 36.4 ± 6.5 μl/min while the mean flow during flicker stimulation was 53.4% ± 8.3 μl/min. The individual increase in TRBF during flicker stimulation ranged between 34% and 66%. The average increase in TRBF over all measured subjects was 47.6% ± 12.6%. Dual-beam bidirectional Doppler FD-OCT allowed quantifying NC in the human retina in vivo and may be a promising method for monitoring alterations in NC caused by various pathologies. The comparison of the measured data with the results obtained in the simulated vasculature indicates that the vasodilation induced by NC is more pronounced in smaller vessels.

  4. Psychological stress and its influence on salivary flow rate, total protein concentration and IgA, IgG and IgM titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos-Gomes, Nathália; Katsurayama, Marilise; Makimoto, Fabiano Hiromichi; Santana, Linda Luciana Oliveira; Paredes-Garcia, Edijane; Becker, Maria Alice d'Avila; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic-adrenomedullary axes are the main systems activated in response to stress. Alterations in salivary components and flow rate have been associated with oral health problems and psychological stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of psychological stress on salivary flow, total protein concentration and IgG, IgM and IgA concentrations. Thirty-eight medical students, average age of 21.4 +/- 2.1 years and enrolled in the 2nd to 5th years of their course, took part voluntarily in the study which involved two different periods: the first after vacations and the second during the final exams (a gap of 4 months). An Oral Health Questionnaire and the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults (ISSL) were applied during both these periods. The flow rate, total protein concentration and immunoglobulin titers of saliva samples, collected after stimulation and stored in a container with protease inhibitor, were measured. Analysis of the ISSL showed that 42.1% (n = 16) of the students had stress during the post-vacation period, and 44.7% (n = 17) during the final exams. The students' salivary flow rate was significantly lower during the latter period than during the post-vacation period (p stress as measured by the ISSL. There was a reduction in salivary flow rate and a consequent reduction in total protein concentration during the exam period (p = 0.0058). However, during both periods of the study there was no significant difference in total salivary protein concentration between the groups of students with or without psychological stress according to the ISSL (p > 0.05). IgG predominated over IgA and IgM (p stress. The study period and the presence of stress influenced the secretion of salivary immunoglobulins. IgM titers during the post-vacation period (p = 0.0044), and IgA (p = 0.028), IgG (p = 0.022) and IgM (p = 0.0075) titers during the final exams were higher in students with symptoms of

  5. Information-flow-based Access Control for Virtualized Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Postoev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the method of information-flow-based access control, adopted for virtualized systems. General structure of access control system for virtual infrastructure is proposed.

  6. Extractable sulphate-sulphur, total sulphur and trace-element determinations in plant material by flow injection analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heanes, D.L. (South Australian Department of Agriculture, Adelaide (Australia))

    1990-01-01

    A rapid, accurate and reproducible procedure for determining total sulphur(S) and trace elements (copper, zinc, manganese and iron) in plant material is described. Plant material is digested in culture tubes with a mixture of nitric and perchloric acids containing ammonium metavanadate and calcium chloride. In the acid digest, concentrations of total-S as sulphate are determined by turbidimetry and trace-elements by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry using flow injection analysis. The results for a range of plant materials compare well with those obtained by conventional procedures for the same elements. The microprocessor controlled digestion and multielement assay procedure described here offers improved laboratory efficiencies in materials, time and cost effectiveness. The techniques should be particularly useful when plant tissues are in limited supply.

  7. An Enhanced Discrete Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm to Minimize the Total Flow Time in Permutation Flow Shop Scheduling with Limited Buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanlong Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an enhanced discrete artificial bee colony algorithm for minimizing the total flow time in the flow shop scheduling problem with buffer capacity. First, the solution in the algorithm is represented as discrete job permutation to directly convert to active schedule. Then, we present a simple and effective scheme called best insertion for the employed bee and onlooker bee and introduce a combined local search exploring both insertion and swap neighborhood. To validate the performance of the presented algorithm, a computational campaign is carried out on the Taillard benchmark instances, and computations and comparisons show that the proposed algorithm is not only capable of solving the benchmark set better than the existing discrete differential evolution algorithm and iterated greedy algorithm, but also capable of performing better than two recently proposed discrete artificial bee colony algorithms.

  8. A Primal-Dual Approach for a Total Variation Wasserstein Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Benning, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We consider a nonlinear fourth-order diffusion equation that arises in denoising of image densities. We propose an implicit time-stepping scheme that employs a primal-dual method for computing the subgradient of the total variation seminorm. The constraint on the dual variable is relaxed by adding a penalty term, depending on a parameter that determines the weight of the penalisation. The paper is furnished with some numerical examples showing the denoising properties of the model considered. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Total system for manufacture of nuclear vessels by computer: VECTRON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagawa, Jin; Ueno, Osamu; Hanai, Yoshiharu; Ohkawa, Isao; Washizu, Hideyuki

    1980-01-01

    VECTRON (Vessel Engineering by Computer Tool and Rapid Operating for the N/C System) is a CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) system that has been developed to produce high quality and highly accurate vessels for nuclear power plants and other industrial plants. Outputs of this system are design drawings, manufacturing information and magnetic tapes of the N/C marking machine for vessel shell plates including their attachments. And it can also output information at each stage of designing, marking, cutting, forming and assembling by treating the vessels in three dimensions and by using data filing systems and plotting program for general use. The data filing systems consist of functional and manufacturing data of each part of vessels. This system not only realizes a change from manual work to computer work, but also leads us to improve production engineering and production jigs for safety and high quality. At present, VECTRON is being applied to the manufacture of the shell plates of primary containment vessels in the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 (K-1) and the Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station Unit 3 (2F-3), to realize increased productivity. (author)

  10. Clarifying the anatomy and physiology of totally anomalous systemic venous connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kumar Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The description of totally anomalous systemic venous connection is limited to case reports. In this review, we seek to clarify anatomic, physiologic, and hemodynamic aspects of this extremely rare anomaly. We also present findings of two patients in whom connection of all the systemic veins was anomalous. In the first patient, with usual atrial arrangement, all systemic veins, including the coronary sinus, were connected anomalously to the morphologically left atrium. Limited left-to-right shunt across an atrial septal defect provided the only source of blood flow to the lungs. The diagnosis was established by saline contrast echocardiography and cardiac catheterization. Extreme hypoplasia of the right ventricle precluded corrective surgery, so we performed a bidirectional Glenn operation, along with atrial septectomy. The second patient had isomerism of the left atrial appendages, which creates problems in the definition in anatomic terms since the connection of the systemic veins can never be normal anatomically when both atriums possess a morphologically left appendage. Our patient, nonetheless, had all the systemic and pulmonary veins, connected to the left-sided atrial chamber which then connected to the left ventricle, thus producing hemodynamics of totally anomalous systemic venous connection. We propose an algorithm for evaluation of this hemodynamic combination and discuss management options. We also intend to clarify the potential differences between connection and drainage, with particular attention to the arrangement of atrial appendages. Even though the hemodynamics may be comparable, in anatomic terms, both systemic and pulmonary venoatrial connection will always be anomalous with isomeric atrial appendages.

  11. Studying flow close to an interface by total internal reflection fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy: Quantitative data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, R.; Yordanov, S.; Butt, H. J.; Koynov, K.; Dünweg, B.

    2011-12-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (TIR-FCCS) has recently [S. Yordanov , Optics ExpressOPEXFF1094-408710.1364/OE.17.021149 17, 21149 (2009)] been established as an experimental method to probe hydrodynamic flows near surfaces, on length scales of tens of nanometers. Its main advantage is that fluorescence occurs only for tracer particles close to the surface, thus resulting in high sensitivity. However, the measured correlation functions provide only rather indirect information about the flow parameters of interest, such as the shear rate and the slip length. In the present paper, we show how to combine detailed and fairly realistic theoretical modeling of the phenomena by Brownian dynamics simulations with accurate measurements of the correlation functions, in order to establish a quantitative method to retrieve the flow properties from the experiments. First, Brownian dynamics is used to sample highly accurate correlation functions for a fixed set of model parameters. Second, these parameters are varied systematically by means of an importance-sampling Monte Carlo procedure in order to fit the experiments. This provides the optimum parameter values together with their statistical error bars. The approach is well suited for massively parallel computers, which allows us to do the data analysis within moderate computing times. The method is applied to flow near a hydrophilic surface, where the slip length is observed to be smaller than 10nm, and, within the limitations of the experiments and the model, indistinguishable from zero.

  12. Geochemical and Isotopic Interpretations of Groundwater Flow in the Oasis Valley Flow System, Southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Thomas; F.C. Benedict, Jr.; T.P. Rose; R.L. Hershey; J.B. Paces; Z.E. Peterman; I.M. Farnham; K.H. Johannesson; A.K. Singh; K.J. Stetzenbach; G.B. Hudson; J.M. Kenneally; G.F. Eaton; D.K. Smith

    2003-01-08

    This report summarizes the findings of a geochemical investigation of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley groundwater flow system in southwestern Nevada. It is intended to provide geochemical data and interpretations in support of flow and contaminant transport modeling for the Western and Central Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units.

  13. Geochemical and Isotopic Interpretations of Groundwater Flow in the Oasis Valley Flow System, Southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Benedict, F.C. Jr.; Rose, T.P.; Hershey, R.L.; Paces, J.B.; Peterman, Z.E.; Farnham, I.M.; Johannesson, K.H.; Singh, A.K.; Stetzenbach, K.J.; Hudson, G.B.; Kenneally, J.M.; Eaton, G.F.; Smith, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a geochemical investigation of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley groundwater flow system in southwestern Nevada. It is intended to provide geochemical data and interpretations in support of flow and contaminant transport modeling for the Western and Central Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units

  14. System for flow visualization in swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houwelingen, J.; van de Water, W.; Kunnen, R.P.J.; van Heijst, GJF; Clerx, H.J.H.; Jansen, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the power balance of a swimmer, who needs to overcome power losses to drag and to water set in motion, requires detailed insight into the hydrodynamics of the flow around the swimmer. This will be done from a hydrodynamic point of view with techniques familiar from fluid mechanics.

  15. Core flow control system for field applications; Sistema de controle de core-flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granzotto, Desiree G.; Adachi, Vanessa Y.; Bannwart, Antonio C.; Moura, Luiz F.M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Sassim, Natache S.D.A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudo do Petroleo (CEPETRO); Carvalho, Carlos H.M. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The significant heavy oil reserves worldwide and the presently high crude oil prices make it essential the development of technologies for heavy oil production and transportation. Heavy oils, with their inherent features of high viscosity (100- 10,000 cP) and density (below 20 deg API) require specific techniques to make it viable their flow in pipes at high flow rates. One of the simplest methods, which do not require use of heat or diluents, is provided by oil-water annular flow (core-flow). Among the still unsolved issues regarding core-flow is the two-phase flow control in order to avoid abrupt increases in the pressure drop due to the possible occurrence of bad water-lubricated points, and thus obtain a safe operation of the line at the lowest possible water-oil ratio. This work presents results of core flow tests which allow designing a control system for the inlet pressure of the line, by actuating on the water flow rate at a fixed oil flow rate. With the circuit model and the specified controller, simulations can be done to assess its performance. The experiments were run at core-flow circuit of LABPETRO-UNICAMP. (author)

  16. Relationship of myocardial hibernation, scar, and angiographic collateral flow in ischemic cardiomyopathy with coronary chronic total occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Lu, Min-Jie; Feng, Lei; Wang, Juan; Fang, Wei; He, Zuo-Xiang; Dou, Ke-Fei; Zhao, Shi-Hua; Yang, Min-Fu

    2018-03-07

    The relationship between myocardial viability and angiographic collateral flow is not fully elucidated in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) with coronary artery chronic total occlusion (CTO). We aimed to clarify the relationship between myocardial hibernation, myocardial scar, and angiographic collateral flow in these patients. Seventy-one consecutive ICM patients with 122 CTOs and 652 dysfunctional segments within CTO territories were retrospectively analyzed. Myocardial hibernation (perfusion-metabolism mismatch) and the extent of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) abnormalities were assessed using 99m Tc-sestamibi and 18 F-FDG imaging. Myocardial scar was evaluated by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Collateral flow observed on coronary angiography was assessed using Rentrop classification. In these patients, neither the extent nor frequency of myocardial hibernation or scar was related to the status of collateral flow. Moreover, the matching rate in determining myocardial viability was poor between any 2 imaging indices. The extent of 18 F-FDG abnormalities was linearly related to the extent of LGE rather than myocardial hibernation. Of note, nearly one-third (30.4%) of segments with transmural scar still had hibernating tissue. Hibernation and non-transmural scar had higher sensitivity (63.0% and 66.7%) than collateral flow (37.0%) in predicting global functional improvement. Angiographic collateral cannot accurately predict myocardial viability, and has lower sensitivity in prediction of functional improvement in CTO territories in ICM patients. Hence, assessment of myocardial viability with non-invasive imaging modalities is of importance. Moreover, due to the lack of correlation between myocardial hibernation and scar, these two indices are complementary but not interchangeable.

  17. Flow imaging of the cardiovascular system using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Hitoshi; Sakakibara, Makoto; Sunami, Yuko

    1988-01-01

    Blood flow images by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 0.25 T unit were evaluated for nine normal volunteers and 108 subjects with a variety of cardiovascular abnormalities. Using the non-gated short-spin echo (SE) technique, blood flow in the cardiovascular systems was not imaged in the normal volunteers. Using end-systolic and end-diastolic SE techniques for the normal subjects, blood flow in the cardiac chambers was not clearly imaged. Blood flow in the ascending aorta and aortic arch often did not appear in the gated SE images of the normal subjects. However, blood flow in the descending aorta was often observed in the gated SE images. Blood flow imaging was demonstrated by both non-gated and gated SE techniques in regions where blood flow was relatively slow; for example, in the left atrium of mitral stenosis, in an aortic aneurysm, in a false lumen of an aortic dissection, and in the left ventricle having old myocardial infarction. Using the non-gated inversion recovery (IR) technique, no blood flow was imaged in the cardiovascular system except in the left atrium of one case with mitral stenosis. Using the non-gated short SE technique, there was good correlation between the thrombus formation and the presence of blood flow images in the left atria of 17 patients with mitral stenosis, and in the aneurysmal portions of the aorta or in the false lumens of aortic dissection of 18 patients. It was suggested that mural thrombi in such diseases were related to the relatively slow blood flow. Blood flow imaging easily distinguished stagnant blood flow from mural thrombi using non-gated short SE, end-systolic SE, and IR techniques. Thus, blood flow imaging using MRI should become an important means of evaluating the cardiovascular system. (author)

  18. Solar-system Education for the 2017 Total Solar Eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2017-10-01

    I describe an extensive outreach program about the Sun, the silhouette of the Moon, and the circumstances both celestial and terrestrial of the August 21, 2017, total solar eclipse. Publications included a summary of the last decade of solar-eclipse research for Nature Astronomy, a Resource Letter on Observing Solar Eclipses for the American Journal of Physics, and book reviews for Nature and for Phi Beta Kappa's Key Reporter. Symposia arranged include sessions at AAS, APS, AGU, and AAAS. Lectures include all ages from pre-school through elementary school to high school to senior-citizen residences. The work, including the scientific research about the solar corona that is not part of this abstract, was supported by grants from the Solar Terrestrial Program of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division of NSF and from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society. Additional student support was received from NSF, NASA's Massachusetts Space Grant Consortium, the Honorary Research Society Sigma Xi, the Clare Booth Luce Foundation, and funds at Williams College.

  19. A Novel Flow Measurement System for Cryogenic Two-Phase Flow Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flow rate measurements for cryogenic propellants are required for spacecraft and space exploration systems. Such a requirement has been hampered by lack of fast and...

  20. Total and Gas Flow Activity of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC3227 Nucleus for its Different Evolutionary Epochs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikmaev, I. F.; Pronik, I. I.; Sharipova, L. M.

    A comparative analysis of time variations of spectral characteristics of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3227 nucleus: equivalent widths (EW γ), relative intensities, the width of the Balmer line profiles was carried out. Spectral data obtained in April 2009 with the 1.5-m Russian-Turkish telescope (RTT-150) and data published in the literature were used. Results of the comparative analysis showed the weakening of total activity and, consequently, gas flow activity of the galaxy nucleus in the time interval of more than 30 years.

  1. Design flow factors for sewerage systems in small arid communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad H. Imam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reliable estimation of sewage flow rates is essential for the proper design of sewers, pumping stations, and treatment plants. The design of the various components of the sewerage system should be based on the most critical flow rates with a focus on extremely low and peak flow rates that would be sustained for a duration related to the acceptable limits of behavior of the components under consideration. The extreme flow conditions and to what extent they differ from the average values are closely related to the size of the community or network, and the socioeconomic conditions. A single pumping station is usually sufficient to pump flow from small community in either flat or non-undulating topography. Therefore, the hydraulic loading on the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP results from the pumped flow from the pumping station rather than the trunk sewer flow. The intermittent operation of the pumping units further accentuates the sewage hydrograph in the final trunk sewer. Accordingly, the design flow for the various components of the WWTP should be determined based on their relevant flow factors. In this study, analysis of one representative small community out of five monitored small communities in Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is presented. Pumped sewage flow rates were measured and the sewer incoming flows were hydraulically derived. The hourly and daily sewer and pumped flow records were analyzed to derive the relationship between the flow factors that would be sustained for various durations (instantaneously, 1 h, 2 h, etc. and their probability of non-exceedance. The resulting peaking factors with a consideration for their sustained flow duration and specified probability would permit the design of the various components of the treatment plant using more accurate critical flows.

  2. Design flow factors for sewerage systems in small arid communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Emad H; Elnakar, Haitham Y

    2014-09-01

    Reliable estimation of sewage flow rates is essential for the proper design of sewers, pumping stations, and treatment plants. The design of the various components of the sewerage system should be based on the most critical flow rates with a focus on extremely low and peak flow rates that would be sustained for a duration related to the acceptable limits of behavior of the components under consideration. The extreme flow conditions and to what extent they differ from the average values are closely related to the size of the community or network, and the socioeconomic conditions. A single pumping station is usually sufficient to pump flow from small community in either flat or non-undulating topography. Therefore, the hydraulic loading on the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) results from the pumped flow from the pumping station rather than the trunk sewer flow. The intermittent operation of the pumping units further accentuates the sewage hydrograph in the final trunk sewer. Accordingly, the design flow for the various components of the WWTP should be determined based on their relevant flow factors. In this study, analysis of one representative small community out of five monitored small communities in Egypt and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is presented. Pumped sewage flow rates were measured and the sewer incoming flows were hydraulically derived. The hourly and daily sewer and pumped flow records were analyzed to derive the relationship between the flow factors that would be sustained for various durations (instantaneously, 1 h, 2 h, etc.) and their probability of non-exceedance. The resulting peaking factors with a consideration for their sustained flow duration and specified probability would permit the design of the various components of the treatment plant using more accurate critical flows.

  3. Systems and Sensors for Debris-flow Monitoring and Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Marchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Debris flows are a type of mass movement that occurs in mountain torrents. They consist of a high concentration of solid material in water that flows as a wave with a steep front. Debris flows can be considered a phenomenon intermediate between landslides and water floods. They are amongst the most hazardous natural processes in mountainous regions and may occur under different climatic conditions. Their destructiveness is due to different factors: their capability of transporting and depositing huge amounts of solid materials, which may also reach large sizes (boulders of several cubic meters are commonly transported by debris flows, their steep fronts, which may reach several meters of height and also their high velocities. The implementation of both structural and nonstructural control measures is often required when debris flows endanger routes, urban areas and other infrastructures. Sensor networks for debris-flow monitoring and warning play an important role amongst non-structural measures intended to reduce debris-flow risk. In particular, debris flow warning systems can be subdivided into two main classes: advance warning and event warning systems. These two classes employ different types of sensors. Advance warning systems are based on monitoring causative hydrometeorological processes (typically rainfall and aim to issue a warning before a possible debris flow is triggered. Event warning systems are based on detecting debris flows when these processes are in progress. They have a much smaller lead time than advance warning ones but are also less prone to false alarms. Advance warning for debris flows employs sensors and techniques typical of meteorology and hydrology, including measuring rainfall by means of rain gauges and weather radar and monitoring water discharge in headwater streams. Event warning systems use different types of sensors, encompassing ultrasonic or radar gauges, ground vibration sensors, videocameras, avalanche

  4. Special purpose computer system for flow visualization using holography technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yukio; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Wakabayashi, Hideaki; Kazo, Yuta; Ito, Tomoyoshi; Satake, Shin-ichi; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Sato, Kazuho

    2008-05-26

    We have designed a special purpose computer system for visualizing fluid flow using digital holographic particle tracking velocimetry (DHPTV). This computer contains an Field Programmble Gate Array (FPGA) chip in which a pipeline for calculating the intensity of an object from a hologram by fast Fourier transform is installed. This system can produce 100 reconstructed images from a 1024 x 1024-grid hologram in 3.3 sec. It is expected that this system will contribute to fluid flow analysis.

  5. Alignment and calibration of total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomre, Derek

    2012-04-01

    Live cell fluorescent microscopy is important in elucidating dynamic cellular processes such as cell signaling, membrane trafficking, and cytoskeleton remodeling. Often, transient intermediate states are revealed only when imaged and quantitated at the single-molecule, vesicle, or organelle level. Such insight depends on the spatiotemporal resolution and sensitivity of a given microscopy method. Confocal microscopes optically section the cell and improve image contrast and axial resolution (>600 nm) compared with conventional epifluorescence microscopes. Another approach, which can selectively excite fluorophores in an even thinner optical plane (microscopy (TIRFM). The key principle of TIRFM is that a thin, exponentially decaying, evanescent field of excitation can be generated at the interface of two mediums of different refractive index (RI) (e.g., the glass coverslip and the biological specimen); as such, TIRFM is ill-suited to deep imaging of cells or tissue. However, for processes near the lower cell cortex, the sensitivity of TIRFM is exquisite. The recent availability of a very high numerical-aperture (NA) objective lens (>1.45) and turnkey TIRFM systems by all the major microscopy manufacturers has made TIRFM increasingly accessible and attractive to biologists, especially when performed in a quantitative manner and complemented with orthogonal genetic and molecular manipulations. This protocol describes the procedure for alignment and calibration of TIRFM systems using standard cellular samples. The goal is to correctly collimate and align the TIRF illuminator vis-à-vis the downstream optics. For illustration, a 488-nm laser and green fluorescent protein (GFP) filter cube are used.

  6. The flow measurement plan for the primary system of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun; Seo, J. K.; Park, C. T.; Yoon, J. H.; Cho, B. H.; Lee, D. J.

    2001-08-01

    It is the common features of the integrated reactor that the main components of the primary system are installed within the reactor vessel, and so there are no any flow pipes connecting the reactor coolant pumps or steam generators. Due to no any flow pipes, it is impossible to measure the differential pressure at the primary system of the integrated reactor, and it also makes impossible measure the primary coolant flow rate. SMART is also a integrated reactor type, and have a problem as same as the above case. The objective of the study is to draw up the flow measurement plan for the primary system of SMART. In this study, firstly we reviewed the flow measurement methods at the primary system for the existing commercial nuclear power reactors. As a result of the review, we selected preliminarily the 3 methods which is a good possibility of application to SMART. The 3 methods are as follows. Flow measurement method by MCP rotation speed, flow measurement method by HBM, flow measurement method by pump motor power. For the above methods, we have evaluated whether they actually can be applied to SMART, and also have set up the concrete methodology. Finally we have made a selection of the above methods as the flow measurement plan for the primary system of SMART. Peculiarly, we did not found out a precedent which the direct pump motor power-flow rate curve is used as the flow measurement method in the existing commercial nuclear power reactors. Therefore, to use this method for SMART, it is needed to bear the follow-up measures in mind. The follow-up measures is included in this report

  7. Energy flow theory of nonlinear dynamical systems with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Jing Tang

    2015-01-01

    This monograph develops a generalised energy flow theory to investigate non-linear dynamical systems governed by ordinary differential equations in phase space and often met in various science and engineering fields. Important nonlinear phenomena such as, stabilities, periodical orbits, bifurcations and chaos are tack-led and the corresponding energy flow behaviors are revealed using the proposed energy flow approach. As examples, the common interested nonlinear dynamical systems, such as, Duffing’s oscillator, Van der Pol’s equation, Lorenz attractor, Rössler one and SD oscillator, etc, are discussed. This monograph lights a new energy flow research direction for nonlinear dynamics. A generalised Matlab code with User Manuel is provided for readers to conduct the energy flow analysis of their nonlinear dynamical systems. Throughout the monograph the author continuously returns to some examples in each chapter to illustrate the applications of the discussed theory and approaches. The book can be used as ...

  8. Interaction of Air Flow in Complex Ventilation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhorzh G. Levitskiy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of study of interaction of air flow in complex ventilation systems. The study used Taylor and Maclaurin’s series and Lagrange formula to create the functional connections on estimation of the impact of changing aerodynamic parameters of one or several simultaneously working regulators on the air flow distribution in mines

  9. Integrated thermal and micro Coriolis flow sensing system with a dynamic flow range of more than 4 decades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Haneveld, J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2011-01-01

    We have realized a micromachined single chip flow sensing system with an unprecedented ultra-wide dynamic flow range of more than 4 decades, from less than 0.1 up to more than 1000 μl/h. The system comprises both a thermal and a micro Coriolis flow sensor with partially overlapping flow ranges.

  10. Guide to Flow Measurement for Electric Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Jason D.; Walker, Mitchell L. R.; Snyder, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In electric propulsion (EP) systems, accurate measurement of the propellant mass flow rate of gas or liquid to the thruster and external cathode is a key input in the calculation of thruster efficiency and specific impulse. Although such measurements are often achieved with commercial mass flow controllers and meters integrated into propellant feed systems, the variability in potential propellant options and flow requirements amongst the spectrum of EP power regimes and devices complicates meter selection, integration, and operation. At the direction of the Committee on Standards for Electric Propulsion Testing, a guide was jointly developed by members of the electric propulsion community to establish a unified document that contains the working principles, methods of implementation and analysis, and calibration techniques and recommendations on the use of mass flow meters in laboratory and spacecraft electric propulsion systems. The guide is applicable to EP devices of all types and power levels ranging from microthrusters to high-power ion engines and Hall effect thrusters. The establishment of a community standard on mass flow metering will help ensure the selection of the proper meter for each application. It will also improve the quality of system performance estimates by providing comprehensive information on the physical phenomena and systematic errors that must be accounted for during the analysis of flow measurement data. This paper will outline the standard methods and recommended practices described in the guide titled "Flow Measurement for Electric Propulsion Systems."

  11. Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E.L. Hardin

    2000-07-17

    The Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is one of nine PMRs supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) being developed by the Yucca Mountain Project for the Site Recommendation Report (SRR). The EBS PMR summarizes the development and abstraction of models for processes that govern the evolution of conditions within the emplacement drifts of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Details of these individual models are documented in 23 supporting Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs). Nineteen of these AMRs are for process models, and the remaining 4 describe the abstraction of results for application in TSPA. The process models themselves cluster around four major topics: ''Water Distribution and Removal Model, Physical and Chemical Environment Model, Radionuclide Transport Model, and Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model''. One AMR (Engineered Barrier System-Features, Events, and Processes/Degradation Modes Analysis) summarizes the formal screening analysis used to select the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) included in TSPA and those excluded from further consideration. Performance of a potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository depends on both the natural barrier system (NBS) and the engineered barrier system (EBS) and on their interactions. Although the waste packages are generally considered as components of the EBS, the EBS as defined in the EBS PMR includes all engineered components outside the waste packages. The principal function of the EBS is to complement the geologic system in limiting the amount of water contacting nuclear waste. A number of alternatives were considered by the Project for different EBS designs that could provide better performance than the design analyzed for the Viability Assessment. The design concept selected was Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II).

  12. Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E.L. Hardin

    2000-01-01

    The Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is one of nine PMRs supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) being developed by the Yucca Mountain Project for the Site Recommendation Report (SRR). The EBS PMR summarizes the development and abstraction of models for processes that govern the evolution of conditions within the emplacement drifts of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Details of these individual models are documented in 23 supporting Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs). Nineteen of these AMRs are for process models, and the remaining 4 describe the abstraction of results for application in TSPA. The process models themselves cluster around four major topics: ''Water Distribution and Removal Model, Physical and Chemical Environment Model, Radionuclide Transport Model, and Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model''. One AMR (Engineered Barrier System-Features, Events, and Processes/Degradation Modes Analysis) summarizes the formal screening analysis used to select the Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) included in TSPA and those excluded from further consideration. Performance of a potential Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository depends on both the natural barrier system (NBS) and the engineered barrier system (EBS) and on their interactions. Although the waste packages are generally considered as components of the EBS, the EBS as defined in the EBS PMR includes all engineered components outside the waste packages. The principal function of the EBS is to complement the geologic system in limiting the amount of water contacting nuclear waste. A number of alternatives were considered by the Project for different EBS designs that could provide better performance than the design analyzed for the Viability Assessment. The design concept selected was Enhanced Design Alternative II (EDA II)

  13. The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.; Pfeiffer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing the sun's energy. One portion of the system was connected to a bank of solar cells to electrochemically charge the solutions, while a separate part of the system was used to electrochemically discharge the stored energy.

  14. Radar Based Flow and Water Level Forecasting in Sewer Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren; Rasmussen, Michael R.; Grum, M.

    2009-01-01

    radar data and flow/water level model are continuously updated using online rain gauges and online in-sewer measurements, in order to make the best possible predictions. The project show very promising results, and show large potentials, exploiting the existing water infrastructure in future climate......This paper describes the first radar based forecast of flow and/or water level in sewer systems in Denmark. The rainfall is successfully forecasted with a lead time of 1-2 hours, and flow/levels are forecasted an additional ½-1½ hours using models describing the behaviour of the sewer system. Both...

  15. An analog simulation technique for distributed flow systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Kümmel, Mogens

    1973-01-01

    Simulation of distributed flow systems in chemical engine­ering has been applied more and more during the last decade as computer techniques have developed [l]. The applications have served the purpose of identification of process dynamics and parameter estimation as well as improving process and......-pipe heat exchanger with counter current flows.......Simulation of distributed flow systems in chemical engine­ering has been applied more and more during the last decade as computer techniques have developed [l]. The applications have served the purpose of identification of process dynamics and parameter estimation as well as improving process...

  16. On load flow control in electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbig, Arnim

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the control of active power flow, or load flow in electric power systems. During the last few years, interest in the possibilities to control the active power flows in transmission systems has increased significantly. There is a number of reasons for this, coming both from the application side - that is, from power system operations - and from the technological side. where advances in power electronics and related technologies have made new system components available. Load flow control is by nature a multi-input multi-output problem, since any change of load flow in one line will be complemented by changes in other lines. Strong cross-coupling between controllable components is to be expected, and the possibility of adverse interactions between these components cannot be rejected straightaway. Interactions with dynamic phenomena in the power system are also a source of concern. Three controllable components are investigated in this thesis, namely the controlled series capacitor (CSC), the phase angle regulator (PAR), and the unified power flow controller (UPFC). Properties and characteristics of these devices axe investigated and discussed. A simple control strategy is proposed. This strategy is then analyzed extensively. Mathematical methods and physical knowledge about the pertinent phenomena are combined, and it is shown that this control strategy can be used for a fairly general class of devices. Computer simulations of the controlled system provide insight into the system behavior in a system of reasonable size. The robustness and stability of the control system are discussed as are its limits. Further, the behavior of the control strategy in a system where the modeling allows for dynamic phenomena are investigated with computer simulations. It is discussed under which circumstances the control action has beneficial or detrimental effect on the system dynamics. Finally, a graphical approach for analyzing the effect of controllers

  17. Exhaust System Reinforced by Jet Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Germann; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Since 1985 the University of Aalborg and Nordfab A/S have been working on an exhaust principle which is quite different from traditional exhaust systems. The REEXS principle (Reinforced Exhaust System), which originally was designed for the agricultural sector, is particularly well-suited for ind...

  18. Multilevel Flow Modeling of Domestic Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Lind, Morten; You, Shi

    2012-01-01

    of complementing this reasoning methodology. Domestic heating systems, as the main resource to meet the thermal requirements of end-users, have different implementations in Europe in order to achieve various degrees of controllability and heating efficiencies. As all the heating systems serve the same basic needs...... i.e. supplying and transferring thermal energy, it is off interest to use MFM to investigate similarities and differences between different implementations. In this paper, three typical domestic European heating systems, which differ from each other in the number of temperature sensors and auxiliary...... components e.g. storage tanks, are modeled using the MFM methodology. Both the goals and functions of material and energy processes and the control functions of the heating systems are represented in the MFM models. It is found that varying the physical system setup results in only little differences among...

  19. Miniaturized Water Flow and Level Monitoring System for Flood Disaster Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifedapo Abdullahi, Salami; Hadi Habaebi, Mohamed; Surya Gunawan, Teddy; Rafiqul Islam, MD

    2017-11-01

    This study presents the performance of a prototype miniaturised water flow and water level monitoring sensor designed towards supporting flood disaster early warning systems. The design involved selection of sensors, coding to control the system mechanism, and automatic data logging and storage. During the design phase, the apparatus was constructed where all the components were assembled using locally sourced items. Subsequently, under controlled laboratory environment, the system was tested by running water through the inlet during which the flow rate and rising water levels are automatically recorded and stored in a database via Microsoft Excel using Coolterm software. The system is simulated such that the water level readings measured in centimeters is output in meters using a multiplicative of 10. A total number of 80 readings were analyzed to evaluate the performance of the system. The result shows that the system is sensitive to water level rise and yielded accurate measurement of water level. But, the flow rate fluctuates due to the manual water supply that produced inconsistent flow. It was also observed that the flow sensor has a duty cycle of 50% of operating time under normal condition which implies that the performance of the flow sensor is optimal.

  20. High anisotropy of flow-aligned bicellar membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Kogan, Maxim

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, multi-lipid bicellar systems have emerged as promising membrane models. The fast orientational diffusion and magnetic alignability made these systems very attractive for NMR investigations. However, their alignment was so far achieved with a strong magnetic field, which limited their use with other methods that require macroscopic orientation. Recently, it was shown that bicelles could be aligned also by shear flow in a Couette flow cell, making it applicable to structural and biophysical studies by polarized light spectroscopy. Considering the sensitivity of this lipid system to small variations in composition and physicochemical parameters, efficient use of such a flow-cell method with coupled techniques will critically depend on the detailed understanding of how the lipid systems behave under flow conditions. In the present study we have characterized the flow alignment behavior of the commonly used dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine/dicaproyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC/DHPC) bicelle system, for various temperatures, lipid compositions, and lipid concentrations. We conclude that at optimal flow conditions the selected bicellar systems can produce the most efficient flow alignment out of any lipid systems used so far. The highest degree of orientation of DMPC/DHPC samples is noticed in a narrow temperature interval, at a practical temperature around 25 C, most likely in the phase transition region characterized by maximum sample viscosity. The change of macroscopic orientation factor as function of the above conditions is now described in detail. The increase in macroscopic alignment observed for bicelles will most likely allow recording of higher resolution spectra on membrane systems, which provide deeper structural insight and analysis into properties of biomolecules interacting with solution phase lipid membranes. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Effect of hypoxia on BOLD fMRI response and total cerebral blood flow in migraine with aura patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Hougaard, Anders; Schytz, Henrik W

    2018-01-01

    was measured in the visual cortex ROIs V1-V5. Total cerebral blood flow (CBF) was calculated by measuring the blood velocity in the internal carotid arteries and the basilar artery using phase-contrast mapping (PCM) MRI. Hypoxia induced a greater decrease in BOLD response to visual stimulation in V1-V4 in MA......Experimentally induced hypoxia triggers migraine and aura attacks in patients suffering from migraine with aura (MA). We investigated the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal response to visual stimulation during hypoxia in MA patients and healthy volunteers. In a randomized double......-blind crossover study design, 15 MA patients were allocated to 180 min of normobaric poikilocapnic hypoxia (capillary oxygen saturation 70-75%) or sham (normoxia) on two separate days and 14 healthy volunteers were exposed to hypoxia. The BOLD functional MRI (fMRI) signal response to visual stimulation...

  2. Modeling total phosphorus removal in an aquatic environment restoring horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland based on artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Cui, Lijuan; Zhang, Manyin; Wang, Yifei

    2015-08-01

    A horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSF-CW) was designed to improve the water quality of an artificial lake in Beijing Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center, Beijing, China. Artificial neural networks (ANNs), including multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF), were used to model the removal of total phosphorus (TP). Four variables were selected as the input parameters based on the principal component analysis: the influent TP concentration, water temperature, flow rate, and porosity. In order to improve model accuracy, alternative ANNs were developed by incorporating meteorological variables, including precipitation, air humidity, evapotranspiration, solar heat flux, and barometric pressure. A genetic algorithm and cross-validation were used to find the optimal network architectures for the ANNs. Comparison of the observed data and the model predictions indicated that, with careful variable selection, ANNs appeared to be an efficient and robust tool for predicting TP removal in the HSSF-CW. Comparison of the accuracy and efficiency of MLP and RBF for predicting TP removal showed that the RBF with additional meteorological variables produced the most accurate results, indicating a high potentiality for modeling TP removal in the HSSF-CW.

  3. Analytical Study of Unsteady Nested Groundwater Flow Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Niu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two analytical solutions using segregation variable method to calculate the hydraulic head under steady and unsteady flow conditions based on Tóth’s classical model were developed. The impacts of anisotropy ratio, hydraulic conductivity (K, and specific yield (μs on the flow patterns were analyzed. It was found that the area of the equal velocity region increases and the penetrating depth of the flow system decreases at steady state with anisotropy ratio increases, which is defined as ε=Kx/Kz. In addition, stagnant zones can be found in the flow field where the streamlines have opposite directions. These stagnant zones move toward the surface as the horizontal hydraulic conductivity increases. The results of the study on transient flow indicate that a relative increase in hydraulic conductivity produces a positive impact on hydraulic head and a relative enhancement in specific yield produces a negative effect on hydraulic head at early times.

  4. On the Flow Behavior in Rotor-Stator System with Superposed Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Debuchy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow between a rotor and a stator at high Reynolds number and small Ekman number is divided into three domains, two boundary layers adjacent to the discs separated by a central core. In the present work, a simple theoretical approach provides analytical solutions for the radial distribution of the core swirl ratio valid for a rotor-stator system with a superposed radial inflow rate. At first, the flow in the rotor boundary layer is assumed to behave as expressed by Owen and Rogers (1989 in the case of a turbulent flow on a rotating single disc. On the stator side, a necessary compensation flow rate must take place according to the conservation of mass. It is found that this compensation flow rate cannot be estimated with a good accuracy using the hypotheses of a stationary disc in a rotating fluid by Owen and Rogers (1989. Thus, two innovative weighting functions are tested, leading to new analytical laws relating the core swirl ratio K to the coefficient of flow rate Cqr introduced by Poncet et al. (2005. The adequacy between the theoretical solutions and numerous results of the literature is clearly improved and the discussion allows a better understanding of the flow behavior.

  5. Variable flow controls of closed system pumps for energy savings in maritime power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chun-Lien; Liao, Chi-Hsiang; Chou, Tso-Chu

    2016-01-01

    pumps on marine vessels. The existing problem of traditional control methods for closed system pumps is analyzed and a mathematical model for variable flow controls with the appropriate control settings is derived. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated and verified through experimental...... and field tests of a practical auxiliary boiler feed water management system on a commercial vessel. It is proved that the proposed method can maintain constant water pressure for closed system pumps and provide an efficient way to measure energy savings and maintenance benefits. The results serve......Pumps are extensively used in maritime industries as marine vessels utilize a wide range of pumps and pumping techniques to transfer and distribute all types of air and fluids. The electrical energy consumed by the various motors accounts for about 70% of a vessel’s total power consumption...

