WorldWideScience

Sample records for total em energy-momentum

  1. Poynting Theorem, Relativistic Transformation of Total Energy-Momentum and Electromagnetic Energy-Momentum Tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmetskii, Alexander; Missevitch, Oleg; Yarman, Tolga

    2016-02-01

    We address to the Poynting theorem for the bound (velocity-dependent) electromagnetic field, and demonstrate that the standard expressions for the electromagnetic energy flux and related field momentum, in general, come into the contradiction with the relativistic transformation of four-vector of total energy-momentum. We show that this inconsistency stems from the incorrect application of Poynting theorem to a system of discrete point-like charges, when the terms of self-interaction in the product {\\varvec{j}} \\cdot {\\varvec{E}} (where the current density {\\varvec{j}} and bound electric field {\\varvec{E}} are generated by the same source charge) are exogenously omitted. Implementing a transformation of the Poynting theorem to the form, where the terms of self-interaction are eliminated via Maxwell equations and vector calculus in a mathematically rigorous way (Kholmetskii et al., Phys Scr 83:055406, 2011), we obtained a novel expression for field momentum, which is fully compatible with the Lorentz transformation for total energy-momentum. The results obtained are discussed along with the novel expression for the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor.

  2. The total energy-momentum tensor for electromagnetic fields in a dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, Michael E.

    2017-08-01

    Āmv. Newtonian fluids can behave very much like dust with the same energy-momentum tensor. The energy and momentum conservation properties of light propagating in the vacuum were long-ago cast in the energy-momentum tensor formalism in terms of the electromagnetic energy density and electromagnetic momentum density. However, extrapolating the tensor theory of energy-momentum conservation for propagation of light in the vacuum to propagation of light in a simple linear dielectric medium has proven to be problematic and controversial. A dielectric medium is not "otherwise empty" and it is typically assumed that optically induced forces accelerate and decelerate nanoscopic material constituents of the dielectric. The corresponding material energy-momentum tensor is added to the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor to form the total energy-momentum tensor, thereby ensuring that the total energy and the total momentum of the thermodynamically closed system remain constant in time.

  3. Relativistic analysis of the dielectric Einstein box: Abraham, Minkowski and total energy-momentum tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Tomas; Rubilar, Guillermo F.; Obukhov, Yuri N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ‚Üí The definition of the momentum of light inside matter is studied. ‚Üí Fully relativistic analysis of the dielectric 'Einstein box' thought experiment. ‚Üí Minkowski, Abraham and the total energy-momentum tensors are derived in detail. ‚Üí Some assumptions hidden in the usual Einstein box argument are identified. ‚Üí The Abraham momentum is not uniquely selected as the momentum of light in this case. - Abstract: We analyse the 'Einstein box' thought experiment and the definition of the momentum of light inside matter. We stress the importance of the total energy-momentum tensor of the closed system (electromagnetic field plus material medium) and derive in detail the relativistic expressions for the Abraham and Minkowski momenta, together with the corresponding balance equations for an isotropic and homogeneous medium. We identify some assumptions hidden in the Einstein box argument, which make it weaker than it is usually recognized. In particular, we show that the Abraham momentum is not uniquely selected as the momentum of light in this case.

  4. Energy, momentum and angular momentum conservations in de Sitter gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jia-An

    2016-01-01

    In de Sitter (dS) gravity, where gravity is a gauge field introduced to realize the local dS invariance of the matter field, two kinds of conservation laws are derived. The first kind is a differential equation for a dS-covariant current, which unites the canonical energy-momentum (EM) and angular momentum (AM) tensors. The second kind presents a dS-invariant current which is conserved in the sense that its torsion-free divergence vanishes. The dS-invariant current unites the total (matter plus gravity) EM and AM currents. It is well known that the AM current contains an inherent part, called the spin current. Here it is shown that the EM tensor also contains an inherent part, which might be observed by its contribution to the deviation of the dust particle’s world line from a geodesic. All the results are compared to the ordinary Lorentz gravity. (paper)

  5. Energy-momentum tensor in scalar QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joglekar, S.D.; Misra, A.

    1988-01-01

    We consider the renormalization of the energy-momentum tensor in scalar quantum electrodynamics. We show the need for adding an improvement term to the conventional energy-momentum tensor. We consider two possible forms for the improvement term: (i) one in which the improvement coefficient is a finite function of bare parameters of the theory (so that the energy-momentum tensor can be obtained from an action that is a finite function of bare quantities); (ii) one in which the improvement coefficient is a finite quantity, i.e., a finite function of renormalized parameters. We establish a negative result; viz., neither form leads to a finite energy-momentum tensor to O(e 2 őĽ/sup n/). .AE

  6. Continuity equations for bound electromagnetic field and the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholmetskii, A L; Missevitch, O V; Yarman, T

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the application of the Poynting theorem to the bound (velocity-dependent) electromagnetic (EM) field and show that an often-used arbitrary elimination of the term of self-interaction in the product j·E (where j is the current density and E the electric field) represents, in general, an illegitimate operation, which leads to incorrect physical consequences. We propose correct ways of eliminating the terms of self-interaction from the Poynting theorem to transform it into the form that is convenient for problems with bound EM field, which yield the continuity equations for the proper EM energy density, the interaction part of EM energy density and the total EM energy density of bound fields, respectively. These equations indicate the incompleteness of the common EM energy-momentum tensor, and in our analysis, we find a missed term in its structure, which makes its trace non-vanished. Some implications of these results are discussed, in particular, in view of the notion of EM mass of charged particles.

  7. Continuity equations for bound electromagnetic field and the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholmetskii, A L [Department of Physics, Belarusian State University, 4 Nezavisimosti Avenue, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Missevitch, O V [Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, 11 Bobruiskaya Street, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Yarman, T, E-mail: khol123@yahoo.com [Department of Engineering, Okan University, Akfirat, Istanbul, Turkey and Savronik, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2011-05-01

    We analyze the application of the Poynting theorem to the bound (velocity-dependent) electromagnetic (EM) field and show that an often-used arbitrary elimination of the term of self-interaction in the product j{center_dot}E (where j is the current density and E the electric field) represents, in general, an illegitimate operation, which leads to incorrect physical consequences. We propose correct ways of eliminating the terms of self-interaction from the Poynting theorem to transform it into the form that is convenient for problems with bound EM field, which yield the continuity equations for the proper EM energy density, the interaction part of EM energy density and the total EM energy density of bound fields, respectively. These equations indicate the incompleteness of the common EM energy-momentum tensor, and in our analysis, we find a missed term in its structure, which makes its trace non-vanished. Some implications of these results are discussed, in particular, in view of the notion of EM mass of charged particles.

  8. Energy-momentum-tensor in quantumelectrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schott, T

    1974-01-01

    This work deals with the operator properties of the energy-momentum-tensor (ET) in the framework of quantum electrodynamics. The principles of construction of the ET are discussed for quantized fields in the Schwinger variation principle. Dealing with the conserved quantities for quantized fields operator problems are coming up in the Coulomb gauge because Dirac- and Maxwellfield do not commute completely. Further on contemporary commutators of the ET components are investigated mutually. Finally non-canonical methods are developed.

  9. Energy-momentum tensor in the fermion-pairing model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawati, S.; Miyata, H.

    1980-01-01

    The symmetric energy-momentum tensor for the self-interacting fermion theory (psi-barpsi) 2 is expressed in terms of the collective mode within the Hartree approximation. The divergent part of the energy-momentum tensor for the fermion theory induces an effective energy-momentum tensor for the collective mode, and this effective energy-momentum tensor automatically has the Callan-Coleman-Jackiw improved form. The renormalized energy-momentum tensor is structurally equivalent to the Callan-Coleman-Jackiw improved tensor for the Yukawa theory

  10. The origin of the energy-momentum conservation law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubykalo, Andrew E.; Espinoza, Augusto; Kosyakov, B. P.

    2017-09-01

    The interplay between the action-reaction principle and the energy-momentum conservation law is revealed by the examples of the Maxwell-Lorentz and Yang-Mills-Wong theories, and general relativity. These two statements are shown to be equivalent in the sense that both hold or fail together. Their mutual agreement is demonstrated most clearly in the self-interaction problem by taking account of the rearrangement of degrees of freedom appearing in the action of the Maxwell-Lorentz and Yang-Mills-Wong theories. The failure of energy-momentum conservation in general relativity is attributed to the fact that this theory allows solutions having nontrivial topologies. The total energy and momentum of a system with nontrivial topological content prove to be ambiguous, coordinatization-dependent quantities. For example, the energy of a Schwarzschild black hole may take any positive value greater than, or equal to, the mass of the body whose collapse is responsible for forming this black hole. We draw the analogy to the paradoxial Banach-Tarski theorem; the measure becomes a poorly defined concept if initial three-dimensional bounded sets are rearranged in topologically nontrivial ways through the action of free non-Abelian isometry groups.

  11. On energy-momentum tensors of gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikishov, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    The phenomenological approach to gravitation is discussed in which the 3-graviton interaction is reduced to the interaction of each graviton with the energy-momentum tensor of two others. If this is so, (and in general relativity this is not so), then the problem of choosing the correct energy-momentum tensor comes to finding the right 3-graviton vertex. Several energy-momentum tensors od gravitational field are considered and compared in the lowest approximation. Each of them together with the energy-momentum tensor of point-like particles satisfies the conservation laws when equations of motion of particles are the same as in general relativity. It is shown that in Newtonian approximation the considered tensors differ one from other in the way their energy density is distributed between energy density of interaction (nonzero only at locations of particles) and energy density of gravitational field. Stating from Lorentz invariance, the Lagrangians for spin-2, mass-0 field are considered [ru

  12. Energy-momentum tensor of the electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horndeski, G.W.; Wainwright, J.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the energy-momentum tensor of the most general second-order vector-tensor theory of gravitation and electromagnetism which has field equations which are (i) derivable from a variational principle, (ii) consistent with the notion of conservation of charge, and (iii) compatible with Maxwell's equations in a flat space. This energy-momentum tensor turns out to be quadratic in the first partial derivatives of the electromagnetic field tensor and depends upon the curvature tensor. The asymptotic behavior of this energy-momentum tensor is examined for solutions to Maxwell's equations in Minkowski space, and it is demonstrated that this energy-momentum tensor predicts regions of negative energy density in the vicinity of point sources

  13. The energy-momentum operator in curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.R.; Ottewill, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that the only meaningful geometrical measure of the energy-momentum of states of matter described by a free quantum field theory in a general curved space-time is that provided by a normal ordered energy-momentum operator. The finite expectation values of this operator are contrasted with the conventional renormalized expectation values and it is further argued that the use of renormalization theory is inappropriate in this context. (author)

  14. Energy-momentum tensor in the quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azakov, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    An energy-momentum tensor in the scalar field theory is built. The tensor must satisfy the finiteness requirement of the Green function. The Green functions can always be made finite by renormalizations in the S-matrix by introducing counter terms into the Hamiltonian (or Lagrangian) of the interaction. Such a renormalization leads to divergencies in the Green functions. Elimination of these divergencies requires the introduction of new counter terms, which must be taken into account in the energy-momentum tensor

  15. Energy-momentum tensor in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, K.

    1981-01-01

    The definition of the energy-momentum tensor as a source current coupled to the background gravitational field receives an important modification in quantum theory. In the path-integral approach, the manifest covariance of the integral measure under general coordinate transformations dictates that field variables with weight 1/2 should be used as independent integration variables. An improved energy-momentum tensor is then generated by the variational derivative, and it gives rise to well-defined gravitational conformal (Weyl) anomalies. In the flat--space-time limit, all the Ward-Takahashi identities associated with space-time transformations including the global dilatation become free from anomalies in terms of this energy-momentum tensor, reflecting the general covariance of the integral measure; the trace of this tensor is thus finite at zero momentum transfer for renormalizable theories. The Jacobian for the local conformal transformation, however, becomes nontrivial, and it gives rise to an anomaly for the conformal identity. All the familiar anomalies are thus reduced to either chiral or conformal anomalies. The consistency of the dilatation and conformal identities at vanishing momentum transfer determines the trace anomaly of this energy-momentum tensor in terms of the renormalization-group b function and other parameters. In contrast, the trace of the conventional energy-momentum tensor generally diverges even at vanishing momentum transfer depending on the regularization scheme, and it is subtractively renormalized. We also explain how the apparently different renormalization properties of the chiral and trace anomalies arise

  16. Energy-momentum tensor in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo.

    1980-12-01

    The definition of the energy-momentum tensor as a source current coupled to the background gravitational field receives an important modification in quantum theory. In the path integral approach, the manifest covariance of the integral measure under general coordinate transformations dictates that field variables with weight 1/2 should be used as independent integration variables. An improved energy-momentum tensor is then generated by the variational derivative, and it gives rise to well-defined gravitational conformal (Weyl) anomalies. In the flat space-time limit, all the Ward-Takahashi identities associate with space-time transformations including the global dilatation become free from anomalies, reflecting the general covariance of the integral measure; the trace of this energy-momentum tensor is thus finite at the zero momentum transfer. The Jacobian for the local conformal transformation however becomes non-trivial, and it gives rise to an anomaly for the conformal identity. All the familiar anomalies are thus reduced to either chiral or conformal anomalies. The consistency of the dilatation and conformal identities at the vanishing momentum transfer determines the trace anomaly of this energy-momentum tensor in terms of the renormalization group ő≤-function and other parameters. In contrast, the trace of the conventional energy-momentum tensor generally diverges even at the vanishing momentum transfer depending on the regularization scheme, and it is subtractively renormalized. We also explain how the apparently different renormalization properties of the chiral and trace anomalies arise. (author)

  17. On the energy-momentum tensor in Moyal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasin, Herbert; Schweda, Manfred; Blaschke, Daniel N.; Gieres, Francois

    2015-01-01

    We study the properties of the energy-momentum tensor of gauge fields coupled to matter in non-commutative (Moyal) space. In general, the non-commutativity affects the usual conservation law of the tensor as well as its transformation properties (gauge covariance instead of gauge invariance). It is well known that the conservation of the energy-momentum tensor can be achieved by a redefinition involving another star-product. Furthermore, for a pure gauge theory it is always possible to define a gauge invariant energy-momentum tensor by means of a Wilson line. We show that the last two procedures are incompatible with each other if couplings of gauge fields to matter fields (scalars or fermions) are considered: The gauge invariant tensor (constructed via Wilson line) does not allow for a redefinition assuring its conservation, and vice versa the introduction of another star-product does not allow for gauge invariance by means of a Wilson line. (orig.)

  18. Energy-momentum complex in Moeller's tetrad theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhail, F.I.; Lashin, E.I.

    1991-08-01

    Moeller's tetrad theory of gravitation is examined with regard to the energy-momentum complex. The energy-momentum complex as well as the superpotential associated with Moeller's theory are derived. Moeller's field equations are solved in the case of ''general'' spherical symmetry. Two different solutions, giving rise to the same metric, are obtained. The energy associated with one solution is found to be twice the energy associated with the other. An avenue out of this inconsistency is suggested. (author). 20 refs, 1 tab

  19. Energy momentum tensor in local causal perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prange, D.

    2001-01-01

    We study the energy momentum tensor in the Bogolyubov-Epstein-Glaser approach to perturbation theory. It is found to be locally conserved for a class of theories containing to derivated fields in the interaction. For the massless ŌÜ 4 -theory we derive the trace anomaly of the improved tensor. (orig.)

  20. Global energy-momentum conservation in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissani, N.; Leibowitz, E.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that there exists a family of coordinate systems in which the energy-momentum tensor is globally conserved. Furthermore, this preferred class of frames includes geodesic systems with respect to any arbitrary point or timelike geodesic line. This implies a physically satisfactory conservation law with no need to introduce an extraneous pseudotensor

  1. Problem of energy-momentum and theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Folomeshkin, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    General properties of geometrised theories of gravitation are considered. Covariant formulation of conservation laws in arbitrary riemannian space-time is given. In the Einstein theory the symmetric as well as canonical energy-momentum tensor of the system ''matter plus gravitational field'' and in particular, the energy-momentum of free gravitational waves, turns out to be equal to zero. To understand the origin of the problems and difficulties concerning the energy-momentum in the Einstein theory, the gravitational filed is considered in the usual framework of the Lorentz invariant field theory, just like any other physical field. Combination of the approach proposed with the Einstein's idea of geometrization makes it possible to formulate the geometrised gravitation theory, in which there are no inner contradictions, the energy-momentum of gravitational field is defined precisely and all the known experimental facts are described successfully. For strong gravitational fields the predictions of the quasilinear geometrised theory under consideration are different from those of the gravitational theory in the Einstein formulation. Black holes are absent in the theory. Evaluation of the energy-flux of gravitational waves leads to unambiguous results and shows that the gravitational waves transfer the positive-definite energy

  2. Stable classification of the energy-momentum tensor. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman-Sanchez, A.R.; Przanowski, M.; Plevansky, J.

    1990-01-01

    Starting with the algebraic classification of the energy-momentum tensor given by Plebansky, it is established that this classification is unstable under versal deformations and a new (stable) classification is given. In order to keep the text to reasonable length, we just write the basic ideas and some results. (Author) (Author)

  3. The energy-momentum problem and gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Folomeshkin, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    General properties of geometrized gravitation theories are considered. A covariant formulation of conservation laws in an arbitrary Riemann space-time is presented. In the Einstein theory both symmetric and canonical energy-momentum tensors of the matter and gravitational field system and, in particular, energy-momentum of free gravitational waves prove to be equal to zero. Since gravitational waves carry the curvature and, consequently, affect the detector, this bears witness to an intrinsic contradiction of the Einstein theory. To realize the sources of difficulties concerning energy-momentum in the Einstein theory the gravitational field is treated in the same way as all the other physical fields, i.e. in terms of usual Lorentz-invariant field theory. Unification of this approach with the Einstein idea of geometrization enables to construct the geometrized theory, which is free from contradictions, has clearly defined the notions of gravitation field energy-momentum and satisfactorily describes all known experimental facts. To construct a logically consistent theory one should geometrize only the density of the matter Lagrangian. The gravitation field equations are formulated in terms of the Euclidean space-time with a metric tensor ő≥sub(ik), while the matter motion may be completely described in terms of the non-Euclidean space-time with a metric tensor gsub(ik). For strong gravitational fields the predictions of the quasi-linear theory under consideration appriciably differ from those of the Einstein formulation of the gravitation theory. No black holes are present in the theory. The results of the calculation for the energy flow of gravitational waves are rigorously unambiguous and show that gravitational waves carry positively definite energy

  4. Energy momentum tensor in theories with scalar field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joglekar, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    The renormalization of energy momentum tensor in theories with scalar fields and two coupling constants is considered. The need for addition of an improvement term is shown. Two possible forms for the improvement term are: (i) One in which the improvement coefficient is a finite function of bare parameters of the theory (so that the energy-momentum tensor can be derived from an action that is a finite function of bare quantities), (ii) One in which the improvement coefficient is a finite quantity, i.e. finite function of the renormalized quantities are considered. Four possible model of such theories are (i) Scalar Q.E.D. (ii) Non-Abelian theory with scalars, (iii) Yukawa theory, (iv) A model with two scalars. In all these theories a negative conclusion is established: neither forms for the improvement terms lead to a finite energy momentum tensor. Physically this means that when interaction with external gravity is incorporated in such a model, additional experimental input in the form of root mean square mass radius must be given to specify the theory completely, and the flat space parameters are insufficient. (author). 12 refs

  5. The gauge-invariant canonical energy-momentum tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorcé, Cédric

    2016-03-01

    The canonical energy-momentum tensor is often considered as a purely academic object because of its gauge dependence. However, it has recently been realized that canonical quantities can in fact be defined in a gauge-invariant way provided that strict locality is abandoned, the non-local aspect being dictacted in high-energy physics by the factorization theorems. Using the general techniques for the parametrization of non-local parton correlators, we provide for the first time a complete parametrization of the energy-momentum tensor (generalizing the purely local parametrizations of Ji and Bakker-Leader-Trueman used for the kinetic energy-momentum tensor) and identify explicitly the parts accessible from measurable two-parton distribution functions (TMDs and GPDs). As by-products, we confirm the absence of model-independent relations between TMDs and parton orbital angular momentum, recover in a much simpler way the Burkardt sum rule and derive three similar new sum rules expressing the conservation of transverse momentum.

  6. The gauge-invariant canonical energy-momentum tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorce, C.

    2016-01-01

    The canonical energy-momentum tensor is often considered as a purely academic object because of its gauge dependence. However, it has recently been realized that canonical quantities can in fact be defined in a gauge-invariant way provided that strict locality is abandoned, the non-local aspect being dictated in high-energy physics by the factorization theorems. Using the general techniques for the parametrization of non-local parton correlators, we provide for the first time a complete parametrization of the energy-momentum tensor (generalizing the purely local parametrizations of Ji and Bakker-Leader-Trueman used for the kinetic energy-momentum tensor) and identify explicitly the parts accessible from measurable two-parton distribution functions (TMD and GPD). As by-products, we confirm the absence of model-independent relations between TMDs and parton orbital angular momentum, recover in a much simpler way the Burkardt sum rule and derive 3 similar new sum rules expressing the conservation of transverse momentum. (author)

  7. Spherically symmetric solution and a satisfactory energy-momentum complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashed, G.G.L.

    2005-01-01

    Mikhail et al. obtained two spherically symmetric solution in Moeller tetrad theory of gravitation. They calculated their energy content and obtained a strange value for the second solution, in spite that the associated metric of these solutions is the same (the Schwarzschild metric). We use another method given bu Gibbons and Hawking to calculate the energy content of these solutions. We also obtained a strange value of energy for the second solution. Studying the requirements of the satisfactory energy-momentum complex given by Moeller we find that the second solution which behaves as 1/‚ąör does not transform as a four-vector under Lorentz transformation

  8. Dislocations, the elastic energy momentum tensor and crack propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, Chi-wei

    1979-07-01

    Based upon dislocation theory, some stress intensity factors can be calculated for practical cases. The results obtained by this method have been found to agree fairly well with the results obtained by the conventional fracture mechanics. The elastic energy momentum tensor has been used to calculate the force acting on the crack tip. A discussion on the kinetics of migration of impurities to the crack tip was given. It seems that the crack tip sometimes may be considered as a singularity in an elastic field and the fundamental law of classical field theory is applicable on the problem in fracture of materials. (author)

  9. Emergent gravity from vanishing energy-momentum tensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Erlich, Joshua [High Energy Theory Group, Department of Physics, College of William and Mary,Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795 (United States); Vaman, Diana [Department of Physics, University of Virginia,Box 400714, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2017-03-27

    A constraint of vanishing energy-momentum tensor is motivated by a variety of perspectives on quantum gravity. We demonstrate in a concrete example how this constraint leads to a metric-independent theory in which quantum gravity emerges as a nonperturbative artifact of regularization-scale physics. We analyze a scalar theory similar to the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) theory with vanishing gauge fields, with the DBI Lagrangian modulated by a scalar potential. In the limit of a large number of scalars, we explicitly demonstrate the existence of a composite massless spin-2 graviton in the spectrum that couples to matter as in Einstein gravity. We comment on the cosmological constant problem and the generalization to theories with fermions and gauge fields.

  10. Emergent gravity from vanishing energy-momentum tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Erlich, Joshua; Vaman, Diana

    2017-01-01

    A constraint of vanishing energy-momentum tensor is motivated by a variety of perspectives on quantum gravity. We demonstrate in a concrete example how this constraint leads to a metric-independent theory in which quantum gravity emerges as a nonperturbative artifact of regularization-scale physics. We analyze a scalar theory similar to the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) theory with vanishing gauge fields, with the DBI Lagrangian modulated by a scalar potential. In the limit of a large number of scalars, we explicitly demonstrate the existence of a composite massless spin-2 graviton in the spectrum that couples to matter as in Einstein gravity. We comment on the cosmological constant problem and the generalization to theories with fermions and gauge fields.

  11. Cosmological models in energy-momentum-squared gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Charles V. R.; Barrow, John D.

    2017-12-01

    We study the cosmological effects of adding terms of higher order in the usual energy-momentum tensor to the matter Lagrangian of general relativity. This is in contrast to most studies of higher-order gravity which focus on generalizing the Einstein-Hilbert curvature contribution to the Lagrangian. The resulting cosmological theories give rise to field equations of similar form to several particular theories with different fundamental bases, including bulk viscous cosmology, loop quantum gravity, k -essence, and brane-world cosmologies. We find a range of exact solutions for isotropic universes, discuss their behaviors with reference to the early- and late-time evolution, accelerated expansion, and the occurrence or avoidance of singularities. We briefly discuss extensions to anisotropic cosmologies and delineate the situations where the higher-order matter terms will dominate over anisotropies on approach to cosmological singularities.

  12. A MAPLE Package for Energy-Momentum Tensor Assessment in Curved Space-Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murariu, Gabriel; Praisler, Mirela

    2010-01-01

    One of the most interesting problem which remain unsolved, since the birth of the General Theory of Relativity (GR), is the energy-momentum localization. All our reflections are within the Lagrange formalism of the field theory. The concept of the energy-momentum tensor for gravitational interactions has a long history. To find a generally accepted expression, there have been different attempts. This paper is dedicated to the investigation of the energy-momentum problem in the theory of General Relativity. We use Einstein [1], Landau-Lifshitz [2], Bergmann-Thomson [3] and Moller's [4] prescriptions to evaluate energy-momentum distribution. In order to cover the huge volume of computation and, bearing in mind to make a general approaching for different space-time configurations, a MAPLE application to succeed in studying the energy momentum tensor was built. In the second part of the paper for two space-time configuration, the comparative results were presented.

  13. Scale transformations, the energy-momentum tensor, and the equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, P.

    1989-01-01

    The Equation of State (EOS) relates diagonal elements of the energy-momentum tensor őł őľőĹ . The first moment of the energy-momentum tensor generates scale transformations. The virial theorem, a consequence of the behavior of the energy density under scale transformations, allows one to eliminate the kinetic energy in terms of the potential terms. The trace theorem for the energy-momentum tensor expresses őĶ-3p in terms of ensemble averages of scale-breaking operators, allowing a new approach to the EOS. 10 refs

  14. Analytic determination at one loop of the energy-momentum tensor for lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caracciolo, S.; Menotti, P.; Pelissetto, A.

    1991-01-01

    We give a completely analytical determinaton of the corrections to the naive energy-momentum tensor for lattice QCD at one loop. This tenor is conserved and gives rise to the correct trace anomaly. (orig.)

  15. Energy-momentum tensor of intermediate vector bosons in an external electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostepanenko, V.M.; Sokolov, I.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    Expressions are obtained for the canonical and metric energy-momentum tensors of the vector field of intermediate bosons in an external electromagnetic field. It is shown that in the case of a gyromagnetic ratio not equal to unity the energy-momentum tensor cannot be symmetrized on its indices, and an additional term proportional to the anomalous magnetic moment appears in the conservation laws. A modification of the canonical formalism for scalar and vector fields in an external field is proposed in accordance with which the Hamiltonian density is equal to the 00 component of the energy-momentum tensor. An expression for the energy-momentum tensor of a closed system containing a gauge field of intermediate bosons and an electromagnetic field is obtained

  16. On the energy-momentum tensors for field theories in spaces with affine connection and metric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoff, S.

    1991-01-01

    Generalized covariant Bianchi type identities are obtained and investigated for Lagrangian densities, depending on co- and contravariant tensor fields and their first and second covariant derivatives in spaces with affine connection and metric (L n -space). The notions of canonical, generalized canonical, symmetric and variational energy-momentum tensor are introduced and necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the symmetric energy-momentum tensor as a local conserved quantity are obtained. 19 refs.; 1 tab

  17. Papapetrou energy-momentum tensor for Chern-Simons modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarrera, David; Hariton, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    We construct a conserved, symmetric energy-momentum (pseudo-)tensor for Chern-Simons modified gravity, thus demonstrating that the theory is Lorentz invariant. The tensor is discussed in relation to other gravitational energy-momentum tensors and analyzed for the Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstrom, and Friedmann-Robertson-Walker solutions. To our knowledge this is the first confirmation that the Reissner-Nordstrom and Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metrics are solutions of the modified theory

  18. On the energy-momentum tensor in non-linear ŌÉ-models with torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, H.; Otto, H.J.

    1987-10-01

    We study the renormalization properties of the energy-momentum tensor in a ŌÉ-model with torsion. Our normal product version contains besides the classical expression and the trace anomaly an off diagonal term proportional to the squared torsion. Specialized to a group manifold this term is crucial to reproduce the correct perturbative expansion of the energy-momentum tensor in Sugawara form. (orig.)

  19. Solitons and the energy-momentum tensor for affine Toda theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, D.I.; Turok, N.; Underwood, J.W.R.

    1993-01-01

    Following Leznov and Saveliev, we present the general solution to Toda field theories of conformal, affine or conformal affine type, associated with a simple Lie algebra g. These depend on a free massless field and on a group element. By putting the former to zero, soliton solutions to the affine Toda theories with imaginary coupling constant result with the soliton data encoded in the group element. As this requires a reformulation of the affine Kac-Moodyy algebra closely related to that already used to formulate the physical properties of the particle excitations, including their scattering matrices, a unified treatment of particles and solitons emerges. The physical energy-momentum tensor for a general solution is broken into a total derivative plus a part dependent only on the derivatives of the free field. Despite the non-linearity of the field equations and their complex nature the energy and momentum of the N-soliton solution is shown to be real, equalling the sum of contributions from the individual solitons. There are rank-g species of soliton, with masses given by a generalisation of a formula due to Hollowood, being proportional to the components of the left Perron-Frobenius eigenvector of the Cartan matrix of g. (orig.)

  20. Modified weak energy condition for the energy momentum tensor in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, J.

    1998-01-01

    The weak energy condition is known to fail in general when applied to expectation values of the energy momentum tensor in flat space quantum field theory. It is shown how the usual counter arguments against its validity are no longer applicable if the states vertical stroke Ōą right angle for which the expectation value is considered are restricted to a suitably defined subspace. A possible natural restriction on vertical stroke Ōą right angle is suggested and illustrated by two quantum mechanical examples based on a simple perturbed harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian. The proposed alternative quantum weak energy condition is applied to states formed by the action of the scalar, vector and the energy momentum tensor operators on the vacuum. We assume conformal invariance in order to determine almost uniquely three-point functions involving the energy momentum tensor in terms of a few parameters. The positivity conditions lead to non-trivial inequalities for these parameters. They are satisfied in free field theories, except in one case for dimensions close to two. Further restrictions on vertical stroke Ōą right angle are suggested which remove this problem. The inequalities which follow from considering the state formed by applying the energy momentum tensor to the vacuum are shown to imply that the coefficient of the topological term in the expectation value of the trace of the energy momentum tensor in an arbitrary curved space background is positive, in accord with calculations in free field theories. (orig.)

  1. The light-front gauge-invariant energy-momentum tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorce, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we provide for the first time a complete parametrization for the matrix elements of the generic asymmetric, non-local and gauge-invariant canonical energy-momentum tensor, generalizing therefore former works on the symmetric, local and gauge-invariant kinetic energy-momentum tensor also known as the Belinfante-Rosenfeld energy-momentum tensor. We discuss in detail the various constraints imposed by non-locality, linear and angular momentum conservation. We also derive the relations with two-parton generalized and transverse-momentum dependent distributions, clarifying what can be learned from the latter. In particular, we show explicitly that two-parton transverse-momentum dependent distributions cannot provide any model-independent information about the parton orbital angular momentum. On the way, we recover the Burkardt sum rule and obtain similar new sum rules for higher-twist distributions

  2. Energy-momentum tensor for a Casimir apparatus in a weak gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimonte, Giuseppe; Calloni, Enrico; Esposito, Giampiero; Rosa, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the gravity acceleration on the regularized energy-momentum tensor of the quantized electromagnetic field between two plane-parallel conducting plates is derived. We use Fermi coordinates and work to first order in the constant acceleration parameter. A perturbative expansion, to this order, of the Green functions involved and of the energy-momentum tensor is derived by means of the covariant geodesic point-splitting procedure. In correspondence to the Green functions satisfying mixed and gauge-invariant boundary conditions, and Ward identities, the energy-momentum tensor is covariantly conserved and satisfies the expected relation between gauge-breaking and ghost parts, while a new simple formula for the trace anomaly is obtained to first order in the constant acceleration. A more systematic derivation is therefore obtained of the theoretical prediction according to which the Casimir device in a weak gravitational field will experience a tiny push in the upwards direction

  3. Correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in SU(2) gauge theory at finite temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huebner, K.; Karsch, F.; Pica, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    We calculate correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in the vicinity of the deconfinement phase transition of (3+1)-dimensional SU(2) gauge theory and discuss their critical behavior in the vicinity of the second order deconfinement transition. We show that correlation functions...... of the trace of the energy momentum tensor diverge uniformly at the critical point in proportion to the specific heat singularity. Correlation functions of the pressure, on the other hand, stay finite at the critical point. We discuss the consequences of these findings for the analysis of transport...... coefficients, in particular the bulk viscosity, in the vicinity of a second order phase transition point....

  4. Fonoterapia em glossectomia total: estudo de caso Speech therapy in total glossectomy: case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Alves Vieira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A cirurgia curativa do c√Ęncer de l√≠ngua ocasiona sequelas que prejudicam o bom funcionamento das fun√ß√Ķes estomatogn√°ticas. O objetivo do trabalho √© descrever, por meio de estudo de caso, os achados da avalia√ß√£o e a evolu√ß√£o da reabilita√ß√£o fonoaudiol√≥gica das fun√ß√Ķes de degluti√ß√£o e fala de um indiv√≠duo de 58 anos, g√™nero masculino, submetido √† glossectomia total em junho de 2009. Ap√≥s a avalia√ß√£o diagnosticou-se disfagia orofar√≠ngea mec√Ęnica severa e altera√ß√£o na articula√ß√£o da fala. Na reabilita√ß√£o fonoaudiol√≥gica foram utilizadas, como formas de atua√ß√£o, as terapias direta e indireta. Na terapia indireta trabalhou-se controle motor oral, sensibilidade, mobilidade, motricidade, t√īnus e postura das estruturas adjacentes da l√≠ngua resseccionada. Na terapia direta empregou-se a manobra de postura de cabe√ßa para tr√°s para auxiliar na eje√ß√£o de alimentos para a faringe. O paciente passou a alimentar-se exclusivamente por via oral, com a restri√ß√£o de s√≥lidos, ap√≥s dez meses em tratamento. No que se refere √† fala, foram utilizados exerc√≠cios de sobrearticula√ß√£o, velocidade e ritmo para melhorar a sua inteligibilidade. Dessa forma, considerou-se os resultados da interven√ß√£o fonoaudiol√≥gica positivos e o paciente recebeu alta ap√≥s um ano em tratamento. Conclui-se que as ressec√ß√Ķes de l√≠ngua apresentam sequelas significativas nas fun√ß√Ķes de degluti√ß√£o e fala, assim sendo, √© imprescind√≠vel a atua√ß√£o fonoaudiol√≥gica para modificar e adaptar essas fun√ß√Ķes, al√©m de proporcionar melhor qualidade de vida ao paciente.Curative surgery for tongue cancer results in sequelae that harm the good functioning of the stomatognathic system. The aim of the present study is to describe a case study, reporting the evaluation and evolution findings of the speech-language pathology rehabilitation of the swallowing and speech functions of a 58-year-old man submitted to total glossectomy in June 2009. After

  5. Energy-momentum tensor of the gravitational field for material spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.N.

    1990-01-01

    Density of the energy-momentum tensor of a gravitational field which can be defined in the general relativity theory with the help of ideas of the relativistic gravitational theory is found for the case of material spheres. A relationship of this quantity with the Riemann tensor R őĪő≤ő≥őī is discussed

  6. Renormalized energy-momentum tensor of őĽő¶4 theory in curved ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Divergenceless expression for the energy-momentum tensor of scalar Ô¨Āeld is obtained using the momentum cut-off regularization technique. We consider a scalar Ô¨Āeld with quartic self-coupling in a spatially Ô¨āat (3+1)-dimensional Robertson‚ÄďWalker space-time, having arbitrary mass and coupled to gravity. As special cases¬†...

  7. Conservation laws and stress-energy-momentum tensors for systems with background fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratus, Jonathan, E-mail: j.gratus@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Obukhov, Yuri N., E-mail: yo@thp.uni-koeln.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Cologne, 50923 Koeln (Germany); Tucker, Robin W., E-mail: r.tucker@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    This article attempts to delineate the roles played by non-dynamical background structures and Killing symmetries in the construction of stress-energy-momentum tensors generated from a diffeomorphism invariant action density. An intrinsic coordinate independent approach puts into perspective a number of spurious arguments that have historically lead to the main contenders, viz the Belinfante-Rosenfeld stress-energy-momentum tensor derived from a Noether current and the Einstein-Hilbert stress-energy-momentum tensor derived in the context of Einstein's theory of general relativity. Emphasis is placed on the role played by non-dynamical background (phenomenological) structures that discriminate between properties of these tensors particularly in the context of electrodynamics in media. These tensors are used to construct conservation laws in the presence of Killing Lie-symmetric background fields. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The role of background fields in diffeomorphism invariant actions is demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interrelations between different stress-energy-momentum tensors are emphasised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Abraham and Minkowski electromagnetic tensors are discussed in this context. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation laws in the presence of nondynamic background fields are formulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The discussion is facilitated by the development of a new variational calculus.

  8. Bootstrapping gravity: A consistent approach to energy-momentum self-coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, Luke M.; Hobson, Michael; Lasenby, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    It is generally believed that coupling the graviton (a classical Fierz-Pauli massless spin-2 field) to its own energy-momentum tensor successfully recreates the dynamics of the Einstein field equations order by order; however the validity of this idea has recently been brought into doubt [T. Padmanabhan, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 17, 367 (2008).]. Motivated by this, we present a graviton action for which energy-momentum self-coupling is indeed consistent with the Einstein field equations. The Hilbert energy-momentum tensor for this graviton is calculated explicitly and shown to supply the correct second-order term in the field equations; in contrast, the Fierz-Pauli action fails to supply the correct term. A formalism for perturbative expansions of metric-based gravitational theories is then developed, and these techniques employed to demonstrate that our graviton action is a starting point for a straightforward energy-momentum self-coupling procedure that, order by order, generates the Einstein-Hilbert action (up to a classically irrelevant surface term). The perturbative formalism is extended to include matter and a cosmological constant, and interactions between perturbations of a free matter field and the gravitational field are studied in a vacuum background. Finally, the effect of a nonvacuum background is examined, and the graviton is found to develop a nonvanishing 'mass-term' in the action.

  9. On some properties of Einstein equations with the perfect fluid energy-momentum tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biesiada, M.; Szydlowski, M.; Szczesny, J.

    1989-01-01

    We discuss the symmetries of Einstein equations with the perfect fluid energy momentum tensor. We show that the symmetries inherited from vacuum equations enforce the equation of state in the form p p 0 = ő≥ŌĀ which is the most often used one and contains models with the cosmological constant. 9 refs. (author)

  10. On the infimum of the energy-momentum spectrum of a homogeneous Bose gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Derezinski, J.; Zin, P.

    2009-01-01

    We consider second-quantized homogeneous Bose gas in a large cubic box with periodic boundary conditions at zero temperature. We discuss the energy-momentum spectrum of the Bose gas and its physical significance. We review various rigorous and heuristic results as well as open conjectures about its...

  11. The energy-momentum spectrum in local field theories with broken Lorentz-symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchers, H.J.; Buchholz, D.

    1984-05-01

    Assuming locality of the observables and positivity of the energy it is shown that the joint spectrum of the energy-momentum operators has a Lorentz-invariant lower boundary in all superselection sectors. This result is of interest if the Lorentz-symmetry is (spontaneously) broken, such as in the charged sectors of quantum electrodynamics. (orig.)

  12. Covariantisation of the Boulware-Deger representation for equal-time commutators of the energy-momentum tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indukaev, C.V.; Shirokov, Yu.M.

    1975-01-01

    A complete set of restrictions on equal-time commutators of the energy-momentum tensor is derived. The restrictions obtained represent the consequences of the conditions of relativistic covariance and spectality. The technoloque developed is exemplified on a simple system of energy-momentum tensor equal-time commutators

  13. A critical inquiry into the objection of Moeller to his energy-momentum complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, D.

    1985-01-01

    In the year 1958 Mueller derived an energy-momentum complex to attain the localizability of the energy in gravitational fields. However, three years later after extensive investigations he himself raised an objection to his expression showing that the corresponding energy-momentum vector of a closed physical system does not transform like a free 4-vector with respect to a Lorentz transformation. An inquiry into the objection of Mueller is carried through at full length. Surprisingly it turns out that the equation on which he based his objection originates from a misinterpretation. Moreover, the argument given by him to explain the alleged failure of his expression proves to be incomplete. Complementing the argument, the objection of Mueller is no longer tenable. (author)

  14. Holographic perfect fluidity, Cotton energy-momentum duality and transport properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan [Centre de Physique Théorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS UMR 7644,Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA, CNRS URA 2306,91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Petkou, Anastasios C. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Petropoulos, P. Marios; Pozzoli, Valentina [Centre de Physique Théorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS UMR 7644,Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Siampos, Konstadinos [Service de Mécanique et Gravitation, Université de Mons, UMONS,20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2014-04-23

    We investigate background metrics for 2+1-dimensional holographic theories where the equilibrium solution behaves as a perfect fluid, and admits thus a thermodynamic description. We introduce stationary perfect-Cotton geometries, where the Cotton-York tensor takes the form of the energy-momentum tensor of a perfect fluid, i.e. they are of Petrov type D{sub t}. Fluids in equilibrium in such boundary geometries have non-trivial vorticity. The corresponding bulk can be exactly reconstructed to obtain 3+1-dimensional stationary black-hole solutions with no naked singularities for appropriate values of the black-hole mass. It follows that an infinite number of transport coefficients vanish for holographic fluids. Our results imply an intimate relationship between black-hole uniqueness and holographic perfect equilibrium. They also point towards a Cotton/energy-momentum tensor duality constraining the fluid vorticity, as an intriguing boundary manifestation of the bulk mass/nut duality.

  15. Holographic perfect fluidity, Cotton energy-momentum duality and transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Ayan; Petkou, Anastasios C.; Petropoulos, P. Marios; Pozzoli, Valentina; Siampos, Konstadinos

    2014-01-01

    We investigate background metrics for 2+1-dimensional holographic theories where the equilibrium solution behaves as a perfect fluid, and admits thus a thermodynamic description. We introduce stationary perfect-Cotton geometries, where the Cotton-York tensor takes the form of the energy-momentum tensor of a perfect fluid, i.e. they are of Petrov type D t . Fluids in equilibrium in such boundary geometries have non-trivial vorticity. The corresponding bulk can be exactly reconstructed to obtain 3+1-dimensional stationary black-hole solutions with no naked singularities for appropriate values of the black-hole mass. It follows that an infinite number of transport coefficients vanish for holographic fluids. Our results imply an intimate relationship between black-hole uniqueness and holographic perfect equilibrium. They also point towards a Cotton/energy-momentum tensor duality constraining the fluid vorticity, as an intriguing boundary manifestation of the bulk mass/nut duality

  16. Energy-momentum tensor correlation function in Nf = 2 + 1 full QCD at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yusuke; Ejiri, Shinji; Kanaya, Kazuyuki; Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Suzuki, Asobu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Umeda, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    We measure correlation functions of the nonperturbatively renormalized energy-momentum tensor in Nf = 2 + 1 full QCD at finite temperature by applying the gradient flow method both to the gauge and quark fields. Our main interest is to study the conservation law of the energy-momentum tensor and to test whether the linear response relation is properly realized for the entropy density. By using the linear response relation we calculate the specific heat from the correlation function. We adopt the nonperturba-tively improved Wilson fermion and Iwasaki gauge action at a fine lattice spacing = 0:07 fm. In this paper the temperature is limited to a single value T ‚ČÉ 232 MeV. The u, d quark mass is rather heavy with mŌÄ=mŌĀ ‚ČÉ 0:63 while the s quark mass is set to approximately its physical value.

  17. Energy-momentum tensor correlation function in Nf = 2 + 1 full QCD at finite temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taniguchi Yusuke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We measure correlation functions of the nonperturbatively renormalized energy-momentum tensor in Nf = 2 + 1 full QCD at finite temperature by applying the gradient flow method both to the gauge and quark fields. Our main interest is to study the conservation law of the energy-momentum tensor and to test whether the linear response relation is properly realized for the entropy density. By using the linear response relation we calculate the specific heat from the correlation function. We adopt the nonperturba-tively improved Wilson fermion and Iwasaki gauge action at a fine lattice spacing = 0:07 fm. In this paper the temperature is limited to a single value T ‚ČÉ 232 MeV. The u, d quark mass is rather heavy with mŌÄ=mŌĀ ‚ČÉ 0:63 while the s quark mass is set to approximately its physical value.

  18. Correlation Functions of the Energy Momentum Tensor on Spaces of Constant Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Osborn, H

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of one and two point functions of the energy momentum tensor on homogeneous spaces of constant curvature is undertaken. The possibility of proving a c-theorem in this framework is discussed, in particular in relation to the coefficients c,a, which appear in the energy momentum tensor trace on general curved backgrounds in four dimensions. Ward identities relating the correlation functions are derived and explicit expressions are obtained for free scalar, spinor field theories in general dimensions and also free vector fields in dimension four. A natural geometric formalism which is independent of any choice of coordinates is used and the role of conformal symmetries on such constant curvature spaces is analysed. The results are shown to be constrained by the operator product expansion. For negative curvature the spectral representation, involving unitary positive energy representations of $O(d-1,2)$, for two point functions of vector currents is derived in detail and extended to the energy momentu...

  19. Conformal symmetry breaking and the energy-momentum tensor in four dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, E.; Sibold, K.

    1993-01-01

    We derive the conformal transformation properties of the energy-momentum tensor for the massless ŌÜ 4 -theory in four dimensions. For this purpose the consistency conditions arising from Weyl-transformations are essential. The breaking of Weyl-invariance can be completely absorbed by making the coupling of the elementary theory local and by introducing an external field which couples to the composite operators ŌÜ 2 . Only then can one stay in a completely local framework. (orig.)

  20. On scalar and vector fields coupled to the energy-momentum tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jose Beltrán; Cembranos, Jose A. R.; Sánchez Velázquez, Jose M.

    2018-05-01

    We consider theories for scalar and vector fields coupled to the energy-momentum tensor. Since these fields also carry a non-trivial energy-momentum tensor, the coupling prescription generates self-interactions. In analogy with gravity theories, we build the action by means of an iterative process that leads to an infinite series, which can be resumed as the solution of a set of differential equations. We show that, in some particular cases, the equations become algebraic and that is also possible to find solutions in the form of polynomials. We briefly review the case of the scalar field that has already been studied in the literature and extend the analysis to the case of derivative (disformal) couplings. We then explore theories with vector fields, distinguishing between gauge-and non-gauge-invariant couplings. Interactions with matter are also considered, taking a scalar field as a proxy for the matter sector. We also discuss the ambiguity introduced by superpotential (boundary) terms in the definition of the energy-momentum tensor and use them to show that it is also possible to generate Galileon-like interactions with this procedure. We finally use collider and astrophysical observations to set constraints on the dimensionful coupling which characterises the phenomenology of these models.

  1. Correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor on spaces of constant curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, H.; Shore, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of one- and two-point functions of the energy-momentum tensor on homogeneous spaces of constant curvature is undertaken. The possibility of proving a c-theorem in this framework is discussed, in particular in relation to the coefficients c,a, which appear in the energy-momentum tensor trace on general curved backgrounds in four dimensions. Ward identities relating the correlation functions are derived and explicit expressions are obtained for free scalar, spinor field theories in general dimensions and also free vector fields in dimension four. A natural geometric formalism which is independent of any choice of coordinates is used and the role of conformal symmetries on such constant curvature spaces is analysed. The results are shown to be constrained by the operator product expansion. For negative curvature the spectral representation, involving unitary positive energy representations of O(d-1,2), for two-point functions of vector currents is derived in detail and extended to the energy-momentum tensor by analogy. It is demonstrated that, at non-coincident points, the two-point functions are not related to a in any direct fashion and there is no straightforward demonstration obtainable in this framework of irreversibility under renormalisation group flow of any function of the couplings for four-dimensional field theories which reduces to a at fixed points

  2. Symmetric energy-momentum tensor in Maxwell, Yang-Mills, and Proca theories obtained using only Noether's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesinos, M.; Flores, E.

    2006-01-01

    The symmetric and gauge-invariant energy-momentum tensors for source-free Maxwell and Yang-Mills theories are obtained by means of translations in spacetime via a systematic implementation of Noether's theorem. For the source-free neutral Proca field, the same procedure yields also the symmetric energy-momentum tensor. In all cases, the key point to get the right expressions for the energy-momentum tensors is the appropriate handling of their equations of motion and the Bianchi identities. It must be stressed that these results are obtained without using Belinfante's symmetrization techniques which are usually employed to this end. (Author)

  3. Energy-momentum tensor in theories with scalar fields and two coupling constants. I. Non-Abelian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joglekar, S.D.; Misra, A.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize our earlier discussion of renormalization of the energy-momentum tensor in scalar QED to that in non-Abelian gauge theories involving scalar fields. We show the need for adding an improvement term to the conventional energy-momentum tensor. We consider two possible forms for the improvement term: (i) one in which the improvement coefficient is a finite function of bare parameters of the theory (so that the energy-momentum tensor can be derived from an action that is a finite function of bare quantities); (ii) one in which the improvement coefficient is a finite quantity, i.e., a finite function of renormalized parameters. We establish a negative result; viz., neither form leads to a finite energy-momentum tensor to O(e 2 őĽ/sup n/)

  4. Energy-momentum tensor in thermal strong-field QED with unstable vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, S P [Department of General and Experimental Physics, Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, Moyka emb. 48, 191186 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gitman, D M [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 66318, CEP 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: gavrilovsergeyp@yahoo.com, E-mail: gitman@dfn.if.usp.br

    2008-04-25

    The mean value of the one-loop energy-momentum tensor in thermal QED with an electric-like background that creates particles from vacuum is calculated. The problem is essentially different from calculations of effective actions (similar to the action of Heisenberg-Euler) in backgrounds that respect the stability of vacuum. The role of a constant electric background in the violation of both the stability of vacuum and the thermal character of particle distribution is investigated. Restrictions on the electric field and the duration over which one can neglect the back-reaction of created particles are established.

  5. Energy-momentum tensor in thermal strong-field QED with unstable vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, S P; Gitman, D M

    2008-01-01

    The mean value of the one-loop energy-momentum tensor in thermal QED with an electric-like background that creates particles from vacuum is calculated. The problem is essentially different from calculations of effective actions (similar to the action of Heisenberg-Euler) in backgrounds that respect the stability of vacuum. The role of a constant electric background in the violation of both the stability of vacuum and the thermal character of particle distribution is investigated. Restrictions on the electric field and the duration over which one can neglect the back-reaction of created particles are established

  6. Nonexotic matter wormholes in a trace of the energy-momentum tensor squared gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, P. H. R. S.; Sahoo, P. K.

    2018-01-01

    Wormholes are tunnels connecting two different points in space-time. In Einstein's general relativity theory, wormholes are expected to be filled by exotic matter, i.e., matter that does not satisfy the energy conditions and may have negative density. We propose, in this paper, the achievement of wormhole solutions with no need for exotic matter. In order to achieve so, we consider a gravity theory that starts from linear and quadratic terms on the trace of the energy-momentum tensor in the gravitational action. We show that by following this formalism, it is possible, indeed, to obtain nonexotic matter wormhole solutions.

  7. Energy-momentum tensor and definition of particle states for Robertson-Walker space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.R.; Dutton, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    A new regularization scheme is developed for calculating expectation values of the energy-momentum tensor of a quantized scalar field in Robertson-Walker space-times. Using this regularized stress tensor we consider a definition for the vacuum state of the scalar field on any initial hypersurface. Asymptotic methods are developed to investigate the structure of both the divergent and finite terms of the stress tensor when evaluated in this state. The conformal anomaly is discussed in the context of this model. It does not naturally enter into the analysis and we argue that its inclusion is unnecessary

  8. Induced vacuum energy-momentum tensor in the background of a cosmic string

    OpenAIRE

    Sitenko, Yu. A.; Vlasii, N. D.

    2011-01-01

    A massive scalar field is quantized in the background of a cosmic string which is generalized to a static flux-carrying codimension-2 brane in the locally flat multidimensional space-time. We find that the finite energy-momentum tensor is induced in the vacuum. The dependence of the tensor components on the brane flux and tension, as well as on the coupling to the space-time curvature scalar, is comprehensively analyzed. The tensor components are holomorphic functions of space dimension, decr...

  9. Indicators for estimating the total apparent digestibility in horses Indicadores para estimativa da digestibilidade aparente total em equinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Ariboni Brandi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study to evaluate various indicators to estimate the total nutrient digestibility in horses. We used four adult mares, breed, grouped in a 4 x 4 Latin square balanced fed diets containing equal parts of hay Tifton 85 (Cynodon sp and concentrated experimental containing corn subjected to four processes: a diet containing ground corn ; flaked corn diet 2, 3 rolled corn, and 4 extruded corn. The weighting coefficient of digestibility of nutrients by the indicators was done through the bias. The accuracy and precision were determined by comparing the predicted and observed data, and the robustness of the biases by comparing with other factors studied. The chromic oxide methods showed similar values of apparent digestibility of nutrients when compared to the total collection method. We observed higher accuracy for the acid detergent lignin as compared to the other indicators tested. However, the acid detergent lignin underestimated the digestibility of nutrients when compared to the total collection. The acid detergent insoluble ash overestimated the digestibility of nutrients when compared to the total collection. The chromic oxide is presented as a better indicator for estimating the total apparent digestibility in horses due to its higher accuracy among the markers evaluated.Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar diferentes indicadores para estimativa das digestibilidades aparente total em equinos. Foram utilizadas quatro éguas adultas, sem raça definida, agrupadas em um quadrado latino 4 x 4 balanceado, alimentadas com dietas que continham partes iguais de feno da gramínea Tifton 85 (Cynodon sp e concentrado experimental que continha milho submetido a quatro processamentos: dieta um milho triturado; dieta dois milho floculado; dieta três milho laminado e dieta quatro milho extrusado. A ponderação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade dos nutrientes pelos indicadores foi efetuada por meio do viés. A acurácia e a precis

  10. Noether symmetries, energy-momentum tensors, and conformal invariance in classical field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Josep M.

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of classical field theory, we first review the Noether theory of symmetries, with simple rederivations of its essential results, with special emphasis given to the Noether identities for gauge theories. With this baggage on board, we next discuss in detail, for Poincare invariant theories in flat spacetime, the differences between the Belinfante energy-momentum tensor and a family of Hilbert energy-momentum tensors. All these tensors coincide on shell but they split their duties in the following sense: Belinfante's tensor is the one to use in order to obtain the generators of Poincare symmetries and it is a basic ingredient of the generators of other eventual spacetime symmetries which may happen to exist. Instead, Hilbert tensors are the means to test whether a theory contains other spacetime symmetries beyond Poincare. We discuss at length the case of scale and conformal symmetry, of which we give some examples. We show, for Poincare invariant Lagrangians, that the realization of scale invariance selects a unique Hilbert tensor which allows for an easy test as to whether conformal invariance is also realized. Finally we make some basic remarks on metric generally covariant theories and classical field theory in a fixed curved background.

  11. Expansion Formulation of General Relativity: the Gauge Functions for Energy-Momentum Tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloushko, Konstantin; Karbanovski, Valeri

    At present the one of the GR (General Relativity) basic problem remains a definition of the gravitation field (GF) energy. We shall analyze this content. As well known, the energy-momentum ``tensor'' (EMT) of GF was introduced by Einstein [1] with purpose of the SRT (Special Relativity Theory) generalization. It supposed also, that EMT of matter satisfy to the condition begin{equation} ‚™Čbel{GrindEQ__1_1_} T^{ik} _{;i} =0 (a semicolon denotes a covariant differentiation with respect to coordinates). In absence of GF the equation (ref{GrindEQ__1_1_}) reduces to a corresponding SRT expression begin{equation} ‚™Čbel{GrindEQ__1_2_} T^{ik} _{,i} =0 (a comma denotes a differentiation with respect to coordinates of space-time). Obviously, the ``conservation law'' (ref{GrindEQ__1_2_}) is not broken by transformation begin{equation} ‚™Čbel{GrindEQ__1_3_} T^{ik} to tilde{T}^{ik} =T^{ik} +h^{ikl} _{,l} , where for h(ikl) takes place a constrain begin{equation} ‚™Čbel{GrindEQ__1_4_} h^{ikl} =-h^{ilk} Later the given property has been used for a construction ``pseudo-tensor'' tau (ik) of ``pure'' GF [2, S 96] begin{equation} ‚™Čbel{GrindEQ__1_5_} -gleft(frac{c^{4} }{8pi G} left(R^{ik} -frac{1}{2} g^{ik} Rright)+tau ^{ik} right)=h^{ikl} _{,l} However such definition was a consequence of non-covariant transition from a reference system with condition g(ik) _{,l} =0 to an arbitrary frame. Therefore the Landau-Lifshitz pseudo-tensor has no physical contents and considered problem remains actual. ``The non-covariant character'' of GF energy was the reason for criticism of GR as Einstein's contemporaries [3, 4], as and during the subsequent period (see, for example, [5]). In [6] were analyzed the grounds of given problem, which are connected with a formulation indefiniteness of ``the conservation law'' in curved space-time. In [7] contends, that the gravitational energy in EMT can be separated only ``artificially'' by a choice of the certain coordinate system. In [8] is concluded

  12. Energy momentum tensor and operator product expansion in local causal perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prange, D.

    2000-09-01

    We derive new examples for algebraic relations of interacting fields in local perturbative quantum field theory. The fundamental building blocks in this approach are time ordered products of free (composed) fields. We give explicit formulas for the construction of Poincare covariant ones, which were already known to exist through cohomological arguments. For a large class of theories the canonical energy momentum tensor is shown to be conserved. Classical theories without dimensionful couplings admit an improved tensor that is additionally traceless. On the example of ŌÜ 4 -theory we discuss the improved tensor in the quantum theory. Its trace receives an anomalous contribution due to its conservation. Moreover, we define an interacting bilocal normal product for scalar theories. This leads to an operator product expansion of two time ordered fields. (orig.) [de

  13. The energy-momentum tensor for the linearized Maxwell-Vlasov and kinetic guiding center theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Morrison, P.J.; Texas Univ., Austin

    1990-02-01

    A modified Hamilton-Jacobi formalism is introduced as a tool to obtain the energy-momentum and angular-momentum tensors for any kind of nonlinear or linearized Maxwell-collisionless kinetic theories. The emphasis is on linearized theories, for which these tensors are derived for the first time. The kinetic theories treated - which need not be the same for all particle species in a plasma - are the Vlasov and kinetic guiding center theories. The Hamiltonian for the guiding center motion is taken in the form resulting from Dirac's constraint theory for non-standard Lagrangian systems. As an example of the Maxwell-kinetic guiding center theory, the second-order energy for a perturbed homogeneous magnetized plasma is calculated with initially vanishing field perturbations. The expression obtained is compared with the corresponding one of Maxwell-Vlasov theory. (orig.)

  14. The energy-momentum tensor for the linearized Maxwell-Vlasov and kinetic guiding center theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Morrison, P.J.

    1990-02-01

    A modified Hamilton-Jacobi formalism is introduced as a tool to obtain the energy-momentum and angular-momentum tensors for any king of nonlinear or linearized Maxwell-collisionless kinetic theories. The emphasis is on linearized theories, for which these tensors are derived for the first time. The kinetic theories treated --- which need not be the same for all particle species in a plasma --- are the Vlasov and kinetic guiding center theories. The Hamiltonian for the guiding center motion is taken in the form resulting from Dirac's constraint theory for non-standard Lagrangian systems. As an example of the Maxwell-kinetic guiding center theory, the second-order energy for a perturbed homogeneous magnetized plasma is calculated with initially vanishing field perturbations. The expression obtained is compared with the corresponding one of Maxwell-Vlasov theory. 11 refs

  15. Virtual photons in the pion form factors and the energy-momentum tensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, Bastian E-mail: b.kubis@fz-juelich.de; Meissner, Ulf-G. E-mail: ulf-g.meissner@fz-juelich.de

    2000-05-22

    We evaluate the vector and scalar form factor of the pion in the presence of virtual photons at next-to-leading order in two-flavor chiral perturbation theory. We also consider the scalar and tensor pion form factors of the energy-momentum tensor. We find that the intrinsic electromagnetic corrections are very small for the vector as well as the charged pion scalar form factor. The scalar radius of the neutral pion is reduced by two percent. We perform infrared regularization by considering electron-positron annihilation into pions and the decay of a light Higgs boson into a pion pair. We discuss the detector resolution dependent contributions to the various form factors and pion radii.

  16. Virtual photons in the pion form factors and the energy-momentum tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, Bastian; Meissner, Ulf-G.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluate the vector and scalar form factor of the pion in the presence of virtual photons at next-to-leading order in two-flavor chiral perturbation theory. We also consider the scalar and tensor pion form factors of the energy-momentum tensor. We find that the intrinsic electromagnetic corrections are very small for the vector as well as the charged pion scalar form factor. The scalar radius of the neutral pion is reduced by two percent. We perform infrared regularization by considering electron-positron annihilation into pions and the decay of a light Higgs boson into a pion pair. We discuss the detector resolution dependent contributions to the various form factors and pion radii

  17. Energy momentum tensor and marginal deformations in open string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Ashoke

    2004-01-01

    Marginal boundary deformations in a two dimensional conformal field theory correspond to a family of classical solutions of the equations of motion of open string field theory. In this paper we develop a systematic method for relating the parameter labelling the marginal boundary deformation in the conformal field theory to the parameter labelling the classical solution in open string field theory. This is done by first constructing the energy-momentum tensor associated with the classical solution in open string field theory using Noether method, and then comparing this to the answer obtained in the conformal field theory by analysing the boundary state. We also use this method to demonstrate that in open string field theory the tachyon lump solution on a circle of radius larger than one has vanishing pressure along the circle direction, as is expected for a co-dimension one D-brane. (author)

  18. Induced vacuum energy-momentum tensor in the background of a cosmic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, Yu A; Vlasii, N D

    2012-01-01

    A massive scalar field is quantized in the background of a cosmic string which is generalized to a static flux-carrying codimension-2 brane in the locally flat multidimensional spacetime. We find that the finite energy-momentum tensor is induced in the vacuum. The dependence of the tensor components on the brane flux and tension, as well as on the coupling to the spacetime curvature scalar, is comprehensively analyzed. The tensor components are holomorphic functions of space dimension, decreasing exponentially with the distance from the brane. The case of the massless quantized scalar field is also considered, and the relevance of Bernoulli’s polynomials of even order for this case is discussed. (paper)

  19. Induced vacuum energy-momentum tensor in the background of a cosmic string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitenko, Yu A.; Vlasii, N. D.