  6. Differentiation of chronic total occlusion and subtotal occlusion of the femoropopliteal artery-role of retrograde flow sign and collateral circulation on CT angiography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujun; Su, Yanfei; Chen, Haisong

    2017-08-01

    To study the value of a retrograde flow sign and the collateral circulation on CT angiography (CTA) for the differential diagnosis of chronic total occlusion from subtotal occlusion of the femoropopliteal artery (FPA). 50 patients with obstruction of the FPA underwent CTA and digital subtraction angiography examinations of the lower limbs. The frequency of a retrograde flow sign and collateral circulation on CTA in chronic total and subtotal occlusion was noted and analyzed, with the results of digital subtraction angiography as a standard to judge total or subtotal occlusion. The decreasing CT value from the distal to proximal direction on CTA suggests the existence of retrograde flow. There were significant differences in the occurrence rates of a retrograde flow sign on CTA in the chronic total and subtotal obstruction groups (X 2 = 13.1, p collateral circulation sign (X 2 = 13.5, p collateral circulation sign to diagnose chronic total obstruction of the FPA had a sensitivity of 92.3% and specificity of 89.8%. The retrograde flow sign combined with a collateral circulation sign is of great clinical value for differentiation of chronic total stenosis from severe stenosis (subtotal occlusion) of the FPA. Advances in knowledge: A retrograde flow sign combined with a collateral circulation sign is of great clinical value to differentiate between chronic total stenosis and severe stenosis (subtotal occlusion) of the FPA.

  7. Two-phase flow induced parametric vibrations in structural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Fumio

    1980-01-01

    This paper is divided into two parts concerning piping systems and a nuclear fuel pin system. The significant experimental results concerning the random vibration induced in an L-shaped pipe by air-water two-phase flow and the theoretical analysis of the vibration are described in the first part. It was clarified for the first time that the parametric excitation due to the periodic changes of system mass, centrifugal force and Coriolis force was the mechanism of exciting the vibration. Moreover, the experimental and theoretical analyses of the mechanism of exciting vibration by air-water two-phase flow in a straight, horizontal pipe were carried out, and the first natural frequency of the piping system was strongly related to the dominant frequency of void signals. The experimental results on the vibration of a nuclear fuel pin model in parallel air-water two-phase flow are reported in the latter part. The relations between vibrational strain variance and two-phase flow velocity or pressure fluctuation, and the frequency characteristics of vibrational strain variance were obtained. The theoretical analysis of the dynamic interaction between air-water two-phase flow and a fuel pin structure, and the vibrational instability of fuel pins in alternate air and water slugs or in large bubble flow are also reported. (Kako, I.)

  8. Development of measurement systems for studies of flow - structure interactions in pipe systems under LWR conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuschewski, Mario; Laurien, Eckart

    2012-01-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Power Studies and Energy Systems (IKE) of the University of Stuttgart is setting up new test rigs for studies of cyclic thermal load phenomena within the 'Studies of Flow-Structure Interactions in Light Water Reactors' joint project. The project is part of a total of three individual projects within an overarching BMBF joint project on reactor safety research, 'Basic Principles of Systems, Discharge and Materials Behavior of Pipes Under Cyclic Thermal Loads.' The article covers the aspect of experimental studies for fluid mechanics modeling of flow-structure interactions. Detailed points under study are thermal mixing processes or laminar flows in a typical tee-shaped pipe branch. The interaction between a fluid and a pipe structure exerts considerable influence on the loads and stresses acting on a component and on the resultant fatigue of a material. In this connection, modeling the mixing process, including effects of buoyancy, thermal conduction and head transfer between the fluid and the wall, is of decisive importance. The experimental data so far accumulated in studies of non-isothermal mixtures cover but a very narrow range of temperatures. The focus of this work is on the development of technical measurement systems for studies of cyclic thermal loads and stresses to be applied to pipe elements specific to LWRs under realistic thermal and flow conditions. On the basis of reliable experimental data, the processes referred to above and their underlying mechanisms can then be examined in the further course of work, and models can be studied for applicability and extended where necessary. (orig.)

  9. Yielding and Flow of Soft-Jammed Systems in Elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Fadoul, O.; Lorenceau, E.; Coussot, P.

    2018-01-01

    So far, yielding and flow properties of soft-jammed systems have only been studied from simple shear and then extrapolated to other flow situations. In particular, simple flows such as elongations have barely been investigated experimentally or only in a nonconstant, partial volume of material. We show that using smooth tool surfaces makes it possible to obtain a prolonged elongational flow over a large range of aspect ratios in the whole volume of material. The normal force measured for various soft-jammed systems with different microstructures shows that the ratio of the elongation yield stress to the shear yield stress is larger (by a factor of around 1.5) than expected from the standard theory which assumes that the stress tensor is a function of the second invariant of the strain rate tensor. This suggests that the constitutive tensor of the materials cannot be determined solely from macroscopic shear measurements.

  10. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E.; Eaton, R.R.; Martinez, M.J.; Gauthier, J.H.; Guerin, D.C.; Lu, N.

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These analyses estimate the future behavior of a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site under consideration by the Department of Energy. TSPA-93 builds upon previous efforts by emphasizing YMP concerns relating to site characterization, design, and regulatory compliance. Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. Hydrologic parameters and parameter probability distributions have been derived from available site data. Possible future climate changes are modeled by considering two separate groundwater infiltration conditions: open-quotes wetclose quotes with a mean flux of 10 mm/yr, and open-quotes dryclose quotes with a mean flux of 0.5 mm/yr. Two alternative waste-package designs and two alternative repository areal thermal power densities are investigated. One waste package is a thin-wall container emplaced in a vertical borehole, and the second is a container designed with corrosion-resistant and corrosion-allowance walls emplaced horizontally in the drift. Thermal power loadings of 57 kW/acre (the loading specified in the original repository conceptual design) and 114 kW/acre (a loading chosen to investigate effects of a open-quotes hot repositoryclose quotes) are considered. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone

  11. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E.; Eaton, R.R.; Martinez, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, J.H.; Guerin, D.C.; Lu, N. [and others

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These analyses estimate the future behavior of a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site under consideration by the Department of Energy. TSPA-93 builds upon previous efforts by emphasizing YMP concerns relating to site characterization, design, and regulatory compliance. Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. Hydrologic parameters and parameter probability distributions have been derived from available site data. Possible future climate changes are modeled by considering two separate groundwater infiltration conditions: {open_quotes}wet{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 10 mm/yr, and {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 0.5 mm/yr. Two alternative waste-package designs and two alternative repository areal thermal power densities are investigated. One waste package is a thin-wall container emplaced in a vertical borehole, and the second is a container designed with corrosion-resistant and corrosion-allowance walls emplaced horizontally in the drift. Thermal power loadings of 57 kW/acre (the loading specified in the original repository conceptual design) and 114 kW/acre (a loading chosen to investigate effects of a {open_quotes}hot repository{close_quotes}) are considered. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone.

  12. Total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain - SNL second iteration (TSPA-1993); Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.L.; Gauthier, J.H.; Barnard, R.W.; Barr, G.E.; Dockery, H.A.; Dunn, E.; Eaton, R.R.; Guerin, D.C.; Lu, N.; Martinez, M.J. [and others

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has completed the second iteration of the periodic total-system performance assessments (TSPA-93) for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These analyses estimate the future behavior of a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site under consideration by the Department of Energy. TSPA-93 builds upon previous efforts by emphasizing YMP concerns relating to site characterization, design, and regulatory compliance. Scenarios describing expected conditions (aqueous and gaseous transport of contaminants) and low-probability events (human-intrusion drilling and volcanic intrusion) are modeled. The hydrologic processes modeled include estimates of the perturbations to ambient conditions caused by heating of the repository resulting from radioactive decay of the waste. Hydrologic parameters and parameter probability distributions have been derived from available site data. Possible future climate changes are modeled by considering two separate groundwater infiltration conditions: {open_quotes}wet{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 10 mm/yr, and {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} with a mean flux of 0.5 mm/yr. Two alternative waste-package designs and two alternative repository areal thermal power densities are investigated. One waste package is a thin-wall container emplaced in a vertical borehole, and the second is a container designed with corrosion-resistant and corrosion-allowance walls emplaced horizontally in the drift. Thermal power loadings of 57 kW/acre (the loading specified in the original repository conceptual design) and 114 kW/acre (a loading chosen to investigate effects of a {open_quotes}hot repository{close_quotes}) are considered. TSPA-93 incorporates significant new detailed process modeling, including two- and three-dimensional modeling of thermal effects, groundwater flow in the saturated-zone aquifers, and gas flow in the unsaturated zone.

  13. Optical flow based guidance system design for semi-strapdown image homing guided missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Lan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on semi-strapdown image homing guided (SSIHG system design based on optical flow for a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF axial-symmetric skid-to-turn missile. Three optical flow algorithms suitable for large displacements are introduced and compared. The influence of different displacements on computational accuracy of the three algorithms is analyzed statistically. The total optical flow of the SSIHG missile is obtained using the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT algorithm, which is the best among the three for large displacements. After removing the rotational optical flow caused by rotation of the gimbal and missile body from the total optical flow, the remaining translational optical flow is smoothed via Kalman filtering. The circular navigation guidance (CNG law with impact angle constraint is then obtained utilizing the smoothed translational optical flow and position of the target image. Simulations are carried out under both disturbed and undisturbed conditions, and results indicate the proposed guidance strategy for SSIHG missiles can result in a precise target hit with a desired impact angle without the need for the time-to-go parameter.

  14. Information systems for material flow management in construction processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesároš, P.; Mandičák, T.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the options for the management of material flows in the construction process. Management and resource planning is one of the key factors influencing the effectiveness of construction project. It is very difficult to set these flows correctly. The current period offers several options and tools to do this. Information systems and their modules can be used just for the management of materials in the construction process.

  15. A contribution about ferrofluid based flow manipulation and locomotion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, K; Zeidis, I; Bohm, V; Popp, J

    2009-01-01

    With the background of developing apedal bionic inspired locomotion systems for future application fields like autonomous (swarm) robots, medical engineering and inspection systems, this article presents a selection of locomotion systems with bifluidic flow control using ferrofluid. By controlling the change of shape, position and pressure of the ferrofluid in a secondary low viscous fluid by magnetic fields locomotion of objects or the ferrofluid itself can be realised. The locomotion of an object is caused in the first example by a ferrofluid generated flow of the secondary fluid and in the second and third case by the direct alteration of the ferrofluid position.

  16. A contribution about ferrofluid based flow manipulation and locomotion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, K; Zeidis, I; Bohm, V; Popp, J [TU Ilmenau, Fak. f. Maschinenbau, FG Technische Mechanik, Max-Planck-Ring 12, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany)], E-mail: klaus.zimmermann@tu-ilmenau.de, E-mail: jana.popp@tu-ilmenau.de

    2009-02-01

    With the background of developing apedal bionic inspired locomotion systems for future application fields like autonomous (swarm) robots, medical engineering and inspection systems, this article presents a selection of locomotion systems with bifluidic flow control using ferrofluid. By controlling the change of shape, position and pressure of the ferrofluid in a secondary low viscous fluid by magnetic fields locomotion of objects or the ferrofluid itself can be realised. The locomotion of an object is caused in the first example by a ferrofluid generated flow of the secondary fluid and in the second and third case by the direct alteration of the ferrofluid position.

  17. Determination Total Phosphour of Maize Plant Samples by Continuous Flow Analyzer in Comparison with Vanadium Molybdate Yellow Colorimetric Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Yun-xia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The vanadium molybdate yellow colorimetric method(VMYC method is regarded as one of conventional methods for determining total phosphorus(P in plants, but it is time consuming procedure. Continuous flow analyzer(CFA is a fluid stream segmentation technique with air segments. It is used to measure P concentration based on the molybdate-antimony-ascorbic acid method of Murphy and Riley. Sixty nine of maize plant samples were selected and digested with H2SO4-H2O2. P concentrations in the digests were determined by CFA and VMYC method, respectively. The t test found that there was no any significant difference of the plant P contents measured by the CFA and the VMYC method. A linear equation could best describe their relationship: Y(CFA-P=0.927X(VMYC-P-0.002. The Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.985 with a significance level(n=69, P<0.01. The CFA method for plant P measurement had a high precision with relative standard deviation(RSD less than 1.5%. It is suggested that the CFA based on Murphy and Riley colorimetric detection can be used to determinate total plant P in the digests solutions with H2SO4-H2O2. The CFA method is labor saving and can handle large numbers of samples. The human error in mixing with other operations is reduced to a great extent.

  18. Controlling two-phase flow in microfluidic systems using electrowetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, H.

    2011-01-01

    Electrowetting (EW)-based digital microfluidic systems (DMF) and droplet-based two-phase flow microfluidic systems (TPF) with closed channels are the most widely used microfluidic platforms. In general, these two approaches have been considered independently. However, integrating the two

  19. Configuration optimization of series flow double-effect water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration systems by cost minimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussati, Sergio F.; Cignitti, Stefano; Mansouri, Seyed Soheil

    2018-01-01

    An optimal process configuration for double-effect water-lithium bromide absorption refrigeration systems with series flow – where the solution is first passed through the high-temperature generator – is obtained by minimization of the total annual cost for a required cooling capacity. To this end......W) and the temperature of the cooling water (15–35 °C). The results of this work motivate to apply the simultaneous optimization approach to seek for new multi-effect absorption refrigeration system configurations with parallel and reverse flow as well as other series flow arrangements that minimize the total annual...

  20. SEM investigation of composite restoration adaptation to enamel after use of total etch and self etch adhesive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dačić Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Quality and durability of enamel/composite interface essentially depend on an adhesive restorative system. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of marginal adaptation of composite adhesive systems to enamel by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and to analyze the morphology of the enamel surface along margins of composite restorations, following exposure to cariogenic solution. Methods The study material included 56 extracted human third molars. Class V cavities were prepared with margins at enamel. Cavities were restored with Single Bond/Z250 and Single Bond/Filtek flow, using the total etch adhesive system, and Prompt-L-Pop/Z250 and Prompt-L-Pop/Filtek flow, using the self etch adhesive system. After the restorative procedure, the restorations were submitted to demineralization during 7 and 28 days. Samples were stored in a cariogenic solution (lactic acid, pH 4.5; 0.1 M at 37°C or in deionized water (the control group. The margins of restorations and perimarginal enamel were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The gap formations around restoration were measured on cervical, occlusal and approximate margins. Results The usage of the total etch adhesive system showed statistically significant lower marginal gap width around composite restoration, compared with the self etch system (p<0.01. The SEM examination also showed perimarginal enamel zones presenting several signs of demineralization and erosion (alteration of rods, porosities after acting of a cariogenic solution, in both adhesive methods. Less alteration was found on the enamel surfaces not included in the perimarginal zone. Conclusion Treating the cavity with 35% phosphoric acid in the total etch system significantly improved the adaptation of the composite resins to enamel, compared with the self etch treatment. Stronger demineralization of the perimarginal enamel in a cariogenic solution was observed around all restorations in both

  1. Pumping power of nanofluids in a flowing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routbort, Jules L.; Singh, Dileep; Timofeeva, Elena V.; Yu, Wenhua; France, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanofluids have the potential to increase thermal conductivities and heat transfer coefficients compared to their base fluids. However, the addition of nanoparticles to a fluid also increases the viscosity and therefore increases the power required to pump the fluid through the system. When the benefit of the increased heat transfer is larger than the penalty of the increased pumping power, the nanofluid has the potential for commercial viability. The pumping power for nanofluids has been considered previously for flow in straight tubes. In this study, the pumping power was measured for nanofluids flowing in a complete system including straight tubing, elbows, and expansions. The objective was to determine the significance of two-phase flow effects on system performance. Two types of nanofluids were used in this study: a water-based nanofluid containing 2.0–8.0 vol% of 40-nm alumina nanoparticles, and a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture-based nanofluid containing 2.2 vol% of 29-nm SiC nanoparticles. All experiments were performed in the turbulent flow region in the entire test system simulating features typically found in heat exchanger systems. Experimental results were compared to the pumping power calculated from a mathematical model of the system to evaluate the system effects. The pumping power results were also combined with the heat transfer enhancement to evaluate the viability of the two nanofluids.

  2. Circulation system for flowing uranium hexafluoride cavity reactor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaminet, J.F.; Kendall, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Accomplishment of the UF 6 critical cavity experiments, currently in progress, and planned confined flowing UF 6 initial experiments requires development of reliable techniques for handling heated UF 6 throughout extended ranges of temperature, pressure, and flow rate. The development of three laboratory-scale flow systems for handling gaseous UF 6 at temperatures up to 500 K, pressures up to approximately 40 atm, and continuous flow rates up to approximately 50 g/s is presented. A UF 6 handling system fabricated for static critical tests currently being conducted at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) is described. The system was designed to supply UF 6 to a double-walled aluminum core canister assembly at temperatures between 300 K and 400 K and pressures up to 4 atm. A second UF 6 handling system designed to provide a circulating flow of up to 50 g/s of gaseous UF 6 in a closed-loop through a double-walled aluminum core canister with controlled temperature and pressure is described

  3. Development of Web-based Load Duration Curve system for analysis of total maximum daily load and water quality characteristics in a waterbody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonggun; Engel, Bernard A; Park, Youn Shik; Theller, Larry; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Kong, Dong Soo; Lim, Kyoung Jae

    2012-04-30

    In many states of the US, the total maximum daily load program has been widely developed for watershed water quality restoration and management. However, the total maximum daily load is often represented as an average daily pollutant load based on average long-term flow conditions, and as such, it does not adequately describe the problems they aim to address. Without an adequate characterization of water quality problems, appropriate solutions cannot be identified and implemented. The total maximum daily load approach should consider adequate water quality characterizations based on overall flow conditions rather than on a single flow event such as average daily flow. The Load Duration Curve, which provides opportunities for enhanced pollutant source and best management practice targeting both in the total maximum daily load development and in water quality restoration efforts, has been used for the determination of appropriate total maximum daily load targets. However, at least 30 min to an hour is needed for unskilled people based on our experiences to generate the Load Duration Curve using a desktop-based spreadsheet computer program. Therefore, in this study, the Web-based Load Duration Curve system (https://engineering.purdue.edu/∼ldc/) was developed and applied to a study watershed for an analysis of the total maximum daily load and water quality characteristics in the watershed. This system provides diverse options for Flow Duration Curve and Load Duration Curve analysis of a watershed of interest in a brief time. The Web-based Load Duration Curve system is useful for characterizing the problem according to flow regimes, and for providing a visual representation that enables an easy understanding of the problem and the total maximum daily load targets. In addition, this system will be able to help researchers identify appropriate best management practices within watersheds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. OVERSMART Reporting Tool for Flow Computations Over Large Grid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, David L.; Chan, William M.

    2012-01-01

    Structured grid solvers such as NASA's OVERFLOW compressible Navier-Stokes flow solver can generate large data files that contain convergence histories for flow equation residuals, turbulence model equation residuals, component forces and moments, and component relative motion dynamics variables. Most of today's large-scale problems can extend to hundreds of grids, and over 100 million grid points. However, due to the lack of efficient tools, only a small fraction of information contained in these files is analyzed. OVERSMART (OVERFLOW Solution Monitoring And Reporting Tool) provides a comprehensive report of solution convergence of flow computations over large, complex grid systems. It produces a one-page executive summary of the behavior of flow equation residuals, turbulence model equation residuals, and component forces and moments. Under the automatic option, a matrix of commonly viewed plots such as residual histograms, composite residuals, sub-iteration bar graphs, and component forces and moments is automatically generated. Specific plots required by the user can also be prescribed via a command file or a graphical user interface. Output is directed to the user s computer screen and/or to an html file for archival purposes. The current implementation has been targeted for the OVERFLOW flow solver, which is used to obtain a flow solution on structured overset grids. The OVERSMART framework allows easy extension to other flow solvers.

  5. Grey Box Modelling of Flow in Sewer Systems with State Dependent Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Anders; Thordarson, Fannar Örn; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg

    2011-01-01

    flow prediction limits, because the observation noise is proportionally scaled with the modelled output. Finally it is concluded that a state proportional diffusion term best and adequately describes the one-step flow prediction uncertainty, and a proper description of the system noise is important......Generating flow forecasts with uncertainty limits from rain gauge inputs in sewer systems require simple models with identifiable parameters that can adequately describe the stochastic phenomena of the system. In this paper, a simple grey-box model is proposed that is attractive for both...... forecasting and control purposes. The grey-box model is based on stochastic differential equations and a key feature is the separation of the total noise into process and measurement noise. The grey-box approach is properly introduced and hypothesis regarding the noise terms are formulated. Three different...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1113 - Bilirubin (total and unbound) in the neonate test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1113 Bilirubin (total and unbound) in the neonate test system. (a... levels of bilirubin (total and unbound) in the blood (serum) of newborn infants to aid in indicating the...

  7. MR angiography and flow quantitation in the portal venous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, R.R.; Finn, J.P.; Wentz, K.U.; Zhao, B.; Liu, C.; Mattle, H.; Longmaid, H.E.; McArdle, C.

    1989-01-01

    MR angiography was used to image the portal venous system. Projection venograms were produced from a series of two-dimensional flow-compensated gradient-echo images obtained during breath holding. The authors determined flow direction and velocity by means of dynamic bolus tracking. Six healthy subjects and four patients with portal hypertension were studied. This technique was able to demonstrate consistently the main portal vein and intrahepatic branches, the splenic vein, and the superior and inferior mesenteric veins. Peak flow velocities as determined with MR imaging (17.9 cm/sec ± 2.8) correlated closely with those measured with duplex US (17.5 cm/sec ± 2.2) (r = .846, P<.04). Reversal of portal flow, portal vein thrombosis, and portosystemic collaterals were well shown

  8. Design and Implementation of Automatic Air Flow Rate Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, A.; Saputra, C.; Munir, M. M.; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    Venturimeter is an apparatus that can be used to measure the air flow rate. In this experiment we designed a venturimeter which equipped with a valve that is used to control the air flow rate. The difference of pressure between the cross sections was measured with the differential pressure sensor GA 100-015WD which can calculate the difference of pressures from 0 to 3737.33 Pa. A 42M048C Z36 stepper motor was used to control the valve. The precision of this motor rotation is about 0.15 °. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) was developed to monitor and set the value of flow rate then an 8-bit microcontroller was used to process the control system In this experiment- the venturimeter has been examined to get the optimal parameter of controller. The results show that the controller can set the stable output air flow rate.

  9. Multiphase Flow Technology Impacts on Thermal Control Systems for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillen, John; Sankovic, John; Lekan, Jack

    2006-01-01

    The Two-Phase Flow Facility (TPHIFFy) Project focused on bridging the critical knowledge gap by developing and demonstrating critical multiphase fluid products for advanced life support, thermal management and power conversion systems that are required to enable the Vision for Space Exploration. Safety and reliability of future systems will be enhanced by addressing critical microgravity fluid physics issues associated with flow boiling, condensation, phase separation, and system stability. The project included concept development, normal gravity testing, and reduced gravity aircraft flight campaigns, in preparation for the development of a space flight experiment implementation. Data will be utilized to develop predictive models that could be used for system design and operation. A single fluid, two-phase closed thermodynamic loop test bed was designed, assembled and tested. The major components in this test bed include: a boiler, a condenser, a phase separator and a circulating pump. The test loop was instrumented with flow meters, thermocouples, pressure transducers and both high speed and normal speed video cameras. A low boiling point surrogate fluid, FC-72, was selected based on scaling analyses using preliminary designs for operational systems. Preliminary results are presented which include flow regime transitions and some observations regarding system stability.

  10. Ultrasound Vector Flow Imaging: Part II: Parallel Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Yu, Alfred C. H.

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives a review of the current state-of-theart in ultrasound parallel acquisition systems for flow imaging using spherical and plane waves emissions. The imaging methods are explained along with the advantages of using these very fast and sensitive velocity estimators. These experimental...... ultrasound imaging for studying brain function in animals. The paper explains the underlying acquisition and estimation methods for fast 2-D and 3-D velocity imaging and gives a number of examples. Future challenges and the potentials of parallel acquisition systems for flow imaging are also discussed....

  11. Biomechanical modelling of bile flow in the biliary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchumov Alex

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The biliary system consists of the biliary tree, gallbladder and major duodenal papilla. Soft tissues compliance plays important role in the bio-fluids transport. Particularly, bile flow disturbances due to bile duct wall motor function changes in the extra-hepatic ducts, from medicine point of view are called dyscinesia of biliary tract. Fluid motion in the elastic and compliant ducts can be described by different models (for example, Windkessel model, peristaltic fluid motion, FSI algorithm. Our approach is decomposition of the biliary system into three compartments (extra-hepatic biliary tree, gallbladder, major duodenal papilla. Bile flow in the extra-hepatic ducts is simulated using FSI algorithm. Bile flow in the gallbladder can be described as flow in the reservoir with compliant ducts using Windkessel model. Bile flow in the major duodenal papilla is considered as peristaltic fluid motion, because the wall contraction is really important factor of fluid motion in that segment. The coupling of these compartments is performed by boundary conditions. The biliary system geometry was obtained using MRI patient-specific data. It was confirmed that normal bile can be modeled as Newtonian fluid and lithogenic bile can be modeled as non-Newtonian fluid (Carreau fluid. Bile ducts were modeled as hyperelastic material.

  12. Interpreting physical flows in networks as a communication system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Universidad de la República, Instituto de Física de la Facultad de Ciencias, Iguá 4225, Montevideo,. 11400, Uruguay. 2University of Aberdeen, King's ... E-mail: nrubido@fisica.edu.uy. Abstract. Information theory concepts and .... s-t, F(st) is the flow vector containing the total cur- rent at each node (i.e., [F(st)]i = j f. (s, t).

  13. The construction of distant total distributed measuring and controlling system based on RS-232 communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Chengying; Li Tiantuo; Zhu Wenkai; Zhang Quanhu

    1999-01-01

    The author discusses the construction of distant total distributed measuring and controlling system based on RS-232 communication. The merits of this system are simple construction, reliable performance, big communication distance, and wide covering range. The system fits in with application in radiation environment. The author also discusses the system's hardware equipment and communication protocol

  14. Mathematical modelling of flow distribution in the human cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, V. K.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Bungo, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed model of the entire human cardiovascular system which aims to study the changes in flow distribution caused by external stimuli, changes in internal parameters, or other factors. The arterial-venous network is represented by 325 interconnected elastic segments. The mathematical description of each segment is based on equations of hydrodynamics and those of stress/strain relationships in elastic materials. Appropriate input functions provide for the pumping of blood by the heart through the system. The analysis employs the finite-element technique which can accommodate any prescribed boundary conditions. Values of model parameters are from available data on physical and rheological properties of blood and blood vessels. As a representative example, simulation results on changes in flow distribution with changes in the elastic properties of blood vessels are discussed. They indicate that the errors in the calculated overall flow rates are not significant even in the extreme case of arteries and veins behaving as rigid tubes.

  15. Biofilm streamers cause rapid clogging of flow systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Drescher, Knut; Wingreen, Ned; Bassler, Bonnie; Stone, Howard

    2012-11-01

    Biofilms are antibiotic-resistant, sessile bacterial communities that are found on most surfaces on Earth. In addition to constituting the most abundant form of bacterial life, biofilms also cause chronic and medical device-associated infections. Despite their importance, basic information about how biofilms behave in common ecological environments is lacking. Here we demonstrate that flow through soil-like porous materials, industrial filters, and medical stents dramatically modifies the morphology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms to form streamers which over time bridge the space between obstacles and corners in non-uniform environments. Using a microfluidic model system we find that, contrary to the accepted paradigm, the accumulation of surface-attached bacterial biofilm has little effect on flow resistance whereas the formation of biofilm streamers causes sudden and rapid clogging. The time at which clogging happens depends on bacterial growth, while the duration of the clogging transition is driven by flow-mediated transport of bacteria to the clogging site. Flow-induced shedding of extracellular matrix from the resident biofilm generates a sieve-like network that catches bacteria flowing by, which add to the network of extracellular matrix, to cause exponentially rapid clogging. We expect these biofilm streamers to be ubiquitous in nature, and to have profound effects on flow through porous materials in environmental, industrial, and medical environments.

  16. Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana Salivary flow rate and protein concentration in human whole saliva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO BANDERAS-TARABAY

    1997-09-01

    -stimulated HWS and 1.526±.44 in stimulated HWS. Females showed a lower percentage of salivary flow and greater protein concentrations. No correlations were observed between flow and total protein concentration, and DMFT and CPITN; however, correlations were present with other variables. Conclusions. These findings could be associated to degree of nutrition, genetic characteristics and level of oral disease in our population. Present results represent the first step to create a database in sialochemistry to identify risk indicators of specific oral and systemic diseases.

  17. Transparency of the Total System Performance Assessment through the Development of the FEAS Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.S.; Seo, E.J.; Kang, C.H.

    2003-01-01

    Transparency on the total system performance assessment (TSPA) is the key issue to enhance the public acceptance for a permanent high level radioactive repository. Throughout the lessons accumulated in international projects, it turns out to be important to translate technical languages to more understandable ones. One of the key consolidated statements of the RISCOM project was 'the public should know you have a model, which is clear to everybody about value judgments, facts, uncertainties and questions'. In fact, the final assessment is the integration of identifying and clarifying facts, expert judgment, uncertainties, value judgment, level of significance, and open questions, which cannot be easily understood. Traditionally, the study on features, events, and processes (FEPs) and associated scenarios has been regarded as the starting point to open the communicative discussion on TSPA such as what to evaluate, how to evaluate and how to translate outcomes into more friendly language that many stakeholders can easily understand and react with. However, in most cases, it is difficult for stakeholders outside the performance assessment field to assess the details on the story of the safety assessment; scenario and technical background of it. Fortunately, the advent of the internet era opens up the possibility of two way communication from the beginning of the performance assessment so that every stake bolder can exchange their keen opinions on the safety issues. To achieve it, KAERI develops the systematic approach from the FEPs to Assessment method flow chart, through the formation of integrated FEPs corresponding to the elements in the RES matrix. All information is integrated into the web based program named FEAS (FEp to Assessment through Scenario development) under development in KAERI. In parallel, two independent systems are also under development, the web based quality assurance system and the performance assessment input database. Throughout the next phase

  18. Downstream flow top width prediction in a river system | Choudhury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANFIS, ARIMA and Hybrid Multiple Inflows Muskingum models (HMIM) were applied to simulate and forecast downstream discharge and flow top widths in a river system. The ANFIS model works on a set of linguistic rules while the ARIMA model uses a set of past values to predict the next value in a time series. The HMIM ...

  19. Flow induced noise modelling for industrial piping systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijrath, H.; Ǎbom, M.

    2003-01-01

    Noise from e.g. gas-transport piping systems becomes more and more a problem for plants located close to urban areas. Too high noise levels are unacceptable and will put limitations on the plant capacity. Flow-induced noise of valves, orifices and headers installed in the installation plays a

  20. Water Flow Experiments: Single and Double Bottle Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 23; Issue 1. Water Flow Experiments: Single and Double Bottle Systems ... Jain International Residential School, Jakkasandra Post, Kanakapura Road, Ramanagara Dist., Karnataka 562 112, India. Room No 425, SH-3 Ashoka University, Near Rai Police ...

  1. A flow-through amperometric sensor micro-analytical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijanowska, D.; Pijanowska, D.G.; Sprenkels, A.J.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of the flow-through amperometric sensor based on semi-permeable dialysis tubing implemented in silicon is presented. The sensor is designed in the form to be an integral component of a lab-on-a-chip systems and it has been successfully incorporated into an integrated

  2. From Flow Logic to Static Type Systems in Coordination Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Nicola, Rocco; Gorla, Daniele; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2008-01-01

    ; therefore, the correctness properties cannot be statically enforced. By contrast, static analysis approaches based on Flow Logic usually guarantee properties statically. In this paper we show how to combine these two approaches to obtain a static type system for describing secure access to tuple spaces...

  3. On the Curvature and Heat Flow on Hamiltonian Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohta Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop the differential geometric and geometric analytic studies of Hamiltonian systems. Key ingredients are the curvature operator, the weighted Laplacian, and the associated Riccati equation.We prove appropriate generalizations of the Bochner-Weitzenböck formula and Laplacian comparison theorem, and study the heat flow.

  4. Numerical analysis of complex fluid-flow systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Very flexible computer-assisted numerical analysis is used to solve dynamic fluid-flow equations characterizing computer-controlled heat dissipation system developed for Space lab. Losses caused by bends, ties, fittings, valves, and like are easily included, and analysis can solve both steady-state and transient cases. It can also interact with parallel thermal analysis.

  5. Local temperatures and heat flow in quantum driven systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Alvaro; Arrachea, Liliana; Lozano, Gustavo S.

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the concept of local temperature for quantum systems driven out of equilibrium by ac pumps showing explicitly that it is the correct indicator for heat flow. We also show that its use allows for a generalization of the Wiedemann-Franz law.

  6. Total petroleum systems of the Illizi Province, Algeria and Libya; Tanezzuft-Illizi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    Undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources were assessed within a total petroleum system of the Illizi Province (2056) as part of the U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000. The Illizi Province is in eastern Algeria and a small portion of western Libya. The province and its total petroleum system coincide with the Illizi Basin. Although several total petroleum systems may exist within the Illizi Province, only one “composite” total petroleum system is identified. This total petroleum system comprises a single assessment unit. The main source rocks are the Silurian Tanezzuft Formation (or lateral equivalents) and Middle to Upper Devonian mudstone. The total petroleum system was named after the oldest major source rock and the basin in which it resides. The estimated means of the undiscovered conventional petroleum volumes in the Tanezzuft-Illizi Total Petroleum System are 2,814 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 27,785 billion cubic feet of gas (BCFG), and 873 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL).

  7. Vision System for Relative Motion Estimation from Optical Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey M. Sokolov

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available For the recent years there was an increasing interest in different methods of motion analysis based on visual data acquisition. Vision systems, intended to obtain quantitative data regarding motion in real time are especially in demand. This paper talks about the vision systems that allow the receipt of information on relative object motion in real time. It is shown, that the algorithms solving a wide range of practical problems by definition of relative movement can be generated on the basis of the known algorithms of an optical flow calculation. One of the system's goals is the creation of economically efficient intellectual sensor prototype in order to estimate relative objects motion based on optic flow. The results of the experiments with a prototype system model are shown.

  8. From Flow Logic to static type systems for coordination languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Nicola, Rocco; Gorla, Daniele; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    Coordination languages are often used to describe open-ended systems. This makes it challenging to develop tools for guaranteeing the security of the coordinated systems and the correctness of their interaction. Successful approaches to this problem have been based on type systems with dynamic...... checks; therefore, the correctness properties cannot be statically enforced. By contrast, static analysis approaches based on Flow Logic usually guarantee properties statically. In this paper, we show how the insights from the Flow Logic approach can be used to construct a type system for statically...... ensuring secure access to tuple spaces and safe process migration for an extension of the language KLAIM. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  9. Active Fail-Safe Micro-Array Flow Control for Advanced Embedded Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Mace, James L.; Mani, Mori

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this research effort was to develop and analytically demonstrate enhanced first generation active "fail-safe" hybrid flow-control techniques to simultaneously manage the boundary layer on the vehicle fore-body and to control the secondary flow generated within modern serpentine or embedded inlet S-duct configurations. The enhanced first-generation technique focused on both micro-vanes and micro-ramps highly-integrated with micro -jets to provide nonlinear augmentation for the "strength' or effectiveness of highly-integrated flow control systems. The study focused on the micro -jet mass flow ratio (Wjet/Waip) range from 0.10 to 0.30 percent and jet total pressure ratios (Pjet/Po) from 1.0 to 3.0. The engine bleed airflow range under study represents about a 10 fold decrease in micro -jet airflow than previously required. Therefore, by pre-conditioning, or injecting a very small amount of high-pressure jet flow into the vortex generated by the micro-vane and/or micro-ramp, active flow control is achieved and substantial augmentation of the controlling flow is realized.

  10. Identification of material flow systems: Extensions and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiss, A; Matyus, T; Bauer, G; Deistler, M; Glenck, E; Lampert, C

    1998-01-01

    The paper consists of two main parts. The first part is concerned with different aspects of mathematical modeling of material flow systems for the linear static case. The problems considered are the description of the model class, data reconciliation, identification of subsystems and the analysis of system properties relevant e.g. for simulation. In the second part an application of the modeling tools proposed in the first part to a study on the metabolism of phosphorus in an Austrian region is given.

  11. Performance assessment of mass flow rate measurement capability in a large scale transient two-phase flow test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalezny, C.L.; Chapman, R.L.; Martinell, J.S.; Riordon, R.P.; Solbrig, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Mass flow is an important measured variable in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program. Large uncertainties in mass flow measurements in the LOFT piping during LOFT coolant experiments requires instrument testing in a transient two-phase flow loop that simulates the geometry of the LOFT piping. To satisfy this need, a transient two-phase flow loop has been designed and built. The load cell weighing system, which provides reference mass flow measurements, has been analyzed to assess its capability to provide the measurements. The analysis consisted of first performing a thermal-hydraulic analysis using RELAP4 to compute mass inventory and pressure fluctuations in the system and mass flow rate at the instrument location. RELAP4 output was used as input to a structural analysis code SAPIV which is used to determine load cell response. The computed load cell response was then smoothed and differentiated to compute mass flow rate from the system. Comparison between computed mass flow rate at the instrument location and mass flow rate from the system computed from the load cell output was used to evaluate mass flow measurement capability of the load cell weighing system. Results of the analysis indicate that the load cell weighing system will provide reference mass flows more accurately than the instruments now in LOFT

  12. Subsonic Flow for the Multidimensional Euler-Poisson System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Myoungjean; Duan, Ben; Xie, Chunjing

    2016-04-01

    We establish the existence and stability of subsonic potential flow for the steady Euler-Poisson system in a multidimensional nozzle of a finite length when prescribing the electric potential difference on a non-insulated boundary from a fixed point at the exit, and prescribing the pressure at the exit of the nozzle. The Euler-Poisson system for subsonic potential flow can be reduced to a nonlinear elliptic system of second order. In this paper, we develop a technique to achieve a priori {C^{1,α}} estimates of solutions to a quasi-linear second order elliptic system with mixed boundary conditions in a multidimensional domain enclosed by a Lipschitz continuous boundary. In particular, we discovered a special structure of the Euler-Poisson system which enables us to obtain {C^{1,α}} estimates of the velocity potential and the electric potential functions, and this leads us to establish structural stability of subsonic flows for the Euler-Poisson system under perturbations of various data.

  13. Isotachophoresis system having larger-diameter channels flowing into channels with reduced diameter and with selectable counter-flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.

    2018-03-06

    An isotachophoresis system for separating a sample containing particles into discrete packets including a flow channel, the flow channel having a large diameter section and a small diameter section; a negative electrode operably connected to the flow channel; a positive electrode operably connected to the flow channel; a leading carrier fluid in the flow channel; a trailing carrier fluid in the flow channel; and a control for separating the particles in the sample into discrete packets using the leading carrier fluid, the trailing carrier fluid, the large diameter section, and the small diameter section.

  14. Analytical expressions for optimum flow rates in evaporators and condensers of heat pumping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granryd, E. [Dept. of Energy Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    The flow velocities on the air or liquid side of evaporators and condensers in refrigerating or heat pump systems affect the system performance considerably. Furthermore the velocity can often be chosen rather freely without obvious first cost implications. The purpose of the paper is to show analytical relations indicating possible optimum operating conditions. Considering a base case where the design data are known, simple analytical relations are deduced for optimum flow rates that will result in highest overall COP of the system when energy demand for the compressor as well as pumps or fans are included. This optimum is equivalent to the solution for minimum total energy demand of the system for a given cooling load. It is also shown that a different (and higher) flow rate will result in maximum net cooling capacity for a refrigerating system with fixed compressor speed. The expressions can be used for design purposes as well as for checking suitable flow velocities in existing plants. The relations may also be incorporated in algorithms for optimal operation of systems with variable speed compressors. (author)

  15. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.; Carnal, C.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moynihan, P.I. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) is a system for assessing the state of traffic flow over a wide area for enhanced traffic control and improved traffic management and planning. The primary purpose of a TFWAS system is to provide a detailed traffic flow description and context description to sophisticated traffic management and control systems being developed or envisioned for the future. A successful TFWAS system must possess the attributes of safety, reconfigurability, reliability, and expandability. The primary safety premise of TFWAS is to ensure that no action or failure of the TFWAS system or its components can result in risk of injury to humans. A wide variety of communication techniques is available for use with TFWAS systems. These communication techniques can be broken down into two categories, landlines and wireless. Currently used and possible future traffic sensing technologies have been examined. Important criteria for selecting TFWAS sensors include sensor capabilities, costs, operational constraints, sensor compatibility with the infrastructure, and extent. TFWAS is a concept that can take advantage of the strengths of different traffic sensing technologies, can readily adapt to newly developed technologies, and can grow with the development of new traffic control strategies. By developing innovative algorithms that will take information from a variety of sensor types and develop descriptions of traffic flows over a wide area, a more comprehensive understanding of the traffic state can be provided to the control system to perform the most reasonable control actions over the entire wide area. The capability of characterizing the state of traffic over an entire region should revolutionize developments in traffic control strategies.

  16. Design of mass flow rate measurement system for SST-1 superconducting magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varmora, P.; Sharma, A.N.; Khristi, Y.; Prasad, U.; Patel, D.; Doshi, K.; Pradhan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Design of Venturi meter for SST-1 magnet system. • Details of Helium mass flow measurement system used in SST-1. • Instruments and measurement techniques for flow measurement. • VME based data acquisition system details and flow calculation and results from SST-1 campaigns. - Abstract: Superconducting Magnet System (SCMS) of Steady State Superconducting Tokamak – 1 (SST-1) is forced-flow cooled by a closed cycle 1.3 kW (at 4.5 K) class Helium Refrigerator cum Liquefier (HRL) system. An accurate measurement of helium mass flow rate in different coils is required to ensure the uniform cooling of the cold mass in the entire range of operating temperature (300 K to 4.5 K) and pressure (0.9–0.4 MPa). To meet this requirement, indigenously designed and fabricated venturi meters are installed on 27 different coils of SST-1 SCMS. A VME based Data Acquisition System (DAS) has been developed and used to acquire the flow measurement data from different flowmeters. The details of the design of venturi meter, its different measurement and signal conditioning components, the data acquisition system and the mass flow rate calculation method are described in this paper. The mass flow rate measurement data from cryogenic acceptance and SST-1 magnet commissioning experiments are also presented and discussed in this paper.

  17. Comparison of solar-thermal and fossil total-energy systems for selected industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, G. D.

    1980-06-01

    Economic analyses of a conventional system and total energy systems based on phosphoric acid fuel cells, diesel piston engines, and central receiver solar thermal systems were performed for each of four industrial applications; a concrete block plant in Arizona, a fluid milk processing plant in California, a sugar beet processing plant in Colorado, and a meat packing plant in Texas. A series of sensitivity analyses was performed to show the effects of variations in fuel price, system size, cost of capital, and system initial cost. Solar total energy systems (STES) are more capital intensive than the other systems, and significant economies of scale are associated with the STES. If DOE solar system cost goals are met, STES can compete with the other systems for facilities with electrical demands greater than two or three megawatts, but STES are not competitive for smaller facilities. Significant energy resource savings, especially of oil and gas, resulted from STES implementation in the four industries.

  18. Realizing compact system for Schlieren visualization of transonic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, F.; Osnaghi, C.; Savini, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a Schlieren system for flow visualization thought to overcome most of the drawbacks connected with the Z-configuration usually adopted: lack of transportability, wide overall dimensions, long and difficult alignment of the components, restricted sensitivity. The system, originally designed and realized, is of the double-pass type with all the emitting and receiving components mounted on an optical table and aligned during the initial assembly. The paper shows both monochromatic (Helium-Neon laser) and white-light (Mercury or Xenon arc lamps) visualizations of flames and transonic flows in calibrating nozzles and in turbine cascades in a wind tunnel. The accuracy and versatility displayed make this Schlieren system easily usable in fluid dynamics researches

  19. Criteria for inhalation exposure systems utilizing concurrent flow spirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, O.G.; Yeh, H.C.

    1974-01-01

    Principles are given for the design and operation of a new class of inhalation exposure systems utilizing concurrent flow spirometry (CFS), a simple method for providing realtime measurement of respiratory volumes and rates during inhalation exposure by mouth or nose of individual experimental animals or man to aerosols or gases. This technique is especially useful for inhalation exposure of larger experimental animals, such as horses, where whole-body plethysmography is usually impractical. Difficulties encountered with conventional exposure systems in maintenance of uniform aerosol or gas concentrations and prevention of large pressure excursions in the exposure chamber during breathing are obviated by systems utilizing the principles of concurrent flow spirometry. For illustration, two exposure units with CFS are described, one for exposure of Beagle dogs and one for ponies. (U.S.)

  20. OPTIMISATION OF MANTLE TANKS FOR LOW FLOW SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1996-01-01

    A model, describing the heat transfer coefficients in the mantle of a mantle tank has been developed. The model is validated by means of measurements with varying operational conditions for different designed mantle tanks. The model has been implemented in an existing detailed mathematical...... programme that simulates the thermal behaviour of low flow SDHW systems. The yearly thermal performance of low flow SDHW systems with different designed mantle tanks has been calculated. The influence of the mantle tank design on the thermal performance is investigated by means of the calculations...... with the programme and by means of tests of three SDHW systems with different designed mantle tanks. Based on the investigations design rules for mantle tanks are proposed. The model, describing the heat transfer coefficients in the mantle is approximate. In addition, the measurements have revealed...

  1. A Revised Total Coliform Rule Guide for Small Public Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document aims to assist small water systems serving 1,000 persons with fewer in complying with the requirements of the Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR). It is divided into four parts, Parts A, B, C and D.

  2. Introduction to Focus Issue: Complex network perspectives on flow systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Reik V; Hernández-García, Emilio; Ser-Giacomi, Enrico

    2017-03-01

    During the last few years, complex network approaches have demonstrated their great potentials as versatile tools for exploring the structural as well as dynamical properties of dynamical systems from a variety of different fields. Among others, recent successful examples include (i) functional (correlation) network approaches to infer hidden statistical interrelationships between macroscopic regions of the human brain or the Earth's climate system, (ii) Lagrangian flow networks allowing to trace dynamically relevant fluid-flow structures in atmosphere, ocean or, more general, the phase space of complex systems, and (iii) time series networks unveiling fundamental organization principles of dynamical systems. In this spirit, complex network approaches have proven useful for data-driven learning of dynamical processes (like those acting within and between sub-components of the Earth's climate system) that are hidden to other analysis techniques. This Focus Issue presents a collection of contributions addressing the description of flows and associated transport processes from the network point of view and its relationship to other approaches which deal with fluid transport and mixing and/or use complex network techniques.

  3. Thermodynamic optimization of geometry in engineering flow systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejan, A.; Jones, J.A. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This review draws attention to an emerging body of work that relies on global thermodynamic optimization in the pursuit of flow system architecture. Exergy analysis establishes the theoretical performance limit. Thermodynamic optimization (or entropy generation minimization) brings the design as closely as permissible to the theoretical limit. The design is destined to remain imperfect because of constraints (finite sizes, times, and costs). Improvements are registered by spreading the imperfection (e.g., flow resistances) through the system. Resistances compete against each other and must be optimized together. Optimal spreading means spatial distribution, geometric form, topology, and geography. System architecture springs out of constrained global optimization. The principle is illustrated by simple examples: the optimization of dimensions, spacings, and the distribution (allocation) of heat transfer surface to the two heat exchangers of a power plant. Similar opportunities for deducing flow architecture exist in more complex systems for power and refrigeration. Examples show that the complete structure of heat exchangers for environmental control systems of aircraft can be derived based on this principle. (authors)

  4. Surfactant micelles: model systems for flow instabilities of complex fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perge, Christophe; Fardin, Marc-Antoine; Manneville, Sébastien

    2014-04-01

    Complex fluids such as emulsions, colloidal gels, polymer or surfactant solutions are all characterized by the existence of a "microstructure" which may couple to an external flow on time scales that are easily probed in experiments. Such a coupling between flow and microstructure usually leads to instabilities under relatively weak shear flows that correspond to vanishingly small Reynolds numbers. Wormlike micellar surfactant solutions appear as model systems to study two examples of such instabilities, namely shear banding and elastic instabilities. Focusing on a semidilute sample we show that two-dimensional ultrafast ultrasonic imaging allows for a thorough investigation of unstable shear-banded micellar flows. In steady state, radial and azimuthal velocity components are recovered and unveil the original structure of the vortical flow within an elastically unstable high shear rate band. Furthermore thanks to an unprecedented frame rate of up to 20,000 fps, transients and fast dynamics can be resolved, which paves the way for a better understanding of elastic turbulence.

  5. Comparison of Deterministic and Probabilistic Radial Distribution Systems Load Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Atma Ram; Kumar, Ashwani

    2017-12-01

    Distribution system network today is facing the challenge of meeting increased load demands from the industrial, commercial and residential sectors. The pattern of load is highly dependent on consumer behavior and temporal factors such as season of the year, day of the week or time of the day. For deterministic radial distribution load flow studies load is taken as constant. But, load varies continually with a high degree of uncertainty. So, there is a need to model probable realistic load. Monte-Carlo Simulation is used to model the probable realistic load by generating random values of active and reactive power load from the mean and standard deviation of the load and for solving a Deterministic Radial Load Flow with these values. The probabilistic solution is reconstructed from deterministic data obtained for each simulation. The main contribution of the work is: Finding impact of probable realistic ZIP load modeling on balanced radial distribution load flow. Finding impact of probable realistic ZIP load modeling on unbalanced radial distribution load flow. Compare the voltage profile and losses with probable realistic ZIP load modeling for balanced and unbalanced radial distribution load flow.

  6. STORM-SEWER FLOW MEASUREMENT AND RECORDING SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Frederick A.; Kaehrle, William R.

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive study and development of instruments and techniques for measuring all components of flow in a storm-sewer drainage system were undertaken by the U. S. Geological Survey under the sponsorship of FHWA. The study involved laboratory and field calibration and testing of measuring flumes, pipe insert meters, weirs, and electromagnetic velocity meters as well as the development and calibration of pneumatic bubbler and pressure transducer head-measuring systems. Tracer dilution and acoustic-flowmeter measurements were used in field verification tests. A single micrologger was used to record data from all the instruments and also to activate on command the electromagnetic velocity meter and tracer dilution systems.

  7. Heat transfer and fluid flow in nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fenech, Henri

    1982-01-01

    Heat Transfer and Fluid in Flow Nuclear Systems discusses topics that bridge the gap between the fundamental principles and the designed practices. The book is comprised of six chapters that cover analysis of the predicting thermal-hydraulics performance of large nuclear reactors and associated heat-exchangers or steam generators of various nuclear systems. Chapter 1 tackles the general considerations on thermal design and performance requirements of nuclear reactor cores. The second chapter deals with pressurized subcooled light water systems, and the third chapter covers boiling water reacto

  8. Modeling of Nonlinear Marine Cooling Systems with Closed Circuit Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of constructing a mathematical model for a specific type of marine cooling system. The system in question is used for cooling the main engine and main engine auxiliary components, such as diesel generators, turbo chargers and main engine air coolers for certain classes...... of container ships. The purpose of the model is to describe the important dynamics of the system, such as nonlinearities, transport delays and closed circuit flow dynamics to enable the model to be used for control design and simulation. The control challenge is related to the highly non-standard type of step...

  9. A nuclear data acquisition system flow control model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hack, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    A general Petri Net representation of a nuclear data acquisition system model is presented. This model provides for the unique requirements of a nuclear data acquisition system including the capabilities of concurrently acquiring asynchronous and synchronous data, of providing multiple priority levels of flow control arbitration, and of permitting multiple input sources to reside at the same priority without the problem of channel lockout caused by a high rate data source. Finally, a previously implemented gamma camera/physiological signal data acquisition system is described using the models presented

  10. Investigation on flow stability of supercritical water cooled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X.; Kuang, B.

    2006-01-01

    Research activities are ongoing worldwide to develop nuclear power plants with supercritical water cooled reactor (SCWR) with the purpose to achieve a high thermal efficiency and to improve their economical competitiveness. However, the strong variation of the thermal-physical properties of water in the vicinity of the pseudo-critical line results in challenging tasks in various fields, e.g. thermal-hydraulic design of a SCWR. One of the challenging tasks is to understand and to predict the dynamic behavior of supercritical water cooled systems. Although many thermal-hydraulic research activities were carried out worldwide in the past as well as in the near present, studies on dynamic behavior and flow stability of SC water cooled systems are scare. Due to the strong density variation, flow stability is expected to be one of the key items which need to be taken into account in the design of a SCWR. In the present work, the dynamic behavior and flow stability of SC water cooled systems are investigated using both numerical and theoretical approaches. For this purpose a new computer code SASC was developed, which can be applied to analysis the dynamic behavior of systems cooled by supercritical fluids. In addition, based on the assumptions of a simplified system, a theoretical model was derived for the prediction of the onset of flow instability. A comparison was made between the results obtained using the theoretical model and those from the SASC code. A good agreement was achieved. This gives the first evidence of the reliability of both the SASC code and the theoretical model

  11. Introduction to flow visualization system in SPARC test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wooyoung; Song, Simon; Na, Young Su; Hong, Seong Wan

    2016-01-01

    The released hydrogen can be accumulated and mixed by steam and air depending on containment conditions under severe accident, which generates flammable mixture. Hydrogen explosion induced by ignition source cause severe damage to a structure or facility. Hydrogen risk regarding mixing, distribution, and combustion has been identified by several expert groups and studied actively since TMI accident. A large-scale thermal-hydraulic experimental facility is required to simulate the complex severe accident phenomena in the containment building. We have prepared the test facility, called the SPARC (Spray, Aerosol, Recombiner, Combustion), to resolve the international open issues regarding hydrogen risk. Gas mixing and stratification test using helium instead of hydrogen and estimation of a stratification surface erosion of helium owing to the vertical jet flow will be performed in SPARC. The measurement system is need to observe the gas flow in the large scale test facility such as SPARC. The PIV (particle image velocimetry) system have been installed to visualize gas flow. We are preparing the test facility, called the SPARC, for estimation the thermal-hydraulic process of hydrogen in a closed containment building and the PIV system for quantitative assessment of gas flow. In particular, we will perform gas mixing and erosion of stratification surface test using helium which is the replacement of hydrogen. It will be evaluated by measuring 2D velocity field using the PIV system. The PIV system mainly consists of camera, laser and tracer particle. Expected maximum size of FOV is 750 x 750 mm 2 limited by focal length of lens and high power laser corresponding to 425mJ/pulse at 532 wavelength is required due to large FOV

  12. Introduction to flow visualization system in SPARC test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wooyoung; Song, Simon [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, Young Su; Hong, Seong Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The released hydrogen can be accumulated and mixed by steam and air depending on containment conditions under severe accident, which generates flammable mixture. Hydrogen explosion induced by ignition source cause severe damage to a structure or facility. Hydrogen risk regarding mixing, distribution, and combustion has been identified by several expert groups and studied actively since TMI accident. A large-scale thermal-hydraulic experimental facility is required to simulate the complex severe accident phenomena in the containment building. We have prepared the test facility, called the SPARC (Spray, Aerosol, Recombiner, Combustion), to resolve the international open issues regarding hydrogen risk. Gas mixing and stratification test using helium instead of hydrogen and estimation of a stratification surface erosion of helium owing to the vertical jet flow will be performed in SPARC. The measurement system is need to observe the gas flow in the large scale test facility such as SPARC. The PIV (particle image velocimetry) system have been installed to visualize gas flow. We are preparing the test facility, called the SPARC, for estimation the thermal-hydraulic process of hydrogen in a closed containment building and the PIV system for quantitative assessment of gas flow. In particular, we will perform gas mixing and erosion of stratification surface test using helium which is the replacement of hydrogen. It will be evaluated by measuring 2D velocity field using the PIV system. The PIV system mainly consists of camera, laser and tracer particle. Expected maximum size of FOV is 750 x 750 mm{sup 2} limited by focal length of lens and high power laser corresponding to 425mJ/pulse at 532 wavelength is required due to large FOV.

  13. Optimal Power Flow for Distribution Systems under Uncertain Forecasts: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Baker, Kyri; Summers, Tyler

    2016-12-01

    The paper focuses on distribution systems featuring renewable energy sources and energy storage devices, and develops an optimal power flow (OPF) approach to optimize the system operation in spite of forecasting errors. The proposed method builds on a chance-constrained multi-period AC OPF formulation, where probabilistic constraints are utilized to enforce voltage regulation with a prescribed probability. To enable a computationally affordable solution approach, a convex reformulation of the OPF task is obtained by resorting to i) pertinent linear approximations of the power flow equations, and ii) convex approximations of the chance constraints. Particularly, the approximate chance constraints provide conservative bounds that hold for arbitrary distributions of the forecasting errors. An adaptive optimization strategy is then obtained by embedding the proposed OPF task into a model predictive control framework.

  14. Possibilistic Information Flow Control for Workflow Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bauereiss

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In workflows and business processes, there are often security requirements on both the data, i.e. confidentiality and integrity, and the process, e.g. separation of duty. Graphical notations exist for specifying both workflows and associated security requirements. We present an approach for formally verifying that a workflow satisfies such security requirements. For this purpose, we define the semantics of a workflow as a state-event system and formalise security properties in a trace-based way, i.e. on an abstract level without depending on details of enforcement mechanisms such as Role-Based Access Control (RBAC. This formal model then allows us to build upon well-known verification techniques for information flow control. We describe how a compositional verification methodology for possibilistic information flow can be adapted to verify that a specification of a distributed workflow management system satisfies security requirements on both data and processes.

  15. Predictors for better blood-flow restoration of long-segmental below-the-knee chronic total occlusions after endovascular therapy in diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xiao Li [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Zhu, Yue Qi; Lu, Hai Tao; Lui, Fang; Wei, Li Ming; Kang, Heoung Keun; Zhao, Jun Gong [Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2016-11-15

    To prospectively investigate predictors for good restoration of blood flow of below-the-knee (BTK) chronic total occlusions (CTOs) after endovascular therapy in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. A total of 120 long-segmental (≥ 5 cm) BTK, CTOs in 81 patients who underwent recanalization were included in this study. After angioplasty, blood-flow restoration was assessed using modified thrombolysis in myocardial ischemia grades and classified as good flow (grade 3) and poor flow (grade 1/2). One hundred and six CTOs with successful recanalization were divided into a good flow group (GFG; n = 68) and poor flow group (PFG; n = 38). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were undertaken to determine independent predictors of blood-flow restoration. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine the best cutoff value. The prevalence of target-lesion restenosis during follow-up was compared between two groups. Univariate analyses suggested that CTOs in GFG were characterized by lighter limb ischemia (p = 0.03), shorter course of ischemic symptoms (p < 0.01) and lesion length (p = 0.04), more frequent use of intraluminal angioplasty (p = 0.03), and higher runoff score (p < 0.01) than those in PFG. Multivariate regression analyses suggested that distal runoffs (p = 0.001; odds ratio [OR], 10.32; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.082-26.071) and lesion length (p < 0.001; OR, 1.26; 95% CI: 1.091-1.449) were independent predictors for good flow restoration. Kaplan-Meier analyses at 12 months showed a higher prevalence of non-restenosis in GFG (p < 0.01). Distal runoffs and lesion length are independent predictors for good flow restoration for long-segmental BTK, CTOs in DM patients who receive endovascular therapy.

  16. Low- versus high-flow oxygen delivery systems in children with lower respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygur, Pinar; Oktem, Sedat; Boran, Perran; Tutar, Engin; Tokuc, Gulnur

    2016-01-01

    Delivery of supplemental oxygen is the initial vital management of hypoxemic acute lower respiratory infection (HALRI). Oxygen delivery systems include low-flow and high-flow devices. In high-flow devices such as the Venturi mask, a constant mixture of oxygen is delivered. As a result, increased rate of breathing does not affect the concentration of oxygen delivered. In this study, we compared the efficacy of oxygen masks and Venturi masks in the management of hypoxemia in pediatric patients. A total of 65 children, aged 3-36 months, diagnosed with HALRI, were enrolled. Patients were allocated into groups, via simple alternate randomization, to receive oxygen through an oxygen mask or through a Venturi mask. Respiratory rate, heart rate, retraction, blood gas parameters, oxygen saturation, length of hospitalization, and oxygenation were recorded before and after oxygen treatment. After 24 h of treatment, respiratory rate was significantly lower among patients in the Venturi mask group compared with the oxygen mask group. Duration of supplemental oxygen and length of hospitalization were significantly lower in the Venturi mask group compared with the oxygen mask group. In both groups, there was marked improvement in all measured parameters following introduction of supplemental oxygen. Oxygen was delivered more efficiently, however, by high-flow systems. The Venturi mask may decrease the total duration of oxygen usage time as well as the length of hospitalization among young children with HALRI through rapid symptom resolution. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. A microcomputer system for assessment of peripheral blood flow. An example of nasal blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönfors, T; Pyykkö, I; Aalto, H; Juhola, M; Ishizaki, H

    1991-01-01

    We have designed and implemented a microcomputer system for studying the effect of various mediator substances on the nasal blood flow. The system uses an IBM PC/AT microcomputer, which is connected with a Laser Doppler Flowmeter (LDF) and an iontophoretic drug application system. The LDF measures flux from the tissue that in the example is the inferior nasal turbinate. The flux is converted to digital form by an analog-digital converter of 12 bits. The program is implemented in the Pascal language. In the analysis, a flux level, amplitude, rise time and decay time of the pulse wave are determined. The effect of drugs on the flux can be studied by applying them iontophoretically. In the program the length and number of the drug application periods as well as the recording period are user-driven. In the nasal blood flow iontophoretically administered adrenaline reduced significantly the flux parameters and histamine canceled this effect. Tachyphylalaxis was a frequent observation in repeated measurements. The system can be used to evaluate the role of different transmitters in the etiology of chronic rhinitis.

  18. A Unique Facility for the Study of Transient Single-Species Annular Flow Near Total Film Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Roman; Kris Dressler Team; Brian Fehring Team; James Doherty Team; Simon Livingston-Jha Team; Arganthal Berson Team

    2017-11-01

    A new facility was built for the study of transient effects in two-phase vertical annular flow near dry out. The facility uses two water/glycol loops and two 10 kW heat pumps to vaporize and condense the working fluid in the annular flow experiment, R-245fa. The annular flow is created by mixing a steady flow of slightly superheated vapor refrigerant with a steady flow of subcooled liquid refrigerant in a junction specifically designed to minimize droplet entrainment. In a separate tank, saturated refrigerant is heated to generate additional vapor to add to the steady state vapor to create transient conditions. Trains of vapor pulses can be created with controlled amplitude and frequency. The effects of the transient flow on dry out are characterized in a test section 110 diameters downstream of the vapor-liquid mixing junction. The test section consists of 14 transparent windows, which are coated with conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide. Current is passed through each of the windows, providing up to 1.4 kW of additional heating power to create film evaporation, or dry out conditions. The transparent windows also allow for simultaneous laser-based film-thickness and wall-temperature measurements.

  19. Physics design of fissile mass-flow monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattingly, J.K.; March-Leuba, J.; Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Uckan, T.

    1997-01-01

    The system measures the flow rate and uranium-235 content in liquid or gas streams; it does not penetrate the process piping. A moderated fission neutron source is used to periodicially introduce a burst of thermal neutrons into the fluid stream to induce fission; delayed gamma emissions from the resulting fission fragments are detected by high-efficiency scintillators downstream of the neutron source. The fluid flow rate is measure from the time between initiation of the thermal neutron burst and detection of the fission product gamma emissions, and the U-235 content is inferred from the intensity of the gamma burst detected. Design of the fissile mass flow monitor requires satisfaction of several competing constraints. Efficient operation of the monitor requires that source-induced fission rate and detection efficiency be maximized while the source-induced background rate is simultaneoulsy minimized. Near optical nuclear design of the system was achieved using numerous Monte Carlo calculations and measurements. This paper addresses calculational aspects of the physics design for the system applied to UF 6 gas

  20. Plasma equilibria and stationary flows in axisymmetric systems. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelazny, R.; Stankiewicz, R.; Galkowski, A.; Potempski, S.; Pietak, R.

    1990-08-01

    The problem of the importance of poloidal flows for the behaviour of plasmas in axisymmetric systems has caused a lot of discussion and controversy during the last 15 years. There is no doubt that the mere existence of poloidal flow transforms the elliptic Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter equation into a system of mixed type partial differential equation and an algebraic multivalued Bernoulli equation. This fact leads to the appearance of Bernoulli branches in the solutions. Then, one can come across three branches of elliptic solutions as well as two branches of hyperbolic solutions with the possible appearance of phenomena connected with ''transsonic'' effects. Problems connected with such a mathematical situation have been extensively discussed in the report with the same title, dated May 1988, which we shall call later Part I of our studies on this subject. The present report, considered as Part III, is devoted to the presentation of results of efforts aimed at constructing programmes which allow us to solve the extended Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter equation (EGSS) (with stationary flows) in a more realistic situation relevant to the JET operating conditions. The main problem is to specify for a wider class of profiles the boundary conditions at the magnetic axis for a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations ODE, resulting from EGSS equation after application of Fourier transformation techniques and of inverse method approach. The present report elaborates a much more general case and describes the computational framework enabling us to derive those boundary conditions. (author)

  1. Grain-A Java data analysis system for Total Data Readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahkila, P.

    2008-01-01

    Grain is a data analysis system developed to be used with the novel Total Data Readout data acquisition system. In Total Data Readout all the electronics channels are read out asynchronously in singles mode and each data item is timestamped. Event building and analysis has to be done entirely in the software post-processing the data stream. A flexible and efficient event parser and the accompanying software system have been written entirely in Java. The design and implementation of the software are discussed along with experiences gained in running real-life experiments

  2. Heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ben

    The demand for clean and environmentally benign energy resources has been a great concern in the last two decades. To alleviate the associated environmental problems, reduction of the use of fossil fuels by developing more cost-effective renewable energy technologies becomes more and more significant. Among various types of renewable energy sources, solar energy and bioenergy take a great proportion. This dissertation focuses on the heat transfer and flow in solar energy and bioenergy systems, specifically for Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants and open-channel algal culture raceways for biofuel production. The first part of this dissertation is the discussion about mathematical modeling, numerical simulation and experimental investigation of solar TES system. First of all, in order to accurately and efficiently simulate the conjugate heat transfer between Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) and filler material in four different solid-fluid TES configurations, formulas of an e?ective heat transfer coe?cient were theoretically developed and presented by extending the validity of Lumped Capacitance Method (LCM) to large Biot number, as well as verifications/validations to this simplified model. Secondly, to provide design guidelines for TES system in CSP plant using Phase Change Materials (PCM), a general storage tank volume sizing strategy and an energy storage startup strategy were proposed using the enthalpy-based 1D transient model. Then experimental investigations were conducted to explore a novel thermal storage material. The thermal storage performances were also compared between this novel storage material and concrete at a temperature range from 400 °C to 500 °C. It is recommended to apply this novel thermal storage material to replace concrete at high operating temperatures in sensible heat TES systems. The second part of this dissertation mainly focuses on the numerical and experimental study of an open-channel algae

  3. Method and apparatus for controlling the flow rate of mercury in a flow system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; Speer, Richard

    1991-01-01

    A method for increasing the mercury flow rate to a photochemical mercury enrichment utilizing an entrainment system comprises the steps of passing a carrier gas over a pool of mercury maintained at a first temperature T1, wherein the carrier gas entrains mercury vapor; passing said mercury vapor entrained carrier gas to a second temperature zone T2 having temperature less than T1 to condense said entrained mercury vapor, thereby producing a saturated Hg condition in the carrier gas; and passing said saturated Hg carrier gas to said photochemical enrichment reactor.

  4. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, U.; Krötz, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2008-04-01

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature.

  5. Case study of total energy system, Sher-Den Mall, Sherman, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrtetus, G.B.; Levey, M.D.

    1980-12-01

    The Sher-Den Mall shopping center receives all of its electricity and heating and cooling energy from a total energy plant located within the shopping center proper. Four engine-generator units are fueled primarily by natural gas, with some fuel oil use. The following are presented: initial corporate planning, investigation, and feasibility studies; a description of the total energy system; capital costs; plant operations, and revenue structure. Tables, figures, exhibits, and equipment specification lists are presented. (MHR)

  6. Short and mid term results of revision total knee arthroplasty with Global Modular Replacement System

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Marczak; Jacek Kowalczewski; Jarosław Czubak; Tomasz Okoń; Marek Synder; Marcin Sibiński

    2017-01-01

    Background: The original knee megaprostheses with fixed or rotating hinge articulation were custom made and only used for reconstruction of the knee following distal femoral or proximal tibial tumor resections. The aim of the study was to analyze the short- and mid-term results of revision total knee arthroplasty with Global Modular Replacement System (GMRS) used in difficult situations not amenable to reconstruction with standard total knee replacement implants. Materials and Methods: Nine p...

  7. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  8. Flow time analysis of load management late arrival discrete time queueing system with dual service rate using hypo geometrical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.A.; Shah, W.; Shaikh, F.K.

    2012-01-01

    Flow time analysis is a powerful concept to analyze the flow time of any arriving customer in any system at any instant. A load management mechanism can be employed very effectively in any queueing system by utilizing a system which provides probability of dual service rate. In this paper, we develop and demonstrate the flow and service processes transition diagram to determine the flow time of a customer in a load management late arrival state dependent finite discrete time queueing system with dual service rate where customers are hypo geometrically distributed. We compute the probability mass function of each starting state and total probability mass function. The obtained analytical results are validated with simulation results for varying values of arrival and service probabilities. (author)

  9. Using Illness Rating Systems to Predict Discharge Location Following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattilo, Jonathan R.; Liu, Jiabin; Clements, Ari; Nelson, Charles L.; Kamath, Atul F.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is increasing in frequency and cost. Optimization of discharge location may reduce total expenditure while maximizing patient outcomes. Although preoperative illness rating systems—including the American Society for Anesthesiologists Physical Classification System (ASA), severity of illness scoring system (SOI), and Mallampati rating scale (MP)—are associated with patient morbidity and mortality, their predictive value for discharge location, length of stay (LOS), and total costs remains unclear. Materials and Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of 677 TKA patients (550 primary and 127 revision) treated at a single institution. The influence of ASA, SOI, and MP scores on discharge locations, LOS, and total costs was assessed using multivariable regression analyses. Results None of the systems were significant predictors of discharge location following TKA. SOI scores of major or higher (β=2.08 days, pscores. Total costs were also significantly predicted by SOI scores of major or higher (β=$6,155, p=0.022) and minor (β=−$1,163, p=0.007). Conclusions SOI scores may be harnessed as a predictive tool for LOS and total costs following TKA, but other mechanisms are necessary to predict discharge location. PMID:29482304

  10. Undiscovered oil and gas resources of Lower Silurian Qusaiba-Paleozoic total petroleum systems, Arabian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Pollastro, R.M.; Schenk, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas potential of 128 of the world’s petroleum provinces (U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team, 2000). In each province, the USGS defined Total Petroleum Systems, and Assessment Units in each Total Petroleum System, and then quantitatively estimated the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources. Of the eight global regions studied by the USGS, the Arabian Peninsula portion of the Middle East region was estimated to contain the greatest volumes of undiscovered oil and gas. The Lower Silurian Qusaiba Member of the Qalibah Formation is the source rock for some of the most important Total Petroleum Systems of the Middle East region. For example, the sources of the gas in the supergiant North field of Qatar and Iran and recent giant light oil discoveries in central Saudi Arabia were largely organic-rich, Qusaiba marine mudstones.

  11. High flow, low mobile weight quick disconnect system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ronn G. (Inventor); Nagy, Jr., Zoltan Frank (Inventor); Moszczienski, Joseph Roch (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A fluid coupling device and coupling system that may start and stop the flow of a fluid is disclosed. In some embodiments, first and second couplings are provided having an actuator coupled with each of the couplings. The couplings and actuators may be detachable to provide quick disconnect features and, in some embodiments, provide unitary actuation for the actuators of the coupling device to facilitate connection in mobile applications. Actuation may occur as the two couplings and actuators are engaged and disengaged and may occur by rotational actuation of the actuators. Rotational actuation can be provided to ensure flow through the coupling device, which in some embodiments may further provide an offset venturi feature. Upon disengagement, a compression element such as a compression spring can be provided to return the actuators to a closed position. Some embodiments further provide a seal external to the actuators and provided at incipient engagement of the couplings.

  12. Characterization of Fluid Flow in Paper-Based Microfluidic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walji, Noosheen; MacDonald, Brendan

    2014-11-01

    Paper-based microfluidic devices have been presented as a viable low-cost alternative with the versatility to accommodate many applications in disease diagnosis and environmental monitoring. Current microfluidic designs focus on the use of silicone and PDMS structures, and several models have been developed to describe these systems; however, the design process for paper-based devices is hindered by a lack of prediction capability. In this work we simplify the complex underlying physics of the capillary-driven flow mechanism in a porous medium and generate a practical numerical model capable of predicting the flow behaviour. We present our key insights regarding the properties that dictate the behaviour of fluid wicking in paper-based microfluidic devices. We compare the results from our model to experiments and discuss the application of our model to design of paper-based microfluidic devices for arsenic detection in drinking water in Bangladesh.

  13. Constructal theory and flow architectures in living systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Antonio Heitor

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply Constructal theory to the study of the flow structure of the human respiratory tree. We show that the flow architecture that would per form oxygenation of the blood and removal of carbon dioxide best, i. e. with lowest resistance, would be composed of a channel system with 23 bifurcation with a diffusive zone (alveolus at the end. As this tree matches the human respiratory tree we conclude that nature has optimized it in time. Two constructal relation ships also emerge: (1 the length l, de fined by the ratio of the square of the airway diameter to its length, is constant for all individuals of the same species, and (2 the length γ is related to the volume of the space al located to the respiratory process, to the length of the respiratory tree and to the area of the alveoli, and determines univocally the branching level of the respiratory tree.

  14. Verifying the Reliability of Operating System-Level Information Flow Control Systems in Linux

    OpenAIRE

    Georget , Laurent; Jaume , Mathieu; Piolle , Guillaume; Tronel , Frédéric; Viet Triem Tong , Valérie

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Information Flow Control at Operating System (OS) level features interesting properties and have been an active topic of research for years. However, no implementation can work reliably if there does not exist a way to correctly and precisely track all information flows occurring in the system. The existing implementations for Linux are based on the Linux Security Modules (LSM) framework which implements hooks at speciic points in code where any security mechanism may ...

  15. Employee Engagement Is Vital for the Successful Selection of a Total Laboratory Automation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hoi-Ying E; Wilkerson, Myra L

    2017-11-08

    To concretely outline a process for selecting a total laboratory automation system that connects clinical chemistry, hematology, and coagulation analyzers and to serve as a reference for other laboratories. In Phase I, a committee including the laboratory's directors and technologists conducted a review of 5 systems based on formal request for information process, site visits, and vendor presentations. We developed evaluation criteria and selected the 2 highest performing systems. In Phase II, we executed a detailed comparison of the 2 vendors based on cost, instrument layout, workflow design, and future potential. In addition to selecting a laboratory automation system, we used the process to ensure employee engagement in preparation for implementation. Selecting a total laboratory automation system is a complicated process. This paper provides practical guide in how a thorough selection process can be done with participation of key stakeholders. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Institutional applications of solar total-energy systems. Draft final report. Volume 2. Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-07-01

    The appendices present the analytical basis for the analysis of solar total energy (STE) systems. A regional-climate model and a building-load requirements model are developed, along with fuel-price scenarios. Life-cycle costs are compared for conventional-utility, total energy, and STE systems. Thermal STE system design trade-offs are performed and thermal STE system performance is determined. The sensitivity of STE competitiveness to fuel prices is examined. The selection of the photovoltaic array is briefly discussed. The institutional-sector decision processes are analyzed. Hypothetical regional back-up rates and electrical-energy costs are calculated. The algorithms and equations used in operating the market model are given, and a general methodology is developed for projecting the size of the market for STE systems and applied to each of 8 institutional subsectors. (LEW)

  17. Energy Flows in Low-Entropy Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Chaisson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nature’s many complex systems—physical, biological, and cultural—are islands of low-entropy order within increasingly disordered seas of surrounding, high-entropy chaos. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of all such systems in the expanding Universe, including galaxies, stars, planets, life, society, and machines. A large amount of empirical evidence—relating neither entropy nor information, rather energy—suggests that an underlying simplicity guides the emergence and growth of complexity among many known, highly varied systems in the 14-billion-year-old Universe, from big bang to humankind. Energy flows are as centrally important to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, the quantity energy rate density—the rate of energy flow per unit mass—can be used to explicate in a consistent, uniform, and unifying way a huge collection of diverse complex systems observed throughout Nature. Operationally, those systems able to utilize optimal amounts of energy tend to survive and those that cannot are non-randomly eliminated.

  18. Integration of project management and systems engineering: Tools for a total-cycle environmental management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blacker, P.B.; Winston, R.

    1997-01-01

    An expedited environmental management process has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This process is one result of the Lockheed Martin commitment to the US Department of Energy to incorporate proven systems engineering practices with project management and program controls practices at the INEEL. Lockheed Martin uses a graded approach of its management, operations, and systems activities to tailor the level of control to the needs of the individual projects. The Lockheed Martin definition of systems engineering is: ''''Systems Engineering is a proven discipline that defines and manages program requirements, controls risk, ensures program efficiency, supports informed decision making, and verifies that products and services meet customer needs.'''' This paper discusses: the need for an expedited environmental management process; how the system was developed; what the system is; what the system does; and an overview of key components of the process

  19. Total system performance assessment - 1995: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, J.E.; Lee, J.H.; Lingineni, S.; Mishra, S; McNeish, J.A.; Sassani, D.C.; Sevougian, S.D.

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating the feasibility of permanently disposing the nation`s commercial high-level radioactive wastes (in the form of spent fuel from the over 100 electric power-generating nuclear reactors across the U.S.) and a portion of the defense high-level radioactive wastes (currently stored at federal facilities around the country) in the unsaturated tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Quantitative predictions based on the most current understanding of the processes and parameters potentially affecting the long-term behavior of the disposal system are used to assess the ability of the site and its associated engineered designs to meet regulatory objectives of the US NRC and the US EPA. The evaluation of the ability of the overall system to meet the performance objectives specified in the applicable regulatory standards has been termed total system performance assessment (TSPA). Total system performance assessments require the explicit quantification of the relevant processes and process interactions. In addition assessments are useful to help define the most significant processes, the information gaps and uncertainties and therefore the additional information required for more robust and defensible assessment of the overall performance. The aim of any total system performance assessment is to be as complete and reasonably conservative as possible and to assure that the descriptions of the predictive models and parameters are sufficient to ascertain their accuracy. Total system performance assessments evolve with time. Previous iterations of total system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain site and associated engineered barriers have been conducted in 1991 and 1993.