    2012-05-01

    A massive scalar field is quantized in the background of a cosmic string which is generalized to a static flux-carrying codimension-2 brane in the locally flat multidimensional spacetime. We find that the finite energy-momentum tensor is induced in the vacuum. The dependence of the tensor components on the brane flux and tension, as well as on the coupling to the spacetime curvature scalar, is comprehensively analyzed. The tensor components are holomorphic functions of space dimension, decreasing exponentially with the distance from the brane. The case of the massless quantized scalar field is also considered, and the relevance of Bernoulli’s polynomials of even order for this case is discussed.

  20. The algebra of the energy-momentum tensor and the Noether currents in classical non-linear sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forger, M.; Mannheim Univ.; Laartz, J.; Schaeper, U.

    1994-01-01

    The recently derived current algrbra of classical non-linear sigma models on arbitrary Riemannian manifolds is extended to include the energy-momentum tensor. It is found that in two dimensions the energy-momentum tensor őł őľv , the Noether current j őľ associated with the global symmetry of the theory and the composite field j appearing as the coefficient of the Schwinger term in the current algebra, together with the derivatives of j őľ and j, generte a closed algebra. The subalgebra generated by the light-cone components of the energy-momentum tensor consists of two commuting copies of the Virasoro algebra, with central charge c=0, reflecting the classical conformal invariance of the theory, but the current algebra part and the semidirect product structure are quite different from the usual Kac-Moody/Sugawara type contruction. (orig.)

  1. Investimentos em infra-estrutura e produtividade total dos fatores na agricultura brasileira: 1985-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Magno Mendes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Investimentos em infra-estrutura no Brasil reduziram-se significativamente desde a d√©cada de 1980, possivelmente comprometendo a Produtividade Total dos Fatores (PTF e a competitividade da agropecu√°ria. Uma adapta√ß√£o do modelo de Zhang and Fan (2004 para a √ćndia, utilizando-se o M√©todo Generalizado de Momentos, foi aplicada para verificar os efeitos dos investimentos em infra-estrutura na PTF. Estimou-se que esses investimentos afetam a PTF logo nos primeiros anos, com retorno ocorrendo de 0 a 2 anos. Dos elementos de infra-estrutura analisados, investimentos em rodovia tiveram o maior impacto na PTF, seguidos por investimento em pesquisa, telecomunica√ß√Ķes, irriga√ß√£o e energia el√©trica.Infrastructure investments in Brazil were reduced significantly since the decade of 1980, possibly compromising Total Factor Productivity (TFP and agricultural competitivity. In this paper, Solow's growth model with panel data is used to estimate TFP. An adaptation of the model of Zhang and Fan (2004 for India, using the Generalized Method of Moments, was applied to find effect of infrastructure investments on TFP. Estimations suggest that these investments affect agriculture TFP in the first years and its return occurs in the period of 0 to 2 years. Road investments have the highest impact on TFP, followed by investments on research, telecommunications, irrigation, and electric energy.

  2. Cutoff effects on energy-momentum tensor correlators in lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Harvey B.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the discretization errors affecting correlators of the energy-momentum tensor T őľőĹ at finite temperature in SU(N c ) gauge theory with the Wilson action and two different discretizations of T őľőĹ . We do so by using lattice perturbation theory and non-perturbative Monte-Carlo simulations. These correlators, which are functions of Euclidean time x 0 and spatial momentum p, are the starting point for a lattice study of the transport properties of the gluon plasma. We find that the correlator of the energy ‚ąęd 3 x T 00 has much larger discretization errors than the correlator of momentum ‚ąęd 3 x T 0k . Secondly, the shear and diagonal stress correlators (T 12 and T kk ) require N ŌĄ ‚Č• 8 for the Tx 0 = 1/2 point to be in the scaling region and the cutoff effect to be less than 10%. We then show that their discretization errors on an anisotropic lattice with a ŌÉ /a ŌĄ = 2 are comparable to those on the isotropic lattice with the same temporal lattice spacing. Finally, we also study finite p correlators.

  3. Gravitational lens optical scalars in terms of energy-momentum distributions in the cosmological framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boero, Ezequiel F.; Moreschi, Osvaldo M.

    2018-04-01

    We present new results on gravitational lensing over cosmological Robertson-Walker backgrounds which extend and generalize previous works. Our expressions show the presence of new terms and factors which have been neglected in the literature on the subject. The new equations derived here for the optical scalars allow to deal with more general matter content including sources with non-Newtonian components of the energy-momentum tensor and arbitrary motion. Our treatment is within the framework of weak gravitational lenses in which first-order effects of the curvature are considered. We have been able to make all calculations without referring to the concept of deviation angle. This in turn, makes the presentation shorter but also allows for the consideration of global effects on the Robertson-Walker background that have been neglected in the literature. We also discuss two intensity magnifications that we define in this article; one coming from a natural geometrical construction in terms of the affine distance, that we here call \\tilde{őľ }, and the other adapted to cosmological discussions in terms of the redshift, that we call őľőĄ. We show that the natural intensity magnification \\tilde{őľ } coincides with the standard angular magnification (őľ).

  4. Comparative Characterization of Total Flavonol Glycosides and Terpene Lactones at Different Ages, from Different Cultivation Sources and Genders of <em>Ginkgo bilobaem> Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Qin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The extract from <em>Ginkgo bilobaem> leaves has become a very popular plant medicine and herbal supplement for its potential benefit in alleviating symptoms associated with peripheral vascular disease, dementia, asthma and tinnitus. Most research on <em>G. bilobaem> leaves focus on the leaves collected in July and August from four to seven year-old trees, however a large number of leaves from fruit cultivars (trees older than 10 years are ignored and become obsolete after fruit harvest season (November. In this paper, we expand the tree age range (from one to 300 years and first comparatively analyze the total flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones at different ages, from different cultivation sources and genders of <em>G. bilobaem> leaves collected in November by using the validated HPLC-ELSD and HPLC-PDA methods. The results show that the contents of total terpene lactones and flavonol glycosides in the leaves of young ginkgo trees are higher than those in old trees, and they are higher in male trees than in female trees. Geographical factors appear to have a significant influence on the contents as well. These results will provide a good basis for the comprehensive utilization of <em>G.> biloba em>leaves, especially the leaves from fruit cultivars.

  5. Acuidade visual e eletrorretinografia de campo total em pacientes com síndrome de Usher

    OpenAIRE

    Mendieta,Luana; Berezovsky,Adriana; Salomão,Solange Rios; Sacai,Paula Yuri; Pereira,Josenilson Martins; Fantini,Sérgio Costa

    2005-01-01

    A s√≠ndrome de Usher (SU) √© doen√ßa autoss√īmica recessiva caracterizada por perda auditiva neuro-sensorial acompanhada de retinose pigment√°ria (RP). OBJETIVO: Analisar a eletrorretinografia de campo total (ERG) e a acuidade visual (AV) em pacientes com s√≠ndrome de Usher tipos I e II. M√ČTODOS: Foram estudadas as respostas da eletrorretinografia de campo total e a acuidade visual de 22 pacientes (idade m√©dia = 26,8¬Ī16,8 anos). Destes, 17 tinham s√≠ndrome de Usher tipo I e 5 tinham s√≠ndrome ...

  6. Cosmic acceleration in a dust only universe via energy-momentum powered gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, √Ėzg√ľr; KatńĪrcńĪ, Nihan; Kumar, Suresh

    2018-01-01

    We propose a modified theory of gravitation constructed by the addition of the term f (Tőľ őĹTőľ őĹ) to the Einstein-Hilbert action, and elaborate a particular case f (Tőľ őĹTőľ őĹ)=őĪ (Tőľ őĹTőľ őĹ)ő∑, where őĪ and ő∑ are real constants, dubbed energy-momentum powered gravity (EMPG). We search for viable cosmologies arising from EMPG, especially in the context of the late-time accelerated expansion of the Universe. We investigate the ranges of the EMPG parameters (őĪ ,ő∑ ) on theoretical as well as observational grounds leading to the late-time acceleration of the Universe with pressureless matter only, while keeping the successes of standard general relativity at early times. We find that ő∑ =0 corresponds to the őõ CDM model, whereas ő∑ ‚Ȇ0 leads to a w CDM -type model. However, the underlying physics of the EMPG model is entirely different in the sense that the energy in the EMPG Universe is sourced by pressureless matter only. Moreover, the energy of the pressureless matter is not conserved, namely, in general it does not dilute as ŌĀ ‚ąĚa-3 with the expansion of the Universe. Finally, we constrain the parameters of an EMPG-based cosmology with a recent compilation of 28 Hubble parameter measurements, and find that this model describes an evolution of the Universe similar to that in the őõ CDM model. We briefly discuss that EMPG can be unified with Starobinsky gravity to describe the complete history of the Universe including the inflationary era.

  7. Integrable covariant law of energy-momentum conservation for a gravitational field with the absolute parallelism structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asanov, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown the description of gravitational field in the riemannian space-time by means of the absolute parallelism structure makes it possible to formulate an integrable covariant law of energy-momentum conservation for gravitational field, by imposing on the energy-momentum tensor the condition of vanishing of the covariant divergence (in the sense of the absolute parallelism). As a result of taking into account covariant constraints for the tetrads of the absolute parallelism, the Lagrangian density turns out to be not geometrised anymore and leads to the unambiguous conservation law of the type mentioned in the N-body problem. Covariant field equations imply the existence of the special euclidean coordinates outside of static neighbourhoods of gravitationing bodies. In these coordinates determined by the tetrads of the absolute parallelism, the linear approximation is not connected with any noncovariant assumptions

  8. Trace and Ward-Takahashi identity anomalies in an SU(3) current model with energy-momentum tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacrep, D.B.; Young, B.

    1975-01-01

    We discuss the validity of the naive Ward-Takahashi identities and trace identities for arbitrary n-point functions (n-pf's) of scalar, pseudoscalar, vector, and axial-vector currents and the improved energy-momentum tensor, thus extending the previous investigations in a unified way. We show that the validity of the naive Ward-Takahashi identities of the energy-momentum tensor implies the satisfaction of those of the vector currents. This removes an ambiguity concerning the minimal sets of anomalous current Ward-Takahashi identities. We find that all the anomalous Ward-Takahashi identities for the broad structure of n-pf's are again restricted to the axial-vector current of n-pf's of abnormal parity in a well-defined pattern, and the trace identity anomalies occur only in normal-parity n-pf's. We give all these anomalies. Our results show that there are no new anomalies associated with the inclusion of the energy-momentum tensor in the n-pf's

  9. The matter Lagrangian and the energy-momentum tensor in modified gravity with nonminimal coupling between matter and geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harko, T.

    2010-01-01

    We show that in modified f(R) type gravity models with nonminimal coupling between matter and geometry, both the matter Lagrangian and the energy-momentum tensor are completely and uniquely determined by the form of the coupling. This result is obtained by using the variational formulation for the derivation of the equations of motion in the modified gravity models with geometry-matter coupling, and the Newtonian limit for a fluid obeying a barotropic equation of state. The corresponding energy-momentum tensor of the matter in modified gravity models with nonminimal coupling is more general than the usual general-relativistic energy-momentum tensor for perfect fluids, and it contains a supplementary, equation of state dependent term, which could be related to the elastic stresses in the body, or to other forms of internal energy. Therefore, the extra force induced by the coupling between matter and geometry never vanishes as a consequence of the thermodynamic properties of the system, or for a specific choice of the matter Lagrangian, and it is nonzero in the case of a fluid of dust particles.

  10. Currents and the energy-momentum tensor in classical field theory: a fresh look at an old problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forger, Michael; Roemer, Hartmann

    2004-01-01

    We give a comprehensive review of various methods to define currents and the energy-momentum tensor in classical field theory, with emphasis on a geometric point of view. The necessity of 'improving' the expressions provided by the canonical Noether procedure is addressed and given an adequate geometric framework. The main new ingredient is the explicit formulation of a principle of 'ultralocality' with respect to the symmetry generators, which is shown to fix the ambiguity inherent in the procedure of improvement and guide it towards a unique answer: when combined with the appropriate splitting of the fields into sectors, it leads to the well-known expressions for the current as the variational derivative of the matter field Lagrangian with respect to the gauge field and for the energy-momentum tensor as the variational derivative of the matter field Lagrangian with respect to the metric tensor. In the second case, the procedure is shown to work even when the matter field Lagrangian depends explicitly on the curvature, thus establishing the correct relation between scale invariance, in the form of local Weyl invariance 'on shell', and tracelessness of the energy-momentum tensor, required for a consistent definition of the concept of a conformal field theory

  11. Symmetric energy-momentum tensor in Maxwell, Yang-Mills, and Proca theories obtained using only Noether's theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montesinos, M. [CINVESTAV-IPN, 07360 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Flores, E. [Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)]. E-mail: merced@fis.cinvestav.mx

    2006-07-01

    The symmetric and gauge-invariant energy-momentum tensors for source-free Maxwell and Yang-Mills theories are obtained by means of translations in spacetime via a systematic implementation of Noether's theorem. For the source-free neutral Proca field, the same procedure yields also the symmetric energy-momentum tensor. In all cases, the key point to get the right expressions for the energy-momentum tensors is the appropriate handling of their equations of motion and the Bianchi identities. It must be stressed that these results are obtained without using Belinfante's symmetrization techniques which are usually employed to this end. (Author)

  12. Energy-momentum density of graphite by electron-momentum spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, M.; Fang, Z.; Canney, S.; Kheifets, A.; McCarthy, I.E.; Weigold, E.

    1996-11-01

    The energy-resolved electron momentum density of graphite has been measured along a series of well-defined directions using electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS). This is the first measurement of this kind performed on a single-crystal target with a thoroughly controlled orientation which clearly demonstrates the different nature of the ŌÉ and ŌÄ bands in graphite. Good agreement between the calculated density and the measured one is found, further establishing that fact that EMS yields more direct and complete information on the valence electronic structure that any other method. 12 refs., 2 figs

  13. Twistor theory and the energy-momentum and angular momentum of the gravitational field at spatial infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    Penrose's 'quasi-local mass and angular momentum' is investigated for 2-surfaces near spatial infinity in both linearized theory on Minkowski space and full general relativity. It is shown that for space-times that are radially smooth of order one in the sense of Beig and Schmidt with asymptotically electric Weyl curvature, there exists a global concept of a twistor space at spatial infinity. Global conservation laws for the energy-momentum and angular momentum are obtained, and the ten conserved quantities are shown to be invariant under asymptotic coordinate transformations. The relation to other definitions is discussed briefly. (author)

  14. On the Definition of Energy for a Continuum, Its Conservation Laws, and the Energy-Momentum Tensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayeul Arminjon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the energy concept in the case of a continuum or a system of fields. First, we analyze the emergence of a true local conservation equation for the energy of a continuous medium, taking the example of an isentropic continuum in Newtonian gravity. Next, we consider a continuum or a system of fields in special relativity: we recall that the conservation of the energy-momentum tensor contains two local conservation equations of the same kind as before. We show that both of these equations depend on the reference frame and that, however, they can be given a rigorous meaning. Then, we review the definitions of the canonical and Hilbert energy-momentum tensors from a Lagrangian through the principle of stationary action in general space-time. Using relatively elementary mathematics, we prove precise results regarding the definition of the Hilbert tensor field, its uniqueness, and its tensoriality. We recall the meaning of its covariant conservation equation. We end with a proof of uniqueness of the energy density and flux, when both depend polynomially on the fields.

  15. Anestesia venosa total para timectomia em paciente com Miastenia Gravis: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezer Gabrielle

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Pacientes com doen√ßas neuromusculares, como Miastenia Gravis, respondem de maneira anormal aos anest√©sicos, conforme a t√©cnica e as drogas administradas. O objetivo deste relato √© mostrar um caso de paciente portadora de Miastenia Gravis, submetida a timectomia sob anestesia venosa total com propofol e remifentanil. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente feminina, 52 anos, 72 kg, com hist√≥ria de Miastenia Gravis submetida a timectomia transesternal, sob anestesia venosa total, com o uso de propofol em infus√£o alvo controlada (3 g.ml-1 e remifentanil cont√≠nuo (0,3 ¬Ķg.kg-1.min-1. Para a intuba√ß√£o traqueal foi utilizada succinilcolina (50 mg, sendo realizada sem dificuldade. Com a finalidade de realizar a analgesia p√≥s-operat√≥ria, foram utilizados tramadol (50 mg, cetoprofeno (100 mg e dipirona (1 g, no per-operat√≥rio. Ap√≥s a cirurgia, a infus√£o de propofol e remifentanil foi encerrada e, 15 minutos depois, a paciente foi extubada. A paciente apresentava-se eupn√©ica, acordada, sem dor, movimentando membros, com freq√ľ√™ncia respirat√≥ria de 14 mpm e mantendo satura√ß√£o de oxig√™nio de 97%. Permaneceu com cateter nasal de O2 a 2 L.min-1 na UTI intermedi√°ria, durante 36 horas, e recebeu alta hospitalar no 4¬ļ dia do p√≥s-operat√≥rio. CONCLUS√ēES: A anestesia venosa total, com agentes anest√©sicos de curta dura√ß√£o e sem metab√≥litos ativos, favoreceu a recupera√ß√£o e a extuba√ß√£o precoce da paciente

  16. Weed control in young coffee plantations through post emergence herbicide application onto total area Controle de plantas daninhas em cafezais recém-implantados, com herbicidas aplicados em pós-emergência em área total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Ronchi

    2004-12-01

    at doses recommended for bean crop, these herbicides may be applied to control weeds in coffee and bean intercropping systems by spraying the entire area.Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar, em campo, a efici√™ncia de v√°rios herbicidas aplicados em p√≥s-emerg√™ncia em √°rea total no controle de plantas daninhas, em cafezais rec√©m-implantados e no cons√≥rcio de caf√© e feij√£o, assim como seus efeitos sobre essas culturas. Mudas de Coffea arabica, cultivar Catua√≠ Vermelho, com quatro a seis pares de folhas foram transplantadas para o campo e cultivadas segundo pr√°ticas agron√īmicas usuais. O cons√≥rcio de caf√© e feij√£o foi obtido por meio do plantio de tr√™s linhas de feij√£o nas entrelinhas do cafezal. Quando os herbicidas foram aplicados sobre as culturas, as plantas de caf√© estavam com seis a dez pares de folhas, as de feij√£o com tr√™s fol√≠olos e as plantas daninhas no est√°dio inicial de desenvolvimento. Fluazifop-p-butil e clethodim foram seletivos √†s plantas de caf√© e controlaram eficientemente Brachiaria plantaginea e Digitaria horizontalis. Plantas daninhas dicotiled√īneas (Amaranthus retroflexus, Bidens pilosa, Coronopus didymus, Emilia sonchifolia, Galinsoga parviflora, Ipomoea grandifolia, Lepidium virginicum e Raphanus raphanistrum foram controladas eficientemente por aplica√ß√Ķes isoladas de fomesafen, flazasulfuron e oxyfluorfen, com exce√ß√£o de B. pilosa, C. didymus e R. raphanistrum para o oxyfluorfen. Aplica√ß√Ķes seq√ľenciais com intervalos de sete dias de fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butil ou clethodim, e as duas misturas comerciais de fomesafen + fluazifop-p-butil controlaram simultaneamente ambos os tipos de plantas daninhas. Cyperus rotundus foi controlada apenas por flazasulfuron. Com exce√ß√£o de fluazifop-p-butil e clethodim todos os demais tratamentos herbicidas provocaram apenas leves inj√ļrias √†s folhas mais novas das plantas de caf√©. Contudo, o crescimento das plantas n√£o foi prejudicado, de forma que tanto a

  17. Bianchi identities and the automatic conservation of energy-momentum and angular momentum in general-relativistic field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hehl, F.W.; McCrea, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Automatic conservation of energy-momentum and angular momentum is guaranteed in a gravitational theory if, via the field equations, the conservation laws for the material currents are reduced to the contracted Bianchi identities. We first execute an irreducible decomposition of the Bianchi identities in a Riemann-Cartan space-time. Then, starting from a Riemannian space-time with or without torsion, we determine those gravitational theories which have automatic conservation: general relativity and the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory, both with cosmological constant, and the nonviable pseudoscalar model. The Poincare gauge theory of gravity, like gauge theories of internal groups, has no automatic conservation in the sense defined above. This does not lead to any difficulties in principle. Analogies to 3-dimensional continuum mechanics are stressed throughout the article

  18. Bianchi identities and the automatic conservation of energy-momentum and angular momentum in general-relativistic field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehl, Friedrich W.; McCrea, J. Dermott

    1986-03-01

    Automatic conservation of energy-momentum and angular momentum is guaranteed in a gravitational theory if, via the field equations, the conservation laws for the material currents are reduced to the contracted Bianchi identities. We first execute an irreducible decomposition of the Bianchi identities in a Riemann-Cartan space-time. Then, starting from a Riemannian space-time with or without torsion, we determine those gravitational theories which have automatic conservation: general relativity and the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory, both with cosmological constant, and the nonviable pseudoscalar model. The Poincaré gauge theory of gravity, like gauge theories of internal groups, has no automatic conservation in the sense defined above. This does not lead to any difficulties in principle. Analogies to 3-dimensional continuum mechanics are stressed throughout the article.

  19. Brane world black holes in teleparallel theory equivalent to general relativity and their Killing vectors, energy, momentum and angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashed, Gamal G. L.

    2010-01-01

    The energy‚Äďmomentum tensor, which is coordinate-independent, is used to calculate energy, momentum and angular momentum of two different tetrad fields. Although, the two tetrad fields reproduce the same space-time their energies are different. Therefore, a regularized expression of the gravitational energy‚Äďmomentum tensor of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR), is used to make the energies of the two tetrad fields equal. The definition of the gravitational energy‚Äďmomentum is used to investigate the energy within the external event horizon. The components of angular momentum associated with these space‚Äďtimes are calculated. In spite of using a static space‚Äďtime, we get a non-zero component of angular momentum! Therefore, we derive the Killing vectors associated with these space‚Äďtimes using the definition of the Lie derivative of a second rank tensor in the framework of the TEGR to make the picture more clear. (general)

  20. Trapped Bose-Einstein condensates with Planck-scale induced deformation of the energy-momentum dispersion relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briscese, F.

    2012-01-01

    We show that harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensates can be used to constrain Planck-scale physics. In particular we prove that a Planck-scale induced deformation of the Minkowski energy-momentum dispersion relation őīE‚ČÉőĺ 1 mcp/2M p produces a shift in the condensation temperature T c of about őĒT c /T c 0 ‚ČÉ10 -6 őĺ 1 for typical laboratory conditions. Such a shift allows to bound the deformation parameter up to |őĺ 1 |‚ȧ10 4 . Moreover we show that it is possible to enlarge őĒT c /T c 0 and improve the bound on őĺ 1 lowering the frequency of the harmonic trap. Finally we compare the Planck-scale induced shift in T c with similar effects due to interboson interactions and finite size effects.

  1. Femtoscopy and energy-momentum conservation effects in proton-proton collisions at 900 GeV in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Two particle correlations are used to extract information about the characteristic size of the system for proton-proton collisions at 900 GeV measured by the ALICE (A Large Ion Collider experiment) detector at CERN. The correlation functions obtained show the expected Bose-Einstein effect for identical particles, but there are also long range correlations present that shift the baseline from the expected flat behavior. A possible source of these correlations is the conservation of energy and momentum, especially for small systems, where the energy available for particle production is limited. A new technique, first introduced by the STAR collaboration, of quantifying these long range correlations using energy-momentum conservation considerations is presented here. It is shown that the baseline of the two particle correlation function can be described using this technique.

  2. Determinação da atividade antioxidante e do teor total de polifenol em amostras de chá de ervas comercializadas em sachets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieme Nakamura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Os ch√°s de ervas s√£o tradicionalmente utilizados na medicina popular em muitas regi√Ķes do Brasil. Os ch√°s cont√™m compostos antioxidantes que combatem o stress oxidativo e seu consumo tem sido associado √† diminui√ß√£o dos n√≠veis de colesterol, press√£o arterial e at√© de doen√ßas cardiovasculares. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a capacidade antioxidante total, o teor total de polifen√≥is, o consumo (scavenging de H2O2 e a presen√ßa de outros grupos de compostos antioxidantes em 43 amostras de ch√°s em sachets. M√©todos: O m√©todo CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity foi utilizado para determinar a capacidade antioxidante total. O teor total de polifen√≥is foi obtido com o uso do reagente de Folin-Ciocalteu; o ensaio de scavenging baseou-se no consumo de solu√ß√£o de H2O2 ap√≥s adi√ß√£o do ch√°; e a presen√ßa de flavon√≥ides, carotenos e catequinas foi investigada por cromatografia em papel. Resultados: A capacidade antioxidante total nas amostras analisadas seguiu a ordem: camomila > hortel√£ > carqueja > cidreira > boldo > verde > mate > preto > branco > erva doce. O teor total de polifen√≥is obedeceu √† sequ√™ncia: branco > hortel√£ > preto > mate > boldo > verde > camomila > carqueja > cidreira > erva doce. As diverg√™ncias encontradas entre as amostras de um mesmo grupo de ch√° podem ser atribu√≠das √† √©poca da colheita, ao tipo de solo, local de plantio, varia√ß√Ķes clim√°ticas e partes da planta utilizadas na elabora√ß√£o dos sachets. Conclus√£o: Concluise que todas as amostras analisadas apresentaram capacidade antioxidante e consumo de H2O2. Em apenas uma delas n√£o foi poss√≠vel detectar flavon√≥ides, carotenos ou catequinas.

  3. Evidenciadores de biofilme em prótese total: avaliação clínica e antimicrobiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Cl√°udia Helena Lovato da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a capacidade em corar, a facilidade de remo√ß√£o e a a√ß√£o antimicrobiana de evidenciadores de biofilme dental em pr√≥tese total. A capacidade em corar foi avaliada por m√©todo visual aplicando-se evidenciadores sobre a superf√≠cie interna da pr√≥tese total superior. Ap√≥s fotografia, as pr√≥teses coradas foram escovadas (escova e dentifr√≠cio espec√≠ficos para pr√≥tese total e novamente fotografadas. Os diapositivos foram projetados em folhas de papel (aumento de 10 X; as √°reas total e corada das pr√≥teses contornadas com grafite, recortadas e pesadas, para obten√ß√£o, em porcentagem, dos resultados da facilidade de remo√ß√£o. A a√ß√£o antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo m√©todo de difus√£o em √°gar e os resultados obtidos pela medida dos aros e halos de inibi√ß√£o formados. A melhor capacidade em corar foi apresentada pelo azul de metileno (0,05%, eritrosina (5%, fluoresce√≠na s√≥dica (1%, Replak e vermelho neutro (1%. Eosina (1%, fluoresce√≠na s√≥dica (1% e eritrosina (5% apresentaram a maior facilidade de remo√ß√£o. N√£o apresentaram a√ß√£o antimicrobiana eosina (1%, eritrosina (5%, fluoresce√≠na s√≥dica (1%, proflavina (0,3%, Replak e vermelho neutro (1%. As solu√ß√Ķes que apresentaram maior capacidade de corar, facilidade de remo√ß√£o e aus√™ncia de a√ß√£o antimicrobiana, requisitos necess√°rios para auxiliar estudos que avaliam m√©todos de higiene e de orienta√ß√£o aos pacientes, foram eosina (1%, vermelho neutro (1% e eritrosina (5%.

  4. Comparison of three cyanogen assays for total cyanogens in cassava (<em>Manihot esculentaem> Crantz)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saka, J.D.K.; Mhone, A.R.K.; Brimer, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity and reproducibility of three methods for determining the total cyanogenic potential (CNp) of 7 fresh and processed cassava varieties were determined and compared. The total cyanogen content of fresh cassava roots and three cassava products (kondowole, makaka, and starch) were...... analysed by the acid hydrolysis, microdiffusion with solid state detection and Cooke's enzymatic assays. The total cyanogen contents of the cassava, obtained by the three methods were not significantly different (p....3+or-0.4 and 20.4+or-1.4 mg HCN eq. kg-1 fresh weight by Cooke's, acid hydrolysis and solid state methods, respectively. However, at very low cyanogen levels, less than 5 mg HCN eq. kg-1 fresh weight, the acid hydrolysis method overestimates by 3-5 times. Otherwise, their coefficients of variations...

  5. Solitons and the energy-momentum tensor for affine Toda theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, D. I.; Turok, N.; Underwood, J. W. R.

    1993-07-01

    Following Leznov and Saveliev, we present the general solution to Toda field theories of conformal, affine or conformal affine type, associated with a simple Lie algebra g. These depend on a free massless field and on a group element. By putting the former to zero, soliton solutions to the affine Toda theories with imaginary coupling constant result with the soliton data encoded in the group element. As this requires a reformulation of the affine Kac-Moody algebra closely related to that already used to formulate the physical properties of the particle excitations, including their scattering matrices, a unified treatment of particles and solitons emerges. The physical energy‚ÄĒmomentum tensor for a general solution is broken into a total derivative plus a part dependent only on the derivatives of the free field. Despite the non-linearity of the field equations and their complex nature the energy and momentum of the N-soliton solution is shown to be real, equalling the sum of contributions from the individual solitons. There are rank-g species of soliton, with masses given by a generalisation of a formula due to Hollowood, being proportional to the components of the left Perron-Frobenius eigenvector of the Cartan matrix of g.

  6. How to satisfy the energy-momentum conservation law and to take into account Fermi motion of constituents in simulation of compound system interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzhinskij, V.V.; Shmakov, S.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    A method is suggested which enables one to take unto account the Fermi motion of nuclear nucleons in Monte-Carlo simulation of exclusive states in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions and, in hadron-hadron interaction simulation, to take into account the quark transverse momentum without violation of the energy-momentum conservation law

  7. Total mercury in sharks along the southern Brazilian Coast Merc√ļrio total em tubar√Ķes capturados na costa brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.T. M√°rsico

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisou-se a concentra√ß√£o de merc√ļrio total na por√ß√£o muscular de 39 exemplares de tubar√Ķes de tr√™s diferentes esp√©cies Prionace glauca, Isurus oxyrhynchus, Sphyrna zygaena, capturados na costa sul do Brasil, Santa Catarina. O teor de merc√ļrio foi determinado por espectrofotometria de absor√ß√£o at√īmica por vapor frio. Observou-se ampla varia√ß√£o na concentra√ß√£o de merc√ļrio total com valor individual m√°ximo excedendo o limite estabelecido pela legisla√ß√£o brasileira, de 1.0¬Ķg.g-1 em um exemplar f√™mea de P. glauca. Nessa esp√©cie, a concentra√ß√£o de Hg-total aumentou proporcionalmente ao comprimento total (r=0,62; P<0,0001. N√£o foi evidenciada diferen√ßa estatisticamente significativa entre exemplares f√™meas e machos.

  8. Conformal Collineations of the Ricci and Energy-Momentum Tensors in Static Plane Symmetric Space-Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, S. S.; Hussain, T.; Bokhari, A. H.; Khan, F.

    2018-04-01

    We provide a complete classification of static plane symmetric space-times according to conformal Ricci collineations (CRCs) and conformal matter collineations (CMCs) in both the degenerate and nondegenerate cases. In the case of a nondegenerate Ricci tensor, we find a general form of the vector field generating CRCs in terms of unknown functions of t and x subject to some integrability conditions. We then solve the integrability conditions in different cases depending upon the nature of the Ricci tensor and conclude that the static plane symmetric space-times have a 7-, 10- or 15-dimensional Lie algebra of CRCs. Moreover, we find that these space-times admit an infinite number of CRCs if the Ricci tensor is degenerate. We use a similar procedure to study CMCs in the case of a degenerate or nondegenerate matter tensor. We obtain the exact form of some static plane symmetric space-time metrics that admit nontrivial CRCs and CMCs. Finally, we present some physical applications of our obtained results by considering a perfect fluid as a source of the energy-momentum tensor.

  9. Artroplastia total do quadril não cimentada em pacientes com artrite reumatóide Uncemented total hip arthroplasty in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Tavares Rabello

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os resultados cl√≠nico-funcional e radiogr√°fico das artroplastias totais do quadril n√£o cimentadas em pacientes com artrite reumat√≥ide. M√ČTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 24 pacientes (28 quadris portadores de artrite reumat√≥ide submetidos √† artroplastia total do quadril, utilizando-se a pr√≥tese femoral n√£o cimentada Secur Fit Osteonics¬ģ, com seguimento m√≠nimo de dois anos. Clinicamente, os pacientes foram avaliados utilizando os crit√©rios de Merle D'Aubign√©, e os crit√©rios de Engh, na avalia√ß√£o radiogr√°fica. RESULTADOS: O tempo m√©dio de seguimento foi de 5,6 anos (dois anos a oito anos e 11 meses. Clinicamente, resultados bons e excelentes foram observados em 22 pacientes, com destaque para a melhora do par√Ęmetro dor. N√£o foi evidenciado qualquer caso de afrouxamento. Complica√ß√Ķes foram observadas em dois casos, um paciente apresentou trombose venosa profunda (TVP, comprovada com doppler, e um caso de fratura peroperat√≥ria distal ao calcar, tratada com cerclagem, sem repercuss√£o na qualidade dos resultados cl√≠nico e radiogr√°fico do paciente. CONCLUS√ÉO: Os resultados sugerem, ap√≥s seguimento m√©dio de 5,6 anos, que a artroplastia total do quadril n√£o cimentada pode ser op√ß√£o satisfat√≥ria nas coxartroses de pacientes portadores de artrite reumat√≥ide.OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical, functional, and radiographic results of uncemented total hip arthroplasties in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. METHODS: Retrospective study of 24 patients (28 hips with rheumatoid arthritis submitted to total hip arthroplasty, using uncemented femoral prosthesis Secur Fit Osteonics¬ģ, with minimum follow-up of two years. The patients were clinically evaluated using the Merle D'Aubign√© criteria and the Engh criteria in radiographic evaluation. RESULTS: Mean follow-up time was 5.6 years (two years to eight years and 11 months. Clinically, good and excellent results were observed in 22 patients, with emphasis on pain

  10. Quality of life and depression in patients undergoing total and partial laryngectomy Qualidade de vida e depress√£o em pacientes submetidos a laringectomia total e parcial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Scalet Amorin Braz

    2005-04-01

    utilizamos os question√°rios da Organiza√ß√£o Europ√©ia de Pesquisa e Tratamento do C√Ęncer (EORTC, Quality of Life Core Questionnarie (QLQ-C30 e Head and Neck 35 (H&N35 e, para o rastreamento da depress√£o, o question√°rio Beck Depression. RESULTADOS: As fun√ß√Ķes social e emocional foram as mais afetadas no grupo de laringectomia total. 21,3% dos pacientes julgaram mediana sua qualidade de vida global. Dentro dos sintomas espec√≠ficos, 85,5% referiram altera√ß√£o no olfato e paladar, 71,3% tosse, 100% algum grau de dificuldade na fala e 64,3% dificuldades com a degluti√ß√£o. No grupo de laringectomia parcial encontramos a fun√ß√£o emocional afetada em 71,4%, a maioria julgou sua qualidade de vida global acima da m√©dia, 100% demonstraram algum grau de dificuldade com a fala e 31,3% referiram disfagia. CONCLUS√ÉO: Embora sendo cirurgias diferentes, ambos os grupos passaram por dificuldades similares em maior ou menor grau. Os resultados demonstraram piora nos par√Ęmetros de qualidade de vida dos pacientes submetidos a laringectomia total.

  11. Proposta do uso de pool de sangue total como controle interno de qualidade em hematologia

    OpenAIRE

    Schons,Carina Daniele; Tavares,Rejane Giacomelli

    2010-01-01

    INTRODU√á√ÉO: A confiabilidade dos resultados do laborat√≥rio √© garantida pela realiza√ß√£o do controle de qualidade, que tem como fun√ß√Ķes b√°sicas an√°lise, pesquisa e preven√ß√£o da ocorr√™ncia de erros laboratoriais por meio de programas que abrangem tanto o controle interno quanto o externo. OBJETIVO: Propor a padroniza√ß√£o de utiliza√ß√£o de pool de sangue total como controle interno de qualidade no setor de hematologia. M√ČTODO: Foram selecionadas amostras de sangue total, colhidas com √°cido etilenod...

  12. The generic nature of the global and non-entropic arrow of time and the dual role of the energy-momentum tensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagnino, Mario [CONICET-Instituto de AstronomIa y FIsica del Espacio, Casilla de Correos 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Lombardi, Olimpia [CONICET-Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra. Colmenar Km 15, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-04-16

    In this paper we adopt a generic, global and non-entropic approach to the problem of the arrow of time, according to which the arrow of time is a generic, intrinsic and geometrical property of spacetime. We demonstrate that the arrow of time so defined is generic in the sense that any spacetime with physically reasonable properties (e.g. time-orientability and global time) will be endowed with an arrow of time. The only exceptions are very special cases belonging to a subset of zero measure of the set of all possible spacetimes. We also show the dual role played by the energy-momentum tensor in the context of our approach. On one hand, the energy-momentum tensor is the intermediate step that permits us to turn the geometrical time-asymmetry of the universe into a local arrow of time manifested as a time-asymmetric energy flow. On the other hand, the energy-momentum tensor supplies the basis for deducing the time-asymmetry of quantum field theory, posed as an axiom in this theory.

  13. Markers for total consumption estimate of penned holstein x zebu heifers Indicadores para estimativa de consumo total por novilhas holandês x zebu mantidas em confinamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Janu√°rio Magalh√£es Aroeira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the internal markers: indigestible fibers (FDAi and FDNi, lignin Klason and the external markers: chromic oxide and modified enriched hidroxiphenilpropan LIPE¬ģ on the total intake estimates of penned crossbreed heifers (Holstein x Zebu. They¬īre assigned to four diets: elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. silage; elephant grass silage and commercial concentrate; chopped sugar cane and urea; chopped sugar cane, urea and commercial concentrate. The chromic oxide underestimated the heifers consumption of all diets and its estimates differed from either hod consumption or those obtained with markers. LIPE¬ģ may replace chromic oxide because its consumption estimates did not differ from hod consumption of all diets. The lignin Klason showed to be more appropriate to estimate the heifers consumption that were fed with diets based on grass silage than those heifers fed with sugarcane. This marker underestimated the consumption of heifers that received sugarcane and urea (3,57kg/day of MS when it was compared to the consumption registered in hod (4,05kg/day of MS, however, for those heifers that received sugarcane, urea and supply, lignin Klason underestimated the consumption (3,90kg/day of MS, so that, it differed form consumption in hod (4,90kg/day of MS. The indigestible fibers (FDAi and FDNi were suitable to estimate the heifers consumption in all diets. Those results showed that markers present differentiated effect according to the roughage used.Objetivou-se avaliar a efic√°cia dos indicadores internos: fibras indigest√≠veis (FDAi e FDNi e lignina Klason e os indicadores externos: √≥xido cr√īmico e hidroxifenilpropano enriquecido e modificado LIPE¬ģ nas estimativas de consumo total de novilhas mesti√ßas Holand√™s x Zebu, mantidas em confinamento e submetidas a quatro dietas: silagem de capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.; silagem de capim elefante e concentrado comercial; cana

  14. Parada circulatória total em cirurgia cardíaca pediátrica: relato de 130 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio GIFFHORN

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A hipotermia profunda com parada circulat√≥ria total (PCT apresentou um aumento importante nos pacientes operados em nosso Servi√ßo e √© de grande utilidade para a corre√ß√£o de altera√ß√Ķes cardiovasculares complexas. Estudamos 130 pacientes de janeiro de 1995 a junho de 1996. A idade dos pacientes variou de 2 dias a 16 anos. As doen√ßas mais freq√ľentes foram o defeito do septo ventricular (DSV (26%, tetralogia de Fallot (TF (13%, transposi√ß√£o das grandes art√©rias (TGA (10% e defeito do septo atrioventricular (DSAVT (10%. Em todos os pacientes foi usado o oxigenador de membranas, a temperatura retal em PCT foi mantida em m√©dia de 15¬įC. O tempo m√©dio em perfus√£o foi de 45 minutos e o de PCT de 27 minutos. No p√≥s-operat√≥rio imediato, a complica√ß√£o mais freq√ľente foi a s√≠ndrome de baixo d√©bito (49 casos - 38%. Altera√ß√Ķes neurol√≥gicas ocorreram em 27 (20% pacientes: 13 (10% convuls√Ķes, 8 (6,1% disfun√ß√Ķes neuropsicol√≥gicas, 5 (3,8% sinais extrapiramidais, 4 (3% d√©ficits neurooft√°lmicos, 4 (3% comas. Cinco destes sintomas iniciaram precocemente no POI e podem ser atribu√≠dos √† PCT (3,8%. Ocorreram 20 (15% √≥bitos, 3 pacientes apresentaram d√©ficit neurol√≥gico na alta hospitalar (2 disartrias - 1 hipertonia muscular. Conclu√≠mos que a hipotermia profunda com PCT √© √ļtil na corre√ß√£o de anomalias card√≠acas complexas e que apresenta baixo risco de complica√ß√Ķes neurol√≥gicas permanentes. O nosso seguimento tardio √© pequeno para avaliar com precis√£o o desenvolvimento psicomotor dos pacientes.Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA increased the number of pediatric patients operated on our Service and it is an important aid for the correction of complex cardiovascular procedures. We studied 130 patients from January, 1995 to June, 1996. Patient ages ranged from 2 days to 16 years. The most frequent pathology was VSD (26%, tetralogy of Fallot (13%, TGA (10% and AVSD (10%. All patients used membrane oxygenators, rectal

  15. Infec√ß√Ķes hospitalares em 46 pacientes submetidos a artroplastia total do quadril Hospital infections in 46 patients submitted to total hip replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L√ļcia Lei Munhoz Lima

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 46 pacientes submetidos a artroplastia total do quadril em um Instituto de Ortopedia de S√£o Paulo, Brasil, no per√≠odo de 1993 a 1995, com o objetivo de obter a real frequ√™ncia das infec√ß√Ķes hospitalares da ferida operat√≥ria superficial e profunda que ocorrem nessa cirurgia. O estudo baseou-se no acompanhamento pr√©-operat√≥rio, trans-operat√≥rio e p√≥s-operat√≥rio com seguimento m√≠nimo de tr√™s meses de todos os pacientes, no sentido de caracterizar os agentes etiol√≥gicos das infec√ß√Ķes e os fatores de risco que contribuem para o seu desenvolvimento. Foi observada uma freq√ľ√™ncia total de 15.1% de infec√ß√Ķes hospitalares, sendo 6.5% de infec√ß√£o superficial da ferida operat√≥ria, 6.5% de infec√ß√£o profunda e 2.1% de infec√ß√£o do trato urin√°rio. Os agentes etiol√≥gicos encontrados foram Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2 casos, Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (2 casos, Morganella morgani (1 caso e associa√ß√£o de Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (2 casos. O fator de risco com signific√Ęncia estat√≠stica observado nesta casu√≠stica foi o tempo cir√ļrgico aumentado. Concluiu-se que a frequ√™ncia de infec√ß√£o da ferida cir√ļrgica superficial e profunda nas artroplastias totais de quadril foi maior, nesta casu√≠stica, do que a relatada na literatura internacional, com elevada participa√ß√£o de bacilos Gram-negativos como agentes etiol√≥gicos e tendo como principal fator de risco o tempo cir√ļrgico aumentado.We studied 46 patients submitted to total hip replacement at an Orthopaedics Institute in the city of S√£o Paulo, Brazil, from 1993 to 1995, in order to determine the real frequency of hospital infections of the superficial and deep surgical wounds occurring in this operation. The study consisted of preoperative, transoperative and postoperative monitoring and a minimum follow-up period of three months for all patients in order to characterise the etiologic agents of the infections and risk factors contributing to the

  16. Efeito do conteudo de monomero na proporção monomero-polimero no deslocamento dental em protese total superior

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Cristina Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Resumo: O prop√≥sito neste estudo foi verificar a movimenta√ß√£o linear de dentes em pr√≥tese total superior confeccionada em resina acr√≠lica, com conte√ļdo de mon√īmero na propor√ß√£o mon√īmero-pol√≠mero indicado pelo fabricante, com 25% de excesso e com 25% a menos, nas t√©cnicas de polimeriza√ß√£o convencional e por microondas. Foram confeccionados 30 modelos em gesso pedra tipo III, a partir de um molde de silicone, representando uma arcada maxilar desdentada com rebordo normal. As bases de prova fora...

  17. Achados ecogr√°ficos em pacientes com catarata total Ultrasound findings in patients with dense cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Maria da Silva Corrêa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Avaliar a preval√™ncia e a natureza das anomalias intra-oculares detectadas no exame de ultra-som em pacientes com catarata densa (total e comparar estes achados com aqueles obtidos ap√≥s cirurgia de catarata. M√©todos: Foram revisados 724 ultra-sonografias oculares realizadas entre janeiro de 1999 e julho de 2001. Destas, 289 exames foram solicitadas em casos de catarata densa (total pela impossibilidade de observar o segmento posterior. Os achados ultra-sonogr√°ficos foram documentados por fotografias e revisados para o estudo. Seguimento p√≥s-operat√≥rio foi poss√≠vel em 131 pacientes para avaliar sensibilidade e especificidade do ultra-som como m√©todo diagn√≥stico. A an√°lise estat√≠stica foi feita com o teste t de "Student" usando o pacote estat√≠stico SPSS "Statistical Package for the Social Science" 8.0 para Windows. Resultados: Foram estudados 289 pacientes com catarata densa, todos avaliados com ultra-som; 200 destes apresentavam altera√ß√Ķes ecogr√°ficas em segmento posterior. Nos pacientes sem hist√≥ria de trauma ocular (n=268, 82 olhos (30,6% apresentaram segmento posterior normal e 26 olhos (9,7%, descolamento de retina. Nos pacientes com hist√≥ria de trauma ocular (n=21 foram encontrados 8 olhos com descolamento de retina (38,1% e 7 normais (33,3%. A concord√Ęncia entre os achados ecogr√°ficos e p√≥s-operat√≥rios foi de 95,4% nos 131 pacientes com seguimento p√≥s-operat√≥rio. O ultra-som apresentou sensibilidade de 91,3% e especificidade de 100%. Conclus√£o: Neste estudo, a avalia√ß√£o pr√©-operat√≥ria de cataratas densas com ultra-som se mostrou eficiente em diagnosticar altera√ß√Ķes do segmento posterior. A sensibilidade e a especificidade deste exame complementar na amostra estudada confirmam a import√Ęncia do ultra-som na avalia√ß√£o pr√©-operat√≥ria de pacientes com cataratas densas.Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and nature of intra-ocular abnormalities detected by conventional B-scan ultrasound in patients

  18. Energy-momentum spectroscopy of the outervalence 3 {sigma} and 1{pi} states of hydrogen fluoride: a reanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, R.; McCarthy, I.E.; Weigold, E.; Brunger, M.J.

    1996-03-01

    We highlight and examine in detail a discrepancy that exists between the results of various single-channel and multiparameter electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) studies into the outervalence states of hydrogen fluoride (HF). In an attempt to elucidate the nature of this problem and the disagreement that exists between the best available theoretical momentum distributions (MDs), as calculated in the plane-wave-impulse-approximation with wavefunctions at the near-Hartree-Fock limit, and the most accurate experimental MDs, we have adapted a method, originally applied to extract atomic orbital information from Compton profiles to our 3{sigma} and 1{pi} experimental MDs. In addition we have also applied this technique to the 2s and 2p orbitals of neon, which is isoelectronic with HF, with the ramifications of the results of this investigation to HF also being outlined. (authors). 17 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  19. Drenagem an√īmala total das veias pulmonares, em sua forma infracard√≠aca: desafio diagn√≥stico Infracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia M. C. Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available No per√≠odo neonatal, a drenagem an√īmala total das veias pulmonares, em sua forma infracard√≠aca, pode ser erroneamente diagnosticada como desconforto respirat√≥rio decorrente de diferentes etiologias. No pr√©-operat√≥rio, a ecocardiografia bidimensional com Doppler orientado pelo mapeamento de fluxo em cores pode definir o local exato da drenagem e o padr√£o de retorno venoso pulmonar, permitindo, dessa forma, que a cirurgia card√≠aca seja realizada imediatamente antes que ocorra qualquer dano cl√≠nico.Infracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage can be erroneously diagnosed as respiratory distress of several different etiologies during the neonatal period. A cross-sectional echocardiography study with Doppler color flow mapping can preoperatively determine the precise drainage site and pulmonary venous return pattern, thereby allowing cardiac surgery to be performed promptly, prior to any clinical deterioration.

  20. Avaliação da contaminação mercurial mediante análise do teor de Hg total em amostras de cabelo em comunidades ribeirinhas do Tapajós, Pará, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro Maria da Conceição Nascimento

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia a contamina√ß√£o mercurial em comunidades de pescadores em quatro localidades nas margens do rio Tapaj√≥s: Rainha, Barreiras, S√£o Lu√≠s do Tapaj√≥s e Paran√°-Mirim. An√°lises toxocol√≥gicas das amostras de cabelo foram realizadas por espectofotometria de absor√ß√£o at√īmica. Os n√≠veis de merc√ļrio total em amostras de cabelo variaram entre 2,9¬Ķg/g e 71,5¬Ķg/g. Os valores mais baixos foram encontrados na comunidade de Paran√°-Mirim. Os mais elevados, em S√£o Lu√≠s do Tapaj√≥s e Barreiras, cerca de seis a sete vezes superiores ao valor estabelecido. As diferen√ßas entre as concentra√ß√Ķes m√©dias de merc√ļrio total nas amostras, coletadas em popula√ß√Ķes ribeirinhas, a montante e a jusante do rio Tapaj√≥s em Itaituba, n√£o apresentaram signific√Ęncia estat√≠stica (p > 0,05. Conclui-se que a exposi√ß√£o humana ao merc√ļrio por ingest√£o de peixes contaminados constitui risco potencial para o aparecimento de sintomas e sinais da doen√ßa de Minamata, o que recomenda a manuten√ß√£o de um programa de vigil√Ęncia epidemiol√≥gica.

  1. Determination of total acidity index in bioethanol by automated potentiometric titration; Determinacao do indice de acidez total em bioetanol por titulacao potenciometrica automatizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobral, Sidney Pereira; Ribeiro, Carla de Matos; Fraga, Isabel Cristina Serta; Goncalves, Mary Ane [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (DIMCI/INMETRO), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Metrologia Cientifica e Industrial], E-mail: spsobral@inmetro.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper determines the total acidity index of bioethanol by volumetric titration with potentiometric detection. Also, viewing the optimization of the method, studies are exhibited related to the repeatable, besides the comparison with the colorimetric method with the objective to contribute to the certification of bioethanol reference materials.

  2. Varia√ß√£o do potencial total da √°gua em uma toposseq√ľ√™ncia de solos de tabuleiro, durante dois anos Total water potential variation in a soil table land topsequence, during two years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano da Silva Souza

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar quinzenalmente, em 1996 e 1997, a varia√ß√£o do potencial total da √°gua ao longo do tempo, em solos de uma toposseq√ľ√™ncia de tabuleiro localizada em Sapea√ßu, BA. Esta toposseq√ľ√™ncia tinha as seguintes caracter√≠sticas: a comprimento de 190 m; b declividade m√©dia de 0,097 m m-1; c cultivo com laranja; d Latossolo Amarelo argiss√≥lico coeso, no ter√ßo superior; e Argissolo Amarelo coeso, no ter√ßo m√©dio; f Argissolo Acinzentado n√£o coeso, no ter√ßo inferior. A umidade do solo foi medida com sonda de n√™utrons, nas profundidades de 0,30, 0,70, 1,10 e 1,50 m. Com base nas respectivas curvas de reten√ß√£o, obteve-se o potencial matricial e, em seguida, o potencial total da √°gua, para cada solo, profundidade e tempo. A camada coesa dificulta o fluxo de √°gua no solo, tanto no processo de molhamento como no de secamento. Em conseq√ľ√™ncia, o potencial total da √°gua em solos com camada coesa varia bruscamente na camada mais superficial, ao longo do tempo, e mais lentamente nas camadas mais profundas. Em solo n√£o coeso, a varia√ß√£o brusca do potencial ocorre apenas na camada mais superficial. O limite de tens√£o de √°gua no solo de -1.500 kPa como sendo o ponto de murchamento permanente n√£o se aplica √† cultura dos citros.The objective of this work was to evaluate, fortnightly, during 1996/1997, the total soil water potential variation in a tableland topsequence in Sapea√ßu county, BA, Brazil. This topsequence had the following characteristics: a length of 190 m; b slope of 0.097 m m-1; c orange as growing crop; d the upper third with a cohesive argisolic Yellow Latosol; e the middle third with a cohesive Yellow Argisol; and f the lower third with a non-cohesive Gray Argisol. Soil water was estimated by neutron probe at depths of0.30, 0.70, 1.10, and 1.50 m. Based on water retention curves, matric potential and, in sequence, total soil water potential were determined, for each soil and depth in

  3. Migração de parafuso em artroplastia total do joelho: relato clínico Screw migration in total knee arthroplasty: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fonseca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As complica√ß√Ķes das artroplastias totais do joelho devidas ao material implantado s√£o raras, exceto o desgaste do polietileno. O relato de migra√ß√£o de parafusos dentro da articula√ß√£o do joelho √© muito raro. Os autores relatam a migra√ß√£o intra-articular de um parafuso de seguran√ßa do polietileno numa artroplastia total do joelho com sacrif√≠cio do ligamento cruzado posterior (ATJ tipo Performance; Biomet, Warsaw, IN que obrigou a nova cirurgia para remo√ß√£o do parafuso, substitui√ß√£o do componente de polietileno e aplica√ß√£o de novo parafuso de fixa√ß√£o.Complications in total knee arthroplasty directly related to the implanted material are rare, with the exception of polyethylene wear. Descriptions of screw migration into the joint cavity are very rare. The authors report an intra-articular migration of a polyethylene safety screw in a total knee arthroplasty, with sacrifice of the posterior cruciate ligament (ATJ Performance type; Biomet, Warsaw, IN requiring a new surgery to remove the screw, replace the polyethylene insert and insert a new fixation screw.

  4. Procedimento e complica√ß√Ķes anest√©sicas no manejo de lavagem pulmonar total em paciente obeso com proteinose alveolar pulmonar: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Marta Rebelo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O primeiro caso de proteinose alveolar pulmonar (PAP foi descrito por Rose em 1958, mas ainda √© um dist√ļrbio raro. PAP √© caracterizada pela deposi√ß√£o de material lipoproteico secund√°rio ao processamento anormal de surfactantes pelos macr√≥fagos. Os pacientes podem ter dispneia progressiva e tosse, √†s vezes acompanhadas pelo agravamento da hip√≥xia, e seu curso pode variar de deteriora√ß√£o progressiva a melhora espont√Ęnea. Muitas terapias foram usadas, incluindo antibi√≥ticos, drenagem postural e ventila√ß√£o com press√£o positiva intermitente com acetilciste√≠na, heparina e soro fisiol√≥gico em aerossol. Atualmente, a base do tratamento √© a lavagem pulmonar total (LPT. A LPT, embora seja geralmente bem-tolerada, pode estar associada a algumas complica√ß√Ķes. RELATO DE CASO: Relatamos um caso de PAP grave durante o procedimento anest√©sico e as complica√ß√Ķes no manejo da proteinose alveolar pulmonar em um paciente que havia sido submetido a m√ļltiplas e alternadas lavagens de um dos pulm√Ķes ao longo de sete anos (os √ļltimos tr√™s em nosso hospital, com melhora dos sintomas depois de cada tratamento.

  5. Consumo e digestibilidade total e parcial de dietas utilizando farelo de girassol e três fontes de energia em novilhos confinados Intake, total and partial digestibility of diets with sunflower meal and three energy sources in confined steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ros√°lia Mendes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo alimentar, a digestibilidade parcial e total e o balan√ßo de nitrog√™nio, em novilhos confinados. Foram utilizados tr√™s novilhos de corte cruzados, canulados no r√ļmen e no duodeno, distribu√≠dos em dois delineamentos em quadrado latino 3 x 3. As dietas experimentais foram constitu√≠das de 60% de silagem de milho, tendo como fonte de prote√≠na o farelo de girassol e, como fonte de energia, o milho (MI. O milho foi substitu√≠do parcialmente pela casca de soja (CS ou pelo farelo de g√©rmen de milho (FGM. Quatro indicadores internos (lignina e FDA, FDN e lignina indigest√≠veis foram submetidos a 144 horas de digest√£o in vitro, para estimativa da digestibilidade parcial e total das dietas. Houve maior ingest√£o dos componentes fibrosos na dieta CS, por√©m n√£o foi observado efeito sobre o consumo de mat√©ria seca. A lignina subestimou significativamente a digestibilidade. A utiliza√ß√£o da FDAi, FDNi e lignina-i para estimar a digestibilidade total √© vi√°vel, no entanto, a FDAi e lignina-i n√£o estimaram adequadamente as digestibilidades parciais. Houve efeito significativo na digestibilidade ruminal da FDA, com valores mais elevados para CS e semelhantes para FGM, em rela√ß√£o √† dieta MI. A digestibilidade total da FDA foi maior na dieta CS, por√©m, as digestibilidades dos demais componentes n√£o foram afetadas pelas diferentes fontes energ√©ticas. N√£o houve diferen√ßa significativa para a digestibilidade da energia e nos valores obtidos de NDT, com m√©dia de 61,5%. A casca de soja e o farelo de g√©rmen de milho, em substitui√ß√£o parcial do milho, mostraram-se fontes alternativas satisfat√≥rias para a inclus√£o na dieta de bovinos.Feed intake, partial and total digestibility and nitrogen balance were evaluated in confined steers. Three crossbreed steers, rumen and duodenum cannulated, were allotted to two 3 x 3 Latin square experimental design. The experimental diets were composed by corn silage (60% and concentrate

  6. The influence of Blue mussel (<em>Mytilus edulisem>) and Starfish (<em>Asterias rubensem>) meals on production performance, egg quality and apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients of laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afrose, Sadia; Hammersh√łj, Marianne; N√łrgaard, Jan V√¶rum

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate mussel meal and starfish meals as protein sources for organic layers by studying the effect on production performance, nutrient digestibility and egg quality. A total of 300 Hisex white laying hens (20-week old) were distributed randomly to 6 dietary treatment....... The egg weight was not different from the egg weights of control diets, but the inclusion of 4 g mussel meal resulted in a lower (P colour was lower (P ... 100 g feed can be used in diets as a high quality protein source for egg production. These meals can replace fish meal; however, an inclusion level higher than 8 g/100 g of mussel or starfish meal may result in a fishy smell of the eggs....

  7. Digestibilidade total e balan√ßo de nitrog√™nio em cabritos recebendo ra√ß√Ķes contendo levedura seca = Total digestibility and nitrogen balance in kid goats receiving diets containing dry yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Regina Alcalde

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a ingest√£o,digestibilidade da mat√©ria seca e dos nutrientes, o balan√ßo de nitrog√™nio e estimar os nutrientes digest√≠veis totais de ra√ß√Ķes com a inclus√£o da levedura seca (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% da MS em substitui√ß√£o ao farelo de soja nas ra√ß√Ķes para cabritos. Foram utilizados cinco cabritos SRD alojados em gaiolas metab√≥licas distribu√≠dos em delineamento quadrado latino 5 x 5. As ingest√Ķes de mat√©ria seca e de carboidratos totais n√£o foram alteradas com ainclus√£o de levedura, no entanto, para a ingest√£o de mat√©ria org√Ęnica, prote√≠na bruta, extrato et√©reo e fibra em detergente neutro foi observado efeito quadr√°tico. A digestibilidade do extrato et√©reo apresentou efeito linear decrescente, por√©m, para digestibilidade da mat√©ria seca, mat√©ria org√Ęnica, prote√≠na bruta, carboidratos totais, fibra em detergente neutro e nutrientes digest√≠veis totais houve efeito quadr√°tico. O balan√ßo de nitrog√™nio n√£o foi alterado em fun√ß√£o da substitui√ß√£o do farelo de soja. A levedura seca pode ser inclu√≠da nas ra√ß√Ķes de cabritos como fonte proteica sem alterar a ingest√£o de mat√©ria seca e o balan√ßo de nitrog√™nio, por√©m, a inclus√£o acima de 5,9% de levedura seca nas ra√ß√Ķes reduz a digestibilidade da mat√©ria seca.The assay was carried out to evaluate feed intake, dry matter andnutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, and to estimate total digestible nutrients of diets with inclusion of dry yeast (0, 25, 50, 75, 100% of DM replacing soybean meal in diets for kid goats. Five goats were allotted in a 5 x 5 Latin square design and housed in digestibility cages. Dry matter intake and total carbohydrates were unchanged with inclusion of dry yeast; however, for organic matter, crude protein, ether extract and neutral detergent fiber, intake showed a quadratic effect. The digestibility of ether extract showed decreasing linear effect; however, for dry matter, organic matter

  8. Dosagem de tiroxina total (T4 sérica pelo método de quimioluminescência em gatos clinicamente sadios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Bomfim Vieira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A dosagem de tiroxina total s√©rica em gatos √© o exame de escolha para o diagn√≥stico do hipertireoidismo que √© considerada a doen√ßa end√≥crina mais comum em gatos dom√©sticos. Fatores como luminosidade e temperatura j√° foram incriminados como causa de varia√ß√£o das concentra√ß√Ķes de horm√īnios tireoidianos em c√£es. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar valores s√©ricos de refer√™ncia para a tiroxina total em gatos saud√°veis pelo m√©todo de quimioluminesc√™ncia no Rio de Janeiro; comparar estes valores aos atualmente utilizados por laborat√≥rios no Brasil e no exterior; al√©m de analisar o efeito da idade e do sexo sobre os valores de tiroxina s√©rica total nos animais avaliados. A tiroxina s√©rica foi dosada em 119 amostras por meio de ensaio imunoenzim√°tico por quimioluminesc√™ncia. A faixa et√°ria dos 119 felinos inclu√≠dos neste estudo variou de cinco meses a 18 anos (m√©dia de 7,11 ¬Ī 3,64. O menor valor de concentra√ß√£o s√©rica de T4 encontrado foi de 0,44 ¬Ķg/dL e o maior valor foi de 4,6 ¬Ķg/dL. A faixa de refer√™ncia para a tiroxina nesta popula√ß√£o ficou entre 0,75 e 3,5 ¬Ķg/dL. De acordo com as amostras coletadas neste estudo, os valores m√©dios da concentra√ß√£o de T4 para gatos machos e f√™meas foram considerados os mesmos para um erro őĪ = 0,05. A idade, no entanto, apresentou um efeito significativo na concentra√ß√£o de T4 (p < 0,05 e correla√ß√£o positiva.

  9. Lipidic profile among rats submitted to total splenectomy isolated or combined with splenic autotransplant Perfil lipídico em ratos submetidos a esplenectomia total isolada ou combinada com auto-implante esplênico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Correia Sim√Ķes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the alterations on plasmatic lipids levels among rats submitted to total splenectomy isolated or combined with splenic autotransplant receiving standard chow during the postoperative period. METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C - sham-operated, total splenectomy - isolated (TS or combined with splenic autotransplantation (SA. Since the postoperative period, all animals received standard rat chow manipulated in accordance to the American Institute of Nutrition Rodents Diets (1993. The plasmatic levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, and glucose (GLUC were analyzed before the surgical procedure and after 6 and 12 weeks. RESULTS: All the animals presented significant increase of TG and VLDL levels. In relation to the other parameters there was no difference among the weeks 0 and 12 in the animals of group C. In TS group significant increase was observed in TC and GLUC levels during the experiment. In SA group TC, HDL, and GLUC levels remained unaffected while HDL levels increased. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that isolated total splenectomy alters lipids metabolism in rats fed with standard chow and splenic autotransplantation is effective in restoring its control.OBJETIVO: Avaliar as altera√ß√Ķes nos n√≠veis de lip√≠dios plasm√°ticos em ratos submetidos a esplenectomia total isolada ou combinada com auto-implante espl√™nico, recebendo dieta padr√£o no per√≠odo p√≥s-operat√≥rio. M√ČTODOS: Trinta ratos Wistar foram distribu√≠dos em tr√™s grupos: controle (C - opera√ß√£o simulada, esplenectomia total isolada (ET ou combinada com auto-implante espl√™nico (AE. A partir do per√≠odo p√≥s-operat√≥rio, todos os animais receberam ra√ß√£o padr√£o, manipulada segundo o American Institute of Nutrition (1993. Os n√≠veis plasm√°ticos de colesterol total (CT, triglicer√≠deos (TG, lipoprote√≠na de

  10. Anestesia venosa total para laringectomia parcial em paciente na 28ª semana de gestação: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, José; Mendes, Dalva Maria Carvalho; Lobo, José Eduardo de Oliveira; Furuguem, Adriana Barrozo Ribeiro; Santos, Gabriel Gilberto

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Uma anestesia para paciente gestante constitui um desafio ao anestesiologista em virtude dos riscos para a m√£e e para o feto. S√£o muitas as complica√ß√Ķes descritas pela literatura como malforma√ß√Ķes fetais, parto prematuro, instabilidade hemodin√Ęmica materna e at√© morte fetal. O objetivo deste caso √© mostrar uma paciente gestante de 28 semanas, submetida a laringectomia parcial sob anestesia geral venosa total com propofol, remifentanil e cisatrac√ļrio. RELATO DO CASO:...

  11. CARBONO ORG√āNICO TOTAL E AGREGA√á√ÉO DO SOLO EM SISTEMA DE PLANTIO DIRETO AGROECOL√ďGICO E CONVENCIONAL DE CEBOLA

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    Arc√Ęngelo Loss

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Decorrente dos sistemas de manejo empregados no solo, como o sistema de preparo convencional (SPC versus o sistema de plantio direto de hortali√ßas (SPDH, modifica√ß√Ķes nos atributos ed√°ficos ocorrem; por exemplo, nos √≠ndices de agrega√ß√£o do solo e seu teor de carbono org√Ęnico total (COT. Objetivaram-se quantificar os teores de COT e avaliar os √≠ndices de agrega√ß√£o do solo e a distribui√ß√£o dos agregados por classes de di√Ęmetro sob cultivo de cebola em SPDH e SPC, comparados a uma √°rea de mata adjacente em Ituporanga, SC. Os tratamentos constitu√≠ram-se da semeadura de plantas de cobertura, solteiras e consorciadas, em SPDH: vegeta√ß√£o espont√Ęnea (VE; 100 % aveia; 100 % centeio; 100 % nabo-forrageiro; cons√≥rcio de nabo-forrageiro (14 % e centeio (86 %; e cons√≥rcio de nabo-forrageiro (14 % e aveia (86 %. Adicionalmente, foram avaliadas uma √°rea de cultivo de cebola em SPC por ¬Ī37 anos e uma √°rea de mata (floresta secund√°ria; ¬Ī30 anos, ambas adjacentes ao experimento. Em setembro de 2013, cinco anos ap√≥s a implanta√ß√£o dos tratamentos com plantas de cobertura, foram coletadas amostras indeformadas do solo nas camadas de 0-5, 5-10 e 10-20 cm e separados os agregados para avaliar a estabilidade via √ļmida. Nos agregados, foi quantificado o COT; ap√≥s a separa√ß√£o em classes de di√Ęmetro (8,00 mm>√ė‚Č•0,105 mm, calcularam-se o di√Ęmetro m√©dio ponderado (DMP e o geom√©trico (DMG dos agregados; a distribui√ß√£o deles em macroagregados (√ė‚Č•2,0 mm, mesoagregados (2,0>√ė‚Č•0,25 mm e microagregados (√ė<0,25 mm; e o seu √≠ndice de sensibilidade (IS. Os dados foram submetidos √† an√°lise de vari√Ęncia e de componentes principais (ACP. Os maiores teores de COT foram encontrados na √°rea de mata (52,83; 37,77; e 26,70 g kg-1, respectivamente para 0-5, 5-10 e 10-20 cm; e os menores, no SPC (18,23 g kg-1, 0-5 cm. Os tratamentos com plantas de cobertura, solteiras ou consorciadas, n√£o apresentaram diferen√ßas entre si (p‚ȧ0,05 para o

  12. Carbono total e őī13C em agregados do solo sob vegeta√ß√£o nativa e pastagem no bioma cerrado

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    Ciniro Costa Junior

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes sistemas de uso e manejo alteram o teor de carbono no solo (C, por√©m diminui√ß√Ķes no C do solo t√™m sido reportadas quando √°reas de Cerrado nativo s√£o convertidas em pastagem. Disso resulta a necessidade da realiza√ß√£o de pesquisas em diferentes sistemas e condi√ß√Ķes edafoclim√°ticas, a fim de elucidar as tend√™ncias encontradas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a agrega√ß√£o, os teores de C e a abund√Ęncia natural de őī13C do solo em uma √°rea cultivada h√° nove anos sob lavoura seguida de 20 anos sob pastagem, a qual atualmente apresenta sinais de degrada√ß√£o (PA, comparando-a a uma vegeta√ß√£o nativa no bioma Cerrado (CE que ocorre em √°rea adjacente. As √°reas de estudo est√£o localizadas no munic√≠pio de Rio Verde (GO, em solo classificado como Latossolo Vermelho distr√≥fico, de textura argilosa. Em amostras de solo coletadas nas camadas de 0-5, 5-10 e 10-20 cm de profundidade, foram determinados a distribui√ß√£o de agregados est√°veis em √°gua (micro, meso e macroagregados, o di√Ęmetro m√©dio aritm√©tico (DMA e geom√©trico (DMG, os teores de C total e de őī13C, o tempo de resid√™ncia m√©dia do C (TRM e a fra√ß√£o da mat√©ria org√Ęnica leve livre (FLL. Os resultados indicaram que o uso sob lavoura seguido de pastagem reduziu em 21 % o estoque de C original, possivelmente devido ao menor aporte de material na FLL. O solo apresentou elevada agrega√ß√£o e n√£o houve diferen√ßas significativas entre as √°reas avaliadas. No entanto, os teores de C nos macroagregados foram menores na PA em rela√ß√£o ao CE, enquanto nos microagregados n√£o houve diferen√ßa entre os sistemas de uso, sugerindo, respectivamente, maior e menor sensibilidade ao manejo e menor e maior prote√ß√£o do C por essas classes de agregados. Os valores de TRM e as an√°lises isot√≥picas refor√ßaram esses resultados, mostrando, ainda, substitui√ß√£o de 83 % do C original durante os 29 anos de cultivo. O constante aporte de res√≠duos vegetais, assim como a

  13. Uso de indicadores na determinação da digestibilidade parcial e total em bovinos Use of markers for estimation of feed digestibility in cattle

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    Ant√īnio Ferriani de branco

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar indicadores, externos e internos, nos estudos de digestibilidade parcial e total em bovinos. Como indicador externo, foi utilizado o √≥xido cr√īmico (Cr2O5 e, como indicadores internos, a cinza insol√ļvel em √°cido (CIA e a fibra em detergente neutro indigest√≠vel (FDNI. As ra√ß√Ķes fornecidas aos animais continham, em m√©dia, 13,67% de PB, com 50% concentrado e 50% de volumoso. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos, da ra√ßa holandesa, portadores de c√Ęnulas no r√ļmen e no duodeno e com peso vivo m√©dio de 320 kg, para estudar os fluxos de mat√©ria seca (MS e mat√©ria org√Ęnica (MO no duodeno e nas fezes e tr√™s vacas fistuladas no r√ļmen. Para comparar os indicadores, as m√©dias de fluxos de MS e de MO foram estimadas utilizando-se o intervalo de confian√ßa. Tamb√©m foi utilizado o coeficiente de varia√ß√£o para determinar a precis√£o das estimativas das m√©dias. Nas condi√ß√Ķes do presente trabalho, verificou-se que o Cr2O3 foi o indicador que apresentou menor varia√ß√£o na estimativa das m√©dias de fluxo em rela√ß√£o √† CIA e √† FDNI.The objective of this work was to evaluate external and internal markers in studies of partial and total digestibility in cattle. Chromic oxide (Cr2O3 was used as external marker and acid-insoluble ash (AIA and indigestible neutral detergent fibre (INDF as internal markers. The animals were fed a diet 13.7% crude protein (CP, with 50% concentrate and 50% forage. Four Holstein steers with 320 kg average body weight implanted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas, and three cows with ruminal cannula for INDF determination were used. The experiment was carried to study duodenal and faecal dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM flows estimated by markers. To compare markers, the averages for DM and OM flow were estimated using the trust interval, and the coefficient of variation of average estimation. Under the conditions of the present work it was concluded that chromic oxide

  14. Socializa√ß√£o em uma institui√ß√£o total: implica√ß√Ķes da educa√ß√£o em uma academia militar

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    Giuliana Franco Leal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, aborda-se o processo de socializa√ß√£o secund√°ria dos cadetes da Aeron√°utica brasileira. A partir de pesquisa de campo qualitativa e documental, descrevem-se e discutem-se os objetivos e a pr√°tica dessa socializa√ß√£o, com especial √™nfase √†s tens√Ķes de uma institui√ß√£o total (tal como definida por Erving Goffman que, contraditoriamente, destina-se a formar profissionais com certo grau de autonomia individual. Problematizam-se, ent√£o, as consequ√™ncias do processo de socializa√ß√£o, tanto as esperadas como as n√£o planejadas pela institui√ß√£o.

  15. Estado oxidante/antioxidante total em recém-nascidos ictéricos antes e depois da fototerapia

    OpenAIRE

    Aycicek,Ali; Erel,Ozcan

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da fototerapia no estado oxidante e antioxidante no soro de rec√©m-nascidos a termo com hiperbilirrubinemia. M√ČTODO: Trinta e quatro rec√©m-nascidos a termo com idades entre 3 e 10 dias submetidos a fototerapia foram avaliados. O estado antioxidante do soro foi determinado pela capacidade antioxidante total e por componentes antioxidantes individuais: vitamina C, √°cido √ļrico, albumina, concentra√ß√£o de tiol e bilirrubina total. O estado oxidante foi avaliado atrav√©s do...

  16. Factorial design analysis on the solubility of total mercury in reduction process = An√°lise do processo experimental na solubilidade do merc√ļrio total em processo redutivo

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    Raquel Dalla Costa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The dental wastewater can contribute to the total daily mercury load on the environment. Factorial design of experiments is useful to analyze factors that influence this solubility. The aim of the present study was to design experiments to examine the effects ofoperational variables, humic acid, temperature, pH and contact time that may affect the solubility of total mercury as dental amalgam residue in reduction process. Based on the factorial design of experiments, the humic acid concentration was the most significant factor in this process, followed by other factors. The parameters affecting the solubility of total mercury showed that when the [HA], T and CT increases and pH decreases there is an important increase of total mercury concentration in process. For the tested conditions, thehigh total mercury concentration was obtained using the humic acid concentration = 1.0 g L-1, temperature = 35oC, pH = 4.0 and contact time = 10 days.O esgoto odontol√≥gico pode contribuir na carga total de merc√ļrio noambiente. O estudo do planejamento experimental √© √ļtil para analisar os fatores que influenciam nesta solubilidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um planejamento experimental para analisar os efeitos das vari√°veis operacionais, √°cido h√ļmico, temperatura,pH e tempo de contato, que podem afetar a solubilidade do merc√ļrio total como am√°lgama odontol√≥gico em um processo de redu√ß√£o. Baseado no planejamento experimental, a concentra√ß√£o de √°cido h√ļmico foi o fator mais significativo no processo, seguido dos demais fatores. Os par√Ęmetros que afetam a solubilidade do merc√ļrio total mostram que quando a [AH], T e TC aumentam e o pH diminui h√° um aumento significativo na concentra√ß√£o de merc√ļrio total no processo. A maior concentra√ß√£o de merc√ļrio total foi obtido nas condi√ß√Ķes de concentra√ß√£o de √°cido h√ļmico = 1,0 g L-1, temperatura = 35oC, pH = 4,0 e tempo de contato = 10 dias.

  17. Artroplastia total coxofemoral em cães: Estudo experimental com prótese nacional Total hip arthroplasty in dogs: Experimental study using a prosthesis made in Brazil

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    Bruno Watanabe Minto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A pr√≥tese total da articula√ß√£o coxofemoral representa uma das t√©cnicas mais aceitas, nos Estados Unidos e na Europa, para o tratamento cir√ļrgico da displasia coxofemoral severa em c√£es. Entretanto, ainda √© pouco difundida e estudada no Brasil. No presente trabalho, foi utilizada pr√≥tese confeccionada no Brasil, com o objetivo de avaliar a sua aplica√ß√£o, evolu√ß√£o p√≥s-operat√≥ria e complica√ß√Ķes associadas. Foram utilizados dez c√£es, sadios e adultos. Todos foram submetidos ao procedimento de pr√≥tese total cimentada da articula√ß√£o esquerda utilizando-se um componente femoral de cromo-cobalto, cabe√ßa fixa, e uma c√ļpula acetabular de polietileno de alta densidade. As avalia√ß√Ķes cl√≠nicas e radiogr√°ficas foram realizadas no pr√©-operat√≥rio e aos 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias ap√≥s a interven√ß√£o cir√ļrgica. A pr√≥tese total utilizada proporcionou um bom resultado funcional ao membro operado, em 80% dos animais. As principais complica√ß√Ķes relacionadas foram a luxa√ß√£o prot√©tica e a soltura do componente acetabular.Total hip prosthesis is one of the most accepted methods used in the United States and Europe for the treatment of severe hip dysplasia in dogs. However, there are few studies with the technique and the procedure is still not well established in Brazil. A prosthesis made in Brazil was used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate its application and determine the postoperative finds and complications. Ten mature healthy dogs were used. A fixed-head cemented total hip prosthesis was applied on the left leg of the dogs. A chrome-cobalt femoral stem and high density polyetylene acetabular cup was used. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were performed before surgery and again at 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 days post operation. Proper weight bearing was noticed on the operated limb in the majority of the dogs. The main complications were the dislocation and loosening of the acetabular cup.

  18. Substituição do milho por palma forrageira em dietas completas para vacas em lactação Replacement of corn by forage cactus in the total mixed rations for crossbreed lactating cows

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    Paulo Renato Barros Ara√ļjo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este experimento, avaliar o efeito da substitui√ß√£o do milho por palma forrageira sobre o desempenho de vacas mesti√ßas em lacta√ß√£o e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes. Foram utilizadas oito vacas mesti√ßas (5/8 HZ, distribu√≠das em dois quadrados latinos 4 x 4 em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (duas cultivares de palma forrageira, com ou sem milho. N√£o houve intera√ß√£o entre palma e milho e o efeito dos dois alimentos foi analisado de forma isolada. Os consumos de mat√©ria seca, de fibra em detergente √°cido, demat√©ria org√Ęnica, de prote√≠na bruta, de extrato et√©reo e de carboidratos totais n√£o foram influenciados pelas cultivares de palma utilizadas. Animais que receberam palma gigante nas dietas apresentaram maior consumo de fibra em detergente neutro. As dietas com milho proporcionaram maior consumo de mat√©ria seca (kg/dia e % de PV. O consumo de NDT, os coeficientes de digestibilidade de todos os nutrientes, a produ√ß√£o de leite corrigida, o teor de gordura e a efici√™ncia alimentar n√£o foram influenciados pelas cultivares de palma forrageira ou pela inclus√£o milho.The experiment was conduced to evaluate the effects of corn replacement for forage cactus on the performance of crossbreed lactating cows and nutrient digestibility. Eight cows were assigned a two latin square design in a factorial 2 x 2 arrangement (two forage cactus cultivars, with or without corn.There was not interaction between forage cactus and corn and the effect of both were analyzed in an isolated way. The intake of dry matter, organic matter, acid detergent fiber, crude protein, ether extract and total carbohydrates were not affected by the forage cactus. Animals that received giant cultivar presented larger neutral detergent fiber intake. The diets with corn presented larger dry matter intake (kg/day and % of LW. The intake of TDN, the coefficients of digestibility of all nutrients, the fat corrected milk production, fat content and kg of milk

  19. Anestesia venosa total (AVT) em lactente com doença de Werdnig-Hoffmann: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Resende, Marco Antonio Cardoso de; Silva, Elizabeth Vaz da; Nascimento, Osvaldo José Moreira; Gemal, Alberto Esteves; Quintanilha, Giseli; Vasconcelos, Eliana Maria

    2010-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A doen√ßa de Werdnig-Hoffmann √© a causa mais comum de hipotonia no lactente e quando presente logo ap√≥s o nascimento tem pior progn√≥stico. Fraqueza muscular sim√©trica, arreflexia e fascicula√ß√Ķes da l√≠ngua s√£o caracter√≠sticos. A maioria dos lactentes morre antes dos dois anos por insufici√™ncia respirat√≥ria. O presente relato apresenta um caso com t√©cnica venosa total durante anestesia. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente feminina, branca, um ano, 10 kg, estado f√≠sico ASA III, co...

  20. Particle size distribution and total solids suspension in samples monitoring of capturing water for optimization of water injection filtration system; Monitoramento da quantidade de particulas e do total de solidos em suspensao em amostras de agua de captacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalhao, Adriano Gorga; Seno, Carlos Eduardo; Ribeiro, Alice [3M do Brasil, Sumare, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    There is a wide variation in the amount of particulate material in sea water by a great number of reasons. The most well-known contaminant is the organic material derived from seaweed or fish spawning causing seasonally sensitive variations in the water quality treated and injected for enhance oil recovery. This paper presents the results of one year the water monitoring form water sampled at 30 meters deep in the Roncador field, which is located 125 km from the coast with a depth of 1290 meters. It was observed the water seasonal variation with peaks in summer and winter. The monitoring was done through particle counting and distribution analysis and total solids in suspension. It was noted that even in peak with largest amount of particles and greater quantity of solid in suspension the particles had remained concentrated in the range bellow 25 {mu}m. For that reason the life of final filter elements may vary and pre-filters are many times ineffective and sometimes even bypassed due to frequent clogging and not to do the protecting job of the final filter. (author)

  1. Efeitos da tosse manualmente assistida sobre a mec√Ęnica do sistema respirat√≥rio de pacientes em suporte ventilat√≥rio total

    OpenAIRE

    Avena,Katia de Miranda; Duarte,Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Cravo,Sergio Luiz Domingues; Sologuren,Maria José Junho; Gastaldi,Ada Clarice

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: A tosse manualmente assistida (TMA) consiste na compress√£o vigorosa do t√≥rax no in√≠cio da expira√ß√£o espont√Ęnea ou da fase expirat√≥ria da ventila√ß√£o mec√Ęnica. Tendo em vista a utiliza√ß√£o rotineira da TMA na unidade de terapia intensiva, a proposta deste estudo foi analisar os efeitos dessa t√©cnica no comportamento da mec√Ęnica do sistema respirat√≥rio de pacientes submetidos a suporte ventilat√≥rio total. M√ČTODOS: Foram estudados 16 pacientes intubados, sedados e submetidos √† ventila√ß√£o...

  2. Merc√ļrio total em cabelos: uma contribui√ß√£o para se avaliar o n√≠vel de exposi√ß√£o em Pocon√©, Mato Grosso, Brasil

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    Fl√°via Nogueira

    Full Text Available Ocorrem na Bacia do Rio Bento Gomes (MT, √†s margens do Pantanal Mato-grossense, cerca de sessenta garimpos de ouro, onde o merc√ļrio √© utilizado de forma intensiva nos processos de produ√ß√£o, atrav√©s da forma√ß√£o de am√°lgamas que facilitam a aglutina√ß√£o de part√≠culas finas. A queima do am√°lgama nem sempre √© feita em sistemas fechados de recupera√ß√£o, havendo, portanto, perda de vapor para a atmosfera. Este estudo traz resultados de an√°lises de merc√ļrio total nos cabelos de quatro grupos de volunt√°rios que vivem em Pocon√© (MT, e faz uma caracteriza√ß√£o geral do ambiente no que se refere √† presen√ßa do metal na √°gua e no sedimento do Rio Bento Gomes. Um equipamento de detec√ß√£o por fluoresc√™ncia foi usado para a determina√ß√£o das concentra√ß√Ķes, e os resultados indicam que os valores s√£o mais baixos do que os de outras popula√ß√Ķes de √°reas de garimpo no Brasil. Indicam tamb√©m que a via ocupacional parece ser a mais eficiente rota potencial de contamina√ß√£o da popula√ß√£o por merc√ļrio.

  3. Inoculação microbiana da alfafa para silagem sobre a digestibilidade total e ruminal em bovinos Microbial inoculation of alfalfa for silage on ruminal and total digestibility in bovines

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    Silvio Manginelli

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Doze vacas (640 kg de PV n√£o-gestantes e n√£o-lactantes foram distribu√≠das em um delineamento em blocos, em que os tratamentos corresponderam √† silagem pr√©-secada de alfafa (60,0% de MS e 19,5% de PB controle ou inoculada com o produto Silobac¬ģ (Lactobacillus plantarum e Pediococcus pentosaceus, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da inocula√ß√£o microbiana da silagem de alfafa sobre a digestibilidade total e ruminal em bovinos. A dieta experimental continha 50% de silagem de alfafa e 50% de concentrados, com base na mat√©ria seca. O experimento teve dura√ß√£o total de 21 dias, sendo os dez √ļltimos destinados √† administra√ß√£o do marcador √≥xido cr√īmio e os cinco √ļltimos destinados √† coleta de fezes e incuba√ß√£o dos sacos de n√°ilon. A inocula√ß√£o da silagem de alfafa n√£o alterou a digestibilidade total da MS (inoculada = 70,0% vs. controle = 71,2%, PB (72,3% vs. 73,0%, EE (77,0% vs. 76,8%, FDN (61,2% vs. 55,9%, FDA (66,8% vs. 61,8%, EB (72,5% vs. 73,7% ou NDT (70,6% vs. 71,8% da dieta. Tamb√©m n√£o alterou o consumo de MS digest√≠vel (12,2 vs. 11,4 kg/animal/dia ou 1,7% vs. 1,8% do PV ou o consumo de NDT (12,4 vs. 11,4 kg/animal/dia ou 1,8% vs. 1,8% do PV. Entretanto, a inocula√ß√£o diminuiu a degradabilidade efetiva da MS da silagem de alfafa para taxas de passagem de 2%/h (61,2% vs. 65,1%, 5%/h (54,1% vs. 58,6% e 8%/h (50,0% vs. 54,4%, bem como reduziu a degradabilidade efetiva da PB da Alfafa para taxas de passagem de 2%/h (84,8% vs. 86,8% e 5%/h (79,9% vs. 82,5%.Twelve non pregnant dry cows (640 kg LW were assigned to a randomized block design, provided that the treatments were alfalfa haylage (60.0% DM and 19.5% CP control or inoculated with Silobac¬ģ product (Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus, with the objective to evaluate the effects of microbial inoculation of alfalfa silage on ruminal and total digestibility in bovines. Experimental diet was composing by 50% of alfalfa silage and 50% of concentrate as

  4. Variabilidade genética para teor de proteína bruta em grãos de aveia Genetic variability for total grain protein in oat

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    Rodrigo Rodrigues Matiello

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available O aumento da utiliza√ß√£o dos gr√£os de aveia na alimenta√ß√£o humana tem estimulado os melhoristas a selecionar gen√≥tipos com alta qualidade de gr√£os. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar e caracterizar a variabilidade gen√©tica para o car√°ter teor de prote√≠na bruta de gr√£os em gen√≥tipos cultivados de aveia, introdu√ß√Ķes silvestres de A. fatua L., A. sterilis L. e em popula√ß√Ķes h√≠bridas de A. sativa L. x A. sterilis L. Os resultados revelaram uma ampla variabilidade gen√©tica para o car√°ter dentro dos grupos estudados. As diferen√ßas observadas entre os gen√≥tipos cultivados parecem ocorrer devido a constitui√ß√£o genot√≠pica diferenciada. O grupo silvestre de A. sterilis L. foi, em m√©dia, superior aos demais, sendo que a introdu√ß√£o I-325 se destacou pelo alto teor de prote√≠na. O comportamento similar entre as introdu√ß√Ķes de A. fatua L. pode ser atribu√≠do a coleta de introdu√ß√Ķes de apenas uma regi√£o, o que reduziu a variabilidade gen√©tica. Foram encontrados h√≠bridos artificiais entre A. sativa L. x A. sterilis L. com alto teor de prote√≠na e caracter√≠sticas desej√°veis do grupo cultivado.The increased use of oat grains as human food has stimulated plant breeders to select genotypes with high grain quality. This work aimed to identify and characterize genetic variability for total grain protein in cultivated oat and introductions of A. fatua L., A. sterilis L. and hybrid populations from A. sativa L. x A. sterilis L.. The results showed a large genetic variability for the trait in the studied groups. Differences among cultivated oat genotypes may be attributed to different genetic constitution. A. sterilis L. group showed high protein content specially with the introduction of I-325. Genotypes from A. fatua L. showed similar low levels of protein probably because the narrow range of regions sampled in this study. Some hybrids from A. sativa L. x A. sterilis L. showed high protein content and

  5. Lipídios plasmáticos após esplenectomia total e parcial em cães

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    Danilo Nagib Salom√£o Paulo

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da esplenectomia total e parcial (hemiesplenectomia e esplenectomia subtotal no lipidograma de c√£es. M√ČTODO: Foram operados 38 animais, adultos, machos, mesti√ßos, com peso entre 13kg e 15kg. No pr√©-operat√≥rio, depois do exame cl√≠nico e jejum de 12 horas de uma dieta-padr√£o, foram realizados hemograma e lipidograma. Ap√≥s anestesia geral com tiopental s√≥dico os c√£es foram submetidos √† laparotomia mediana supra e infra-umbilical. Procedeu-se no grupo 1, de sete c√£es, apenas √† manipula√ß√£o do ba√ßo (simulado; no grupo 2, de nove c√£es, √† hemiesplenectomia cranial; no grupo 3, de nove c√£es, √† esplenectomia subtotal, com preserva√ß√£o do p√≥lo inferior do ba√ßo, ap√≥s ligadura e sec√ß√£o dos troncos principais dos vasos espl√™nicos pr√≥ximos ao hilo; e no grupo 4, de 13 c√£es, √† esplenectomia total. RESULTADOS: No grupo 4 (esplenectomia total, quando comparamos os valores do lipidograma dos diferentes per√≠odos p√≥s-operat√≥rios com os do pr√©-operat√≥rio, os nossos resultados mostraram que houve aumento significante do colesterol total em todos os per√≠odos p√≥s-operat√≥rios (p 0,05 no 56¬ļ PO. O LDL aumentou significantemente no 56¬ļ PO (p < 0,01 em rela√ß√£o tamb√©m aos demais per√≠odos do p√≥s-operat√≥rio. Os triglicer√≠deos e VLDL n√£o apresentaram altera√ß√Ķes significantes. Nos animais dos grupos 1 e 3 n√£o houve altera√ß√Ķes significantes. Nos do grupo 2, houve aumento significante do colesterol no 7¬ļ PO. N√£o houve diferen√ßa estatisticamente significante de peso entre os remanescentes das esplenectomias parciais. CONCLUS√ēES: A an√°lise dos resultados nos permitiu concluir que a esplenectomia total induz aumento significante do colesterol total, das fra√ß√Ķes HDL e LDL, enquanto os n√≠veis de triglicer√≠dios e a fra√ß√£o VLDL n√£o sofrem altera√ß√Ķes; a conserva√ß√£o da metade inferior do ba√ßo ou a esplenectomia subtotal, com preserva√ß√£o do p√≥lo inferior, protege o animal de altera√ß√Ķes lip

  6. ENVELOPAMENTO DA TROPOPAUSA NO SUL DA AM√ČRICA DO SUL: RELA√á√ēES ENTRE A CORRENTE DE JATO EM ALTOS N√ćVEIS E A COLUNA TOTAL DE OZ√ĒNIO

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    José Lourêdo Fontinele

    2012-01-01

    O presente estudo trata da influ√™ncia do envelopamento da tropopausa na coluna total de oz√īnio, durante a passagem dos sistemas frontais. Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo analisar, a partir das rela√ß√Ķes entre a corrente de jato em altos n√≠veis e a coluna total de oz√īnio, o envelopamento da tropopausa no sul da Am√©rica do Sul. Pretende-se tamb√©m quantificar as frentes frias que agiram ao longo de 2008, bem como identific√°-las em eventos de envelopamento da tropopausa e a√ß√£o da...

  7. Anestesia venosa total para laringectomia parcial em paciente na 28ª semana de gestação: relato de caso Anestesia venosa total para laringectomía parcial en paciente en la 28ª semana de embarazo: relato de caso Total intravenous anesthesia for partial laryngectomy in 28 weeks pregnant patient: case report

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    José Costa; Dalva Maria Carvalho Mendes; José Eduardo de Oliveira Lobo; Adriana Barrozo Ribeiro Furuguem; Gabriel Gilberto Santos

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Uma anestesia para paciente gestante constitui um desafio ao anestesiologista em virtude dos riscos para a m√£e e para o feto. S√£o muitas as complica√ß√Ķes descritas pela literatura como malforma√ß√Ķes fetais, parto prematuro, instabilidade hemodin√Ęmica materna e at√© morte fetal. O objetivo deste caso √© mostrar uma paciente gestante de 28 semanas, submetida a laringectomia parcial sob anestesia geral venosa total com propofol, remifentanil e cisatrac√ļrio. RELATO DO CASO:...

  8. Substituição total do milho por sorgo e óleo de abatedouro avícola em dietas para frangos de corte Total replacement of corn by sorghum and slaughterhouse poultry oil in broiler diets

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    Vitória Régia Ramos de Albuquerque Rocha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da substituiÔŅĹÔŅĹ√£o total do milho por sorgo e n√≠veis crescentes de √≥leo de abatedouro av√≠cola (OAA sobre os par√Ęmetros de desempenho, as caracter√≠sticas e o rendimento de carca√ßa de frangos de corte, foram utilizados 260 pintos de 1 dia, machos, da linhagem Cobb, submetidos aos seguintes tratamentos: uma ra√ß√£o-refer√™ncia √† base de milho e quatro ra√ß√Ķes √† base de sorgo com inclus√Ķes de 0; 2,5; 5 e 7,5% de OAA de acordo com as fases de cria√ß√£o (1 a 7 dias, 8 a 21 dias, 22 a 33 dias e 34 a 42 dias. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com dois blocos formados conforme o sentido do galp√£o, duas repeti√ß√Ķes por bloco, 13 aves por parcela e cinco tratamentos. N√£o foi observado efeito de bloco sobre as vari√°veis analisadas entre os tratamentos. A inclus√£o de OAA nas ra√ß√Ķes √† base de sorgo teve efeito linear sobre o consumo de ra√ß√£o (CR, exceto durante a primeira fase, e o ganho de peso, que aumentou nas fases de 1 a 7 dias, 22 a 33 dias e 1 a 42 dias de idade. A convers√£o alimentar e a viabilidade n√£o apresentaram diferen√ßas significativas nas fases estudadas. O peso absoluto dos frangos ao abate aumentou linearmente com a adi√ß√£o de OAA na ra√ß√£o. Os pesos e rendimentos da carca√ßa quente, da carca√ßa fria, da carca√ßa ap√≥s resfriamento de 24 horas, dos cortes nobres, das v√≠sceras comest√≠veis e da gordura abdominal n√£o foram influenciados pelas ra√ß√Ķes. A pigmenta√ß√£o da carca√ßa n√£o foi influenciada pela inclus√£o de OAA em ra√ß√Ķes √† base de sorgo. O sorgo pode substituir totalmente o milho a partir do 8¬ļ dia de idade, pois n√£o interferiu negativamente no desempenho e no rendimento de carca√ßa. A adi√ß√£o de at√© 7,5% de OAA em ra√ß√Ķes √† base de sorgo possibilita a produ√ß√£o de carca√ßas com rendimentos semelhantes ao daquelas obtidas com o fornecimento de ra√ß√Ķes √† base de milho e de farelo de soja, no entanto, √© necess√°ria a adi√ß√£o de

  9. Nível sérico de IgE total em alergia respiratória: estudo em pacientes com alto risco de infecção por helmintos Total IgE level in respiratory allergy: study of patients at high risk for helminthic infection

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    Décio Medeiros

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Eosinofilia e eleva√ß√£o de IgE s√©rica s√£o express√Ķes de atopia, contudo h√° fatores intervenientes como, por exemplo, as parasitoses intestinais. Esta pesquisa verifica a rela√ß√£o entre IgE s√©rica total, eosin√≥filos e IgE espec√≠fica anti-√°scaris em indiv√≠duos portadores de asma e/ou rinite al√©rgica. M√ČTODOS: Estudo do tipo transversal em adolescentes portadores de asma e/ou rinite al√©rgica que foram examinados quanto ao n√≠vel s√©rico de IgE total, de IgE anti-√°scaris e de contagem dos eosin√≥filos sang√ľ√≠neos. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 101 pacientes com idade entre 12 e 21 anos. A mediana da IgE foi 660 UI/mL (P25-75 243,5-1500, e a dos eosin√≥filos foi 510 c√©lulas/mm¬≥ (P25-75 284-811. A IgE anti-√°scaris foi positiva em 73% (74/101 da amostra, mas houve apenas 33,7% (34/101 de positividade ao parasitol√≥gico de fezes. Os coeficientes de correla√ß√£o encontrados foram: 0,34 (p = 0,001 entre IgE total e eosin√≥filos, 0,52 (p OBJECTIVE: Eosinophilia and increased serum IgE levels are indicators of atopy; however, other factors can also play a key role, such as intestinal parasitic infections. This study assesses the relationship between total serum IgE, eosinophil count, and anti-Ascaris IgE in individuals with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adolescents with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. The patients had their total serum IgE, anti-Ascaris IgE and eosinophil count measured. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients aged 12 to 21 years were assessed. Median IgE level was 660 IU/mL (P25-75 243.5-1500, and the eosinophil count corresponded to 510 cells/mm¬≥ (P25-75 284-811. Anti-Ascaris IgE was positive in 73% (74/101 of the individuals, but parasitological stool examination yielded positive results in only 33.7% (34/101. The correlation coefficients were the following: 0.34 (p = 0.001 between total IgE level and eosinophil count, 0.52 (p < 0.001 between total IgE level

  10. Estudo normativo do eletrorretinograma de campo total em adultos jovens Normative values for full-field electroretinogram in healthy young adults

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    Josenilson Martins Pereira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A proposta deste estudo √© estabelecer valores normativos para o eletrorretinograma (ERG de campo total, em um grupo de volunt√°rios adultos jovens segundo o protocolo padr√£o recomendado pela Sociedade Internacional de Eletrofisiologia Visual Cl√≠nica (ISCEV. M√ČTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 42 volunt√°rios normais com idades variando de 15 a 26 anos, sendo 20 homens e 22 mulheres. Os eletrorretinogramas de campo total foram obtidos com eletrodos de lente de contato bipolares e seguiram as 5 etapas do protocolo da Sociedade Internacional de Eletrofisiologia Visual Clinica: a resposta de bastonetes; b reposta m√°xima; c potenciais oscilat√≥rios; d resposta m√°xima de cones; e resposta de cones ao flicker 30 Hz. Os par√Ęmetros analisados foram a amplitude de resposta do pico da onda-a at√© o pico da onda-b (pico a pico em miV e o tempo de culmina√ß√£o da onda-b (ms. RESULTADOS: As m√©dias (¬Ī 1 desvio padr√£o da amplitude pico a pico foram: resposta de bastonetes - 241,1 ¬Ī 66,9 ¬ĶV; resposta m√°xima - 385,4 ¬Ī 71,8 ¬ĶV; potenciais oscilat√≥rios - 180,6 ¬Ī 48,6 ¬ĶV; resposta de cones -102,8 ¬Ī 36,3 ¬ĶV e flicker 30 Hz - 69,2 ¬Ī 26,6 ¬ĶV. Para o tempo impl√≠cito da onda-b os valores foram: resposta de bastonetes - 85,2 ¬Ī 7,6 ms; resposta m√°xima -45,6 ¬Ī 2,0ms; resposta de cones - 27,8 ¬Ī 1,2ms e flicker 30 Hz - 27,9 ¬Ī 1,2 ms. Os resultados foram compar√°veis entre os grupos masculino e feminino, exceto para a resposta m√°xima em que as mulheres obtiveram amplitudes estatisticamente maiores (t=2,06; P=0,046. CONCLUS√ÉO: Os valores encontrados est√£o de acordo com dados normativos da literatura e s√£o fundamentais para o diagn√≥stico correto de disfun√ß√Ķes retinianas em pacientes na mesma faixa et√°ria. Inclus√£o de outras faixas et√°rias e o aumento no n√ļmero de sujeitos testados s√£o necess√°rios para estender valores normativos para o eletrorretinograma.PURPOSE: To determine normative data for full-field electroretinogram (ERG

  11. Acuidade visual e eletrorretinografia de campo total em pacientes com síndrome de Usher Visual acuity and full-field electroretinography in patients with Usher's syndrome

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    Luana Mendieta

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A s√≠ndrome de Usher (SU √© doen√ßa autoss√īmica recessiva caracterizada por perda auditiva neuro-sensorial acompanhada de retinose pigment√°ria (RP. OBJETIVO: Analisar a eletrorretinografia de campo total (ERG e a acuidade visual (AV em pacientes com s√≠ndrome de Usher tipos I e II. M√ČTODOS: Foram estudadas as respostas da eletrorretinografia de campo total e a acuidade visual de 22 pacientes (idade m√©dia = 26,8¬Ī16,8 anos. Destes, 17 tinham s√≠ndrome de Usher tipo I e 5 tinham s√≠ndrome de Usher tipo II. RESULTADOS: A acuidade visual m√©dia do grupo s√≠ndrome de Usher I foi de 0,9 logMAR (20/160, equivalente de Snellen e do grupo s√≠ndrome de Usher II de 0,4 logMAR (20/50, equivalente de Snellen. As respostas dos bastonetes e as m√°ximas respostas mostraram-se n√£o detect√°veis nos dois grupos. A amplitude m√©dia dos potenciais oscilat√≥rios foi de 14,5 ¬ĶV¬Ī6,1 na s√≠ndrome de Usher I e na s√≠ndrome de Usher II de 12,6 ¬ĶV¬Ī5,2. As respostas de cones foram n√£o detect√°veis em 95% dos pacientes com s√≠ndrome de Usher I e em 100% dos pacientes com s√≠ndrome de Usher II. A amplitude m√©dia do flicker a 30 Hz nos pacientes com s√≠ndrome de Usher I foi de 3,1 ¬ĶV¬Ī4,1 e do tempo de culmina√ß√£o de 34,0ms¬Ī6,2; nos pacientes com s√≠ndrome de Usher II a m√©dia de amplitude foi de 1,0 mV¬Ī0,6 e do tempo de culmina√ß√£o de 35,8 ms¬Ī3,1. CONCLUS√ÉO: A acuidade visual mostrou-se relativamente preservada nos dois grupos, por√©m com melhores resultados no grupo de s√≠ndrome de Usher II. Os achados eletrorretinogr√°ficos mostraram-se grandemente reduzidos em ambos os grupos, com a maioria dos pacientes apresentando respostas n√£o detect√°veis de bastonetes e cones.PURPOSE: Usher's syndrome (US is a group of genetically distinct autossomal conditions, characterized by sensorineural hearing loss accompanied by a retinal dystrophy indistinguishable from retinitis pigmentosa (RP. The purpose of this study was to analyze full-field electroretinography (ERG

  12. Prótese total articulada de joelho utilizada no tratamento de osteossarcoma apendicular em cão Total articulated prosthesis for treatment of apendicular osteosarcoma in a dog

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    C√°ssio Ricardo Auada Ferrigno

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi reportar o planejamento cir√ļrgico, a t√©cnica operat√≥ria, a instrumenta√ß√£o e os resultados da substitui√ß√£o completa do ter√ßo m√©dio distal do f√™mur, do plat√ī tibial e da articula√ß√£o do joelho por pr√≥tese em um c√£o acometido por osteossarcoma no f√™mur esquerdo. A pr√≥tese foi confeccionada em a√ßo, apresentando tr√™s componentes articulados, mantendo o movimento semelhante √† articula√ß√£o do joelho. As por√ß√Ķes femorais e tibiais da pr√≥tese foram cimentadas aos respectivos ossos, ap√≥s ostectomia do f√™mur e do plat√ī tibial. O animal foi submetido a seis sess√Ķes de quimioterapia, com doxorrubicina e carboplatina, intercaladas mensalmente, objetivando inibir o crescimento de poss√≠veis met√°stases pulmonares. Durante os seis primeiros dias, o animal apresentou neuropraxia e impot√™ncia funcional do membro. Aos 10 dias, o c√£o iniciou leve apoio e aos 30 dias j√° utilizava o membro p√©lvico de forma mais efetiva, por√©m, o √Ęngulo de extens√£o da articula√ß√£o foi reduzido de 150¬į a 100¬į devido √† contratura muscular e √† fibrose na regi√£o da fossa popl√≠tea. Ap√≥s um ano de observa√ß√£o, n√£o houve melhora do √Ęngulo de extens√£o do joelho, por√©m, o animal fazia uso do membro com claudica√ß√£o. Aos 425 dias de p√≥s-operat√≥rio, o animal veio a √≥bito por insufici√™ncia renal. Nesse tempo n√£o ocorreram met√°stases pulmonares ou locais vis√≠veis radiograficamente, mas o propriet√°rio n√£o permitiu a realiza√ß√£o da necropsia do paciente, sendo imposs√≠vel confirmar outros dados que pudessem esclarecer melhor a causa morte. Conclui-se que a substitui√ß√£o total do joelho de c√£o √© uma cirurgia fact√≠vel, que permite a preserva√ß√£o e a utiliza√ß√£o do membro ap√≥s ressec√ß√£o da neoplasia, embora outras pesquisas devam ser conduzidas para obten√ß√£o de melhores resultados p√≥s-cir√ļrgicos.This report describes the surgical technique, instrumentation and results of complete substitution of portion

  13. Riesgo familiar total en familias con escolares seg√ļn rendimiento acad√©mico Risco familiar total em fam√≠lias com escolares conforme aproveitamento acad√™mico Total family risk in families with schoolchildren according to academic performance

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    CAROLINA LUCERO ENR√ćQUEZ GUERRERO

    Full Text Available Este art√≠culo presenta los resultados del estudio cuyo objetivo fue establecer las diferencias en el riesgo familiar entre dos grupos de familias: con ni√Īos escolares de alto rendimiento y ni√Īos de bajo rendimiento acad√©mico en un centro educativo distrital de Bogot√°. Metodolog√≠a: estudio descriptivo comparativo transversal con un componente anal√≠tico y abordaje cuantitativo; la muestra fue de 186 familias, durante abril a julio de 2007. Los resultados muestran predominio de familias nucleares en ambos grupos (65%, relaci√≥n inversa entre el riesgo familiar total evaluado por el instrumento RFT 7-70 y el rendimiento acad√©mico del escolar de la familia, es decir que las familias que registraron riesgo alto (9% y medio (31% en mayor proporci√≥n son familias con escolares de bajo rendimiento acad√©mico, frente al predominio del riesgo familiar bajo (78% en las familias con ni√Īos de alto rendimiento. Se aplic√≥ t de student para diferencia de medias y se encontr√≥ asociaci√≥n (P = 0,02 entre el riesgo familiar total alto y el bajo rendimiento acad√©mico del escolar. En conclusi√≥n, estos resultados sugieren principalmente que se deben priorizar los factores de riesgo que determinan mayor riesgo familiar en familias con escolares de bajo rendimiento acad√©mico y dar atenci√≥n de salud integral con enfoque familiar e intersectorial, y participaci√≥n activa de la comunidad. Continuar investigando en posibles asociaciones entre salud individual, pr√°cticas de salud, educaci√≥n, ambiente socioecon√≥mico y psicoafectivo de la familia y el logro educativo de escolares en familias con ni√Īos en edad escolar.Este artigo apresenta os resultados de um levantamento que objetiva estabelecer as diferen√ßas no risco familiar entre dois grupos de fam√≠lias: com crian√ßas escolares de alto aproveitamento acad√™mico e crian√ßas escolares de baixo aproveitamento acad√™mico em um centro educativo distrital de Bogot√°. Metodologia: levantamento descritivo

  14. Riesgo familiar total en familias con escolares seg√ļn rendimiento acad√©mico Total family risk in families with schoolchildren according to academic performance Risco familiar total em fam√≠lias com escolares conforme aproveitamento acad√™mico

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    CATA√ĎO ORD√ď√ĎEZ NHORA

    2009-12-01

    analytic component and a quantitative approach; the sample was 186 families during the period April-July 2007. The results show a predominance of nuclear families in both groups (65%, reverse relation between the family risk evaluated by the RFT 7-70 instrument and the academic performance of the family¬īs schoolchild, that is to say that the families that recorded a high risk (9% and average risk (31% are, to a large extent, families with schoolchildren that show low academic performance, in respect of the predominance of low family risk (78% in families with children that show high academic performance. The t of student was applied to differentiate averages and association was found (P = 0,02 between the total high family risk and the low academic performance of the schoolchild. In conclusion, these results suggest mainly that risk factors that determine higher family risk in families with schoolchildren who show low academic performance must be prioritized and that integral healthcare must be provided with a family and intersectorial approach as well as active participation from the community. Continue research activities in possible associations between individual health, health practice, and education, socio-economic and psycho-affective environment of the family and academic achievement of schoolchildren in families with school age children.Este artigo apresenta os resultados de um levantamento que objetiva estabelecer as diferen√ßas no risco familiar entre dois grupos de fam√≠lias: com crian√ßas escolares de alto aproveitamento acad√™mico e crian√ßas escolares de baixo aproveitamento acad√™mico em um centro educativo distrital de Bogot√°. Metodologia: levantamento descritivo comparativo transversal com um componente anal√≠tico e abordagem quantitativa; a amostra foi de 186 fam√≠lias, durante abril - julho de 2007. Os resultados apresentam predom√≠nio de fam√≠lias nucleares em ambos os grupos (65%, rela√ß√£o inversa entre o risco familiar total avaliado pelo

  15. Substituição total do milho e parcial do feno de capim-tifton por palma forrageira em dietas para vacas em lactação: consumo e digestibilidade Total replacement of corn and partial of tifton hay by forage cactus in diets for lactating dairy cows: intake and digestibility

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    Veronaldo Souza de Oliveira

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Para avalia√ß√£o do consumo e da digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes de dietas contendo diferentes n√≠veis (0; 12,0; 25,0; 38,0 e 51,0% de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill em substitui√ß√£o total ao milho (Zea mays L. e parcial ao feno de capim-tifton (Cynodon spp, foram utilizadas cinco vacas da ra√ßa Holandesa, distribu√≠das em quadrado latino 5 √ó 5. No in√≠cio do experimento, os animais apresentavam 583 ¬Ī 7,07 kg de peso corporal (PC e per√≠odo de lacta√ß√£o em torno de 110 dias. Cada per√≠odo experimental teve dura√ß√£o de 17 dias, dez dias para adapta√ß√£o dos animais √† dieta e sete dias para coleta de dados. O consumo de MS (kg/dia, %PC e g/kg0,75 e os consumos de MO, EE, PB, carboidratos totais (CT, FDN, FDA e NDT (kg/dia diminu√≠ram linearmente conforme aumentaram os n√≠veis de palma forrageira na dieta. O consumo de CNF, no entanto, aumentou com a inclus√£o de palma forrageira na dieta. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, MO, EE, PB, CT e CNF n√£o foram influenciados pela inclus√£o de palma forrageira na dieta. Entretanto, o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da FDN reduziu linearmente com a inclus√£o de palma forrageira na dieta. A inclus√£o da palma forrageira nas dietas influenciou negativamente no consumo dos nutrientes e no coeficiente de digestibilidade da FDN.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of the nutrients in diets containing different levels (0, 12.0, 25.0, 38.0, and 51.0% of forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill in total replacement of corn (Zea mays L. and partial of Tifton hay (Cynodon spp. Five Holstein cows were assigned to a 5x5 latin square. The animals showed an average of 583 ¬Ī 7,07 kg BW and lactation period around 110 days. Each experimental period lasted 17 days, 10 days for the adaptation of the animals to the diet and 7 days for data collecting. The DM intake (kg/day, %BW and g/kg0.75, and the intakes of OM, EE, CP, total

  16. Merc√ļrio total em cabelos: uma contribui√ß√£o para se avaliar o n√≠vel de exposi√ß√£o em Pocon√©, Mato Grosso, Brasil Total mercury in hair: a contribution to the evaluation of mercury exposure levels in Pocon√©, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Fl√°via Nogueira

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Ocorrem na Bacia do Rio Bento Gomes (MT, √†s margens do Pantanal Mato-grossense, cerca de sessenta garimpos de ouro, onde o merc√ļrio √© utilizado de forma intensiva nos processos de produ√ß√£o, atrav√©s da forma√ß√£o de am√°lgamas que facilitam a aglutina√ß√£o de part√≠culas finas. A queima do am√°lgama nem sempre √© feita em sistemas fechados de recupera√ß√£o, havendo, portanto, perda de vapor para a atmosfera. Este estudo traz resultados de an√°lises de merc√ļrio total nos cabelos de quatro grupos de volunt√°rios que vivem em Pocon√© (MT, e faz uma caracteriza√ß√£o geral do ambiente no que se refere √† presen√ßa do metal na √°gua e no sedimento do Rio Bento Gomes. Um equipamento de detec√ß√£o por fluoresc√™ncia foi usado para a determina√ß√£o das concentra√ß√Ķes, e os resultados indicam que os valores s√£o mais baixos do que os de outras popula√ß√Ķes de √°reas de garimpo no Brasil. Indicam tamb√©m que a via ocupacional parece ser a mais eficiente rota potencial de contamina√ß√£o da popula√ß√£o por merc√ļrio.There are some 60 gold-mining sites in the Bento Gomes River basin (Mato Grosso, at the border of the Mato Grosso Pantanal (Swamp, where mercury is used to agglutinate fine gold particles through amalgamation. During burning of the amalgam to release the gold, mercury vapor is lost to the atmosphere, since closed systems for mercury recovery are not always used. This study shows the results of total mercury analysis in hair from four volunteer groups living in Pocon√©, Mato Grosso, and presents a general environmental description pertaining to the presence of mercury in water and sediments from the Bento Gomes River. Atomic fluorescence was used for measuring mercury concentrations. The results were lower than for other populations from gold-mining areas in Brazil.

  17. Atitudes atuais de anestesiologistas e médicos em especialização com relação à anestesia venosa total Actitudes actuales de anestesiólogos y médicos en especialización con relación a la anestesia venosa total Current attitude of anesthesiologists and anesthesiology residents regarding total intravenous anesthesia

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    Fernando Squeff Nora

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: No passado, tempo, custos, informa√ß√Ķes, treinamento e avalia√ß√£o da profundidade da anestesia limitavam a aceita√ß√£o da anestesia venosa total (TIVA. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar atitudes de anestesiologistas e m√©dicos em especializa√ß√£o com rela√ß√£o √† anestesia venosa total. M√ČTODO: Um question√°rio foi enviado a 150 anestesiologistas e 102 residentes. A concord√Ęncia (C e discord√Ęncia (D em cada item foram comparadas por testes z (consenso, se p JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Antiguamente, tiempo, costes, informaciones, capacitaci√≥n y evaluaci√≥n de la profundidad de la anestesia limitaban la aceptaci√≥n de la anestesia venosa total (TIVA. El objetivo de este estudio fue el de determinar las actitudes de anestesi√≥logos y m√©dicos en especializaci√≥n con relaci√≥n a la anestesia venosa total. M√ČTODO: Un cuestionario fue enviado a 150 anestesi√≥logos y 102 residentes. La concordancia (C y discordancia (D en cada √≠tem se compararon por pruebas z (consenso, si p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In the past, time, cost, information, training, and the evaluation of the plane of anesthesia limited the acceptance of total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA. The objective of this study was to determine the attitude of anesthesiologists and other anesthesiology residents regarding total intravenous anesthesia. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to 150 anesthesiologists and 102 residents. The concordance (C and disaccord (D of each item were compared by z tests (consensus if p < 0.05. RESULTS: There were 98 responses. The data represent the number of answers for each category. The majority of the participants agreed that the quality of the awakening stimulates the use of the TIVA (C/D = 86/8; p < 0.05; that the future depends on the development of drugs with a fast onset of action and immediate recovery (C/D = 88/5; p < 0.05; that they would like to use TIVA more often (C/D = 72/21; p < 0.05; and to have more information

  18. Anestesia venosa total (AVT em lactente com doença de Werdnig-Hoffmann: relato de caso Anestesia venosa total (AVT en lactante con enfermedad de Werdnig-Hoffmann: relato de caso Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA in an infant with Werdnig-Hoffmann disease: case report

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    Luis Otavio Esteves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi com grande interesse que li o artigo "Anestesia Venosa Total (AVT em Lactente com Doen√ßa de Werdnig-Hoffmann. Relato de Caso", de Resende e col. ¬Ļ, publicado nesta revista. Gostaria, em primeiro lugar, de parabenizar os autores pela iniciativa. Entretanto, dois pontos me chamaram a aten√ß√£o. O primeiro refere-se √† defini√ß√£o de lactente, a qual compreende o per√≠odo de 1 a 12 meses de idade. A partir de 12 meses, define-se como pr√©-escolar ou apenas crian√ßa. No artigo, o autor coloca a idade do paciente como 1 ano, mas n√£o especifica meses ou dias. Provavelmente, esse paciente tem mais de 12 meses, sendo, dessa forma, a defini√ß√£o de lactente inadequada. O segundo e mais importante ponto diz respeito √† t√©cnica usada e ao t√≠tulo do artigo. No t√≠tulo, utilizou-se a express√£o "anestesia venosa total", mas no relato foi dito que, al√©m de propofol e remifentanil, a anestesia foi mantida com oxig√™nio e N2O. Se foi usado um g√°s com propriedades anest√©sicas (N2O, n√£o seria correto classificar essa t√©cnica como venosa total. Al√©m disso, ele cita o artigo de Crawford e col. ¬≤, que definiu doses de remifentanil para intuba√ß√£o em crian√ßas. Esse estudo foi realizado utilizando-se oxigena√ß√£o na concentra√ß√£o de 100%, pois os autores provavelmente entendem que a adi√ß√£o de gases com propriedades anest√©sicas interferiria nos resultados obtidosFue con un gran inter√©s que le√≠ el art√≠culo "Anestesia Venosa Total (AVT en Lactante con Enfermedad de Werdnig-Hoffmann. Relato de Caso", de Resende y col. ¬Ļ, publicado en esta revista. Y de hecho quiero, en primer lugar, felicitar a los autores por la iniciativa. Sin embargo, dos puntos me llamaron la atenci√≥n. El primero, se refiere a la definici√≥n de lactante, la cual abarca el per√≠odo de 1 a 12 meses de edad. A partir de los 12 meses, se define como preescolar o apenas como ni√Īo. En el art√≠culo, el autor coloca la edad del paciente como de 1 a√Īo, pero no especifica meses o d

  19. Microsatellite Loci in the Gypsophyte <em>Lepidium subulatum em>(Brassicaceae, and Transferability to Other <em>Lepidieae>

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    José Gabriel Segarra-Moragues

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Ibero-North African, strict gypsophyte <em>Lepidium subulatumem> to unravel the effects of habitat fragmentation in levels of genetic diversity, genetic structure and gene flow among its populations. Using 454 pyrosequencing 12 microsatellite loci including di- and tri-nucleotide repeats were characterized in <em>L. subulatumem>. They amplified a total of 80 alleles (2‚Äď12 alleles per locus in a sample of 35 individuals of <em>L. subulatumem>, showing relatively high levels of genetic diversity, <em>H>O = 0.645, <em>H>E = 0.627. Cross-species transferability of all 12 loci was successful for the Iberian endemics <em>Lepidium cardaminesem>, <em>Lepidium stylatumem>, and the widespread, <em>Lepidium graminifoliumem> and one species each of two related genera, <em>Cardaria drabaem> and <em>Coronopus didymusem>. These microsatellite primers will be useful to investigate genetic diversity, population structure and to address conservation genetics in species of <em>Lepidium>.