  20. Total System Performance Assessment, 1993: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, R.W.; Dale, T.F.; McNeish, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    Total System Performance Assessments are an important component in the evaluation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the United States. The Total System Performance Assessments are conducted iteratively during site characterization to identify issues which should be addressed by the characterization and design activities as well as providing input to regulatory/licensing and programmatic decisions. During fiscal years 1991 and 1992, the first iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1991) was completed by Sandia National Laboratories and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Beginning in fiscal year 1993, the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor was assigned the responsibility to plan, coordinate, and contribute to the second iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1993). This document presents the objectives, approach, assumptions, input, results, conclusions, and recommendations associated with the Management and Operating Contractor contribution to TSPA 1993. The new information incorporated in TSPA 1993 includes (1) revised estimates of radionuclide solubilities (and their thermal and geochemical dependency), (2) thermal and geochemical dependency of spent fuel waste alteration and glass dissolution rates, (3) new distribution coefficient (k d ) estimates, (4) revised estimates of gas-phase velocities and travel times, and (5) revised hydrologic modeling of the saturated zone which provides updated estimates of the advective flux through the saturated zone

  1. Total System Performance Assessment, 1993: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, R.W.; Dale, T.F.; McNeish, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    Total System Performance Assessments are an important component in the evaluation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the United States. The Total System Performance Assessments are conducted iteratively during site characterization to identify issues which should be addressed by the characterization and design activities as well as providing input to regulatory/licensing and programmatic decisions. During fiscal years 1991 and 1992, the first iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1991) was completed by Sandia National Laboratories and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Beginning in fiscal year 1993, the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor was assigned the responsibility to plan, coordinate, and contribute to the second iteration of Total System Performance Assessment (hereafter referred to as TSPA 1993). This document presents the objectives, approach, assumptions, input, results, conclusions, and recommendations associated with the Management and Operating Contractor contribution to TSPA 1993. The new information incorporated in TSPA 1993 includes (1) revised estimates of radionuclide solubilities (and their thermal and geochemical dependency), (2) thermal and geochemical dependency of spent fuel waste alteration and glass dissolution rates, (3) new distribution coefficient (k{sub d}) estimates, (4) revised estimates of gas-phase velocities and travel times, and (5) revised hydrologic modeling of the saturated zone which provides updated estimates of the advective flux through the saturated zone.

  2. Quantum Theory for a Total System with One Internal Measuring Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Ge

    2011-03-01

    We propose a quantum theory for a total system including one internal measuring apparatus. The theory is based on three basic assumptions and a principle termed the principle of compatible description (PCD). The assumptions are: (i) Physical states of the total system can be associated with vectors in the Hilbert space. (ii) Dynamical evolution of a state vector obeys Schrö dinger equation. (iii) For a physical state of the total system described by a pure vector, in which a subsystem may play the role of an internal measuring apparatus, when certain stable condition is satisfied, the pure-vector description may be given a Born-type ensemble interpretation. The PCD states that different descriptions for the same state of the total system must give consistent predictions for results of measurements performed by the internal measuring apparatus. The proposed theory lies at a meeting point of Copenhagen, Everett's relative-state, and consistent-histories interpretations of quantum mechanics. While, it provides something new: For example, the PCD imposes a restriction to vectors that can be associated with physical states, which may effectively break the time-reversal symmetry of Schrödinger equation. As an application of the theory, we derive a condition under which a two-level quantum system may have definite properties, such that it may play the essential role of a measuring apparatus.

  3. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 -- a fee levied on electricity generated in commercial nuclear power plants -- is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans contained in the DOE's Draft 1988 Mission Plan Amendment. The total-system cost for the system with a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $24 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $31 to $33 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel to be disposed of. The $7 billion cost savings for the single-repository system in comparison with the two-repository system is due to the elimination of $3 billion for second-repository development and $7 billion for the second-repository facility. These savings are offset by $2 billion in additional costs at the first repository and $1 billion in combined higher costs for the MRS facility and transportation. 55 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs

  4. Comparison of two total energy systems for a diesel power generation plant. [deep space network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, V. W.

    1979-01-01

    The capabilities and limitations, as well as the associated costs for two total energy systems for a diesel power generation plant are compared. Both systems utilize waste heat from engine cooling water and waste heat from exhaust gases. Pressurized water heat recovery system is simple in nature and requires no engine modifications, but operates at lower temperature ranges. On the other hand, a two-phase ebullient system operates the engine at constant temperature, provides higher temperature water or steam to the load, but is more expensive.

  5. Analysis of a total flow blockage of a Fuel Assembly in a typical MTR Research Reactor by RELAP5/MOD3.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adorni, M.; Salah, A.B.; Di Maro, B.; Pierro, F.; D'Auria, F.; Hamidouche, T.

    2004-01-01

    The lack of full understanding of complex mechanisms connected with the interaction between thermal-hydraulics and neutronics still challenge the design and the operation of nuclear reactors by the adoption of conservative safety limits. The recent availability of powerful computer and computational techniques together with the continuing increase in operational experience imposes the revisiting of those areas and eventually the identification of design/safety requirements that can be relaxed [1]. Currently, the enlarged commercial exploitation of nuclear Research Reactors (RR) has increased the consideration to their corresponding safety issues. Almost all of the safety analyses have so far been performed using conservative computational tools [2]. Nowadays, the application of Best-Estimate (BE) methods constitutes a real necessity in order to increase their commercial productivity. In this framework, an attempt is made to apply the BE technique to perform a safety evaluation under research reactors operational conditions. In fact, this technique has been largely verified and validated for power reactors using coupled system thermal-hydraulic and three-dimensional neutron kinetics [1]. For this purpose, as typical representative of research reactors, the IAEA 10 MW MTR Research Reactors problem [3] is considered. The system thermal-hydraulic RELAP5 [4] code was developed to simulate transient scenarios in Power reactors such PWR, BWR, VVER, etc. However, only limited work was performed to access the applicability of the code to Research Reactors operating conditions (low pressure, mass flow rates, power, etc) [5]. Previous works performed in this field are reported in [5], [6] and [7]. In this framework, total and partial blockage of a single Fuel Assembly cooling channel are investigated. As a first attempt the calculations are performed by applying the BE thermal-hydraulic system code RELAP5 alone using its point kinetic model to derive the instantaneous core

  6. A decision-making framework for total ownership cost management of complex systems: A Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Russel J.

    This qualitative study, using a modified Delphi method, was conducted to develop a decision-making framework for the total ownership cost management of complex systems in the aerospace industry. The primary focus of total ownership cost is to look beyond the purchase price when evaluating complex system life cycle alternatives. A thorough literature review and the opinions of a group of qualified experts resulted in a compilation of total ownership cost best practices, cost drivers, key performance factors, applicable assessment methods, practitioner credentials and potential barriers to effective implementation. The expert panel provided responses to the study questions using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Data were analyzed and provided to the panel members for review and discussion with the intent to achieve group consensus. As a result of the study, the experts agreed that a total ownership cost analysis should (a) be as simple as possible using historical data; (b) establish cost targets, metrics, and penalties early in the program; (c) monitor the targets throughout the product lifecycle and revise them as applicable historical data becomes available; and (d) directly link total ownership cost elements with other success factors during program development. The resultant study framework provides the business leader with incentives and methods to develop and implement strategies for controlling and reducing total ownership cost over the entire product life cycle when balancing cost, schedule, and performance decisions.

  7. Ultrasound Vector Flow Imaging: Part I: Sequential Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov; Yu, Alfred C. H.

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives a review of the most important methods for blood velocity vector flow imaging (VFI) for conventional, sequential data acquisition. This includes multibeam methods, speckle tracking, transverse oscillation, color flow mapping derived vector flow imaging, directional beamforming...

  8. Flow and Transport in the Hanford 300 Area Vadose Zone-Aquifer-River System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Yabusaki, Steven B.

    2005-07-13

    Contaminant migration in the 300 Area unconfined aquifer is strongly coupled to fluctuations in the Columbia River stage. To better understand the interaction between the river, aquifer, and vadose zone, a 2-D saturated-unsaturated flow and transport model was developed for a vertical cross-section aligned west-east across the Hanford Site 300 Area, nearly perpendicular to the river. The model was used to investigate water flow and tracer transport in the vadose zone-aquifer-river flow system, in support of the ongoing study of the 300 Area uranium plume. The STOMP simulator was used to model 1-year from 3/1/92 to 2/28/93, a period when hourly data were available for both groundwater and river levels. Net water flow to the river (per 1-meter width of shoreline) was 182 m3/y in the base case, but the cumulative exchange or total flow back and forth across the riverbed was 30 times greater. The low river case had approximately double the net water and Groundwater tracer flux into the river as compared to the base case.

  9. Total Measurement Uncertainty for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System

    CERN Document Server

    Fazzari, D M

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for the Canberra manufactured Segmented Gamma Scanner Assay System (SGSAS) as employed at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). In this document, TMU embodies the combined uncertainties due to all of the individual random and systematic sources of measurement uncertainty. It includes uncertainties arising from corrections and factors applied to the analysis of transuranic waste to compensate for inhomogeneities and interferences from the waste matrix and radioactive components. These include uncertainty components for any assumptions contained in the calibration of the system or computation of the data. Uncertainties are propagated at 1 sigma. The final total measurement uncertainty value is reported at the 95% confidence level. The SGSAS is a gamma assay system that is used to assay plutonium and uranium waste. The SGSAS system can be used in a stand-alone mode to perform the NDA characterization of a containe...

  10. Thermodynamic framework for discrete optimal control in multiphase flow systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieniutycz, Stanislaw

    1999-08-01

    Bellman's method of dynamic programming is used to synthesize diverse optimization approaches to active (work producing) and inactive (entropy generating) multiphase flow systems. Thermal machines, optimally controlled unit operations, nonlinear heat conduction, spontaneous relaxation processes, and self-propagating wave fronts are all shown to satisfy a discrete Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation and a corresponding discrete optimization algorithm of Pontryagin's type, with the maximum principle for a Hamiltonian. The extremal structures are always canonical. A common unifying criterion is set for all considered systems, which is the criterion of a minimum generated entropy. It is shown that constraints can modify the entropy functionals in a different way for each group of the processes considered; thus the resulting structures of these functionals may differ significantly. Practical conclusions are formulated regarding the energy savings and energy policy in optimally controlled systems.

  11. The ATLAS Data Flow System for LHC Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Kazarov, Andrei; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    After its first shutdown, the LHC will provide pp collisions with increased luminosity and energy. In the ATLAS experiment, the Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system has been upgraded to deal with the increased event rates. The Data Flow (DF) element of the TDAQ is a distributed hardware and software system responsible for buffering and transporting event data from the readout system to the High Level Trigger (HLT) and to the event storage. The DF has been reshaped in order to profit from the technological progress and to maximize the flexibility and efficiency of the data selection process. The updated DF is radically different from the previous implementation both in terms of architecture and expected performance. The pre-existing two level software filtering, known as L2 and the Event Filter, and the Event Building are now merged into a single process, performing incremental data collection and analysis. This design has many advantages, among which are: the radical simplification of the architecture, ...

  12. The ATLAS Data Flow System for Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kazarov, Andrei; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    After its first shutdown, the LHC will provide pp collisions with increased luminosity and energy. In the ATLAS experiment, the Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system has been upgraded to deal with the increased event rates. The Data Flow (DF) element of the TDAQ is a distributed hardware and software system responsible for buffering and transporting event data from the readout system to the High Level Trigger (HLT) and to the event storage. The DF has been reshaped in order to profit from the technological progress and to maximize the flexibility and efficiency of the data selection process. The updated DF is radically different from the previous implementation both in terms of architecture and expected performance. The pre-existing two level software filtering, known as L2 and the Event Filter, and the Event Building are now merged into a single process, performing incremental data collection and analysis. This design has many advantages, among which are: the radical simplification of the architecture, ...

  13. Scaling of flow and transport behavior in heterogeneous groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibe, Timothy; Yabusaki, Steven

    1998-11-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations using a detailed synthetic hydraulic conductivity field developed from geological considerations provide insight into the scaling of subsurface flow and transport processes. Flow and advective transport in the highly resolved heterogeneous field were modeled using massively parallel computers, providing a realistic baseline for evaluation of the impacts of parameter scaling. Upscaling of hydraulic conductivity was performed at a variety of scales using a flexible power law averaging technique. A series of tests were performed to determine the effects of varying the scaling exponent on a number of metrics of flow and transport behavior. Flow and transport simulation on high-performance computers and three-dimensional scientific visualization combine to form a powerful tool for gaining insight into the behavior of complex heterogeneous systems. Many quantitative groundwater models utilize upscaled hydraulic conductivity parameters, either implicitly or explicitly. These parameters are designed to reproduce the bulk flow characteristics at the grid or field scale while not requiring detailed quantification of local-scale conductivity variations. An example from applied groundwater modeling is the common practice of calibrating grid-scale model hydraulic conductivity or transmissivity parameters so as to approximate observed hydraulic head and boundary flux values. Such parameterizations, perhaps with a bulk dispersivity imposed, are then sometimes used to predict transport of reactive or non-reactive solutes. However, this work demonstrates that those parameters that lead to the best upscaling for hydraulic conductivity and head do not necessarily correspond to the best upscaling for prediction of a variety of transport behaviors. This result reflects the fact that transport is strongly impacted by the existence and connectedness of extreme-valued hydraulic conductivities, in contrast to bulk flow which depends more strongly on

  14. A new fully automated FTIR system for total column measurements of greenhouse gases

    OpenAIRE

    Geibel, M. C.; Gerbig, C.; Feist, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a new fully automated FTIR system that is part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). It will provide continuous ground-based measurements of column-averaged volume mixing ratio for CO2, CH4 and several other greenhouse gases in the tropics.

    Housed in a 20-foot shipping container it was developed as a transportable system that could be deployed almost anywhere in the world. We describe th...

  15. Biochemical oxygen demand measurement by mediator method in flow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Bai, Lu; Yu, Dengbin; Zhai, Junfeng; Dong, Shaojun

    2015-06-01

    Using mediator as electron acceptor for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) measurement was developed in the last decade (BODMed). However, until now, no BOD(Med) in a flow system has been reported. This work for the first time describes a flow system of BOD(Med) method (BOD(Med)-FS) by using potassium ferricyanide as mediator and carbon fiber felt as substrate material for microbial immobilization. The system can determine the BOD value within 30 min and possesses a wider analytical linear range for measuring glucose-glutamic acid (GGA) standard solution from 2 up to 200 mg L(-1) without the need of dilution. The analytical performance of the BOD(Med)-FS is comparable or better than that of the previously reported BOD(Med) method, especially its superior long-term stability up to 2 months under continuous operation. Moreover, the BOD(Med)-FS has same determination accuracy with the conventional BOD5 method by measuring real samples from a local wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The deep hydrogeologic flow system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nativ, R.; Hunley, A.E.

    1993-07-01

    The deep hydrogeologic system underlying the Oak Ridge Reservation contains some areas contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, nitrates, and organic compounds. The groundwater at that depth is saline and has previously been considered stagnant. On the basis of existing and newly collected data, the nature of flow of the saline groundwater and its potential discharge into shallow, freshwater systems was assessed. Data used for this purpose included (1) spatial and temporal pressures and hydraulic heads measured in the deep system, (2) hydraulic parameters of the formations in question, (3) spatial temperature variations, and (4) spatial and temporal chemical and isotopic composition of the saline groundwater. In addition, chemical analyses of brine in adjacent areas in Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia were compared with the deep water underlying the reservation to help assess the origin of the brine. Preliminary conclusions suggest that the saline water contained at depth is old but not isolated (in terms of recharge and discharge) from the overlying active and freshwater-bearing units. The confined water (along with dissolved solutes) moves along open fractures (or man-made shortcuts) at relatively high velocity into adjacent, more permeable units. Groundwater volumes involved in this flow probably are small

  17. Cascading failures in interdependent systems under a flow redistribution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingrui; Arenas, Alex; Yaǧan, Osman

    2018-02-01

    Robustness and cascading failures in interdependent systems has been an active research field in the past decade. However, most existing works use percolation-based models where only the largest component of each network remains functional throughout the cascade. Although suitable for communication networks, this assumption fails to capture the dependencies in systems carrying a flow (e.g., power systems, road transportation networks), where cascading failures are often triggered by redistribution of flows leading to overloading of lines. Here, we consider a model consisting of systems A and B with initial line loads and capacities given by {LA,i,CA ,i} i =1 n and {LB,i,CB ,i} i =1 n, respectively. When a line fails in system A , a fraction of its load is redistributed to alive lines in B , while remaining (1 -a ) fraction is redistributed equally among all functional lines in A ; a line failure in B is treated similarly with b giving the fraction to be redistributed to A . We give a thorough analysis of cascading failures of this model initiated by a random attack targeting p1 fraction of lines in A and p2 fraction in B . We show that (i) the model captures the real-world phenomenon of unexpected large scale cascades and exhibits interesting transition behavior: the final collapse is always first order, but it can be preceded by a sequence of first- and second-order transitions; (ii) network robustness tightly depends on the coupling coefficients a and b , and robustness is maximized at non-trivial a ,b values in general; (iii) unlike most existing models, interdependence has a multifaceted impact on system robustness in that interdependency can lead to an improved robustness for each individual network.

  18. Ten-Year Outcome Comparison of the Anatomical Graduated Component and Vanguard Total Knee Arthroplasty Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Philip M; Ritter, Merrill A; Davis, Kenneth E; Priscu, Hana M

    2015-10-01

    The development of a new total knee system as a successor prosthesis in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) requires clinical outcome improvement. 10,843 TKAs were performed of which 9169 utilized the Anatomical Graduated Component (AGC) and 1674 utilized the Vanguard prosthesis (both Biomet, Warsaw, IN). Survival rates at ten years postoperatively for the AGC and Vanguard were 98.7% and 98.4% (P=.4897) respectively. The top reasons for component failure were loosening (AGC: 0.29%, Vanguard: 0.30%), polyethylene wear, and instability (AGC: 0.13%, Vanguard: 0.12%). These results reveal similar outcomes in both designs, with relatively few revisions and high survival rates at ten years postoperatively. This abstract offers data concerning the usefulness of the Vanguard Total Knee System as a successor to the Anatomical Graduated Component. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Three-tiered integration of PACS and HIS toward next generation total hospital information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Lee, D H; Choi, J W; Cho, H I; Kang, H S; Yeon, K M; Han, M C

    1998-01-01

    The Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) started a project to innovate the hospital information facilities. This project includes installation of high speed hospital network, development of new HIS, OCS (order communication system), RIS and PACS. This project aims at the implementation of the first total hospital information system by seamlessly integrating these systems together. To achieve this goal, we took three-tiered systems integration approach: network level, database level, and workstation level integration. There are 3 loops of networks in SNUH: proprietary star network for host computer based HIS, Ethernet based hospital LAN for OCS and RIS, and ATM based network for PACS. They are linked together at the backbone level to allow high speed communication between these systems. We have developed special communication modules for each system that allow data interchange between different databases and computer platforms. We have also developed an integrated workstation in which both the OCS and PACS application programs run on a single computer in an integrated manner allowing the clinical users to access and display radiological images as well as textual clinical information within a single user environment. A study is in progress toward a total hospital information system in SNUH by seamlessly integrating the main hospital information resources such as HIS, OCS, and PACS. With the three-tiered systems integration approach, we could successfully integrate the systems from the network level to the user application level.

  20. Two-level incremental checkpoint recovery scheme for reducing system total overheads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huixian; Pang, Liaojun; Wang, Zhangquan

    2014-01-01

    Long-running applications are often subject to failures. Once failures occur, it will lead to unacceptable system overheads. The checkpoint technology is used to reduce the losses in the event of a failure. For the two-level checkpoint recovery scheme used in the long-running tasks, it is unavoidable for the system to periodically transfer huge memory context to a remote stable storage. Therefore, the overheads of setting checkpoints and the re-computing time become a critical issue which directly impacts the system total overheads. Motivated by these concerns, this paper presents a new model by introducing i-checkpoints into the existing two-level checkpoint recovery scheme to deal with the more probable failures with the smaller cost and the faster speed. The proposed scheme is independent of the specific failure distribution type and can be applied to different failure distribution types. We respectively make analyses between the two-level incremental and two-level checkpoint recovery schemes with the Weibull distribution and exponential distribution, both of which fit with the actual failure distribution best. The comparison results show that the total overheads of setting checkpoints, the total re-computing time and the system total overheads in the two-level incremental checkpoint recovery scheme are all significantly smaller than those in the two-level checkpoint recovery scheme. At last, limitations of our study are discussed, and at the same time, open questions and possible future work are given.

  1. 21 CFR 862.1110 - Bilirubin (total or direct) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bilirubin (total or direct) test system. 862.1110 Section 862.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  2. Increase of total efficiency ctfficient of hydraulic systems of road machines

    OpenAIRE

    Remarchuk, M.

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of equalling static and dynamic power the possibility to increase a total efficiency coefficient of hydraulic systems of road machines at the expense of definition and selection of rational parameters of a hydraulic cylinder and pump is proved.

  3. Modelling and validation for total body irradiation using a 3D planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Madhav; Bezak, Eva; Nicolls, Ralph; Byas, Kurt; Nixon, Rogr

    2001-01-01

    Pinnacle treatment planning system has been successfully commissioned for total body irradiation and will be used for patient treatments in near future. The actual dose delivered to patients will be monitored with TLDs and diode array and the agreement with the prescribed dose will be further investigated

  4. 21 CFR 862.1270 - Estrogens (total, in pregnancy) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... estrogens are used to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of fetoplacental distress in certain cases of high-risk pregnancy. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estrogens (total, in pregnancy) test system. 862...

  5. Effect of replacement rate, production system and beef price on total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of replacement rate (R), price (c/kg carcass weight) and two production systems on total herd efficiency was investigated. R was assumed to be either 15% (minimum),l9%o (point in between) or 23Vo (maximum). Percentage differences (minimum, point in between, maximum) in beef prices for the period 1984 ...

  6. Effect of replacement rate, production system and beef price on total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of replacement rate, production system and beef price on total herd efficiency. P. du Toit and J. van ... Percentage differ- ences (minimum, point in between, maximum) in beef prices for the period 1984 to 1992 (RSA Livestock and Meat Statrs- ..... therefore replacement rate, as an economic trait (Hetzel &. Seifert, 1986 ...

  7. The map of energy flow in HVAC systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Lombard, Luis; Ortiz, Jose; Maestre, Ismael R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Discussion of the four stages in the 'HVAC systems energy chain'. → Examination of HVAC systems as energy conversion devices. → Analysis of HVAC Sankey diagrams. → Discussion of HVAC loads and HVAC energy losses. -- Abstract: Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are the most energy consuming building services representing approximately half of the final energy use in the building sector and between one tenth and one fifth of the energy consumption in developed countries. Despite their significant energy use, there is a lack of a consistent and homogeneous framework to efficiently guide research and energy policies, mainly due to the complexity and variety of HVAC systems but also to insufficient rigour in their energy analysis. This paper reviews energy related aspects of HVAC systems with the aim of establishing a common ground for the analysis of their energy efficiency. The paper focuses on the map of energy flow to deliver thermal comfort: the HVAC energy chain. Our approach deals first with thermal comfort as the final service delivered to building occupants. Secondly, conditioned spaces are examined as the systems where useful heat (or coolth) is degraded to provide comfort. This is followed by the analysis of HVAC systems as complex energy conversion devices where energy carriers are transformed into useful heat and coolth, and finally, the impact of HVAC energy consumption on energy resources is discussed.

  8. Continuous Drip Flow System to Develop Biofilm of E. faecalis under Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate a structurally mature E. faecalis biofilm developed under anaerobic/dynamic conditions in an in vitro system. Methods. An experimental device was developed using a continuous drip flow system designed to develop biofilm under anaerobic conditions. The inoculum was replaced every 24 hours with a fresh growth medium for up to 10 days to feed the system. Gram staining was done every 24 hours to control the microorganism purity. Biofilms developed under the system were evaluated under the scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results. SEM micrographs demonstrated mushroom-shaped structures, corresponding to a mature E. faecalis biofilm. In the mature biofilm bacterial cells are totally encased in a polymeric extracellular matrix. Conclusions. The proposed in vitro system model provides an additional useful tool to study the biofilm concept in endodontic microbiology, allowing for a better understanding of persistent root canal infections.

  9. FY 1987 report on the result of the R and D of an automatic sewing system. Total system; 1987 nendo jido hosei system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Total system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    The paper summarized the R and D of a total system which is an element technology of an automatic sewing system by the Automatic Sewing System Technology Research Association. As to the research on the apparel side, the following were studied: A. To clarify the effective field of element technology by dress type. B. To clarify the method of applying the system to small-/medium-size plants. C. To make study for automation so that it can be the basic data for experimental plants. To proceed with the study concretely, they asked 6 companies developing element technology to have the field study meeting. To study conditions for experimental plants from viewpoints of FA and FMS, the following studies were conducted concretely using a system model, based on the plant design law: A. Layout plan of the system model. B. Handling plan of the system model. C. Communication plan of the system model. D. Utility plan of the system model. E. Building plan. F. Study of the medium-term evaluation method. G. Study on the model plant. The above-mentioned study of the total system was proceeded with under the consideration of supporting the smooth progress of the developmental schedule of the automatic sewing system. (NEDO)

  10. Effects of radiation and α-tocopherol on saliva flow rate, amylase activity, total protein and electrolyte levels in oral cavity cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate early and late effects of radiation and a-tocopherol on the secretion rate of saliva and on selected saliva salivary parameters in oral cavity cancer patients. Patients & Methods: Eighty-nine histologically confirmed oral cavity cancer patients (OCC were enrolled in the study. Resting whole saliva was collected before, during and at the end of the radiation therapy (RT and simultaneous supplementation with α - tocopherol to the radiation treated patients (RT + AT. Results: Salivary flow rate, pH, amylase activity, total protein, sodium and potassium were analyzed. Increased pH, potassium and decreased flow rate, amylase activity, protein content and sodium were observed in 6 weeks of radiation treated patients when compared to OCC patients. A significant improvement of those parameters was observed on α - tocopherol supplementation in RT + AT patients. Conclusion: Supplementation with α - tocopherol improves the salivary flow rate thereby, maintains salivary parameters.

  11. A Robotic Flexible Drill and Its Navigation System for Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Fuad, Ahmad Nazmi Bin; Elangovan, Hariprashanth; Deep, Kamal; Yao, Wei

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a robotic flexible drill and its navigation system for total hip arthroplasty (THA). The new robotic system provides an unprecedented and unique capability to perform curved femoral milling under the guidance of a multimodality navigation system. The robotic system consists of three components. Firstly, a flexible drill manipulator comprises multiple rigid segments that act as a sheath to a flexible shaft with a drill/burr attached to the end. The second part of the robotic system is a hybrid tracking system that consists of an optical tracking system and a position tracking system. Optical tracking units are used to track the surgical objects and tools outside the drilling area, while a rotary encoder placed at each joint of the sheath is synchronized to provide the position information for the flexible manipulator with its virtual object. Finally, the flexible drill is integrated into a computer-aided navigation system. The navigation system provides real time guidance to a surgeon during the procedure. The flexible drill system is then able to implement THA by bone milling. The final section of this paper is an evaluation of the flexible and steerable drill and its navigation system for femoral bone milling in sawbones.

  12. Toward formal analysis of ultra-reliable computers: A total systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisholm, G.H.; Kljaich, J.; Smith, B.T.; Wojcik, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the application of modeling and analysis techniques to software that is designed to execute on four channel version of the the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL) Fault-Tolerant Processor, referred to as the Draper FTP. The software performs sensor validation of four independent measures (singlas) from the primary pumps of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II operated by Argonne National Laboratory-West, and from the validated signals formulates a flow trip signal for the reactor safety system. 11 refs., 4 figs

  13. APPLICATION OF MODIFIED POWER FLOW TRACING METHOD FOR REACTIVE POWER PRICING IN PRACTICAL UTILITY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SUSITHRA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitive trend towards restructuring and unbundling of transmission services has resulted in the need to discover the impact of a particular generator to load. This paper initially presents the analysis of three different reactive power valuation methods namely, Modified Ybus , Virtual flow approach and modified power flow tracing to compute the reactive power output from a particular generator to particular load. Among these methods, the modified power flow electricity tracing method is identified as the best method to trace the reactive power contribution from various reactive power sources to loads, transmission line, etc. Also this proposed method breakdown the total reactive power loss in a transmission line into components to be allocated to individual loads. Secondly, based on this Method a novel allocation method for reactive power service for practical system is proposed. Hence, this method can be useful in providing additional insight into power system operation and can be used to modify existing tariffs of charging for reactive power transmission loss and reactive power transmission services. Simulation and comparison results are shown by taking WSCC 9 and IEEE 30 bus system as test system.

  14. A Method to Evaluate Groundwater flow system under the Seabed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, N.; Marui, A.

    2011-12-01

    / fresh water interface (position of the submarine groundwater discharge) may appear on the seafloor. Moreover, neither the salinity concentration nor the groundwater age depends on depth. It is thought that it is because that the groundwater forms the complex flow situation through the change in a long-term groundwater flow system. The technology to understand the coastal groundwater flow consists of remote sensing, geographical features analysis, surface of the earth investigation, geophysical exploration, drilling survey, and indoor examination and the measurement. Integration of each technology is needed to interpret groundwater flow system because the one is to catch the local groundwater flow in the time series and another one is to catch the long-term and regional groundwater flow in the general situation. The purpose of this study is to review the previous research of coastal groundwater flow, and to integrate an applicable evaluation approach to understand this mechanism. In this presentation, the review of the research and case study using numerical simulation are introduced.

  15. Design Flexibility of Redox Flow Systems. [for energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, N. H.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics inherent in Redox flow systems permit considerable latitude in designing systems for specific storage applications. The first of these characteristics is the absence of plating/deplating reactions with their attendant morphology changes at the electrodes. This permits a given Redox system to operate over a wide range of depths of discharge and charge/discharge rates. The second characteristic is the separation of power generating components (stacks) from the energy storage components (tanks). This results in cost effective system design, ease of system growth via modularization, and freedom from sizing restraints so that the whole spectrum of applications, from utilities down to single residence can be considered. The final characteristic is the commonality of the reactant fluids which assures that all cells at all times are receiving reactants at the same state of charge. Since no cell can be out of balance with respect to any other cell, it is possible for some cells to be charged while others are discharging, in effect creating a DC to DC transformer. It is also possible for various groups of cells to be connected to separate loads, thus supplying a range of output voltages. Also, trim cells can be used to maintain constant bus voltage as the load is changed or as the depth of discharge increases. The commonality of reactant fluids also permits any corrective measures such as rebalancing to occur at the system level instead of at the single cell level.

  16. Cubic systems with invariant affine straight lines of total parallel multiplicity seven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Suba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the planar cubic differential systems with invariant affine straight lines of total parallel multiplicity seven. We classify these system according to their geometric properties encoded in the configurations of invariant straight lines. We show that there are only 17 different topological phase portraits in the Poincar\\'e disc associated to this family of cubic systems up to a reversal of the sense of their orbits, and we provide representatives of every class modulo an affine change of variables and rescaling of the time variable.

  17. Stationary Flowing Liquid Lithium (SFLiLi) systems for tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, Leonid; Gentile, Charles; Roquemore, Lane

    2013-10-01

    The present approach to magnetic fusion which relies on high recycling plasma-wall interaction has exhausted itself at the level of TFTR, JET, JT-60 devices with no realistic path to the burning plasma. Instead, magnetic fusion needs a return to its original idea of insulation of the plasma from the wall, which was the dominant approach in the 1970s and upon implementations has a clear path to the DEMO device with PDT ~= 100 MW and Qelectric > 1 . The SFLiLi systems of this talk is the technology tool for implementation of the guiding idea of magnetic fusion. It utilizes the unique properties of flowing LiLi to pump plasma particles and, thus, insulate plasma from the walls. The necessary flow rate, ~= 1 g3/s, is very small, thus, making the use of lithium practical and consistent with safety requirements. The talk describes how chemical activity of LiLi, which is the major technology challenge of using LiLi in tokamaks, is addressed by SFLiLi systems at the level of already performed (HT-7) experiment, and in ongoing implementations for a prototype of SFLiLi for tokamak divertors and the mid-plane limiter for EAST tokamak (to be tested in the next experimental campaign). This work is supported by US DoE contract No. DE-AC02-09-CH11466.

  18. Modelling and Simulation of TCPAR for Power System Flow Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narimen Lahaçani AOUZELLAG

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the modelling of Thyristor Controlled Phase Angle Regulator ‘TCPAR’ for power flow studies and the role of that modelling in the study of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems ‘FACTS’ for power flow control are discussed. In order to investigate the impact of TCPAR on power systems effectively, it is essential to formulate a correct and appropriate model for it. The TCPAR, thus, makes it possible to increase or decrease the power forwarded in the line where it is inserted in a considerable way, which makes of it an ideal tool for this kind of use. Knowing that the TCPAR does not inject any active power, it offers a good solution with a less consumption. One of the adverse effects of the TCPAR is the voltage drop which it causes in the network although it is not significant. To solve this disadvantage, it is enough to introduce a Static VAR Compensator ‘SVC’ into the electrical network which will compensate the voltages fall and will bring them back to an acceptable level.

  19. Dynamic flow control strategies of vehicle SCR Urea Dosing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Zhang, Youtong; Asif, Malik

    2015-03-01

    Selective Catalyst Reduction(SCR) Urea Dosing System(UDS) directly affects the system accuracy and the dynamic response performance of a vehicle. However, the UDS dynamic response is hard to keep up with the changes of the engine's operating conditions. That will lead to low NO X conversion efficiency or NH3 slip. In order to optimize the injection accuracy and the response speed of the UDS in dynamic conditions, an advanced control strategy based on an air-assisted volumetric UDS is presented. It covers the methods of flow compensation and switching working conditions. The strategy is authenticated on an UDS and tested in different dynamic conditions. The result shows that the control strategy discussed results in higher dynamic accuracy and faster dynamic response speed of UDS. The inject deviation range is improved from being between -8% and 10% to -4% and 2% and became more stable than before, and the dynamic response time was shortened from 200 ms to 150 ms. The ETC cycle result shows that after using the new strategy the NH3 emission is reduced by 60%, and the NO X emission remains almost unchanged. The trade-off between NO X conversion efficiency and NH3 slip is mitigated. The studied flow compensation and switching working conditions can improve the dynamic performance of the UDS significantly and make the UDS dynamic response keep up with the changes of the engine's operating conditions quickly.

  20. Hybrid procedure for total laryngectomy with a flexible robot-assisted surgical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Patrick J; Hoffmann, Thomas K; Veit, Johannes A; Rotter, Nicole; Friedrich, Daniel T; Greve, Jens; Scheithauer, Marc O

    2017-06-01

    Total laryngectomy is a standard procedure in head-and-neck surgery for the treatment of cancer patients. Recent clinical experiences have indicated a clinical benefit for patients undergoing transoral robot-assisted total laryngectomy (TORS-TL) with commercially available systems. Here, a new hybrid procedure for total laryngectomy is presented. TORS-TL was performed in human cadavers (n = 3) using a transoral-transcervical hybrid procedure. The transoral approach was performed with a robotic flexible robot-assisted surgical system (Flex®) and compatible flexible instruments. Transoral access and visualization of anatomical landmarks were studied in detail. Total laryngectomy is feasible with a combined transoral-transcervical approach using the flexible robot-assisted surgical system. Transoral visualization of all anatomical structures is sufficient. The flexible design of the robot is advantageous for transoral surgery of the laryngeal structures. Transoral robot assisted surgery has the potential to reduce morbidity, hospital time and fistula rates in a selected group of patients. Initial clinical studies and further development of supplemental tools are in progress. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Total system performance assessment - 1995: An evaluation of the potential Yucca Mountain Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating the feasibility of permanently disposing the nation`s commercial high-level radioactive wastes (in the form of spent fuel from the over 100 electric power-generating nuclear reactors across the U.S.) and a portion of the defense high-level radioactive wastes (currently stored at federal facilities around the country) in the unsaturated tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Quantitative predictions based on the most current understanding of the processes and parameters potentially affecting the long-term behavior of the disposal system are used to assess the ability of the site and its associated engineered designs to meet regulatory objectives set forward by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The evaluation of the ability of the overall system to meet the performance objectives specified in the applicable regulatory standards has been termed total system performance assessment (TSPA). The aim of any total system performance assessment is to be as complete and reasonably conservative as possible and to assure that the descriptions of the predictive models and parameters are sufficient to ascertain their accuracy. Total system performance assessments evolve with time. As additional site and design information is generated, performance assessment analyses can be revised to become more representative of the expected conditions and remove some of the conservative assumptions necessitated by the incompleteness of site and design data. Previous iterations of total system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain site and associated engineered barriers have been conducted in 1991 and 1993. These analyses have been documented in Barnard, Eslinger, Wilson and Andrews.

  2. Measurement system of bubbly flow using Ultrasonic Velocity Profile Monitor and Video Data Processing Unit. 3. Comparison of flow characteristics between bubbly cocurrent and countercurrent flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shirong; Suzuki, Yumiko; Aritomi, Masanori; Matsuzaki, Mitsuo; Takeda, Yasushi; Mori, Michitsugu

    1998-01-01

    The authors have developed a new measurement system which consisted of an Ultrasonic Velocity Profile Monitor (UVP) and a Video Data Processing Unit (VDP) in order to clarify the two-dimensional flow characteristics in bubbly flows and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for two-dimensional two-phase flow. In the present paper, the proposed measurement system is applied to fully developed bubbly cocurrent flows in a vertical rectangular channel. At first, both bubble and water velocity profiles and void fraction profiles in the channel were investigated statistically. In addition, the two-phase multiplier profile of turbulence intensity, which was defined as a ratio of the standard deviation of velocity fluctuation in a bubbly flow to that in a water single phase flow, were examined. Next, these flow characteristics were compared with those in bubbly countercurrent flows reported in our previous paper. Finally, concerning the drift flux model, the distribution parameter and drift velocity were obtained directly from both bubble and water velocity profiles and void fraction profiles, and their results were compared with those in bubbly countercurrent flows. (author)

  3. Measurement system of bubbly flow using ultrasonic velocity profile monitor and video data processing unit. 2. Flow characteristics of bubbly countercurrent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Zhou, Shirong; Nakajima, Makoto; Takeda, Yasushi; Mori, Michitsugu.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have developed a measurement system which is composed of an ultrasonic velocity profile monitor and a video data processing unit in order to clarify its multi-dimensional flow characteristics in bubbly flows and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for multi-dimensional two-phase flow. In this paper, the measurement system was applied for bubbly countercurrent flows in a vertical rectangular channel. At first, both bubble and water velocity profiles and void fraction profiles in the channel were investigated statistically. Next, turbulence intensity in a continuous liquid phase was defined as a standard deviation of velocity fluctuation, and the two-phase multiplier profile of turbulence intensity in the channel was clarified as a ratio of the standard deviation of flow fluctuation in a bubbly countercurrent flow to that in a water single phase flow. Finally, the distribution parameter and drift velocity used in the drift flux model for bubbly countercurrent flows were calculated from the obtained velocity profiles of both phases and void fraction profile, and were compared with the correlation proposed for bubbly countercurrent flows. (author)

  4. Flow measurement system and method for determining at least one property of a medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to a flow measurement system for determining a flow of a medium, comprising a Coriolis flow sensor, a thermal flow sensor and a processing unit connected thereto. According to the invention, the processing unit is arranged for determining, based on the output signals of both

  5. From "E-flows" to "Sed-flows": Managing the Problem of Sediment in High Altitude Hydropower Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbud, C.; Lane, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    The connections between stream hydraulics, geomorphology and ecosystems in mountain rivers have been substantially perturbed by humans, for example through flow regulation related to hydropower activities. It is well known that the ecosystem impacts downstream of hydropower dams may be managed by a properly designed compensation release or environmental flows ("e-flows"), and such flows may also include sediment considerations (e.g. to break up bed armor). However, there has been much less attention given to the ecosystem impacts of water intakes (where water is extracted and transferred for storage and/or power production), even though in many mountain systems such intakes may be prevalent. Flow intakes tend to be smaller than dams and because they fill quickly in the presence of sediment delivery, they often need to be flushed, many times within a day in Alpine glaciated catchments with high sediment yields. The associated short duration "flood" flow is characterised by very high sediment concentrations, which may drastically modify downstream habitat, both during the floods but also due to subsequent accumulation of "legacy" sediment. The impacts on flora and fauna of these systems have not been well studied. In addition, there are no guidelines established that might allow the design of "e-flows" that also treat this sediment problem, something we call "sed-flows". Through an Alpine field example, we quantify the hydrological, geomorphological, and ecosystem impacts of Alpine water transfer systems. The high sediment concentrations of these flushing flows lead to very high rates of channel disturbance downstream, superimposed upon long-term and progressive bed sediment accumulation. Monthly macroinvertebrate surveys over almost a two-year period showed that reductions in the flushing rate reduced rates of disturbance substantially, and led to rapid macroinvertebrate recovery, even in the seasons (autumn and winter) when biological activity should be reduced

  6. Integrated Cantilever-Based Flow Sensors with Tunable Sensitivity for In-Line Monitoring of Flow Fluctuations in Microfluidic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Noeth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For devices such as bio-/chemical sensors in microfluidic systems, flow fluctuations result in noise in the sensor output. Here, we demonstrate in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations with a cantilever-like sensor integrated in a microfluidic channel. The cantilevers are fabricated in different materials (SU-8 and SiN and with different thicknesses. The integration of arrays of holes with different hole size and number of holes allows the modification of device sensitivity, theoretical detection limit and measurement range. For an average flow in the microliter range, the cantilever deflection is directly proportional to the flow rate fluctuations in the microfluidic channel. The SiN cantilevers show a detection limit below 1 nL/min and the thinnest SU-8 cantilevers a detection limit below 5 nL/min. Finally, the sensor is applied for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations generated by external pumps connected to the microfluidic system.