  20. Anestesia venosa total para laringectomia parcial em paciente na 28ª semana de gestação: relato de caso Anestesia venosa total para laringectomía parcial en paciente en la 28ª semana de embarazo: relato de caso Total intravenous anesthesia for partial laryngectomy in 28 weeks pregnant patient: case report

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    José Costa

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Uma anestesia para paciente gestante constitui um desafio ao anestesiologista em virtude dos riscos para a m√£e e para o feto. S√£o muitas as complica√ß√Ķes descritas pela literatura como malforma√ß√Ķes fetais, parto prematuro, instabilidade hemodin√Ęmica materna e at√© morte fetal. O objetivo deste caso √© mostrar uma paciente gestante de 28 semanas, submetida a laringectomia parcial sob anestesia geral venosa total com propofol, remifentanil e cisatrac√ļrio. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente com 29 anos, 59 kg, primigesta de 28 semanas com diagn√≥stico pr√©vio de carcinoma epiderm√≥ide pr√≥ximo √† corda vocal direita, sendo indicada laringectomia. A monitoriza√ß√£o inicial constituiu-se de press√£o arterial n√£o-invasiva e invasiva, cardioscopia, oxicapnografia e cardiotocografia cont√≠nua realizada pela obstetra. Pun√ß√£o venosa no membro superior direito e membro superior esquerdo com cateter 16G e 18G, respectivamente. Foram administrados por via venosa midazolam (1 mg, cefazolina (1 g, metoclopramida (10 mg e dipirona (1 g. A paciente recebeu oxig√™nio a 100% sob m√°scara por 3 minutos e indu√ß√£o venosa foi feita com o uso de propofol em infus√£o na dose alvo de 3 ¬Ķg.mL-1 e remifentanil cont√≠nuo (1 ¬Ķg.kg-1 em bolus e 0,2 ¬Ķg.kg-1.min-1 de manuten√ß√£o. Como bloqueador neuromuscular, foi administrado cisatrac√ļrio (13 mg e procedeu-se a intuba√ß√£o traqueal com tubo 6,5 mm aramado com balonete. Foi mantida em plano anest√©sico com propofol e remifentanil em bomba, al√©m de complementa√ß√Ķes de cisatrac√ļrio. O feto permaneceu monitorizado continuamente com cardiotocografia realizada e analisada pela obstetra. Ap√≥s o t√©rmino da cirurgia foram desligadas as bombas infusoras de propofol e remifentanil, tendo a paciente despertado 10 minutos depois. Acordou sem dor e hemodinamicamente est√°vel, sendo ent√£o encaminhada √† sala de recupera√ß√£o p√≥s-anest√©sica. CONCLUS√ēES: A anestesia venosa total com propofol e

  1. Estado oxidante/antioxidante total em recém-nascidos ictéricos antes e depois da fototerapia Total oxidant/antioxidant status in jaundiced newborns before and after phototherapy

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    Ali Aycicek

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da fototerapia no estado oxidante e antioxidante no soro de rec√©m-nascidos a termo com hiperbilirrubinemia. M√ČTODO: Trinta e quatro rec√©m-nascidos a termo com idades entre 3 e 10 dias submetidos a fototerapia foram avaliados. O estado antioxidante do soro foi determinado pela capacidade antioxidante total e por componentes antioxidantes individuais: vitamina C, √°cido √ļrico, albumina, concentra√ß√£o de tiol e bilirrubina total. O estado oxidante foi avaliado atrav√©s do estado oxidante total, √≠ndice de estresse oxidativo e componentes oxidantes individuais: malondialde√≠do e n√≠veis de hidroper√≥xido lip√≠dico. RESULTADOS: As concentra√ß√Ķes de vitamina C, √°cido √ļrico, bilirrubina total e malondialde√≠do foram significativamente mais baixas, enquanto que o estado oxidante total, n√≠veis de hidroper√≥xido lip√≠dico e o √≠ndice de estresse oxidativo foram significativamente maiores ap√≥s a fototerapia (p OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of phototherapy on serum oxidant and antioxidant status in hyperbilirubinemic full-term newborns. METHOD: Thirty-four full-term infants from 3 to 10 days of age exposed to phototherapy were studied. The serum antioxidant status was assessed by measuring the total antioxidant capacity (TAC and individual antioxidant components: vitamin C, uric acid, albumin, thiol contents and total bilirubin. The oxidant status was assessed by determining the total oxidant status (TOS, oxidative stress index (OSI and individual oxidant components: malondialdehyde (MDA, and lipid hydroperoxide levels. RESULTS: Vitamin C, uric acid, total bilirubin and MDA concentration were significantly lower, whereas serum TOS, lipid hydroperoxide and OSI levels were significantly higher after phototherapy (p < 0.05. There were significant positive correlations between serum total bilirubin and MDA (r = 0.434, p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Although the MDA level was reduced after phototherapy, phototherapy has a negative

  2. Infec√ß√Ķes ortop√©dicas em pacientes submetidos a artroplastias total de quadril e joelho, hemiartroplastias e osteoss√≠nteses: incid√™ncia, fatores de risco e influ√™ncia do ar do Centro Cir√ļrgico em um Hospital Universit√°rio Brasileiro

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    Dolinger, Elias José Oliveira Von

    2008-01-01

    Os objetivos foram avaliar o n√≠vel da contamina√ß√£o do ar durante artroplastias total de quadril e joelho, hemiartroplastias e osteoss√≠nteses, incid√™ncia de infec√ß√£o e fatores de risco associados a infec√ß√Ķes ortop√©dicas em cirurgias prim√°rias. As avalia√ß√Ķes microbiol√≥gicas do ar foram em: sete artroplastias total de quadril e joelho, tr√™s de hemiartroplastias e sete de osteoss√≠nteses, com a exposi√ß√£o de placas de petri, por uma hora, no in√≠cio e final da cirurgia. O n√ļmero de pe...

  3. Reabilita√ß√£o das fun√ß√Ķes do olfato e do paladar em laringectomizados totais: revis√£o sistem√°tica Rehabilitation of smell and taste functions in total laryngectomy: systematic review

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    Ada Salvetti Cavalcanti Caldas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: na laringectomia total ocorre a transfer√™ncia do fluxo a√©reo nasal definitivamente ao traqueostoma, podendo provocar diminui√ß√£o na percep√ß√£o do olfato e do paladar. Recentemente tem sido desenvolvidos m√©todos de interven√ß√£o a fim de melhorar a performance olfativa e gustativa em laringectomizados, embora sejam escassos os estudos que abordam esse tema. OBJETIVO: rever de forma sistem√°tica as evid√™ncias de como as t√©cnicas envolvidas na reabilita√ß√£o das fun√ß√Ķes do olfato e do paladar tem efeito em indiv√≠duos laringectomizados totais. CONCLUS√ÉO: nesta revis√£o todos os estudos selecionados demonstraram efic√°cia na utiliza√ß√£o de t√©cnicas de reabilita√ß√£o para a fun√ß√£o do olfato em laringectomizados totais. Para o paladar n√£o houve propostas para intervir diretamente nesta fun√ß√£o.BACKGROUND: in total laryngectomy there occurs the transfer of the nasal airflow definitely to the tracheostoma, which could cause a decrease in the perception of smell and taste. There have been recently developed methods of intervention in order to improve performance in laryngectomized smell and taste, although few studies have investigated this issue. PURPOSE: this study aimed to systematically review the evidence of how the techniques involved in the rehabilitation of the functions of smell and taste have an effect on individuals with total laryngectomy. CONCLUSION: in this review all the selected studies demonstrated effective use of rehabilitation techniques for the role of olfaction in laryngectomized. As for taste, there were no proposals in order to intervene directly in this function.

  4. Aloenxerto circunferencial de femur proximal em cirurgia de revisäo de artroplastia total de quadril: relato de casos com seguimento mínimo de 20 anos Circumferential proximal femoral allografts in revision surgery on total hip arthroplasty: case reports with a minimum follow-up of 20 years

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    Bruno Dutra Roos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as op√ß√Ķes para reconstru√ß√£o femoral em cirurgias de revis√£o de artroplastia total do quadril (RATQ em defeitos circunferenciais extensos est√° a utiliza√ß√£o de aloenxerto de f√™mur proximal. O seu uso permite a corre√ß√£o do mecanismo abdutor do quadril e da discrep√Ęncia de comprimento dos membros inferiores, al√©m de apresentar potencial osteocondutivo. Os autores relatam os achados cl√≠nicos e radiogr√°ficos de dois casos de RATQ com uso desta t√©cnica, em seguimento m√≠nimo de 20 anos.Among the options for femoral reconstruction in total hip arthroplasty (THA revision procedures, in cases of extensive circumferential defects, is the use of proximal femoral allografts. This technique makes it possible to correct the hip abductor mechanism and the leg length discrepancy, as well as presenting osteoconductive potential. The authors report the clinical and radiographic results from two cases of THA revision using this technique, with a minimum follow-up of 20 years.

  5. As rela√ß√Ķes entre estrat√©gia de produ√ß√£o, TQM (Total Quality Management ou Gest√£o da Qualidade Total e JIT (Just-In-Time: estudos de caso em uma empresa do setor automobil√≠stico e em dois de seus fornecedores The relationships between production strategy, TQM (Total Quality Management and JIT (Just-In-Time: a case study in a automobile company and in two of its suppliers

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    Aline Lamon Cerra

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo discutir as rela√ß√Ķes existentes entre as Estrat√©gias de Produ√ß√£o e os programas TQM (Total Quality Management ou Gest√£o da Qualidade Total e JIT (Just-In-Time, destacando a import√Ęncia da integra√ß√£o destes programas √†s Estrat√©gias de Produ√ß√£o nas empresas. O estudo desta integra√ß√£o demonstrou que os programas TQM e JIT, embora possam trabalhar separadamente, s√£o complementares e devem estar alinhados com as Estrat√©gias de Produ√ß√£o a fim de promover melhorias na fun√ß√£o produ√ß√£o. Al√©m disso, ser√° verificado de que modo a empresa automobil√≠stica condiciona a difus√£o das estrat√©gias e programas adotados em sua cadeia de fornecedores. Ser√£o apresentados os conceitos b√°sicos e quest√Ķes te√≥ricas relacionados √† Estrat√©gia de Produ√ß√£o, ao TQM e ao JIT, e um estudo de caso nas tr√™s empresas.This paper has the objective to discuss the existent relationships between the Manufacturing Strategy and the programs TQM - Total Quality Management and JIT - Just-In-Time, highlighting the importance of the integration between the production strategy and the other strategies of the company. Besides, the relationships will be discussed among TQM and JIT, programs that came up with the objective of promoting In the function production; the study demonstrated that those programs, although they can work separately, are complemental and should be aligned with the production strategy. Then, we will present the basic concepts and theoretical subjects related to the Production Strategy, to TQM and JIT, and a case study in a automobile company and two of its suppliers. The three companies are multinational and placed inside S√£o Paulo. Thus, in the automobile company we will also verify the conditions of diffusion of its strategies and its programs in its supply chain.

  6. Neonatal Phosphate Nutrition Alters <em>in em>Vivo> and <em>in em>Vitro> Satellite Cell Activity in Pigs

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    Chad H. Stahl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO4 deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO4 nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ¬Ī 0.2 kg BW were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO4 adequate (0.9% total P, supra-adequate (1.2% total P in PO4 requirement or deficient (0.7% total P in PO4 content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured <em>in vitroem> for 7 days to determine if PO4 nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 sera PO4 and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO4 improved (<em>P> < 0.05 feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO4 adequate group. <em>In vivoem> satellite cell proliferation was reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 among the PO4 deficient pigs, and these cells had altered <em>in vitroem> expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO4 nutrition for future lean growth potential is warranted.

  7. Compara√ß√£o da t√©cnica do saco de n√°ilon m√≥vel com o m√©todo de coleta total para determinar a digestibilidade dos nutrientes de alimentos volumosos em eq√ľinos Comparison of the mobile nylon bag technique with the total collection method to determinate the forages nutrient digestibilities in equine

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    Kleber Villela Ara√ļjo

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois ensaios com o objetivo de avaliar a precis√£o da t√©cnica do saco de n√°ilon m√≥vel em rela√ß√£o ao m√©todo de coleta total de fezes, para estimar a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes de alimentos volumosos em eq√ľinos. Foram utilizados seis cavalos adultos sem ra√ßa definida, com idade m√©dia de sete anos. No primeiro ensaio, foram avaliados os valores de digestibilidade do nutrientes do feno de capim coast-cross, por interm√©dio da t√©cnica do saco de n√°ilon m√≥vel, com amostra mo√≠da em tr√™s diferentes granulometrias por meio do m√©todo de coleta total de fezes. No segundo ensaio, foram comparados os dois m√©todos para estimar a digestibilidade, utilizando como alimento teste o capim-elefante. Foi avaliado em laborat√≥rio o desaparecimento dos nutrientes das amostras de feno de capim coast-cross e capim-elefante mo√≠das em tr√™s diferentes granulometrias, ap√≥s a lavagem dos sacos em √°gua. Foi usado um delineamento em blocos casualizados, no qual cada cavalo constituiu o bloco, e os m√©todos de determina√ß√£o da digestibilidade, os tratamentos. Os resultados mostraram que a t√©cnica do saco de n√°ilon m√≥vel com amostra mo√≠da a 1 mm √© bom m√©todo de estimativa de digestibilidade aparente de MS, EB e hemicelulose, para o feno de capim coast-cross, enquanto para o capim-elefante, a amostra mo√≠da a 5 mm √© precisa para estimar a digestibilidade aparente da MS, EB e FDN. A moagem das amostras de feno de capim coast-cross e capim-elefante a 1 mm proporcionou a maior perda de part√≠culas dos sacos de n√°ilon, ap√≥s lavagem em √°gua.Two assays were carried out to evaluate the precision of the mobile nylon bag technique in relation to the total collection method, to estimate the apparent digestibility of nutrients of the forages in equines. Six adult crossbred horses averaging seven years old were used. In first assay, the values of digestibility of the nutrients of coast-cross hay were compared using the mobile nylon

  8. Efeito do período experimental sobre a digestão parcial e total em bovinos alimentados com dois níveis de volumosos Effect of experimental periods on the parcial and total digestion in cattle fed two levels of forage

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    K√°tia Cylene Guimar√£es

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar os efeitos de dois per√≠odos experimentais e dois n√≠veis de volumosos na dieta sobre a digestibilidade total e parcial da mat√©ria seca (MS, mat√©ria org√Ęnica (MO, prote√≠na bruta (PB, fibra em detergente √°cido (FDA, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, energia bruta (EB e amido. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos da ra√ßa Holand√™s Preto e Branco, com dois anos de idade e 340 kg de peso vivo e canulados no r√ļmen e duodeno. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x 4, em que os animais receberam quatro tratamentos, que consistiram de dois n√≠veis de volumosos (30 e 70% e dois per√≠odos experimentais (14 e 21 dias. Houve efeito significativo do n√≠vel de volumoso sobre a digestibilidade ruminal de FDA e FDN, a digestibilidade intestinal e total da MS, MO, PB e amido e a digestibilidade total da EB. N√£o houve efeito do per√≠odo experimental sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade dos nutrientes avaliados. Conclui-se que a utiliza√ß√£o de per√≠odo experimental de 14 dias, em experimentos de digest√£o, √© vi√°vel, quando se utiliza feno como fonte de volumoso.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of two experimental periods and two forage levels in the diet on the total and parcial apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, gross energy (GE and starch. Four Holstein steers, averaging two years old and 340 kg of body weight, ruminally and duodenally cannulated, were used. The experimental design was a 4 x 4 latin square and the animals received four treatments as following: two forage levels (30 and 70% and two experimental periods (14 and 21 days. There was effect of forage level on intestinal and total digestibility of DM, OM, CP and starch and on total digestibility of GE. There was effect of forage level on ruminal digestibility of ADF and NDF. There was no effect of

  9. A new deteriorated energy-momentum tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The stress-tensor of a scalar field theory is not unique because of the possibility of adding an 'improvement term'. In supersymmetric field theories the stress-tensor will appear in a super-current multiplet along with the sypersymmetry current. The general question of the supercurrent multiplet for arbitrary deteriorated stress tensors and their relationship to supercurrent multiplets for models with gauge antisymmetric tensors is answered for various models of N = 1, 2 and 4 supersymmetry. (U.K.)

  10. Method II : The energy-momentum map

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter we apply the energy‚Äďmomentum map reduction method to the same class of systems as in Chap. 2, namely two degree-of-freedom systems with optional symmetry, near equilibrium and close to resonance. We calculate the tangent space and nondegeneracy conditions for the 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4

  11. Manuseio de grave diminuição de hemoglobina em paciente jovem, testemunha de Jeová, submetido à proctocolectomia total: relato de caso Manoseo de grave disminución de hemoglobina en paciente joven, testigo de Jehová, sometido a la proctocolectomia total: relato de caso Extreme intraoperative hemodilution in Jehovah’s witness patient submitted total proctocolectomy: case report

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    Luiz Eduardo Imbelloni

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Os riscos de transfus√£o hom√≥loga de sangue s√£o bem conhecidos e alguns pacientes recusam esta transfus√£o por motivos religiosos. O objetivo foi relatar um caso de proctocolectomia total em Testemunha de Jeov√° onde o n√≠vel de hemoglobina foi de 4 g/dL. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 17 anos, hist√≥ria de polipose intestinal familiar. Iniciada aos oito anos, caracterizada por sangramento. Aos 13 anos colectomia total. Aos 17 anos proctocolectomia total. Preparado com eritropoietina, √°cido f√≥lico, infus√£o de ferro e vitamina B12. Hemograma revelou: hem√°cias 4.200.000/mm¬≥, hemoglobina 10,5 g/dL e hemat√≥crito de 37%. Plaquetas 273.000/mm¬≥, tempo de protrombina normal. Monitoriza√ß√£o com PANI, oximetria de pulso, capnografia e ECG continuamente. Anestesia com propofol, sufentanil, pancur√īnio e enflurano em circuito fechado. Infus√£o de 7.000 mL de solu√ß√£o de Ringer com lactato e 150 mL de albumina humana a 20%. Diurese de 2.900 mL. Dura√ß√£o de 10 horas e 30 minutos. Na UTI Ht de 20%, hem√°cias 2.300.000/mm¬≥, Hb de 4,2 g/dL e mantido com propofol e atrac√ļrio. Exame no dia seguinte revelou: Ht de 18%, hem√°cias de 2.050.000/mm¬≥, Hb de 4 g/dL. Extubado 18 horas ap√≥s o t√©rmino da cirurgia. Segundo dia encaminhado para o quarto. Quarto dia iniciada alimenta√ß√£o por via oral. Alta hospitalar no d√©cimo dia de PO. No 30¬ļ PO Ht de 35%, hem√°cias de 4.000.000/mm¬≥ e Hb de 9,5 g/dL. Seis meses ap√≥s, fechamento da ileostomia. Submetido a 12 cirurgias sem transfus√£o sang√ľ√≠nea. CONCLUS√ēES: Um planejamento de toda a equipe (cl√≠nico, cirurgi√£o, anestesiologista e m√©dicos de terapia intensiva permite realizar procedimentos cir√ļrgicos associados com importantes perdas sang√ľ√≠neas, sem administra√ß√£o de sangue.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Los riesgos de transfusi√≥n hom√≥loga de sangre son bien conocidos y algunos pacientes recusan esta transfusi√≥n por motivos religiosos. El objetivo fue relatar

  12. Merc√ļrio total em solos de manguezais da Baixada Santista e Ilha do Cardoso, estado de S√£o Paulo Total mercury in mangrove soils of the Baixada Santista and Cardoso Island, S√£o Paulo state

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    Mara Lucia Jacinto Oliveira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Total Hg content in soils of Baixada Santista, affected by different sources of pollution, and Cardoso Island, which is almost free of anthropogenic activities, were determined by CVAAS. To explain the fate of Hg in the ecosystem, pH, Eh, AVS, Stotal and Total Organic Carbon were also obtained throughout the soil profiles. With the exception of two sampling sites the average content of Hg in samples obtained for Baixada Santista was 0.34 ¬Ī 0.20 mg kg-1, which was close to the average data at Cardoso Island (0.30 ¬Ī 0.21 mg kg-1. Both of them were below the limit established by CETESB - 0.50 mg kg-1.

  13. Teores de colesterol, lipídios totais e ácidos graxos em cortes de carne suína Cholesterol, total lipds and fatty acids in cuts of pork

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    Neura Bragagnolo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A carne su√≠na √© um alimento considerado rico em colesterol, lip√≠dios e √°cidos graxos saturados. De acordo com a AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION, para manter baixos n√≠veis de colesterol sang√ľ√≠neo, a alimenta√ß√£o deve ser pobre em colesterol e lip√≠dios, principalmente gordura saturada. No presente trabalho foram determinados os teores de colesterol, lip√≠dios totais e √°cidos graxos em lombo, pernil, paleta e toucinho, comercializados em a√ßougues da cidade de Campinas, S√£o Paulo. Foi verificado tamb√©m o efeito da inclus√£o da gordura externa nos n√≠veis destes componentes. O teor m√©dio de lip√≠dios totais foi de 3 a 5g/100g nos cortes de carne e 83g/100g no toucinho. O colesterol variou, em m√©dia, de 42 a 53mg/100g, sendo menor no lombo e maior no toucinho. N√£o houve diferen√ßa significativa (p³0,05 no n√≠vel de colesterol entre lombo com e sem gordura externa. Em todos os cortes e no toucinho, foram identificados trinta e seis (36 √°cidos graxos, os principais dos quais foram: 18:1√īmega9, 16:0, 18:2√īmega6, 18:0, 16:1√īmega7 e 18:1√īmega7. O total de √°cidos graxos saturados, monoinsaturados e poliinsaturados variou de 33 a 41%, 42 a 48% e 11 a 25%, respectivamente.Pork is a food considered to be rich in cholesterol, lipids and saturated fatty acids. According to the American Heart Association, the diet must be low in cholesterol and lipids, especially saturated fat. In the present work, total lipids, cholesterol and fatty acids were determined in pork loin, fresh ham, pork shoulder and backfat, commercialized in butchery of Campinas City, S√£o Paulo State, Brazil. The mean total lipids was 3 to 5g/100g in the meat cuts and 83g/100g in backfat. Cholesterol varied, on the average, from 42 to 53mg/100g, being lower in pork loin and higher in backfat. No significant difference (p³0,05 in cholesterol content was seen in pork loin with or without external fat. Thirty-six fatty acids were identified in all cuts and the backfat, with

  14. Determina√ß√£o de merc√ļrio total em amostras de √°gua, sedimento e s√≥lidos em suspens√£o de corpos aqu√°ticos por espectrofotometria de absor√ß√£o at√īmica com gerador de vapor a frio Determination of total mercury in water, sediments and solids in suspension in aquatic systems by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry

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    José L. F. Vieira

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available O emprego de merc√ļrio met√°lico nos processos de extra√ß√£o do ouro libera toneladas de merc√ļrio ao meio ambiente, provocando um aumento consider√°vel nas concentra√ß√Ķes presentes. Com a finalidade de prevenir a exposi√ß√£o humana a concentra√ß√Ķes excessivas, o que poder√° resultar em graves epis√≥dios de intoxica√ß√£o mercurial, bem como avaliar a possibilidade de sedimentos tornarem-se fontes potenciais de contamina√ß√£o para os seres vivos, √© de fundamental import√Ęncia a monitoriza√ß√£o do merc√ļrio em diversos compartimentos ambientais. Efetuou-se a padroniza√ß√£o de uma metodologia anal√≠tica para determina√ß√£o de merc√ļrio total em amostras de √°gua, s√≥lidos em suspens√£o e sedimentos de corpos aqu√°ticos para monitoriza√ß√£o ambiental do xenobi√≥tico. Posteriormente, foram analisadas amostras oriundas de regi√Ķes garimpeiras, com vistas a avaliar o desempenho do m√©todo em amostras reais e efetuar levantamento preliminar sobre a contamina√ß√£o mercurial na √°rea de estudo.The use of metallic mercury in the extraction and concentration of gold causes the discarding of tons of this metal in the environment, leading to a considerable increase in the natural levels of the same and the contamination of the surrounding areas. Thus it is extremely important to monitor the presence of this metal in various sectors of the environment with a view aiming to previnting human exposure to excessive concentrations which can result in serious episodes of mercury poisoning. It is also important to estimate the possibility of river sediments becoming potential sources of contamination of human beings. The determination of total mercury was undertaken by using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. River waters, as well as sediments and suspended solids were used as samples for the standardization of the analytical procedure. Later on, this method was tested on samples originating in gold mining areas for the purpose of assessing its validity.

  15. Redução do tempo de digestão na determinação de nitrogênio em solos Reduction of digestion time in the determination of total nitrogen in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fl√°vio Verlengia

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a redu√ß√£o do tempo de digest√£o na determina√ß√£o do nitrog√™nio total em solos, assim como a perda d√™sse nutriente durante a sua determina√ß√£o. Procurou-se comparar o efeito de alguns catalisadores, como sulfato de cobre, √≥xido de merc√ļrio e sel√™nio. Diversos tempos de ataques foram estudados, desde 10 at√© 960 minutos (16 horas. Verificou-se que as maiores redu√ß√Ķes de tempo foram obtidas com o sel√™nio, utilizado como catalisador, em presen√ßa de √≥xido de merc√ļrio, particularmente em solos onde o ataque se mostrou mais dif√≠cil. O catalisador tradicional - sulfato de cobre - foi o menos eficiente. A utiliza√ß√£o do sel√™nio, n√£o provocou perda de nitrog√™nio durante a digest√£o.By using the Kjeldahl method in the determination of total nitrogen in soils, the effect of various catalysts related with digestion time and with possible nitrogen losses was studied. The experiment was carried out by using the catalysts CuSO4.5H2O; HgO and Se in six treatments. Results indicated that a pronounced reduction on digestion time was obtained by using selenium as catalyst. Best results, however, were obtained by using a mixture of selenium and mercury oxide, principally for soils of very difficult digestion (organic soil and "terra roxa" soil. In all treatments CuSO4.5H2O was the less efficient. Use of selenium did not cause loss of nitrogen.

  16. Substitui√ß√£o total do farelo de soja por ur√©ia ou amir√©ia, em dietas com alto teor de concentrado, sobre a am√īnia ruminal, os par√Ęmetros sang√ľ√≠neos e o metabolismo do nitrog√™nio em bovinos de corte Total replacement of soybean meal by urea or starea in high grain diets on nitrogen metabolism, ruminal ammonia-N concentration and blood parameters in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Cunha de Oliveira Junior

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Seis novilhos da ra√ßa Nelore, n√£o castrados, com peso m√©dio inicial de 420 kg, distribu√≠dos em delineamento em quadrado latino 3x3 duplicado, foram utilizados para avaliar a substitui√ß√£o total de uma fonte de prote√≠na verdadeira (farelo de soja, em uma dieta deficiente em prote√≠na degrad√°vel no r√ļmen (PDR, por ur√©ia ou amir√©ia (fontes de nitrog√™nio n√£o prot√©ico, ambas em uma dieta adequada em PDR. As dietas foram isoprot√©icas (13,0% utilizando-se o baga√ßo de cana-de-a√ß√ļcar in natura (BIN como √ļnica fonte de volumoso (20% da MS. Foram avaliados: a concentra√ß√£o de am√īnia ruminal, nitrog√™nio ur√©ico plasm√°tico, glicose plasm√°tica e o metabolismo do nitrog√™nio. Os tratamentos foram: 1 farelo de soja (FS; 2 ur√©ia e 3 amir√©ia (A-150S. A concentra√ß√£o de nitrog√™nio amoniacal no fluido ruminal foi superior no tratamento com ur√©ia, comparado ao tratamento com farelo de soja, sendo que o tratamento com amir√©ia n√£o diferiu dos demais. O tratamento com amir√©ia apresentou maior perda de N urin√°rio. A reten√ß√£o de N (g/d e % do consumido e o valor biol√≥gico da prote√≠na (N retido, % do N digerido foram superiores para o tratamento com ur√©ia, comparado aos demais. A concentra√ß√£o de nitrog√™nio ur√©ico no plasma e a concentra√ß√£o de glicose plasm√°tica foram similares entre os tratamentos. A substitui√ß√£o total do farelo de soja por ur√©ia, ajustando a PDR na dieta de bovinos de corte, demonstrou ser vi√°vel. A ur√©ia na forma convencional apresentou vantagens em rela√ß√£o √† amir√©ia.Six Nellore bulls, with initial body weight of 420 kg, were assigned to a duplicated 3x3 Latin square design to evaluate the effects of replacing a true protein source (soybean meal, of high biological value, in a rumen degradable protein (RDP deficient diet, by urea or starea (a supposedly slow release nonprotein nitrogen source, both in a RDP adjusted diet. In natura sugarcane bagasse as the only source of forage (20% of DM. Evaluated

  17. Es√īfago de barrett ap√≥s gastrectomia total com reconstru√ß√£o em Y de roux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deomir Germano Bassi

    Full Text Available Reflux esophagitis and Barrett's esophagus after total gastrectomy is related to reconstructive procedure of intestinal continuity. The Roux-en-Y operation with length of limb of 40 cm occasionally is not enough to prevent biliary reflux to distal esophagus. Barrett's esophagus is thought to develop as a consequence of biliary reflux and has a malignant potential. Symptoms of retroesternal burning and dysphagia that does not improve with conservative management has to be treated by an operative procedure. To prevent biliary reflux to distal esophagus after total gastrectomy the lenght of limb of Roux-en-Y should be at lest 60 cm.

  18. Calogênese e teores de fenóis e tatinos totais em barbatimão [stryphnodendron adstringens (mart. coville] Callogenesis and contents of total phenols and tannins in barbatimão [Stryphnodendron adsrtingens (Mart. Coville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Hortência Fonsêca Castro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, culturas de c√©lulas ou de suspens√Ķes celulares t√™m sido frequentemente empregadas para produzir fitoter√°picos com maiores concentra√ß√Ķes de princ√≠pios ativos. O barbatim√£o √© uma importante esp√©cie medicinal do Cerrado, com taninos nas cascas do caule. Objetivando-se induzir calos em barbatim√£o e avaliar os teores de fen√≥is e taninos totais, explantes foliares foram inoculados em meio MS suplementado com 30 g L-1 sacarose e acrescidos de 2,4-D (0; 4,52; 9,05; 18,10 őľM e BAP (0; 4,44; 8,88; 17,75 őľM , na presen√ßa e aus√™ncia de luz. A calog√™nese ocorreu em meios contendo 2,4-D, na presen√ßa de luz. O n√ļmero de calos n√£o variou com as concentra√ß√Ķes de 2,4-D e maiores valores de mat√©rias fresca e seca de calos e teores de fen√≥is totais foram observados em meios com 9,05 őľM e 18,10 őľM de 2,4-D, na presen√ßa e aus√™ncia de luz. Com BAP, a calog√™nese ocorreu na aus√™ncia de luz, com maior produ√ß√£o de calos na presen√ßa de 4,44 e 8,88 őľM de BAP e maiores valores de mat√©ria fresca e seca em meios com 4,44 őľM de BAP. Calos crescidos em meios suplementados 4,44 e 17,75 őľM de BAP apresentaram maiores teores de fen√≥is totais. N√£o se detectaram taninos, independente do regulador empregado.Recently, cell cultures and cell suspensions have been frequently employed to produce phytotherapics with high amounts of active principles. Barbatim√£o is a native species from the Cerrado, with tannins in the stem bark. In order to induce callus in barbatim√£o and evaluate the content of total phenols and tannins, leaf explants were inoculated on MS medium, supplemented with sucrose 30 g L¬Ļ and 2,4-D (0, 4.52, 9.05, 18.10 őľM and BA (0, 4.44, 8.88, 17.75 őľM , in the presence and absence of light. The callogenesis occurred on medium containing 2,4-D, in the presence of light. The callus number did not alter with the different concentrations of 2,4-D but higher values of dry and fresh matter of the callus and total phenol

  19. Estimation of the total efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for maintenance and growth by cattle in tropical conditions Estima√ß√£o da efici√™ncia total de utiliza√ß√£o da energia metaboliz√°vel para manuten√ß√£o e crescimento por bovinos em condi√ß√Ķes tropicais

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    Douglas Sampaio Henrique

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Data of 320 animals were obtained from eight comparative slaughter studies performed under tropical conditions and used to estimate the total efficiency of utilization of the metabolizable energy intake (MEI, which varied from 77 to 419 kcal kg-0.75d-1. The provided data also contained direct measures of the recovered energy (RE, which allowed calculating the heat production (HE by difference. The RE was regressed on MEI and deviations from linearity were evaluated by using the F-test. The respective estimates of the fasting heat production and the intercept and the slope that composes the relationship between RE and MEI were 73 kcal kg-0.75d-1, 42 kcal kg-0.75d-1 and 0.37. Hence, the total efficiency was estimated by dividing the net energy for maintenance and growth by the metabolizable energy intake. The estimated total efficiency of the ME utilization and analogous estimates based on the beef cattle NRC model were employed in an additional study to evaluate their predictive powers in terms of the mean square deviations for both temperate and tropical conditions. The two approaches presented similar predictive powers but the proposed one had a 22% lower mean squared deviation even with its more simplified structure.Foram utilizadas 320 informa√ß√Ķes obtidas a partir de 8 estudos de abate comparativo conduzidos em condi√ß√Ķes tropicais para se estimar a efici√™ncia total de utiliza√ß√£o da energia metaboliz√°vel consumida, a qual variou de 77 a 419kcal kg-0.75d-1. Os dados tamb√©m continham informa√ß√Ķes sobre a energia retida (RE, o que permitiu o c√°lculo da produ√ß√£o de calor por diferen√ßa. As estimativas da produ√ß√£o de calor em jejum e dos coeficientes linear e angular da regress√£o entre RE e MEI foram respectivamente, 73 kcal kg-0.75d-1, 42 kcal kg-0.75d-1 e 0,37. Em seguida, a efici√™ncia total foi estimada dividindo-se a energia l√≠quida para manten√ßa e produ√ß√£o pelo consumo de energia metaboliz√°vel. A efici√™ncia total de

  20. Ethanol pilot project: an energy alternative project for a total or partial substitution of fuel oil in thermoelectric generation plants; Projeto piloto do etanol - PPE: alternativa energetica para substituicao parcial ou total do oleo combustivel em plantas de geracao termoeletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Joao Simoes

    2004-07-01

    The actual stage of technological development is strongly dependent on wide use of petroleum combustibles, in which its trade market defines the rules of socio economical and geopolitics interdependencies. The economic growth has been driven by the 'readily available - cheap energy' stimulus, limiting studies on natural sources of energy (geothermal, solar) and development of renewable ones (bio combustibles). However, economical, financial crisis may change this scenario, and new opportunities for a change in the technological matrix and in technological structure might occur. In Brazil, the 'Agenda 21', especially the PPA - Applied Research Program in the Energetic Area, intend to develop case studies and implement 'pilots projects' to research conventional and renewable sources of energy, bringing to present the value of this project, developed between 1979 and 1980, to evaluate the technical feasibility of ethylic alcohol utilization as a complementary combustible or in a total substitute for the fuel oil in boilers of conventional thermoelectric generation plants. This work presents the performance of one of the Piratininga thermal power plant's boiler, as well as the main data acquired from direct experimentation and the characteristics of this plant, from the use of ethylic alcohol as a substitute of fuel oil. (author)

  1. Ethanol pilot project: an energy alternative project for a total or partial substitution of fuel oil in thermoelectric generation plants; Projeto piloto do etanol - PPE: alternativa energetica para substituicao parcial ou total do oleo combustivel em plantas de geracao termoeletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Joao Simoes

    2004-07-01

    The actual stage of technological development is strongly dependent on wide use of petroleum combustibles, in which its trade market defines the rules of socio economical and geopolitics interdependencies. The economic growth has been driven by the 'readily available - cheap energy' stimulus, limiting studies on natural sources of energy (geothermal, solar) and development of renewable ones (bio combustibles). However, economical, financial crisis may change this scenario, and new opportunities for a change in the technological matrix and in technological structure might occur. In Brazil, the 'Agenda 21', especially the PPA - Applied Research Program in the Energetic Area, intend to develop case studies and implement 'pilots projects' to research conventional and renewable sources of energy, bringing to present the value of this project, developed between 1979 and 1980, to evaluate the technical feasibility of ethylic alcohol utilization as a complementary combustible or in a total substitute for the fuel oil in boilers of conventional thermoelectric generation plants. This work presents the performance of one of the Piratininga thermal power plant's boiler, as well as the main data acquired from direct experimentation and the characteristics of this plant, from the use of ethylic alcohol as a substitute of fuel oil. (author)

  2. Calibration of semiconductors diodes for in vivo dosimetry in total body irradiation treatments; Calibracao de diodos semicondutores para dosimetria in vivo em tratamentos de irradiacao de corpo inteiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Fernanda F.; Costa, Alessandro M.; Ghilardi Netto, Thomaz, E-mail: ferretti.oliveira@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias e Letras. Departamento de Fisica; Amaral, Leonardo L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia

    2012-08-15

    This paper presents the results of in vivo dosimetry with p-type semiconductors diodes, EDP-15 (Scanditronix Wellhoefer) of two patients who underwent total body irradiation treatments, at Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto University of Sao Paulo (HCFMRP-USP). The diodes were well calibrated and the calibration factors were determined with the aid of a reference ionization chamber (FC065, IBA dosimetry, sensitive volume of 0.65 cm{sup 3}).The calibration was performed in a Total Body Irradiation (TBI) setup, using solid water phantoms. Different lateral thicknesses from one patient were simulated and then the calibration factors were determined by means of maximum depth dose readings (half of the lateral thickness). The response difference between diode readings and the prescribed dose for both treatments was below 4%. This difference is in agreement as recommended by International Commission on Radiation Units (ICRU), which is {+-}5%. (author)

  3. DESNUTRI√á√ÉO PROTEICO-ENERG√ČTICA EM RATOS Respostas dos animais desnutridos √† priva√ß√£o proteica total

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    Leda Ulson Mattos

    Full Text Available A autora estuda a resposta dos modelos experimentais que mimetizam o Kwashiorkor-marasm√°tico e o marasmo √† priva√ß√£o prot√©ica total, usando como par√Ęmetros o teor de nitrog√™nio do f√≠gado e do p√Ęncreas e de lip√≠deos totais no f√≠gado.

  4. Evaluation of blood loss after early or late release of ischemia in patients undergoing total knee replacement Avaliação da perda sanguínea após a liberação precoce ou tardia da isquemia em pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total do joelho

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    Marcos George de Souza Le√£o

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: compare blood loss in 40 patients underwent to unilateral total knee replacement with the release of ischemia before and after skin closure and compressive dressing. METHODS: in a prospective randomized study, in 40 patients underwent to total knee replacement, dividing then into two groups: group A in which the ischemia was released before skin closure, allowing bleeding control and group B where the ischemia was released after skin suture and pressure dressing. We compared the results of laboratory tests of serum hemoglobin before surgery and 48 hours postoperatively, the blood volume contained in vacuum suction drain and the transfusions that was necessary. RESULTS: As a result, the post operative serum hemoglobin levels had a mean decrease of 3.57 g/dL in group A and 4.24 g/dL in group B with an average of 0.67g/dL difference between them, statistically insignificant.The observed mean drainage, in the vacuum drain, were 705 mL in group A and 700 mL in group B. The 5ml difference between medians was considered statistically insignificant. The number of patients who received transfusions was four patients in both groups and all received two units of red blood cells. CONCLUSION: the post operative serum hemoglobin levels, as well as the need of blood transfusion, in the patient underwent to total knee replacement, where the ischemia was released before wound closure, has no statistical effect in comparison with patients where the sutures and bandages were done after the ischemia release. Level of Evidence IB - Individual randomized controlled trial with narrow confidence interval. OBJETIVO: Avaliar comparativamente a perda sangu√≠nea em pacientes submetidos √† artroplastia total do joelho, com libera√ß√£o da isquemia antes e ap√≥s suturas e curativo compressivo. M√ČTODOS: Fez-se um estudo prospectivo randomizado em 40 pacientes submetidos √† artroplastia total do joelho divididos em dois grupos. No primeiro grupo a isquemia foi

  5. Remo√ß√£o de demanda qu√≠mica de oxig√™nio e nitrog√™nio total Kjeldahl de efluente de ind√ļstria de vegetais congelados por Reator em Batelada Sequencial

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    Thaís Luciana Betto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o tratamento biol√≥gico de efluente de ind√ļstria de vegetais congelados em Reator em Batelada Sequencial (RBS, verificando o efeito da concentra√ß√£o de S√≥lidos Suspensos Vol√°teis (SSV, Demanda Qu√≠mica de Oxig√™nio inicial (DQOi e aera√ß√£o na remo√ß√£o biol√≥gica de carbono e nitrog√™nio, a fim de obter um efluente tratado que atenda aos padr√Ķes de lan√ßamento recomendados pela legisla√ß√£o ambiental brasileira. Nesta pesquisa, o tratamento dos efluentes foi feito em um RBS, utilizando concentra√ß√£o de SSV variando entre 2000 mg.L-1 e 4000 mg.L-1, DQOi variando entre 300 mg.L-1 e 600 mg.L-1, e quantidade de aera√ß√£o variando entre 3 L.min-1 e 6 L.min-1. Os resultados mostram que a maior efici√™ncia de remo√ß√£o para DQO foi de 88%, e para nitrog√™nio total Kjeldahl (NTK foi de 74,9%. As condi√ß√Ķes otimizadas para remo√ß√£o de DQO e NTK do efluente estudado foram: DQO inicial de 600 mg.L-1, aera√ß√£o de 4,5 L.min-1 e concentra√ß√£o de SSV de 2000 mg.L-1

  6. Comparação dos teores de cobre e zinco em leguminosas cruas e após serem processadas termicamente em meio salino e aquoso Evaluation of total amount of copper and zinc by legumes raw and thermally processed ina an aqueous and saline medium

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    E. C. B. Andrade

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O cobre e o zinco participam de diversas rea√ß√Ķes no organismo, diretamente ou como co-fatores de enzimas, e s√£o considerados essenciais. Avaliar os teores destes, em leguminosas cruas e ap√≥s processamento t√©rmico, permite um conhecimento do comportamento destes metais em meio salino e aquoso o que auxiliar√° no conhecimento do aproveitamento destes pelo organismo humano. Amostras de feij√Ķes preto, branco, carioquinha, manteiga, mulatinho, ervilha, lentilha e gr√£o-de-bico, duas marcas de cada tipo e em dois lotes, foram analisadas quanto ao teor total de cobre e zinco quando cruas e processadas termicamente em meio salino e aquoso. A abertura das amostras foi feita por calcina√ß√£o a 550¬ļC. As amostras que foram processadas termicamente, passaram por desseca√ß√£o em estufa a 105¬ļC antes da calcina√ß√£o. O teor total de cobre e zinco nas amostras foi determinado atrav√©s da espectrometria de absor√ß√£o at√īmica em chama. Na an√°lise da rejei√ß√£o de resultados foram aplicados o teste Dixon e o teste t de Student. Observou-se que, ap√≥s o processamento t√©rmico em meio salino ou aquoso, a maioria das amostras n√£o teve perda significativa dos teores de cobre e zinco em rela√ß√£o √†s amostras cruas. Considerando que os teores m√©dios do cobre e zinco nas amostras cruas foram, respectivamente, de 0,75mg% e 3,2mg% ao ser consumido uma por√ß√£o m√©dia de leguminosas, cerca de 50g, a mesma fornece aproximadamente 19% e 10% das necessidades di√°rias de cobre e zinco, respectivamente, para um homem adulto segundo a R.D.A.Copper and zinc are considered essential oligoelements to human nutrition, taking part in several reactions either directly or as enzymatic co-fators. The amount of these elements in legumes, both raw and thermally processed in an aqueous and saline medium, provides an insight into their behavior, thus allowing an understanding of how these metals are best utilized by the human body. Two different commercial samples of raw and

  7. Intestinal intraluminal injection of glutamine increases trolox total equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion Injeção na luz intestinal de glutamina aumenta a capacidade anti-oxidante total em equivalência ao trolox (TEAC na isquemia-reperfusão hepática

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    Alberto Bicudo Salom√£o

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of intraluminal injection of glutamine on the serum trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity in an experimental model of ischemia-reperfusion of the liver observing the applicability of modifications on the original assay method. METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats underwent laparotomy to perform a 20 cm blind sac of small bowel and occlusion of the hepatic hilo for 30 minutes and reperfusion for 5 minutes. Into the gut sac it was injected glutamine (glutamine group, n=10 or distilled water (control group, n=10. Ten other animals (sham group underwent laparotomy without artery occlusion. Blood samples were collected for trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays in different temperature conditions, reagent quantities and time for spectrophotometer readings. RESULTS: Total antioxidant capacity was significantly greater in glutamine group than in both control group (1,60[1,55-1,77] vs 1,44[1,27-1,53] and sham group (1,60[1,55-1,77] vs 1,48[1,45-1,59]. CONCLUSION: Glutamine enhanced serum antioxidant capacity. The assay technique consistently reflected the changes in the antioxidant defenses in this experimental model.OBJETIVO: Avaliar em um modelo experimental de isquemia-reperfus√£o hep√°tica os efeitos da inje√ß√£o intraluminal de glutamina na capacidade anti-oxidante total em equival√™ncia ao trolox (TEAC do plasma, verificando a aplicabilidade de modifica√ß√Ķes ao m√©todo original de dosagem. M√ČTODOS: Trinta ratos Wistar foram submetidos a laparotomia e confec√ß√£o de uma al√ßa fechada de 20 cm de comprimento envolvendo o intestinal delgado distal seguido do clampeamento do hilo hep√°tico por 30 minutos e reperfus√£o por 5 minutos. Na al√ßa fechada foi injetada glutamina (grupo glutamina; n=10 ou √°gua destilada (grupo controle; n=10. Em dez animais (grupo sham n√£o foi realizado clampeamento hilar. Coletou-se sangue para dosagem da capacidade antioxidante total em equival√™ncia ao trolox em condi√ß√Ķes modificadas

  8. Avaliação da função muscular em usuários de prótese total dupla = Evaluation of muscular function in wearers of double complete denture

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    Ferreira, Daniel Filgueiras

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, atrav√©s da eletromiografia, o comportamento da atividade muscular resultante do uso da t√©cnica Convencional para obten√ß√£o de equil√≠brio em pr√≥tese total dupla. Doze pacientes totalmente ed√™ntulos, livres de sinais e sintomas de disfun√ß√£o temporomandibular com no m√≠nimo cinco anos de uso de pr√≥teses totais, foram selecionados. Os pacientes tiveram suas pr√≥teses substitu√≠das por novas pr√≥teses e o equil√≠brio articular obtido atrav√©s do estabelecimento de contatos interferentes entre dentes artificiais. O padr√£o da atividade eletromiogr√°fica (EMG foi mensurado com o eletromi√≥grafo Myosystem I√Ę (Prosecon Ltda nos m√ļsculos temporais (por√ß√£o anterior e masseteres nas posi√ß√Ķes de repouso (R e na contra√ß√£o isom√©trica em m√°xima intercuspida√ß√£o (CIMI, em quatro tempos: T0 ¬Ė instala√ß√£o; T1 ¬Ė 1¬į m√™s; T2 ¬Ė 2¬į m√™s; T3 ¬Ė 3¬į m√™s de uso das pr√≥teses. O sinal eletromiogr√°fico foi condicionado por um filtro digital passa faixa e analisado em rela√ß√£o a sua amplitude atrav√©s do RMS (Root Mean Square. Observou-se pequenas altera√ß√Ķes nos valores da atividade EMG dos m√ļsculos temporais e masseteres na posi√ß√£o de R. Na posi√ß√£o de CIMI os m√ļsculos temporais apresentaram valores finais menores que os iniciais, e situa√ß√£o inversa foi observada para os masseteres, com valores finais maiores que os iniciais. A an√°lise dos dados atrav√©s do teste de Friedman n√£o mostrou diferen√ßas estat√≠sticamente significantes (p < 0. 05 entre os tempos avaliados. Conclui-se que a t√©cnica Convencional, no per√≠odo avaliado, n√£o proporcionou equil√≠brio dos m√ļsculos mastigat√≥rios estudados

  9. Aplicabilidade clínica dos resultados de enfermagem em pacientes com mobilidade física prejudicada submetidos à artroplastia total de quadril

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Barragan da Silva

    2013-01-01

    A Artroplastia Total de Quadril (ATQ) √© um procedimento cir√ļrgico amplamente utilizado para o tratamento de afec√ß√Ķes da articula√ß√£o coxofemoral, sejam elas degenerativas inflamat√≥rias ou traum√°ticas. Ela tornou-se um excelente m√©todo de tratamento no al√≠vio da dor e melhora da capacidade funcional desses pacientes. No per√≠odo p√≥s-operat√≥rio, esses pacientes tornam-se dependentes da equipe enfermagem, devido √† limita√ß√£o para mobilizar-se e a restri√ß√£o ao leito, visto que, n√£o podem apoiar-se n...

  10. Relação entre investimentos em intangíveis e produtividade total de fatores: um estudo do setor industrial brasileiro

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    Janderson Martins Vaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la intangibilidad y la productividad total de factores (PTF y verificar la relaci√≥n de causalidad entre esas dos variables en el sector industrial brasile√Īo. Pa ra eso, las variables fueron analizadas por medio del test de causalidad de Granger. Los resultados de los tests de causalidad de Granger mostraron que de los doce sectores analizados, dos presentaban relaci√≥n de causalidad del GI en el sentido de Granger para la PTF. Por otro lado, dos sectores presentaron relaci√≥n de causalidad de la PTF en el sentido de Granger para el GI. Esos resultados permitieron concluir que la intangibilidad del sector industrial brasile√Īo, a pesar de presentar crecimiento, a√ļn no ha alcanzado los niveles de intangibilidad de las empresas pertenecientes a los pa√≠ses m√°s desarrollados.

  11. Qualidade da silagem de gr√£os de milho com adi√ß√£o de soja crua e par√Ęmetros de digestibilidade parcial e total em bovinos Quality of high moisture corn grain silage with addition of raw soybean grains and parameters of partial and total digestibility in cattle

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    C.C. Jobim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a qualidade da silagem de gr√£os √ļmidos de milho com adi√ß√£o de soja crua, por meio de medidas de digestibilidade parcial e total em bovinos. Foram utilizados tr√™s animais mesti√ßos Nelore x Red Angus, implantados com c√Ęnulas ruminal e duodenal. O delineamento experimental foi o quadrado latino 3x3, com os seguintes tratamentos: SGM66= 60% de volumoso, 26,6% de silagem de gr√£os de milho e 13,4% de farelo de soja e milho mo√≠do; SGM33= 60% de volumoso, 13,4% de silagem de gr√£os de milho e 26,6% de farelo de soja e milho mo√≠do, e GMS= 60% de volumoso e 40% de farelo de soja e milho mo√≠do. A digest√£o e a digestibilidade da mat√©ria seca n√£o foram influenciadas pela inclus√£o de SGM na dieta. A dieta SGM66 aumentou a digestibilidade de mat√©ria seca no intestino em rela√ß√£o √† dieta GMS. N√£o houve efeito da inclus√£o da silagem de gr√£os na digest√£o e na digestibilidade das fra√ß√Ķes fibra em detergente √°cido e fibra em detergente neutro da ra√ß√£o, bem como no fluxo ruminal e intestinal do amido. A SGM66 melhorou a digestibilidade total da prote√≠na bruta, mas n√£o mostrou efeito sobre a digestibilidade total da mat√©ria seca, da fibra e do amido e sobre o ambiente ruminal no que se refere √† acidez e √† concentra√ß√£o de am√īnia.The quality of high moisture corn grain silage with addition of raw soybean grains was evaluated by measures of partial and total digestibilities in cattle. Three crossbred Nelore x Red Angus steers averaging 305kg of live weigth and fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used. The experimental design was a 3x3 Latin square, and the steers received the following treatments: HMGS66 = 60% roughage, 26.6% high moisture grain silage, and 13.4% soybean meal and ground corn; HMGS33 = 60% roughage, 13.4% high moisture grain silage, and 26.6% soybean meal and ground corn; and GC = 60% roughage and 40% soybean meal and ground corn. The digestion and digestibility of dry matter was not influenced by

  12. Fra√ß√Ķes oxid√°veis do carbono org√Ęnico total e macrofauna ed√°fica em sistema de integra√ß√£o lavoura-pecu√°ria

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    Itaynara Batista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O crescente n√≠vel de degrada√ß√£o das terras tem promovido a ado√ß√£o de manejos agr√≠colas que busque aliar a produ√ß√£o agropecu√°ria √† conserva√ß√£o do solo. Entre esses, a pr√°tica da Integra√ß√£o Lavoura-Pecu√°ria (ILP tem intensificado-se no Centro-Oeste brasileiro. Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito em longo prazo do sistema ILP e da sazonalidade, sob a comunidade da macrofauna ed√°fica e das fra√ß√Ķes oxid√°veis do carbono org√Ęnico total (COT em √°reas de cultivo e Cerrad√£o, foi desenvolvido na Fazenda Cabeceira no munic√≠pio de Maracaju, MS, um estudo em que se mensurou a influ√™ncia da ILP sobre as fra√ß√Ķes oxid√°veis do COT e sobre a macrofauna ed√°fica. O sistema ILP est√° sendo utilizado nessa √°rea desde 2003; o solo foi identificado como Latossolo Vermelho, localizado em √°rea de relevo plano. As √°reas amostradas possuem o seguinte hist√≥rico: soja/milho + braqui√°ria/algod√£o/ aveia + pastagem/soja/forma√ß√£o da pastagem/pastagem; as amostragens foram realizadas na √©poca seca, em que as culturas presentes eram pasto, milho+braqui√°ria e algod√£o; e na chuvosa, com milho+braqui√°ria, algod√£o e soja. Assim, as √°reas nas duas √©pocas de avalia√ß√£o foram: pasto/milho, milho+braqui√°ria/ algod√£o, algod√£o/soja e uma √°rea nativa de Cerrad√£o. A amostragem foi realizada nas profundidades de 0-10, 10-20 e 20-30 cm, sendo feitas as seguintes determina√ß√Ķes: an√°lise da macrofauna ed√°fica, fracionamento granulom√©trico da mat√©ria org√Ęnica do solo (MOS e fra√ß√Ķes oxid√°veis do COT. As √°reas n√£o apresentavam delineamento experimental, sendo este um estudo de observa√ß√£o. Os dados foram comparados pelo teste de Kruskal Wallis a 5 % e por meio da an√°lise de redund√Ęncia. A compartimentaliza√ß√£o da MOS pode ser utilizada para a avalia√ß√£o da qualidade do manejo, sendo os compartimentos mais sens√≠veis as fra√ß√Ķes F1 e F2 de fra√ß√Ķes oxid√°veis, pois s√£o mais l√°beis no solo, j√° as fra√ß√Ķes F3 e F4 s√£o as mais

  13. Efeito de oito semanas de suplementa√ß√£o com creatina monoidratada sobre o trabalho total relativo em esfor√ßos intermitentes m√°ximos no cicloerg√īmetro de homens treinados Effect of eight weeks of creatine supplementation on relative total work in intermittent maximal efforts in the cycle ergometer of trained men

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    Leandro Ricardo Altimari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou o efeito de um longo per√≠odo de suplementa√ß√£o com creatina monoidratada (Cr m sobre o trabalho total relativo (TTR em esfor√ßos intermitentes m√°ximos no cicloerg√īmetro de homens treinados. Vinte seis indiv√≠duos foram divididos aleatoriamente em grupo creatina (CR, n=13 e grupo placebo (PL, n=13. Os sujeitos receberam em sistema duplo-cego, doses de Cr m ou placebo-maltodextrina (20 g.d-1 por 5 dias e 3 g.d-1 durante 51 dias subseq√ľentes. Os grupos tiveram seus h√°bitos alimentares e sua condi√ß√£o f√≠sica previamente controlados. Para determina√ß√£o do TTR os sujeitos foram submetidos a protocolo de exerc√≠cio em cicloerg√īmetro composto de tr√™s Testes de Wingate de 30s separados por dois minutos recupera√ß√£o, antes e ap√≥s o per√≠odo de suplementa√ß√£o. ANOVA, seguido pelo teste post hoc de Tukey, quando pThis study investigated the effect of long-term supplementation with creatine monohydrate (Cr m on relative total work (RTW in intermittent maximal efforts in the cycle ergometer of trained men. Twenty six individuals were randomly divided in creatine group (CR, n=13 and placebo group (PL, n=13. The subjects received in a double-blind manner, doses of Cr m or placebo-maltodextrin (20 g.d-1 for 5 days and 3 g.d-1 for 51 subsequent days. The groups had their alimentary habits and physical fitness controlled previously. For determination of the RTW the subjects were submitted to exercise protocol in cycle ergometer comprised three 30s Anaerobic Wingate Test interspersed with two minutes recovery, before and after the supplementation period. ANOVA, followed by the Tukey post hoc test, when p<0.05, were used for data treatment. There was a significant time effect for RTW (F1,24=8.00; p<0.05, with the CR group demonstrating significant greater (3% on the RTW production compared to PL group after the supplementation period (690.54 ¬Ī 46.83 vs 655.71 ¬Ī 74.34 J.kg-1 respectively; p<0.05. The results of the present study

  14. Carbono org√Ęnico, nitrog√™nio total, biomassa e atividade microbiana do solo em duas cronosseq√ľ√™ncias de reabilita√ß√£o ap√≥s a minera√ß√£o de bauxita Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass and activity in two rehabilitation chronosequences after bauxite mining

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    Marco Aurélio Carbone Carneiro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A minera√ß√£o √© uma das atividades antr√≥picas que causa grande impacto nos ecossistemas e o grau de degrada√ß√£o depende da intensidade de interfer√™ncia no solo, do volume explorado e do rejeito produzido. Os microrganismos do solo e sua atividade, por participarem de fun√ß√Ķes-chave, podem fornecer indica√ß√Ķes sobre o real estado de reabilita√ß√£o de √°reas mineradas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da atividade de minera√ß√£o em duas cronosseq√ľ√™ncias com diferentes estrat√©gias (revegeta√ß√£o de reabilita√ß√£o em solos de √°rea de minera√ß√£o de bauxita sobre diversos atributos: C de compostos org√Ęnicos (CO, N total do solo (Nt, biomassa microbiana, atividade enzim√°tica e respira√ß√£o do solo. O estudo foi desenvolvido em √°reas pertencentes a Alcoa S/A, em dois ambientes distintos: (a em √°reas com vegeta√ß√£o t√≠pica de campo, predominantemente herb√°cea, em altitude inferior a 1.000 m, e (b em √°reas de montanhas, no topo do planalto, incluindo remanescentes de cobertura vegetal nativa representada por floresta subtropical subcaducif√≥lia, a uma altitude de 1.600 m, denominadas serra, com caracter√≠sticas diferenciadas quanto √† estrat√©gia e ao tempo de reabilita√ß√£o, variando de √°reas rec√©m-mineradas √† √°reas com 19 anos de reabilita√ß√£o. Coletaram-se amostras compostas com tr√™s repeti√ß√Ķes em oito √°reas no campo e nove na serra, em duas profundidades (0-10 e 10-20 cm, no inverno e ver√£o. A minera√ß√£o de bauxita provocou grande impacto nos atributos estudados, causando redu√ß√Ķes nos seus valores de at√© 99 %. Tanto no campo como na serra, os teores de CO, de Nt, a biomassa microbiana e a atividade enzim√°tica aumentaram com as diferentes estrat√©gias de reabilita√ß√£o. Entretanto a resposta dos atributos estudados foi diferenciada em fun√ß√£o do tempo de reabilita√ß√£o. A biomassa microbiana e a atividade enzim√°tica apresentaram recupera√ß√£o muito r√°pida, atingindo valores semelhantes aos das √

  15. Implantação de controle estatístico em determinação de nitrogênio total e proteína bruta em peito de frango - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i1.6762

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Antonio Lindino

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi aprimorar a qualidade anal√≠tica em laborat√≥rio de controle f√≠sico-qu√≠mico de alimentos por meio da implanta√ß√£o de controle estat√≠stico de processo em an√°lise de nitrog√™nio total e prote√≠na bruta de peito de frango. Foi avaliado o teor de prote√≠na em 15 amostras de peito de frango obtidas de um mesmo lote, fornecido por uma empresa de abate e industrializa√ß√£o de frango de corte, localizada na regi√£o Oeste do Paran√°. Ap√≥s a confec√ß√£o do gr√°fico de controle, semanalmente amostras de peito de frango foram utilizadas para se avaliar o desempenho do analista, materiais, reagentes e equipamentos empregados na an√°lise de prote√≠na. Outros controles utilizados para se garantir a qualidade dessa an√°lise foram calibra√ß√£o da bureta no pr√≥prio laborat√≥rio, uso de padr√£o certificado de amostra liofilizada, √† base de carne, fornecido pelo SENAI-Chapec√≥, Estado de Santa Catarina, e participa√ß√£o em Programa de Ensaio de Profici√™ncia (PEP. O trabalho possibilitou mostrar que o gr√°fico de controle √© apenas uma t√©cnica contida no processo de Gest√£o da Qualidade e fornece subs√≠dios para a tomada de decis√Ķes, visando √† melhoria cont√≠nua.

  16. Field in field technique in two-dimensional planning for whole brain irradiation; Tecnica field in field em planejamentos bidimensionais para irradiacao de cerebro total

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, A.L.S.; Campos, T.P.R., E-mail: radioterapia.andre@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2016-11-01

    Radiotherapy is the most used clinical method used for brain metastases treatment, the most frequent secondary tumors provided by breast, lung and melanomas as primary origin. The protocols often use high daily doses and, depending on the irradiation technique there is high probability of complications in health tissues. In order to minimize adverse effects, it is important the dosimetric analysis of three-dimensional radiotherapy planning through tomographic images or, concerning to the 2D simulations, by the application of techniques that optimize dose distribution by increasing the homogeneity. The study aimed to compare the 2D and 3D conformal planning for total brain irradiation in a individual equivalent situation and evaluate the progress of these planning applying the field in field technique. The methodology consisted of simulating a two-dimensional planning, reproduce it on a set of tomographic images and compare it with the conformal plan for two fields and four fields (field in field). The results showed no significant difference between 2D and 3D planning for whole brain irradiation, and the field in field technique significantly improved the dose distribution in brain volume compared with two fields for the proposal situation. As conclusion, the two-dimensional plane for the four fields described was viable for whole brain irradiation in the treatment of brain metastases at the proposal situation. (author)

  17. Níveis de proteína bruta em dietas para bovinos de corte: consumo e digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes Crude protein levels in diets of beef cattle: intake and apparent total tract, intestinal, and ruminal digestibilities of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Andréa Borges Cavalcante

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os consumos e as digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes em novilhos Holand√™s x Zebu recebendo dietas contendo quatro n√≠veis de prote√≠na bruta (10,5; 12; 13,5 e 15% de PB na mat√©ria seca, constitu√≠das de 65% de feno de capim-tifton 85 e 35% de concentrado. Foram utilizados quatro animais castrados, fistulados no r√ļmen e abomaso, com peso vivo m√©dio inicial de 487,3 kg, distribu√≠dos em um quadrado latino 4 x 4. Cada per√≠odo experimental teve dura√ß√£o de 20 dias - 10 para adapta√ß√£o √†s dietas, seis para coletas de amostras de fezes e digestas de abomaso, um para a coleta de l√≠quido ruminal, um para a coleta total de urina, em 24 horas, e dois para a coleta de conte√ļdo ruminal. Para determina√ß√£o da excre√ß√£o fecal, utilizou-se o √≥xido cr√īmico como indicador. Os consumos de mat√©ria seca (MS, mat√©ria org√Ęnica (MO, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e nutrientes digest√≠veis totais (NDT n√£o foram influenciados pelos n√≠veis de prote√≠na bruta (PB das dietas, mas os consumos de PB aumentaram e os de extrato et√©reo (EE e carboidratos n√£o-fibrosos (CNF reduziram com o incremento de PB das dietas. As digestibilidades aparentes totais da MS, MO e PB aumentaram linearmente com a concentra√ß√£o prot√©ica das dietas. As digestibilidades aparentes ruminal e intestinal dos nutrientes n√£o foram afetadas pelos n√≠veis de PB das dietas, com exce√ß√£o √† digestibilidade intestinal da PB, que aumentou 2,77 unidades para cada percentual de PB acrescentado √† dieta.The objective of this trial was to study the effects of different dietary levels of crude protein (CP on intake and apparent total tract, intestinal, and ruminal digestibilities of nutrients in Holstein x Zebu steers. The diets contained [dry matter (DM basis]: 10.5, 12, 13.5, or 15% of CP and a forage (Tifton 85:concentrate ratio of 65:35. Four castrated animals averaging 487.3 kg of body weight at the beginning of the trial and fitted with both abomasum and

  18. Proximate Composition, Nutritional Attributes and Mineral Composition of <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> L. (Ketumpangan Air Grown in Malaysia

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    Maznah Ismail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the proximate and mineral composition of <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> L., an underexploited weed plant in Malaysia. Proximate analysis was performed using standard AOAC methods and mineral contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> to be rich in crude protein, carbohydrate and total ash contents. The high amount of total ash (31.22% suggests a high-value mineral composition comprising potassium, calcium and iron as the main elements. The present study inferred that <em>Peperomia> <em>pellucida> would serve as a good source of protein and energy as well as micronutrients in the form of a leafy vegetable for human consumption.

  19. Adequa√ß√£o da contagem de c√©lulas som√°ticas e da contagem bacteriana total em leite cru refrigerado aos par√Ęmetros da legisla√ß√£o

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    G.A. Bozo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi adequar a qualidade do leite cru refrigerado de cinco propriedades leiteiras aos par√Ęmetros microbiol√≥gicos e de contagem de c√©lulas som√°ticas (CCS estabelecidos pela legisla√ß√£o estadual do Paran√°. As propriedades leiteiras estudadas foram monitoradas durante sete meses ap√≥s a implanta√ß√£o de boas pr√°ticas de ordenha e de recomenda√ß√Ķes quanto ao tratamento de mastites e √† manuten√ß√£o e higieniza√ß√£o de equipamentos de ordenha. Antes da ado√ß√£o das recomenda√ß√Ķes, a contagem bacteriana total (CBT m√©dia era de 1,36 x 10(6UFC/mL e a CCS m√©dia, de 1,87 x 10(6/mL. Todas as propriedades atingiram os padr√Ķes estabelecidos para CBT, com redu√ß√£o m√©dia de 93,4%. A redu√ß√£o de CCS foi, em m√©dia, 74,3%. Apenas tr√™s propriedades atingiram os valores estabelecidos para CCS. As demais atingiram valores muito pr√≥ximos ao limite. A adequa√ß√£o aos padr√Ķes de CBT e CCS gerou aumento na renda mensal, em raz√£o do pagamento por qualidade do produto, entre R$120,00 e R$828,00, de acordo com a produ√ß√£o de cada propriedade.

  20. Application of the total etching technique or self-etching primers on primary teeth after air abrasion Aplicação da técnica de condicionamento total ou de "primers" autocondicionantes em dentes decíduos após abrasão a ar

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    F√°bio Renato Manzolli Leite

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the use of air abrasion has grown in pediatric dentistry, the aim of this study was to evaluate, by means of shear bond strength testing, the need to use the total etching technique or self-etching primers on dentin of primary teeth after air abrasion. Twenty-five exfoliated primary molars had their occlusal dentin exposed by trimming and polishing. Specimens were treated by: Air abrasion + Scotchbond MultiPurpose adhesive (G1; 37% phosphoric acid + Scotchbond MP adhesive (G2; Clearfil SE (G3; Air abrasion + 37% phosphoric acid + Scotchbond MP adhesive (G4; Air abrasion + Clearfil SE (G5. On the treated surface, a cylinder of 2 mm by 6 mm was made using a composite resin (Z100. Duncan's test showed that: (G2 = G3 = G5 > (G1 = G4. The use of a self-etching primer on air abraded dentin is recommended to obtain higher bond strengths.Como o uso da abrasão a ar tem aumentado em odontopediatria, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência ao cisalhamento da resina composta Z100 sobre a superfície dentinária de dentes decíduos após abrasionamento a ar associado ou não a técnica de condicionamento total (ácido fosfórico + Scotchbond Multi Purpose ou "primer" autocondicionante (Clearfil SE Bond. A superfície oclusal de 25 molares decíduos foi removida para exposição completa da superfície dentinária. Após polimento com lixas abrasivas, foram divididos em 5 grupos (5 espécimes em cada tratados por abrasão + adesivo Scotchbond (G1; condicionamento ácido + adesivo Scotchbond (G2; adesivo Clearfil (G3; abrasão a ar + condicionamento ácido + adesivo Scotchbond (G4; abrasão a ar + adesivo Clearfil (G5. Uma matriz bipartida foi adaptada à superfície dentinária e preenchida com resina composta. Após polimerização, corpos-de-prova de 2 mm x 6 mm foram obtidos. O teste de Duncan mostrou a desigualdade (G1 = G4 < (G2 = G3 = G5. Desse modo, conclui-se que, após o abrasionamento dentinário, deve ser utilizado o sistema de

  1. Formula√ß√£o de ra√ß√Ķes para poedeiras com base em amino√°cidos totais e digest√≠veis utilizando diferentes estimativas da composi√ß√£o de amino√°cidos em alimentos Diet formulation based on the total and digestible amino acids and different estimates of amino acid ingredient composition, for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire da Silva Filardi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas poedeiras comerciais com 27 semanas de idade, distribu√≠das em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com tr√™s repeti√ß√Ķes de seis aves por tratamento. Os fatores consistiram de tr√™s m√©todos de estimativa da composi√ß√£o de amino√°cidos em ingredientes (tabelas brasileiras, equa√ß√Ķes de predi√ß√£o e fator para corre√ß√£o de amino√°cido em fun√ß√£o do teor de prote√≠na do ingrediente e tr√™s recomenda√ß√Ķes de amino√°cidos, sendo duas de amino√°cidos digest√≠veis e uma de amino√°cidos totais. Os m√©todos de estimativa da composi√ß√£o de amino√°cidos nos ingredientes afetaram apenas a convers√£o alimentar e a espessura de casca, que apresentaram os melhores resultados com a utiliza√ß√£o das tabelas brasileiras. Embora as recomenda√ß√Ķes de amino√°cidos tenham determinado diferen√ßas em todos os par√Ęmetros de desempenho, n√£o afetaram a qualidade dos ovos. O desempenho das aves foi prejudicado pelos n√≠veis de amino√°cidos digest√≠veis, entretanto, ambas as recomenda√ß√Ķes promoveram desempenho semelhante e inferior ao de amino√°cidos totais. O pior desempenho das aves alimentadas com as ra√ß√Ķes formuladas com amino√°cidos digest√≠veis pode ser atribu√≠do √† defici√™ncia em nitrog√™nio para a s√≠ntese de amino√°cidos n√£o-essenciais, visto que o n√≠vel prot√©ico foi reduzido (12,5% PB, ou ainda √† defici√™ncia nos amino√°cidos arginina, histidina, isoleucina, leucina e valina, cujos requerimentos m√≠nimos n√£o foram considerados na formula√ß√£o das ra√ß√Ķes.Twenty-seven week-old commercial laying hens were allotted to a completely randomized design with a 3x3 factorial arrangement with three replicates of six birds per treatment. The factors consisted of hree methods for estimatingamino acid ingredient composition (Brazilian tables, prediction equations and factor for correcting amino acid in function of ingredient protein level and three amino acid recommendations, being two for digestible amino

  2. Seroepidemiological study of human cysticercosis with blood samples collected on filter paper, in Lages, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2004-2005 Estudo soroepidemiológico da cisticercose humana com amostras de sangue total coletado em papel filtro, em Lages, Estado de Santa Catarina, 2004-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria M√°rcia Imenes Ishida

    2011-06-01

    √ļde. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas por meio de pun√ß√£o digital em papel filtro entre agosto 2004 e maio 2005. Verificou-se que 850 amostras estavam adequadas para an√°lise. No ELISA, utilizou-se o ant√≠geno heter√≥logo liquido vesicular de Taenia crassiceps. Para assegurar a confiabilidade dos resultados de ELISA, foram pareadas 77 amostras de soro e sangue eluido do papel filtro. A confirma√ß√£o do diagn√≥stico sorol√≥gico foi feita por immunoblot (IB com glicoprote√≠nas purificadas de Taenia crassiceps. RESULTADOS: A reatividade de IgG elu√≠da de sangue em papel filtro mostrou-se compat√≠vel com a dos soros correspondentes. A triagem por ELISA de 850 indiv√≠duos revelou 186 (21,9% positivos. De 213 pessoas convidadas a colher soro para IB (186 ELISA positivo e 27 com amostras de sangue total inadequadas, compareceram 130. O IB foi positivo em 29 (3,4% de 850 amostras. Houve correla√ß√£o significativa entre IB positivo e a pr√°tica de cria√ß√£o de su√≠nos e de horta caseira (p = 0,0364. CONCLUS√ēES: ELISA com sangue total em papel filtro mostrou-se adequado para inqu√©ritos populacionais para cisticercose. A transmiss√£o da cisticercose humana na √°rea estudada mostrou correla√ß√£o com cria√ß√£o su√≠na domestica e horta caseira. A preval√™ncia obtida foi semelhante √† relatada em √°reas end√™micas da Am√©rica Latina.

  3. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  4. UTILIZA√á√ÉO DO FARELO DE CANOLA EM RA√á√ēES PARA POEDEIRAS COMERCIAIS FORMULADAS COM BASE EM AMINO√ĀCIDOS TOTAIS E DIGEST√ćVEIS CANOLA MEAL IN LAYING HENS DIETS FORMULATED ACCORDING TO TOTAL AND DIGESTIBLE AMINO ACID BASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Assuena

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da inclus√£o do farelo de canola em ra√ß√Ķes para poedeiras comerciais, formuladas com diferentes recomenda√ß√Ķes de amino√°cidos. Foram utilizadas 144 poedeiras comerciais, distribu√≠das em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com tr√™s repeti√ß√Ķes de seis aves cada, em esquema fatorial 2 x 4, constitu√≠do da combina√ß√£o de duas recomenda√ß√Ķes de amino√°cidos (totais e digest√≠veis e quatro n√≠veis de inclus√£o do farelo de canola (0%, 4%, 8% e 12%. Durante quatro ciclos de 21 dias, avaliaram-se o desempenho e nos dois √ļltimos dias de cada ciclo a qualidade dos ovos. As aves que receberam a ra√ß√£o formulada com amino√°cidos digest√≠veis apresentaram menor massa de ovos e pior convers√£o alimentar (P<0,05. O farelo de canola pode ser inclu√≠do em at√© 8% da ra√ß√£o sem preju√≠zo ao desempenho e qualidade da casca dos ovos. Na regi√£o de condu√ß√£o da pesquisa o custo do farelo de canola onerou o custo da ra√ß√£o. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Alimento alternativo, desempenho, nutri√ß√£o, qualidade de ovos This experiment was conducted to evaluated increasing levels of canola meal in laying hens diets formulated based in different amino acid recommendations. 144 commercial laying hens was allotted in laying cages during 4 periods of 21 days. Performance and egg quality parameters were evaluated In the last two days of each period. Hens were distributed in a complete randomized design, in factorial arrangement 2x4, with eight treatments and three replicates of six hens each. The factors were diets formulated based on total and digestible aminoacids and increasing levels of canola meal on these diets (0; 4; 8 and 12%. Recommendations of digestible amino acid promoted worst feed conversion and lower egg mass output. Canola meal can be included in laying hens diets until 8% without decrease performance and egg shell quality. However, canola meal increased feed cost on the region where the experiment was

  5. Consumo, digestibilidade total, produção de proteína microbiana e balanço de nitrogênio em dietas com subprodutos de frutas para ruminantes Intake, total digestibility, microbial protein production and the nitrogen balance in diets with fruit by-products for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Gomes Azevêdo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da inclus√£o de subprodutos de frutas in natura (abacaxi, goiaba, mam√£o, manga e maracuj√° e do n√≠vel (10 e 30% utilizado na dieta de bovinos em substitui√ß√£o parcial √† silagem de milho sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade total dos nutrientes, a produ√ß√£o de prote√≠na microbiana (Pmic e o balan√ßo de nitrog√™nio e sobre a predi√ß√£o das fra√ß√Ķes digest√≠veis e nutrientes digest√≠veis totais (NDT desses subprodutos. Todos os animais receberam silagem de milho e mistura ureia/sulfato de am√īnio (9:1 para que as ra√ß√Ķes se mantivessem isonitrogenadas. Os consumos de mat√©ria seca (MS (kg/dia, mat√©ria org√Ęnica (MO, prote√≠na bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e NDT, al√©m da digestibilidade de PB, extrato et√©reo (EE e carboidratos n√£o-fibrosos (CNF foram afetados pela origem do subproduto. Houve efeito para o n√≠vel de inclus√£o dos subprodutos na digestibilidade da PB e EE. Os subprodutos de mam√£o, manga e abacaxi apresentaram valor energ√©tico 23,1; 18,0 e 7,1%, respectivamente, superior ao da silagem de milho. A fonte do subproduto influenciou as excre√ß√Ķes urin√°rias de derivados de purinas totais e purinas absorvidas e a produ√ß√£o de prote√≠na microbiana, al√©m da ingest√£o (g/dia, a excre√ß√£o dos compostos nitrogenados nas fezes e na urina (g/dia e o balan√ßo de nitrog√™nio (g/dia. O n√≠vel de inclus√£o dos subprodutos na dieta afetou as excre√ß√Ķes urin√°rias de derivados de purinas totais e purinas absorvidas e a produ√ß√£o de prote√≠na microbiana. Os subprodutos de abacaxi, mam√£o e manga t√™m valor energ√©tico superior ao da silagem de milho e podem substituir parcialmente concentrados energ√©ticos em dietas para ruminantes. O subproduto de maracuj√° tem potencial para substituir parcialmente volumosos em dietas para ruminantes. O subproduto de goiaba apresenta limita√ß√Ķes para uso em dietas para ruminantes.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of inclusion of by

  6. Total Energy of Charged Black Holes in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion Theory

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    Murat Korunur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the energy content (including matter and fields of the M√łller energy-momentum complex in the framework of Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton-Axion (EMDA theory using teleparallel gravity. We perform the required calculations for some specific charged black hole models, and we find that total energy distributions associated with asymptotically flat black holes are proportional to the gravitational mass. On the other hand, we see that the energy of the asymptotically nonflat black holes diverge in a limiting case.

  7. Revisão da artroplastia total de joelho em dois tempos: o valor da cultura obtida por biópsia artroscópica Review of knee total arthroplasty in two steps: the value of culture obtained through arthroscopic biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos de Camargo Leonhardt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O tratamento mais utilizado para o tratamento das infec√ß√Ķes profundas nas artroplastias totais do joelho tem sido a revis√£o em dois tempos. Mesmo seguindo os passos preconizados neste tipo de tratamento, ainda existe a d√ļvida do per√≠odo certo para realizar o segundo tempo da revis√£o sem o risco de coloca√ß√£o de um novo implante em uma √°rea ainda infectada. Nosso trabalho tem como objetivo determinar o valor da cultura obtida por bi√≥psia artrosc√≥pica, a fim de determinar o momento adequado para a realiza√ß√£o do segundo tempo da revis√£o e tamb√©m o tempo adequado para manter o espa√ßador. MATERIAL E M√ČTODOS: Doze pacientes com o diagn√≥stico de infec√ß√£o profunda p√≥s-artroplastia total de joelho prim√°ria foram submetidos ao protocolo de revis√£o em dois tempos, e ap√≥s seis semanas da coloca√ß√£o do espa√ßador e da antibioticoterapia, o paciente foi submetido √† bi√≥psia artrosc√≥pica no joelho infectado e atrav√©s dela foram colhidas amostras para cultura a fim de verificar se o momento era adequado para a realiza√ß√£o do segundo tempo da revis√£o. RESULTADOS: Os resultados das culturas de todos os pacientes submetidos √† bi√≥psia artrosc√≥pica foram negativos, sendo todos submetidos ao segundo tempo da revis√£o. Das culturas colhidas durante o implante da nova pr√≥tese, onze confirmaram a inexist√™ncia de processo infeccioso ativo no s√≠tio cir√ļrgico; uma cultura foi positiva, sendo isolado neste paciente Staphyloccocus aureus sens√≠vel √† oxacilina. CONCLUS√ÉO: Apesar do pequeno n√ļmero de casos, conclu√≠mos que a cultura obtida pela bi√≥psia artrosc√≥pica tem valor e mostrou que seis semanas √© o tempo adequado para manuten√ß√£o do espa√ßador.OBJECTIVE: The most commonly used treatment for deep infections in knee total arthroplasties has been the two-steps review. Even following the steps recommended for this kind of treatment, still doubts exist about the right period to perform the second step of the review without

  8. Merc√ļrio total em m√ļsculo de ca√ß√£o Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758 e de espadarte Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, na costa sul-sudeste do Brasil e suas implica√ß√Ķes para a sa√ļde p√ļblica Total mercury in muscle of the shark Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758 and swordfish Xiphias gladius Linnaeus, 1758, from the South-Southeast coast of Brazil and the implications for public health

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    Adriana C. L. Dias

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas as concentra√ß√Ķes de merc√ļrio total (THg em tecido muscular do tubar√£o azul Prionace glauca e do tele√≥steo Xiphias gladius, vulgarmente conhecido como espadarte, provenientes das regi√Ķes sul e sudeste da costa brasileira, para verificar se estas se encontram dentro dos padr√Ķes legais para consumo humano. As amostras foram obtidas utilizando-se o programa REVIZEE, de agosto a setembro de 2001, e por interm√©dio de uma empresa de pesca em Itaja√≠, Santa Catarina. Foi analisado um total de 95 esp√©cimes, testando-se as correla√ß√Ķes entre THg, comprimento (cm e peso (kg. As concentra√ß√Ķes de merc√ļrio total em todas as amostras variaram de 0,13 a 2,26¬Ķgg-1 (peso √ļmido. A m√©dia de merc√ļrio total em P. glauca foi de 0,76 ¬Ī 0,48¬Ķgg-1 (p.u., e em X. gladius foi de 0,62 ¬Ī 0,31¬Ķgg-1 (p.u. com diferen√ßa n√£o significativa (teste Mann-Whitney, p Total mercury (THg was analyzed in muscle tissue from the blue shark Prionace glauca and the swordfish Xiphias gladius, obtained from the South and Southeast coast of Brazil, to verify compliance with current limits for human consumption. Samples were obtained through the REVIZEE Program and a commercial fishery in Itaja√≠, Santa Catarina State. A total of 95 specimens were analyzed (48 X. gladius and 47 P. glauca, and correlations were checked between THg and fish length and weight. THg ranged from 0.13 to 2.26¬Ķgg-1 (fresh weight, and there was no significant difference between the means for P. glauca, 0.76 ¬Ī 0.48¬Ķgg-1 (f.w. and X. gladius, 0.62 ¬Ī 0.31 (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05. In 16% of samples, THg was above the limits set by the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA, namely 1¬Ķgg-1, and 62% exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO limit of 0.5¬Ķgg-1. The ingestion of 100g/ day-1 of P. glauca or X. gladius would result in a daily THg intake of more than twice the WHO (1990 suggested limit.

  9. RICE BRAIN UTILIZATION IN COMMERCIAL LAYING HENS DIETS FORMULATED ON TOTAL AND DIGESTIBLE AMINO ACID BASIS UTILIZA√á√ÉO DO FARELO DE ARROZ EM RA√á√ēES PARA POEDEIRAS COMERCIAIS FORMULADAS COM BASE EM AMINO√ĀCIDOS TOTAIS E DIGEST√ćVEIS

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    Vinicius Assuena

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was evaluate the per-formance, egg quality and production costs of commercial laying hens fed with rice meal and formulated on total and digestible amino acids basis. During 5 periods of 28 days 192 Lohmann LSL hens 25 weeks of age were distributed in a completely random experiment in a factorial scheme with 8 treatments and 3 replications of 8 birds each. The factorial scheme consisted in two amino acid recommen-dation (total and digestible and four inclusion levels of rice meal (0, 5, 10 and 15%. The performance and egg quality were evaluated during five cycles of 28 days. Un-der the conditions of this experiment, the use of digest-ible amino acid values determined low performance and higher production cost in comparison with the total amino acid values. The diets formulated with different rice meal levels did not affected performance and egg quality pa-rameters evaluated, however, the use of rice meal in lay-ing hens diets should be determined depending on avail-ability and cost, while was observed over 6% of inclusion the egg production costs was increased.

    KEY-WORDS: Alternative feed, amino acid recommendation, egg quality, performance.

    O experimento teve por objetivo avaliar o desem-penho, a qualidade e o custo de produ√ß√£o dos ovos de poe-deiras comerciais, alimentadas com ra√ß√Ķes contendo fare-lo de arroz e formuladas com base em amino√°cidos totais e digest√≠veis. Empregaram-se 192 poedeiras da linhagem Lohmann LSL com 26 semanas de idade, distribu√≠das em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso em esquema fato-rial 2 x 4 (duas recomenda√ß√Ķes de amino√°cidos x 4 n√≠veis de inclus√£o do farelo de arroz,¬† sendo utilizadas tr√™s repe-ti√ß√Ķes de oito aves por tratamento. Os tratamentos consis-tiram da combina√ß√£o de duas recomenda√ß√Ķes de amino√°-cidos (totais ou digest√≠veis e quatro n√≠veis de inclus√£o do farelo de arroz (0 %, 5 %, 10 % e 15 %. Durante cinco ciclos de 28 dias, avaliaram

  10. Possibilidade de aplicação de misturas de herbicidas de ação total com Jato dirigido em mamoneira de porte anão Possibility of applaying total action herbicide tank mixture using direct sprayer on dwarf internode castor bean

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    C.D.G. Maciel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da aplica√ß√£o em jato dirigido com e sem prote√ß√£o do bico de pulveriza√ß√£o atrav√©s de chap√©u-de-napole√£o para misturas de herbicidas de a√ß√£o total na cultura da mamoneira de porte an√£o, na safra 2004/2005, um experimento foi conduzido no munic√≠pio de Gar√ßa-SP, utilizando-se o h√≠brido Lyra e espa√ßamento de 1,0 x 0,5 m. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com tratamentos em esquema fatorial 2 x 10, com quatro repeti√ß√Ķes, em que o primeiro fator representou a forma de aplica√ß√£o de jato dirigido com e sem uso de chap√©u-de-napole√£o e o segundo os herbicidas: glyphosate (0,72 kg ha-1; glyphosate + 2,4-D (0,72 + 0,35 kg ha-1; glyphosate + flumioxazin (0,72 + 0,025 kg ha-1; glyphosate + carfentrazone-ethyl (0,72 + 0,016 kg ha-1; glyphosate + diuron (0,72 + 0,75 kg ha-1; MSMA + diuron (1,44+ 0,75 kg ha-1; paraquat + diuron (0,9 kg ha-1; paraquat + diquat (0,20 + 0,20 kg ha-1; paraquat + bentazon (0,40 + 0,48 kg ha-1; e testemunha capinada. A aplica√ß√£o dos herbicidas foi feita em p√≥s-emerg√™ncia das plantas daninhas, nas entrelinhas da cultura, utilizando-se pulverizador costal pressurizado com CO2, com uma ponta XR 8002-VS para o uso de chap√©u-de-napole√£o e duas pontas XR 11002-VS, espa√ßadas de 50 cm, para condi√ß√£o sem prote√ß√£o, ambas com consumo de calda equivalente a 200 L ha-1. O herbicida glyphosate e as misturas de paraquat + bentazon, glyphosate + 2,4-D e paraquat + diquat proporcionaram os maiores n√≠veis de produtividade da mamoneira Lyra quando aplicados em jato dirigido e com aux√≠lio de chap√©u-de-napole√£o. As misturas paraquat + bentazon (0,40 + 0,48 kg ha-1 e paraquat + diquat (0,20 + 0,20 kg ha-1 demonstraram ser as mais indicadas para aplica√ß√£o em jato dirigido com prote√ß√£o do bico de pulveriza√ß√£o.An experiment was carried out in Garca-SP to evaluate the effects of application using a direct sprayer with and without "Napoleons's hat

  11. Adequa√ß√£o da contagem de c√©lulas som√°ticas e da contagem bacteriana total em leite cru refrigerado aos par√Ęmetros da legisla√ß√£o Suitability of somatic cell count and total bacterial count in raw refrigerated milk to legislation standards

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    G.A. Bozo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi adequar a qualidade do leite cru refrigerado de cinco propriedades leiteiras aos par√Ęmetros microbiol√≥gicos e de contagem de c√©lulas som√°ticas (CCS estabelecidos pela legisla√ß√£o estadual do Paran√°. As propriedades leiteiras estudadas foram monitoradas durante sete meses ap√≥s a implanta√ß√£o de boas pr√°ticas de ordenha e de recomenda√ß√Ķes quanto ao tratamento de mastites e √† manuten√ß√£o e higieniza√ß√£o de equipamentos de ordenha. Antes da ado√ß√£o das recomenda√ß√Ķes, a contagem bacteriana total (CBT m√©dia era de 1,36 x 10(6UFC/mL e a CCS m√©dia, de 1,87 x 10(6/mL. Todas as propriedades atingiram os padr√Ķes estabelecidos para CBT, com redu√ß√£o m√©dia de 93,4%. A redu√ß√£o de CCS foi, em m√©dia, 74,3%. Apenas tr√™s propriedades atingiram os valores estabelecidos para CCS. As demais atingiram valores muito pr√≥ximos ao limite. A adequa√ß√£o aos padr√Ķes de CBT e CCS gerou aumento na renda mensal, em raz√£o do pagamento por qualidade do produto, entre R$120,00 e R$828,00, de acordo com a produ√ß√£o de cada propriedade.The aim of this work was to adequate raw refrigerated milk quality of five dairy farms to microbiological and somatic cell count (SCC standards established by Paran√° state legislation. The dairy farms were monitored during seven months after the implementation of good milking practices and recommendations regarding mastitis treatment, and milking equipment maintenance and hygiene. Before the adoption of recommendations, the average total bacterial count (TBC was 1.36 x 10(6CFU/mL and average SCC was 1.87 x 10(6/mL. All farms reached established standards for TBC, originating an average reduction of 93.4%. Average SCC reduction was 74.3%. Only three farms reached established values for SCC. The remaining reached values near the limits. The suitability of TBC and SCC produced an increase in the monthly income due to payment quality reward of the dairy product, between R$120.00 and R$828

  12. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  13. Crescimento e produtividade do almeir√£o em concentra√ß√Ķes de N total contendo NH4+ na solu√ß√£o nutritiva Growth and yield of chicory plants under total N concentrations containing NH4+ in the nutrient solution

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    Rodrigo dos Santos Godoi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento e a produtividade do almeir√£o foram determinados em cultivo hidrop√īnico fechado com cinco concentra√ß√Ķes de N contendo NH4+ na solu√ß√£o nutritiva. As cultivares "Amarelo" e "P√£o de A√ß√ļcar" foram semeadas diretamente em fileiras distanciadas de 0,05m, em uma camada de areia de 0,15m, distribu√≠da sobre telhas de fibrocimento. Ap√≥s a emerg√™ncia, foi efetuado o desbaste, mantendo-se uma densidade de 1.600plantas m-2. Foi empregada uma solu√ß√£o nutritiva padr√£o com a composi√ß√£o de, em mmol L-1, 11,0 de NO3-; 1,5 de H2PO4-; 6,5 de SO4-2; 7,5 de Ca+2; 10,0 de K+ e 1,5 de Mg+2 e, em mg L-1, 0,42 de Mn; 0,26 de Zn; 0,05 de Cu; 0,50 de B; 0,04 de Mo, e 4,82 de Fe quelatizado. Os tratamentos foram constitu√≠dos por concentra√ß√Ķes totais de N de 11,0 (T1; 16,0 (T2; 21,0 (T3; 26,0 (T4 e 31,0 (T5mmol L-1, contendo concentra√ß√Ķes de NH4+ de, zero; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0mmol L-1, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado foi empregado, com quatro repeti√ß√Ķes e parcelas subdivididas. Foram efetuadas colheitas aos 35, 59, 76 e 97 dias ap√≥s a semeadura, mediante corte da parte a√©rea das plantas a 0,02m acima da superf√≠cie da areia, para determinar a mat√©ria seca e fresca. A maior produtividade foi obtida com a solu√ß√£o nutritiva contendo 16mmol L-1 de N total e 2,5mmol L-1 de NH4+.Chicory plants, cv. Amarela and P√£o de A√ß√ļcar, were hidroponically grown to determine growth and yield under five ammonium and nitrate N concentrations in the nutrient solution. Sowing was made in rows placed 0.05m apart, over a 0.15m deep sand growing bed supported by fibber cement tiles. After emergency, plants were thinned to a plant density of 1,600plants m-2. A standard nutrient solution was used, with the composition of, in mmol L-1, 11.0 de NO3-; 1.5 H2PO4-; 6.5 SO4-2; 7.5 Ca+2; 10.0 K+ and 1.5 Mg+2, and, in mg L-1, 0.42 Mn; 0.26 Zn; 0.05 Cu; 0.50 B; 0.04 Mo, and 4.82 chelated Fe. Treatments were total N

  14. Os reflexos da gest√£o pela qualidade total em institui√ß√Ķes hospitalares brasileiras Los reflejos de la gerencia para la calidad total en institutos hospitalares brasilenos The reflexes of the management for the total quality in brazilians hospitals institutes

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    Alexandre Pazetto Balsanelli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo consistiu em apresentar os resultados alcan√ßados pelos hospitais e servi√ßos de enfermagem na ado√ß√£o dessa filosofia gerencial. M√ČTODOS: Utilizou-se a revis√£o da literatura como procedimento metodol√≥gico. RESULTADOS: A an√°lise das experi√™ncias descritas permitiu concluir que a G. Q. T. propiciou um ganho com rela√ß√£o aos recursos humanos garantindo a satisfa√ß√£o do cliente interno no seu ambiente de trabalho. O paciente teve suas necessidades supridas, houve reconhecimento da sociedade e tamb√©m ocorreram melhorias nos indicadores de estat√≠stica hospitalar. CONSIDERA√á√ēES FINAIS: A agrega√ß√£o de valores baseados na consci√™ncia do conhecimento de sistemas, em estudos de cen√°rios e na aprendizagem cont√≠nua tornou-se o elemento diferenciador destas organiza√ß√Ķes.OBJETIVO: El objetivo del actual estudio consisti√≥ en levantar los resultados para los hospitales y los trabajos del cuidado en la adopci√≥n gerencial de la filosof√≠a. M√ČTODO: La revisi√≥n de la literatura hab√≠a sido utilizada como procedimiento de la metodolog√≠a. RESULTADOS: El an√°lisis de las experiencias descritas permiti√≥ para concluir que el G. Q. T. propitiated un beneficio en relaci√≥n a las caracter√≠sticas humanas que garantizaban la satisfacci√≥n del cliente interno en su ambiente del trabajo. El paciente hizo sus necesidades proveer, hab√≠a reconocimiento de la sociedad y hab√≠a tambi√©n mejora en los indicadores de la estad√≠stica de hospital. CONSIDERACIONES FINALES: La agregaci√≥n de valores con base en la conciencia de los sistemas, en estudios de escenarios y el aprendizaje continuo se torn√≥ el elemento diferenciador de estas organizaciones.OBJECTIVE: The present study objective consisted in raising the results for the hospitals and jobs of nursing in the managemental philosophy adoption. METHODS: The literature review had been used as methodology procedure. RESULTS: The analysis of the described experiences

  15. Fixa√ß√£o de enxerto cut√Ęneo em malha de espessura total com sutura ou cola de fibrina Fixation of full-thickness mesh skin using suture or fibrin glue

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    M.S.P. Amaral

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influ√™ncia da cola de fibrina, derivada do veneno de serpente, na fixa√ß√£o e integra√ß√£o de enxerto de pele. Foram utilizados nove c√£es, sem ra√ßa definida, com peso m√©dio de 15kg. Foi induzida ferida de 4√ó4cm de √°rea, na face cr√Ęnio-proximal dos antebra√ßos direito e esquerdo. Um enxerto de espessura total foi colhido da regi√£o tor√°cica e expandido por meio de expansor de pele. No membro direito o enxerto foi estabilizado no leito receptor por meio de pontos isolados simples; no esquerdo foi fixado pela aplica√ß√£o de cola de fibrina e oito pontos de sutura. O s√≠tio doador foi fechado empregando-se retalho cut√Ęneo bipediculado. As bandagens do leito receptor foram oclusivas e n√£o aderentes e aplicou-se pomada de neomicina com bacitracina. A troca de bandagens ocorreu diariamente at√© o s√©timo dia de p√≥s-operat√≥rio e, posteriormente, a cada tr√™s dias. A √°rea de sobreviv√™ncia do enxerto foi obtida pela subtra√ß√£o das √°reas n√£o vi√°veis e total medidas com fotomicrosc√≥pio Nikon conectado a um sistema de an√°lise de imagem KS-300 aos tr√™s, sete, 15 e 30 dias de p√≥s-operat√≥rio. Para a avalia√ß√£o microsc√≥pica, a √°rea do enxerto foi colhida em tr√™s animais aos sete, 15 e 30 dias de p√≥s-operat√≥rio. N√£o houve diferen√ßa entre momentos de avalia√ß√£o e t√©cnicas de fixa√ß√£o quanto √† √°rea de enxerto vi√°vel. Os enxertos fixados com cola apresentaram est√°gio de repara√ß√£o mais avan√ßado em todos os momentos. Concluiu-se que a cola de fibrina derivada do veneno de serpente tem moderado poder adesivo e, pela an√°lise microsc√≥pica, favorece a integra√ß√£o do enxerto cut√Ęneo em malha de espessura total.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of fibrin glue, derived from snake venom, on fixation and integration of skin graft. Nine crossbred dogs, with average weight of 15kg were used. Wounds measuring 4√ó4 cm were induced at the cranioproximal aspect of the right and left forelimb. Full

  16. Proposta do uso de pool de sangue total como controle interno de qualidade em hematologia Proposal for the use of a pool of whole blood as internal quality control in hematology

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    Carina Daniele Schons

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODU√á√ÉO: A confiabilidade dos resultados do laborat√≥rio √© garantida pela realiza√ß√£o do controle de qualidade, que tem como fun√ß√Ķes b√°sicas an√°lise, pesquisa e preven√ß√£o da ocorr√™ncia de erros laboratoriais por meio de programas que abrangem tanto o controle interno quanto o externo. OBJETIVO: Propor a padroniza√ß√£o de utiliza√ß√£o de pool de sangue total como controle interno de qualidade no setor de hematologia. M√ČTODO: Foram selecionadas amostras de sangue total, colhidas com √°cido etilenodiaminotetrac√©tico (EDTA, de mesmos grupo sangu√≠neo e fator Rh, livres de interferentes, como hem√≥lise, lipemia e icter√≠cia. De um total de 30 ml de sangue total, obtiveram-se tr√™s al√≠quotas de 10 ml cada, √†s quais foram adicionados, respectivamente, 0 ml (sem adi√ß√£o, 1 ml e 5 ml de glicerol (conservante. As amostras foram avaliadas em contador autom√°tico ADVIA¬ģ 60. Ap√≥s determina√ß√£o dos valores de m√©dia e DP, todas as amostras foram avaliadas por um per√≠odo de 45 dias √ļteis para confec√ß√£o do gr√°fico de Levey-Jennings e verifica√ß√£o da estabilidade da amostra. RESULTADO E CONCLUS√ÉO: Podemos verificar que o pool de sangue total, preparado de acordo com a metodologia proposta, n√£o apresenta estabilidade necess√°ria para sua utiliza√ß√£o, como controle interno alternativo no setor de hematologia.INTRODUCTION: The reliability of laboratory results is ensured by the implementation of quality control, which has basic functions, such as analysis, research and prevention of laboratory errors through programs that encompass both internal and external control. OBJECTIVE: To propose a standard method to use pooled whole blood as internal quality control in the Hematology division. METHOD: The selected whole blood samples were collected with EDTA, belonged to the same blood group and Rh factor and did not present interfering factors, such as hemolysis, lipemia and icterus. From a total of 30 ml of whole blood it was obtained 3

  17. O BERA como instrumento de avaliação funcional do tronco cerebral em cirurgias com hipotermia profunda e parada circulatória total The ABR as a tool in the evaluation of brainstem function in surgeries with deep hypothermia and total cardiac arrest

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    Luiz Carlos Alves de Sousa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Monitoramento do tronco cerebral atrav√©s da an√°lise dos tra√ßados do BERA em cirurgia card√≠aca com hipotermia profunda e parada circulat√≥ria total (PCT, registrando a recupera√ß√£o funcional (eletrofisiol√≥gica do tronco cerebral. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte Longitudinal. MATERIAL E M√ČTODO: Foram estudados o comportamento do tra√ßado do BERA de 8 pacientes submetidos a cirurgia card√≠aca com hipotermia profunda e PCT para corre√ß√£o de aneurisma de aorta tor√°cica. Etapas: resfriamento corporal at√© 18¬ļC C; PCT por at√© 60 minutos; reaquecimento. Registros do BERA: 35¬ļC, 32¬ļC, 26¬ļC, 18¬ļC, 27¬ļC, 35¬ļC. RESULTADOS: Os tra√ßados iniciais (35¬ļC se apresentavam normais. Aos 26¬ļC h√° o desaparecimento de todas as ondas. Aos 18¬ļC o tra√ßado do BERA mostrava um padr√£o isoel√©trico. Aos 27¬ļC, recupera√ß√£o das ondas I, III e V. A partir de 35¬ļC as lat√™ncias das ondas retornam ao normal. CONCLUS√ÉO: O BERA constitui-se em competente instrumento de monitoramento da integridade funcional do tronco cerebral em cirurgia card√≠aca com hipotermia profunda e PCT. As ondas desaparecem no per√≠odo de resfriamento corporal, atingem um padr√£o isoel√©trico a 18¬ļC, e reaparecem durante o reaquecimento. No final do procedimento, os m√©dicos anestesistas n√£o disp√Ķem de exame cl√≠nico fidedigno para acessar a integridade funcional do tronco cerebral, devido ao uso de drogas depressoras do SNC. O reaparecimento das ondas do BERA √© o par√Ęmetro proposto para este fim. A manuten√ß√£o do padr√£o isoel√©trico ap√≥s o reaquecimento corporal sugere grave comprometimento funcional do tronco cerebral.AIM: The authors propose the use of ABR as an instrument for the detection of brainstem dysfunction in the trans- and post-operatory period of surgeries with total circulatory arrest (TCA and deep hypothermia for correction of aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal Cohort. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Eight adult patients that underwent

  18. TOTAL CHOLESTEROL, HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (HDL AND CORTISOL PLASMA LEVELS, AND THEIR BIORHYTMICITY, IN 24 HOURS, THROUGHOUT YEAR, IN IDEAL-POLWARTH RAMS N√ćVEIS PLASM√ĀTICOS DE COLESTEROL TOTAL, LIPOPROTE√ćNAS DE ALTA DENSIDADE (HDL E CORTISOL, E SUA BIORRITMICIDADE, EM CARNEIROS IDEAL-POLWARTH

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    Alcides de Amorim Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the mean plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoproteins (HDL and cortisol, blood samples were collected of five Ideal-Polwarth rams, maintained at 22?53‚ÄôS latitude, in semi-confinement, every two months throughout the year, by 24h period, with 2-hour intervals between colects. The TC, changed 40.70?1,11mg/dL (April and 61.48?1,11mg/dL (December, between months, while HDL changed 22.16?0.23mg/dL (December as 33.40?0.23mg/dL (February, but not make evident a circannual rhythm in this levels. The TC presented the lowest value at 16:30h (50.40?1.57mg/dL and the highest value at 8:30h collect (54.67?1.57mg/dL; the HDL lowest level was at 10:30h (27.04?0.33mg/dL and the highest level also at 8:30h collect (28.49?0.33mg/dL, however without permit circadian rhythm determination in your plasma concentrations. Similarly, the cortisol plasma concentrations, between collect months, presents variable, however without demonstrate circadian rhythm in this hormone secretion. In relation to different collection‚Äôs moments, throughout months, it wasn‚Äôt possible to define, by statistical analysis, a circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion. KEY WORDS: Ovine, adrenal hormone, biochemistry metabolites, circadian rhythm. Visando avaliar as concentra√ß√Ķes m√©dias de colesterol total (CT, lipoprote√≠nas de alta densidade (HDL e cortisol plasm√°ticos, foram colhidas amostras de sangue de cinco carneiros Ideal-Polwarth, alocados em latitude 22¬į53‚ÄôS, em regime de semiconfinamento, a cada dois meses, ao longo de um ano, com as colheitas em um per√≠odo de 24 horas, e intervalos de duas horas entre elas. O CT oscilou entre 40,70¬Ī1,11mg/dL (abril e 61,48¬Ī1,11mg/dL (dezembro, entre os meses, enquanto HDL variou de 22,16¬Ī0,23mg/dL (dezembro a 33,40¬Ī0,23mg/dL (fevereiro, mas n√£o evidenciando um ritmo circanual em seus n√≠veis. O CT apresentou seu valor m√≠nimo na colheita das 16h30min (50,40¬Ī1,57mg/dL e o m√°ximo √†s 8h30min

  19. COMPONENTES DA PARTE A√ČREA E RA√ćZES DE PASTAGENS DE Brachiaria spp. EM DIFERENTES IDADES AP√ďS A REFORMA, COMO INDICADORES DE PRODUTIVIDADE EM AMBIENTE DE CERRADO ABOVEGROUND AND TOTAL ROOT BIOMASS COMPONENTS OF Brachiaria PASTURES IN DIFFERENT AGES AFTER RENOVATION AS A PRODUCTION INDICATOR UNDER SAVANNA VEGETATION

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    Robert Michel Boddey

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a produ√ß√£o de componentes da parte a√©rea e ra√≠zes totais em pastagens de Brachiaria de diferentes idades ap√≥s a reforma, em ecossistema de cerrado. Tr√™s pastagens eram de Brachiaria brizantha ap√≥s um, sete e nove anos da reforma pelo sistema Barreir√£o, e outra de Brachiaria decumbens, ap√≥s vinte anos de reforma pelo sistema convencional. As √°reas estudadas localizam-se em Goi√Ęnia-GO (16¬ļ35'12"S, 49¬ļ21'14"W, 730 m. Observou-se que a pastagem mais nova apresentou uma taxa 197% superior, em produtividade, relativamente √† pastagem com vinte anos. Com o aumento da idade das pastagens, houve decr√©scimo de produ√ß√£o e nas taxas de rebrota em decorr√™ncia do processo de degrada√ß√£o, o que foi atribu√≠do ao manejo inadequado ao longo do tempo. Tal fato foi evidenciado pelo desenvolvimento do sistema radicular, pois a produtividade total de ra√≠zes at√© 100 cm de profundidade apresentou n√≠veis de redu√ß√£o na ordem de 9,14 Mg ha-1, 4,87 Mg ha-1 e 2,90 Mg ha-1 para as pastagens de sete, nove e vinte anos, respectivamente. Na pastagem com um ano, ainda em fase de estabelecimento, n√£o se observou grande contribui√ß√£o radicular. A rebrota da pastagem foi dependente da disponibilidade de N no sistema; por isso, a produ√ß√£o de liteira mostrou ser indicadora do grau de degrada√ß√£o das pastagens, refletindo na ciclagem de N. O estoque de N at√© 100 cm de profundidade, das pastagens com um, sete e vinte anos foram de 7,54 Mg ha-1, 8,70 Mg ha-1 e 9,47 Mg ha-1, respectivamente, sendo muito inferiores ao encontrado na pastagem com nove anos da reforma (14,2 Mg ha-1.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Braquiária; pastagem; raízes; liteira.

    This study aimed to evaluate the production components of aboveground and total root stock biomass of Brachiaria

  20. Correlação entre a densidade mineral óssea e níveis séricos de cálcio, fósforo e fosfatase alcalina total em gatos após tirotoxicose experimental

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    Fabiano Séllos Costa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O hipertiroidismo √© caracterizado por concentra√ß√Ķes s√©ricas excessivas dos horm√īnios tiroidianos, podendo causar efeitos sobre o tecido √≥sseo em humanos e animais. Para melhor caracteriza√ß√£o dos efeitos da tirotoxicose no metabolismo √≥sseo, 16 gatos foram induzidos ao estado hipertiroideo. Os resultados demonstraram que, em alguns momentos experimentais, uma maior desmineraliza√ß√£o √≥ssea da extremidade distal do r√°dio promoveu eleva√ß√£o dos n√≠veis s√©ricos de f√≥sforo e fosfatase alcalina total.

  1. A valoriza√ß√£o total do espa√ßo: capitalismo e geografia em Civilisation Mat√©rielle, √Čconomie et capitalisme - XV-XVIII

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    Guilherme Ribeiro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo √© analisar a rela√ß√£o entre espa√ßo e economia em Civilisation Mat√©rielle, √Čconomie et Capitalisme - XV-XVIII (1979 do historiador franc√™s Fernand Braudel (1902-1985. A partir do conceito de economia-mundo, podemos observar o papel crucial do espa√ßo em sua original interpreta√ß√£o sobre o desenvolvimento do capitalismo.

  2. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  3. Activity-Guided Isolation of Antioxidant Compounds from <em>Rhizophora apiculataem>

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    Hongbin Xiao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available <em>Rhizophora apiculataem> (<em>R. apiculataem> contains an abundance of biologically active compounds due its special salt-tolerant living surroundings. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of various extract and fractions of stem of <em>R. apiculataem> were investigated. Results indicated that butanol fraction possesses the highest total phenolic content (181.84 mg/g GAE/g dry extract with strongest antioxidant abilities. Following <em>in vitroem> antioxidant activity-guided phytochemical separation procedures, lyoniresinol-3őĪ-<em>O>-ő≤-arabinopyranoside (1, lyoniresinol-3őĪ-<em>O>-ő≤-rhamnoside (2, and afzelechin-3-<em>O>-L-rhamno-pyranoside (3 were separated from the butanol fraction. These compounds showed more noticeable antioxidant activity than a BHT standard in the DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. HPLC analysis results showed that among different plant parts, the highest content of 1‚Äď3 was located in the bark (0.068%, 0.066% and 0.011%, respectively. The results imply that the <em>R. apiculataem> might be a potential source of natural antioxidants and 1‚Äď3 are antioxidant ingredients in <em>R. apiculataem>.

  4. Anestesia venosa total (AVT em lactente com doença de Werdnig-Hoffmann: relato de caso Anestesia general intravenosa (AVT en lactante con enfermedad de Werdnig-Hoffmann: relato de caso Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA in an infant with Werdnig-Hoffmann disease: case report

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    Marco Antonio Cardoso de Resende

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A doen√ßa de Werdnig-Hoffmann √© a causa mais comum de hipotonia no lactente e quando presente logo ap√≥s o nascimento tem pior progn√≥stico. Fraqueza muscular sim√©trica, arreflexia e fascicula√ß√Ķes da l√≠ngua s√£o caracter√≠sticos. A maioria dos lactentes morre antes dos dois anos por insufici√™ncia respirat√≥ria. O presente relato apresenta um caso com t√©cnica venosa total durante anestesia. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente feminina, branca, um ano, 10 kg, estado f√≠sico ASA III, com doen√ßa de Werdnig-Hoffmann diagnosticada desde os dois meses de idade. Candidata √† gastrostomia e fundogastroplicatura na t√©cnica aberta e traqueostomia. Monitoriza√ß√£o com cardiosc√≥pio, press√£o arterial n√£o invasiva, ox√≠metro de pulso, estetosc√≥pio precordial e temperatura retal ap√≥s ven√≥clise. Foi pr√©oxigenada e ap√≥s bolus de atropina (0,3 mg foi realizada indu√ß√£o anest√©sica com remifentanil bolus (20 ¬Ķg e propofol (30 mg. Ap√≥s intuba√ß√£o traqueal foi ventilada de forma controlada manual, em sistema sem absorvedor de CO2, Baraka (sistema Mapleson D, FGF de 4 L.min-1, FiO2 0,5 (0(2/N(20. Mantida sob anestesia com propofol 250 ¬Ķg.kg-1.min-1 e remifentanil 0,3 ¬Ķg.kg-1.min-1 em infus√£o cont√≠nua manual. O tempo cir√ļrgico foi de 150 minutos. O despertar ocorreu 8 minutos ap√≥s o t√©rmino da infus√£o, com ventila√ß√£o espont√Ęnea. Duas horas depois foi transferida para unidade pedi√°trica e recebeu alta hospitalar no 4¬ļ dia de p√≥s-operat√≥rio. CONCLUS√ēES: A escolha da t√©cnica anest√©sica prioriza a seguran√ßa que adv√©m da familiaridade do manuseio dos f√°rmacos existentes. Em crian√ßas com doen√ßas neuromusculares, a anestesia venosa total com remifentanil e propofol em sistemas de infus√£o, pela dura√ß√£o de a√ß√£o extremamente curta, pode influenciar a evolu√ß√£o da doen√ßa favoravelmente.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La enfermedad de Werdnig-Hoffmann es la causa m√°s com√ļn de hipoton√≠a en el lactante y cuando est

  5. Astronomy Teaching and Teachers Continuing Education: the Interdisciplinarity during a Total Lunar Eclipse. (Spanish Title: Ense√Īanza de la Astronom√≠a y la Formaci√≥n Continua de Profesores: la Interdisciplinariedad Durante un Eclipse Total de Luna.) Educa√ß√£o EM Astronomia E Forma√ß√£o Continuada de Professores: a Interdisciplinaridade Durante um Eclipse Lunar TOTAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhi, Rodolfo

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes how 67 teachers from 23 cities, could awaken, in students, the scientific interest, using a natural astronomical phenomenon: a total lunar eclipse. Before and after of eclipse, meetings for continuing education were characterized by interdisciplinarity of astronomy and the importance of these observations. Working groups were formed by teachers and students, who organized the survey data, mobilizing the people in their cities. The results point ways about how to provide the scientific culture and the motivation to learn science in students, using approaches between the following communities: scientific, amateur and school. En este art√≠culo se describe c√≥mo 67 profesores de 23 ciudades, despert√≥ el inter√©s cient√≠fico en los estudiantes mediante un fen√≥meno astron√≥mico: un eclipse total de Luna. Antes y despu√©s del eclipse, reuniones para la formaci√≥n continua se centraron en la interdisciplinariedad de la astronom√≠a, y la importancia de las observaciones de este tipo de fen√≥meno. Profesores y estudiantes formaron grupos de trabajo para investigar datos durante el eclipse, con el participaci√≥n de la comunidad en sus ciudades. Los resultados apuntan a las opciones que conducen a la cultura cient√≠fica y la motivaci√≥n para aprender la ciencia, utilizando las relaciones de los siguientes grupos: cient√≠ficos, aficionados y la escuela. Este texto relata como 67 professores, provenientes de 23 cidades, puderam despertar, nos alunos, o interesse cient√≠fico utilizando um fen√īmeno natural astron√īmico: um eclipse lunar total. O evento foi precedido e procedido por encontros de forma√ß√£o continuada, onde se caracterizou a interdisciplinaridade da astronomia e a import√Ęncia das observa√ß√Ķes de fen√īmenos como estes. Grupos de trabalho foram formados por professores e alunos, que se organizaram para o levantamento conjunto de dados durante o fen√īmeno, al√©m do envolvimento da comunidade em suas respectivas cidades. Os resultados apontam

  6. Total synthesis of insect antifeedant drimane sesquiterpenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The investigations described in this thesis deal with the total synthesis of sesquiterpenes of the drimane family, named for their widespread occurrence in the stem bark of South American <em>Drimys> species. These compounds contain the bicyclofarnesol nucleus

  7. C-org√Ęnico, N-total e subst√Ęncias h√ļmicas sob influ√™ncia da introdu√ß√£o de pastagens (Brachiaria sp. em √°reas de cerrado e floresta amaz√īnica

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    R. M. Longo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da interven√ß√£o humana na remo√ß√£o da cobertura original e seu posterior uso agr√≠cola, pela introdu√ß√£o de pastagem (Brachiaria sp na regi√£o do cerrado (Senador Canedo-GO, junto √† Empresa Goiana de Pesquisa Agropecu√°ria (EMGOPA, e da floresta amaz√īnica (Porto Velho-RO, junto √† Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecu√°ria (EMBRAPA, tendo como atributos principais de an√°lises modifica√ß√Ķes nos teores de nitrog√™nio total, carbono org√Ęnico, rela√ß√£o C/N e fra√ß√Ķes de √°cidos f√ļlvicos, √°cidos h√ļmicos e humina. As amostras foram coletadas em setembro de 1995, em Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo argiloso, ao longo de uma transe√ß√£o que continha 24 pontos: 12 sob vegeta√ß√£o natural e 12 sob pastagem plantada, em duas profundidades, em ambos os ecossistemas. Os resultados permitiram observar uma diminui√ß√£o nas concentra√ß√Ķes de √°cido f√ļlvico e humina e nos teores de N-total e C-org√Ęnico na mudan√ßa da condi√ß√£o de vegeta√ß√£o natural para pastagem; os maiores valores foram encontrados no horizonte Ao, principalmente no solo sob floresta amaz√īnica, revelando uma queda brusca deste para o subjacente, evidenciando o efeito do tipo da cobertura vegetal sobre o teor e sobre a distribui√ß√£o dos componentes org√Ęnicos em solos tropicais.

  8. Caracterización del riesgo familiar total en familias con adultos mayores con discapacidad, Patio Bonito, Localidad Kennedy, Bogotá, 20051 Characterization of total family risk in families with disabled elder adults, Patio Bonito, Kennedy District, Bogotá, 2005 Caracterização do risco familiar total em famílias com idosos deficientes, Patio Bonito, Localidade Kennedy, Bogotá, 2005

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    VEL√ĀSQUEZ GUTI√ČRREZ VILMA FLORISA

    2009-07-01

    family structure (0,46, health services and health practices (0,43, lifestyle and family morbidity (0,42, health services and psycho-affective environment (0,42, lifestyle and psycho-affective environment (0,40. In conclusion, the biological, social and environmental risk factors interact, showing a high vulnerability level in poor families with disabled elder adults that require improvement in access to and in intervention from health and social services and support networks, providing integrated care, with intersectorial, inter-institutional and with a family approach. The commitment of families, community, institutions and health professionals is necessary, who should work jointly to improve the quality of life of the most vulnerable people and their families.Esse artigo apresenta os resultados do estudo dirigido a caracterizar o risco familiar total em fam√≠lias de idosos com defici√™ncias, por meio de um estudo descritivo com abordagem quantitativa. A amostra foi de 73 fam√≠lias e utilizou-se um instrumento RFT 7-70 (1. Os resultados evidenciam o predom√≠nio de fam√≠lias com risco alto (52,8% e meio (34,7%, alta correla√ß√£o entre as subcategorias: servi√ßos de sa√ļde e ambiente socioecon√īmico (0,50, pr√°ticas de sa√ļde e estilos de vida (0,49, pr√°ticas de sa√ļde e morbidade (0,46, ambiente psico-afetivo e composi√ß√£o familiar (0,46, servi√ßos de sa√ļde e pr√°ticas de sa√ļde (0,43, estilo de vida e morbidade familiar (0,42, servi√ßos de sa√ļde e ambiente psico-afetivo (0,40. Em conclus√£o, os fatores de risco biol√≥gicos, sociais e meio-ambientais interagem e mostram uma alta vulnerabilidade nas fam√≠lias pobres de idosos deficientes que precisam de maior acessibilidade e interven√ß√£o dos servi√ßos m√©dicos, sociais e de redes de ap√≥io, oferecendo aten√ß√£o integrada, com abordagem intersectorial, interinstitucional e familiar. O compromisso das fam√≠lias, a comunidade, as institui√ß√Ķes e os profissionais de sa√ļde √© necess√°rio para

  9. Caracterización del riesgo familiar total en familias con adultos mayores con discapacidad, Patio Bonito, Localidad Kennedy, Bogotá, 2005 Caracterização do risco familiar total em famílias com idosos deficientes, Patio Bonito, Localidade Kennedy, Bogotá, 2005 Characterization of total family risk in families with disabled elder adults, Patio Bonito, Kennedy District, Bogotá, 2005

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    VILMA FLORISA VEL√ĀSQUEZ GUTI√ČRREZ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este art√≠culo presenta los resultados del estudio cuyo objetivo fue caracterizar el riesgo familiar total en familias de adultos mayores con discapacidad, mediante un estudio descriptivo con abordaje cuantitativo, la muestra fue de 72 familias y se utiliz√≥ el instrumento RFT 7-70 (1. Los resultados muestran predominio de familias con riesgo alto (52,8% y medio (34,7%, alta correlaci√≥n entre las subcategor√≠as: servicios de salud y ambiente socioecon√≥mico (0,50, pr√°cticas de salud y estilos de vida (0,49, pr√°cticas de salud y morbilidad (0,46, ambiente sicoafectivo y composci√≥n familiar (0,46, servicios de salud y pr√°cticas de salud (0,43, estilo de vida y morbilidad familiar (0,42, servicios de salud y ambiente psicoafectivo (0,42, estilo de vida y ambiente psicoafectivo (0,40. En conclusi√≥n, los factores de riesgo biol√≥gicos, sociales y del medio ambiente interact√ļan, mostrando alta vulnerabilidad en las familias pobres de adultos mayores con discapacidad, que requieren mejorar la accesibilidad e intervenci√≥n de los servicios de salud, sociales y redes de apoyo, brindando atenci√≥n integrada, con enfoque intersectorial, interinstitucional y familiar. Es necesario el compromiso de las familias, la comunidad, las instituciones y los profesionales de salud, que trabajen mancomunadamente en pro de mejorar la calidad de vida de las personas y familias m√°s vulnerables.Esse artigo apresenta os resultados do estudo dirigido a caracterizar o risco familiar total em fam√≠lias de idosos com defici√™ncias, por meio de um estudo descritivo com abordagem quantitativa. A amostra foi de 73 fam√≠lias e utilizou-se um instrumento RFT 7-70 (1. Os resultados evidenciam o predom√≠nio de fam√≠lias com risco alto (52,8% e meio (34,7%, alta correla√ß√£o entre as subcategorias: servi√ßos de sa√ļde e ambiente socioecon√īmico (0,50, pr√°ticas de sa√ļde e estilos de vida (0,49, pr√°ticas de sa√ļde e morbidade (0,46, ambiente psico-afetivo e composi

  10. Tensile bond strength of self-etching versus total-etching adhesive systems under different dentinal substrate conditions Resist√™ncia de uni√£o √† tra√ß√£o de sistemas adesivos autocondicionantes versus de condicionamento total, em diferentes condi√ß√Ķes de substrato dentin√°rio

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    Alexandre Henrique Susin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of acid etchants to produce surface demineralization and collagen network exposure, allowing adhesive monomers interdiffusion and consequently the formation of a hybrid layer, has been considered the most efficient mechanism of dentin bonding. The aim of this study was to compare the tensile bond strength to dentin of three adhesive systems, two self-etching ones (Clearfil SE Bond - CSEB and One Up Bond F - OUBF and one total-etching one (Single Bond - SB, under three dentinal substrate conditions (wet, dry and re-wet. Ninety human, freshly extracted third molars were sectioned at the occlusal surface to remove enamel and to form a flat dentin wall. The specimens were restored with composite resin (Filtek Z250 and submitted to tensile bond strength testing (TBS in an MTS 810. The data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p = 0.05. Wet dentin presented the highest TBS values for SB and CSEB. Dry dentin and re-wet produced significantly lower TBS values when using SB. OUBF was not affected by the different conditions of the dentin substrate, producing similar TBS values regardless of the surface pretreatments.O uso de condicionadores √°cidos para desmineralizar a superf√≠cie dental e expor a rede de fibras col√°genas para interdifus√£o dos mon√īmeros adesivos e conseq√ľente forma√ß√£o da camada h√≠brida tem sido considerado o mais eficiente mecanismo de ades√£o dos agentes de uni√£o. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a resist√™ncia de uni√£o √† dentina de tr√™s sistemas adesivos, dois autocondicionantes (Clearfil SE Bond - CSEB e One Up Bond F - OUBF e um de condicionamento total (Single Bond - SB, sob tr√™s diferentes condi√ß√Ķes de substrato dentin√°rio (√ļmido, seco e reidratado. Noventa terceiros molares humanos rec√©m-extra√≠dos foram cortados na superf√≠cie oclusal, para se remover o esmalte e formar uma parede plana de dentina. Os esp√©cimes foram restaurados com resina composta (Filtek Z250 e submetidos ao teste de

  11. Total Thyroidectomy

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    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  12. Rapid Development of Microsatellite Markers with 454 Pyrosequencing in a Vulnerable Fish<em>,> the Mottled Skate<em>, Raja em>pulchra>

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    Jung-Ha Kang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The mottled skate, <em>Raja pulchraem>, is an economically valuable fish. However, due to a severe population decline, it is listed as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. To analyze its genetic structure and diversity, microsatellite markers were developed using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 17,033 reads containing dinucleotide microsatellite repeat units (mean, 487 base pairs were identified from 453,549 reads. Among 32 loci containing more than nine repeat units, 20 primer sets (62% produced strong PCR products, of which 14 were polymorphic. In an analysis of 60 individuals from two <em>R. pulchra em>populations, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 1‚Äď10, and the mean allelic richness was 4.7. No linkage disequilibrium was found between any pair of loci, indicating that the markers were independent. The Hardy‚ÄďWeinberg equilibrium test showed significant deviation in two of the 28 single-loci after sequential Bonferroni‚Äôs correction. Using 11 primer sets, cross-species amplification was demonstrated in nine related species from four families within two classes. Among the 11 loci amplified from three other <em>Rajidae> family species; three loci were polymorphic. A monomorphic locus was amplified in all three <em>Rajidae> family species and the <em>Dasyatidae> family. Two <em>Rajidae> polymorphic loci amplified monomorphic target DNAs in four species belonging to the Carcharhiniformes class, and another was polymorphic in two Carcharhiniformes species.