  7. Determination of As(III) and total inorganic As in water samples using an on-line solid phase extraction and flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrist, Mirna, E-mail: msigrist@fiq.unl.edu.ar [Laboratorio Central, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2654-Piso 6, (3000) Santa Fe (Argentina); Albertengo, Antonela; Beldomenico, Horacio [Laboratorio Central, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2654-Piso 6, (3000) Santa Fe (Argentina); Tudino, Mabel [Laboratorio de Analisis de Trazas, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Pabellon II, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-04-15

    A simple and robust on-line sequential injection system based on solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to a flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HGAAS) with a heated quartz tube atomizer (QTA) was developed and optimized for the determination of As(III) in groundwater without any kind of sample pretreatment. The method was based on the selective retention of inorganic As(V) that was carried out by passing the filtered original sample through a cartridge containing a chloride-form strong anion exchanger. Thus the most toxic form, inorganic As(III), was determined fast and directly by AsH{sub 3} generation using 3.5 mol L{sup -1} HCl as carrier solution and 0.35% (m/v) NaBH{sub 4} in 0.025% NaOH as the reductant. Since the uptake of As(V) should be interfered by several anions of natural occurrence in waters, the effect of Cl{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -} on retention was evaluated and discussed. The total soluble inorganic arsenic concentration was determined on aliquots of filtered samples acidified with concentrated HCl and pre-reduced with 5% KI-5% C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 6} solution. The concentration of As(V) was calculated by difference between the total soluble inorganic arsenic and As(III) concentrations. Detection limits (LODs) of 0.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 0.6 {mu}g L{sup -1} for As(III) and inorganic total As, respectively, were obtained for a 500 {mu}L sample volume. The obtained limits of detection allowed testing the water quality according to the national and international regulations. The analytical recovery for water samples spiked with As(III) ranged between 98% and 106%. The sampling throughput for As(III) determination was 60 samples h{sup -1}. The device for groundwater sampling was especially designed for the authors. Metallic components were avoided and the contact between the sample and the atmospheric oxygen was carried to a minimum. On-field arsenic species

  8. Determination of As(III) and total inorganic As in water samples using an on-line solid phase extraction and flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigrist, Mirna; Albertengo, Antonela; Beldomenico, Horacio; Tudino, Mabel

    2011-01-01

    A simple and robust on-line sequential injection system based on solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to a flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HGAAS) with a heated quartz tube atomizer (QTA) was developed and optimized for the determination of As(III) in groundwater without any kind of sample pretreatment. The method was based on the selective retention of inorganic As(V) that was carried out by passing the filtered original sample through a cartridge containing a chloride-form strong anion exchanger. Thus the most toxic form, inorganic As(III), was determined fast and directly by AsH 3 generation using 3.5 mol L -1 HCl as carrier solution and 0.35% (m/v) NaBH 4 in 0.025% NaOH as the reductant. Since the uptake of As(V) should be interfered by several anions of natural occurrence in waters, the effect of Cl - , SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , HPO 4 2- , HCO 3 - on retention was evaluated and discussed. The total soluble inorganic arsenic concentration was determined on aliquots of filtered samples acidified with concentrated HCl and pre-reduced with 5% KI-5% C 6 H 8 O 6 solution. The concentration of As(V) was calculated by difference between the total soluble inorganic arsenic and As(III) concentrations. Detection limits (LODs) of 0.5 μg L -1 and 0.6 μg L -1 for As(III) and inorganic total As, respectively, were obtained for a 500 μL sample volume. The obtained limits of detection allowed testing the water quality according to the national and international regulations. The analytical recovery for water samples spiked with As(III) ranged between 98% and 106%. The sampling throughput for As(III) determination was 60 samples h -1 . The device for groundwater sampling was especially designed for the authors. Metallic components were avoided and the contact between the sample and the atmospheric oxygen was carried to a minimum. On-field arsenic species separation was performed through the employ of a serial connection of membrane filters and

  9. Assessment of Stirling engine potential in total and integrated energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciniak, T.J.; Bratis, J.C.; Davis, A.; Lee, C.

    1979-02-01

    The development of Stirling engines for stationary power applications in Total Energy Systems is attractive for two main reasons: high potential engine efficiency, and fuel flexibility especially in the use of coal and coal-derived fuels. Total Energy applications are unique in that they offer an option for using fuel energy most effectively on a local basis by recovering the rejected heat from electric power generation to meet thermal requirements within a community. These thermal requirements include space heating, cooling, and hot water service demands. The advantages and disadvantages of large Stirling engines in Total, or Integrated, Energy Systems are discussed and the performance and cost characteristics of such engines are analyzed and compared with the main competitors (diesel engines and gas turbines) for such applications. The comparisons are made through simplified and detailed systems analyses. Lastly, based on the systems studied and intercomparisons of competing technologies, the requirements for the development of a large Stirling engine are outlined along with a suggested developmental program. From this study it is clear that, given the attributes of the competing technologies involved, the main advantage of the Stirling engine lies in its ability to use fuels other than distillates. This attribute must be developed further in order to provide engine technologies which can burn abundant fuels such as coal or coal-derived fuels. Secondarily, the potentially high efficiency of Stirlings would be especially advantageous in applications where a high electrical-to-thermal-energy demand ratio exists.

  10. Passive compact molten salt reactor (PCMSR), modular thermal breeder reactor with totally passive safety system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harto, Andang Widi

    2012-06-01

    Design Study Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR) with totally passive safety system has been performed. The term of Compact in the PCMSR name means that the reactor system is designed to have relatively small volume per unit power output by using modular and integral concept. In term of modular, the reactor system consists of three modules, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. The reactor module is an integral design that consists of reactor, primary and intermediate heat exchangers and passive post shutdown cooling system. The turbine module is an integral design of a multi heating, multi cooling, regenerative gas turbine. The fuel management module consists of all equipments related to fuel preparation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive handling. The preliminary calculations show that the PCMSR has negative temperature and void reactivity coefficient, passive shutdown characteristic related to fuel pump failure and possibility of using natural circulation for post shutdown cooling system.

  11. Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoop, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    FLOW. Orden i hovedet på den fede måde Oplevelsesmæssigt er flow-tilstanden kendetegnet ved at man er fuldstændig involveret, fokuseret og koncentreret; at man oplever stor indre klarhed ved at vide hvad der skal gøres, og i hvilket omfang det lykkes; at man ved at det er muligt at løse opgaven...

  12. Dosimetric evaluation of total marrow irradiation using 2 different planning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalichowski, Adrian; Eagle, Don G.; Burmeister, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This study compared 2 different treatment planning systems (TPSs) for quality and efficiency of total marrow irradiation (TMI) plans. The TPSs used in this study were VOxel-Less Optimization (VoLO) (Accuray Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) using helical dose delivery on a Tomotherapy Hi-Art treatment unit and Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems Inc, Palo Alto, CA) using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) dose delivery on a Varian iX treatment unit. A total dose of 1200 cGy was prescribed to cover 95% of the planning target volume (PTV). The plans were optimized and calculated based on a single CT data and structure set using the Alderson Rando phantom (The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY) and physician contoured target and organ at risk (OAR) volumes. The OARs were lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, brain, and small bowel. The plans were evaluated based on plan quality, time to optimize the plan and calculate the dose, and beam on time. The resulting mean and maximum doses to the PTV were 1268 and 1465 cGy for VoLO and 1284 and 1541 cGy for Eclipse, respectively. For 5 of 6 OAR structures the VoLO system achieved lower mean and D10 doses ranging from 22% to 52% and 3% to 44%, respectively. Total computational time including only optimization and dose calculation were 0.9 hours for VoLO and 3.8 hours for Eclipse. These times do not include user-dependent target delineation and field setup. Both planning systems are capable of creating high-quality plans for total marrow irradiation. The VoLO planning system was able to achieve more uniform dose distribution throughout the target volume and steeper dose fall off, resulting in superior OAR sparing. VoLO's graphics processing unit (GPU)–based optimization and dose calculation algorithm also allowed much faster creation of TMI plans.

  13. Low-flow-storage solar system for domestic hot water; Low-flow Speicherkonzept fuer die solare Trinkwassererwaermung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leibfried, U. [CONSOLAR Energiespeicher- und Regelungssysteme GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Solar domestic hot water treatment relies on effective and insulated reservoirs to maximize solar efficiency. The article describes a newly developed low flow stratification tank. Key feature of this system is the spiral flow of the coolant in countermovement to the drinking water being heated. (orig.) [German] Bei der Solaren Trinkwassererwaermung ist der Einsatz effektiver Speichersysteme notwendig, um den solaren Ertrag zu maximieren. Im Bericht wird ein low-flow Speicherkonzept vorgestellt. Bei diesem System stroemt der vom Solarkollektor kommende Waermetraeger spiralfoermig von oben nach unten im Gegenstrom zu sich erwaermenden Trinkwasser. (orig.)

  14. TSPA 1991: An initial total-system performance assessment for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.W.; Wilson, M.L.; Dockery, H.A.; Kaplan, P.G.; Eaton, R.R.; Bingham, F.W.; Gauthier, J.H.; Robey, T.H.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes an assessment of the long-term performance of a repository system that contains deeply buried highly radioactive waste; the system is assumed to be located at the potential site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The study includes an identification of features, events, and processes that might affect the potential repository, a construction of scenarios based on this identification, a selection of models describing these scenarios (including abstraction of appropriate models from detailed models), a selection of probability distributions for the parameters in the models, a stochastic calculation of radionuclide releases for the scenarios, and a derivation of complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) for the releases. Releases and CCDFs are calculated for four categories of scenarios: aqueous flow (modeling primarily the existing conditions at the site, with allowances for climate change), gaseous flow, basaltic igneous activity, and human intrusion. The study shows that models of complex processes can be abstracted into more simplified representations that preserve the understanding of the processes and produce results consistent with those of more complex models

  15. Total picture archiving communication system for medical use at medium-sized hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabata, Shun; Goto, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Kazumi; Okaniwa, Hiroshi.

    1991-01-01

    An increasingly widespread use of diagnostic imaging systems has seen a concomitant rise in the number of medical images. Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) allows filmless storage by digitizing images to record and store into the optical disk, and allows the rapid data retrieval and transmission. It is anticipated that PACS may be a promising approach to the medical routine practice. In January 1991, Hitachi PACS was introduced in Tokyo Hitachi Hospital. In this paper, the experience with PACS in the clinical setting is presented. The process of improvement in PACS is given in terms of the following: the flow of images, image deletion in the image workstation, and the number of sequential images to be observed. (N.K.)

  16. Preoxygenation with the Mapleson D system requires higher oxygen flows than Mapleson A or circle systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Samar; El-Khatib, Mohamad; Siddik-Sayyid, Sahar; Dagher, Carla; Chehade, Jules-Marie; Baraka, Anis

    2007-02-01

    This study investigates the efficacy of preoxygenation with Mapleson A and Mapleson D breathing systems vs the circle system with CO2 absorber. Thirteen healthy volunteers underwent tidal volume breathing for three minutes via facemask using Mapleson A, Mapleson D breathing systems or the circle system with CO2 absorber while breathing 100% O2 at flow rates of 5 L.min-1 and 10 L.min-1. Each volunteer acted as his/her own control by going through each of six preoxygenation protocols in random order. Fractional end-tidal O2 concentration (FETO2) was measured at 30-sec intervals. The results were compared among the three anesthesia systems at the two fresh gas flow rates. At a fresh gas flow rate of 5 L.min-1, the Mapleson A and circle systems achieved F(ETO2) values of 90.8+/-1.4% and 90.0+/-1.1%, respectively, compared with the lower F(ETO2) (81.5+/-6.3%, PMapleson D system. When breathing O2 at 10 L.min-1, the F(ETO2) values after three minutes were similar with the Mapleson A, circle, and Mapleson D breathing systems (91.8+/-2.3%, 91.2+/-1.7%, 90.6+/-2.7%, respectively). When using the Mapleson A and the circle systems for preoxygenation, an oxygen flow rate of 5 L.min-1 can adequately preoxygenate the patient within three minutes, while an oxygen flow of 10 L.min-1 is required to achieve a similar fractional end-tidal O2 concentration with the Mapleson D system.

  17. Do autologous blood transfusion systems reduce allogeneic blood transfusion in total knee arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawaskar, Aditya; Salunke, Abhijeet Ashok; Kekatpure, Aashay; Chen, Yongsheng; Nambi, G I; Tan, Junhao; Sonawane, Dhiraj; Pathak, Subodhkumar

    2017-09-01

    To study whether autologus blood transfusion systems reduce the requirement of allogneic blood transfusion in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. A comprehensive search of the published literature with PubMed, Scopus and Science direct database was performed. The following search terms were used: (total knee replacement) OR (total knee arthroplasty) OR (TKA) AND (blood transfusion) OR (autologous transfusion) OR (autologous transfusion system). Using search syntax, a total of 748 search results were obtained (79 from PubMed, 586 from Science direct and 83 from Scopus). Twenty-one randomized control trials were included for this meta-analysis. The allogenic transfusion rate in autologus blood transfusion (study) group was significantly lower than the control group (28.4 and 53.5 %, respectively) (p value 0.0001, Relative risk: 0.5). The median units of allogenic blood transfused in study control group and control group were 0.1 (0.1-3.0) and 1.3 (0.3-2.6), respectively. The median hospital stay in study group was 9 (6.7-15.6) days and control group was 8.7 (6.6-16.7) days. The median cost incurred for blood transfusion per patient in study and control groups was 175 (85.7-260) and 254.7 (235-300) euros, respectively. This meta-analysis demonstrates that the use of auto-transfusion systems is a cost-effective method to reduce the need for and quantity of allogenic transfusion in elective total knee arthroplasty. Level I.

  18. Nematodes as a source of total coliforms in a distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locas, Annie; Barbeau, Benoit; Gauthier, Vincent

    2007-05-01

    In a distribution system of a large North American city, recurring total coliforms and atypical coliforms were detected at the exit (distribution pumps) of a storage reservoir. The presence of total coliforms and atypical coliforms was noted when the pumps were in operation and the water temperature was higher than 18 degrees C. The total coliform and atypical coliform concentrations at the volute pump casings ranged from 0 to 93.5 colony forming units (cfu)/100 mL. Significant concentrations of nematodes were also detected at this sampling location, averaging 12.0 nematodes/L in 2001 and 17.4 nematodes/L in 2002. The hypothesis that coliforms were released from the nematodes during their transit through the high-pressure pump was tested by recovering nematodes by filtering large volumes of water and grinding the nematodes in the laboratory, using various techniques. Total coliform and heterotrophic bacteria concentrations ranged from 0 to 27 cfu/nematode and 0 to 643 cfu/nematode, respectively. The origin of the nematodes was traced back to the sand filters located at the two water treatment plants. The importance of invertebrates in the distribution system should not be dismissed and the associated health risks, if any, should be assessed.

  19. Effects of diffusion on total biomass in heterogeneous continuous and discrete-patch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Don; Ming Ni, Wei; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical models of populations on a system of two connected patches previously have shown that when the two patches differ in maximum growth rate and carrying capacity, and in the limit of high diffusion, conditions exist for which the total population size at equilibrium exceeds that of the ideal free distribution, which predicts that the total population would equal the total carrying capacity of the two patches. However, this result has only been shown for the Pearl-Verhulst growth function on two patches and for a single-parameter growth function in continuous space. Here, we provide a general criterion for total population size to exceed total carrying capacity for three commonly used population growth rates for both heterogeneous continuous and multi-patch heterogeneous landscapes with high population diffusion. We show that a sufficient condition for this situation is that there is a convex positive relationship between the maximum growth rate and the parameter that, by itself or together with the maximum growth rate, determines the carrying capacity, as both vary across a spatial region. This relationship occurs in some biological populations, though not in others, so the result has ecological implications.

  20. Tool integration and interoperability challenges of a system-level design flow: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pimentel, A.D.; Stefanov, T.; Nikolov, H.; Thompson, M.; Polstra, S.; Deprettere, E.F.

    2008-01-01

    Daedalus is a system-level design flow for the design of multiprocessor system-on-chip (MP-SoC) based embedded multimedia systems. It offers a fully integrated tool-flow in which design exploration, system-level synthesis, application mapping, and system prototyping of MP-SoC architectures are

  1. Flow measurement in two-phase (gas-liquid) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt, G.F.; Whalley, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    The main methods of measuring mass flow and quality in gas-liquid flows in industrial situations are reviewed. These include gamma densitometry coupled with differential pressure devices such as crifice plates, turbine flow meters and drag screens. For each method the principle of operation, and the advantages and disadvantages, are given. Some further techniques which are currently being investigated and developed for routine use are also described briefly. Finally the detailed flow measurements possible on a particular flow pattern - annular flow - is examined. (author)

  2. Network Flow Simulation of Fluid Transients in Rocket Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Alak; Hamill, Brian; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Majumdar, Alok

    2011-01-01

    Fluid transients, also known as water hammer, can have a significant impact on the design and operation of both spacecraft and launch vehicle propulsion systems. These transients often occur at system activation and shutdown. The pressure rise due to sudden opening and closing of valves of propulsion feed lines can cause serious damage during activation and shutdown of propulsion systems. During activation (valve opening) and shutdown (valve closing), pressure surges must be predicted accurately to ensure structural integrity of the propulsion system fluid network. In the current work, a network flow simulation software (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) based on Finite Volume Method has been used to predict the pressure surges in the feed line due to both valve closing and valve opening using two separate geometrical configurations. The valve opening pressure surge results are compared with experimental data available in the literature and the numerical results compared very well within reasonable accuracy (< 5%) for a wide range of inlet-to-initial pressure ratios. A Fast Fourier Transform is preformed on the pressure oscillations to predict the various modal frequencies of the pressure wave. The shutdown problem, i.e. valve closing problem, the simulation results are compared with the results of Method of Characteristics. Most rocket engines experience a longitudinal acceleration, known as "pogo" during the later stage of engine burn. In the shutdown example problem, an accumulator has been used in the feed system to demonstrate the "pogo" mitigation effects in the feed system of propellant. The simulation results using GFSSP compared very well with the results of Method of Characteristics.

  3. Flow-system analysis of exfoliated pulmonary cells: results of initial characterization studies in hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinkamp, J.A.; Hansen, K.M.; Wilson, J.S.; Salzman, G.C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper summarizes results of preliminary experiments to develop cytological and biochemical indicators for estimating damage to respiratory cells in test animals exposed by inhalation to toxic agents associated with nonnuclear energy production, the specific goal being the application of advanced multiparameter flow-systems technologies to the detection of early atypical cellular changes in lung epithelium. Normal Syrian hamster lung cell samples composed of histiocytes, leukocytes, macrophages, ciliated columnar cells, and epithelial cells were stained with fluorescent dyes specific for different biochemical parameters and were analyzed in liquid suspension as they flowed through a chamber intersecting a laser beam of exciting light. Multiple sensors measured the total or two-color fluorescence and light scatter on a cell-by-cell basis. Cellular parameters proportional to optical measurements (i.e., cell size, DNA content, total protein, nonspecific esterase activity, nuclear and cytoplasmic diameters) were displayed as frequency distribution histograms. Lung cell samples were also separated according to various cytological parameters and identified microscopically. The basic operating features of the methodology are discussed briefly, along with specific examples of preliminary results illustrating the initial characterization of exfoliated pulmonary cells from normal hamsters. As the flow technology is adapted further to the analysis of respiratory cells, measurements of changes in physical and biochemical properties as a function of exposure to toxic agents will be performed.

  4. Multicommutated flow analysis system for determination of creatinine in physiological fluids by Jaffe method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymecki, Łukasz; Korszun, Jakub; Strzelak, Kamil; Koncki, Robert

    2013-07-17

    For the needs of photometric determination of creatinine according to Jaffe protocol a dedicated paired emitter detector diode (PEDD) detector has been developed. This PEDD device has been constructed in the compact form of flow-through cell (30 μL total volume and 7 mm optical pathlength) integrated with 505 nm LED-based emitter and 525 nm LED-based detector compatible with multicommutated flow analysis (MCFA) system. This fully mechanized MCFA system configured of microsolenoid valves and pumps is operating under microprocessor control. The developed analytical system offers determination of creatinine in the submillimolar range of concentrations with detection limit at ppm level. The throughput offered by the system operating according to multi-point fixed-time procedure for kinetic measurements is 15-40 samples per hour depending on the mode of measurements. The developed PEDD-based MCFA system has been successfully applied for the determination of creatinine in real samples of human urine as well as serum. The developed sampling unit used the system is free from effects caused by differences in sample viscosity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Material Flow Analysis as a Tool to improve Waste Management Systems: The Case of Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesch, Astrid; Brunner, Paul H

    2017-01-03

    This paper demonstrates the power of material flow analysis (MFA) for designing waste management (WM) systems and for supporting decisions with regards to given environmental and resource goals. Based on a comprehensive case study of a nationwide WM-system, advantages and drawbacks of a mass balance approach are discussed. Using the software STAN, a material flow system comprising all relevant inputs, stocks and outputs of wastes, products, residues, and emissions is established and quantified. Material balances on the level of goods and selected substances (C, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, N, Ni, P, Pb, Zn) are developed to characterize this WM-system. The MFA results serve well as a base for further assessments. Based on given goals, stakeholders engaged in this study selected the following seven criteria for evaluating their WM-system: (i) waste input into the system, (ii) export of waste (iii) gaseous emissions from waste treatment plants, (iv) long-term gaseous and liquid emissions from landfills, (v) waste being recycled, (vi) waste for energy recovery, (vii) total waste landfilled. By scenario analysis, strengths and weaknesses of different measures were identified. The results reveal the benefits of a mass balance approach due to redundancy, data consistency, and transparency for optimization, design, and decision making in WM.

  6. Trends in Flow-based Biosensing Systems for Pesticide Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Marty

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This review gives a survey on the state of the art of pesticide detection usingflow-based biosensing systems for sample screening. Although immunosensor systems havebeen proposed as powerful pesticide monitoring tools, this review is mainly focused onenzyme-based biosensors, as they are the most commonly employed when using a flowsystem. Among the different detection methods able to be integrated into flow-injectionanalysis (FIA systems, the electrochemical ones will be treated in more detail, due to theirhigh sensitivity, simple sample pretreatment, easy operational procedures and real-timedetection. During the last decade, new trends have been emerging in order to increase theenzyme stability, the sensitivity and selectivity of the measurements, and to lower thedetection limits. These approaches are based on (i the design of novel matrices for enzymeimmobilisation, (ii new manifold configurations of the FIA system, sometimes includingminiaturisation or lab-on-chip protocols thanks to micromachining technology, (iii the useof cholinesterase enzymes either from various commercial sources or genetically modifiedwith the aim of being more sensitive, (iv the incorporation of other highly specificenzymes, such as organophosphate hydrolase (OPH or parathion hydrolase (PH and (v thecombination of different electrochemical methods of detection. This article discusses thesenovel strategies and their advantages and limitations.

  7. Electromagnetic Coupling of Ocean Flow with the Earth System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tyler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocean is electromagnetically coupled with the Earth System. This results in momentum transfer, as well as a participation by the ocean in the _ observable electric and magnetic fields. The coupling is typically quite weak and quantitative analyses indicate that many of these connections may be discounted when considering the transfer of momentum. But because of systematic effects there are also cases where an immediate discount is not justified and electromagnetic transfer of ocean momentum should remain within the realm of consideration. For practical considerations, even if the coupling is weak these effects are phenomenologically important because the electric and magnetic fields associated with this coupling offer an observational means for inferring the ocean flow. While in situ measurements of the electric field have long been used to measure ocean transport, new opportunities for remote sensing ocean flow through ground and space magnetic observatories are now being considered. In this article a brief update of the status of these observational methods is given. Extending beyond these established elements of the _ electromagnetic involvement, an attempt is made to provide a quantitative discussion of lesser considered elements of the _ electromagnetic coupling with the mantle and fluid core.

  8. iFLOOD: A Real Time Flood Forecast System for Total Water Modeling in the National Capital Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, S. J.; Ferreira, C.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme flood events are the costliest natural hazards impacting the US and frequently cause extensive damages to infrastructure, disruption to economy and loss of lives. In 2016, Hurricane Matthew brought severe damage to South Carolina and demonstrated the importance of accurate flood hazard predictions that requires the integration of riverine and coastal model forecasts for total water prediction in coastal and tidal areas. The National Weather Service (NWS) and the National Ocean Service (NOS) provide flood forecasts for almost the entire US, still there are service-gap areas in tidal regions where no official flood forecast is available. The National capital region is vulnerable to multi-flood hazards including high flows from annual inland precipitation events and surge driven coastal inundation along the tidal Potomac River. Predicting flood levels on such tidal areas in river-estuarine zone is extremely challenging. The main objective of this study is to develop the next generation of flood forecast systems capable of providing accurate and timely information to support emergency management and response in areas impacted by multi-flood hazards. This forecast system is capable of simulating flood levels in the Potomac and Anacostia River incorporating the effects of riverine flooding from the upstream basins, urban storm water and tidal oscillations from the Chesapeake Bay. Flood forecast models developed so far have been using riverine data to simulate water levels for Potomac River. Therefore, the idea is to use forecasted storm surge data from a coastal model as boundary condition of this system. Final output of this validated model will capture the water behavior in river-estuary transition zone far better than the one with riverine data only. The challenge for this iFLOOD forecast system is to understand the complex dynamics of multi-flood hazards caused by storm surges, riverine flow, tidal oscillation and urban storm water. Automated system

  9. The influence of ocean conditions on two-phase flow instability in a parallel multi-channel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun Guo; Qiu, S.Z.; Su, G.H.; Jia, D.N.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the two-phase flow instability between multi-channels (FIBM) operating under ocean conditions is studied theoretically. The physical and mathematical model of the multi-channel system which is based on Lee and Pan [Lee, J.D., Pan, C., 1999. Dynamics of multiple parallel boiling channel systems with forced flows. Nuclear Engineering and Design 192, 31-44], is extended to analyze the influence of ocean conditions. The influence of ocean conditions on the FIBM is analyzed, particularly with respect to the periodic total mass flow rate and rolling motion. Furthermore, the instability oscillation trajectories of the multi-channel system are obtained on the phase plane of the inlet velocity and boiling boundary. Some of the trajectories show chaotic characteristic. The instability zone of a nine-channel system under rolling motion is then obtained

  10. Application of Viral Systems for Single-Machine Total Weighted Tardiness Problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosa, Budi; Affandi, Umar

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a relatively new algorithm inspired by the viral replication system called Viral Systems is used to solve the Single-Machine Total Weighted Tardiness (SMTWTP). SMTWTP is a job scheduling problem which is one of classical combinatorial problems known as np-hard problems. This algorithm makes the process of finding solutions through neighborhood and mutation mechanism. The experiment was conducted to evaluate its performance. There are seven parameters which are required to tune in to find best solution. The experiment was implemented on data sets of 40 jobs, 50 jobs, and 100 jobs. The results show that the algorithm can solve 235 optimally out of 275 problems.

  11. Innovative light collimator with afocal lens and total internal reflection lens for daylighting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo-Jian; Chen, Yin-Ti; Ullah, Irfan; Chou, Chun-Han; Chan, Kai-Cyuan; Lai, Yi-Lung; Lin, Chia-Ming; Chang, Cheng-Ming; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei

    2015-10-01

    This research presents a novel design of the collimator, which uses total internal reflection (TIR), convex, and concave lenses for the natural light illumination system (NLIS). The concept of the NLIS is to illuminate building interiors with natural light, which saves energy consumption. The TIR lens is used to collimate the light, and convex and concave lenses are used to converge the light to the required area. The results have shown that the efficiency in terms of achieving collimated light using the proposed collimator at the output of the light collector is better than that of a previous system without a collimator.

  12. Anesthetic implications of total anomalous systemic venous connection to left atrium with left isomerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parimala Prasanna Simha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Total anomalous systemic venous connection (TASVC to the left atrium (LA is a rare congenital anomaly. An 11-year-old girl presented with complaints of palpitations and cyanosis. TASVC with left isomerism and noncompaction of LV was diagnosed after contrast echocardiogram and computed tomography angiogram. The knowledge of anatomy and pathophysiology is essential for the successful management of these cases. Anesthetic concerns in this case were polycythemia, paradoxical embolism and rhythm abnormalities. The patient was successfully operated by rerouting the systemic venous connection to the right atrium.

  13. Numerical Simulation of the Multiphase Flow in the Rheinsahl-Heraeus (RH) System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Dian-Qiao; Lei, Hong; He, Ji-Cheng

    2010-02-01

    Knowledge of gas-liquid multiphase flow behavior in the Rheinsahl-Heraeus (RH) system is of great significance to clarify the circulation flow rate, decarburization, and inclusion removal with a reliable description. Thus, based on the separate model of injecting gas behavior, a novel mathematical model of multiphase flow has been developed to give the distribution of gas holdup in the RH system. The numerical results show that the predicted circulation flow rates, the predicted flow velocities, and the predicted mixing times agree with the measured results in a water model and that the predicted tracer concentration curve agrees with the results obtained in an actual RH system. With a lower lifting gas flow rate, the rising gas bubbles are concentrated near the wall; with a higher lifting gas flow rate, gas bubbles can reach the center of the up-snorkel. A critical lifting gas flow rate is used to obtain the maximum circulation flow rate.

  14. Development and calibration of an accurate 6-degree-of-freedom measurement system with total station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yang; Lin, Jiarui; Yang, Linghui; Zhu, Jigui

    2016-01-01

    To meet the demand of high-accuracy, long-range and portable use in large-scale metrology for pose measurement, this paper develops a 6-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) measurement system based on total station by utilizing its advantages of long range and relative high accuracy. The cooperative target sensor, which is mainly composed of a pinhole prism, an industrial lens, a camera and a biaxial inclinometer, is designed to be portable in use. Subsequently, a precise mathematical model is proposed from the input variables observed by total station, imaging system and inclinometer to the output six pose variables. The model must be calibrated in two levels: the intrinsic parameters of imaging system, and the rotation matrix between coordinate systems of the camera and the inclinometer. Then corresponding approaches are presented. For the first level, we introduce a precise two-axis rotary table as a calibration reference. And for the second level, we propose a calibration method by varying the pose of a rigid body with the target sensor and a reference prism on it. Finally, through simulations and various experiments, the feasibilities of the measurement model and calibration methods are validated, and the measurement accuracy of the system is evaluated. (paper)

  15. Data Analysis of Occupational Health and Safety Management and Total Quality Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yakut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study, Total Quality Management, Occupational Health and Safety on the effects of the construction industry, building sites of Istanbul evaluated with the results of the survey of 25 firms. For Occupational Health and Safety program, walked healthy, active employees in her role increased and will increase the importance of education. Due to non-implementation of the OHS system in our country enough, work-related accidents and deaths and injuries resulting from these accidents is very high. Firms as a result of the analysis, an effective health and safety management system needs to be able to fulfill their responsibilities. This system is designated as OHSAS 18001 Occupational Health and Safety Management System and the construction industry can be regarded as the imperatives.

  16. Investigation of hydrate formation and transportability in multiphase flow systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Giovanny A.

    The oil and gas industry is moving towards offshore developments in more challenging environments, where evaluating hydrate plugging risks to avoid operational/safety hazards becomes more difficult (Sloan, 2005). Even though mechanistic models for hydrate plug formation have been developed, components for a full comprehensive model are still missing. Prior to this work, research efforts were focused on flowing hydrate particles with relatively little research on hydrate accumulation, leaving hydrate deposition in multiphase flow an unexplored subject. The focus of this thesis was to better understand hydrate deposition as a form of accumu- lation in pipelines. To incorporate the multiphase flow effect, hydrate formation experiments were carried out at varying water cut (WC) from 15 to 100 vol.%, liquid loading (LL) from 50 to 85 vol.%, mixture velocity (vmix) from 0.75 to 3 m/s, for three fluids systems (100 % WC, water in Conroe crude oil emulsions and King Ranch condensate + water) on the ExxonMobil flowloop (4 in. nominal size and 314 ft. long) at Friendswood, TX. For the 100 % WC flowloop tests, hydrate particle distribution transitions beyond a critical hydrate volume concentration, observed values were between 8.2 to 29.4 vol.%, causing a sudden increase in pressure drop (DP). A revised correlation of the transition as a function of Reynolds number and liquid loading was developed. For Conroe emulsions, DP starts increasing at higher hydrate concentrations than King Ranch condensate, many times at 10 vol.%. Experiments with King Ranch show higher relative DP (10 to 25) than Conroe (2 to 10) performed at the same vmix and LL. Cohesive force measurements between cyclopentane hydrate particles were reduced from a value of 3.32 mN/m to 1.26 mN/m when 6 wt.% Conroe was used and to 0.41 mN/m when 5 wt.% Caratinga crude oil was used; similar values were obtained when extracted asphaltenes were used. King Ranch condensate (11 wt.%) did not significantly change the

  17. Antibacterial Activity of Commercial Dentine Bonding Systems against E. faecalis–Flow Cytometry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Lukomska-Szymanska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Literature presents inconsistent results on the antibacterial activity of dentine bonding systems (DBS. Antibacterial activity of adhesive systems depends on several factors, including composition and acidity. Flow cytometry is a novel detection method to measure multiple characteristics of a single cell: total cell number, structural (size, shape, and functional parameters (viability, cell cycle. The LIVE/DEAD® BacLightTM bacterial viability assay was used to evaluate an antibacterial activity of DBS by assessing physical membrane disruption of bacteria mediated by DBS. Ten commercial DBSs: four total-etching (TE, four self-etching (SE and two selective enamel etching (SEE were tested. Both total-etching DBS ExciTE F and OptiBond Solo Plus showed comparatively low antibacterial activity against E. faecalis. The lowest activity of all tested TE systems showed Te-Econom Bond. Among SE DBS, G-ænial Bond (92.24% dead cells followed by Clearfil S3 Bond Plus (88.02% and Panavia F 2.0 ED Primer II (86.67% showed the highest antibacterial activity against E. faecalis, which was comparable to isopropranol (positive control. In the present study, self-etching DBS exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than tested total-etching adhesives against E. faecalis.

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Commercial Dentine Bonding Systems against E. faecalis-Flow Cytometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukomska-Szymanska, Monika; Konieczka, Magdalena; Zarzycka, Beata; Lapinska, Barbara; Grzegorczyk, Janina; Sokolowski, Jerzy

    2017-04-29

    Literature presents inconsistent results on the antibacterial activity of dentine bonding systems (DBS). Antibacterial activity of adhesive systems depends on several factors, including composition and acidity. Flow cytometry is a novel detection method to measure multiple characteristics of a single cell: total cell number, structural (size, shape), and functional parameters (viability, cell cycle). The LIVE/DEAD® BacLightTM bacterial viability assay was used to evaluate an antibacterial activity of DBS by assessing physical membrane disruption of bacteria mediated by DBS. Ten commercial DBSs: four total-etching (TE), four self-etching (SE) and two selective enamel etching (SEE) were tested. Both total-etching DBS ExciTE F and OptiBond Solo Plus showed comparatively low antibacterial activity against E. faecalis. The lowest activity of all tested TE systems showed Te-Econom Bond. Among SE DBS, G-ænial Bond (92.24% dead cells) followed by Clearfil S3 Bond Plus (88.02%) and Panavia F 2.0 ED Primer II (86.67%) showed the highest antibacterial activity against E. faecalis, which was comparable to isopropranol (positive control). In the present study, self-etching DBS exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than tested total-etching adhesives against E. faecalis.

  19. Two-phase flow heat transfer in nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncar, Bostjan; Krepper, Eckhard; Bestion, Dominique; Song, Chul-Hwa; Hassan, Yassin A.

    2013-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: Heat transfer and phase change phenomena in two-phase flows are often encountered in nuclear reactor systems and are therefore of paramount importance for their optimal design and safe operation.The complex phenomena observed especially during transient operation of nuclear reactor systems necessitate extensive theoretical and experimental investigations. This special issue brings seven research articles of high quality. Though small in number, they cover a wide range of topics, presenting high complexity and diversity of heat transfer phenomena in two-phase flow. In the last decades a vast amount of research has been devoted to theoretical work and computational simulations, yet the experimental work remains indispensable for understanding of two-phase flow phenomena and for model validation purposes. This is reflected also in this issue, where only one article is purely experimental, while three of them deal with theoretical modelling and the remaining three with numerical simulations. The experimental investigation of the critical heat flux (CHF) phenomena by means of photographic study is presented in the paper of J. Park et al. They have used a high-speed camera system to observe the transient boiling characteristics on a thin horizontal cylinder submerged in a pool of water or highly wetting liquid. Experiments show that the initial boiling process is strongly affected by the properties and wettability of the liquid. The authors have stressed the importance of the local scale observation leading to better understanding of the transient CHF phenomena. In the article of G. Espinosa-Paredes et al. a theoretical work concerning the derivation of transport equations for two-phase flow is presented. The author proposes a novel approach based on derivation of nonlocal volume averaged equations which contain new terms related to nonlocal transport effects. These non-local terms act as coupling elements between the phenomena

  20. High performance in low-flow solar domestic hot water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayan, M.

    1997-12-31

    Low-flow solar hot water heating systems employ flow rates on the order of 1/5 to 1/10 of the conventional flow. Low-flow systems are of interest because the reduced flow rate allows smaller diameter tubing, which is less costly to install. Further, low-flow systems result in increased tank stratification. Lower collector inlet temperatures are achieved through stratification and the useful energy produced by the collector is increased. The disadvantage of low-flow systems is the collector heat removal factor decreases with decreasing flow rate. Many solar domestic hot water systems require an auxiliary electric source to operate a pump in order to circulate fluid through the solar collector. A photovoltaic driven pump can be used to replace the standard electrical pump. PV driven pumps provide an ideal means of controlling the flow rate, as pumps will only circulate fluid when there is sufficient radiation. Peak performance was always found to occur when the heat exchanger tank-side flow rate was approximately equal to the average load flow rate. For low collector-side flow rates, a small deviation from the optimum flow rate will dramatically effect system performance.

  1. Digital Blood Flow In Systemic Lupus Erythematosus By Photoplethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sanjay

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital vascular status in 10 patients of systemic lupus erythematous (SLE suffering for 1 to 5 years and 5 control (normal subjects was assessed by a highly sensitive, non-invasive technique called photoplethysmography (PPG. Six patients (Group A showed clinical sign. PPG recordings were done by applying the PPG probe serially to the distal phalanges of all the digits of four limbs with Velcro-strap at an ambient temperature of 27 to 31C and humidity 60 to 65% Diminished capillary flow. On average, 12 digits (60% in Group A and 8 digits (40% in group B patients showed reduced blood circulation. Degree of vascular impairment had no bearing upon the duration of the disease. The PPG has objectively shown digital vascular impairment in all SLE patients having no correlation with the extent of clinical manifestations and the duration of the disease.

  2. Methodology Used for Total System Performance Assessment of the Potential Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain (USA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Devibec; S.D. Sevougian; P.D. Mattie; J.A. McNeish; S. Mishra

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors are currently evaluating a site in Nevada (Yucca Mountain) for disposal of high-level radioactive waste from U.S. commercial nuclear plants and U.S. government-owned facilities. The suitability of the potential geologic repository is assessed, based on its performance in isolating the nuclear waste from the environment. Experimental data and models representing the natural and engineered barriers are combined into a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) model [1]. Process models included in the TSPA model are unsaturated zone flow and transport, thermal hydrology, in-drift geochemistry, waste package degradation, waste form degradation, engineered barrier system transport, saturated zone flow and transport, and biosphere transport. Because of the uncertainty in the current data and in the future evolution of the total system, simulations follow a probabilistic approach. Multiple realization simulations using Monte Carlo analysis are conducted over time periods of up to one million years, which estimates a range of possible behaviors of the repository. The environmental impact is measured primarily by the annual dose received by an average member of a critical population group residing 20 km down-gradient of the potential repository. In addition to the nominal scenario, other exposure scenarios include the possibility of disruptive events such as volcanic eruption or intrusion, or accidental human intrusion. Sensitivity to key uncertain processes is analyzed. The influence of stochastic variables on the TSPA model output is assessed by ''uncertainty importance analysis'', e.g., regression analysis and classification tree analysis. Further investigation of the impact of parameters and assumptions is conducted through ''one-off analysis'', which consists in fixing a parameter at a particular value, using an alternative conceptual model, or in making a different assumption. Finally, robustness analysis evaluates

  3. Integrated cantilever-based flow sensors with tunable sensitivity for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noeth, Nadine-Nicole; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2014-01-01

    For devices such as bio-/chemical sensors in microfluidic systems, flow fluctuations result in noise in the sensor output. Here, we demonstrate in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations with a cantilever-like sensor integrated in a microfluidic channel. The cantilevers are fabricated in different...... materials (SU-8 and SiN) and with different thicknesses. The integration of arrays of holes with different hole size and number of holes allows the modification of device sensitivity, theoretical detection limit and measurement range. For an average flow in the microliter range, the cantilever deflection...... is directly proportional to the flow rate fluctuations in the microfluidic channel. The SiN cantilevers show a detection limit below 1 nL/min and the thinnest SU-8 cantilevers a detection limit below 5 nL/min. Finally, the sensor is applied for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations generated by external...

  4. Flow-Angle and Airspeed Sensor System (FASS) Using Flush-Mounted Hot-Films Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Micron-thin surface hot-film signatures will be used to simultaneously obtain airspeed and flow direction. The flow-angle and airspeed sensor system (FASS) will...

  5. Multi-Use Non-Intrusive Flow Characterization System (FCS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a Multi-Use Non-Intrusive Flow Characterization System (FCS) for densified, normal boiling point, and two-phase cryogenic flows, capable of...

  6. Steady hydromagnetic Couette flow in a rotating system with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with non-conducting walls is studied. Exact solution of the governing equations is obtained in closed form. Expressions for the shear stress at the lower and upper plates due to primary and secondary flows and mass flow rates in primary and secondary flow directions are also derived. Asymptotic behavior of the solution for ...

  7. Analysis of cell flow and cell loss following X-irradiation using sequential investigation of the total number of cells in the various parts of the cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skog, S.; Tribukait, B.

    1985-01-01

    The cell flow and cell loss of an in vivo growing Ehrlich ascites tumour were calculated by sequential estimation of changes in total number of cells in the cell cycle compartments. Normal growth was compared with the grossly disturbed cell flow evident after a 5 Gy X-irradiation. The doubling time of normal, exponentially growing cells was 24 hr. The generation time was 21 hr and the potential doubling time was 21 hr. Thus, the growth fraction was 1.0 and the cell loss rate about 0.5%/hr. Following irradiation, a transiently increased relative outflow rate from all cell cycle compartments was found at about 3 and 40 hr, and from S phase at 24 hr after irradiation. Increase in cell loss as well as non-viable cells was observed at 24 hr after irradiation at the time of release of the irradiation-induced G 2 blockage. The experiments show the applicability and limitations of cell flow and cell loss calculations by sequential analysis of the total number of cells in the various parts of the cell cycle. (author)

  8. The ATLAS Data Flow system for the Second LHC Run

    CERN Document Server

    Hauser, Reiner; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    After its first shutdown, LHC will provide pp collisions with increased luminosity and energy. In the ATLAS experiment the Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system has been upgraded to deal with the increased event rates. The Data Flow (DF) element of the TDAQ is a distributed hardware and software system responsible for buffering and transporting event data from the Readout system to the High Level Trigger (HLT) and to the event storage. The DF has been reshaped in order to profit from the technological progress and to maximize the flexibility and efficiency of the data selection process. The updated DF is radically different from the previous implementation both in terms of architecture and expected performance. The pre-existing two level software filtering, known as L2 and the Event Filter, and the Event Building are now merged into a single process, performing incremental data collection and analysis. This design has many advantages, among which are: the radical simplification of the architecture, the f...

  9. Overall Ventilation System Flow Network Calculation for Site Recommendation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhoff, Jeff J.

    2001-01-01

    The scope of this calculation is to determine ventilation system resistances, pressure drops, airflows, and operating cost estimates for the Site Recommendation (SR) design as detailed in the ''Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout'' (BSC (Bechtel SAIC Company) 2001a). The statutory limit for emplacement of waste in Yucca Mountain is 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU) and is considered the base case for this report. The objective is to determine the overall repository system ventilation flow network for the monitoring phase during normal operations and to provide a basis for the system description document design descriptions. Any values derived from this calculation will not be used to support construction, fabrication, or procurement. The work scope is identified in the ''Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY01 Work Activities'' (CRWMS M and O 2001, pp. 6 and 13). In accordance with the technical work plan this calculation was prepared in accordance with AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'' and other procedures invoked by AP-3.12Q. It also incorporates the procedure AP-SI1.Q, ''Software Management''

  10. [Effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase, total protein, salivary flow rate and pH value in Pi deficiency children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ze-min; Chen, Long-hui; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Min; Yang, Xiao-rong; Chen, Wei-wen

    2015-02-01

    To compare the effect of citric acid stimulation on salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), total protein (TP), salivary flow rate, and pH value between Pi deficiency (PD) children and healthy children, thereby providing evidence for Pi controlling saliva theory. Twenty PD children were recruited, and 29 healthy children were also recruited at the same time. Saliva samples from all subjects were collected before and after citric acid stimulation. The sAA activity and amount, TP contents, salivary flow rate, and pH value were determined and compared. (1) Citric acid stimulation was able to significantly increase salivary flow rate, pH value, sAA activities, sAA specific activity and sAA amount (including glycosylated and non-glycosylated sAA amount) in healthy children (Pvalue, and glycosylated sAA levels in PD children (P0.05), salivary indices except salivary flow rate and glycosylated sAA levels decreased more in PD children. There was statistical difference in sAA activity ratio, sAA specific activity ratio, and the ratio of glycosylated sAA levels between PD children and healthy children (P<0.05). PD children had decreased response to citric acid stimulation.

  11. String-like lumen in below-the-knee chronic total occlusions on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography predicts intraluminal recanalization and better blood flow restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yue-Qi; Lu, Hai-Tao; Wei, Li-Ming; Cheng, Ying-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Bo; Zhao, Jun-Gong [Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Shanghai (China); Liu, Fang [Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai (China)

    2017-07-15

    To determine whether string-like lumina (SLs) on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) predict better outcomes in diabetic patients with below-the-knee (BTK) chronic total occlusions (CTOs). This study involved 317 long-segment (>5 cm) BTK CTOs of 245 patients that were examined using CE-MRA and treated using endovascular angioplasty. An SL with a CTO was slowly filled with blood on conventional CE-MRA. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of procedural success, recanalisation method and immediate blood flow restoration. The target-lesion patency and limb-salvage rates were assessed. SL-positive CTOs (n = 60) achieved a higher technique success rate, preferred intraluminal angioplasty and better blood flow restoration than SL-negative CTOs (n = 257, P < 0.05). Multivariate analyses revealed that lesion length was the independent predictor of procedural success (P = 0.028). SL was a predictor of intraluminal angioplasty (P < 0.001) and good blood-flow restoration (P = 0.004). Kaplan-Meier analyses at 12 months revealed a higher target lesion patency rate (P = 0.04) and limb-salvage rate (P = 0.35) in SL-positive CTOs. In patients with BTK CTOs, SL predicted intraluminal angioplasty and good blood-flow restoration for BTK CTOs. (orig.)

  12. Report on achievements of research and development of an automatic sewing system in fiscal 1986. Total system; 1986 nendo jido hosei system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Total system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-03-01

    The Automatic Sewing System Technology Research Association was commissioned from the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology on the 'development of an automatic sewing system'. The association has performed the research and development by dividing the subject into such component technologies as a total system and sewing preparation and processing technology, a sewing and assembling technology, a cloth handling technology, and a system management and control technology. This paper reports the achievement of the research and development on the total system. Such apparel side researches were performed on setting five kinds of trial wears to be said model wears, and on developing the component technologies by wear types. In addition, software research was carried out on automating five kinds of three-dimensional assembling and sewing works as the core works. With regard to codification required for the software, plans were established on apparel configuration codes, sewing specification codes, sewing device codes, and sewing attachment codes. Plans for indication symbols in the sewing works were also established. In the research based on FA and FMS, researches were executed on the facility plan in the system model and on an intermediate evaluation method, with information exchange being made with the apparel side researches. In researching the retrofit technologies, researches were performed to incorporate the principle of achieving the target. (NEDO)

  13. CyNC - a method for Real Time Analysis of Systems with Cyclic Data Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens F. Dalsgaard; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2005-01-01

    The paper addresses a novel method for realtime analysis of systems with cyclic data flows. The presented method is based on Network Calculus principles, where upper and lower flow and service constraint are used to bound data flows and processing resources. In acyclic systems flow constraints may...... in a prototype tool also denoted CyNC providing a graphical user interface for model specification based on the MATLAB/SimuLink framework....

  14. The GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and the Global Observing System for Total Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Koshak, W.; Buechler, D.; Carey, L.; Chronis, T.; Mach, D.; Bateman, M.; Peterson, H.; McCaul, E. W., Jr.; hide

    2014-01-01

    for the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. New and improved instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES include a new capability for total lightning detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), and improved temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution for the next generation Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total lightning continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product latency of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. The GLM will help address the National Weather Service requirement for total lightning observations globally to support warning decision-making and forecast services. Science and application development along with pre-operational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS national centers, forecast offices, and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after the planned launch and check-out of GOES-R in 2016. New applications will use GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, or integrated (fused) with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks, nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings.

  15. An automatic system for acidity determination based on sequential injection titration and the monosegmented flow approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Joanna; Wójtowicz, Marzena; Gawenda, Nadzieja; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2011-06-15

    An automatic sequential injection system, combining monosegmented flow analysis, sequential injection analysis and sequential injection titration is proposed for acidity determination. The system enables controllable sample dilution and generation of standards of required concentration in a monosegmented sequential injection manner, sequential injection titration of the prepared solutions, data collecting, and handling. It has been tested on spectrophotometric determination of acetic, citric and phosphoric acids with sodium hydroxide used as a titrant and phenolphthalein or thymolphthalein (in the case of phosphoric acid determination) as indicators. Accuracy better than |4.4|% (RE) and repeatability better than 2.9% (RSD) have been obtained. It has been applied to the determination of total acidity in vinegars and various soft drinks. The system provides low sample (less than 0.3 mL) consumption. On average, analysis of a sample takes several minutes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A numerical method for a model of two-phase flow in a coupled free flow and porous media system

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Jie

    2014-07-01

    In this article, we study two-phase fluid flow in coupled free flow and porous media regions. The model consists of coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations in the free fluid region and the two-phase Darcy law in the porous medium region. We propose a Robin-Robin domain decomposition method for the coupled Navier-Stokes and Darcy system with the generalized Beavers-Joseph-Saffman condition on the interface between the free flow and the porous media regions. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this method. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  17. Total free catecholamines assay by identification of its two functional groups and micro-flow injection chemiluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, O; Kawamoto, H; Moriyama, H

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a novel method of assaying total free catecholamines using sulphuric acid-derivatized beads for extracting and identifying catecholamine (CA) on the surface, and assaying the peroxide produced from CA by chemiluminescence (CL). Current assay methods for CA by electrochemical determination, fluorescence and chemiluminescence need a time-consuming separation by high-performance liquid chromatography. We eliminated this separation step by identifying the two functional groups of CA using a derivatized bead and this resulted in a highly specific CA assay. The principle is as follows: the amino group of CA was trapped by ion binding with a sulphuric acid derivative immobilized on a bead, and the diol of the CA bound to the bead was converted to peroxide with imidazole under alkaline conditions. The peroxide produced was assayed by microflow injection-horseradish peroxidase-catalysed luminol chemiluminescence. We synthesized three types of sulphuric acid-derivative immobilized beads (6.5 mm i.d.). The types of immobilized sulphuric acid derivative used were straight-chain, branched chain and benzenesulphonic, respectively. The order of the three types of beads for extracting CA was: bezenesulphonic type > branched type > straight-chain type. The optimal incubation time for generating peroxide was 30 min. The peroxide generated in the reaction solution was stable with within-run reproducibility of CV 5. 7% after incubation for 80 min. The regression equation of a standard curve for dopamine was Y = 12.8 X(2) + 476X - 373 (where Y = light intensity (RLU), X = concentration of dopamine (micromol/L)). The minimum detection limit of dopamine was 0.1 micromol/L, and the within-run reproducibility of dopamine (10.5 micromol/L) was CV 4.7% (n = 5). This method is applicable to assay of total free CA without use of HPLC. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Greater Trochanteric Reattachment Using the Third-Generation Cable Plate System in Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Sung; Pansey, Nachiket; Kansay, Rajeev K; Yoo, Je-Hyun; Lee, Hwang-Yong; Chang, Jun-Dong

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the radiologic and functional results of greater trochanteric reattachment using the third-generation cable plate system in revision total hip arthroplasty (THA). A total of 47 trochanteric fixations (27 men and 18 women; mean age of 60.2 years) using the third-generation cable plate system in revision THA were retrospectively evaluated. The mean follow-up was 80.4 months (range 27-148 months). The osteotomized greater trochanter was reattached using the Cable-Ready system (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN) and the Dall-Miles cable system (Stryker, Mahwah, NJ). The clinical results with Harris hip score, visual analog scale, and radiologic outcomes were evaluated. The mean Harris hip score was improved from 55.7 (range 17-72) preoperatively to 90.8 (range 68-100; P = .001) postoperatively, and the mean pain score was improved from 6.6 (range 3-10) to 2.5 (range 0-6; P = .001), respectively. Nonunion was observed in 6 hips (12.7%). Migration of the osteotomized greater trochanteric fragment (>1 cm) was seen in 8 hips (17.0%). Cable breakage occurred in 13 cases (27.6%). Although 5 cable plate systems were removed, there was no need for reattachment of the greater trochanter in this study. This study showed a relatively high incidence of radiologic failure after greater trochanteric reattachment using the cable plate system in revision THA, although reattachments were not required and clinical outcome was relatively satisfactory. Periodic and close observation for the early detection of failure is necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Developing Causal Understanding with Causal Maps: The Impact of Total Links, Temporal Flow, and Lateral Position of Outcome Nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Allan; Lee, Woon Jee

    2012-01-01

    This study examined some of the methodological approaches used by students to construct causal maps in order to determine which approaches help students understand the underlying causes and causal mechanisms in a complex system. This study tested the relationship between causal understanding (ratio of root causes correctly/incorrectly identified,…

  20. Evaluation of possible failure of the mononuclear phagocyte system after total splenectomy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Ruy Garcia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Young and adult Wistar rats were submitted to total splenectomy and compared to animals not submitted to any surgical manipulation in order to evaluate the phagocytic function of spleen. The animals were infected with Escherichia coli labeled with technetium-99m and killed 20 minutes later. Liver, lung, spleen and a blood clot sample were taken. No significant differences were found in the percentage of bacterial radioactivity uptake in mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS organs in young and adult splenectomized rats. However, phagocytosis index by macrophages of MPS organs was smaller in splenectomized animals than in control group. Splenectomized rats were associated with a higher blood bacterial radioactivity uptake than animals of the control group (p<0.0001 due to a larger bacterial remnant in the bloodstream. This finding suggested that some failure in the MPS occurred in the absence of the spleen, demonstrating the need to develop alternative surgical techniques for total splenectomy.

  1. Proportional wire chamber system for beam definition in precision total cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.S.; Chiang, I.H.; Kycia, T.F.

    1978-03-01

    A PWC system was developed and extensively used in precision measurements of total cross sections at low momenta (0.4 to 1.1 GeV/c) and at high momenta (23 to 370 GeV/c). This ''electronic collimator'' operated simultaneously in a fast (250 nsec) decision making mode, and a slower (0.5 msec) readout mode. The decision making mode utilized adjustable hard-wired logic to define acceptable incident beam trajectories and reject multiple beam tracks. A sample of the events were read into an on-line computer for beam tuning, for chamber diagnostics, and for study of the effect of small angle scattering to verify the total cross section extrapolation procedure

  2. Microwave Ablation Using Four-Tine Antenna: Effects of Blood Flow Velocity, Vessel Location, and Total Displacement on Porous Hepatic Cancer Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montree Chaichanyut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is concerned with microwave ablation analyses using a 2.45 GHz four-tine (4T antenna for hepatic cancer tissue. In the study, three-dimensional finite-element models were utilized to examine the tissue temperature distributions during and after MW ablation. A preliminary study was first carried out with regard to the specific absorption rates along the 4T antenna insertion depths and the temperature distributions inside the solid and porous liver models with either 3 cm-in-diameter tumor or 5 cm-in-diameter tumor. Based on the preliminary results, the porous models were further examined for the effect of varying blood flow velocities (0–200 cm/s with a 1 cm-in-diameter blood vessel next to the antenna and also for the effect of vessel-antenna locations (0, 0.8, and 1.3 cm with a constant blood flow velocity of 16.7 cm/s. All scenarios were simulated under temperature-controlled mode (90°C. The findings revealed that the blood flow velocity and vessel location influence the ablation effectiveness and that increased blood flow inhibits heat transfer to the vessel wall. At the nearest and farthest vessel-antenna locations (0 and 1.3 cm, approximately 90.3% and 99.55% of the cancer cells were eradicated except for the areas adjacent to the vessel. In addition, total tissue thermal displacement is 5.9 mm which is 6.59% of the total length of the overall model.

  3. Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness: Lake County study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogleman, S.F.; Fisher, L.A.; Black, A.R.

    1978-04-01

    A brief summary is given of the results of a previously reported study designed to evaluate the costs and viability of combined thermodynamic and biologic cycles in a system known as the Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness (TERSA). This conceptual system involved the combined geothermally assisted activities of greenhouse crop and mushroom growing, fish farming, and biogas generation in an integrated biologic system such that the waste or by-products of each subsystem cycle were recovered to service input needs of companion cycles. An updated direct use geothermal system based on TERSA that is viable for implementation in Lake County is presented. Particular consideration is given to: location of geothermal resources, availability of land and irrigation quality water, compatibility of the specific direct use geothermal activities with adjacent and local uses. Private interest and opposition, and institutional factors as identified. Factors relevant to local TERSA implementation are discussed, followed by sites considered, selection criteria, site slection, and the modified system resulting. Particular attention is paid to attempt to make clear the process followed in applying this conceptual design to the specific task of realistic local implementation. Previous publications on geothermal energy and Lake County are referenced where specific details outside the scope of this study may be found. (JGB)

  4. Total integrated performance excellence system (TIPES: A true north direction for a clinical trial support center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike R. Sather

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the quality journey taken by a Federal organization over more than 20 years. These efforts have resulted in the implementation of a Total Integrated Performance Excellence System (TIPES that combines key principles and practices of established quality systems. The Center has progressively integrated quality system frameworks including the Malcom Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA Framework and Criteria for Performance Excellence, ISO 9001, and the Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3, as well as supplemental quality systems of ISO 15378 (packaging for medicinal products and ISO 21500 (guide to project management to systematically improve all areas of operations. These frameworks were selected for applicability to Center processes and systems, consistency and reinforcement of complimentary approaches, and international acceptance. External validations include the MBNQA, the highest quality award in the US, continued registration and conformance to ISO standards and guidelines, and multiple VA and state awards. With a focus on a holistic approach to quality involving processes, systems and personnel, this paper presents activities and lessons that were critical to building TIPES and establishing the quality environment for conducting clinical research in support of Veterans and national health care.

  5. Total integrated performance excellence system (TIPES): A true north direction for a clinical trial support center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, Mike R; Parsons, Sherry; Boardman, Kathy D; Warren, Stuart R; Davis-Karim, Anne; Griffin, Kevin; Betterton, Jane A; Jones, Mark S; Johnson, Stanley H; Vertrees, Julia E; Hickey, Jan H; Salazar, Thelma P; Huang, Grant D

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the quality journey taken by a Federal organization over more than 20 years. These efforts have resulted in the implementation of a Total Integrated Performance Excellence System (TIPES) that combines key principles and practices of established quality systems. The Center has progressively integrated quality system frameworks including the Malcom Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) Framework and Criteria for Performance Excellence, ISO 9001, and the Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3), as well as supplemental quality systems of ISO 15378 (packaging for medicinal products) and ISO 21500 (guide to project management) to systematically improve all areas of operations. These frameworks were selected for applicability to Center processes and systems, consistency and reinforcement of complimentary approaches, and international acceptance. External validations include the MBNQA, the highest quality award in the US, continued registration and conformance to ISO standards and guidelines, and multiple VA and state awards. With a focus on a holistic approach to quality involving processes, systems and personnel, this paper presents activities and lessons that were critical to building TIPES and establishing the quality environment for conducting clinical research in support of Veterans and national health care.

  6. Hitachi advanced operating nuclear power plant total preventive maintenance management and service system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Masamitsu; Jibu, Noboru; Abe, Kazuhiro

    1990-01-01

    The recent rate of operation of Japanese nuclear power stations attained the result exceeding 70 %, but in order to improve it further and maintain the high reliability, the preventive maintenance program of more elaborate and systematic must be planned and executed. However, in order to establish the plan for maintaining efficiently and with high accuracy the enormous machinery and equipment exceeding 60000 in a nuclear power station, the high advance by mechanization is indispensable. Therefore, Hitachi Ltd. has developed the total preventive maintenance system, and it has partially begun operation. This system has the function of the life diagnosis of machinery and equipment, in addition, it constructs the data base with the specifications of machinery and equipment, the history of checkup, the information on reliability in Japan and foreign countries and so on, and based on these information, the recommendation of checkup, the proposal of improving facilities and other items are to be summarized and offered to electric power companies. The preventive maintenance activities in Hitachi Ltd., the concept and the outline of the total preventive maintenance system are reported. (K.I.)

  7. A new fully automated FTIR system for total column measurements of greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Geibel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a new fully automated FTIR system that is part of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON. It will provide continuous ground-based measurements of column-averaged volume mixing ratio for CO2, CH4 and several other greenhouse gases in the tropics.

    Housed in a 20-foot shipping container it was developed as a transportable system that could be deployed almost anywhere in the world. We describe the automation concept which relies on three autonomous subsystems and their interaction. Crucial components like a sturdy and reliable solar tracker dome are described in detail. The automation software employs a new approach relying on multiple processes, database logging and web-based remote control.

    First results of total column measurements at Jena, Germany show that the instrument works well and can provide parts of the diurnal as well as seasonal cycle for CO2. Instrument line shape measurements with an HCl cell suggest that the instrument stays well-aligned over several months.

    After a short test campaign for side by side intercomaprison with an existing TCCON instrument in Australia, the system will be transported to its final destination Ascension Island.

  8. An experimental study on two-phase flow pattern in low pressure natural circulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shaorong; Han Bing; Zhou Lei; Zhang Youjie; Jiang Shengyao; Wu Xinxin

    1991-10-01

    An experimental study on two-phase flow pattern in the riser of low pressure natural circulation system was performed. The local differential pressure signal was analysed for flow pattern. It is considered that Sr f·d/v can be used to distinguish different flow patterns and it has clear and definite physical meaning. Flow patterns at different inlet temperature with different system pressures (1.5 MPa, 0.24 MPa and 0.1 MPa) are described. It is considered that the flow pattern is only bubble flow without flow pattern change during the period of low quality density-wave instability at 1.5 MPa. There is no density-wave oscillation in the system, when flow pattern is in bubble-intermittent transition area. The effect of flash vaporization on stability at low pressure is discussed

  9. Total Synthesis of Ionic Liquid Systems for Dissolution of Lunar Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Robert J.; Karr, Laurel J.; Paley, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    For purposes of Space Resource Utilization, work in the total synthesis of a new ionic liquid system for the extraction of oxygen and metals from lunar soil is studied and described. Reactions were carried out according to procedures found in the chemical literature, analyzed via Thin-Layer Chromatography and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and purified via vacuum distillation and rotary evaporation. Upon final analysis via 1H NMR, it was found that while the intermediates of the synthesis had been achieved, unexpected side products were also present. The mechanisms and constraints of the synthesis are described as well as the final results of the project and recommendations for continued study

  10. Histologic Evaluation of Human Pulp Response to Total Etch and Self Etch Adhesive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Malekipour, Mohammad Reza; Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Khazaei, Saber; Kazemi, Shantia; Behnamanesh, Maryam; Shirani, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate pulp response to the application of two types adhesive systems (total-etch and self-etch) in human premolar teeth. Materials and Methods Cavities limited to enamel walls in all margins with 2.5 mm depth were prepared on buccal surfaces of thirty three human premolars. The cavities were treated with the following adhesive. Single Bond (SB) and Prompt L-Pop (PLP). The teeth were extracted after 30 days and prepared due to histological technique. Results Pulp responses ...

  11. Total Data Management System for the La Hague spent fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabert, J.; Coignaud, G.; Perot, J.P.; Fournier, W.; Silvain, B.

    1991-01-01

    Operation of the UP2 and UP3 reprocessing plants at La Hague, France, generates considerable data processing requirements. To meet these requirements, a Total Data Management System (TDMS) has been designed and installed to operate the biggest Ethernet industrial network in Europe. This network, called Haguenet, interconnects a large number of computers and user terminals. The TDMS' main operational functions are plant operation and production data management, maintenance data management, technical documents management and computer-aided design (CAD). Extensive experience was gained through the design and operation of the TDMS at La Hague. (author)

  12. Effect of TOC [total organic carbon] on a PWR secondary cooling water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gau, J.Y.; Oung, J.C.; Wang, T.Y.

    1989-01-01

    Increasing the amount of total organic carbon (TOC) during the wet layup of the steam generator was a problem in PWR nuclear power plant in Taiwan. The results of surveys of TOC in PWR secondary cooling water systems had shown that the impurity of hydrazine and the bacteria were the main reasons that increase TOC. These do not have a corrosion effect on Inconel 600 and carbon steel when the secondary cooling water containing the TOC is below 200 ppb. But the anaerobic bacteria from the steam generator in wet layup will increase corrosion rate of carbon steel and crevice corrosion of Inconel 600. (author)

  13. Placement of the stemless humeral component in the Total Evolutive Shoulder System (TESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Ghislain F; van Riet, Roger P; Jansen, Nick; Declercq, Geert

    2010-12-01

    Humeral implant design in shoulder arthroplasty has evolved over the years. The third generation shoulder prostheses have an anatomic humeral stem that replicates the 3-dimensional parameters of the proximal humerus. The overall complication rate has decreased as a result of these changes in implant design. In contrast, the rate of periprosthetic humeral fractures has increased. To avoid stem-related complications while retaining the advantages of the third generation of shoulder implants, the stemless total evolutive shoulder system has been developed. The indications, the surgical technique, and the complications of this humeral implant in shoulder arthroplasty will be described.

  14. An investigation of flow and resistance characteristics of heat exchanger with the 2-D LDV system and visualization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zongsen; Shen Xiong; Xu Yuanhui; Bi Shuxun

    1987-12-01

    An experimental study of the heat exchanger which would be used in a nuclear reactor for low temperature heat-supplying is presented. A 2-D Laser Doppler Velocimeter was used as a unique technique to measure the mean velocity and turbulence intensity distributions in different sections of the model. The relationship between the resistance coefficient and Reynolds number also obtained in terms of the total pressure rakes covered by the casings and the wall static pressure pick-up holes. The flow visualization has realized by using a piece of light source with an Argon-Ion laser. It is apparent that the polystyrene particles seeded in the flow can trace the mean flow. The results showed that the self-similar phenomenon exists in the tube bundle flow system. There are some secondary vortices in the cross sections between two passages of the model

  15. Development of an aerodynamic measurement system for hypersonic rarefied flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, T; Fujita, K; Suzuki, T

    2015-01-01

    A hypersonic rarefied wind tunnel (HRWT) has lately been developed at Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in order to improve the prediction of rarefied aerodynamics. Flow characteristics of hypersonic rarefied flows have been investigated experimentally and numerically. By conducting dynamic pressure measurements with pendulous models and pitot pressure measurements, we have probed flow characteristics in the test section. We have also improved understandings of hypersonic rarefied flows by integrating a numerical approach with the HRWT measurement. The development of the integration scheme between HRWT and numerical approach enables us to estimate the hypersonic rarefied flow characteristics as well as the direct measurement of rarefied aerodynamics. Consequently, this wind tunnel is capable of generating 25 mm-core flows with the free stream Mach number greater than 10 and Knudsen number greater than 0.1.

  16. Total Quality Management of Information System for Quality Assessment of Pesantren Using Fuzzy-SERVQUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizah, Arbiati; Syafei, Wahyul Amien; Isnanto, R. Rizal

    2018-02-01

    This research proposed a model combining an approach of Total Quality Management (TQM) and Fuzzy method of Service Quality (SERVQUAL) to asses service quality. TQM implementation was as quality management orienting on customer's satisfaction by involving all stakeholders. SERVQUAL model was used to measure quality service based on five dimensions such as tangible, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. Fuzzy set theory was to accommodate subjectivity and ambiguity of quality assessment. Input data consisted of indicator data and quality assessment aspect. Input data was, then, processed to be service quality assessment questionnaires of Pesantren by using Fuzzy method to get service quality score. This process consisted of some steps as follows : inputting dimension and questionnaire data to data base system, filling questionnaire through system, then, system calculated fuzzification, defuzzification, gap of quality expected and received by service receivers, and calculating each dimension rating showing quality refinement priority. Rating of each quality dimension was, then, displayed at dashboard system to enable users to see information. From system having been built, it could be known that tangible dimension had the highest gap, -0.399, thus it needs to be prioritized and gets evaluation and refinement action soon.

  17. Control of total voltage in the large distributed RF system of LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Ciapala, Edmond

    1995-01-01

    The LEP RF system is made up of a large number of independent RF units situated around the ring near the interaction points. These have different available RF voltages depending on their type and they may be inactive or unable to provide full voltage for certain periods. The original RF voltage control system was based on local RF unit voltage function generators pre-loaded with individual tables for energy ramping. This was replaced this year by a more flexible global RF voltage control system. A central controller in the main control room has direct access to the units over the LEP TDM system via multiplexers and local serial links. It continuously checks the state of all the units and adjusts their voltages to maintain the desired total voltage under all conditions. This voltage is distributed among the individual units to reduce the adverse effects of RF voltage asymmetry around the machine as far as possible. The central controller is a VME system with 68040 CPU and real time multitasking operating syste...

  18. Total ammoniacal nitrogen biofiltration of wastewaters from aquaculture systems using Macrocystis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, R; Segovia, E; Guerrero, L; Montalvo, S; Barahona, A; Borja, R

    2013-01-01

    The results of total ammoniacal nitrogen (NH(3) + NH(4) (+)) removal in aquaculture systems using two experimental sets, aquatic seedlings produced in laboratory controlled conditions and wild seaweed (Macrocystis spp.) in reproductive state, are shown in this work. Biofiltration assays were carried out using a load of total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) of 1 mg/L. Absorption rates were measured taking into account a previous surface characterization, which gave values of 44 ± 14 cm(2)/g and 18 ± 6 cm(2)/g for aquatic seedlings and wild algae, respectively. The following parameters were measured during the experimental runs: temperature, pH, O(2), illuminance or light intensity, salinity and total solids. TAN removals of 61% and 70% were achieved for the seedlings and Macrocystis spp., respectively, after 17 h of treatment. The TAN absorption results were expressed as a function of surface and mass achieving the following values: 3.0 nmol N cm(-2) h(-1) and 111 nmol N g(-1) h(-1) for the seedlings, and 6.9 nmol N cm(-2) h(-1) and 122.4 nmol N g(-1) h(-1) for the macroalgae. In the light of these biofiltration processes, the initial TAN concentration decreased by 90% for the seedlings and wild algae over approximately 110 and 41 h, respectively. In addition, TAN removals achieved with Macrocystis spp. were always higher than those obtained with aquatic seedlings for the same operating periods.

  19. Application of MODFLOW and geographic information system to groundwater flow simulation in North China Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiqin; Shao, Jingli; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Yongbo; Huo, Zhibin; Zhou, Xiaoyuan

    2008-10-01

    MODFLOW is a groundwater modeling program. It can be compiled and remedied according to the practical applications. Because of its structure and fixed data format, MODFLOW can be integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology for water resource management. The North China Plain (NCP), which is the politic, economic and cultural center of China, is facing with water resources shortage and water pollution. Groundwater is the main water resource for industrial, agricultural and domestic usage. It is necessary to evaluate the groundwater resources of the NCP as an entire aquifer system. With the development of computer and internet information technology it is also necessary to integrate the groundwater model with the GIS technology. Because the geological and hydrogeological data in the NCP was mainly in MAPGIS format, the powerful function of GIS of disposing of and analyzing spatial data and computer languages such as Visual C and Visual Basic were used to define the relationship between the original data and model data. After analyzing the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the NCP, the groundwater flow numerical simulation modeling was constructed with MODFLOW. On the basis of GIS, a dynamic evaluation system for groundwater resources under the internet circumstance was completed. During the process of constructing the groundwater model, a water budget was analyzed, which showed a negative budget in the NCP. The simulation period was from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2003. During this period, the total recharge of the groundwater system was 49,374 × 106 m3 and the total discharge was 56,530 × 106 m3 the budget deficit was -7,156 × 106 m3. In this integrated system, the original data including graphs and attribution data could be stored in the database. When the process of evaluating and predicting groundwater flow was started, these data were transformed into files that the core program of MODFLOW could read. The calculated water

  20. Experimental analysis of flow of ductile cast iron in stream lined gating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Hansen, Søren; Green, Nick; Tiedje, Niels Skat

    2008-01-01

    Streamlined gating systems have been developed for production of high integrity ductile cast iron parts. Flow of ductile cast iron in streamlined gating systems was studied in glass fronted sand moulds where flow in the gating system and casting was recorded by a digital video camera. These results...... are compared with real time x-ray recordings of melt flow. Results show that flow patterns are the same using both techniques. The glass fronted moulds give global information on flow in the whole gating system and casting while the x-ray analysis gives detailed information on specific areas. The experiments...... show how the quality of pouring, design of ingates, design of bends and flow over cores influence melt flow and act to determine the quality of the castings....

  1. Feature, Event, and Process Screening and Scenario Development for the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.; Barr, G.; Burch, P.; Freeze, G.; Rechard, R.; Schenker, A.; Swift, P.

    1999-01-01

    Scenario development has two primary purposes in the design and documentation of post-closure performance assessments in a regulatory setting. First, scenario development ensures a sufficiently comprehensive consideration of the possible future states of the system. Second, scenario development identifies the important scenarios that must be considered in quantitative analyses of the total system performance assessment (TSPA). Section 2.0 of this report describes the scenario development process. Steps in the process are described in Section 2.1, and terms introduced in this section are defined in Section 2.2. The electronic database used to document the process is described in Section 3, and Section 4 provides a summary of the current status of the YMP scenario development work. Section 5 contains acknowledgments, and Section 6 contains a list of the references cited

  2. Robust flow-batch coulometric/biamperometric titration system: determination of bromine index and bromine number of petrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Celio; de Aquino, Emerson Vidal; das Virgens Reboucas, Marcio; Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri

    2007-09-26

    A flow-batch system was constructed and evaluated to perform coulometric titrations with biamperometric end point detection. The flow section of the system is employed for sampling by injecting a sample volume (50-300 microL) in a flow injection-like system. About 1.5 mL of a suitable carrier solution is delivered by a peristaltic pump in order to quantitatively transfer the sample to the system titration cell (2.0 mL total inner volume). The carrier contains the coulometric precursor for the titrant species. The cell contains two pairs of platinum electrodes used for coulometric generation of reagent and biamperometric detection and is actively stirred. The titrant species is generated and the titration is performed by the usual batch procedure with the excess of titrant being detected by biamperometry following the analysis of the titration curve. System operation is computer controlled and all operations are automated, including titration curve analysis and cell cleaning after the titration is ended. The system is characterized by its robustness because its operation does not depend on flow rates, and the work using coulometric methods which generate gases at the counter-electrode is not troublesome. The flow-batch system has been evaluated for determination of bromine index and bromine number (relative to the total reactive olefin content) in petrochemicals according to an ASTM procedure. Typical precision (R.S.D.) is between 0.5 and 6% for different petrochemicals whose bromine number/index vary from 1000 to 10mg of bromine per 100g of sample, respectively. Recoveries for standard additions are between 92 and 123% for 10mg of Br(2) per 100g increments and 98 to 101% for 100mg per 100g increments. Accuracy of the proposed system was evaluated against results obtained by the standard ASTM with no significant difference detected at 95% confidence level.

  3. Prospective Comparison of a Metal-Free Ceramic Total Knee Arthroplasty with an Identical Metal System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieb, Klemens; Ullmann, David; Metzinger, Katharina; Kramar, Reinhard; Mauerer, Andreas; Hofstätter, Stefan; Fiala, Rainer

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this open-label, prospective, short-term study was to carry out an initial comparison of a completely metal-free ceramic with a geometrically identical metallic arthroplasty over a 1-year follow-up period. This study investigates a completely metal-free system using a composite matrix material containing aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 , BPK-S Integration, Peter Brehm GmbH, Weisendorf, Germany) or zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 , BPK-S Integration Ceramic, Biolox Delta-CeramTec GmbH, Plochingen, Germany). Eighty patients (40 in each group) received either a completely metal-free ceramic system (matrix of aluminum and zirconium oxide) or an anatomically identical metallic knee system made of a cobalt-chromium alloy. Clinical assessment was performed preoperatively, and during follow-up at 3 and 12 months, using the Knee Society Score, Oxford Knee Score, and EQ-5D-VAS. For radiological evaluation, standard preoperative and postoperative standardized radiographs were taken at the given follow-up visits. The postoperative clinical scores improved significantly at the 3- and 12-month follow-ups, but did not differ statistically between the two groups. The radiologically evaluated mean postoperative mechanical and anatomical axes showed proper alignment within both groups at all times. No revision surgery had to be performed, and no complications or loosening were recorded whatsoever. To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing a total ceramic metal-free knee system with a geometrically identical metallic TKA (total knee arthroplasty). Longer follow-ups will be required to demonstrate the overall efficiency of this TKR and perhaps to expand its medical indication. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Ducted fan inlet/exit and rotor tip flow improvements for vertical lift systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Ali

    The current research utilized experimental and computational techniques in 5" and 22" diameter ducted fan test systems that have been custom designed and manufactured. Qualitative investigation of flow around the ducted fan was also performed using smoke flow visualizations. Quantitative measurements consisted of 2D and 3D velocity measurements using planar and Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV and SPIV), high resolution total pressure measurements using Kiel total pressure probes and real time six-component force and torque measurements. The computational techniques used in this thesis included a recently developed radial equilibrium based rotor model(REBRM) and a three dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) based CFD model. A radial equilibrium based rotor model (REBRM) developed by the author was effectively integrated into a three-dimensional RANS based computational system. The PIV measurements and computational flow predictions using (REBRM) near the fan inlet plane were in a good agreement at hover and forward flight conditions. The aerodynamic modifications resulting from the fan inlet flow distortions in forward flight regime were clearly captured in 2D PIV results. High resolution total pressure measurements at the downstream of the fan rotor showed that tip leakage, rotor hub separation, and passage flow related total pressure losses were dominant in hover condition. However, the losses were dramatically increased in forward flight because of inlet lip separation and distortion. A novel ducted fan inlet flow conditioning concept named "Double Ducted Fan" (DDF) was developed. The (DDF) concept has a potential to significantly improve the performance and controllability of VTOL UAVs and many other ducted fan based vertical lift systems. The new concept that will significantly reduce the inlet lip separation related performance penalties used a secondary stationary duct system to control "inlet lip separation" occurring especially at

  5. Biosphere Modeling and Analyses in Support of Total System Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tappen, J. J.; Wasiolek, M. A.; Wu, D. W.; Schmitt, J. F.; Smith, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established the obligations of and the relationship between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the management and disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In 1985, the EPA promulgated regulations that included a definition of performance assessment that did not consider potential dose to a member of the general public. This definition would influence the scope of activities conducted by DOE in support of the total system performance assessment program until 1995. The release of a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report on the technical basis for a Yucca Mountain-specific standard provided the impetus for the DOE to initiate activities that would consider the attributes of the biosphere, i.e. that portion of the earth where living things, including man, exist and interact with the environment around them. The evolution of NRC and EPA Yucca Mountain-specific regulations, originally proposed in 1999, was critical to the development and integration of biosphere modeling and analyses into the total system performance assessment program. These proposed regulations initially differed in the conceptual representation of the receptor of interest to be considered in assessing performance. The publication in 2001 of final regulations in which the NRC adopted standard will permit the continued improvement and refinement of biosphere modeling and analyses activities in support of assessment activities

  6. Transits in our Solar System for educational activities: Mercury Transit 2016 and Total Solar Eclipse 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ayúcar, M.; Breitfelner, M.