  13. beta-caroteno, ácido ascórbico e antocianinas totais em polpa de frutos de aceroleira conservada por congelamento durante 12 meses beta-carotene, ascorbic acid and total antocyanins in fruit pulp of the acerola tree conserved by the cold for 12 months

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    Paolo Germanno Lima de Ara√ļjo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar as altera√ß√Ķes de b-caroteno, √°cido asc√≥rbico e antocianinas totais na polpa de frutos de clones de aceroleira conservada por congelamento. Os frutos dos clones BRS 152 (Sertaneja BRS 235 (Apodi, BRS 236 (Cereja, BRS 237 (Roxinha, BRS 238 (Frutacor e II 47/1 foram colhidos no est√°dio de matura√ß√£o comercial (vermelho maduro em Limoeiro do Norte, Cear√°, Brasil, transportados para a Planta Piloto de Processamento de Frutos da Embrapa Agroind√ļstria Tropical, despolpados, acondicionada a polpa em sacos de polietileno (100 g, congelada, mantida em freezer a -20 ¬įC, e avaliada a cada 30 dias durante 12 meses. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 6 x 13 (clones x tempo, com 3 repeti√ß√Ķes. A concentra√ß√£o de beta-caroteno foi est√°vel no clone Cereja, enquanto, nos demais, houve decr√©scimo durante todo o per√≠odo do experimento. Houve pequeno decr√©scimo no teor de √°cido asc√≥rbico em todos os clones estudados durante o armazenamento, provavelmente devido √† alta acidez da polpa, que auxilia na manuten√ß√£o deste nutriente. O teor de antocianinas totais foi est√°vel nos clones Frutacor e Sertaneja, enquanto nos demais houve diminui√ß√£o. O clone II 47/1 foi dentre os estudados o que apresentou maiores teores de √°cido asc√≥rbico e antocianinas totais, mantendo estas caracter√≠sticas durante todo o armazenamento. De um modo geral, os clones em que se determinou menor teor de beta-caroteno foram observadas as mais elevadas concentra√ß√Ķes de antocianinas totais.The objective of the work was to evaluate b-carotene, ascorbic acid and total anthocyanins alterations in fruit pulp of acerola tree clones conserved by the cold. The fruit clones BRS 152 (Sertaneja, BRS 235 (Apodi, BRS 236 (Cereja, BRS 237 (Roxinha, BRS 238 (Frutacor and II 47/1 were harvested in a commercial maturation stage (ripe red in Limoeiro do Norte, Cear√°, Brasil, carried to Planta Piloto de

  14. Substituição Parcial do Farelo de Soja pela Farinha de Vísceras de Aves em Dietas Balanceadas com Base na Proteína e em Aminoácidos Totais ou Digestíveis para Frangos de Corte Partial Substitution of Soybean Meal by Poultry Offal Meal in Diets Balanced According to Protein and Total or Digestible Amino Acids for Broilers

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    C Bellaver

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A formula√ß√£o com base no conceito de prote√≠na ideal (PI √© mais eficiente quando s√£o usados ingredientes alternativos ao milho (M e ao farelo de soja (FS. Assim, o objetivo desse trabalho foi comparar formula√ß√Ķes de dietas utilizando o conceito de PI, usando farinha de v√≠sceras (FV em substitui√ß√£o ao FS, em dietas de frangos de corte. Os tratamentos foram os seguintes: T1 = dieta com 22 % e 20% de prote√≠na bruta (PB nas fases inicial (FI e de crescimento (FC e 3200 kcal/kg de EM durante todo experimento; T2 = energia semelhante a dieta T1 e PI √† base de M e FS (1,15% de lisina digest√≠vel na FI e 0,90% de lisina digest√≠vel na FC; T3=dieta semelhante a T2, com 20 % e 25 % de substitui√ß√£o do FS por FV nas FI e FC, respectivamente; T4=dieta semelhante a T3, com 40 e 50 % de substitui√ß√£o do FS por FV, nas FI e FC, respectivamente; T5=dieta semelhante a T4, por√©m com balan√ßo por amino√°cidos (AA totais (1,10 e 1,00 % de lisina total nas FI e FC, respectivamente. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a formula√ß√£o com base na PI √© melhor do que aquela que considera a PB ou AA totais. A inclus√£o de 20 % FV na FI e 25 % na FC de frangos de corte, em substitui√ß√£o ao FS, melhorou o desempenho at√© os 21 dias e n√£o alterou o desempenho at√© os 42 dias em dietas formuladas dentro do conceito de prote√≠na ideal.Ideal protein (IP concept in feed formulation is more suitable when alternative ingredients to corn (C and soybean meal (SBM are used. Thus, the objective of this paper was to compare diets using IP concept and poultry offal meal (POM in substitution to SBM in broiler diets. The treatments were: T1= diets with 22% and 20 % crude protein (CP in starting phase (SP and growing phase (GP, respectively and 3200 kcal ME/kg all over the experiment; T2= similar energy to T1 and IP diet based on C and SBM (1.15% digestible lysine in SP and 0.90 % in GP; T3= similar diet to T2, with 20% and 25% of substitution of SBM by POM in SP and GP

  15. Assessment of the efficiency of SimPlate™ total plate count color indicator (TPC CI to quantify mesophilic aerobic microorganisms in pasteurized milk Avaliação da eficiência do SimPlate™ Total Plate Count Color Indicator (TPC CI para enumeração de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos em leite pasteurizado

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    Luís Augusto Nero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The SimPlate¬ô TPC CI system is a rapid method to count mesophilic aerobic microorganisms (MAM in foods, based on the use of resazurine to indicate bacterial growth. Its efficiency in pasteurized milk was evaluated using 142 pasteurized milk samples (38 type A, 43 type B and 61 type C collected in Londrina, PR. The standard plating method, using Plate Count Agar (PCA was used for comparison. The plates of both systems were incubated at 35¬ļC and read after 24h and 48h. The occurrence of false-positive and false-negative wells and the predominant microorganisms in them were also evaluated. The results were compared by simple correlation and mean variance analyses. The correlation (r and mean variance values were 0.6811 and 0.7583 for the results obtained after 24h, respectively, and 0.9126 and 0.0842 for the results obtained after 48h, respectively. These results indicate that the performance of the system increases when the plates are incubated for 48h. When the three types of milk were evaluated separately, these values were 0.9285 and 0.0817 for type A milk, 0.9231 and 0.0466 for type B milk and 0.7209 and 0.1082 for type C milk. These results indicate that the better the quality of the milk the better the performance of SimPlate¬ô TPC CI. False-negative wells, found more frequently in samples with high MAM counts, were caused by Gram positive microorganisms, poorly detected by the SimPlate¬ô TPC CI system because they grew slowly and had low reduction capacity. The results indicated a higher efficiency of the SimPlate¬ô TPC CI system in the reading at 48h.O sistema SimPlate¬ô TPC CI √© um m√©todo r√°pido para enumera√ß√£o de microrganismos aer√≥bios mes√≥filos (MAM em alimentos que utiliza a resazurina como subst√Ęncia indicadora de crescimento bacteriano. Para avaliar sua efici√™ncia em leite pasteurizado, 142 amostras (38 de leite tipo A, 43 de leite tipo B e 61 de leite tipo C foram colhidas em Londrina, PR, e analisadas pelo Sim

  16. Coorte Sarar: atividade de doença, capacidade funcional e dano radiológico em pacientes com artrite reumatoide submetidos à artroplastia total de quadril e joelho

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    Bernardo Matos da Cunha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOObjetivos:A coorte Sarar √© composta por pacientes portadores de artrite reumatoide (AR e artrite idiop√°tica juvenil (AIJ submetidos a artroplastias de quadril e joelho no hospital Sarah-Bras√≠lia. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar fatores cl√≠nicos e laboratoriais associados √† atividade de doen√ßa, capacidade funcional e dano radiol√≥gico em pacientes com AR, participantes dessa coorte.M√©todos:Estudo transversal, com coleta de dados em revis√£o de prontu√°rio.Resultados:Foram inclu√≠dos 32 pacientes, com tempo m√©dio de in√≠cio da doen√ßa de 240 meses. Dezenove pacientes foram submetidos a ATJ e 17, a ATQ. Foi encontrada correla√ß√£o positiva entre dose m√°xima de metotrexato (MTX durante a evolu√ß√£o e Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI (R = -0,46, p = 0,011 e negativa com Simplified Erosion and Narrowing Score (SENS (R = -0,58, p = 0,004. Valores de SENS foram maiores nos pacientes com fator reumatoide (FR (p = 0,005 e anticorpo antipept√≠deo c√≠clico citrulinado 3 (anti-CCP3 positivo (p = 0,044, nos com maiores t√≠tulos de FR (p = 0,037 e anti-CCP3 (p = 0,025 e menores nos pacientes com hist√≥ria familiar de AR (p = 0,009. Valores de HAQ foram maiores em pacientes mais idosos (p = 0,031. Na regress√£o linear m√ļltipla, somente ‚Äúdose m√°xima de MTX‚ÄĚ e ‚Äúhist√≥ria familiar‚ÄĚ permaneceram com associa√ß√£o significativa com SENS (r2= 0,73, p < 0,001 para ambas as vari√°veis. No modelo que avaliou CDAI, apenas ‚Äúdose m√°xima de MTX‚ÄĚ permaneceu com associa√ß√£o significativa (r2 = 0,35, p = 0,016.Conclus√£o:Na coorte Sarar, fatores cl√≠nicos e laboratoriais estiveram relacionados √† atividade de doen√ßa, capacidade funcional e dano radiol√≥gico, semelhantemente a estudos que avaliaram pacientes com menor tempo de doen√ßa.

  17. An√°lise da implanta√ß√£o da qualidade total em uma institui√ß√£o p√ļblica de educa√ß√£o /

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    Alberton, Luiz

    1999-01-01

    Disserta√ß√£o (Mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnol√≥gico. Este trabalho apresenta urn estudo sobre o processo de implanta√ß√£o da Qualidade, em uma Institui√ß√£o P√ļblica de Ensino, buscando descrever as a√ß√Ķes que foram sendo executadas durante tr√™s Gest√Ķes. Buscou-se comparar as a√ß√Ķes propostas nas tr√™s Gest√Ķes com as recomenda√ß√Ķes da revis√£o bibliogr√°fica e sua real execu√ß√£o para a internaliza√ß√£o de conceitos da qualidade no ambiente institucional. As informa√ß√Ķes e ...

  18. Avalia√ß√£o da perda de merc√ļrio total em peixe antes e ap√≥s os processos de fritura e coc√ß√£o Determination of mercury losses in fish after cooking

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    Aricelso Maia LIMAVERDE FILHO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A perda de merc√ļrio contido em m√ļsculo de peixes (Pira√≠ba, Brachyplatystoma ssp; Tra√≠ra, Hoplias malabaricus submetidos a dois distintos processos de cozimento foi investigada. Os resultados mostraram perdas variando entre 0 e 30% (base seca, indicando que a maior parte do merc√ļrio foi retida. Assim, tais processos n√£o protegem as popula√ß√Ķes, que deles se utilizam, contra a exposi√ß√£o por ingest√£o ao merc√ļrio originariamente contido na amostra "in natura".Mercury losses from flesh fish after two cooking process were investigated. Results showed losses ranging from 0 to 30% (dry weight basis. Such result indicates that fish consuming populations are not protected from mercury exposition by the studied cooking processes.

  19. Fatores associados aos sentimentos decorrentes da perda dentária total e às expectativas de reposição protética em adultos e idosos

    OpenAIRE

    Probst, Livia Fernandes; Ambrosano, Gl√°ucia Maria Bovi; Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Guerra, Luciane Miranda; Ribeiro-Dasilva, Margarete; Tomar, Scott; Ciar√Ęntola, Marina; Konkowski, Isadora Prata Soldi; Possobon, Rosana de F√°tima

    2016-01-01

    Resumo Introdução A perda dentária é considerada um evento grave na vida dos pacientes e pode levá-los à reclusão social. A reabilitação por meio de próteses pode contribuir para a melhora da autoimagem de edêntulos totais. Objetivo Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer os fatores associados aos sentimentos decorrentes da perda de dentes e às expectativas quanto à nova prótese. Métodos Estudo transversal analítico com 119 pacientes edêntulos totais (faixa etária entre 29 e 87 anos) em tr...

  20. REFLEX√ēES SOBRE O RECOLHIMENTO DE ADOLESCENTES COM DEFICI√äNCIA INTELECTUAL EM INSTITUI√á√ēES TOTAIS. REFLECTIONS ON THE GATHERING OF TEENAGERS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES IN TOTAL INSTITUTIONS

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    Eder da Silva Santana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O confinamento de pessoas com defici√™ncia intelectual em institui√ß√Ķes como os asilos, manic√īmios e pris√Ķes se revela uma pr√°tica muito antiga. Embora sejam not√≥rias as transforma√ß√Ķes sociais que v√™m ocorrendo, principalmente nas √ļltimas d√©cadas, em tempos atuais, constata-se que essa pr√°tica √© ainda uma realidade em nosso meio social, a exemplo dos institutos ‚Äúreeducativos‚ÄĚ para menores. A pessoa com defici√™ncia intelectual inserida nesses institutos pode vivenciar situa√ß√Ķes traum√°ticas, como viol√™ncias f√≠sicas, viol√™ncias sexuais e morais, que dificultam a sua reinser√ß√£o no conv√≠vio social. Tais eventos traum√°ticos podem ser potencializados com a viv√™ncia, com adolescentes infratores que cometeram ‚Äúdelitos‚ÄĚ graves, bem como pela eventual atua√ß√£o ou omiss√£o de profissionais que, ao inv√©s de proteg√™-los, negligenciam os cuidados, rotulando-os, tamb√©m n√£o colaborando para a sua reintegra√ß√£o. Havendo a ocorr√™ncia do ato infracional por uma pessoa com defici√™ncia intelectual, a atua√ß√£o de uma equipe t√©cnica capacitada para uma triagem quanto √† grada√ß√£o da defici√™ncia intelectual, da periculosidade do adolescente, e da gravidade do pr√≥prio ato infracional cometido, direcionando-o para institui√ß√Ķes espec√≠ficas, seriam condi√ß√Ķes essenciais para minimizar os poss√≠veis impactos traum√°ticos, contribuindo para torn√°-lo mais aut√īnomo, e com uma melhor autoestima em rela√ß√£o a sua defici√™ncia. The confinement of people with intellectual disabilities in institutions such as nursing homes, asylums and prisons reveals a very old practice. Although notorious social transformations have occurred over the last decades, in recent times it appears that this practice is still a reality in our social environment, such as "correctional" institutes for minors. The person with intellectual disabilities inserted in these institutes can experience traumatic situations, such as physical, sexual and moral

  1. Antioxidant Profile of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L.

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    Heidy Schwartsova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the antioxidant properties of five different extracts of <em>Trifolium pratenseem> L. (Leguminosae leaves, various assays which measure free radical scavenging ability were carried out: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide anion and nitric oxide radical scavenger capacity tests and lipid peroxidation assay. In all of the tests, only the H2O and (to some extent the EtOAc extracts showed a potent antioxidant effect compared with BHT and BHA, well-known synthetic antioxidants. In addition, <em>in vivo em>experiments were conducted with antioxidant systems (activities of GSHPx, GSHR, Px, CAT, XOD, GSH content and intensity of LPx in liver homogenate and blood of mice after their treatment with extracts of <em>T. pratenseem> leaves, or in combination with CCl4. Besides, in the extracts examined the total phenolic and flavonoid amounts were also determined, together with presence of the selected flavonoids: quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, naringenin and kaempferol, which were studied using a HPLC-DAD technique. HPLC-DAD analysis showed a noticeable content of natural products according to which the examined <em>Trifolium pratenseem> species could well be regarded as a promising new source of bioactive natural compounds, which can be used both as a food supplement and a remedy.

  2. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente total dos nutrientes e ganho de peso de bovinos de corte alimentados com silagem de Brachiaria brizantha e concentrado em diferentes propor√ß√Ķes Intake and apparent digestibility of the nutrients and weight gain of beef cattle fed diets with different proportions of Brachiaria brizantha silage and concentrate

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    Bruno Ceolin da Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e as digestibilidades aparentes totais dos nutrientes e o ganho de peso de bovinos de corte recebendo dietas contendo concentrado e silagem de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu nas seguintes propor√ß√Ķes: 20:80, 35:65, 50:50 e 65:35, com base na mat√©ria seca. Foram utilizados vinte e quatro animais castrados Holand√™s x Zebu, com peso vivo inicial m√©dio de 364 kg, distribu√≠dos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados. Por ocasi√£o da ensilagem, procedeu-se o tratamento do capim com o inoculante enzimo-bacteriano Nutroeste 50 t. Para o c√°lculo da mat√©ria seca fecal, utilizou-se a fibra em detergente √°cido indigest√≠vel (FDAI como indicador. Os animais foram alojados em baias individuais e alimentados ad libitum. O ensaio teve dura√ß√£o de 84 dias, divididos em tr√™s per√≠odos de 28 dias ap√≥s 15 dias de adapta√ß√£o. Os consumos m√©dios de mat√©ria seca (MS, mat√©ria org√Ęnica (MO, prote√≠na bruta (PB, extrato et√©reo (EE e carboidratos totais (CHO e as digestibilidades aparentes totais de MS, MO, CHO e carboidratos n√£o-fibrosos (CNF elevaram linearmente com o aumento dos n√≠veis de concentrado nas dietas. Comportamento semelhante foi observado para o ganho de peso m√©dio di√°rio, estimando-se incrementos de 0,0184 kg/unidade de concentrado adicionado. Contudo, as digestibilidades aparentes de PB, EE e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN n√£o foram influenciadas pelas dietas, registrando-se, respectivamente, valores m√©dios de 77, 88 e 60%. Silagem de Brachiaria brizantha n√£o-emurchecida, constituindo 50% da dieta de bovinos H x Z, promoveu ganhos de peso em torno de 1,0 kg/dia.Intake and total apparent digestibilities of the nutrients and average daily gains (ADG by beef cattle fed diets based on concentrate and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu silage in the following proportions: 20:80, 35:65, 50:50 and 65:35, in dry matter basis were evaluated. Twenty-four crossbred (Holstein x Zebu steers, with initial live weight of

  3. EFFECT OF AN ENZYMATIC COMPLEX ON EGG PRODUCTION AND QUALITY, TOTAL PLASMA PROTEIN LEVELS AND CECAL BACTERIAL COUNT OF LAYERS EFEITO DE UM COMPLEXO ENZIM√ĀTICO NA PRODU√á√ÉO E NA QUALIDADE DE OVOS, NOS N√ćVEIS DE PROTE√ćNAS PLASM√ĀTICAS E NA POPULA√á√ÉO BACTERIANA CECAL EM POEDEIRAS SEMIPESADAS

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    Fabiane Pereira Gentilini

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to relate the egg production with health status, expressed as cecal bacteria contamination, as well as to investigate the effect of total plasma proteins with egg quality of layers fed different diets reformulated to different metabolizable energy levels using an enzyme complex, obtained by solid state fermentation.¬† A total of¬† 384 26-week old Hisex Brown layers were fed experimental diets during 280 days (10 periods of 28 days each. A total of 4 birds were allocated per cage, in a total of 64 birds/treatment. Treatments consisted in reformulating diets to different metablizable energy levels using an enzyme complex (EC obtained by¬† solid state fermentation:¬†¬† T1 ‚Äď basal diet (control; T2 ‚Äst basal diet¬† + EC (reformulated to¬† 120 kcal ME/kg; T3 ‚Äď basal diet + EC (reformulated to 90 kcal ME/kg; T4 ‚Äď basal diet + EC (reformulated to 60 kcal ME/kg; T5 ‚Äď basal diet + EC (reformulated to 30 kcal ME/kg and T6 ‚Äď basal diet + EC ( on top. Egg production, egg weight, Haugh units, albumen weight, total plasma proteins and cecal bacteria count were evaluated.¬† Egg weight and albumen weight and cecal bacteria count, but not egg production, Haugh units and total plasma proteins,¬†¬† were adversely affected when the EC was added on top of a diet containing a regular commercial premix. This study indicates that the health status of the gut can be improved by adding the SSF enzyme complex on top of a regular diet.

    KEY WORDS: Exogenous enzymes, Haugh units, sanitary status.
    Objetivou-se relacionar a produção de ovos com o status sanitário das aves, expresso pelo nível de contaminação bacteriana cecal, bem como os níveis plasmáticos de proteínas totais com a qualidade dos ovos de aves que receberam dietas com complexo enzimático (CE com diferentes níveis de valorização da energia metabolizável. Utilizaram-se 384 poedeiras Hisex Brown por um período de 280 dias, divididos em dez ciclos de 28

  4. Carbono org√Ęnico, nitrog√™nio total, biomassa e atividade microbiana do solo em duas cronosseq√ľ√™ncias de reabilita√ß√£o ap√≥s a minera√ß√£o de bauxita Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass and activity in two rehabilitation chronosequences after bauxite mining

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Aurélio Carbone Carneiro; José Oswaldo Siqueira; Fátima Maria de Souza Moreira; André Luis Lima Soares

    2008-01-01

    A minera√ß√£o √© uma das atividades antr√≥picas que causa grande impacto nos ecossistemas e o grau de degrada√ß√£o depende da intensidade de interfer√™ncia no solo, do volume explorado e do rejeito produzido. Os microrganismos do solo e sua atividade, por participarem de fun√ß√Ķes-chave, podem fornecer indica√ß√Ķes sobre o real estado de reabilita√ß√£o de √°reas mineradas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o impacto da atividade de minera√ß√£o em duas cronosseq√ľ√™ncias com diferentes estrat√©gias (revegeta...

  5. Aeromonas spp. IN PRODUCTS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN AND DRINKING WATER OF GOI√āNIA-GO Aeromonas spp. EM PRODUTOS DE ORIGEM ANIMAL E EM √ĀGUA DE CONSUMO DE GOI√āNIA - GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albenones José de Mesquita

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A total of 53 samples of products from animal origin and drinking water was examined for the presence of <em>Aeromonas spp.em> <em>Aeromonas> occurred in 26.41% (14/53 of the samples. The raw products showed high frequency of contamination and relatively high count Aeromonas hydrophila was the dominating species, 57.5%, being followed of <em>A. veroniem> (22.5%, <em>A. sobriaem> (17.5% and <em>A. mediaem> (2.5%. None of the <em>Aeromonas sppem>. was isolated from chlorinated or unchlorinated drinking water.

    KEY-WORDS: <em>Aeromonas>; animal origin products; drinking water.

    Um total de 53 amostras de produtos de origem animal e √°gua de consumo foi examinado para se verificar a presen√ßa de <em>Aeromonas> <em>spp>. Desse total, 14/53 (26,41% amostras foram positivas para <em>Aeromonas>. Os produtos crus apresentaram maior freq√ľ√™ncia de contamina√ß√£o e contagem relativamente elevadas. A esp√©cie <em>Aeromonas> <em>hydrophila> foi a mais freq√ľente (57,5%, seguida pelas esp√©cies <em>A. veroniem> (22,5%, <em>A. sobriaem> (17,5% e A. media (2,5%. Nenhuma amostra de √°gua de consumo, clorada ou n√£o clorada, mostrou-se positiva para <em>Aeromonas> <em>ssp>.

    PALAVRA-CHAVE: <em>Aeromonas>; produtos de origem animal; √°gua de consumo.

  6. N√≠veis de merc√ļrio em atum s√≥lido enlatado comercializado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro Total mercury levels in canned tuna fish commercialized at the Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allegra YALLOUZ

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, estudou-se o n√≠vel de merc√ļrio em atum s√≥lido enlatado, comercializado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Foram analisadas 39 amostras, pertencente a 5 marcas e lotes distintos, utilizando-se a espectrometria de absor√ß√£o at√īmica pela t√©cnica de vapor-frio. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que 53% das amostras apresentaram um teor acima do m√°ximo recomendado, sendo que somente uma entre as cinco marcas estudadas apresentou todas as amostras com n√≠veis dentro dos limites tolerados. Tais resultados demonstram a necessidade de um maior controle da qualidade destes produtos.The present study investigated the mercury levels in canned tuna fish, commercialized in the Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. Thirty nine samples from five different makers were analyzed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that 53% of the samples presented levels above the WHO (World Health Organization recommended value, and only one from the five suppliers presented all their samples below this level. Such results indicate that it urges a better quality control for this food.

  7. Uso da metodologia de coleta total de excretas na determina√ß√£o da energia metaboliz√°vel em ra√ß√Ķes para frangos de corte ajustadas ou n√£o quanto aos n√≠veis de vitaminas e minerais Adjustment of the total excreta collection method for metabolizable energy determination of broiler chicken fedstuffs: consideration of vitamin and micro-minerals levels in the test diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Silveira de Avila

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se neste estudo a influ√™ncia dos teores de vitaminas e microminerais da ra√ß√£o-teste na determina√ß√£o dos valores de energia metaboliz√°vel aparente (EMA e energia metaboliz√°vel aparente corrigida pelo nitrog√™nio retido (EMAn do farelo de soja. Foram comparadas ra√ß√Ķes-teste ajustadas ou n√£o para as quantidades de cloreto de colina e premix de vitaminas e microminerais em rela√ß√£o √† ra√ß√£o-refer√™ncia. Adotou-se o m√©todo tradicional de coleta total de excretas utilizando-se 360 pintos de corte machos e f√™meas da linhagem Ross de 15 a 23 dias de idade, alojados em baterias met√°licas com bandejas coletoras de excretas. As aves foram distribu√≠das em esquema de blocos casualizados, de acordo com o andar das baterias, com dois tratamentos e 12 repeti√ß√Ķes de dez aves (cinco machos e cinco f√™meas. Em um tratamento, efetuou-se a substitui√ß√£o de 40% da ra√ß√£o-refer√™ncia por farelo de soja, enquanto no outro, al√©m dessa substitui√ß√£o, ajustaram-se as quantidades de cloreto de colina e dos premixes de vitaminas e microminerais com base na ra√ß√£o-refer√™ncia. Os valores m√©dios e os respectivos erros-padr√£o para EMA e EMAn (kcal/kg do farelo de soja, com base na mat√©ria natural, foram 2.462¬Ī29,62 e 2.269¬Ī25,80 para ra√ß√£o ajustada e 2.353¬Ī26,18 e 2.191¬Ī23,88 para ra√ß√£o n√£o ajustada. O ajuste das quantidades de cloreto de colina e do premix de vitaminas e microminerais na ra√ß√£o-teste propiciou maiores valores de EMA e EMAn do farelo de soja em rela√ß√£o √† ra√ß√£o n√£o-ajustada. √Č importante ajustar as quantidades de vitaminas e microminerais nas ra√ß√Ķes-teste em experimentos visando determinar a energia metaboliz√°vel de ingredientes para aves.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin and micromineral levels adjustment in the test diet on the total collection method for determination of apparent metabolizable energy (EMA and apparent metabolizable energy corrected by nitrogen retention

  8. On the energy-momentum density of gravitational plane waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dereli, T; Tucker, R W

    2004-01-01

    By embedding Einstein's original formulation of general relativity into a broader context, we show that a dynamic covariant description of gravitational stress-energy emerges naturally from a variational principle. A tensor T G is constructed from a contraction of the Bel tensor with a symmetric covariant second degree tensor field ő¶ and has a form analogous to the stress-energy tensor of the Maxwell field in an arbitrary spacetime. For plane-fronted gravitational waves helicity-2 polarized (graviton) states can be identified carrying non-zero energy and momentum

  9. Energy-momentum distribution: A crucial problem in general relativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharif, M.; Fatima, T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is aimed to elaborate the problem of energy‚Äďmomentum in general relativity. In this connection, we use the prescriptions of Einstein, Landau‚ÄďLifshitz, Papapetrou and M√∂ller to compute the energy‚Äďmomentum densities for two exact solutions of Einstein field equations. The space‚Äďtimes under

  10. Symmetries of Energy-Momentum Tensor: Some Basic Facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.; Ismaeel, Tariq

    2007-01-01

    It has been pointed out by Hall et al. [Gen. Rel. Grav. 28 (1996) 299.] that matter collineations can be defined by using three different methods. But there arises the question whether one studies matter collineations by using L őĺ T ab = 0, or L őĺ T ab = 0 or L őĺ T a b = 0. These alternative conditions are, of course, not generally equivalent. This problem has been explored by applying these three definitions to general static spherically symmetric spacetimes. We compare the results with each definition.

  11. Avalia√ß√£o da transfer√™ncia passiva da imunidade atrav√©s da prote√≠na total sang√ľ√≠nea, em potros da ra√ßa √Ārabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the passive immunity transference to the new born foal via colostrum, the total serum protein of 27 foals, being 13 females and 14 males, born from multiparae and primiparae mares was estimated. The blood samples were colected at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 hours after the first suckling. The total protein values increase significantly between 6 and 12 hours after the first suckling, being not influenced by the sex of the foal. The total protein values of new borns from multiparae mares were significantly higher than primiparae mares at 12 hours after the first suckling and was mantained in the same levels for 30 hours. It was concluded that the newborn Arabian foals had the highest immunoglobulin absortion between 6 and 12 hours after the first suckling and it is higher in foals born from multiparae than from primiparae mares.

  12. Cyanic acid, Phytic acid, total tannin and aflatoxin contents of a Brazilian (Natal multimistura preparation Conte√ļdos de √°cido cian√≠drico, √°cido f√≠tico, tanino total e aflatoxina em uma prepara√ß√£o brasileira (Natal de multimistura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca S√īnia C√āMARA

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of a "multimistura" as food supplement, in nutritional improvement programs for the low-income population in Brazil, represents a low-cost and easy-to-use food preparation alternative, presentig reasonable nutritive value and satisfying local taste preferences. This is based on the fact that the "multimistura" is made up of non-conventional ingredients/foods and of agroindustrial by-products, rich in different nutrients. This paper was designed to determine some toxic and/or antinutritional factors of a "Multimistura" utilized as food supplement in institutional programs to prevent malnutrition by the Department of Welfare and Social Affairs of the City of Natal, RN. The product studied had the following formulation: 30% of wheat bran; 30% of wheat flour; 30% of corn meal; 3% of powder from cassava leaves; 4% of pumpkin seeds powder; and 3% of eggshell powder. The analysis of the main toxic and/or antinutritional factors showed very low concentrations of phytates and tannins and no detectable levels of aflatoxin and cyanic acid.O uso da "multimistura" como suplemento alimentar, em programas de interven√ß√£o nutricional para popula√ß√Ķes brasileiras carentes, vem se apresentando como uma alternativa alimentar de valor nutritivo razo√°vel, baixo custo, preparo r√°pido e paladar regionalizado. Isto resulta do fato desta ser constitu√≠da principalmente de alimentos n√£o convencionais e/ou subprodutos agro-industriais ricos em diferentes nutrientes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo dosar alguns fatores t√≥xicos e/ou antinutricionais de uma "multimistura" utilizada como suplemento alimentar em programas institucionais no combate √† desnutri√ß√£o da Secretaria Municipal de Promo√ß√£o Social da cidade de Natal. O produto analisado tinha a seguinte formula√ß√£o: 30% de farelo de trigo; 30% de farinha de trigo; 30% de fub√° de milho; 3% de p√≥ de folha de mandioca; 4% de p√≥ de semente de jerimum; 3% de p√≥ de casca de ovo. As an

  13. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Aqueous Extracts and Fractionation of Different Parts of <em>Elsholtzia em>ciliata>

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    Yuangang Zu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity of extract and fractions from various parts of <em>Elsholtzia ciliataem>. The inflorescences, leaves, stems and roots of <em>E. ciliataem> were extracted separately and two phenolic component enrichment methods: ethyl acetate-water liquid-liquid extraction and macroporous resin adsorption-desorption, were adopted in this study. The antioxidant activities of water extracts and fractions of <em>E. ciliataem> were examined using different assay model systems <em>in vitroem>. The fraction root E (purified by HPD300 macroporous resin exhibited the highest total phenolics content (497.2 ¬Ī 24.9 mg GAE/g, accompanied with the highest antioxidant activity against various antioxidant systems <em>in vitroem> compared to other fractions. On the basis of the results obtained, <em>E. ciliataem> extracts can be used potentially as a ready accessible and valuable bioactive source of natural antioxidants.

  14. Evaluation of <em>HER2em> Gene Amplification in Breast Cancer Using Nuclei Microarray <em>in em>S>itu em>Hybridization

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    Xuefeng Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence<em> em>>in situ em>hybridization (FISH assay is considered the ‚Äúgold standard‚ÄĚ in evaluating <em>HER2/neu (HER2em> gene status. However, FISH detection is costly and time consuming. Thus, we established nuclei microarray with extracted intact nuclei from paraffin embedded breast cancer tissues for FISH detection. The nuclei microarray FISH (NMFISH technology serves as a useful platform for analyzing <em>HER2em> gene/chromosome 17 centromere ratio. We examined <em>HER2em> gene status in 152 cases of invasive ductal carcinomas of the breast that were resected surgically with FISH and NMFISH. <em>HER2em> gene amplification status was classified according to the guidelines of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP. Comparison of the cut-off values for <em>HER2em>/chromosome 17 centromere copy number ratio obtained by NMFISH and FISH showed that there was almost perfect agreement between the two methods (őļ coefficient 0.920. The results of the two methods were almost consistent for the evaluation of <em>HER2em> gene counts. The present study proved that NMFISH is comparable with FISH for evaluating <em>HER2em> gene status. The use of nuclei microarray technology is highly efficient, time and reagent conserving and inexpensive.

  15. A New Natural Lactone from <em>Dimocarpus> <em>longan> Lour. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjun Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A new natural product named longanlactone was isolated from <em>Dimocarpus> <em>longan> Lour. seeds. Its structure was determined as 3-(2-acetyl-1<em>H>-pyrrol-1-yl-5-(prop-2-yn-1-yldihydrofuran-2(3H-one by spectroscopic methods and HRESIMS.

  16. Allometric and Isometric variations in the Italian <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem> and <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> with respect to the conditions of allopatry and sympatry / Variazioni allometriche e isometriche in <em>Apodemus sylvaticusem> e <em>Apodemus flavicollisem> italiani, rispetto alle condizioni di allopatria e simpatria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amori

    1986-12-01

    . For the character displacement hypothesis, we found that <em>A. sylvaticusem> when not found together with <em>A. flavicollisem>, shows adimensional increase of PP up to an intermediate value between the mean values of <em>A. sylvaticusem> and <em>A. flavicollisem> sympatric assemblages. Also $M^1M^3$, FI and FI + PP increase in allopatry, but to a value greater than that of <em>A. flavicollisem>; on the other hand, IO growth in allopatry is not significant, as expected, because such character is allometric in the species under study. Lastly, the model was completely inadequate for FI, a character that in sympatry is higher in <em>A. sylvaticusem>, but increases to a greater extent in the allopatric populations of <em>A. sylvaticusem>. As far as the convergence on a given phenotype is concerned, the scarse available data are not in agreement with the model. The comparison between the sympatric <em>A. sylvaticusem> and <em>A. flavicollisem> shows a correlation of the IO and FI + PP value, when considered in the same localities ($P le 0.05$. Similar observations were made by Tvrtkovic' (1979 on FI and $I-M^3$ (upper tooth length for several european localities ("character's paralleling". Moreover, for some isometric and allometric characters, the variability is higher when comparing the interspecific averages between the local and total values. This suggests that homotopic average of the cumulative dimension of the two species, is more variable than the interspecific homotopic differences. Possibly, <em>A. sylvaticusem>, on the islands, where his congener is not present, tends to invade the morphological range of <em>A. flavicollisem>. At <em>A. sylvaticusem> specific level, all characters linked to the skull length appear isometric, whereas IO linked to skull breadth is allometric. Conversely, concerning heterospecific sympatric assemblages, the all pairs of characters linked to skull dimension are isometric, while FI (negatively linked to bones

  17. Volume totalizers analysis of pipelines operated by TRANSPETRO National Operational Control Center; Analise de totalizadores de volume em oleodutos operados pelo Centro Nacional de Controle e Operacao da TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramaki, Thiago Lessa; Montalvao, Antonio Filipe Falcao [Petrobras Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marques, Thais Carrijo [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper aims to present the results and methodology in the analysis of differences in volume totals used in systems such as batch tracking and leak detection of pipelines operated by the National Center for Operational Control (CNCO) at TRANSPETRO. In order to optimize this type of analysis, software was developed to acquisition and processing of historical data using the methodology developed. The methodology developed takes into account the particularities encountered in systems operated by TRANSPETRO, more specifically, by CNCO. (author)

  18. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant <em>Eremosparton songoricuem>m>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Yuan Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available <em>Eremosparton songoricum em>(Litv. Vass. (<em>E. songoricumem> is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various <em>E. songoricumem> plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions.<em> EsEFem> and <em>EsőĪ-TUB> were sufficient for various stress conditions, <em>EsEF> and <em>EsACT> were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and <em>EsGAPDH>and <em>Es>UBQ em>were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The <em>Es18Sem> gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor <em>EsDREB2em>> em>verified the utility of<em> E. songoricumem> reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in <em>E. songoricumem>, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species.

  19. Evaluation of the trace elements and the total mercury concentration in fishes commercialized at the Cubatao city, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Avaliavao da concentracao de elementos traco e de mercurio total em pescados comercializados na cidade de Cubatao, Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Barbara C.; Farias, Luciana A.; Curcho, Michel R.M.; Favaro, Debora I.T., E-mail: ba_cortopassi@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LABNUT/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Macronutrientes e Tracos no Oceano

    2009-07-01

    This paper evaluates the total Hg and the trace elements As, Br, Co, Cr and Rb concentrations in muscle of commercially important fishes at the Cubatao, Sao Paulo, Brazil, region. The following carnivore species were analysed: jew fish (Micropogonias furnieri), girl leg (Menticirrhus americanus), hake (Macrodon ancylodon), and plant eaters, sardine (Sardella braziliensis) and grey mullet (Mugil liza), representing a total of 58 samples. The analysed trace elements were determined through the neutron analysis activation (NAA) and total Hg, through the atomic absorption spectrometry with cold vapor generation (CV AAS). The analysed elements present a great concentration variation, not only among individuals of the same specie, but also among all the analysed species. The total Hg concentration were highly significant, with the predator species jew fish, girl leg and hake presenting concentrations larger than the non predator species sardine and grey mullet. Nevertheless, the content of total Hg remained bellow the limits established by the Brazilian legislation which is the 500 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the non predator species, and the 1000 {mu}g{sup -1} for the predator species (humid weight)

  20. A Novel Apoptosis Correlated Molecule: Expression and Characterization of Protein Latcripin-1 from <em>Lentinula em>edodes> C91‚Äď3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An apoptosis correlated molecule‚ÄĒprotein Latcripin-1 of <em>Lentinula> edodesem> C91-3‚ÄĒwas expressed and characterized in <em>Pichia pastorisem> GS115. The total RNA was obtained from <em>Lentinula edodesem> C91‚Äď3. According to the transcriptome, the full-length gene of Latcripin-1 was isolated with 3'-Full Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE and 5'-Full RACE methods. The full-length gene was inserted into the secretory expression vector pPIC9K. The protein Latcripin-1 was expressed in <em>Pichia pastorisem> GS115 and analyzed by Sodium Dodecylsulfonate Polyacrylate Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The Western blot showed that the protein was expressed successfully. The biological function of protein Latcripin-1 on A549 cells was studied with flow cytometry and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyl-tetrazolium Bromide (MTT method. The toxic effect of protein Latcripin-1 was detected with the MTT method by co-culturing the characterized protein with chick embryo fibroblasts. The MTT assay results showed that there was a great difference between protein Latcripin-1 groups and the control group (<em>p em>< 0.05. There was no toxic effect of the characterized protein on chick embryo fibroblasts. The flow cytometry showed that there was a significant difference between the protein groups of interest and the control group according to apoptosis function (<em>p em>< 0.05. At the same time, cell ultrastructure observed by transmission electron microscopy supported the results of flow cytometry. The work demonstrates that protein Latcripin-1 can induce apoptosis of human lung cancer cells A549 and brings new insights into and advantages to finding anti-tumor proteins.

  1. Determinação das formas de nitrogênio e nitrogênio total em rochas-reservatório de petróleo por destilação com arraste de vapor e método do indofenol Determination of nitrogen forms and total nitrogen in petroleum reservoir rocks by steam distillation and the indophenol method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Irene Dias da Silva

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Several extraction procedures are described for the determination of exchangeable and fixed ammonium, nitrate + nitrite, total exchangeable nitrogen and total nitrogen in certified reference soils and petroleum reservoir rock samples by steam distillation and indophenol method. After improvement of the original distillation system, an increase in worker safety, a reduction in time consumption, a decrease of 73% in blank value and an analysis without ammonia loss, which could possibly occur, were achieved. The precision (RSD < 8%, n = 3 and the detection limit (9 mg kg-1 NH4+-N are better than those of published procedures.

  2. Estimation of uncertainty of a reference material for proficiency testing for the determination of total mercury in fish in natura; Estimativa da incerteza de um material de referencia para ensaios de proficiencia para a determinacao de mercurio total em pescado in natura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, L.V.; Sarkis, J.E.S.; Ulrich, J.C.; Hortellani, M.A., E-mail: santana-luciana@ig.com.br, E-mail: jesarkis@ipen.br, E-mail: jculrich@ipen.br, E-mail: mahortel@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This study presents the uncertainty estimate for characterization, study of homogeneity and stability study obtained in the preparation of a reference material for the determination of total mercury in fish fresh muscle tissue for proficiency testing. The test results for stability were obtained by linear regression and to homogeneity study was obtained by ANOVA-one way showed that the material is homogeneous and stable. The value of total mercury concentration with expanded uncertainty for the material was 0,294 ¬Ī 0,089 őľg g{sup -}. (author)

  3. Efeitos da inclus√£o do extrato oleoso de urucum em ra√ß√Ķes de poedeiras com substitui√ß√£o total ou parcial do milho pelo sorgo de baixo tanino = Effects of oily anatto extract inclusion in laying hens rations with total or partial replacement of maize by low tannin sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adi√ß√£o do extrato oleoso de urucum na s ra√ß√Ķes de poedeiras com substitui√ß√£o do milho pelo sorgo de baixo tanino. Foram utilizadas 324 aves em um delineament o inteiramente casualizado, com nove tratamentos, sendo uma ra√ß√£o controle e um fatorial 2 x 4 (dois n√≠veis de sorgo e quatro n√≠veis de extrato oleoso de urucum, com seis repeti√ß√Ķes de seis aves por unidade experimental. A substitui√ß√£o do milho pelo sorgo n√£o alterou o desempenho das aves (P>0,05, por√©m a inclus√£o do sorgo reduziu o peso do alb√ļmen e aumentou o peso e aporcentagem da casca (PThe aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of oily anatto extract addition on laying hens rations with replacement of maize by low tannin sorghum. Three hundred and twenty four birds were used in a completely randomized design, with nine treatments, a control diet and a 2 x 4 factorial (two sorghum levels and four levels of oily anatto extract, and six replicates of six birds each experimental unit. Replacement of maize by sorghum did not alter birds performance (P>0.05, however, sorghum inclusion decreased albumen weight andincreased shell weight and percentage (P<0.05. There was a linear effect on yolk weight when anatto extract was added to rations with 100% of sorghum. It was verified that inclusion of 0.15% of anatto extract on sorghum ration promotes yolk coloration score similar to the one observed for maize ration.

  4. Bloqueio do plexo lombar pela via posterior para analgesia pós-operatória em artroplastia total do quadril: estudo comparativo entre Bupivacaína a 0,5% com Epinefrina e Ropivacaína a 0,5% Bloqueo del plexo lumbar por la vía posterior para analgesia postoperatoria en artroplastia total de la cadera: estudio comparativo entre Bupivacaína a 0,5% con Epinefrina y Ropivacaína a 0,5% Posterior lumbar plexus block in postoperative analgesia for total hip arthroplasty: a comparative study between 0.5% Bupivacaine with Epinephrine and 0.5% Ropivacaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Teixeira Domingues Duarte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O bloqueio do plexo lombar pela via posterior promove analgesia p√≥s-operat√≥ria efetiva na artroplastia total do quadril. Ropivaca√≠na e bupivaca√≠na n√£o apresentaram qualquer diferen√ßa na efic√°cia analg√©sica em diferentes bloqueios de nervos perif√©ricos. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a efic√°cia da analgesia p√≥s-operat√≥ria resultante da administra√ß√£o em dose √ļnica da bupivaca√≠na a 0,5% ou da ropivaca√≠na a 0,5% no bloqueio do plexo lombar pela via posterior na artroplastia total do quadril. M√ČTODO: Trinta e sete pacientes foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos, segundo o anest√©sico local utilizado no bloqueio: Grupo B - bupivaca√≠na a 0,5% com epinefrina 1:200.000 ou Grupo R - ropivaca√≠na a 0,5%. Durante o per√≠odo p√≥s-operat√≥rio, os escores de dor e o consumo de morfina na analgesia controlada pelo paciente foram comparados entre os grupos. O sangramento durante a opera√ß√£o e a incid√™ncia de efeitos adversos e de complica√ß√Ķes tamb√©m foram comparados. RESULTADOS: Apesar dos escores de dor terem sido menores no Grupo R 8, 12 e 24 horas ap√≥s o bloqueio, essas diferen√ßas n√£o foram clinicamente significativas. Regress√£o linear m√ļltipla n√£o identificou o anest√©sico local como vari√°vel independente. N√£o houve diferen√ßa no consumo de morfina, no sangramento intraoperat√≥rio e na incid√™ncia de complica√ß√Ķes e efeitos adversos entre os dois grupos. CONCLUS√ēES: A bupivaca√≠na a 0,5% e a ropivaca√≠na a 0,5% produziram al√≠vio eficaz e prolongado da dor p√≥s-operat√≥ria ap√≥s artroplastia total do quadril, sem diferen√ßa cl√≠nica, quando doses equivalentes foram administradas no bloqueio do plexo lombar pela via posterior.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El bloqueo del plexo lumbar por la v√≠a posterior, genera una analgesia postoperatoria efectiva en la artroplastia total de la cadera. La ropivaca√≠na y la bupivaca√≠na no arrojaron ninguna diferencia en la eficacia analg√©sica en

  5. Aquecimento de vinho tinto e suco de uva utilizados em prepara√ß√Ķes culin√°rias n√£o afeta a capacidade antioxidante e o teor de fen√≥is totais Heating of red wine and grape juice in food preparations does not affect their antioxidant capacity and total phenol content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanine Sch√ľtz Cardoso Te√≥filo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a capacidade antioxidante e a concentra√ß√£o dos compostos fen√≥licos de vinho tinto e suco de uva utilizados em prepara√ß√Ķes culin√°rias, quando submetidos ao processo de fervura. M√©todos: A avalia√ß√£o ocorreu ap√≥s diferentes per√≠odos de aquecimento (100¬įC em dois sistemas: i panela de alum√≠nio e chama de fog√£o e ii bal√£o de vidro e manta t√©rmica. Amostras comerciais de vinho tinto (n=4 e suco de uva integral (n=4 foram submetidas √† fervura por 10, 20 e 60 minutos. Antes e ap√≥s cada per√≠odo de fervura, a capacidade antioxidante total foi avaliada pela medida do potencial redutor f√©rrico, e o teor de fen√≥is totais foi quantificado pelo m√©todo de Folin-Ciocalteau. As diferen√ßas foram comparadas pela an√°lise de vari√Ęncia para medidas repetidas (pObjective: This study evaluated the antioxidant capacity and concentration of phenolic compounds in red wine and grape juice used in culinary preparations subjected to boiling. Methods: The assessments were done after different boiling times (100¬įC using two systems: i aluminum pot and stove flame and ii volumetric flask and heating mantle. Samples of red wine (n=4 and grape juice (n=4 were subjected to boiling for 10, 20 and 60 minutes. Before and after each boiling period, the total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and the total phenol content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Differences were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA (p<0.05. Results: The different boiling times did not cause significant changes in the total antioxidant capacity or total phenol content of the beverages, regardless of boiling method. Conclusion: The results show that the antioxidant properties of red wine and grape juice did not change significantly after boiling for 60 minutes.

  6. Methodological limitations of counting total leukocytes and thrombocytes in reptiles (Amazon turtle, Podocnemis expansa: an analysis and discussion Limita√ß√Ķes metodol√≥gicas de contagens de leuc√≥citos e tromb√≥citos totais em r√©pteis (tartaruga da Amaz√īnia, Podocnemis expansa: uma an√°lise e discuss√£o

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to compare three different methods for counting white blood cells [WBC] (Natt and Herrick method, estimation with 1,000 and 2,000 erythrocytes and three methods for counting total thrombocytes [TT] (Wojtaszek method, estimation with 1,000 and 2,000 erythrocytes in a South American freshwater turtle species, Podocnemis expansa, Schweigger 1812 (Reptilia, Pelomedusidae. Direct WBC counts using the Natt and Herrick method showed limitations, which are discussed here. The WBC and TT counts using 1,000 erythrocytes from blood smears are not recommended for Amazon turtles nor other reptilian species, since wide variation in counts can be observed. Estimation methods for determining WBC and TT based on 2,000 erythrocytes of blood smears were most acceptable because they allow a differentiation between leukocytes and thrombocytes and also had a smaller variation. The methods investigated here for the Amazon turtle, which have been widely used in other reptile species, provided evidence that the most acceptable method is not that of using diluted stains and a hemocytometer.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar tr√™s diferentes m√©todos para contar leuc√≥citos totais [LT] (m√©todo de Natt & Herrick, de estima√ß√£o em 1000 e 2000 eritr√≥citos e tr√™s m√©todos para contar tromb√≥citos totais [TT] ( m√©todo de Wojtaszek, de estima√ß√£o em 1000 e 2000 eritr√≥citos em uma esp√©cie de tartaruga de √°gua doce da Am√©rica do Sul, Podocnemis expansa, Schweigger 1812 (Reptilia, Pelomedusidae. As contagens diretas de LT usando o m√©todo de Natt & Herrick mostraram limita√ß√Ķes que s√£o aqui discutidas. As contagens de LT e TT usando estimativa em 1000 eritr√≥citos na extens√£o sangu√≠nea n√£o s√£o recomendadas para tartaruga-da-Amaz√īnia nem para outras esp√©cies de r√©pteis, pois houve ampla varia√ß√£o nestas contagens. Os m√©todos para determinar LT e TT baseados em 2000 eritr√≥citos nas extens√Ķes sangu√≠neas foram mais aceit√°veis porque

  7. Substituição total do milho e parcial do feno do capim-tifton por palma forrageira em dietas para vacas em lactação. Produção, composição do leite e custos com alimentação Effects of replacing corn and Tifton hay with forage cactus on milk production and composition of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronaldo Souza de Oliveira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a influ√™ncia de dietas com teores crescentes de palma forrageira sobre a produ√ß√£o, a composi√ß√£o do leite e o perfil dos √°cidos graxos do leite de vacas holandesas em lacta√ß√£o. Os animais (583 ¬Ī 7,07 kg foram alimentados com dietas formuladas com diferentes n√≠veis (0; 12,0; 25,0; 38,0 e 51,0% de palma forrageira (Opuntia f√≠cus indica Mill em substitui√ß√£o total ao milho (Zea mays L. e em substitui√ß√£o parcial ao feno de capim-tifton (Cynodon spp. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas distribu√≠das em um quadrado latino 5 x 5. Cada per√≠odo experimental teve dura√ß√£o de 17 dias, dez para adapta√ß√£o dos animais √† dieta e sete para coleta de dados. A produ√ß√£o de leite, total (kg/dia e corrigida para 3,5% de gordura (kg/dia, o teor de gordura (% e a produ√ß√£o de gordura (kg/dia do leite (20,65; 19,76; 3,73 e 0,745, respectivamente n√£o foram influenciados pela introdu√ß√£o de palma nas dietas. O perfil de √°cidos graxos da gordura do leite n√£o foi influenciado (quanto aos √°cidos c√°prico, l√°urico, mir√≠stico, linol√©ico, linol√™nico e araqu√≠dico pelos n√≠veis de palma na dieta, entretanto, houve aumento linear dos √°cidos de cadeia intermedi√°ria (palm√≠tico e palmitol√©ico e tend√™ncia inversa para os √°cidos este√°rico e ol√©ico. A inclus√£o de palma forrageira em substitui√ß√£o ao milho e parte do feno de capim-tifton para vacas holandesas em lacta√ß√£o n√£o influenciou a produ√ß√£o e a composi√ß√£o do leite, exceto a concentra√ß√£o dos √°cidos graxos de cadeia longa, que apresentou comportamento linear decrescente.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of replacing Tifton hay and corn with forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill on milk production and composition and milk fatty acid profile in lactating Holstein cows. Animals averaged 583 ¬Ī 7.07 kg of body weight in the beginning of the trial and were fed diets containing (% of DM: 0, 12.0, 25.0, 38.0 or 51

  8. Suplementa√ß√£o de metionina e/ou lisina em ra√ß√Ķes para juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 Reduction of protein levels and methionine and/or lysine supplementation in diets and their effects in total ammonia nitrogen excretion of tambaqui juveniles (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian V. Brand√£o

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito da redu√ß√£o dos n√≠veis de prote√≠na e a suplementa√ß√£o de metionina e/ou lisina em ra√ß√Ķes sobre a excre√ß√£o de am√īnia em juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com esquema fatorial de duas entradas: 2 n√≠veis prot√©icos (25 e 20% e 4 n√≠veis de inclus√£o de amino√°cidos: a 0% de suplementa√ß√£o, b DL-Metionina (3% da PB, c L-lisina (5% da PB e d Dl-Metionina (3% da PB + L-lisina (5% da PB, com dura√ß√£o de 55 dias. A coleta de √°gua das unidades experimentais ocorreu em tr√™s momentos (1¬ļ dia, 27¬ļ dia e 55¬ļ dia durante o per√≠odo experimental. Nestes dias, foram realizadas 3 coletas de amostras de √°gua para an√°lise de am√īnia de cada unidade experimental (08:00 , 14:00 e 20:00 horas. Os dados de excre√ß√£o de am√īnia foram analisados por ANOVA com medidas repetidas no tempo a 5% do n√≠vel de signific√Ęncia. A redu√ß√£o em 5% do n√≠vel de prote√≠na na dieta gerou uma diminui√ß√£o de 28,4% na excre√ß√£o de am√īnia. Contudo, a suplementa√ß√£o de lisina e metionina n√£o influenciaram esta diminui√ß√£o.It was evaluated the effect of the reduction of crude protein level (CP and the lysine and/or methionine supplementation in total ammonia nitrogen excretion on tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum juveniles. The experiment developed in a factorial and randomized design with two levels of protein contents (20% and 25% CP and four levels of amino acid supplementation: a Dl-methionine (0% of CP and L-lysine (0% of CP, b Dl-methionine (3% of CP, c L-lysine (5% of CP, d Dl-methionine (3% of CP + L-lysine (5% of CP, during 55 days. The water sampling from experimental units was done at 3 moments (1(0 day, 27(0 day e 55(0 day. In these days, 3 samples of each experimental unit were collected in elapsing of the time (08:00 a.m., 02:00 p.m. and 08:00 p.m.. The ammonia excretion data were analysed by repeated-measures ANOVA (p>0,05 with time as within effect. The

  9. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Luminescent Property of Cd (II Complex with <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine

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    Xishi Tai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new trinuclear Cd (II complex [Cd3(L6(2,2-bipyridine3] [L =<em> Nem>-phenylsulfonyl-L>-leucinato] has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The results show that the complex belongs to the orthorhombic, space group<em> Pem>212121 with<em> aem> = 16.877(3 √Ö, <em>b> em>= 22.875(5 √Ö, <em>c em>= 29.495(6 √Ö, <em>őĪ> em>= <em>ő≤ em>= <em>ő≥ em>= 90¬į, <em>V> em>= 11387(4 √Ö3, <em>Z> em>= 4, <em>Dc>= 1.416 őľg¬∑m‚ąí3, <em>őľ em>= 0.737 mm‚ąí1, <em>F> em>(000 = 4992, and final <em>R>1 = 0.0390, <em>ŌČR>2 = 0.0989. The complex comprises two seven-coordinated Cd (II atoms, with a N2O5 distorted pengonal bipyramidal coordination environment and a six-coordinated Cd (II atom, with a N2O4 distorted octahedral coordination environment. The molecules form one dimensional chain structure by the interaction of bridged carboxylato groups, hydrogen bonds and p-p interaction of 2,2-bipyridine. The luminescent properties of the Cd (II complex and <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine in solid and in CH3OH solution also have been investigated.

  10. Comparative study of nutritional constituents and the mercury total constituents in fishes commercialized at the city of Cananeia, at the coastal of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Estudo comparativo de constituintes nutricionais e do teor de mercurio total em peixes comercializados na cidade de Cananeia, litoral de Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Soraia M.; Farias, Luciana A.; Curcho, Michel R.M.; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: soraiamn@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LABNUT/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Macronutrientes e Tracos no Oceano

    2009-07-01

    Aiming the determination of the Hg concentration and the As, Cr and Zn trace elements, four commercial available and frequently consumable fishes by the Cananeia, Sao Paulo, Brazil, were analysed. A total of 53 samples were evaluated as follows: jew fish (Micropogonias furnieri), hake (Macrodon ancylodon), perch (Centropomus undecimalis), and grey mullet (Mugil platanus), all acquired at local fishmonger. The atomic absorption and neutron activation analysis techniques were used for the determination of Hg total levels and trace elements respectively. The trace elements presented large concentration variation among the same specie and the species performed as well. The jew fish presented levels superior to 1000 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the most individuals analysed and the perch presented chromium levels exceeding the limit of 0.10 mg kg{sup -1} for some individuals. The level of Zn presented values below 50 mg kg{sup -1} established by the Brazilian legislation for all species. The Zn total contents among all species presented values bellow the limits of the Brazilian legislation (500 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the predator species and 1000 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for the predator species)

  11. Validation of the extension of the range of application and of the single system of injection for the determination of total nitrogen in petroleum and its derivatives by chemiluminescence; Validacao da ampliacao da faixa de aplicacao e do sistema unico de injecao para a determinacao de nitrogenio total em petroleos e derivados por quimiluminescencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maria de Fatima Pereira dos [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG(Brazil)]. E-mail: santos@cenpes.petrobras.com.br; Tamanqueira, Juliana Boechat [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Magalhaes, Julio Cesar Dias [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Avaliacao de Petroleo; Oliveira, Elcio Cruz de [Transpetro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Logistica e Planejamento; Vaitsman, Delmo Santiago [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Analitica

    2003-12-01

    With the objectives of using a single system of injection and of extending the range of application for the method ASTM D4629/02 'Total Nitrogen in Petroleum Derivatives by the System of Injection with a Syringe and Detection by Chemo- Luminescence', it was studied a procedure by statistical validation with the objective of guaranteeing the analytical reliability of the assay and allowing the inclusion of samples of petroleum and heavy derivatives in one single methodology. The determination of total nitrogen for petroleum and derivatives is traditionally assayed using the method of Kjeldahl - a time-consuming methodology that requires a large amount of time for giving the final result, at the same time that is not recommended for concentrations below 0.1%w/w, which does not meet the requirements for the specifications of the product, in the petroleum industry. An alternative for the method of Kjeldahl is the pyro-chemo luminescence, which allows the achievement of more repetitive results for total nitrogen. In the detection of nitrogen, the technique combines the reliability of oxidative combustion with the sensitivity of chemiluminescence. Therefore, it was developed a protocol of validation in the methodology ASTM D4629/02 for the validation of the extension of the range of application and for the evaluation of the performance of the equipment in analytical conditions, according to the calibration curve. (author)

  12. Anestesia venosa total (AVT) em lactente com doença de Werdnig-Hoffmann: relato de caso Anestesia general intravenosa (AVT) en lactante con enfermedad de Werdnig-Hoffmann: relato de caso Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) in an infant with Werdnig-Hoffmann disease: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Cardoso de Resende; Elizabeth Vaz da Silva; Osvaldo José Moreira Nascimento; Alberto Esteves Gemal; Giseli Quintanilha; Eliana Maria Vasconcelos

    2010-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A doen√ßa de Werdnig-Hoffmann √© a causa mais comum de hipotonia no lactente e quando presente logo ap√≥s o nascimento tem pior progn√≥stico. Fraqueza muscular sim√©trica, arreflexia e fascicula√ß√Ķes da l√≠ngua s√£o caracter√≠sticos. A maioria dos lactentes morre antes dos dois anos por insufici√™ncia respirat√≥ria. O presente relato apresenta um caso com t√©cnica venosa total durante anestesia. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente feminina, branca, um ano, 10 kg, estado f√≠sico ASA III, co...

  13. Determina√ß√£o n√£o destrutiva do nitrog√™nio total em plantas por espectroscopia de reflect√Ęncia difusa no infravermelho pr√≥ximo Non-destructive determination of total nitrogen in plants by diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K√°ssio M. G. Lima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse reflectance near-infrared (DR-NIR spectroscopy associated with partial least squares (PLS multivariate calibration is proposed for a direct, non-destructive, determination of total nitrogen in wheat leaves. The procedure was developed for an Analytical Instrumental Analysis course, carried out at the Institute of Chemistry of the State University of Campinas. The DR-NIR results are in good agreement with those obtained by the Kjeldhal standard procedure, with a relative error of less than ¬Ī 3% and the method may be used for teaching purposes as well as for routine analysis.