    2017-09-01

    Solar transits are rare astronomical event of profound historical importance and with an enormous potential to engage nowadays students and general public into Planetary Sciences and Space. Mercury transits occur only about every 13-14 times per century. Total solar eclipses occur around 18 months apart somewhere on Earth, but they recur only every 3-4 centuries on the same location. Although its historic scientific importance (examples, to measure the distances in the solar system, to observe the solar corona) has diminished since humanity roams our solar system with robotic spacecrafts, transits remain a spectacular astronomical event that is used very effectively to engage general public and students to Science and Space in general. The educational project CESAR (Cooperation through Education in Science and Astronomy Research) has been covering since 2012 such events (Venus transit 2012, live Sun transmissions, solar eclipses, ISS transits ...). We report the outstanding outcome of the two public educational and outreach events since last year: the May 2016 Mercury Transit, and the recent August 2017 Total Eclipse. And the follow up activities expected for future transits.

  7. Biosphere Modeling and Analyses in Support of Total System Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeff Tappen; M.A. Wasiolek; D.W. Wu; J.F. Schmitt

    2001-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 established the obligations of and the relationship between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the management and disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In 1985, the EPA promulgated regulations that included a definition of performance assessment that did not consider potential dose to a member of the general public. This definition would influence the scope of activities conducted by DOE in support of the total system performance assessment program until 1995. The release of a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report on the technical basis for a Yucca Mountain-specific standard provided the impetus for the DOE to initiate activities that would consider the attributes of the biosphere, i.e. that portion of the earth where living things, including man, exist and interact with the environment around them. The evolution of NRC and EPA Yucca Mountain-specific regulations, originally proposed in 1999, was critical to the development and integration of biosphere modeling and analyses into the total system performance assessment program. These proposed regulations initially differed in the conceptual representation of the receptor of interest to be considered in assessing performance. The publication in 2001 of final regulations in which the NRC adopted standard will permit the continued improvement and refinement of biosphere modeling and analyses activities in support of assessment activities

  8. The difference of tensile bond strength between total and self etch adhesive systems in dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selly Yusalina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Total etch adhesive system has been widely used in teeth conservation area as an adhesive agent before implicating composite resin restoration agent. The aim of this research is to prove the difference of tensile bond strength between total etch (Single Bond and self etch adhesive system (Adper prompt L-Pop on dentin surface in vitro. The extracted and non carries maxillary premolar teeth were used in this research and were divided into 2 groups. The first group comprised 15 specimen teeth etched in phosphoric acid and was applicated with the Single Bond adhesive agent. The second group comprised 15 specimen teeth, applicated with the Adper Prompt-L-Pop. The composite resin (Z 350, 3M was applied incrementally and each of the layers was rayed for 20 seconds. The specimens were stored in physiologic solution before they were tested. Tensile bond strength was measured by LRX Plus Lloyd Instrument, with 1 N load and 1 mm/minute speed, and the measurement result was in Mpa unit. The result was evaluated statistically by the Student t-test with α = 0.05. Single Bond (the 5th generation showed a better bond strength compared to the Adper Prompt-L-Pop (the 6th generation.

  9. Development of a totally computer-controlled triple quadrupole mass spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.M.; Crawford, R.W.; Barton, V.C.; Brand, H.R.; Neufeld, K.W.; Bowman, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    A totally computer-controlled triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS) is described. It has a number of unique features not available on current commercial instruments, including: complete computer control of source and all ion axial potentials; use of dual computers for data acquisition and data processing; and capability for self-adaptive control of experiments. Furthermore, it has been possible to produce this instrument at a cost significantly below that of commercial instruments. This triple quadrupole mass spectrometer has been constructed using components commercially available from several different manufacturers. The source is a standard Hewlett-Packard 5985B GC/MS source. The two quadrupole analyzers and the quadrupole CAD region contain Balzers QMA 150 rods with Balzers QMG 511 rf controllers for the analyzers and a Balzers QHS-511 controller for the CAD region. The pulsed-positive-ion-negative-ion-chemical ionization (PPINICI) detector is made by Finnigan Corporation. The mechanical and electronics design were developed at LLNL for linking these diverse elements into a functional TQMS as described. The computer design for total control of the system is unique in that two separate LSI-11/23 minicomputers and assorted I/O peripherals and interfaces from several manufacturers are used. The evolution of this design concept from totally computer-controlled instrumentation into future self-adaptive or ''expert'' systems for instrumental analysis is described. Operational characteristics of the instrument and initial results from experiments involving the analysis of the high explosive HMX (1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazacyclooctane) are presented

  10. Analysis of Causes of Non-Uniform Flow Distribution in Manifold Systems with Variable Flow Rate along Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemlyanaya, N. V.; Gulyakin, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The uniformity of flow distribution in perforated manifolds is a relevant task. The efficiency of water supply, sewerage and perflation systems is determined by hydraulics of the flow with a variable mass. The extensive study of versatile available information showed that achieving a uniform flow distribution through all of the outlets is almost impossible. The analysis of the studies conducted by other authors and our numerical experiments performed with the help of the software package ANSYS 16.1 were made in this work. The results allowed us to formulate the main causes of non-uniform flow distribution. We decided to suggest a hypothesis to explain the static pressure rise problem at the end of a perforated manifold.

  11. System design and optimization study of axial flow turbine applied in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 40; Issue 8. System design and optimization study of axial flow turbine applied in an overtopping wave energy convertor ... To study the rules between parameters of the turbine and flows, three different types of turbines with complete 3D flow-channel models were designed and optimized.

  12. Multiple Flow Loop SCADA System Implemented on the Production Prototype Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baily, Scott A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalmas, Dale Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wheat, Robert Mitchell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-16

    The following report covers FY 15 activities to develop supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for the Northstar Moly99 production prototype gas flow loop. The goal of this effort is to expand the existing system to include a second flow loop with a larger production-sized blower. Besides testing the larger blower, this system will demonstrate the scalability of our solution to multiple flow loops.

  13. Multiple Flow Loop SCADA System Implemented on the Production Prototype Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baily, Scott A.; Dalmas, Dale Allen; Wheat, Robert Mitchell; Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.

    2015-01-01

    The following report covers FY 15 activities to develop supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for the Northstar Moly99 production prototype gas flow loop. The goal of this effort is to expand the existing system to include a second flow loop with a larger production-sized blower. Besides testing the larger blower, this system will demonstrate the scalability of our solution to multiple flow loops.

  14. FERTILITY AND TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON IN OXISOL UNDER DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN SAVANNAH OF PIAUÍ, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Silva Araújo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The intensive use of natural resources for food production has ruptured the sustainability of agro-ecosystems. In this context, this study aimed to quantify chemical attributes of Oxisol under five management systems: 1 = conventional tillage (CT; 2 = no-tillage system with millet (NT + M; 3 = crop–livestock integration system with soybean (CL + S; 4 = CL with pasture (CL + P; and 5 = native forest (NF. The following soil depths were studied: 0.00–0.05, 0.05–0.10, and 0.10–0.20 m; and the following traits were quantified: total organic carbon (TOC, soil acidity (pH, soil potential acidity (H + Al and soil fertility (Ca, Mg, P and K. All treatments modified soil chemical attributes in comparison to NF (p <0.01. The highest phosphorus and potassium levels were observed under CL + S at all evaluated depths. The NT + M treatment increased Ca and Mg levels in layers 0.0–0.05 and 0.10–0.20, whereas CL + S increased base addition (BA, cation exchange capacity (CEC and  base saturation (BS levels in layer 0.05–0.10 m. Finally, both CL systems improved soil chemical quality, increased surface TOC and carbon stock in depth.

  15. Reliability Evaluation of Power System Considering Voltage Stability and Continuation Power Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Saket

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the methodology for evaluation of the reliability of an composite electrical power system considering voltage stability and continuation power flow, which takes into account the peak load and steady state stability limit. The voltage stability is obtained for the probable outage of transmission lines and removal of generators along with the combined state probabilities. The loss of load probabilities (LOLP index is evaluated by merging the capacity probability with load model. State space is truncated by assuming the limits on total numbers of outages of generators and transmission lines. A prediction correction technique has been used along with one dimensional search method to get optimized stability limit for each outage states. The algorithm has been implemented on a six-bus test system.

  16. Microscopic energy flows in disordered Ising spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agliari, E; Casartelli, M; Vezzani, A

    2010-01-01

    An efficient microcanonical dynamics has been recently introduced for Ising spin models embedded in a generic connected graph even in the presence of disorder, i.e. with the spin couplings chosen from a random distribution. Such a dynamics allows a coherent definition of local temperatures also when open boundaries are coupled to thermostats, imposing an energy flow. Within this framework, here we introduce a consistent definition for local energy currents and we study their dependence on the disorder. In the linear response regime, when the global gradient between thermostats is small, we also define local conductivities following a Fourier discretized picture. Then, we work out a linearized 'mean-field approximation', where local conductivities are supposed to depend on local couplings and temperatures only. We compare the approximated currents with the exact results of the nonlinear system, showing the reliability range of the mean-field approach, which proves very good at high temperatures and not so efficient in the critical region. In the numerical studies we focus on the disordered cylinder but our results could be extended to an arbitrary, disordered spin model on generic discrete structures

  17. Interpreting physical flows in networks as a communication system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian Academy of Sciences Conference Series (2017) 1:1. In an effort to bridge this gap, some works have dealt with transportation problems on passive networks, namely, traffic flows, setting routines and rules to transport packages across the network and finding numerically the resulting flows and jamming properties.

  18. Computational Modeling of Flow Control Systems for Aerospace Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear Science Corp. proposes to develop computational methods for designing active flow control systems on aerospace vehicles with the primary objective of...

  19. Acquisition of an Underway CTD System for the Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography DRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Acquisition of an Underway CTD System for the Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography DRI T. M. Shaun Johnston Scripps Institution of Oceanography...westward flow in the North Equatorial Current (NEC) encounters tall, steep, submarine topography and islands. During the Flow Encountering Abrupt... Topography (FLEAT) DRI, investigators will determine: • Whether appreciable energy/momentum is lost from the large-scale NEC flow to smaller scales and

  20. Flow-induced symmetry reduction in two-dimensional reaction-diffusion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai Xiang; Li, Xiao Chun; Li, Qian Shu

    2009-03-01

    The influence of uniform flow on the pattern formation is investigated in a two-dimensional reaction-diffusion system. It is found that the convective flow plays a key role on pattern modulation. Both traveling and stationary periodic patterns are obtained. At moderate flow rates, the perfect hexagon, phase-shifted hexagon and stable square, which are essentially unstable in unperturbed reaction-diffusion systems, are obtained. These patterns move downstream. If the flow rate is increased further, the stationary flow-oriented stripes develop and compete with the spots. If the flow rate exceeds some critical value, the system is convectively unstable and the stationary stripes prevail against the traveling spots. The above patterns all have the same critical wavenumber associated with Turing bifurcation, which indicates that Turing instability produces the patterns while the flow induces the symmetry reduction, i.e., from six-fold symmetry to four-fold one, and to two-fold one ultimately.

  1. Study on double-shaft mixing paddle undergoing planetary motion in the laminar flow mixing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article has studied the impact of double-shaft mixing paddle undergoing planetary motion on laminar flow mixing system using flow field visualization experiment and computational fluid dynamics simulation. Digital image processing was conducted to analyze the mixing efficiency of mixing paddle in co-rotating and counter-rotating modes. It was found that the double-shaft mixing paddle undergoing planetary motion would not produce the isolated mixing regions in the laminar flow mixing system, and its mixing efficiency in counter-rotating modes was higher than that in co-rotating modes, especially at low rotating speed. According to the tracer trajectory experiment, it was found that the path line of the tracer in the flow field in co-rotating modes was distributed in the opposite direction to the path line in counter-rotating modes. Planetary motion of mixing paddle had stretching, shearing, and folding effects on the trajectory of the tracer. By means of computational fluid dynamics simulation, it was found that axial flows and tangential flows produced in co-rotating and counter-rotating modes have similar flow velocity but opposite flow directions. It is deduced from the distribution rule of axial flow, radial flow, and tangential flow in the flow field that axial flow is the main reason for causing different mixing efficiencies between co-rotating and counter-rotating modes.

  2. Effects of flaxseed and chia seed on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and long-chain fatty acid flow in a dual-flow continuous culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L G; Bunkers, J; Paula, E M; Shenkoru, T; Yeh, Y; Amorati, B; Holcombe, D; Faciola, A P

    2016-04-01

    Flaxseed (FS) and chia seed (CS) are oilseeds rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which may change meat and milk composition when added to ruminants' diets and may have health benefits for humans. Literature on the effects of CS supplementation on ruminal metabolism is nonexistent. A dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system consisting of 6 fermenters was used to assess the effect of FS and CS supplementation in an alfalfa hay-based diet on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and long-chain fatty acid flow. Diets were randomly assigned to fermenters in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design, with 3 consecutive periods of 10 d each, consisting of 7 d for diet adaptation and 3 d for sample collection. Each fermenter was fed a total of 72 g of DM/d divided in 6 equal portions. Treatments were 1) alfalfa hay + calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acid (MEG; 69.3 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 2.7 g DM/d of calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acid), 2) alfalfa hay + FS (FLAX; 68.4 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 3.6 g DM/d of ground FS), and 3) alfalfa hay + CS (CHIA; 68.04 g DM/d of alfalfa hay plus 3.96 g DM/d of ground CS). Dietary treatments had similar amounts of total fat, and fat supplements were ground to 2-mm diameter. Effluents from the last 3 d of incubation were composited for analyses. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Ruminal apparent and true nutrient digestibility of all nutrients did not differ ( > 0.05) among treatments. Compared with MEG, FLAX and CHIA increased the flows of C18:3 -3, C20:4 -6, and total PUFA ( CHIA and FLAX treatments had greater ruminal concentrations of C18:0, indicating that both CS and FS fatty acids were extensively biohydrogenated in the rumen. The NH-N concentration, microbial N flow, and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis were not affected ( > 0.05) by treatments. Lastly, there were no differences ( > 0.05) among diets for total VFA concentration and molar proportions of individual

  3. Carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of grapes (Vitis vinifera) cultivated in organic and conventional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Organic agriculture involve plants which are cultivated without using synthetic pesticides, herbicides or fertilizers and promotes biodiversity, biological cycles and improve the product quality. The carotenoids, total polyphenols and the antioxidant activity from skins of some wine and table grapes cultivated in organic and conventional agriculture were studied. Results The main carotenoids identified using high performance liquid chromatography were lutein and ß-carotene. Muscat Ottonel variety has the highest ß-carotene concentration 504.9 μg/kg for organic and 593.2 μg/kg for conventional grapes. For the organic farming, the total polyphenols content were in the range of 163.23 – 1341.37 mg GAE/kg fresh weight (FW) and 148.47 – 1231.38 mg GAE/kg FW for the conventional grapes. The highest ORAC values were obtained for blue-black variety Napoca in both farming system (43.5 ± 0.95 μmol TE/g organic; 40.4 ± 0.5 μmol TE/g conventional) and lowest for Aromat de Iaşi (16.8 ± 0.6 μmol TE/g organic; 14.7 ± 1.6 μmol TE/g conventional). Napoca variety showed also the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method in both cultivated system. Conclusion Nine grape varieties cultivated in organic and conventional systems were compared regarding the carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The white grape varieties have a higher carotenoids content compared with the blue-black cultivars while the blue-black varieties contain higher TPC and exhibit higher antioxidant activity (except for Muscat Hamburg-ORAC). Vitis vinifera grape skins originating from wine or table grape varieties can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22762349

  4. Carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of grapes (Vitis vinifera cultivated in organic and conventional systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunea Claudiu-Ioan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organic agriculture involve plants which are cultivated without using synthetic pesticides, herbicides or fertilizers and promotes biodiversity, biological cycles and improve the product quality. The carotenoids, total polyphenols and the antioxidant activity from skins of some wine and table grapes cultivated in organic and conventional agriculture were studied. Results The main carotenoids identified using high performance liquid chromatography were lutein and ß-carotene. Muscat Ottonel variety has the highest ß-carotene concentration 504.9 μg/kg for organic and 593.2 μg/kg for conventional grapes. For the organic farming, the total polyphenols content were in the range of 163.23 – 1341.37 mg GAE/kg fresh weight (FW and 148.47 – 1231.38 mg GAE/kg FW for the conventional grapes. The highest ORAC values were obtained for blue-black variety Napoca in both farming system (43.5 ± 0.95 μmol TE/g organic; 40.4 ± 0.5 μmol TE/g conventional and lowest for Aromat de Iaşi (16.8 ± 0.6 μmol TE/g organic; 14.7 ± 1.6 μmol TE/g conventional. Napoca variety showed also the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH method in both cultivated system. Conclusion Nine grape varieties cultivated in organic and conventional systems were compared regarding the carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The white grape varieties have a higher carotenoids content compared with the blue-black cultivars while the blue-black varieties contain higher TPC and exhibit higher antioxidant activity (except for Muscat Hamburg-ORAC. Vitis vinifera grape skins originating from wine or table grape varieties can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants.

  5. Groundwater flow systems in the great Aletsch glacier region (Valais, Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpiger, Andrea; Loew, Simon

    2014-05-01

    above the terraces of Riederalp and Bettmeralp in or near steeply dipping fault zones striking parallel to the ridge, suggesting locally a near-surface groundwater table. Drying up of several of these springs (at lateral distances up to 4 km) after construction of the Riederhornstollen, as well as associated large tunnel water inflows, demonstrates large scale hydraulic connections along strike of these fault zones. The catchment areas of these springs have to be located close to the ridge crest, above the terraces of Riederalp and Bettmeralp, and extend over many kilometers. This fault system thus drains significant portions of the high-altitude recharge and induces a complex 3D groundwater flow field of the Aletsch area. Variations in glacial ice extent due to different climatic conditions during the Lateglacial and Holocene periods were studied by varying the boundary condition of the great Aletsch glacier. Results have to be interpreted with care, as the glacier pressure boundary conditions were modelled like a lake. Detailed investigations of these boundary conditions have been initialized by glacier drillings equipped with melt water pressure sensors. With the simplified boundary conditions applied to the glacier bed, elevated ice surfaces during the Little Ice Age stage only slightly influence the flow field and total hydraulic head conditions on the NW side of the ridge. On the other hand, the Egesen stadial causes a fundamental change of the groundwater devide with all flow lines, even from below the Aletsch glacier, oriented towards the Rhone valley.

  6. Balanced Flow Metering and Conditioning: Technology for Fluid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R.

    2006-01-01

    Revolutionary new technology that creates balanced conditions across the face of a multi-hole orifice plate has been developed, patented and exclusively licensed for commercialization. This balanced flow technology simultaneously measures mass flow rate, volumetric flow rate, and fluid density with little or no straight pipe run requirements. Initially, the balanced plate was a drop in replacement for a traditional orifice plate, but testing revealed substantially better performance as compared to the orifice plate such as, 10 times better accuracy, 2 times faster (shorter distance) pressure recovery, 15 times less acoustic noise energy generation, and 2.5 times less permanent pressure loss. During 2004 testing at MSFC, testing revealed several configurations of the balanced flow meter that match the accuracy of Venturi meters while having only slightly more permanent pressure loss. However, the balanced meter only requires a 0.25 inch plate and has no upstream or downstream straight pipe requirements. As a fluid conditioning device, the fluid usually reaches fully developed flow within 1 pipe diameter of the balanced conditioning plate. This paper will describe the basic balanced flow metering technology, provide performance details generated by testing to date and provide implementation details along with calculations required for differing degrees of flow metering accuracy.

  7. Local and systemic toxicity of nanoscale debris particles in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyzois, Ioannis; Nikolopoulos, Dimitrios; Michos, Ioannis; Patsouris, Efstratios; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2012-04-01

    Over the past 30 years joint replacement prostheses have been developed and refined to enhance durability and reproducibility. Total hip joint arthroplasty is being performed in an increasing number of younger patients; therefore orthopaedic surgeons seek implants with a longer life span. With regards to the progress of mechanical behaviour of the biomaterials used in an arthroplasty, little is known about the long-term biological effects of wear debris. Owing to the composition of the prostheses currently in use, systemic exposure to chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni) and aluminium (Al) alloys occurs as a result of the formation of metal wear nano-particles that are released both from metal-on-metal and polyethylene-on-metal bearings, resulting in a postoperative increase in metal ion levels at different organ sites. These particles circulate both locally and systemically, penetrate cell plasma membranes, bind to cellular proteins and enzymes and modulate cytokine expression. Their physiologic effects are poorly understood and their potential toxicity, hypersensitivity and carcinogenicity remain a cause for concern. In this article we will address the issue of whether these nanoscale degradation products are associated with adverse, clinically significant local or systemic toxicologic sequelae. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Development of an in situ polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence XAFS measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, W J; Tanizawa, Y; Shido, T; Iwasawa, Y; Nomura, M; Asakura, K

    2001-03-01

    An in situ polarization-dependent total-reflection fluorescence X-ray absorption fine structure (PTRF-XAFS) spectroscopy system has been developed, which enables PTRF-XAFS experiments to be performed in three different orientations at various temperatures (273-600 K) and pressures (10(-10) approximately 760 torr). The system consists of a measurement chamber and a preparation chamber. The measurement chamber has a high-precision six-axis goniometer and a multielement solid-state detector. Using a transfer chamber, also operated under ultra-high-vacuum conditions, the sample can be transferred to the measurement chamber from the preparation chamber, which possesses low-energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy facilities, as well as a sputtering gun and an annealing system. The in situ PTRF-EXAFS for Cu species on TiO2 (110) has been measured in three different orientations, revealing anisotropic growth of Cu under the influence of the TiO2 (110) surface.

  9. RAI Thyroid Bed Uptake After Total Thyroidectomy: A Novel SPECT-CT Anatomic Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuren, Rebecca; Biagini, Agnese; Grewal, Ravinder K.; Randolph, Gregory W.; Kamani, Dipti; Sabra, Mona M.; Shaha, Ashok R.; Tuttle, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent, more selective use of radioactive iodine (RAI) has led to reevaluation of the clinical importance of achieving complete total thyroidectomy with minimal residual normal thyroid tissue. We utilize the improved localization by post-RAI remnant ablation, single photon emission computerized tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) to define specific anatomic sites of residual RAI-uptake foci after total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and to provide a novel classification system relating uptake to thyroid anatomy and preservation of adjacent neural structures. Study Design Retrospective. Method Radioactive iodine-uptake foci in thyroid bed were localized by SPECT/CT imaging at the time of RAI remnant ablation in 141 DTC patients undergoing total thyroidectomy. Results Minimal residual RAI uptake (median 0.32% at 24 hours) in the thyroid bed was detected by diagnostic planar whole body scans in 93% and by posttherapy SPECT/CT imaging in 99% of subjects. Discrete RAI uptake foci were identified on the SPECT/CT imaging at Berry’s ligament (87%), at superior thyroid poles (79%), in paratracheal-lobar regions (67%), in isthmus-region (54%), and in pyramidal lobe (46%). Despite the residual foci, the nonstimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) prior to remnant ablation (with a median thyroid-stimulating hormone of 0.36 m IU/L) was thyroid bed in the majority of patients. These foci can be classified as 1) neural-related and 2) capsule-related. These common residual foci have no relationship to postoperative Tg, suggesting that attempts at radical removal of thyroid tissue in these locations may not be warranted. PMID:25891354

  10. Case Study of Hepatic Radiofrequency Ablation Causing a Systemic Inflammatory Response Under Total Intravenous Anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalte, Gereon; Waning, Christian; Rossaint, Rolf; Mahnken, Andreas H.; Henzler, Dietrich; Tacke, Josef

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effects of hepatic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with malignant liver disease with respect to inflammation activation and stress response. In an observational trial, we investigated the physiologic parameters of 17 patients (20 interventions) who underwent percutaneous RFA under general anesthesia after applying total intravenous anesthesia. TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, adrenaline and noradrenaline, liver enzymes, lactate and creatine kinase were determined pre-interventionally after induction of anesthesia (T1), 90 minutes after initiation of RFA (T2), immediately after the conclusion of the procedure (T3), and 24 hours after the procedure (T4). A significant increase in body temperature (p < 0.001), and mean arterial pressure (p = 0.001) were measured intraoperatively (T2) and the day after the procedure (T4). Increased levels of IL-6 were measured at T3 and T4 (p = 0.001). IL-10 increased immediately after the procedure (T3; p = 0.007). IL-6 levels correlated well with the total energy applied (γ = 0.837). Significant increases in the levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline were present at T3 and T4 (p < 0.001). The RFA-induced destruction of hepatic tissue was associated with increased levels of AST, ALT, GLDH and LDH. Percutaneous RFA of hepatic malignancies causes an inflammatory and endocrine activation, similar to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. These effects have to be taken in account when dealing with patients susceptible to sepsis or multi-organ failure

  11. The Timan-Pechora Basin province of northwest Arctic Russia; Domanik, Paleozoic total petroleum system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Sandra J.

    1999-01-01

    The Domanik-Paleozoic oil-prone total petroleum system covers most of the Timan-Pechora Basin Province of northwestern Arctic Russia. It contains nearly 20 BBOE ultimate recoverable reserves (66% oil). West of the province is the early Precambrian Eastern European craton margin. The province itself was the site of periodic Paleozoic tectonic events, culminating with the Hercynian Uralian orogeny along its eastern border. The stratigraphic record is dominated by Paleozoic platform and shelf-edge carbonates succeeded by Upper Permian to Triassic molasse siliciclastics that are locally present in depressions. Upper Devonian (Frasnian), deep marine shale and limestone source rocks ? with typically 5 wt % total organic carbon ? by middle Mesozoic time had generated hydrocarbons that migrated into reservoirs ranging in age from Ordovician to Triassic but most focused in Devonian and Permian rocks. Carboniferous structural inversions of old aulacogen borders, and Hercynian (Permian) to Early Cimmerian (Late Triassic to Early Jurassic) orogenic compression not only impacted depositional patterns, but also created and subsequently modified numerous structural traps within the province.

  12. Case Study of Hepatic Radiofrequency Ablation Causing a Systemic Inflammatory Response Under Total Intravenous Anesthesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalte, Gereon; Waning, Christian; Rossaint, Rolf; Mahnken, Andreas H. [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Aachen, (Germany); Henzler, Dietrich [Dalhousie University, Queen Elisabeth II Health Sciences Center, Halifax (Canada); Tacke, Josef [Interventional Radiology, Klinikum Passau, Passau (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    To investigate the effects of hepatic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with malignant liver disease with respect to inflammation activation and stress response. In an observational trial, we investigated the physiologic parameters of 17 patients (20 interventions) who underwent percutaneous RFA under general anesthesia after applying total intravenous anesthesia. TNF{alpha}, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, adrenaline and noradrenaline, liver enzymes, lactate and creatine kinase were determined pre-interventionally after induction of anesthesia (T1), 90 minutes after initiation of RFA (T2), immediately after the conclusion of the procedure (T3), and 24 hours after the procedure (T4). A significant increase in body temperature (p < 0.001), and mean arterial pressure (p = 0.001) were measured intraoperatively (T2) and the day after the procedure (T4). Increased levels of IL-6 were measured at T3 and T4 (p = 0.001). IL-10 increased immediately after the procedure (T3; p = 0.007). IL-6 levels correlated well with the total energy applied ({gamma} = 0.837). Significant increases in the levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline were present at T3 and T4 (p < 0.001). The RFA-induced destruction of hepatic tissue was associated with increased levels of AST, ALT, GLDH and LDH. Percutaneous RFA of hepatic malignancies causes an inflammatory and endocrine activation, similar to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. These effects have to be taken in account when dealing with patients susceptible to sepsis or multi-organ failure

  13. Outcome of total hip arthroplasty for avascular necrosis of the femoral head in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Min Su; Kang, Joon Soon; Moon, Kyoung Ho

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the result of total hip arthroplasty (THA) for avascular necrosis of the femur head (AVNFH) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Nineteen THAs were performed on 13 patients with SLE. The results of these patients were compared with the results of the control group (19 patients) who had THR due to AVNFH with none-SLE conditions. The Harris hip score increased from a preoperative average of 65.3 points to 94.9 at the most recent follow-up. In the control group, the mean HHS was 67.2 preoperatively and 96.1 postoperatively at the last follow-up. No significant difference was found between SLE patients and non-SLE patients who underwent hip arthroplasty. In conclusion, THA is an acceptable treatment for achieving functional improvement in patients who had SLE and AVNFH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Total shading system approach at Sultan Qaboos University Eco-House project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Awni K.; Khudhayer, Wael A.; Sukor, Nur S. Abdul

    2017-10-01

    This research presents a concept of total shading system made light weight shell that encloses the building and cut down the impact solar radiation on it. Variety of virtual shading plates were assessed by graphical shading charts, and physical models, then further refined into several types of louvers. Shading efficiencies of these louvers types were calculated and plotted and the graphs were used to compare them and select the appropriate type for each orientation. It was found out that horizontal louvers were necessary for South orientation, vertical louvers for East and West orientations, and none for North orientation. Louvers were slanted at specific angles in order cut down the low solar rays in the morning and afternoon hours, and to induce the prevailing North Easterly wind to infiltrate through and cool the cavity spaces. The findings of this research were applied and tested in the design and construction of Sultan Qaboos University Eco-House.

  15. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 3: Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This volume reports the development of TSPA for the VA. This first section defines the general process involved in developing any TSPA, it describes the overall TSPA process as implemented by programs in the US and elsewhere in the world, and discusses the acceptability of TSPA as a process or tool for analyzing a nuclear waste repository system. Section 2 discusses the more specific use of the TSPA process for the TSPA-VA for Yucca Mountain, including goals, approach, and methods. It also includes a very brief synopsis of TSPA-VA results. Section 3 briefly discusses each of the component models that comprise the TSPA-VA. Each TSPA component model represents a discrete set of processes. The TSPA-VA components are: unsaturated zone flow, thermal hydrology, near- field geochemical environment, waste package degradation, waste form alteration and mobilization, unsaturated zone transport, saturated zone flow and transport, and biosphere. For each of these components, this section introduces the conceptualization of each individual process, describes the data sources, and discusses model parameter development and computer methods used to simulate each component. Section 4 explains the mechanics of how the individual TSPA components were combined into a ''base case'' and then provides the ''expected value'' results of a deterministic base case analysis. Section 4 also contains a description of the probabilistic analyses and results that help determine the relative importance of the various TSPA components and the data used to describe the components. Section 5 addresses sensitivity studies run for each of the TSPA components to understand how uncertainty in various parameters within a component change the TSPA results. Section 6 presents the findings of the sensitivity studies run on the various components in Section 5, and prioritizes the findings of the entire set of uncertainty and sensitivity studies of the components relative

  16. La influencia de factores sistémicos en el uso de las prótesis totales Influence of systemic factors in use of total prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Andrade Lima Chaves

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerando la posible influencia de las enfermedades sistémicas y de los medicamentos utilizados para su tratamiento en la cavidad bucal, el presente estudio se propone realizar una revisión de la literatura sobre el tema, enfatizando la influencia de estos factores en el uso de las prótesis totales (PTs, con el fin de proporcionar al cirujano-dentista un mejor conocimiento científico para la realización de ese tipo de tratamiento rehabilitador.According to the possible influence of systemic diseases and of drugs used for its treatment in buccal cavity, the aim of present study is to carry out a review of literature on this topic, emphasizing on influence of these factors on use of the total prostheses (PTs, allowing to surgeon-dentist a better scientific knowledge to creation of this type of rehabilitation treatment.

  17. Total hip arthroplasty outcomes assessment using functional and radiographic scores to compare canine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, D; Broun, H C; Black, A P; Preston, C A; Anderson, G I

    2008-01-01

    A retrospective multi-centre study was carried out in order to compare outcomes between cemented and uncemented total hip arthoplasties (THA). A quantitative orthopaedic outcome assessment scoring system was devised in order to relate functional outcome to a numerical score, to allow comparison between treatments and amongst centres. The system combined a radiographic score and a clinical score. Lower scores reflect better outcomes than higher scores. Consecutive cases of THA were included from two specialist practices between July 2002 and December 2005. The study included 46 THA patients (22 uncemented THA followed for 8.3 +/- 4.7M and 24 cemented THA for 26.0 +/- 15.7M) with a mean age of 4.4 +/- 3.3 years at surgery. Multi-variable linear and logistical regression analyses were performed with adjustments for age at surgery, surgeon, follow-up time, uni- versus bilateral disease, gender and body weight. The differences between treatment groups in terms of functional scores or total scores were not significant (p > 0.05). Radiographic scores were different between treatment groups. However, these scores were usually assessed within two months of surgery and proved unreliable predictors of functional outcome (p > 0.05). The findings reflect relatively short-term follow-up, especially for the uncemented group, and do not include clinician-derived measures, such as goniometry and thigh circumference. Longer-term follow-up for the radiographic assessments is essential. A prospective study including the clinician-derived outcomes needs to be performed in order to validate the outcome instrument in its modified form.

  18. Building and Running the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Model in a Quality Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.A. Kalinich; K.P. Lee; J.A. McNeish

    2005-01-01

    A Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) model has been developed to support the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Yucca Mountain High-Level Waste Repository. The TSPA model forecasts repository performance over a 20,000-year simulation period. It has a high degree of complexity due to the complexity of its underlying process and abstraction models. This is reflected in the size of the model (a 27,000 element GoldSim file), its use of dynamic-linked libraries (14 DLLs), the number and size of its input files (659 files totaling 4.7 GB), and the number of model input parameters (2541 input database entries). TSPA model development and subsequent simulations with the final version of the model were performed to a set of Quality Assurance (QA) procedures. Due to the complexity of the model, comments on previous TSPAs, and the number of analysts involved (22 analysts in seven cities across four time zones), additional controls for the entire life-cycle of the TSPA model, including management, physical, model change, and input controls were developed and documented. These controls did not replace the QA. procedures, rather they provided guidance for implementing the requirements of the QA procedures with the specific intent of ensuring that the model development process and the simulations performed with the final version of the model had sufficient checking, traceability, and transparency. Management controls were developed to ensure that only management-approved changes were implemented into the TSPA model and that only management-approved model runs were performed. Physical controls were developed to track the use of prototype software and preliminary input files, and to ensure that only qualified software and inputs were used in the final version of the TSPA model. In addition, a system was developed to name, file, and track development versions of the TSPA model as well as simulations performed with the final version of the model

  19. Monocular Vision- and IMU-Based System for Prosthesis Pose Estimation During Total Hip Replacement Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shaojie; Zhou, Yixin; Wang, Zhihua; Chen, Hong

    2017-06-01

    The average age of population increases worldwide, so does the number of total hip replacement surgeries. Total hip replacement, however, often involves a risk of dislocation and prosthetic impingement. To minimize the risk after surgery, we propose an instrumented hip prosthesis that estimates the relative pose between prostheses intraoperatively and ensures the placement of prostheses within a safe zone. We create a model of the hip prosthesis as a ball and socket joint, which has four degrees of freedom (DOFs), including 3-DOF rotation and 1-DOF translation. We mount a camera and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) inside the hollow ball, or "femoral head prosthesis," while printing customized patterns on the internal surface of the socket, or "acetabular cup." Since the sensors were rigidly fixed to the femoral head prosthesis, measuring its motions poses a sensor ego-motion estimation problem. By matching feature points in images of the reference patterns, we propose a monocular vision based method with a relative error of less than 7% in the 3-DOF rotation and 8% in the 1-DOF translation. Further, to reduce system power consumption, we apply the IMU with its data fused by an extended Kalman filter to replace the camera in the 3-DOF rotation estimation, which yields a less than 4.8% relative error and a 21.6% decrease in power consumption. Experimental results show that the best approach to prosthesis pose estimation is a combination of monocular vision-based translation estimation and IMU-based rotation estimation, and we have verified the feasibility and validity of this system in prosthesis pose estimation.

  20. Imaging dipole flow sources using an artificial lateral-line system made of biomimetic hair flow sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagamseh, A.M.K.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In Nature, fish have the ability to localize prey, school, navigate, etc., using the lateral-line organ. Artificial hair flow sensors arranged in a linear array shape (inspired by the lateral-line system (LSS) in fish) have been applied to measure airflow patterns at the sensor positions. Here, we

  1. Investigation of total phenolic, total flavonoid, antioxidant and allyl isothiocyanate content in the different organs of Wasabi japonica grown in an organic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Seong Woo; Ghimeray, Amal Kumar; Park, Cheol Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the total polyphenol (TP), total flavonoid (TF), antioxidative effect and allyl isothyocyanate (ITC) content in different organs of wasabi plant grown in an organic system. Invitro study of methanol and boiled water extracts of wasabi were conducted by analyzing the 1-1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrozyl (DPPH) radial scavenging activity, metal chelating activity and total antioxidant capacity in a comparative manner. The result revealed that methanol extract showed higher TP in flower (3644 mg TAE/100 g dw), leaf (3201 mg TAE/100 g dw) and fruit (3025 mg TAE/100 g dw) as compared to the boiled water extract. Similarly, TF content was also higher in methanol extracts of flower (1152 mg QE/100 g dw) and leaf (325 mg QE/100 g dw), however, the other parts showed ignorable value. Results of antioxidant activity were found at different magnitude of potency. The methanol extract of different parts of wasabi exhibited higher activity in total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging assay as compared to water extract. In metal chelating assay, the boiled water extracts of leaf showed higher (76.9%) activity, followed by fruit (68.8%) and flower (62.8%). Ally ITC detected by gas chromatography was present in all of the tissues of wasabi plant but the content was found to be varied in different tissues. Overall, this study will allow consumers and processors to understand the possibility for medical application of wasabi plant by knowing the level of total polyphenol distribution, Ally ITC content and antioxidant property distributed in different parts and tissues.Key words: Allyl ITC, antioxidant, flavonoid, polyphenol, Wasabi japonica.

  2. Review of the total system related to operation of nuclear-powered ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Miyashita, Kunio

    2000-01-01

    It is essential to establish a marine reactor having excellent safety and reliability, which is capable of competing economically with conventional ships, and which can be accepted by international society, in order to be prepared for practical application of future nuclear-powered ships. For this purpose, it is important not only to demonstrate a marine reactor using a model or test device to simulate actual operation, but also to establish the environmental requirements for operation of a nuclear-powered ship, such as safety standards that are operationally and internationally common for ships, and to establish a repair base for nuclear-powered ships. Systems research for the practical application of nuclear-powered ships was conducted for five years, fiscal years 1992 through 1996, by a group in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), under the project title 'Review of the total system related to operation of nuclear-powered ships.' The project sought to summarize requirements for the practical application of nuclear-powered ships from the standpoint of the need side, e.g., what nuclear-powered ships will be requested, and what functions will be provided under the expected future social environment; to show a complete system concept for the operation of nuclear-powered ships; and to clarify the situations creating demand for nuclear-powered ships, as well as the system and environmental conditions to be established for operation of practical nuclear-powered ships. Study considerations included the size of the operation system for a nuclear-powered ship, a scenario for introducing a nuclear-powered container ship, and economic evolution from the effects on the whole shipping system, based on container ships, of introducing a nuclear-powered ship. The results of these considerations were made the framework for constructing an entire system and evaluating its economy. The treatment and disposal of radioactive waste from a nuclear-powered ship, and the

  3. The advanced launch system: Application of total quality management principles to low-cost space transportation system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, M. G.; Rothwell, T. G.; Rosenberg, D. A.; Oliver, M. B.

    Recognizing that a major inhibitor of man's rapid expansion of the use of space is the high cost (direct and induced) of space transportation, the U.S. has embarked on a major national program to radically reduce the cost of placing payloads into orbit while, at the same time, making equally radical improvements inlaunch system operability. The program is entitled "The Advanced Launch System" (ALS) and is a joint Department of Defense/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (DoD/NASA) program which will provide launch capability in the post 2000 timeframe. It is currently in Phase II (System Definition), which began in January 1989, and will serve as a major source of U.S. launch system technology over the next several years. The ALS is characterized by a new approach to space system design, development, and operation. The practices that are being implemented by the ALS are expected to affect the management and technical operation of all future launch systems. In this regard, the two most significant initiatives being implemented on the ALS program are the practices of Total Quality Management (TQM) and the Unified Information System (Unis). TQM is a DoD initiative to improve the quality of the DoD acquisition system, contractor management systems, and the technical disciplines associated with the design, development, and operation of major systems. TQM has been mandated for all new programs and affects the way every group within the system currently does business. In order to implement the practices of TQM, new methods are needed. A program on the scale of the ALS generates vast amounts of information which must be used effectively to make sound decisions. Unis is an information network that will connect all ALS participants throughout all phases of the ALS development. Unis is providing support for project management and system design, and in following phases will provide decision support for launch operations, computer integrated manufacturing, automated

  4. Total energy supply-system for manned spaceship using nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Tadashi; Honma, Yuji; Yoshida, Yutaka; Shimazu, Yoichiro

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore the deep space, such as Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, etc in the future, a spacecraft that will be driven by nuclear power should be developed. At present, satellites or space probes have been using mainly electric source of chemical battery, fuel battery, solar battery, and RI battery. However, considering highly developed and extensive space exploration in the future, it is obvious that larger electric power is required over the long term space travel more than several years. Additionally, the solar battery used in space will be fundamentally impossible to use in planetary exploration father away form Mars because sunlight is attenuated. Therefore, larger electric power source must be installed in the space craft. In this study, we consider about co-generation system for heat and electricity using nuclear power. We think that the nuclear power is appropriate for using in deep space because of a long time operation without refueling and possibility in downsizing due to higher power density. We selected the fast reactor system of about 18 MWth compared with other type of reactors, such as PWR and high temperature gas reactor (Honma, 2006). With regard to a power generation system, we examined about efficiency of Stirling engine compared with a gas-turbine engine. Theoretical efficiency of Stirling engine is much higher than that of gas-turbine engine. Therefore, we selected Stirling engine and we have started the model test of a Stirling engine. Total power generation at International Space Station (ISS) that has been built since 1998 is about 110kWe. We estimated that about 5 times as much electricity as that of ISS is enough to explore or developed the space. In that case, 2.5MWe will be generated by the system, number of crews will be about 10 and 2MW will be used to electric propulsion. (author)

  5. Inlet Flow Control and Prediction Technologies for Embedded Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Michelle L.; Mackie, Scott A.; Gissen, Abe; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Lakebrink, Matthew T.; Glezer, Ari; Mani, Mori; Mace, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Fail-safe, hybrid, flow control (HFC) is a promising technology for meeting high-speed cruise efficiency, low-noise signature, and reduced fuel-burn goals for future, Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) aircraft with embedded engines. This report details the development of HFC technology that enables improved inlet performance in HWB vehicles with highly integrated inlets and embedded engines without adversely affecting vehicle performance. In addition, new test techniques for evaluating Boundary-Layer-Ingesting (BLI)-inlet flow-control technologies developed and demonstrated through this program are documented, including the ability to generate a BLI-like inlet-entrance flow in a direct-connect, wind-tunnel facility, as well as, the use of D-optimal, statistically designed experiments to optimize test efficiency and enable interpretation of results. Validated improvements in numerical analysis tools and methods accomplished through this program are also documented, including Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes CFD simulations of steady-state flow physics for baseline, BLI-inlet diffuser flow, as well as, that created by flow-control devices. Finally, numerical methods were employed in a ground-breaking attempt to directly simulate dynamic distortion. The advances in inlet technologies and prediction tools will help to meet and exceed "N+2" project goals for future HWB aircraft.

  6. Statistical analysis on the signals monitoring multiphase flow patterns in pipeline-riser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Guo, Liejin

    2013-07-01

    The signals monitoring petroleum transmission pipeline in offshore oil industry usually contain abundant information about the multiphase flow on flow assurance which includes the avoidance of most undesirable flow pattern. Therefore, extracting reliable features form these signals to analyze is an alternative way to examine the potential risks to oil platform. This paper is focused on characterizing multiphase flow patterns in pipeline-riser system that is often appeared in offshore oil industry and finding an objective criterion to describe the transition of flow patterns. Statistical analysis on pressure signal at the riser top is proposed, instead of normal prediction method based on inlet and outlet flow conditions which could not be easily determined during most situations. Besides, machine learning method (least square supported vector machine) is also performed to classify automatically the different flow patterns. The experiment results from a small-scale loop show that the proposed method is effective for analyzing the multiphase flow pattern.

  7. Analysis of bioethanol samples through Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry with a total sample consumption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Carlos; Lienemann, Charles-Philippe; Todolí, Jose-Luis

    2016-10-01

    Bioethanol real samples have been directly analyzed through ICP-MS by means of the so called High Temperature Torch Integrated Sample Introduction System (hTISIS). Because bioethanol samples may contain water, experiments have been carried out in order to determine the effect of ethanol concentration on the ICP-MS response. The ethanol content studied went from 0 to 50%, because higher alcohol concentrations led to carbon deposits on the ICP-MS interface. The spectrometer default spray chamber (double pass) equipped with a glass concentric pneumatic micronebulizer has been taken as the reference system. Two flow regimes have been evaluated: continuous sample aspiration at 25 μL min- 1 and 5 μL air-segmented sample injection. hTISIS temperature has been shown to be critical, in fact ICP-MS sensitivity increased with this variable up to 100-200 °C depending on the solution tested. Higher chamber temperatures led to either a drop in signal or a plateau. Compared with the reference system, the hTISIS improved the sensitivities by a factor included within the 4 to 8 range while average detection limits were 6 times lower for the latter device. Regarding the influence of the ethanol concentration on sensitivity, it has been observed that an increase in the temperature was not enough to eliminate the interferences. It was also necessary to modify the torch position with respect to the ICP-MS interface to overcome them. This fact was likely due to the different extent of ion plasma radial diffusion encountered as a function of the matrix when working at high chamber temperatures. When the torch was moved 1 mm plasma down axis, ethanolic and aqueous solutions provided statistically equal sensitivities. A preconcentration procedure has been applied in order to validate the methodology. It has been found that, under optimum conditions from the point of view of matrix effects, recoveries for spiked samples were close to 100%. Furthermore, analytical concentrations for real

  8. A Study on Renin-Angiotensin System and Total Exchangeable Sodium in Hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kang Won; Park, Jung Sik; Lee, Jung Sang; Koh, Chang Soon

    1976-01-01

    The etiologic role of renin-angiotensin system and sodium-volume status in the pathophysiology of various forms of hypertension was investigated. Plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured by radioimmunoassay, while sodium-volume status was evaluated by the determination of total exchangeable sodium(NaE) using isotope dilution method. The subjects consisted of 25 controls, 24 patients with essential hypertension, 22 patients with chronic renal failure (13 with hypertension, 9 without hypertension) and 14 patients with malignant hypertension. The results were as follows: 1) An inverse correlation between NaE and PRA was noted in control subjects (r=-0.598, p 0.1) 3) Absolute value of PRA was not deviated significantly from control group (2.53±1.416 ng/ml/hr) except in malignant hypertension (6.09±2.042, p 0.1). It is suggested that renin-angiotensin system plays a predominant role in the pathogenesis of malignant hypertension and in hypertension of chronic renal failure, though sodium retention is also contributing factor. PRA variation in essential hypertension does not appear to be associated with any consistent change in Na-volume status, suggesting the existence of another mechanism in the genesis of hypertension and PRA variation.

  9. Attenuated total reflection angular spectra of a system of alternating plasma-dielectric layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, G J; Scott, G D

    1978-11-15

    The attenuated total reflection (ATR) angular spectra of a five-film system have been observed. Successive layers of Ag-LiF-Ag-LiF-Ag are evaporated onto the base of a glass prism. Surface plasma wave resonances corresponding to coupled oscillations at the plasma-dielectric interfaces were found for p-polarization. Guided light modes coupled between the two dielectric layers were observed in both p- and s-polarized spectra. If guided mode reflectance resonances occur at less than the critical angle they have associated with them resonance transmissions. In general the ATR resonances of the five-film system occur as doublets, which form a splitting of the resonances of a single dielectric slab bounded by Ag layers. The resonant oscillations are demonstrated by detailed calculations of the Poynting vector field and electric field oscillations, which also help in understanding the source of discrepancies between experimental and calculated ATR spectra. These discrepancies are thought to be due largely to the surface roughness of evaporated LiF films. The roughness is modeled as thin cermet layers at the LiF-Ag interfaces, and the optical constants of the cermets are calculated by the Maxwell Garnett theory. When the ATR spectra are then computed with the pseudolayers inserted, much improved agreement with experiment can be obtained.

  10. Analysis and design of the system of a total digital Si-gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fuxiang; Liang, Yin

    2017-03-01

    In order to get a thorough understanding of the total digital silicon micro-gyroscope, a novel system-level model with details of both the sense and circuit is presented in this paper. Unlike the traditional structures of the digital part of the digital gyroscope, a structure with programmable delay units (PDUs) instead of DPLLs gives a brief and robust character of the whole system. And the PDUs coordinating with the FIR filter could lead to a removal of the IF filters of the sigma-delta DAC for feedback, which saves a lot of consumption. Two MASH sigma-delta ADCs are designed to convert the output of the charge-voltage converters to digital signals, which also bring a better stability. The ADCs achieve an SNR of 102.5 dB with a 10 kHz bandwidth. The stabilization of the closed drive mode has also been analyzed including how the noise caused by the quantization of the digital circuit is affecting the stabilization of both the amplitude and frequency of the driving signals. In the end, a final result of simulation of the gyroscope shows the correctness and accuracy of the whole model of the gyroscope.

  11. French adaptation of the new Knee Society Scoring System for total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debette, C; Parratte, S; Maucort-Boulch, D; Blanc, G; Pauly, V; Lustig, S; Servien, E; Neyret, P; Argenson, J N

    2014-09-01

    In November 2011, the Knee Society published its new KSS score to evaluate objective clinical data and also patient expectations, satisfaction and knee function during various physical activities before and after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We undertook the French cross-cultural adaptation of this scoring system according to current recommendations. The French version of the new KSS score is a consistent, feasible, reliable and discriminating score. Eighty patients with knee osteoarthritis were recruited from two centers: one group of 40 patients had a TKA indication, while the other group of 40 patients had an indication for conservative treatment. After the new KSS score was translated and back-translated, it was compared to three other validated instruments (KOOS, AMIQUAL and SF-12) to determine construct validity, discriminating power, feasibility in terms of response rate and existence of floor or ceiling effect, internal consistency with Chronbach's alpha and reliability based on reproducibility and sensitivity to change (responsiveness). Due to missing data, two cases were eliminated. We found that the score could discriminate between groups; it had a nearly 100% response rate, a ceiling effect in the "expectations" domain, satisfactory Chronbach's alpha, excellent reproducibility and good responsiveness. These results confirm that the French version of the new KSS score is reliable, feasible, discriminating, consistent and responsive. The novelty of this scoring system resides in the "expectations" and "satisfaction" domains, its availability as a self-assessment questionnaire and the evaluation of function during various activities. Level III. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Redesigning the work system of rubber industries based on total ergonomics and ergo-micmac integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, H.

    2018-01-01

    The factory capacity achievement and the bottleneck reduction of production process at wet-blanket workstations are influenced by the balance of life quality rates and worker’s productivity, along with the worker’s ability and limitations, tasks, organization and work environment. The life quality of workers is indicated by: the reduction of workload, and fatigue. Meanwhile, work productivity is measured by increasing production results per work shift. The optimization of the quality of life and productivity of workers is achieved by redesigning the system and workstations based on ergonomics integrating Total Ergonomics with Ergo-MicMac (Micro Ergonomics and Macro Ergonomics), which includes redesigning wet-blanket folding worktable, regulating the system pattern of working in pairs, giving official break time, giving extra nutritious intakes such as sweet tea and snack Pempek, giving personal protective equipments, and redesigning physical working environments.This study was an experimental study, with treatment by subject design involving 30 workers sampled at a workstation condition before and after Ergonomics based redesign. The findings and conclusions of the study were derived from the reduction of the workload by 16.06%, fatigue by 18.84% and the increase of production results per work shift by 20.29%.

  13. THE LIQUID NITROGEN SYSTEM FOR CHAMBER A; A CHANGE FROM ORIGINAL FORCED FLOW DESIGN TO A NATURAL FLOW (THERMO SIPHON) SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, J.; Montz, M.; Ganni, V.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.; Knudsen, P.; Creel, J.; Arenius, D.; Garcia, S.

    2010-01-01

    NASA at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston is presently working toward modifying the original forced flow liquid nitrogen cooling system for the thermal shield in the space simulation chamber-A in Building 32 to work as a natural flow (thermo siphon) system. Chamber A is 19.8 m (65 ft) in diameter and 35.66 m (117 ft) high. The LN 2 shroud environment within the chamber is approximately 17.4 m (57 ft) in diameter and 28 m (92 ft) high. The new thermo siphon system will improve the reliability, stability of the system. Also it will reduce the operating temperature and the liquid nitrogen use to operate the system. This paper will present the requirements for the various operating modes. System level thermodynamic comparisons of the existing system to the various options studied and the final option selected will be outlined. A thermal and hydraulic analysis to validate the selected option for the conversion of the current forced flow to natural flow design will be discussed. The proposed modifications to existing system to convert to natural circulation (thermo siphon) system and the design features to help improve the operations, and maintenance of the system will be presented.

  14. SINDA/SINFLO computer routine, volume 1, revision A. [for fluid flow system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, J. A.; Williams, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The SINFLO package was developed to modify the SINDA preprocessor to accept and store the input data for fluid flow systems analysis and adding the FLOSOL user subroutine to perform the flow solution. This reduced and simplified the user input required for analysis of flow problems. A temperature calculation method, the flow-hybrid method which was developed in previous VSD thermal simulator routines, was incorporated for calculating fluid temperatures. The calculation method accuracy was improved by using fluid enthalpy rather than specific heat for the convective term of the fluid temperature equation. Subroutines and data input requirements are described along with user subroutines, flow data storage, and usage of the plot program.

  15. System-focused environmental flow regime prescription, monitoring and adaptive management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, David; Lexartza Artza, Irantzu

    2016-04-01

    The definition of appropriate environmental flow regimes through hydropower schemes and water storage reservoirs is key part of mitigation. Insufficient (magnitude and variability) environmental flows can result in much environmental harm with negative impacts being encountered by morphological, ecological and societal systems. Conventionally, environmental flow regimes have been determined by using generic protocols and guidance such as the Tennant method of environmental flow estimation. It is generally accepted that such approaches to minimum environmental flow definition, although being a useful starting point, are not universally applicable across catchment typologies and climatic regions. Such approaches will not always produce conditions that would be associated with 'Good Ecological Status' under the Water framework Directive (or equivalent). Other similar approaches to minimum environmental flow estimation are used that are specific to geographies, yet still the associated guidance rarely thoroughly covers appropriate definition for healthy holistic systems across the flow regime. This paper draws on experience of system-focused environmental flow regime determination in the UK and the Georgian Caucasus Mountains, which allowed for a critical analysis of more conventional methods to be undertaken. The paper describes a recommended approach for determining appropriate environmental flow regimes based on analysis of the impacted geomorphological, ecological and societal systems in a way which is sensitive to the local holistic environment and associated complexities and interactions. The paper suggests that a strong understanding of the local geomorphology in key in predicting how flows will manifest habitat differently across the flow regime, and be spatially dynamic. Additionally, an understanding of the geomorphological system allows the flow of course and fine sediment to be factored into the initial suggested environmental flow regime. It is suggested

  16. An Integer Batch Scheduling Model for a Single Machine with Simultaneous Learning and Deterioration Effects to Minimize Total Actual Flow Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusriski, R.; Sukoyo; Samadhi, T. M. A. A.; Halim, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    In the manufacturing industry, several identical parts can be processed in batches, and setup time is needed between two consecutive batches. Since the processing times of batches are not always fixed during a scheduling period due to learning and deterioration effects, this research deals with batch scheduling problems with simultaneous learning and deterioration effects. The objective is to minimize total actual flow time, defined as a time interval between the arrival of all parts at the shop and their common due date. The decision variables are the number of batches, integer batch sizes, and the sequence of the resulting batches. This research proposes a heuristic algorithm based on the Lagrange Relaxation. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is determined by comparing the resulting solutions of the algorithm to the respective optimal solution obtained from the enumeration method. Numerical experience results show that the average of difference among the solutions is 0.05%.

  17. An Integer Batch Scheduling Model for a Single Machine with Simultaneous Learning and Deterioration Effects to Minimize Total Actual Flow Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusriski, R; Sukoyo; Samadhi, T M A A; Halim, A H

    2016-01-01

    In the manufacturing industry, several identical parts can be processed in batches, and setup time is needed between two consecutive batches. Since the processing times of batches are not always fixed during a scheduling period due to learning and deterioration effects, this research deals with batch scheduling problems with simultaneous learning and deterioration effects. The objective is to minimize total actual flow time, defined as a time interval between the arrival of all parts at the shop and their common due date. The decision variables are the number of batches, integer batch sizes, and the sequence of the resulting batches. This research proposes a heuristic algorithm based on the Lagrange Relaxation. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is determined by comparing the resulting solutions of the algorithm to the respective optimal solution obtained from the enumeration method. Numerical experience results show that the average of difference among the solutions is 0.05%. (paper)

  18. Repair of segmental bone defect using Totally Vitalized tissue engineered bone graft by a combined perfusion seeding and culture system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The basic strategy to construct tissue engineered bone graft (TEBG is to combine osteoblastic cells with three dimensional (3D scaffold. Based on this strategy, we proposed the "Totally Vitalized TEBG" (TV-TEBG which was characterized by abundant and homogenously distributed cells with enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation and further investigated its biological performance in repairing segmental bone defect. METHODS: In this study, we constructed the TV-TEBG with the combination of customized flow perfusion seeding/culture system and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP scaffold fabricated by Rapid Prototyping (RP technique. We systemically compared three kinds of TEBG constructed by perfusion seeding and perfusion culture (PSPC method, static seeding and perfusion culture (SSPC method, and static seeding and static culture (SSSC method for their in vitro performance and bone defect healing efficacy with a rabbit model. RESULTS: Our study has demonstrated that TEBG constructed by PSPC method exhibited better biological properties with higher daily D-glucose consumption, increased cell proliferation and differentiation, and better cell distribution, indicating the successful construction of TV-TEBG. After implanted into rabbit radius defects for 12 weeks, PSPC group exerted higher X-ray score close to autograft, much greater mechanical property evidenced by the biomechanical testing and significantly higher new bone formation as shown by histological analysis compared with the other two groups, and eventually obtained favorable healing efficacy of the segmental bone defect that was the closest to autograft transplantation. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the feasibility of TV-TEBG construction with combination of perfusion seeding, perfusion culture and RP technique which exerted excellent biological properties. The application of TV-TEBG may become a preferred candidate for segmental bone defect repair in orthopedic and

  19. A Decentralized Control Strategy for High Density Material Flow Systems with Automated Guided Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Schwab, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a universal decentralized control strategy for grid-based high-density material flow systems with automated guided vehicles and gives insights into the system behavior as well as the solution quality.

  20. Total Retinal Blood Flow in a Nonhuman Primate Optic Nerve Transection Model Using Dual-Beam Bidirectional Doppler FD-OCT and Microsphere Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Told, Reinhard; Wang, Lin; Cull, Grant; Thompson, Simon J; Burgoyne, Claude F; Aschinger, Gerold C; Schmetterer, Leopold; Werkmeister, René M

    2016-03-01

    We validated noninvasive Doppler-optical coherence tomography (OCT) blood flow measurements against the terminal microsphere method in a surgical induced optic nerve transection nonhuman primate model. In 6 nonhuman primates, total retinal blood flow (TRBF) was measured with a custom-built dual-beam bidirectional Doppler Fourier Domain (FD)-OCT. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) was measured by Spectralis spectral-domain (SD)-OCT. Measurements were performed every 10 to 15 days before and after unilateral optic nerve transection (ONT) until RNFLT was reduced by more than 40% from baseline. Before the animals were killed, TRBF was measured using the microsphere technique. A significant correlation between all arterial and venous Doppler OCT TRBF measurements was found in ONT and contralateral control eyes (both P FD-OCT and the microsphere method. It also was possible to monitor changes over time in TRBF after ONT with Doppler OCT. These findings highlight the accuracy and potential of noninvasive Doppler OCT to provide valuable information for detecting early changes in ocular disease in future.

  1. Total abdominal hysterectomy versus minimal-invasive hysterectomy: a systemic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragon Palmero, Felipe Jorge; Exposito Exposito, Moises

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. At the present time three types of hysterectomies are used: the vaginal hysterectomy and the minimal-invasive hysterectomy (MIH). The objective of present research was to compare the MIH and the total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) in women presenting with benign uterine diseases. METHODS. A systemic review was made and a meta-analysis from the following databases: MEDLINE, EBSCO HOST AND The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Only the controlled and randomized studies were selected. The data of all studies were combined and also the relative risk (RR) with a 95% CI was used with the Mantel-Haenszel method as an effect measure for dichotomy variables. For the analysis of continuing variables the mean difference was used. In all the comparisons performed the results were obtained with the fix effect and randomized forms. RESULTS. A total of 53 transoperative complications were registered in the MIH hysterectomy versus 17 in the TAH group (RR: 1,78; 95% CI: 1,04-3.05). Postoperative complications evolved in a similar way in both groups without significant differences from the statistical point of view. The blood losses, the hospital stay and the patient's reincorporation to usual and work activities were lesser in the laparoscopy group; however, the operative time is higher when it is compared with TAH (mean difference: 37,36; 95% CI: 34,36-39,93). CONCLUSIONS. Both techniques have advantages and disadvantages. The indication of MIH must to be individualized according to the clinical situation of each patient and these not to be performed in those centers without a properly trained surgical staff and with experience in advanced minimal invasive surgery. (author)

  2. Measurement system of bubbly flow using ultrasonic velocity profile monitor and video data processing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Zhou, Shirong; Nakajima, Makoto; Takeda, Yasushi; Mori, Michitsugu; Yoshioka, Yuzuru.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have been developing a measurement system for bubbly flow in order to clarify its multi-dimensional flow characteristics and to offer a data base to validate numerical codes for multi-dimensional two-phase flow. In this paper, the measurement system combining an ultrasonic velocity profile monitor with a video data processing unit is proposed, which can measure simultaneously velocity profiles in both gas and liquid phases, a void fraction profile for bubbly flow in a channel, and an average bubble diameter and void fraction. Furthermore, the proposed measurement system is applied to measure flow characteristics of a bubbly countercurrent flow in a vertical rectangular channel to verify its capability. (author)

  3. Dynamic Characteristics of Flow Induced Vibration in a Rotor-Seal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow induced vibration is an important factor affecting the performance of the rotor-seal system. From the point of view of flow induced vibration, the nonlinear models of the rotor-seal system are presented for the analysis of the fluid force, which is induced by the interaction between the unstable fluid flow in the seal and the vibrating rotor. The nonlinear characteristics of flow induced vibration in the rotor-seal system are analyzed, and the nonlinear phenomena in the unbalanced rotor-seal system are investigated using the nonlinear models. Various nonlinear phenomena of flow induced vibration in the rotor-seal system, such as synchronization phenomenon and amplitude mutation, are reproduced.

  4. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamate, Wasim Ismail; Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester , third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third trimester and postpartum period. These

  5. Spray flow-network flow transition of binary Lennard-Jones particle system

    KAUST Repository

    Inaoka, Hajime

    2010-07-01

    We simulate gas-liquid flows caused by rapid depressurization using a molecular dynamics model. The model consists of two types of Lennard-Jones particles, which we call liquid particles and gas particles. These two types of particles are distinguished by their mass and strength of interaction: a liquid particle has heavier mass and stronger interaction than a gas particle. By simulations with various initial number densities of these particles, we found that there is a transition from a spray flow to a network flow with an increase of the number density of the liquid particles. At the transition point, the size of the liquid droplets follows a power-law distribution, while it follows an exponential distribution when the number density of the liquid particles is lower than the critical value. The comparison between the transition of the model and that of models of percolation is discussed. The change of the average droplet size with the initial number density of the gas particles is also presented. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) as tracer of diffuse infiltration in a dolomitic karstic system: The Nerja Cave (Andalusia, southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiot, Christelle; Liñán, Cristina; Andreo, Bartolomé; Emblanch, Christophe; Carrasco, Francisco; Blavoux, Bernard

    2003-11-01

    Recent studies in several karstic systems in France have highlighted that Total Organic Carbon (TOC) was a relevant parameter in order to characterise the behaviour of aquifers, to differentiate the water types that participate in karstic flow (fast infiltration, unsaturated zone, saturated zone) and to evaluate their vulnerability. This study on TOC dynamics at the experimental site of the Nerja Cave has been performed to test the potential of this tracer in a particular climatic (Mediterranean climate), lithologic (dolomitic marbles) and hydrodynamic (diffuse flow behaviour) context. TOC evolution, compared to those of classical tracers used in hydrogeology, permits the understanding of the hydrodynamical behaviour of the unsaturated zone of this dolomitic aquifer, whose response to precipitation is slower than that commonly obtained in karstic aquifers of calcareous nature.

  7. A computerized bioskills system for surgical skills training in total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conditt, M A; Noble, P C; Thompson, M T; Ismaily, S K; Moy, G J; Mathis, K B

    2007-01-01

    Although all agree that the results of total knee replacement (TKR) are primarily determined by surgical skill, there are few satisfactory alternatives to the 'apprenticeship' model of surgical training. A system capable of evaluating errors of instrument alignment in TKR has been developed and demonstrated. This system also makes it possible quantitatively to assess the source of errors in final component position and limb alignment. This study demonstrates the use of a computer-based system to analyse the surgical skills in TKR through detailed quantitative analysis of the technical accuracy of each step of the procedure. Twelve surgeons implanted a posterior-stabilized TKR in 12 fresh cadavers using the same set of surgical instruments. During each procedure, the position and orientation of the femur, tibia, each surgical instrument, and the trial components were measured with an infrared coordinate measurement system. Through analysis of these data, the sources and relative magnitudes of errors in position and alignment of each instrument were determined, as well as its contribution to the final limb alignment, component positioning and ligament balance. Perfect balancing of the flexion and extension gaps was uncommon (0/15). Under standardized loading, the opening of the joint laterally exceeded the opening medially by an average of approximately 4 mm in both extension (4.1 +/- 2.1 mm) and flexion (3.8 +/- 3.4 mm). In addition, the overall separation of the femur and the tibia was greater in flexion than extension by an average of 4.6 mm. The most significant errors occurred in locating the anterior/posterior position of the entry point in the distal femur (SD = 8.4 mm) and the correct rotational alignment of the tibial tray (SD = 13.2 degrees). On a case-by-case basis, the relative contributions of errors in individual instrument alignments to the final limb alignment and soft tissue balancing were identified. The results indicate that discrete steps in the

  8. A Stereophotogrammetric System For The Detection Of Prosthesis Loosening In Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Sheldon; Genant, Harry K.; Hunter, John; Miller, David; Moffitt, Francis; Murray, William R.; Ross, Steven E.

    1980-07-01

    Loosening of the prosthetic device occurs in about 5% of cases following placement of total hip prostheses (THP). Early detection of loosening is much desired but is difficult to achieve using conventional methods. Due to errors of projection, it is quite possible to fail to detect mobility of even as much as 5 mm on single x-ray films. We are attempting to develop a simplified photogrammetric system suitable for general hospital use which could detect loosening of 0.8 mm at the 95 % level of confidence without use of complex stereoplotting equipment. Metal reference markers are placed in the shaft of the femur and in the acetabular region of the pelvis at the time of surgery. The distances between these reference markers and certain unambiguous points on the prostheses are computed analytically using an X-Y acoustical digitizer (accuracy ± 0.1 mm) and software developed previously for craniofacial measurement. Separate stereopairs of the joint region are taken under weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing conditions. Differences in the measured distances between the bo-ne markers and the prosthetic components on the two stereopairs are taken as indicators of prosthesis loosening. Measurements on a phantom using ten different x-ray stereopairs taken from as many different perspectives have established that true linear distances between reference points and prostheses can be measured at the desired reliability with the present low precision system. Preliminary in vivo measurements indicate that the main unresolved problem is the movement of the subject between the two exposures of each single stereopair. Two possible solutions to this problem are discussed.

  9. Hamiltonian formulation of distributed-parameter systems with boundary energy flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaft, A.J.; Maschke, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    A Hamiltonian formulation of classes of distributed-parameter systems is presented, which incorporates the energy flow through the boundary of the spatial domain of the system, and which allows to represent the system as a boundary control Hamiltonian system. The system is Hamiltonian with respect

  10. Hamiltonian formulation of distributed-parameter systems with boundary energy flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaft, Arjan; Maschke, B.M.

    A Hamiltonian formulation of classes of distributed-parameter systems is presented, which incorporates the energy flow through the boundary of the spatial domain of the system, and which allows to represent the system as a boundary control Hamiltonian system. The system is Hamiltonian with respect

  11. Hamiltonian formulation of distributed-parameter systems with boundary energy flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, A.J. van der; Maschke, B.M.

    2002-01-01

    A Hamiltonian formulation of classes of distributed-parameter systems is presented, which incorporates the energy flow through the boundary of the spatial domain of the system, and which allows to represent the system as a boundary control Hamiltonian system. The system is Hamiltonian with respect

  12. The Pre-Messinian Total Petroleum System of the Provence Basin, Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlewicz, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The Provence Basin is in that portion of the western Mediterranean Sea that is deeper than 2 kilometers. The basin lies essentially beyond the outer continental shelf, between the countries of France, Italy, and Algeria, the Balearic Islands, and the islands of Sardinia and Corsica. It encompasses nearly 300,000 square kilometers and includes the Rhone River submarine fan on the continental slope of southern France. It is province 4068 in the World Energy study. A single, hypothetical, total petroleum system (TPS), the Pre-Messinian TPS (406801), was described for the Provence Basin. The designation hypothetical is used because there is no hydrocarbon production from the basin. The Provence Basin is a deep-water Tertiary rift basin in which the geothermal gradients vary regionally. The Red Sea Basin shares a similar geologic and thermal history with the rifted western Mediterranean Sea and was used as an analog to better understand the genesis of the Provence Basin and as a guide to estimating possible undiscovered amounts of hydrocarbons. For this assessment the basin was given a potential, at the mean, for undiscovered resources of 51 trillion cubic feet (1.4 trillion cubic meters) gas, 0.42 billion barrels oil, and 2.23 million barrels natural gas liquids.

  13. Total staff costs to implement a decision support system in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Valéria; Lima, Antônio Fernandes Costa; Fugulin, Fernanda Maria Togeiro; Peres, Heloisa Helena Ciqueto; Gaidzinski, Raquel Rapone

    2014-01-01

    to identify the direct labor (DL) costs to put in practice a decision support system (DSS) in nursing at the University Hospital of the University of São Paulo (HU-USP). the development of the DSS was mapped in four sub-processes: Conception, Elaboration, Construction and Transition. To calculate the DL, the baseline salary per professional category was added to the five-year additional remuneration, representation fees and social charges, and then divided by the number of hours contracted, resulting in the hour wage/professional, which was multiplied by the time spend on each activity in the sub-processes. the DL cost corresponded to R$ 752,618.56 (100%), R$ 26,000.00 (3.45%) of which were funded by a funding agency, while R$ 726,618.56 (96,55%) came from Hospital and University resources. considering the total DL cost, 72.1% related to staff wages for the informatics consulting company and 27.9% to the DL of professionals at the HU and the School of Nursing.

  14. Finding multiscale connectivity in our geospace observational system: Network analysis of total electron content

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranaghan, Ryan M.; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Malik, Nishant

    2017-07-01

    We present the first complex network theory-based analysis of high-latitude total electron content (TEC) data, including dependencies on interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angle and hemisphere. We examine several network measures to quantify the spatiotemporal correlation patterns in the TEC data for winter and summer months in 2016. We find that significant structure exists in the correlation patterns, distinguishing the dayside and nightside ionosphere, and specific features in the high latitudes such as the polar cap and auroral oval, including the cusp and ionospheric foot points of magnetospheric boundary layers. These features vary with the IMF, exhibiting a strong dependence on the north-south direction and generally larger variations during the winter months in both hemispheres. Our exploratory results suggest that network analysis of TEC data can be used to study characteristic ionospheric spatial scales at high latitudes, thereby extending the utility of these data. We explore mesoscale and large scale (greater than tens of kilometers and greater than hundreds of kilometers, respectively) as a function of winter/summer season, hemisphere, and IMF direction and conclude that the relative importance of different ionospheric scales is not a constant relationship. Together with an identification of important areas of future work, our findings provide a foundation for the application of network analysis techniques to ionospheric TEC. Our results suggest that network analysis can reveal new physical connections in the ionospheric system.

  15. Prospective evaluation of delayed central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, Frederik; Steinvorth, Sarah; Lohr, Frank; Fruehauf, Stefan; Wildermuth, Susanne; Kampen, Michael van; Wannenmacher, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Prospective evaluation of chronic radiation effects on the healthy adult brain using neuropsychological testing of intelligence, attention, and memory. Methods and Materials: 58 patients (43 ± 10 yr) undergoing hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) (TBI, 14.4 Gy, 12 x 1.2 Gy in 4 days) before bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation were prospectively included. Twenty-one recurrence-free long-term survivors were re-examined 6-36 months (median 27 months) after completion of TBI. Neuropsychological testing included assessment of general intelligence, attention, and memory using normative, standardized psychometric tests. Mood status was controlled, as well. Test results are given as IQ scores (population mean 100) or percentiles for attention and memory (population mean 50). Results: The 21 patients showed normal baseline test results of IQ (101 ± 13) and attention (53 ± 28), with memory test scores below average (35 ± 21). Test results of IQ (98 ± 17), attention (58 ± 27), and memory (43 ± 28) showed no signs of clinically measurable radiation damage to higher CNS (central nervous system) functions during the follow-up. The mood status was improved. Conclusion: The investigation of CNS toxicity after hyperfractionated TBI showed no deterioration of test results in adult recurrence-free patients with tumor-free CNS. The median follow-up of 27 months will be extended.

  16. Limits of detection of a total reflection X-ray fluorescence system with double reflection module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento Filho, V F; Poblete, V H; Parreira, P S; Matsumoto, E; Simabuco, S M; Espinoza, E P; Navarro, A A

    1999-01-01

    An X-ray tube with a Mo target and Zr filter, operated at 45 kV/20 mA, was used to excite samples (5 microL deposited on a quartz support) and the total reflection angle condition was obtained with a double reflector module built with two 10-cm-long 7-mm-thick quartz crystals placed 50 microns apart. A high-resolution spectrometer based on a Si(Li) detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer was used for X-ray detection and the spectra were interpreted with the AXIL software. The system was calibrated with standard chemical solutions containing Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb, and Y was used as an internal standard to correct eventual geometric errors and high-voltage instabilities of the X-ray generator. The limits of detection were 19, 9, 5, and 4 ng/mL for Cr, Fe, Cu, and Zn, respectively, analyzed through characteristic K alpha X-rays, and 7 ng/mL for Pb, through L alpha X-rays, considering 50 microL samples deposited and dried on a quartz support, to be excited/detected for 1000 s.

  17. Total staff costs to implement a decision support system in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Castilho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the direct labor (DL costs to put in practice a decision support system (DSS in nursing at the University Hospital of the University of São Paulo (HU-USP. METHOD: the development of the DSS was mapped in four sub-processes: Conception, Elaboration, Construction and Transition. To calculate the DL, the baseline salary per professional category was added to the five-year additional remuneration, representation fees and social charges, and then divided by the number of hours contracted, resulting in the hour wage/professional, which was multiplied by the time spend on each activity in the sub-processes. RESULTS: the DL cost corresponded to R$ 752,618.56 (100%, R$ 26,000.00 (3.45% of which were funded by a funding agency, while R$ 726,618.56 (96,55% came from Hospital and University resources. CONCLUSION: considering the total DL cost, 72.1% related to staff wages for the informatics consulting company and 27.9% to the DL of professionals at the HU and the School of Nursing.

  18. Rebreathing in the Mapleson A, C and D breathing systems with sinusoidal and exponential flow waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, L B

    1997-12-01

    The degree of rebreathing in Mapleson A, C and D breathing systems for sinusoidal and exponential flow waveforms is analysed mathematically. The effects of altering the I:E ratio and of introducing an expiratory pause are investigated. The results for sinusoidal waveforms closely resemble those for a square wave. Exponential flow waveforms produce results similar to triangular flow waveforms. The Mapleson A system is always the most efficient. The Mapleson C system is efficient when the I:E ratio is 1:1, becoming less efficient with longer expiration and very inefficient with an expiratory pause. The Mapleson D system becomes efficient when the expiratory pause is long.

  19. Measurements of energy distribution and wall temperature in flowing hydrogen microwave plasma systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, R.; Finzel, M.; Hawley, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    An electrothermal propulsion concept utilizing a microwave plasma system as the mechanism to convert electromagnetic energy into translational energy of the flowing gas is being investigated. A calorimetric experimental system has been designed and built enclosing the microwave plasma system to accurately determine the net energy transferred to the flowing gas. For a flow rate of 8900 micromoles/sec, a pressure of 7.4 torr, and an absorbed power level of 80 W, an energy transfer efficiency of 50 percent has been measured. A heat transfer model that characterizes the energy transfer processes in the plasma is developed. A wall temperature for the plasma system is calculated.

  20. Entropy generation in the flow system generated in between two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    filled with the fluid becomes essential. Considerable research studies were carried out to examine entropy generation in parallel plates for various applications. The entropy generation minimization in parallel plates in rela- tion to the counter-flow heat exchangers was carried out by Ordonez & Bejan (2000). They. 455 ...