  14. Determining the better solvent and time for extracting soil by soxhlet in TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon) gravimetric method; A determinacao de qual o melhor solvente e o melhor tempo de extracao de sedimento em aparato Soxhlet na metodologia do TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon) gravimetrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Renato S.; Lima, Guilherme; Baisch, Paulo R. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    There are several methods of TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminants in sediment. The TPH gravimetric has been widely used in many studies and in oil spill monitoring case. The present work examined three different solvents (DCM, DCM/N-HEX and N-HEX), in three different times, to the purpose to optimize the contaminants extraction using USEPA 9071 and 3540 reference method. Then was realized analysis of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) for monitoring the reproducible extracts. The sediments used in this experiment was collected in the Cavalos Island, localized in the city of Rio Grande, RS-Brasil. The sediment was 'washed' and after then contaminated with petroleum. The extracts were realized in Soxhlet apparatus, in three different times (4, 8 and 12 hours), and TOC analysis were realized before and after the extraction. The result demonstrated that eight hours with DCM/N-HEX solvent is more indicated for TPH gravimetric in sediment analysis with high concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons. TOC analysis demonstrated inappropriate for monitoring extract reproducibility. (author)

  15. Qualidade total: Um novo paradigma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana da Rosa Tolfo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos √ļltimos anos, o movimento para a implanta√ß√£o da Gest√£o da Qualidade Total vem crescendo ao redor do mundo. Em raz√£o disso, h√° uma diversidade de a√ß√Ķes realizadas com o nome de "Qualidade Total'. Uma revis√£o da teoria √© complexa, porque existem muitos autores que tratam da quest√£o. Eles escolhem diferentes perspectivas de an√°lises (te√≥ricas e emp√≠ricas e h√° dificuldades em se identificar um corpo conceitual. H√° uma ampla difus√£o de modelos, ferramentas, t√©cnicas, mercado e consultores. Essa popularidade, muitas vezes, faz com que determinadas organiza√ß√Ķes adotem essa forma de gest√£o do trabalho sem o conhecimento necess√°rio das implica√ß√Ķes que um modelo dessa ordem representa; especialmente no caso brasileiro, suscet√≠vel a proposi√ß√Ķes importadas. O presente artigo prop√Ķe um exame daquilo que os fundadores t√™m articulado sobre TQM, as principais cr√≠ticas nesta dire√ß√£o e a avalia√ß√£o de como vem sendo aplicadono nosso pa√≠s.

  16. Quality control of total alpha and beta activity analysis in water using the Proportional Counter of Gaseous Flux technique; Controle de qualidade das análises de atividades alfa e beta total em água pela técnica do Contador Proporcional de Fluxo Gasoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, Alberto P.; Bastos, Thiago M.R.; Santos, Thiago O.; Filho, Crescêncio A.S.; França, Elvis J. de, E-mail: albertopereiran@gmail.com, E-mail: thiagomrbastos@gmail.com, E-mail: thiago_cbufpe@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: candrade@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The analytical capacity of the CRCN (Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste) for quantification of total alpha and beta concentrations in water samples using the Proportional Counter of Gaseous Flux is presented. To demonstrate the traceability of the results, the National Intercomparison Program (PNI) samples were used, promoted by the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD) from which the Regional Nuclear Science Center of the Northeast (CRCN-NE) participates since 2011. The results reported to the PNI demonstrate the analytical capacity of the CRCN to detect the emission of alpha and beta radioactivities in water within the potability standards in analytical detection of quantification in radioactivity by the technique of the Proportional Flow Counter.

  17. Alterations of total non stimulated salivary flow in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth and oropharynx submitted to hyperfractionated radiation therapy; Alteracoes do fluxo salivar total nao estimulado em pacientes portadores de carcinoma espinocelular de boca e orofaringe submetidos a radioterapia por hiperfracionamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guebur, Maria Isabela [Faculdades Integradas Espirita, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: isabelaguebur@aol.com; Rapoport, Abrao [Hospital Heliopolis (HOSPHEL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude; Sassi, Laurindo Moacir [Hospital Erasto Gaertner, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Servico de Cirurgia e Traumatologia Buco-Maxico-Facial; Oliveira, Benedito Valdecir de; Ramos, Gyl Henrique Albrecht [Hospital Erasto Gaertner, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Servico de Cirurgia de Cabeca e Pescoco; Pereira, Jose Carlos Gasparin [Hospital Erasto Gaertner, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia

    2004-07-01

    Prevention and early diagnosis are actually the most effective measures that we dispose to improve the prognostic of the malignant tumors. The mouth and oropharynx tumors are treated with success, when early diagnosed. The radiotherapy is almost always one of the selected treatments for these tumors. When cancer is diagnosed in advanced stages, many a time the treatment needs to be carried out swiftly to be efficient, and consequently the radio therapist use the hyperfractionated therapy, with the patient receiving two lower doses of radiation in two sessions daily, amounting to a higher daily dosage, of about 160 cGy/2x/day. When the major salivary glands are present in the radiated field, the xerostomia appears by the second week of treatment (1500 to 2000 cGy), changing the patient's health, and causing difficulties for him to eat, speak and sleep. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quantitative alterations of the total non stimulated salivate flow of patients who underwent hyperfractionated therapy for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of mouth and oropharynx. Samples of twelve male patients saliva from Erasto Gaertner Hospital in Curitiba, PR, Brazil, were examined. Two samples of saliva were collected from each patient, the first one before the beginning of the radiotherapy, and the second at the end of the treatment. As a result, we obtained salivary loss in 91.7% of the patients, with a percentage of total salivary flow loss of 62.9%, registered in the second collection. We concluded that the hyperfractionated therapy causes a marked xerostomia when the major salivary glands are in the radiated field. (author)

  18. Padr√Ķes das s√≠ndromes de dispers√£o de plantas em √°reas com diferentes graus de pluviosidade, PE, Brasil Patterns of dispersal syndromes of plants in areas with different total rainfall, Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    Maria Carolina Nunes Alves da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou descrever as propor√ß√Ķes de s√≠ndromes de dispers√£o em tr√™s remanescentes de vegeta√ß√£o nativa com distintos totais pluviom√©tricos e n√ļmero de meses secos. Durante tr√™s anos, foram coletados mensalmente frutos e di√°sporos de 107 esp√©cies, os quais foram analisados e descritos. As √°reas com precipita√ß√£o inferior a 700 mm/ano (Floresta e Caruaru assemelham-se em todas as s√≠ndromes de dispers√£o analisadas (autocoria, anemocoria e zoocoria, enquanto que Tapacur√° (precipita√ß√£o m√©dia anual de 1299 mm distancia-se principalmente pela zoocoria, que variou de 29% (Floresta a 51% (Tapacur√°. Em termos de estratifica√ß√£o vertical das s√≠ndromes de dispers√£o, houve maior propor√ß√£o de zoocoria no sub-bosque de Tapacur√°, enquanto que nas √°reas mais secas (Floresta e Caruaru a autocoria e anemocoria foram representativas no dossel. Este trabalho mostra que, associados √† diminui√ß√£o da pluviosidade, os vetores abi√≥ticos tornam-se mais importantes e que as propor√ß√Ķes das s√≠ndromes de dispers√£o variam de acordo com a estratifica√ß√£o.This study aimed to describe the proportion of dispersal syndromes in three remnants of native vegetation with distinct total rainfall and number of dry months. During three years of monthly sampling we collected and described fruits and diaspores of 107 species. The areas with precipitation less than 700 mm/year (Floresta and Caruaru showed similar proportions of dispersal syndromes (autochory, anemochory and zoochory, whereas Tapacur√° (mean annual precipitation 1300 mm was distinguished mainly by zoochory, which varied from 29% (Floresta to 51% (Tapacur√° of the species. The distribution of dispersal syndromes along a vertical gradient showed a higher proportion of zoochory in the understory of more humid areas such as Tapacur√°, while in drier areas (Floresta and Caruaru autochory and anemochory were more representative in the canopy. These results indicate that the abiotic

  19. Estudo comparativo entre a miniesternotomia em "L" invertido e esternotomia longitudinal total na corre√ß√£o cir√ļrgica da comunica√ß√£o interatrial Comparative study between inverted "L" mini-sternotomy and complete sternotomy for the surgical treatment of the atrial septal defect (ASD

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    Luiz Cl√°udio Nery Sampaio

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os resultados obtidos entre duas vias de acesso cir√ļrgico em pacientes submetidos √† corre√ß√£o cir√ļrgica de comunica√ß√£o interatrial (CIA. M√ČTODO: Foram distribu√≠dos 20 pacientes, com m√©dia de idade de 24,1¬Ī14,2 anos, em dois grupos. No grupo A, 10 pacientes (80% do sexo feminino, com m√©dia de idade de 20,9 ¬Ī 12,0 anos foram submetidos √† corre√ß√£o da CIA por meio de uma esternotomia longitudinal total. No grupo B, 10 pacientes (80% do sexo feminino, com m√©dia de idade de 27,4 ¬Ī 16,1 anos foram submetidos √† corre√ß√£o da CIA atrav√©s de miniesternotomia em "L" invertido. Foi considerado significativo p OBJECTIVE: To compare the results obtained from two distinct surgical approaches in patients undergoing surgical correction of an atrial septal defect (ASD. METHOD: The study series consisted of 20 patients, with a mean age of 24.1¬Ī14.2 years, distributed in two groups. In group A, 10 patients (80% female, with a mean age of 20.9¬Ī12.0 years underwent surgical correction of ASD through a complete sternotomy. In group B, 10 patients (80% female, with mean age of 27.4¬Ī16.1 years, were operated through an inverted "L" mini-sternotomy. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: There was no statistical significance for demographics variables, duration of surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass time, clamping time, amount of cardioplegia administered, thoracic drainage, ICU stay, duration of mechanical ventilatory support, amount of blood and its components transfused, arrhythmia or pacemaker usage. There was statistical significance (p= 0.00001 between incision size performed by complete sternotomy (group A and inverted "L" mini-sternotomy (group B, with mean incision size of 15.7¬Ī0.8 e 6.8¬Ī0.6cm, respectively. There was a difference in the mean hospital stay between the groups but without statistical significance (7.5¬Ī1.6 days in group A and 6.4¬Ī1.3 days in group B, with a p-value = 0.12. There

  20. N√≠veis de l√≠pides plasm√°ticos em ratos submetidos √† esplenectomia total, ligadura simult√Ęnea dos vasos espl√™nicos e √† esplenectomia subtotal com preserva√ß√£o do p√≥lo inferior

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    Isabel Cristina Andreatta Lemos Paulo

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da esplenectomia total, da ligadura dos vasos espl√™nicos principais e da esplenectomia subtotal com preserva√ß√£o do p√≥lo inferior, nos l√≠pides plasm√°ticos de ratos alimentados com dieta-controle ou dieta acrescida com 2,5% de colesterol. M√ČTODO: Foram utilizados 111 ratos Wistar, machos, pesando entre 273g e 427g, com idade aproximada de 12 semanas, assim distribu√≠dos: Grupo 1, controle (N = 20, n√£o operado; Grupo 2 (N = 20 submetido √† manipula√ß√£o do ba√ßo; Grupo 3 (N = 31 submetido √† esplenectomia total; Grupo 4 (N = 20, ligadura simult√Ęnea da art√©ria e veia espl√™nicas; Grupo 5 (N = 20, esplenectomia subtotal com preserva√ß√£o do p√≥lo inferior. Foram dosados os l√≠pides plasm√°ticos, e os ratos foram distribu√≠dos em dois subgrupos, de acordo com a dieta (Subgrupo A- dieta-controle; Subgrupo B - dieta acrescida com 2,5% de colesterol. Todos os animais foram submetidos √† nova colheita de sangue ap√≥s 90 dias do in√≠cio do experimento. RESULTADOS: Os animais submetidos √† esplenectomia total, independentemente do tipo de dieta, apresentaram aumento significante (p 0,05. Os animais submetidos √† ligadura simult√Ęnea da art√©ria e veia espl√™nicas e √† esplenectomia subtotal com preserva√ß√£o do p√≥lo inferior e alimentados com dieta-controle, n√£o apresentaram altera√ß√Ķes nos n√≠veis de l√≠pides plasm√°ticos, exceto pelo aumento da HDL (p < 0,05 observado no grupo da esplenectomia subtotal. Nos animais desses grupos, alimentados com dieta acrescida com 2,5% de colesterol, houve aumento significante de colesterol total, LDL, e VLDL e triglic√©rides. CONCLUS√ēES: A esplenectomia total produz aumento significante do colesterol total, das fra√ß√Ķes LDL e VLDL e dos triglic√©rides, tanto nos ratos alimentados com dieta-controle quanto nos alimentados com dieta acrescida com 2,5% de colesterol. O aumento √© mais significante nos animais alimentados com dieta acrescida com 2,5% de colesterol. A ligadura

  1. Evaluation of total carotenoids, alpha- and beta-carotene in carrots (Daucus carota L. during home processing Avaliação de carotenóides totais, alfa e beta-caroteno em cenoura (Daucus carota L. durante processamento a nível doméstico

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    Helena Maria PINHEIRO-SANT’ANA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of dehydration and different preparation methods during home processing related toalpha-carotene, beta-carotene and total carotenoids stability in carrots. Vitamin A values were evaluated after different treatments. Thus, carrots were submitted to steam cooking, water cooking with and without pressure, moist/dry cooking and conventional dehydration. Determination of alpha- and beta-carotenes was made by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC (conditions were developed by us using spectrophotometric detection visible-UV at 470 nm; a RP-18 column and methanol: acetonitrile: ethyl acetate (80: 10: 10 as mobile phase. Total carotenoids quantification was made by 449 nm spectrophotometer. The retention of the analyzed carotenoids ranged from 60.13 to 85.64%. Water cooking without pressure promoted higher retention levels of alpha- and beta-carotene and vitamin A values, while water cooking with pressure promoted higher retention levels of total carotenoids. Dehydration promoted the highest carotenoid losses. The results showed that, among the routinely utilized methods under domestic condition, cooking without pressure, if performed under controlled time and temperature, is the best method as it reduces losses in the amount of alpha- and beta-carotene, the main carotenoids present in the carrots. Despite the significant carotenoid losses, carrots prepared through domestic methods, remain a rich source of provitamin A.O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a influ√™ncia da desidrata√ß√£o e de diferentes m√©todos de preparo a n√≠vel dom√©stico sobre a estabilidade de alfa-caroteno, beta-caroteno e caroten√≥ides totais em cenouras. Os valores de vitamina A foram avaliados ap√≥s os diferentes tratamentos. Para tanto, amostras de cenoura foram submetidas √† coc√ß√£o a vapor, coc√ß√£o em √°gua com e sem press√£o, coc√ß√£o √ļmida/seca e √† desidrata√ß√£o convencional. Para a determina√ß√£o de alfa e beta

  2. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence applied to the chemical elements analysis of the mate tea infusion (Ilex-paraguariensis); Fluorescencia de raios-X por reflexao total aplicada a analise de elementos quimicos em cha de erva-mate (Ilex-paraguariensis)

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    Lopes, Fabio; Appoloni, Carlos R. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada; Cunha, Richard M. da Silva e; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    The purpose was to evaluate simultaneously the chemical element concentrations from K to Sr (19{<=}Z{<=}38) range in six samples of mate tea (Ilex paraguariensis) infusion, commercially available in Paraguay and South of Brazil. The chemical analysis of this beverage has a great nutritional importance for the native people of these areas, due to their large daily consumption. For the determination of these elements the dry-ashing and total reflection X-rays fluorescence (TXRF) were used. The methodology showed limits of detection among 81 ng.mL-1 for K to 10 ng.mL{sup -1} for Zn. Six infusion samples were prepared in triplicate, and the concentration was 3,8 to 10,2 {mu}g.mL{sup -1} for K, Ca and Mn, 0,21 to 1,07 {mu}g. mL{sup -1} for Fe and Zn and 0.03 to 0,17 {mu}g.mL{sup -1} for Ni, Cu, Br, Rb and Sr. The Mn and Ni concentrations are above the maximum permissible values for drinking water established by World Health Organization and Brazilian legislation (these organisms do not regulate the maximum permissible values for chemical elements in mate tea infusion). (author)

  3. Influência de épocas de plantio e cultivares no rendimento total da cultura do alho (Allium sativum l. em Santa Maria, RS Planting date and cultivar influence on the total yield of garlic (Allium sativum L. in Santa Maria, RS

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    Jorge Nadir Trevisan

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, no ano agr√≠cola de 1984, afim de avaliar a influ√™ncia de tr√™s √©pocas de plantio (27 de abril, 18 de maio e 14 de julho na produ√ß√£o total de bulbos de nove cultivares de alho (Allium sativum L.. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repeti√ß√Ķes. Os maiores rendimentos totais de bulbos foram obtidos no plantio de 18 de maio. Gigante Lav√≠nia foi a cultivar mais produtiva. As cultivares S√£o Louren√ßo e Gigante Inconfidentes destacaram-se pelos rendimentos, os quais n√£o diferiram significativamente entre si.The experiment was carried out at the Federal University of Santa Maria, in southernmost Brazil, during the growing season of 1984, to determine the influence of three different planting dates (April 27, May 18 and July 14 on the yield of nine garlic, Allium sativum Z., cultivars. The experimental design was a split plot complete block, with planting dates as main plots and cultivars as subplots. Blocks were replicated four times. The highest yields were obtained with planting date May 18. Gigante Lav√≠nia ranked first among cultivars. The outstanding performances of S√£o Louren√ßo and Gigante Inconfidentes were not significantly different.

  4. Kinesiographic study of complete denture movement related to mucosa displacement in edentulous patients Estudo cinesiográfico da movimentação da prótese total resultante da deformação da fibromucosa em desdentados totais

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    Marco Antonio Compagnoni

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The mucosa that covers the residual ridges of edentulous patients may present some distortion or displacement when occlusal loading is applied in complete dentures. This distortion and movement of the denture can result in acceleration of residual ridge resorption and loss of retention and stability. The aim of this study was to analyze the pattern of upper complete denture movement related to underlying mucosa displacement. A sample of 10 complete denture wearers was randomly selected, which had acceptable upper and lower dentures and normal volume and resilience of residual ridges. The kinesiographic instrument K6-I Diagnostic System¬ģ was used to measure denture movements, according to the method proposed by Maeda et al.7, 1984. Denture movements were measured under the following experimental conditions: (A 3 maximum voluntary clenching cycles and (B unilateral chewing for 20 seconds. The results showed that under physiological load, oral mucosa distortion has two distinct phases: a fast initial displacement as load is applied and a slower and incomplete recovery when load is removed. Intermittent loading such as chewing progressively reduces the magnitude of the denture displacement and the recovery of the mucosa is gradually more incomplete.Devido √†s caracter√≠sticas de compressibilidade da fibromucosa, a incid√™ncia de cargas sobre a pr√≥tese total resulta na movimenta√ß√£o da pr√≥tese em dire√ß√£o ao rebordo, a qual pode resultar no aumento da reabsor√ß√£o do rebordo residual, na desadapta√ß√£o interna e na perda de reten√ß√£o da pr√≥tese. O objetivo do presente estudo √© avaliar o padr√£o de movimenta√ß√£o da pr√≥tese total superior em fun√ß√£o da deforma√ß√£o da fibromucosa. Foram selecionados 10 pacientes usu√°rios de pr√≥teses totais bimaxilares, com reten√ß√£o satisfat√≥ria e rela√ß√Ķes oclusais corretas e rebordos alveolares com volume e grau de resili√™ncia normais. Para a an√°lise da movimenta√ß√£o da pr√≥tese total superior foi

  5. Nota cient√≠fica: Avalia√ß√£o sensorial de geleia de marmelo 'Japon√™s' em diferentes concentra√ß√Ķes de s√≥lidos sol√ļveis totais Scientific note: Sensory evaluation of japanese quince jam with different concentrations of total soluble solids

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    Gustavo das Graças Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As plantas do marmeleiro 'Japon√™s' (Chaenomeles sinensis Koehne vem sendo amplamente pesquisadas nos √ļltimos anos em fun√ß√£o da alta produtividade, da resist√™ncia √† entomosporiose e da capacidade de servir como porta-enxerto para as demais cultivares. Visando propiciar o aproveitamento dessa cultivar para o consumo humano, o presente trabalho objetivou desenvolver e avaliar a aceita√ß√£o da geleia de marmelo 'Japon√™s' em diferentes concentra√ß√Ķes de s√≥lidos sol√ļveis totais. Os frutos utilizados no experimento foram colhidos na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG, localizada no munic√≠pio de Maria da F√©-MG. Para a obten√ß√£o das geleias, os frutos foram processados at√© se obter um produto final com as concentra√ß√Ķes de 66, 68 e 70 ¬įBrix de s√≥lidos sol√ļveis totais. O teste de aceita√ß√£o foi realizado por um grupo de 50 julgadores n√£o treinados que avaliaram apar√™ncia, consist√™ncia, aroma, sabor, aspecto global e inten√ß√£o de compra dos diferentes tratamentos. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que as geleias de marmelo 'Japon√™s' apresentaram uma boa aceita√ß√£o para todos os atributos avaliados, sendo que, de uma forma geral, as amostras com 68 e 70 ¬įBrix obtiveram maior aceitabilidade e inten√ß√£o de compra pelos julgadores.In recent years, Japanese quince (Chaenomeles sinensis Koehne plants have been widely studied due to their high productivity, resistance to entomosporium and ability to serve as rootstock for other cultivars. In order to facilitate the use of this cultivar for human consumption, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate the acceptance of a Japanese quince jam with different concentrations of total soluble solids. The fruits used in the experiment were harvested at the Experimental Farm of EPAMIG, located in the city of Maria da F√©, MG, Brazil. To obtain the jams, the fruits were processed to obtain a final product with concentrations of 66, 68 and 70 ¬įBrix with respect to the total soluble solids

  6. Effects of oral parenteral nutrition solution on the morphology and mechanical resistance of the small bowel in rats Efeitos da administra√ß√£o oral da nutri√ß√£o parenteral total na morfologia e resist√™ncia mec√Ęncia do intestino delgado, em ratos

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    José E. Aguilar-Nascimento

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an elemental diet (ED on the strength and on the morphology of the small bowel. Male Wistar rats were randomized to two groups to receive during 14 days either standard laboratory rat chow (N=16 or ED (N=16 containing total parenteral nutrition (TPN solution. After this period they were killed and necropsied. The small bowel was measured and weighted with and without the contents. Bursting pressure (BP was taken from the jejunum and ileum and histological sections of these two portions was performed to register the crypt depth (CD, vilus height (VH and wall width (WW. All animals significantly gain weight. The bowel of animals fed with TPN solution had significantly less weight when compared with the controls either with (9.9 ¬Ī 1.9g x 7.8 ¬Ī 1.5g, pForam submetidos a ra√ß√£o padr√£o de laborat√≥rio 16 ratos e outros 16 receberam nutri√ß√£o parenteral total (NPT por via oral, durante 14 dias. Os animais de ambos os grupos ganharam peso, sem diferen√ßa estatistica. Na necr√≥psia retirava-se o segmento intestinal a partir do piloro at√© a valva ileocecal. N√£o houve diferen√ßa no comprimeto do intestino delgado em ambos os grupos. Por√©m, o intestino dos animais alimentados com NTP apresentaram diminui√ßao significante de peso comparado com o grupo controle, independentemente da presen√ßa ou n√£o de conte√ļdo. A resist√™ncia intestinal era menor no grupo NTP comparado ao controle, sendo mais significante no √≠leo. A altura dos vilos, a profundidade das criptas e a extens√£o da parede eram significantemente menores no √≠leo no grupo NTP comparado ao controle. Este achado foi observado tamb√©m no jejuno, mas sem diferen√ßa significante. Conclui-se que nos ratos alimentados com NTP o intestino delgado perde massa e torna-se menos resistente, principalmente no √≠leo,apesar da manuten√ß√£o do estado nutricional. A perda de massa aparece n√£o apenas na mucosa mas em toda a parede intestinal.

  7. Variação de carboidratos e ácido cianídrico em raízes de mandioca, após a poda da parte aérea Carbohydrates and hydrocyanic acid variation in cassava roots which aereal portions were totally pruned

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    José Osmar Lorenzi

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available S√£o relatados resultados do estudo da varia√ß√£o de mat√©ria seca, HCN, amido, carboidratos sol√ļveis totais e a√ß√ļcares redutores em ra√≠zes de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz nos dias que sucederam √† poda ou remo√ß√£o total da parte a√©rea. Na amostragem foi utilizado o m√©todo convencional: ra√≠zes tomadas ao acaso e representativas da popula√ß√£o. Diferentes tipos de ra√≠zes (da base e meio da maniva e da base das hastes coletadas 17 dias ap√≥s a poda apresentaram teores de carboidratos bem diferentes, seja pela mobi-liza√ß√£o mais acentuada de reservas, seja pela sua constitui√ß√£o originalmente diversa, o que sugere pesquisas mais detalhadas sobre o m√©todo de amostragem das ra√≠zes para an√°lise de laborat√≥rio. Verificou-se que, num per√≠odo de quatorze dias ap√≥s a poda de plantas com treze meses de idade e em √©poca quente e chuvosa, as transforma√ß√Ķes mais profundas ocorreram no teor de amido, que decresceu de 79,06% para 62,52%, e nos carboidratos sol√ļveis totais e a√ß√ļcares redutores, que tiveram um incremento na mat√©ria seca das ra√≠zes, respectiva-mente de 7,65% e 1,55% para 17,56% e 5,03%. 0 teor de carboidratos totais foi pouco afetado pela poda, Indicando perda pequena destinada a nova brota√ß√£o ou a outros processos fisiol√≥gicos. O teor de HCN decresceu de 67 para 35 ppm.Data are presented on the variation of the level of dry matter, cyanide, starch, total soluble carbohydrates, and reducing sugars content in roots of 13 months old cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz at successive stages after the total removal of the aereal portions. During the 14 days following pruning starch percentage decreased from 79.06% to 62.52%; total soluble carbohydrates and reducing sugars showed a variation from 7.65% and 1.55% up to 17.56% and 5.03% respectively. Total carbohydrate presented small losses by pruning probably due to the new sprouting process. Root cyanid content decreased from 67 to 35 ppm. Its has also been observed

  8. Avaliação do fluxo salivar total não estimulado, após o emprego do lauril-dietileno-glicol-éter-sulfato de sódio associado ao hidróxido de cálcio em pacientes irradiados com carcinoma espinocelular da boca e orofaringe Total salivary non stimulated flow evaluation, after radiotherapy for patients with mouth and oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma with the association of lauryl-dietylene-glycol-ether sodium sulphate and calcium hydroxide

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    Christiano M. Correia

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdu√ß√£o: Avaliar quantitativamente o √≠ndice de fluxo salivar total n√£o estimulado de pacientes portadores de carcinoma espinocelular de boca e orofaringe, ap√≥s tratamento radioter√°pico, exclusivo, tratados com a associa√ß√£o de lauril-dietileno-glicol-√©ter-sulfato de s√≥dio e hidr√≥xido de c√°lcio. Forma de estudo: Prospectivo cl√≠nico n√£o randomizado. M√©todo: o fluxo salivar foi avaliado em 11 pacientes (n=11 em tr√™s fases: 1¬™. durante sete semanas, quando foram submetidos √† telecobaltoterapia na dose total de 7.000 cGy, sem utiliza√ß√£o de medicamento para estimular a saliva√ß√£o; 2¬™. em seguida, durante oito semanas ap√≥s o tratamento radioter√°pico, quando os pacientes utilizaram a associa√ß√£o medicamentosa como estimulante da saliva√ß√£o; 3¬™. finalmente, durante oito semanas ap√≥s ter sido interrompido o tratamento com a associa√ß√£o de drogas. Resultados: os valores obtidos foram analisados com vistas a avalia√ß√£o da efic√°cia da medica√ß√£o utilizada para evitar a hipofun√ß√£o salivar no per√≠odo p√≥s-radioterapia. Dos 11 pacientes, 10 apresentaram melhora significante dos √≠ndices de fluxo salivar com o uso da associa√ß√£o de drogas, em rela√ß√£o aos valores do per√≠odo final do tratamento radioter√°pico, e mantiveram esses √≠ndices mesmo com a suspens√£o do medicamento. Conclus√Ķes: a associa√ß√£o de drogas foi eficaz no tratamento da hipofun√ß√£o salivar, e proporcionou aumento do √≠ndice salivar total n√£o estimulado em 10 dos 11 pacientes, sendo esse aumento mantido por dois meses ap√≥s a interrup√ß√£o do uso do medicamento.Introduction: Evaluation of quantitative non-stimulated salivary flow rate in 11 patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma after exclusive radiation therapy, treated with the association of lauryl-diethylene-glycol-ether-sodium sulfate and calcium hydroxide. Study design: Prospective clinical no randomized. Method: salivary flow was evaluated in three phases: 1 during seven

  9. ABUND√āNCIA RELATIVA DAS ESP√ČCIES DE CERAMBYCIDAE (INSECTA-COLEOPTERA EM POMAR DE FRUT√ćFERAS MISTO RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF SPECIES OF THE CERAMBYCIDAE FAMILY (INSECTA-COLEOPTERA IN MIXED ORCHARD

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    Elisabeth Rose Pereira da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Estudou-se a abund√Ęncia relativa das esp√©cies da fam√≠lia <em>Cerambycidae> (<em>Insecta-Coleoptera> em um pomar de frut√≠feras misto composto por 28 diferentes esp√©cies, no per√≠odo de dezembro de 1997 a maio de 1999 em Ceres, Estado de Goi√°s, Brasil. Foram utilizadas armadilhas luminosas modelo ‚ÄúLuiz de Queiroz‚ÄĚ com l√Ęmpadas Bl-15 wats. Essas armadilhas foram ligadas por 12 horas em dois dias consectivos num total de 24 horas de coletas semanais. Coletaram-se 1.474 cerambic√≠deos, agrupados em 39 g√™neros e 49 esp√©cies. <em>Acanthoderes jaspideaem>,<em> Achryson surinamumem>, <em>Chlorida> <em>festiva>, <em>Eurodacrys> <em>sexgutatta>, <em>Gnomibidion> <em>fulvipes>, <em>Lophopoeum> <em>timbouve>, <em>Megacyllene> <em>acuta>, <em>Rhopalophora> <em>collaris> e <em>Trichophorus> <em>distinctus> foram as esp√©cies classificadas como muito abundantes. Das esp√©cies coletadas, 48,98 % foram classificadas como raras, 12,24 % como dispersas, 20,41 % como comuns e 18,37 % como muito abundantes. Dentre os 39 g√™neros, <em>Oreodera> foi representado por tr√™s esp√©cies (6,13 %, os g√™neros <em>Acanthoderes>, <em>Aerenica>, <em>Chrysoprasis>, <em>Colobothea>, <em>Eutrypanus>, <em>Megacylene>, <em>Myoxomorpha> e <em>Nyssodrysternum> por duas esp√©cies (4,08 %, e os demais g√™neros por apenas uma esp√©cie.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Levantamento; riqueza de espécies; ecologia; comportamento.

    It was studied the relative abundance to the species of the family <em>Cerambycidae> (<em>Insecta-Coleoptera> in a mixed orchard composed by 28 diferent species in the period from decembre 1997 to may 1999 in Ceres, state of Goi

  10. Constituents from <em>Vigna em>vexillata> and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

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    Guo-Feng Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of <em>Vigna em>genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of<em> V. vexillata em>demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of <em>V. vexillataem>. One new sterol (1 and two new isoflavones (2,3 were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23, abscisic acid (25, and quercetin (40 displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release.

  11. Momentos em freios e em embraiagens

    OpenAIRE

    Mimoso, Rui Miguel Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Disserta√ß√£o para obten√ß√£o do Grau de Mestre em Mestrado Integrado em Engenharia Mec√Ęnica Nesta disserta√ß√£o re√ļnem-se os modelos de c√°lculo utilizados na determina√ß√£o dos momentos em freios e em embraiagens. Neste trabalho consideram-se os casos de freios e embraiagens de atrito seco e atrito viscoso. Nos freios de atrito viscoso s√£o considerados casos em que as caracter√≠sticas dos fluidos n√£o s√£o induzidas, e outros em que s√£o induzidas modifica√ß√Ķes a essas mesmas caracter√≠sticas. S√£o a...

  12. Manejo do cateter venoso central totalmente implantado em pacientes oncológicos: revisão integrative Manejo del catéter venoso central totalmente implantado en pacientes oncológicos: revisión integrativa Management of totally implanted catheter in patients with cancer: an integrative review

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    Christiane Inocêncio Vasques

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O cateter totalmente implantado √© amplamente utilizado durante o tratamento de pacientes com c√Ęncer e √© capaz de minimizar complica√ß√Ķes decorrentes da terapia intravenosa perif√©rica. Assim, buscou-se identificar os cuidados de enfermagem relacionados ao manuseio de cateter totalmente implantado nesses pacientes. Para tanto, realizou-se revis√£o integrativa da literatura que resultou na an√°lise de 15 artigos. O conhecimento produzido est√° direcionado para o tempo de perman√™ncia do cateter, complica√ß√Ķes inerentes ao uso, manuseio do dispositivo, percep√ß√£o do paciente em rela√ß√£o ao cateter e informa√ß√Ķes ao paciente. Al√©m de demonstrar a complexidade da assist√™ncia de enfermagem no manuseio desses dispositivos, os achados podem auxiliar, igualmente, os profissionais que n√£o atuam em oncologia, na aplica√ß√£o de conhecimentos na pr√°tica cl√≠nica.El cat√©ter totalmente implantado es ampliamente utilizado durante el tratamiento de pacientes con c√°ncer y es capaz de minimizar las complicaciones consecuentes de la terapia intravenosa perif√©rica. As√≠, en este trabajo, se busc√≥ identificar los cuidados de enfermer√≠a relacionados a la manipulaci√≥n del cat√©ter totalmente implantado en esos pacientes. Para tal efecto, se realiz√≥ una revisi√≥n integrativa de la literatura dando como resultado el an√°lisis de 15 art√≠culos. El conocimiento producido est√° orientado hacia el tiempo de permanencia del catet√©r, complicaciones inherentes al uso, manipulaci√≥n del dispositivo, informaciones y percepci√≥n del paciente en relaci√≥n al cat√©ter. Aparte de demostrar la complejidad de la asistencia de enfermer√≠a en la manipulaci√≥n de esos dispositivos, los hallazgos pueden auxiliar, igualmente, a los profesionales que no act√ļan en oncolog√≠a, en la aplicaci√≥n de conocimientos en la pr√°ctica cl√≠nica.Totally implanted catheter, which is effective in deceasing complications related to peripheral intravenous therapy, is widely used in

  13. Bloqueio "3 em 1" por via anterior: bloqueio parcial, completo ou superdimensionado? Correlação entre anatomia, clínica e radio imagens Bloqueo "3 en 1" por vía anterior: bloqueo parcial, completo o superdimensionado? Correlación entre anatomía, clínica y radio imágenes Anterior "3-in-1" blockade: partial, total or overdimensioned block? Correlation between anatomy, clinic and radio images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Otto Geier

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O cl√°ssico bloqueio "3 em 1" por via anterior tem suscitado diverg√™ncias quanto ao envolvimento anest√©sico de seus tr√™s nervos participantes, o femoral, o cut√Ęneo lateral da coxa e o obturador. O objetivo deste estudo √© verificar o desfecho do bloqueio "3 em 1" por via anterior, atrav√©s das t√©cnicas: inje√ß√£o √ļnica (G1, cateteres curtos (G2 e cateteres longos (G3. Os bloqueios "3 em 1", clinicamente identificados como completos ou superdimensionados foram, adicionalmente, investigados por meio de r√°dio imagem. M√ČTODO: A identifica√ß√£o do espa√ßo subfascial il√≠aco nos bloqueios "3 em 1" com inje√ß√£o √ļnica ou com cateteres foi feita pela perda de resist√™ncia ao ar. Em v√°rios eventos dolorosos, o volume anest√©sico administrado variou entre 30 e 40 ml e a introdu√ß√£o cranial dos cateteres foi at√© 18 cm no espa√ßo subfascial il√≠aco. Quando a pesquisa cl√≠nica apontava envolvimento do nervo obturador ou de outro nervo adicional ao bloqueio "3 em 1", complementava-se a investiga√ß√£o com estudo radiogr√°fico e tomodensiom√©trico com o prop√≥sito de estabelecer correspond√™ncia com a anatomia p√©lvica. RESULTADOS: O envolvimento dos nervos f√™moro cut√Ęneo lateral e obturador n√£o foram constantes, ao contr√°rio do nervo femoral. No estudo, nenhum bloqueio "3 em 1" completo com inje√ß√£o √ļnica (G1 se manifestou, e sim um bloqueio "2 em 1", com a participa√ß√£o eventual do ramo femoral do nervo genitofemoral (bloqueio "2,5 em 1". Contudo, quando foram utilizados cateteres curtos (G2, obteve-se bloqueio "3 em 1" em apenas um paciente, ao passo que com cateteres longos (G3 introduzidos no sentido cef√°lico at√© 18 cm no espa√ßo subfascial il√≠aco, tr√™s bloqueios "3 em 1" superdimensionados foram registrados, pelo envolvimento adicional dos nervos fibular comum em dois pacientes e o nervo tibial em um paciente. CONCLUS√ēES: Apesar da pequena amostra, com inje√ß√£o √ļnica (G1, sempre se obteve um bloqueio "2

  14. Micromammals in the diet of the Long-eared Owl (<em>Asio otusem> at the W.W.F.'s Oasi San Giuliano (Matera, South Italy

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    Francesco Cecere

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of small mammals in the winter diet of a dormitory made up of 5 specimens living at the WWF's Oasi San Giuliano (province of Matera is analysed in the following study. The data confirm the presence of small mammals, Microtinae in particular, as a main prey of the Long-eared Owl. 1921 prey-individuals totalling 37695 grams in biomass were found. Rodentia are dominant (86.93% of the biomass; <em>Microtus saviiem> is of particular importance and represents 61.06% of the total biomass and was found in 60.42% of the pellets found. The second most frequently hunted species is the <em>Apodemus> sp.: 24.06% of the biomass, 37.08% of the frequency. The other mammals preyed on (<em>Suncus etruscuem>s, <em>Crocidura> sp., <em>Pipistrellus> sp., <em>Vespertilius> sp., <em>Rattus> sp., <em>Moscardinus avellanariusem> are of little importance: 1.27% of the biomass. The owls preyed upon 9 of the 11 species of mammals present (the <em>Talpa> sp. and the <em>Mus domesticusem> are absent. Affinity among different periods, estimated through Sorensen's Index, was found to be medium-high (0.67-0.72. The data analysis confirms the stenophagy of the Long-eared Owl, in this area that is characterised by extensive cereal cultivation and few shrubs and trees. In comparison with other Italian localities, a greater number of preyed species was recorded (8 mammals, 9 birds, 1 insect. Roost owls preyed mainly upon <em>Chiroptera> (0.36% compared with 0.1-0.2. <em>Myotis capacciniiem> and <em>Pipistrellus saviiem> were also found in the diet of the Long-eared Owl for the first time in Italy.

  15. Dermatoses em renais cronicos em terapia dialitica

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    Luis Alberto Batista Peres

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: As desordens cut√Ęneas e das mucosas s√£o comuns em pacientes em hemodi√°lise a longo prazo. A di√°lise prolonga a expectativa de vida, dando tempo para a manifesta√ß√£o destas anormalidades. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a preval√™ncia de problemas dermatol√≥gicos em pacientes com doen√ßa renal cr√īnica (DRC em hemodi√°lise. M√©todos: Cento e quarenta e cinco pacientes com doen√ßa renal cr√īnica em hemodi√°lise foram estudados. Todos os pacientes foram completamente analisados para as altera√ß√Ķes cut√Ęneas, de cabelos, mucosas e unhas por um √ļnico examinador e foram coletados dados de exames laboratoriais. Os dados foram armazenados em um banco de dados do Microsolft Excel e analisados por estat√≠stica descritiva. As vari√°veis cont√≠nuas foram comparadas pelo teste t de Student e as vari√°veis categ√≥ricas utilizando o teste do qui-quadrado ou o teste Exato de Fischer, conforme adequado. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 145 pacientes, com idade m√©dia de 53,6 ¬Ī 14,7 anos, predominantemente do sexo masculino (64,1% e caucasianos (90,0%. O tempo m√©dio de di√°lise foi de 43,3 ¬Ī 42,3 meses. As principais doen√ßas subjacentes foram: hipertens√£o arterial em 33,8%, diabetes mellitus em 29,6% e glomerulonefrite cr√īnica em 13,1%. As principais manifesta√ß√Ķes dermatol√≥gicas observadas foram: xerose em 109 (75,2%, equimose em 87 (60,0%, prurido em 78 (53,8% e lentigo em 33 (22,8% pacientes. Conclus√£o: O nosso estudo mostrou a presen√ßa de mais do que uma dermatose por paciente. As altera√ß√Ķes cut√Ęneas s√£o frequentes em pacientes em di√°lise. Mais estudos s√£o necess√°rios para melhor caracteriza√ß√£o e manejo destas dermatoses.

  16. Estoques totais de carbono org√Ęnico e seus compartimentos em argissolo sob floresta e sob milho cultivado com aduba√ß√£o mineral e org√Ęnica Total stocks of organic carbon and its pools in acrisols under forest and under maize cultivated with mineral and organic fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. C. Leite

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Os estoques de mat√©ria org√Ęnica do solo e seus compartimentos s√£o importantes na disponibilidade de nutrientes, agrega√ß√£o do solo e no fluxo de gases de efeito estufa entre a superf√≠cie terrestre e a atmosfera. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: (a avaliar os efeitos de sistemas de produ√ß√£o de milho sob aduba√ß√£o org√Ęnica e mineral nos estoques totais de carbono org√Ęnico (COT e nitrog√™nio (NT e de compartimentos de carbono (C org√Ęnico, em um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo, e (b estimar a contribui√ß√£o desses sistemas no seq√ľestro ou emiss√£o de CO2 atmosf√©rico. Os sistemas de produ√ß√£o, durante 16 anos, constaram de combina√ß√Ķes entre dois n√≠veis (0 e 1 de composto org√Ęnico, nas doses de 0 e 40 m¬≥ ha-1 (AO, e tr√™s n√≠veis (0, 1 e 2 de adubo mineral, nas doses de 0, 250 (AM1, e 500 kg ha-1 (AM2 da f√≥rmula 4-14-8. Uma √°rea sob Floresta Atl√Ęntica (FA adjacente ao experimento foi amostrada e usada como refer√™ncia de um estado de equil√≠brio. Os sistemas de produ√ß√£o em que o composto org√Ęnico foi adicionado apresentaram maiores estoques de COT, NT, carbono da fra√ß√£o leve (C FL e carbono l√°bil (C L do que os sistemas sem aduba√ß√£o ou apenas com aduba√ß√£o mineral, o que confirma a aduba√ß√£o org√Ęnica como estrat√©gia de manejo importante para a melhoria da qualidade do solo. No entanto, no solo sob FA, os estoques de COT, NT e dos compartimentos de C foram maiores do que aqueles observados nos sistemas de produ√ß√£o. Em virtude da maior sensibilidade, os estoques dos compartimentos do C FL e do C L foram reduzidos em maior intensidade do que os estoques de COT, raz√£o por que podem ser usados como indicadores da interfer√™ncia antr√≥pica ou das mudan√ßas no manejo sobre o estado da mat√©ria org√Ęnica do solo.Soil organic matter and its different pools have key importance in nutrient availability, soil aggregation, and in the greenhouse gas fluxes between the earth surface and the atmosphere. The objectives of this study

  17. Protective Effect of <em>T. violaceaem> Rhizome Extract Against Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats

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    Olorunnisola Sinbad Olorunnisola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the effect of methanolic extract of <em>T. violaceaem> rhizomes on high cholesterol (2% diet fed rats (HCD. At the end of 4 weeks, serum total protein, albumin, reduced glutathione (GSH, and markers of oxidative stress viz., catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS‚ÄĒa marker of lipid peroxidation, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in the serum, aorta, liver and heart of HCD and normal rats were assessed and compared. A significant (<em>p> < 0.05 elevation in TBARS, and a reduction (<em>p> < 0.05 in serum total protein, albumin, GSH and antioxidant enzyme activities was observed in tissues of HCD fed rats compared with the normal group. Co-administration of crude extracts of <em>T. violaceaem> rhizomes protected the liver, heart, serum and aorta against HCD-induced lipid peroxidation in a dose dependant manner. The activities of the extract (500 mg/kg compared favorably with gemfibrozil. The extracts also protected against HCD-induced reduction in serum total protein, GSH and restored the activities of antioxidant tissues (liver, heart and aorta enzymes to near normal values. This result suggested that consumption of <em>T. violaceaem> rhizome may help to protect against hypercholesterolemia- induced oxidative stress diseases in the heart and liver.

  18. Extramedullary Relapse Following Total Marrow and Lymphoid Irradiation in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Stein, Anthony [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Tsai, Nicole [Department of Biostatistics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Schultheiss, Timothy E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Palmer, Joycelynne [Department of Biostatistics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Liu, An [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Rosenthal, Joseph [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Department of Pediatrics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Forman, Stephen J. [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Wong, Jeffrey Y.C., E-mail: jwong@coh.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Approximately 5% to 20% of patients who undergo total body irradiation (TBI) in preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can develop extramedullary (EM) relapse. Whereas total marrow and lymphoid irradiation (TMLI) provides a more conformally targeted radiation therapy for patients, organ sparing has the potential to place the patient at a higher risk for EM relapse than TBI. This study evaluated EM relapse in patients treated with TMLI at our institution. Methods and Materials: Patients eligible for analysis had been enrolled in 1 of 3 prospective TMLI trials between 2006 and 2012. The TMLI targeted bones, major lymph node chains, liver, spleen, testes, and brain, using image-guided tomotherapy with total dose ranging from 12 to 15 Gy. Results: A total of 101 patients with a median age of 47 years were studied. The median follow-up was 12.8 months. Incidence of EM relapse and bone marrow (BM) relapse were 12.9% and 25.7%, respectively. Of the 13 patients who had EM relapse, 4 also had BM relapse, and 7 had EM disease prior to HCT. There were a total of 19 EM relapse sites as the site of initial recurrence: 11 soft tissue, 6 lymph node, 2 skin. Nine of these sites were within the target region and received ‚Č•12 Gy. Ten initial EM relapse sites were outside of the target region: 5 sites received 10.1 to 11.4 Gy while 5 sites received <10 Gy. Pretransplantation EM was the only significant predictor of subsequent EM relapse. The cumulative incidence of EM relapse was 4% at 1 year and 11.4% at 2 years. Conclusions: EM relapse incidence was as frequent in regions receiving ‚Č•10 Gy as those receiving <10 Gy. EM relapse rates following TMLI that included HCT regimens were comparable to published results with regimens including TBI and suggest that TMLI is not associated with an increased EM relapse risk.

  19. Extramedullary Relapse Following Total Marrow and Lymphoid Irradiation in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyun; Stein, Anthony; Tsai, Nicole; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Palmer, Joycelynne; Liu, An; Rosenthal, Joseph; Forman, Stephen J.; Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Approximately 5% to 20% of patients who undergo total body irradiation (TBI) in preparation for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can develop extramedullary (EM) relapse. Whereas total marrow and lymphoid irradiation (TMLI) provides a more conformally targeted radiation therapy for patients, organ sparing has the potential to place the patient at a higher risk for EM relapse than TBI. This study evaluated EM relapse in patients treated with TMLI at our institution. Methods and Materials: Patients eligible for analysis had been enrolled in 1 of 3 prospective TMLI trials between 2006 and 2012. The TMLI targeted bones, major lymph node chains, liver, spleen, testes, and brain, using image-guided tomotherapy with total dose ranging from 12 to 15 Gy. Results: A total of 101 patients with a median age of 47 years were studied. The median follow-up was 12.8 months. Incidence of EM relapse and bone marrow (BM) relapse were 12.9% and 25.7%, respectively. Of the 13 patients who had EM relapse, 4 also had BM relapse, and 7 had EM disease prior to HCT. There were a total of 19 EM relapse sites as the site of initial recurrence: 11 soft tissue, 6 lymph node, 2 skin. Nine of these sites were within the target region and received ‚Č•12 Gy. Ten initial EM relapse sites were outside of the target region: 5 sites received 10.1 to 11.4 Gy while 5 sites received <10 Gy. Pretransplantation EM was the only significant predictor of subsequent EM relapse. The cumulative incidence of EM relapse was 4% at 1 year and 11.4% at 2 years. Conclusions: EM relapse incidence was as frequent in regions receiving ‚Č•10 Gy as those receiving <10 Gy. EM relapse rates following TMLI that included HCT regimens were comparable to published results with regimens including TBI and suggest that TMLI is not associated with an increased EM relapse risk

  20. Three-dimensional total variation norm for SPECT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Mikael; Bone, Dianna; Elmqvist, H.

    2001-01-01

    The total variation (TV) norm has been described in literature as a method for reducing noise in two-dimensional (2D) images. At the same time, the TV-norm is very good at recovering edges in images, without introducing ringing or edge artefacts. It has also been proposed as a 2D regularisation function in Bayesian reconstruction, implemented in an expectation maximisation (EM) algorithm, and called TV-EM. The TV-EM was developed for 2D SPECT imaging, and the algorithm is capable of smoothing noise while maintaining edges without introducing artefacts. We have extended the TV-norm to take into account the third spatial dimension, and developed an iterative EM algorithm based on the three-dimensional (3D) TV-norm, which we call TV3D-EM. This takes into account the correlation between transaxial sections in SPECT, due to system resolution. We have compared the 2D and 3D algorithms using reconstructed images from simulated projection data. Phantoms used were a homogeneous sphere, and a 3D head phantom based on the Shepp-Logan phantom. The TV3D-EM algorithm yielded somewhat lower noise levels than TV-EM. The noise in the TV3D-EM had similar correlation in transaxial and longitudinal sections, which was not the case for TV-EM, or any 2D reconstruction method. In particular, longitudinal sections from TV3D-EM were perceived as less noisy when compared to TV-EM. The use of 3D reconstruction should also be advantageous if compensation for distant dependent collimator blurring is incorporated in the iterative algorithm

  1. Efeito do teor de sólidos e da concentração de sacarose na acidificação, firmeza e viabilidade de bactérias do iogurte e probióticas em leite fermentado Effect of total solids and sucrose contents on acidity, firmness and viability of yogurt and probiotic bacteria in fermented milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricê N. Oliveira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Doze lotes de leites fermentados foram preparados a 42¬ļC nos quais as vari√°veis estudadas foram o teor de s√≥lidos totais (12 e 15%, o teor de sacarose (0% e 8% e o tipo de co-cultura (Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ; Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus acidophilus ; Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Par√Ęmetros cin√©ticos para a diminui√ß√£o do pH at√© 4,5 foram calculados. Determina√ß√Ķes f√≠sico-qu√≠micas e microbiol√≥gicas foram realizadas ap√≥s um e sete dias de armazenamento dos produtos a 4¬ļC. Com o aumento do teor de s√≥lidos totais e adi√ß√£o de sacarose, a atividade de √°gua do leite diminuiu e o tempo para atingir pH 4,5 variou conforme a co-cultura empregada. Os leites fermentados por S. thermophilus e L. acidphilus (STLA apresentaram p√≥s-acidifica√ß√£o mais acentuada. Aqueles fermentados por S. thermophilus e L. rhamnosus (STLR foram mais est√°veis. Os leites contendo maiores teores de s√≥lidos totais foram aqueles com maior acidez total independente da co-cultura usada. Com o aumento do teor de sacarose e de s√≥lidos sol√ļveis houve um aumento da firmeza usando-se as co-culturas STLR e STLA. Ap√≥s sete dias, o n√ļmero de bact√©rias do iogurte e as probi√≥ticas n√£o variou significativamente. Em todos os lotes, o n√ļmero de bact√©rias probi√≥ticas ficou acima do sugerido pela literatura.Twelve batches of fermented milk were prepared at 42¬ļC where the studied variables were total solids content (12 and 15%, sucrose concentration (0 and 8%, and co-culture type (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus ; Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus ; Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Kinetic parameters to decrease pH until 4.5 were calculated. Physico-chemical and microbiological determinations were carried out on products after 1 and 7 days of storage at 4¬ļC. The increase in total solids and

  2. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  3. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  4. Technique of total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy

  5. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  6. VALIDACI√ďN DE TRES SUPLEMENTOS ALIMENTICIOS ELABORADOS A PARTIR DE SUBPRODUCTOS AGROINDUSTRIALES DE POSCOSECHA EN FUNCI√ďN DEL INCREMENTO EN S√ďLIDOS TOTALES DE LA LECHE VALIDA√á√ÉO DE TR√äS SUPLEMENTOS ALIMENTARES FEITOS A PARTIR DA P√ďS-COLHEITA DE SUBPRODUTOS AGROINDUSTIAIS EM FUN√á√ÉO DO AUMENTO DE S√ďLIDOS TOTAIS DO LEITE VALIDATION OF THREE FOOD SUPPLEMENTS MADE FROM POST-HARVEST AGRO-INDUSTRIAL IN TERMS OF INCREASED MILK TOTAL SOLID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA ANDREA HENAO C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realiz√≥ un proyecto de acompa√Īamiento a una planta de procesamiento, que aprovecha los subproductos de poscosecha, en la producci√≥n de un suplemento alimenticio para ganado bovino. El proceso comprendi√≥ la evaluaci√≥n de tres suplementos en su composici√≥n bromatol√≥gica para conocer su contenido y su an√°lisis microbiol√≥gico para determinar su inocuidad. Finalmente se realiz√≥ la validaci√≥n de estos tres suplementos alimenticios conducente a determinar si su ingesta incrementaba el porcentaje de s√≥lidos totales de la leche del lote de animales que lo consumieron. Los suplementos alimenticios que se desarrollaron a partir de subproductos poscosecha, generados durante la transformaci√≥n de pulpas y n√©ctares, no presentaron microorganismos pat√≥genos, ni cuantificaci√≥n de aflatoxinas, adem√°s de tener contenidos de fibra, prote√≠na y grasa representativas para la complementaci√≥n de la alimentaci√≥n animal. Posteriormente, se validaron en hatos lecheros los suplementos, con el objetivo de determinar aquel que expresara un mejor rendimiento en s√≥lidos totales. Dichos suplementos se pusieron a prueba, mediante contrastaci√≥n estad√≠stica, en procura de determinar si su uso incrementa los s√≥lidos totales de la leche, en comparaci√≥n con una alimentaci√≥n tradicional. Los resultados arrojaron que en particular el uso del suplemento B genera incrementos significativos en los s√≥lidos totales de la lecheRealizamos um projeto de acompanhamento de uma planta de processamento que tira proveito dos produtos p√≥s-colheita na produ√ß√£o de um suplemento alimentar para o gado. 0 processo envolveu a avalia√ß√£o de tr√™s suplementos em sua composi√ß√£o qu√≠mica para subst√Ęncias e an√°lises microbiol√≥gicas para determinar a sua seguran√ßa. Finalmente, a valida√ß√£o destes tr√™s princip√°is suplementos diet√©ticos para determinar se o seu consumo aumentou a porcentagem de s√≥lidos totais do leite do lote de animais que consumiram. Os suplementos

  7. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  8. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  9. <em>Trichoderma harzianumem> como promotor del crecimiento vegetal del maracuy√° (<em>Passiflora edulisem> var. <em>flavicarpa> Degener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cubillos-Hinojosa Juan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se realiz√≥ un experimento en condiciones de laboratorio e invernadero, con el prop√≥sito de evaluar el efecto de la cepa nativa TCN-014 y la cepa comercial TCC-005 de <em>Trichoderma harzianumem> sobre la germinaci√≥n y el crecimiento temprano del maracuy√°. Se adecuaron in√≥culos de 104, 106 y 108 conidias/mL para cada cepa y se aplicaron a semillas de maracuy√°; se evalu√≥ el n√ļmero de semillas germinadas durante 15 d√≠as; se calcul√≥ el porcentaje de germinaci√≥n, el √≠ndice de velocidad de germinaci√≥n y el tiempo medio de germinaci√≥n. Posteriormente las semillas germinadas se llevaron a condiciones de invernadero y transcurridos dos meses se midi√≥ la altura de las pl√°ntulas, el grosor del tallo, el n√ļmero de hojas, la longitud de la ra√≠z y el peso seco total. Todos los tratamientos estimularon la germinaci√≥n de las semillas y el desarrollo de las pl√°ntulas; sin embargo la cepa nativa en concentraciones 106 y 108 conidias/mL mostr√≥ resultados superiores frente a la cepa comercial. Los resultados sugieren una acci√≥n efectiva de <em>T. harzianumem> como promotor de crecimiento vegetal, mostrando que tiene potencial para la elaboraci√≥n de un bioproducto √ļtil para el manejo ecol√≥gico del cultivo de maracuy√°.

  10. Complaints against an EMS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Christopher B; Pons, Peter T; Pi, Randy

    2003-11-01

    Complaints against Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agencies represent a concerning and potentially time-consuming problem for all involved in the delivery of prehospital emergency medical care. The objective of this study was to identify the source of complaints against an EMS system to help focus quality and performance improvement and customer service efforts. We conducted a retrospective review of complaints filed against a busy urban EMS agency over a 6-year period. All complaints were included, totaled by season and by year, and categorized by originator and nature of the complaint. A total of 286 complaints were registered during the 6-year period, with an average of 48 per year and 9.3 per 10,000 responses. The most common originators of complaints were patients (53%) followed by medical personnel (19%) and family members or friends (12%). Rude behavior accounted for 23% of the complaints registered, followed by technical skills (20%), transport problems (18%), and loss of belongings (13%). The identification of areas of dissatisfaction will allow focused quality and performance improvement programs directed at customer service and risk management.

  11. Substituição parcial e total da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína dos farelos de canola e algodão em dietas para alevinos de piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, 1988 Partial and total replacement of soybean meal protein by canola or cottonseed meal protein in diets of Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, 1988 fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Christina Esper Amaro de Faria

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a substitui√ß√£o da prote√≠na do farelo de soja (FS pela prote√≠na do farelo de canola (FC e farelo de algod√£o (FA, em dietas para alevinos de piavu√ßu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Characiformes, Anostomidae, realizou-se um experimento com dura√ß√£o de 60 dias, utilizando-se 300 alevinos, com peso inicial m√©dio de 0,10 g distribu√≠dos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e cinco repeti√ß√Ķes. As dietas isoprot√©icas foram formuladas de forma a terem o FS, FC, FA, FS+FC, FS+FA e FC+FA como fonte prot√©ica. Os alevinos, alimentados com dietas contendo FS e FS+FA, apresentaram valores de peso final e taxa de efici√™ncia prot√©ica superiores (p 0,05 pelo uso das diferentes dietas. Observou-se redu√ß√£o linear dos valores de peso final, da taxa de efici√™ncia prot√©ica e aumento linear (p The effects of soybean meal (SB protein replacement by canola meal (CN or cottonseed meal (CT protein in diets of Leporinus macrocephalus (Characiformes, Anostomidae fingerlings are provided. Assay was carried out during 60 days. Three hundred fingerlings with mean initial weight of 1.00g were distributed in a block randomized design with six treatments and five replicates. Isoprotein diets contained SB, CN, CT, SB+CN, SB+CT and CN+CT as protein source. Fingerlings fed on diets with SB, SB+CN, SB+CT showed better final mean weight and protein efficiency rate values (p 0.05 by different diets linear reduction (p macrocephalus fingerlings, replacing 50.00% of SB protein.

  12. Avalia√ß√£o do padr√£o coliformes a 45¬ļC e compara√ß√£o da efici√™ncia das t√©cnicas dos tubos m√ļltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detec√ß√£o de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em alimentos Coliforms at 45¬ļc and comparison of most probable number method and Petrifilm EC for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli of foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Coliformes fecais s√£o definidos como coliformes capazes de fermentar a lactose com produ√ß√£o de g√°s em 48 h a 45¬ļC. Escherichia coli, juntamente com algumas cepas de Enterobacter e Klebsiella, podem apresentar essas caracter√≠sticas. Entretanto, apenas a presen√ßa de Escherichia coli em alimentos indica contamina√ß√£o fecal por ser encontrada em grande quantidade no trato gastrointestinal do homem e animais de sangue quente, n√£o sendo isolada normalmente em outros nichos. A denomina√ß√£o cl√°ssica de coliformes fecais foi alterada para coliformes a 45¬ļC, na Resolu√ß√£o n¬ļ 12 da Ag√™ncia Nacional de Vigil√Ęncia Sanit√°ria. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presen√ßa de E. coli entre os coliformes a 45¬ļC e comparar a efici√™ncia das t√©cnicas dos tubos m√ļltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detec√ß√£o de coliformes totais e E. coli em queijo Minas, ling√ľi√ßa frescal, hortali√ßas e fub√°. Petrifilm EC mostrou-se mais sens√≠vel na detec√ß√£o de E. coli em rela√ß√£o ao m√©todo de tubos m√ļltiplos, o qual apresentou resultados falso-negativos ou contagens subestimadas de E. coli, principalmente para amostras de alimentos de origem animal. Petrifilm EC foi o mais eficiente e pr√°tico, sendo um m√©todo alternativo adequado para a enumera√ß√£o de coliformes totais e E. coli em alimentos.Fecal coliforms are defined as coliforms that ferment lactose with gas production within 48 hours at 45¬ļC. Escherichia coli and some strains of Enterobacter and Klebsiella show these same characteristics. However, only the presence of E. coli can indicate fecal contamination of foods, because it is abundantly found in the intestinal tract of all warm-blooded animals, including the humans, and it is not usually found in others niches. The classic denomination of fecal coliforms was changed to coliforms at 45¬ļC in the Resolution n¬ļ 12/2001 of the National Surveillance Agency of Brazil. The objectives of this study were to analyse the presence of E. coli among the

  13. PREVALENCE AND ETIOLOGY OF SUBCLINIC BOVINE MASTITES IN DAIRY PROPERTIES WITH MECHANICAL MILKING PROCESS IN THE STATE OF GOI√ĀS PREVAL√äNCIA E ETIOLOGIA DE MASTITE BOVINA SUBCL√ćNICA EM PROPRIEDADES DO ESTADO DE GOI√ĀS QUE UTILIZAM ORDENHADEIRAS NA OBTEN√á√ÉO DO LEITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Andrade

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Samples from 942 cows were tested by the California Mastitis Test ‚Äď CMT. Most of them were black and white holstein, apparently healthy animals, from 25 dairy farms, located in the State of Goi√°s, in which milking process was made mechanically. It was found that 375 (39.8% animals showed positive results to CMT in values ranging from +, ++, +++. Milk from each CMT reactive teat, 667 samples in total, was bacteriologically analised in an attempt to isolate and identify microorganisms associated with intramammarian infections, obtaining 938 strains in pure culture or in association, as follows: <em>Staphylococcus> <em>aureus>, 291 times (30.2%; <em>Corynebacterium> <em>bovis>, 120 times (12.5%; coagulase negative <em>Staphylococcus>, 112 times (11.6%; <em>Streptococcus> <em>agalactiae>, 14 times (1.5%; <em>Streptococcus> <em>uberis>, 36 times (3.7%; <em>Streptococcus> <em>pyogenes>, 12 times (1.2%; <em>Streptococcus> spp, 66 times (6.9%; <em>Pseudomonas> spp., 96 times (10.0%; <em>Corynebacterium> <em>pyogenes>, 24 times (2.5%; <em>Escherichia> <em>coli>, 60 times (6.2%; <em>Nocardia> spp.p. 14 times (1.5% and others, 93 times (9.6%. These microorganisms were considered as being either primarily pathogens (55.8% or contaminants (41.6%.

    KEY-WORDS: Subclinical mastitis; primarily pathogens; contaminant pathogens.

    Foram submetidas ao California Mastitis Test (CMT 942 vacas, em sua maioria da ra√ßa holandesa preta e branca, aparentemente saud√°veis, de 25 propriedades leiteiras, que utilizavam ordenhadeira mec√Ęnica na obten√ß√£o do leite, localizadas no Estado de Goi√°s. Observou-se que 375 (39,8% animais apresentaram resultado de +, ++, +++ ao CMT. Os leites de cada teto que reagiram ao CMT, perfazendo

  14. Total Quality Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  15. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...

  16. Dermatologia veterin√°ria em animais de companhia

    OpenAIRE

    Pinho, Renato Martins

    2015-01-01

    Disserta√ß√£o de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterin√°ria, Ci√™ncias Veterin√°rias A Dermatologia, em Medicina Veterin√°ria, √© uma √°rea que representa entre 25 a 30% do total de consultas em animais de companhia, apresentando uma rela√ß√£o de proximidade crescente em rela√ß√£o √† medicina humana. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos principais os seguintes estudos de caso: 1) Determina√ß√£o da incid√™ncia de afe√ß√Ķes dermatol√≥gicas e caracteriza√ß√£o dos animais admitidos √† consulta de especialida...

  17. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien‚ÄďDindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n‚Ää=‚Ää2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n‚Ää=‚Ää1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450‚Äď540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266‚ÄämL (range 100‚Äď400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8‚Äď24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  18. Marketing em moda

    OpenAIRE

    Le√£es, Sabrina Durgante

    2008-01-01

    Disserta√ß√£o de mestrado em Design e Marketing O actual estado do Marketing em Moda √© uma das quest√Ķes ainda complexa com que se debate a sociedade global. As quest√Ķes do Marketing em Moda percorrem alguns aspectos fundamentais tais como as constantes muta√ß√Ķes do meio envolvente, a forma de como √© percebida e comunicada a identidade das marcas de moda, em busca da melhor forma de segmentar o mercado e definir o seu posicionamento, bem como a reac√ß√£o ao produto de moda do consumidor final. ...

  19. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979‚Äď2000 for the site at 58.3¬į N and 26.5¬į E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February‚ÄďApril was 3 ¬Ī 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ¬Ī 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987‚Äď1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April‚ÄďMay and summer (June‚ÄďAugust total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere ‚Äď composition and chemistry; volcanic effects ‚Äď Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  20. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  1. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest‚ĄĘ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest‚ĄĘ. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  2. EMS call center models with and without function differentiation: a comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buuren, M.; Kommer, G.J.; van der Mei, R.D.; Bhulai, Sandjai

    2017-01-01

    In pre-hospital health care the call center plays an important role in the coordination of emergency medical services (EMS). An EMS call center handles inbound requests for EMS and dispatches an ambulance if necessary. The time needed for triage and dispatch is part of the total response time to the

  3. Dynamical characteristics of an electromagnetic field under conditions of total reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekshaev, Aleksandr Ya

    2018-04-01

    The dynamical characteristics of electromagnetic fields include energy, momentum, angular momentum (spin) and helicity. We analyze their spatial distributions near the planar interface between two transparent and non-dispersive media, when the incident monochromatic plane wave with arbitrary polarization is totally reflected, and an evanescent wave is formed in the medium with lower optical density. Based on the recent arguments in favor of the Minkowski definition of the electromagnetic momentum in a material medium (Philbin 2011 Phys. Rev. A 83 013823; Philbin and Allanson 2012 86 055802; Bliokh et al 2017 Phys. Rev. Lett. 119 073901), we derive the explicit expressions for the dynamical characteristics in both media, with special attention to their behavior at the interface. In particular, the ‚Äėextraordinary‚Äô spin and momentum components orthogonal to the plane of incidence are described, and a canonical (spin-orbital) momentum decomposition is performed that contains no singular terms. The field energy, helicity, the spin momentum and orbital momentum components are everywhere regular but experience discontinuities at the interface; the spin components parallel to the interface appear to be continuous, which testifies to the consistency of the adopted Minkowski picture. The results supply a meaningful example of the electromagnetic momentum decomposition, with separation of spatial and polarization degrees of freedom, in inhomogeneous media, and can be used in engineering the structured fields designed for optical sorting, dispatching and micromanipulation.

  4. Fauna de Campopleginae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) em hortas org√Ęnicas em Araraquara e S√£o Carlos, SP, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Sandonato, Diogo Loibel; Onody, Helena Carolina; Penteado-Dias, Angélica Maria

    2010-01-01

    Fauna de Campopleginae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) em hortas org√Ęnicas em Araraquara e S√£o Carlos, SP, Brasil. De mar√ßo de 2006 a fevereiro 2007 foram realizadas doze amostragens utilizando armadilhas Malaise em cada uma das tr√™s √°reas de cultivos org√Ęnicos estudadas. Um total de 1773 esp√©cimes foram identificados em dez g√™neros de Campopleginae: Campoctonus Viereck, 1912, Campoletis F√∂ster, 1869, Casinaria Holmgren, 1859, Charops Holmgren, 1859, Cryptophion Viereck, 1913, Diadegma F√∂ster, 1...

  5. Total 2004 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  6. Total synthesis of ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Akinari; Isobe, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Something fishy: Ciguatoxin (see structure) is one of the principal toxins involved in ciguatera poisoning and the target of a total synthesis involving the coupling of three segments. The key transformations in this synthesis feature acetylene-dicobalthexacarbonyl complexation.

  7. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  8. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty....

  9. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Feb-23...

  10. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus removal from brackish aquaculture wastewater using effective microorganism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, K. A.; Mohd, S. Y.; Sarah, R. S.; Mohd, H. Z.; Rasyidah, A.

    2017-09-01

    Aquaculture is one of dominant food based industry in the world with 8.3% annual growth rate and its development had led to adverse effect on the environment. High nutrient production in form of nitrogenous compound and phosphorus contributed to environmental deterioration such as eutrophication and toxicity to the industry. Usage of Effective Microorganism (EM), one of the biological approaches to remove Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Phosphorus (TP) in aquaculture pond was proposed. Samples were obtained from the Sea Bass intensive brackish aquaculture wastewater (AW) from fish farm at Juru, Penang and the parameters used to measure the removal of nitrogenous compounds include, pH, EM dosage, shaking, contact time and optimum variable conditions. From the study, for effective contact time, day 6 is the optimum contact time for both TN and TP with 99.74% and 62.78% removal respectively while in terms of optimum pH, the highest TN removal was at pH 7 with 66.89 %. The optimum dosage of EM is 1.5 ml with ratio 1:166 for 81.5 % TN removal was also found appropriate during the experiment. At varied optimum conditions of EM, the removal efficiency of TN and TP were 81.53% and 38.94% respectively while the removal mechanism of TN was highly dependent on the decomposition rate of specific bacteria such as Nitrobacter bacteria, Yeast and Bacillus Subtilis sp. The study has established the efficacy of EM's ability to treat excessive nutrient of TN and TP from AW.

  11. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    There has been a decline in the rate of hysterectomies in Denmark in general over the last thirteen years, together with a rise in the number of supravaginal operations over the last two years. The literature concerning the relative merits of the supravaginal and the total abdominal operation is ...... indicate a reduced frequency of orgasm after the total hysterectomy compared with the supravaginal operation. When there are technical problems peroperatively with an increased urologic risk the supravaginal operation is recommended....

  12. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  13. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule‚Äôs applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for ‚Äúcomplete‚ÄĚ decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  14. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule‚Äôs applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for ‚Äúcomplete‚ÄĚ decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  15. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center ‚ÄĒ EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  16. Antioxidative Characteristics of <em>Anisomeles indicaem> Extract and Inhibitory Effect of Ovatodiolide on Melanogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Chang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the antioxidant characteristics of <em>Anisomeles indicaem> methanol extract and the inhibitory effect of ovatodiolide on melanogenesis. In the study, the antioxidant capacities of <em>A. indicaem> methanol extract such as DPPH assay, ABTS radical scavenging assay, reducing capacity and metal ion chelating capacity as well as total phenolic content of the extract were investigated. In addition, the inhibitory effects of ovatodiolide on mushroom tyrosinase, B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase and melanin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Our results revealed that the antioxidant capacities of <em>A. indicaem> methanol extract increased in a dose-dependent pattern. The purified ovatodiolide inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 0.253 mM, the compound also effectively suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 0.469 mM and decreased the amount of melanin (IC50 = 0.435 mM in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells. Our results concluded that <em>A. indicaem> methanol extract displays antioxidant capacities and ovatodiolide purified from the extract inhibited melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. Hence, <em>A. indicaem> methanol extract and ovatodiolide could be applied as a type of dermatological whitening agent in skin care products.

  17. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; M√łller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ‚Č•10‚ÄČmin consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60‚ÄČmin of total MVPA and 0-15‚ÄČmin/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7‚ÄČh/day with over 3...

  18. Association between Polymorphisms in the Fatty Acid Desaturase Gene Cluster and the Plasma Triacylglycerol Response to an <em>n>-3 PUFA Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Vohl

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been reported to have a variety of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, a large inter-individual variability in the plasma lipid response to an omega-3 (<em>n>-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA supplementation is observed in different studies. Genetic variations may influence plasma lipid responsiveness. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a supplementation with <em>n>-3 PUFA on the plasma lipid profile in relation to the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the fatty acid desaturase (<em>FADS> gene cluster. A total of 208 subjects from Quebec City area were supplemented with 3 g/day of <em>n>-3 PUFA, during six weeks. In a statistical model including the effect of the genotype, the supplementation and the genotype by supplementation interaction, SNP rs174546 was significantly associated (<em>p> = 0.02 with plasma triglyceride (TG levels, pre- and post-supplementation. The <em>n>-3 supplementation had an independent effect on plasma TG levels and no significant genotype by supplementation interaction effects were observed. In summary, our data support the notion that the <em>FADS em>gene cluster is a major determinant of plasma TG levels. SNP rs174546 may be an important SNP associated with plasma TG levels and <em>FADS>1 gene expression independently of a nutritional intervention with <em>n>-3 PUFA.

  19. <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> in red foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> and badgers (<em>Meles melesem> from Central and Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During 2004-2005 and 2007-2008, 189 foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> and 6 badgers (<em>Meles melesem> were collected in different areas of Central Northern Italy (Piedmont, Liguria and Tuscany and examined for <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> infection. The prevalence of the infection was significantly different in the areas considered, with the highest values in the district of Imperia (80%, Liguria and in Montezemolo (70%, southern Piedmont; the prevalence in Tuscany was 7%. One badger collected in the area of Imperia turned out to be infected, representing the first report of the parasite in this species in Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role played by fox populations as reservoirs of infection and the probability of its spreading to domestic dogs.
    Riassunto <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> nella volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> e nel tasso (<em>Meles melesem> in Italia centro-settentrionale. Nel 2004-2005 e 2007-2008, 189 volpi (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> e 6 tassi (<em>Meles melesem> provenienti da differenti aree dell'Italia settentrionale e centrale (Piemonte, Liguria Toscana, sono stati esaminati per la ricerca di <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem>. La prevalenza del nematode è risultata significativamente diversa nelle varie zone, con valori elevati nelle zone di Imperia (80% e di Montezemolo (70%, provincia di Cuneo; la prevalenza in Toscana è risultata del 7%. Un tasso proveniente dall'area di Imperia è risultato positivo per A. vasorum; questa è la prima segnalazione del parassita in tale specie in Italia. Ulteriori studi sono necessari per valutare il potenziale della volpe come serbatoio e la possibilità di diffusione della parassitosi ai cani domestici.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4442

  20. Concentra√ß√Ķes s√©ricas de prote√≠na total, albumina e gamaglobulinas em gatos infectados pelo v√≠rus da imunodefici√™ncia felina Serum protein, albumin and gamaglobulin concentrations in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Manetti Armentano Rodrigues

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A infec√ß√£o pelo v√≠rus da imunodefici√™ncia dos felinos (VIF apresenta um curso prolongado, caracterizado por uma fase aguda, em que ocorre a replica√ß√£o viral no organismo hospedeiro, seguida de um per√≠odo de menor replica√ß√£o, no qual o animal √© praticamente assintom√°tico. Anos depois, no est√°dio final da infec√ß√£o, desenvolve-se a s√≠ndrome da imunodefici√™ncia dos felinos. Alguns animais infectados podem desenvolver hipergamaglobulinemia do tipo policlonal, principalmente na fase cr√īnica ou final da infec√ß√£o. Este fato tem sido atribu√≠do a um dist√ļrbio na produ√ß√£o de citocinas, causado pela infec√ß√£o viral de linf√≥citos T CD4+. N√£o obstante, pouco se sabe a respeito das concentra√ß√Ķes de prote√≠nas s√©ricas, especificamente gamaglobulinas, na fase aguda da infec√ß√£o pelo VIF. Objetivando esclarecer isto, procedeu-se √† determina√ß√£o das prote√≠nas s√©ricas de dez felinos, SRD de ambos os sexos, infectados aos 7 meses de idade com o VIF (clade B, antes da infec√ß√£o e 4, 8 e 12 meses ap√≥s. A infec√ß√£o pelo VIF foi confirmada pela soroconvers√£o, com a presen√ßa de anticorpos espec√≠ficos, pesquisados por meio da t√©cnica de imunoadsor√ß√£o enzim√°tica (ELISA e pela demonstra√ß√£o de material gen√©tico do v√≠rus (PCR. Outros dez felinos VIF-, da mesma faixa et√°ria foram mantidos como controle. Previamente √† infec√ß√£o experimental, todos os felinos eram negativos ao VIF, fato comprovado pela aus√™ncia de anticorpos espec√≠ficos. A prote√≠na s√©rica total foi determinada pelo m√©todo do buireto e as fra√ß√Ķes prot√©icas foram obtidas por eletroforese em tiras de acetato de celulose lidas por densitometria. Verificou-se aumento de gamaglobulinas (2,01 ¬Ī0,27g dL-1, PFeline immunodeficiency virus (FIV infection is known as a lifelong infection of cats. The acute phase corresponds to the period of viral replication in the host organism, followed by a period of lower replication when the animal is asymptomatic. Some years

  1. Total versus subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Anna Birthe

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications, with regard to urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, quality of life (SF-36), constipation, prolapse, satisfaction with sexual life, and pelvic pain at 1-year postoperative. Eighty...... women chose total and 105 women chose subtotal abdominal hysterectomy. No significant differences were found between the 2 operation methods in any of the outcome measures at 12 months. Fourteen women (15%) from the subtotal abdominal hysterectomy group experienced vaginal bleeding and three women had...

  2. Qualità totale e mobilità totale Total Quality and Total Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. ‚ÄúFIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers‚ÄĚ is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission‚Äôs White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on

  3. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  4. Total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novack, D.H.; Kiley, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The multitude of papers and conferences in recent years on the use of very large megavoltage radiation fields indicates an increased interest in total body, hemibody, and total nodal radiotherapy for various clinical situations. These include high dose total body irradiation (TBI) to destroy the bone marrow and leukemic cells and provide immunosuppression prior to a bone marrow transplant, high dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) prior to bone marrow transplantation in severe aplastic anemia, low dose TBI in the treatment of lymphocytic leukemias or lymphomas, and hemibody irradiation (HBI) in the treatment of advanced multiple myeloma. Although accurate provision of a specific dose and the desired degree of dose homogeneity are two of the physicist's major considerations for all radiotherapy techniques, these tasks are even more demanding for large field radiotherapy. Because most large field radiotherapy is done at an extended distance for complex patient geometries, basic dosimetry data measured at the standard distance (isocenter) must be verified or supplemented. This paper discusses some of the special dosimetric problems of large field radiotherapy, with specific examples given of the dosimetry of the TBI program for bone marrow transplant at the authors' hospital

  5. Total design of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of design as an art made not only for the people, but also by the people is an old dream going back at least to William Morris. It is, however, reappearing vigoriously in many kinds of design activism and grows out of the visions of a Total Design of society. The ideas of participation b...

  6. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  7. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  8. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental methods using real photon beams for measurements of total photonuclear absorption cross section ŌÉ(Tot : E/sub ő≥/) are recalled. Most recent ŌÉ(Tot : E/sub ő≥/)results for complex nuclei and in the nucleon resonance region are presented

  9. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  10. Total Water Management - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  11. Efeitos da inclus√£o do extrato oleoso de urucum em ra√ß√Ķes de poedeiras com substitui√ß√£o total ou parcial do milho pelo sorgo de baixo tanino - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.603 Effects of oily anatto extract inclusion in laying hens rations with total or partial replacement of maize by low tannin sorghum - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.603

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cl√°udia de Castro Goulart

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adi√ß√£o do extrato oleoso de urucum na s ra√ß√Ķes de poedeiras com substitui√ß√£o do milho pelo sorgo de baixo tanino. Foram utilizadas 324 aves em um delineament o inteiramente casualizado, com nove tratamentos, sendo uma ra√ß√£o controle e um fatorial 2 x 4 (dois n√≠veis de sorgo e quatro n√≠veis de extrato oleoso de urucum, com seis repeti√ß√Ķes de seis aves por unidade experimental. A substitui√ß√£o do milho pelo sorgo n√£o alterou o desempenho das aves (P>0,05, por√©m a inclus√£o do sorgo reduziu o peso do alb√ļmen e aumentou o peso e a porcentagem da casca (PThe aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of oily anatto extract addition on laying hens rations with replacement of maize by low tannin sorghum. Three hundred and twenty four birds were used in a completely randomized design, with nine treatments, a control diet and a 2 x 4 factorial (two sorghum levels and four levels of oily anatto extract, and six replicates of six birds each experimental unit. Replacement of maize by sorghum did not alter birds performance (P>0.05, however, sorghum inclusion decreased albumen weight and increased shell weight and percentage (P<0.05. There was a linear effect on yolk weight when anatto extract was added to rations with 100% of sorghum. It was verified that inclusion of 0.15% of anatto extract on sorghum ration promotes yolk coloration score similar to the one observed for maize ration.

  12. Total 2003 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the 2003 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, 4. quarter 2003 results, full year 2003 results, upstream (key figures, proved reserves), downstream key figures, chemicals key figures, parent company accounts and proposed dividends, 2004 sensitivities, summary and outlook, operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2003: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refinery throughput by region, refined product sales by region, chemicals), impact of allocating contribution of Cepsa to net operating income by business segment: equity in income (loss) and affiliates and other items, Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  13. TOTAL PERFORMANCE SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca »ėERBAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of the Balanced Scorecard from a measurement instrument to a strategic performance management tool and to highlight the advantages of implementing the Total Performance Scorecard, especially for Human Resource Management. The study has been accomplished using the methodology of bibliographic study and various secondary sources. Implementing the classical Balanced Scorecard indicated over the years, repeatedly failure. It can be indicated that the crucial level is determined by the learning and growth perspective. It has been developed from a human perspective, which focused on staff satisfaction, innovation perspective with focus on future developments. Integrating the Total Performance Scorecard in an overall framework assures the company’s success, by keeping track of the individual goals, the company’s objectives and strategic directions. Like this, individual identity can be linked to corporate brand, individual aspirations to business goals and individual learning objectives to needed organizational capabilities.

  14. Totally parallel multilevel algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1988-01-01

    Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.

  15. Total space in resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonacina, I.; Galesi, N.; Thapen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Rońć. 45, ńć. 5 (2016), s. 1894-1909 ISSN 0097-5397 R&D Projects: GA ńĆR GBP202/12/G061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : total space * resolution random CNFs * proof complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/15M1023269

  16. MFTF TOTAL benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, J.H.

    1979-06-01

    A benchmark of the TOTAL data base management system as applied to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) data base was implemented and run in February and March of 1979. The benchmark was run on an Interdata 8/32 and involved the following tasks: (1) data base design, (2) data base generation, (3) data base load, and (4) develop and implement programs to simulate MFTF usage of the data base

  17. Total - annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities and results of TOTAL S.A., french society on oil and gas. It deals with statistics, the managers, key information on financial data and risk factors, information on the Company, unresolved Staff Comments, employees, major Shareholders, consolidated statements, markets, security, financial risks, defaults dividend arrearages and delinquencies, controls and procedures, code of ethics and financial statements. (A.L.B.)

  18. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  19. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantolog√≠a de la Cl√≠nica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el a√Īo 2009, mediante pr√≥tesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, t√©cnica que se ha incorporado a la pr√°ctica estomatol√≥gica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se sigui√≥ un protocolo que comprendi√≥ una fase quir√ļrgica, procedimiento con o sin realizaci√≥n de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 a√Īos de edad, que acudi√≥ a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le hab√≠an elaborado tres pr√≥tesis en los √ļltimos dos a√Īos y ninguna reun√≠a los requisitos de retenci√≥n que √©l necesitaba para sentirse seguro y c√≥modo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacci√≥n total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad est√©tica y funcional.

  20. Some constructions on total labelling of m triangles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voon, Chen Huey; Hui, Liew How; How, Yim Kheng

    2016-01-01

    Let mK_3 = (V_m, E_m) be a finite disconnected graph consisting of m disjoint triangles K_3, where V_m is the set of vertices, E_m is the set of edges and both V_m and E_m are of the same size 3m. A total labelling of mK_3 is a function f which maps the elements in V_m and E_m to positive integer values, i.e. f : V_m ‚ą™ E_m ‚Üí {1, 2, 3,¬∑¬∑¬∑}. Let c be a positive integer. A triangle is said have a c-ErdŇĎsian triangle labelling if it is a total labelling f : V_m ‚ą™ E_m ‚Üí {c, c + 1, ¬∑¬∑¬∑, c + 6m ‚ąí 1} such that f (x) + f (y) = f (xy) for any x, y ‚ąą V_m and an edge xy ‚ąą E_m joining them. In order to find all the c-ErdŇĎsian triangle labelling, a straightforward is to use the exhaustive search. However, the exhaustive search is only able to find c-ErdŇĎsian triangle labelling for m ‚ȧ 5 due to combinatorial explosion. By studying the constant sum of vertex labels, we propose a strong permutation approach, which allows us to generate a certain classes of c-ErdŇĎsian triangle labelling up until m = 8.

  1. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom

    2004-01-01

    exist, however, especially within the ground and air ambulance service, and the EMS systems face several challenges. Main problems and challenges emphasized by the authors are: (1) Denmark: the dispatch centres are presently not under medical control and are without a national criteria based system......Emergency medicine service (EMS) systems in the five Nordic countries have more similarities than differences. One similarity is the involvement of anaesthesiologists as pre-hospital physicians and their strong participation for all critically ill and injured patients in-hospital. Discrepancies do....... Access to on-line medical advice of a physician is not available; (2) Finland: the autonomy of the individual municipalities and their responsibility to cover for primary and specialised health care, as well as the EMS, and the lack of supporting or demanding legislation regarding the EMS; (3) Iceland...

  2. Variabilità microsatellitare in popolazioni italiane di martora, <em>Martes martesem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licia Colli

    2003-10-01

    nelle componenti inter-gruppi (10,25% del valore totale ed intra-gruppi (89,75%, suggerendo l'esistenza di una differenziazione genetica tra i due <em>pools> di individui. √ą stato effettuato anche un test per l'assegnazione dei genotipi (genotype assignment test, Paetkau 1995, 1997; Waser & Strobeck, 1998, che ha prodotto risultati in stretto accordo con la provenienza geografica dei campioni analizzati: nonostante il piccolo numero d'individui provenienti dalla penisola, tutti i genotipi identificati sono stati assegnati con successo al gruppo d'origine. Tale risultato indica ulteriormente come la variabilit√† descritta dai 7 loci microsatellitari permetta di identificare con successo le differenze genetiche esistenti tra i due gruppi.

  3. Total Synthesis of Hyperforin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chi P; Maimone, Thomas J

    2015-08-26

    A 10-step total synthesis of the polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol (PPAP) natural product hyperforin from 2-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is reported. This route was enabled by a diketene annulation reaction and an oxidative ring expansion strategy designed to complement the presumed biosynthesis of this complex meroterpene. The described work enables the preparation of a highly substituted bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-1,3,5-trione motif in only six steps and thus serves as a platform for the construction of easily synthesized, highly diverse PPAPs modifiable at every position.

  4. Total quality is people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Confronted by changing market conditions and increased global competition, in 1983 the Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division (CNFD) of Westinghouse Electric embarked on an ambitious plan to make total quality the centerpiece of its long-term business strategy. Five years later, the division's efforts in making continuous quality improvement a way of life among its more than 2,000 employees gained national recognition when it was named a charter recipient of the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award. What CNFD achieved during the 1980s was a cultural transformation, characterized by an empowered work force committed to a common vision. The company's quality program development strategy is described

  5. Total quality accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AndrijaŇ°evińá Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of competitive "battle" shifted from the price towards non-price instruments, above all, towards quality that became the key variable for profitability increase and achievement of better comparative position of a company. Under such conditions, management of a company, which, according to the established and certified system of total quality, strives towards achieving of a better market position, faces the problem of quality cost measurement and determination. Management, above all, cost accounting can help in solving of this problem, but the question is how much of its potential is being used for that purpose.

  6. Total_Aktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S√łndergaard, Morten

    2008-01-01

    digitale medier er registreringen og muligheden for at opbevare og h√•ndtere digital data uden begr√¶nsninger. Oplevelse, registrering og bevaring knyttes sammen i en ny museal virkelighed, hvor samlingens s√¶rlige dokumentariske karakter og fokus, som er unikt for Museet for Samtidskunst, er i centrum...... at mikse deres personlige drinks. TOTAL_AKTION viser H√łrbar#3, som er en videreudvikling af den f√łrste version. METASYN af Carl Emil Carlsen: Metadata er centralt for Carl Emil Carlsens projekt, der betragter museets samling som et ‚ÄĚunivers‚ÄĚ af v√¶rker (analoge og digitale), beskrivelser og relationer. I...

  7. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  8. Total Factbook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2003. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  9. Total 2004 fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2004. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  10. TOTAL annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2003 annual report of the Group Total provides economical results and information of the society on the following topics: keys data, the corporate governance (Directors charter, board of directors, audit committee, nomination and remuneration committee, internal control procedures, compensation of directors and executive officers), the corporate social responsibility (environmental stewardship, the future of energy management, the safety enhancement, the human resources, ethics and local development), the investor relations, the management report, the upstream exploration and production, the downstream refining, marketing, trading and shipping, the chemicals and financial and legal information. (A.L.B.)

  11. Total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schr√łder, Henrik M.; Petersen, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful treatment of the osteoarthritic knee, which has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. The indication is a painful osteoarthritic knee with relevant radiographic findings and failure of conservative measures like painkillers and exercise...... surgeon seems to positively influence the rate of surgical complications and implant survival. The painful TKA knee should be thoroughly evaluated, but not revised except if a relevant indication can be established. The most frequent indications for revision are: aseptic loosening, instability, infection...

  12. Total synthesis of lactarane and marasmane sesquiterpenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bell, R.P.L.

    2000-01-01

    Lactarane and marasmane sesquiterpenes are mostly found in nature as metabolites from mushrooms of the genera <em>Lactarius> and <em>Russula> . Because a considerable number of these compounds possesses a variety of interesting biological activities, they are

  13. Development of Microsatellite Markers for the Korean Mussel, <em>Mytilus coruscusem> (Mytilidae Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Suck An

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available <em>Mytilus coruscusem> (family Mytilidae is one of the most important marine shellfish species in Korea. During the past few decades, this species has become endangered due to the loss of habitats and overfishing. Despite this species’ importance, information on its genetic background is scarce. In this study, we developed microsatellite markers for <em>M.> coruscusem> using next-generation sequencing. A total of 263,900 raw reads were obtained from a quarter-plate run on the 454 GS-FLX titanium platform, and 176,327 unique sequences were generated with an average length of 381 bp; 2569 (1.45% sequences contained a minimum of five di- to tetra-nucleotide repeat motifs. Of the 51 loci screened, 46 were amplified successfully, and 22 were polymorphic among 30 individuals, with seven of trinucleotide repeats and three of tetranucleotide repeats. All loci exhibited high genetic variability, with an average of 17.32 alleles per locus, and the mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.67 and 0.90, respectively. In addition, cross-amplification was tested for all 22 loci in another congener species, <em>M.> <em>galloprovincialis.> None of the primer pairs resulted in effective amplification, which might be due to their high mutation rates. Our work demonstrated the utility of next-generation 454 sequencing as a method for the rapid and cost-effective identification of microsatellites. The high degree of polymorphism exhibited by the 22 newly developed microsatellites will be useful in future conservation genetic studies of this species.

  14. TOTAL user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  15. A poliomielite em Sergipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A. Oliveira

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam estudo retrospectivo da poliomielite em Sergipe. Dividem o estudo em tr√™s per√≠odos levando em considera√ß√£o a taxa de notifica√ß√£o de casos positivos e enfatizam o per√≠odo que vai de 1979 a 1989, pelo estudo de 159 casos consecutivos. As seguintes informa√ß√Ķes foram levantadas para cada caso: sexo, idade, proced√™ncia, estado vacinai anterior e evolu√ß√£o cl√≠nica. S√£o tamb√©m avaliadas a incid√™ncia anual, rela√ß√£o incid√™ncia/cobertura vacinai e distribui√ß√£o geogr√°fica. Tecem coment√°rios sobre os surtos epid√™micos ocorridos em 1984 e 1986, sobre as altera√ß√Ķes na circula√ß√£o do poliov√≠rus selvagem (P1 para P3 e sobre problemas relacionados √† n√£o aquisi√ß√£o de imunidade em crian√ßas com esquema vacinal completo. Consideram a poliomielite controlada no Estado, mas enfatizam a necessidade de manuten√ß√£o de Vigil√Ęncia epidemiol√≥gica efetiva para todos os casos de paralisia aguda e fl√°cida em menores de 14 anos de idade.

  16. EM type radioactive standards. Radioaktivni etalony EM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The standard contains technical specifications and conditions of production, testing, packing, transport and storage of EM type planar calibration standards containing radionuclides /sup 14/C, /sup 60/Co, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 147/Pm, /sup 204/Tl, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am and natural U. The terminology is explained, the related Czechoslovak standards and legal prescriptions given and amendments to these prescriptions presented.

  17. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies Avaliação das respostas de anticorpos anti-cisticercos IgG (total e subclasses e IgE em amostras de líquido cefalorraquidiano de pacientes com neurocisticercose apresentando produção intratecal de anticorpos específicos IgG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA=1.17 and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49 and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46 and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12 and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85 and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60 and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.No presente estudo, uma rea√ß√£o imunoenzim√°tica (ELISA padronizada com o fluido vesicular de cisticercos de Taenia solium foi utilizada para avaliar as respostas de anticorpos anti-cisticercos IgG (total e subclasses e IgE em amostras de l√≠quido cefalorraquidiano (LCR de pacientes com neurocisticercose apresentando produ√ß√£o intratecal de anticorpos espec√≠ficos IgG e pacientes com outras desordens neurol√≥gicas. Os seguintes resultados foram obtidos: ELISA-IgG: 100% de sensibilidade (mediana das absorb√Ęncias das rea√ß√Ķes ELISA (MAE=1,17 e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG1: sensibilidade 72,7% (MAE=0,49 e especificidade 100%; ELISA-IgG2

  18. Lip√ɬ≠dios totais e per√Į¬¨¬Ā l de √ɬ°cidos graxos de √Ę‚ā¨Ňďsalgadinhos√Ę‚ā¨¬Ě comercializados em Campos dos Goitacazes, RJ
    Total fat and pro√Į¬¨¬Ā le of fatty acids in snacks in Campos dos Goitacazes, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. T. PESSANHA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Apesar do consumo de √Ę‚ā¨Ňďsalgadinhos√Ę‚ā¨¬Ě ter aumentado, ainda s√ɬ£o escassos dados sobre sua composi√ɬß√ɬ£o qu√ɬ≠mica. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de determinar os teores de lip√ɬ≠dios totais e per√Į¬¨¬Ā l de √ɬ°cidos graxos destes alimentos. Foram analisados 13 tipos de salgados fritos e 9 tipos de salgados assados. Os √ɬ°cidos graxos foram determinados por cromatogra√Į¬¨¬Ā a em fase gasosa. Os teores de lip√ɬ≠dios totais variaram de 2,7% a 28,9%. Os teores de √ɬ°cidos graxos saturados nos salgados fritos variaram entre 0,7% a 9,7% e nos assados entre 0,6% e 8,1%, com predom√ɬ≠nio dos √ɬ°cidos este√ɬ°rico (0,2% a 2,2% e palm√ɬ≠tico (0% a 5,9%. Quanto aos insaturados cis, a faixa de varia√ɬß√ɬ£o foi de 1,0% a 8,1% nos fritos e 0,5% a 12,7% nos assados, com predom√ɬ≠nio dos √ɬ°cidos essenciais linoleico (0,0% a 11,4% e linol√ɬ™nico (0,0% a 1,3%. Os √ɬ°cidos graxos trans, foram detectados em quase todos os salgados e os teores mais elevados foram encontrados nos salgados assados, principalmente nas empadas de frango e em past√ɬ©is de forno de frango (0 a 5,9%.

  19. Ovariossalpingo-histerectomia em cadelas: comparação da dor e análises cardiorrespiratória, pressórica e hemogasométrica nas abordagens convencional, por NOTES híbrida e NOTES total

    OpenAIRE

    Basso, P.C.; Raiser, A.G.; Brun, M.V.; M√ľller, D.C.M.; Lukarsewski, R.; Serafini, G.M.C.; Freitas, G.C.; Dutra, L.H.; Marconato, F.

    2014-01-01

    A cirurgia endosc√≥pica por orif√≠cios naturais (NOTES) √© um novo conceito de abordagem videocir√ļrgica, que surge como alternativa √† cirurgia convencional, eliminando incis√Ķes abdominais e as poss√≠veis complica√ß√Ķes relacionadas a ela. A proposta deste artigo foi comparar t√©cnicas de ovariossalpingo-histerectomia (OSH) em cadelas, buscando determinar o procedimento que oferece menores altera√ß√Ķes hemodin√Ęmicas e menos est√≠mulos dolorosos trans e p√≥s-operat√≥rio. Para tanto, foram utilizadas 21 cad...

  20. Environmental Management Systems (EMS Adoption in Sarawak (Malaysia: Implementation Motivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Lee Ho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental management has been in the process of evolution since Industrial Revolutions of 18th and 19th centuries. And the more recent is the development of international environmental management standards and guidelines to facilitate global trade. These environmental management standards and guidelines are usually known as Environmental Management Systems (EMS. This research investigates the implementation motivations in relation to EMS adoption in Sarawak, Malaysia organizations. Empirical findings of a survey on the above in Sarawak organizations are presented. About 112 survey questionnaires invitations were forwarded to various organizations in Sarawak and a total of 47 responses were received. The results of this research show that among the Sarawak organizations, the top three implementation motivations or benefits from implementing EMS according to their importance by the Sarawak EMS user’s organizations are 1 Legal compliance as the top benefit of EMS implementation; 2 Improvement in operational environmental protection; and 3 Corporate image advantages.

  1. Total process surveillance: (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical reduncancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. (orig.)

  2. Total and EDF invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, St.

    2008-01-01

    So as to prepare the future of their industrial sector,the Total company plans to invest (14 billion Euros in 2008) to increase its production capacities and strengthen in of other activities as the liquefied natural gas and the renewable energies; EDF plans to inject 35 billion Euros over three years to multiply the new projects of power plants (wind turbines, coal in Germany, gas in Great Britain and nuclear power in Flamanville). EDF wants to exploit its knowledge of leader to run more than ten E.P.R.(European pressurized water reactor) in the world before 2020, projects are in examination with China, Great Britain, South Africa and United States. (N.C.)

  3. Total quality at source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiandone, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Total Quality at Source philosophy is based on optimizing the effectiveness of people in achieving ZERO-DEFECT results. In this paper a philosophy of what, I have come to perceive, it takes to get people to perform to the very best of their abilities and thereby achieve the best results they can, is presented. In the examples I shall describe I have played an instrumental role since it has become my belief that any job can always be done better provided that the people doing it can themselves become convinced that they can do better. Clearly there are many ideas on how to do this. The philosophy that I am presenting in this paper is based on my own experience, where I have both participated and observed it being applied; its effectiveness may be judged by the results. (author)

  4. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Determinação de hemogregarina em Boa constrictor constrictor mantidos em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique A. Luz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a presen√ßa de hemogregarina em bo√≠deos mantidos em cativeiro no Estado do Par√°, bem como, relacionar a hemoparasitose com pre-disposi√ß√£o sexual, altera√ß√Ķes cl√≠nicas e hematol√≥gicas e a presen√ßa de ectoparasitos. Esta pesquisa teve autoriza√ß√£o do Sistema de Autoriza√ß√£o e Informa√ß√£o em Biodiversidade do Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renov√°veis para ser realizado. Utilizaram-se 19 serpentes da fam√≠lia Boidae mantidas em cativeiro, pertencentes ao "Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi" (Bel√©m/PA e "S√≠tio Xerimbabo" (Santo Ant√īnio do Tau√°/PA. A pesquisa de hemogregarina foi realizada em esfrega√ßos sangu√≠neos examinados no aumento de 400x, enquanto que a parasitemia foi determinada contando- se 550 hem√°cias em aumento de 1000x. Do total de animais estudados (n=19, nove encontraram-se parasitados (47,36%, n√£o havendo correla√ß√£o entre presen√ßa de hemogregarina, pr√©-disposi√ß√£o sexual, altera√ß√Ķes cl√≠nicas e hematol√≥gicas nas serpentes hospedeiras. A correla√ß√£o da hemoparasitose foi detectada apenas quanto √† presen√ßa de ectoparasitas nas serpentes, no entanto, estudos adicionais s√£o necess√°rios para verificar a preval√™ncia de hemogregarinas em animais mantidos em cativeiro no Estado do Par√°, visto que, existe grande lacuna de dados na literatura veterin√°ria especializada no que diz respeito √† fauna da regi√£o amaz√īnica.

  6. Purification, Characterization and Antioxidant Activities <em>in Vitroem>> em>and <em>in Vivoem> of the Polysaccharides from <em>Boletus edulisem> Bull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Fan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A water-soluble polysaccharide (BEBP was extracted from <em>Boletus edulis em>Bull using hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The polysaccharide BEBP was further purified by chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column, giving three major polysaccharide fractions termed BEBP-1, BEBP-2 and BEBP-3. In the next experiment, the average molecular weight (Mw, IR and monosaccharide compositional analysis of the three polysaccharide fractions were determined. The evaluation of antioxidant activities both <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivo em>suggested that BEBP-3 had good potential antioxidant activity, and should be explored as a novel potential antioxidant.

  7. Sulla presenza di <em>Sorex antinoriiem>, <em>Neomys anomalusem> (Insectivora, Soricidae e <em>Talpa caecaem> (Insectivora, Talpidae in Umbria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Paci

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Lo scopo del contributo √® di fornire un aggiornamento sulla presenza del Toporagno del Vallese <em>Sorex antinoriiem>, del Toporagno acquatico di Miller <em>Neomys anomalusem> e della Talpa cieca <em>Talpa caecaem> in Umbria, dove le specie risultano accertate ormai da qualche anno. A tal fine sono stati rivisitati i reperti collezionati e la bibliografia conosciuta. Toporagno del Vallese: elevato di recente a livello di specie da Br√ľnner et al. (2002, altrimenti considerato sottospecie del Toporagno comune (<em>S. araneus antinoriiem>. √ą conservato uno di tre crani incompleti (mancano mandibole ed incisivi superiori al momento prudenzialmente riferiti a <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>antinorii>, provenienti dall?Appennino umbro-marchigiano settentrionale (dintorni di Scalocchio - PG, 590 m. s.l.m. e determinati sulla base della pigmentazione rossa degli ipoconi del M1 e M2; Toporagno acquatico di Miller: tre crani (Breda in Paci e Romano op. cit. e un esemplare intero (Paci, ined. sono stati trovati a pochi chilometri di distanza gli uni dall?altro tra i comuni di Assisi e Valfabbrica, in ambienti mediocollinari limitrofi al Parco Regionale del M.te Subasio (Perugia. In provincia di Terni la specie viene segnalata da Isotti (op. cit. per i dintorni di Orvieto. Talpa cieca: sono noti una femmina e un maschio raccolti nel comune di Pietralunga (PG, rispettivamente in una conifereta a <em>Pinus nigraem> (m. 630 s.l.m. e nelle vicinanze di un bosco misto collinare a prevalenza di <em>Quercus cerrisem> (m. 640 s.l.m.. Recentemente un terzo individuo √® stato rinvenuto nel comune di Sigillo (PG, all?interno del Parco Regionale di M.te Cucco, sul margine di una faggeta a 1100 m s.l.m. In entrambi i casi l?areale della specie √® risultato parapatrico con quello di <em>Talpa europaeaem>.

  8. Association of level of digestible energy in total length, weight of gonads and gonadosomatic index of female Piau√ßu (‚ÄúLeporinus macrocephalus‚ÄĚ, SPIX 1829 Associa√ß√£o do n√≠vel de energia digest√≠vel no comprimento total, peso das g√īnadas e √≠ndice gonadossom√°tico de f√™meas de Piau√ßu (‚ÄúLeporinus macrocephalus‚ÄĚ, SPIX 1829 em est√°gio p√≥s-larval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Keley Silva Pereira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to associate the energy digestible level of the diet to ovary development in post larval stage. Twenty-four female fish were used with weight and average initial length of 0.33 ¬Ī 0.11 g and 2.94 ¬Ī 0.39 cm, respectively. There were four treatments: 2600, 2700, 2800, and 2900 kcal of DE/kg of ration. Digestible energy levels influenced the final weight up to the estimated level of 2757.142kcal/kg. However, there was no significant effect for total length, gonad weight, and gonadossomatic index in females. The level of digestible energy did not provide better initial development of the ovary. This information may guide new experiments, to improve the conditions of cultivation, to value the activity on the economic sense as well as increase the number of fingerlings for aquaculture.Objetivou-se associar o n√≠vel de energia digest√≠vel da dieta com o desenvolvimento ovariano em estagio p√≥s-larval. Foram usadas 24 f√™meas com peso e comprimento m√©dio inicial de 0,33 ¬Ī 0,11g e 2,94 ¬Ī 0,39cm, respectivamente. Foram realizados 4 tratamentos: 2600; 2700; 2800 e 2900kcal de ED/Kg de ra√ß√£o. No presente estudo, o n√≠vel de energia digest√≠vel influenciou no peso final at√© o n√≠vel estimado de 2757,142kcal/kg. Entretanto, n√£o apresentou efeito significativo para comprimento total, peso da g√īnada e √≠ndice gonadossom√°tico das f√™meas. O n√≠vel de energia digest√≠vel n√£o proporcionou melhor desenvolvimento inicial do ov√°rio. Essas informa√ß√Ķes poder√£o nortear novos experimentos, melhorar as condi√ß√Ķes de cultivo, valorizar a atividade no sentido econ√īmico, assim como aumentar o n√ļmero de alevinos destinados √† aquicultura.

  9. Methyl 2-Benzamido-2-(1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethoxyacetate

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    Alami Anouar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The heterocyclic carboxylic őĪ-aminoester methyl 2-benzamido-2-(1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethoxyacetate is obtained by <em>O>-alkylation of methyl őĪ-azido glycinate <em>N>-benzoylated with 1<em>H>-benzimidazol-1-ylmethanol.

  10. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    An outline review notes recent work on total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as a means of preparing patients for grafts and particularly for bone-marrow transplantation. T.L.I. has proved immunosuppressive in rats, mice, dogs, monkeys and baboons; when given before bone-marrow transplantation, engraftment took place without, or with delayed rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Work with mice has indicated that the thymus needs to be included within the irradiation field, since screening of the thymus reduced skin-graft survival from 50 to 18 days, though irradiation of the thymus alone has proved ineffective. A more lasting tolerance has been observed when T.L.I. is followed by an injection of donor bone marrow. 50% of mice treated in this way accepted allogenic skin grafts for more than 100 days, the animals proving to be stable chimeras with 50% of their peripheral blood lymphocytes being of donor origin. Experiments of a similar nature with dogs and baboons were not so successful. (U.K.)

  11. The total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  12. A specimen of <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> in Barn Owl's pellets from Murge plateau (Apulia, Italy / Su di un <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> (Insectivora, Soricidae rinvenuto in borre di <em>Tyto albaem> delle Murge (Puglia, Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ferrara

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a lot of Barn Owl's pellets from the Murge plateau a specimen of <em>Sorex> sp. was detected. Thank to some morphological and morphometrical features, the cranial bones can be tentatively attributed to <em>Sorex samniticusem> Altobello, 1926. The genus <em>Sorex> was not yet included in the Apulia's fauna southwards of the Gargano district; the origin and significance of the above record is briefly discussed, the actual presence of a natural population of <em>Sorex> in the Murge being not yet proved. Riassunto Viene segnalato il rinvenimento di un esemplare di <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> da borre di <em>Tyto albaem> delle Murge. Poiché il genere non era stato ancora segnalato nella Puglia a sud del Gargano, viene discusso il significato faunistico del reperto.

  13. Formula√ß√£o com amino√°cidos totais ou digest√≠veis em ra√ß√Ķes com n√≠veis decrescentes de prote√≠na bruta para frangos de corte de 21 a 42 dias de idade Total and digestible amino acids formulation in diets with decreasing levels of crude protein for broilers from 21 to 42 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Herr Viola

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos para avaliar a formula√ß√£o de ra√ß√Ķes para frangos de corte com redu√ß√£o do n√≠vel de prote√≠na bruta (PB e suplementadas com amino√°cidos sint√©ticos, formuladas com base nos amino√°cidos totais - AAT (experimento 1 ou digest√≠veis - AAD (experimento 2. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no per√≠odo de 3 a 6 semanas de idade das aves. Em ambos os experimentos, os quatros n√≠veis de PB foram: 20,8; 19,7; 18,6 e 17,5% PB. No experimento 2, tamb√©m foram testados outros dois tratamentos com ra√ß√Ķes contendo 20,8 e 17,5% de PB e alta digestibilidade (ADig, √† base de milho, farelo de soja, amido de milho e prote√≠na isolada de soja. Nos dois experimentos, o consumo de ra√ß√£o n√£o foi afetado pela redu√ß√£o de PB. No experimento 1, o ganho de peso (GP, a convers√£o alimentar (CA e os rendimentos de peito e de coxa foram afetados negativamente pela redu√ß√£o dos n√≠veis de PB, enquanto, no experimento 2 estas vari√°veis n√£o foram influenciadas. No entanto, em ambos os experimentos, na semana de 21 a 28 dias, o GP e a CA foram influenciados negativamente pela redu√ß√£o dos n√≠veis de PB na ra√ß√£o. Com o decr√©scimo no n√≠vel de PB, a digestibilidade da mat√©ria seca (MS e da mat√©ria org√Ęnica (MO aumentou no experimento 2, em virtude da menor inclus√£o de farelo de soja. Em ambos os experimentos, a reten√ß√£o relativa de prote√≠na foi superior para ra√ß√Ķes com baixos n√≠veis de PB. No experimento 2, apesar de os n√≠veis de PB n√£o terem influenciado o desempenho, a ra√ß√£o de ADig proporcionou maior digestibilidade da MO e tend√™ncia √† maior digestibilidade da MS. As ra√ß√Ķes com 17,5% PB e ADig promoveram balan√ßo mais positivo e maior reten√ß√£o relativa de prote√≠na em compara√ß√£o √†s de digestibilidade padr√£o. Considerando todos os resultados, a formula√ß√£o de ra√ß√Ķes com AAD mostrou vantagens em rela√ß√£o aos AAT.Two experiments (Exp were carried out to evaluate diets for broilers formulated with

  14. Efeito da aplica√ß√£o de etileno no pH, acidez, √≠ndice refratom√©trico e a√ß√ļcares totais de frutos de manga, colhidos em est√°gio pr√©-climat√©rico Effect of ethylene application on pH, acidity, refratometric index and total sugar of mango fruits, harvested in the pre-climateric stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.C. Coneglian

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da a√ß√£o do etileno no amadurecimento de frutos de manga, tentando contribuir para o conhecimento da fisiologia do amadurecimento destes frutos. Foram utilizadas mangas (Mangifera indica L., variedade Keitt, colhidas em est√°gio pr√©-climat√©rico. Estes frutos receberam tratamento com ethrel (500 e 1.000 ppm, com exce√ß√£o da testemunha e foram submetidos √†s seguintes determina√ß√Ķes: pH, acidez, √≠ndice refratom√©trico e a√ß√ļcares totais. A an√°lise e interpreta√ß√£o dos resultados mostrou a inexist√™ncia de diferen√ßa estat√≠stica entre esses 3 tratamentos, indicando que a aplica√ß√£o de ethrel n√£o trouxe nenhuma vantagem na melhoria de qualidade dos frutos.Ethylene action on mango fruits was studied in relation to the ripening physiology of these fruits. Mango (Mangifera indica L., Keitt variety, were harvested in the pre-climateric stage. These fruits, after receiving Ethrel treatment (500 e 1,000 ppni, except for control, were analized for pH, acidity, refratometric index and total sugars. The analysis and interpretation of the results showed no statistical differences among treatments, showing that ethrel didn't improve the fruits quality.

  15. Glycosylation of Vanillin and 8-Nordihydrocapsaicin by Cultured <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoji Kubota

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation of vanilloids such as vanillin and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin by cultured plant cells of <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> was studied. Vanillin was converted into vanillin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside, vanillyl alcohol, and 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranosylvanillyl alcohol by <em>E. perriniana em>cells. Incubation of cultured <em>E. perrinianaem> cells with 8-nor- dihydrocapsaicin gave 8-nordihydrocapsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside and 8-nordihydro- capsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-gentiobioside.

  16. Retratos em movimento.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Oliveira Junior

    Full Text Available resumo O artigo aborda aspectos da rela√ß√£o do cinema com a arte do retrato. Buscamos, em primeiro lugar, uma defini√ß√£o est√©tica do que seria um retrato cinematogr√°fico, sempre em tens√£o com os crit√©rios formais e padr√Ķes estil√≠sticos que historicamente constitu√≠ram o retrato pict√≥rico. Em seguida, relacionamos essa quest√£o com a import√Ęncia que se deu √† representa√ß√£o do close-up de rosto nas primeiras d√©cadas do cinema, quando foi atribu√≠do aos filmes um papel in√©dito no estudo da fisionomia e da express√£o facial. Por fim, apresentamos exemplos de autorretratos na pintura e no cinema para expor a forma como a autorrepresenta√ß√£o p√Ķe em crise as no√ß√Ķes de subjetividade e identidade em que a defini√ß√£o cl√°ssica do retrato se apoiava.

  17. An√°lise fotoel√°stica da distribui√ß√£o de tens√Ķes produzida na mand√≠bula pela simula√ß√£o do esfor√ßo mastigat√≥rio em sobredentaduras muco-dento-suportadas e pr√≥tese total Photoelastic analysis of stress distribution in jaws under masticatory efforts simulation in overdentures and conventional complete denture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos André Kalabaide VAZ

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a distribui√ß√£o dos esfor√ßos mastigat√≥rios em mand√≠bulas sob pr√≥teses do tipo sobredentaduras e pr√≥tese total. Foram confeccionadas tr√™s mand√≠bulas em material fotoel√°stico, obtidas pela moldagem de uma mand√≠bula humana desdentada. Os moldes foram preenchidos com resina fotoel√°stica PLM-4 (Photolastic Inc., Raleigh, USA. Variou-se a disposi√ß√£o dos pilares radiculares nas r√©plicas, dividindo-as em tr√™s grupos: Grupo I, a mand√≠bula n√£o apresentava ra√≠zes suportes (grupo controle; Grupo II, ra√≠zes dispostas bilateralmente na arcada dent√°ria correspondendo √†s ra√≠zes dos dois caninos; e Grupo III, raiz de um canino e de um molar dispostos no mesmo hemiarco, de maneira unilateral. Sobre estas, foram confeccionadas pr√≥tese total convencional e sobredentaduras, respectivamente, as quais oclu√≠am em um modelo padr√£o de resina acr√≠lica termopolimeriz√°vel montado num articulador semi-ajust√°vel para a aplica√ß√£o do carregamento (20 N, simulando a carga mastigat√≥ria. Ap√≥s o congelamento das tens√Ķes, as r√©plicas foram cortadas em sua linha mediana e analisadas num polarisc√≥pio de transmiss√£o (S√©rie 060, Photolastic Inc., Raleigh, USA. Pelo padr√£o de distribui√ß√£o de tens√Ķes observadas puderam concluir que: 1 os tr√™s modelos fotoel√°sticos testados apresentaram diferentes padr√Ķes de distribui√ß√£o de tens√£o; 2 a mand√≠bula do Grupo I concentrou mais tens√Ķes na regi√£o de rebordo; 3 a mand√≠bula do Grupo II apresentou a melhor distribui√ß√£o das tens√Ķes quando comparada com os outros grupos, pois concentrou a tens√£o no √°pice dos dentes pilares minimizando sua concentra√ß√£o na regi√£o desdentada; 4 no Grupo III houve maior concentra√ß√£o dos esfor√ßos tanto nos √°pices radiculares como na regi√£o intermedi√°ria desdentada.The aim of this study was to verify the distribution of masticatory efforts on jaws in overdentures and in a complete conventional denture. Three jaws of

  18. <em>In Vivoem> Histamine Optical Nanosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Clark

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this communication we discuss the development of ionophore based nanosensors for the detection and monitoring of histamine levels <em>in vivoem>. This approach is based on the use of an amine-reactive, broad spectrum ionophore which is capable of recognizing and binding to histamine. We pair this ionophore with our already established nanosensor platform, and demonstrate <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivoem> monitoring of histamine levels. This approach enables capturing rapid kinetics of histamine after injection, which are more difficult to measure with standard approaches such as blood sampling, especially on small research models. The coupling together of <em>in vivoem> nanosensors with ionophores such as nonactin provide a way to generate nanosensors for novel targets without the difficult process of designing and synthesizing novel ionophores.

  19. Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of <em>Litsea cubebaem> Harvested from Its Distribution Areas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinqin Cui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available <em>Litsea cubebaem> (Lour. Pers. is a promising industrial crop with fruits rich in essential oils. The chemical composition of essential oils of <em>L. cubebaem> (EOLC were determined for fruits harvested from eight regions in China. The overall essential oil content, obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography‚Äďmass spectrometry (GC-MS, ranged from 3.04% to 4.56%. In total, 59 compounds were identified, the dominant components being monoterpenes (94.4‚Äď98.4%, represented mainly by neral and geranial (78.7‚Äď87.4%. D-Limonene was unexpectedly a lesser constituent (0.7‚Äď5.3% in fruits, which differed from previous reports (6.0‚Äď14.6%. Several components were only detected in certain regions and compounds such as <em>o>-cymene and eremophilene have never before been reported in EOLC. These results demonstrate significant regional variation in the chemical composition of EOLC. This investigation provides important information with regard to the bioactivity, breeding work and industrial applications of <em>L. cubebaem>.

  20. Study of the <em>in Vitroem> Antiplasmodial, Antileishmanial and Antitrypanosomal Activities of Medicinal Plants from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal M. Al-Musayeib

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the <em>in vitroem> antiprotozoal activity of sixteen selected medicinal plants. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened <em>in vitroem> against erythrocytic schizonts of <em>Plasmodium falciparumem>, intracellular amastigotes of <em>Leishmania infantum em>and <em>Trypanosoma cruzi em>and free trypomastigotes of<em> T. bruceiem>. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity<em>. em>The criterion for activity was an IC50 < 10 ¬Ķg/mL (4. Antiplasmodial activity was found in the<em> em>extracts of<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem> and <em>Punica granatumem>. Antileishmanial activity<em> em>against <em>L. infantumem> was demonstrated in <em>Caralluma sinaicaem> and <em>Periploca aphylla.em> Amastigotes of<em> T. cruzi em>were affected by the methanol extract of<em> em>>Albizia lebbeckem>> em>pericarp, <em>Caralluma sinaicaem>,> Periploca aphylla em>and <em>Prosopius julifloraem>. Activity against<em> T. brucei em>was obtained in<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem>. Cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC50 < 10 ¬Ķg/mL and hence non-specific activities were observed for<em> em>>Conocarpus lancifoliusem>.>

  1. Cyberbullying em adolescentes brasileiros

    OpenAIRE

    Wendt, Guilherme Welter

    2012-01-01

    O cyberbullying √© entendido como uma forma de comportamento agressivo que ocorre atrav√©s dos meios eletr√īnicos de intera√ß√£o (computadores, celulares, sites de relacionamento virtual), sendo realizado de maneira intencional por uma pessoa ou grupo contra algu√©m em situa√ß√£o desigual de poder e, ainda, com dificuldade em se defender. Os estudos dispon√≠veis at√© o presente momento destacam que o cyberbullying √© um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de sintomas de ansiedade, depress√£o, idea√ß√£o s...

  2. Nietzsche em voga

    OpenAIRE

    Borromeu, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Resumo:Texto publicado em 1941, na revista de orientação católica A Ordem, no Rio de Janeiro. Seu autor considera que Nietzsche teria negado a moral tradicional, concebendo em seu lugar outra, porém imoral e brutal. Acusa o filósofo, por fim, de ser responsável pela Guerra ora e curso na Europa. Abstract:Text published in 1941 in the Catholic orientation magazine, A Ordem, in Rio de Janeiro. The author believes that Nietzsche would have denied traditional morality, conceiving another in it...

  3. Application of neutron activation analysis to the determination of total mercury and other elements of interest in soil and sediment samples from Serra do Navio and Vila Nova River Basin, Amapa, Brazil; Aplicacao do metodo de ativacao neutronica a determinacao do mercurio total e outros elementos de interesse em amostras de solo e sedimento da Serra do Navio e Bacia do Rio Vila Nova, Amapa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Cristina

    1997-07-01

    In this work it is presented a survey on total mercury determination by a radiochemical method in sediment and soil samples from two regions, in the state of Amapa: Serra do Navio (background area) and Vila Nova river basin (gold mining area). The method consisted in leaching of the irradiated samples with acqua regia in a Parr bomb, and heating in microwave oven, for one minute. Then the solvent extraction technique was applied, using bismuth diethyldithiocarbamate (Bi(DDC){sub 3}) as extractant agent. The organic phase, containing {sup 197}Hg and {sup 203}Hg radioisotopes, was measured in a gamma spectrometer with hyper pure Ge detector. This method eliminated the interference of the 279.54 keV photopeak of {sup 75}Se on 279.2 keV photopeak of {sup 203}Hg, besides improving counting statistics of both Hg radioisotopes. The elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Ho, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, W, Yb, Zn and Zr were also determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis. Two irradiation series were carried out to quantify these elements in soil and sediment samples; a short term irradiation allowed to evaluate Mg, Mn, Na, Ti and V levels, and by long term irradiation, the other elements were determined. Precision and accuracy of radiochemical procedure were verified by means of analysis of the reference materials Buffalo River Sediment and Lake Sediment, for sediments and GXR-5, for soils. For the instrumental analysis, the reference materials Buffalo River Sediment, Soil 7, JB-1 and Oyster Tissue were used. The samples were also submitted to X ray diffraction, in Instituto de Geoscience-USP, to observe mercury behaviour with mineralogy. Aluminium concentration was determined by X ray fluorescence method, in the Department of Materials, IPEN/CNEN-SP, making possible enrichment factor calculation so that mercurial contamination in the gold mining area (Vila Nova river basin) could be evaluated. The mercury

  4. Incapacidad laboral total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz Tabares

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realiz√≥ un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo y retrospectivo con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la incapacidad permanente para el trabajo en el municipio "San Crist√≥bal" durante el decenio 1982-1991, y se aplic√≥ el m√©todo de encuesta por el que se recogieron datos que fueron extra√≠dos del modelo oficial de peritaje m√©dico laboral y de la entrevista con el peritado. Los resultados fueron plasmados en tablas de contingencias donde se relacionan las variables por cada a√Īo estudiado, y se aplic√≥ la prueba estad√≠stica de chi cuadrado. El n√ļmero de individuos dictaminados con incapacidad laboral total fue de 693; predomin√≥ en reportes el a√Īo 1988 con 114 casos y muy discretamente el sexo femenino sobre el masculino, el grupo et√°reo de 45 a 54 a√Īos con 360 casos y la artrosis como entidad valorada por ortopedia, con an√°lisis estad√≠sticos significativos. No result√≥ estad√≠sticamente significativo, el predominio de la hipertensi√≥n arterial sist√©mica entre las entidades valoradas por la especialidad de medicina interna como causas de incapacidad laboral. Fue muy significativa la variaci√≥n del n√ļmero de dictaminados por la comisi√≥n en cada uno de los a√Īos estudiados y que el porcentaje de ellos que se encontraban realizando trabajos que demandan esfuerzo f√≠sico de moderado a intenso al momento de aplicar la encuesta, ascendi√≥ al 64,9.A longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in order to know the behavior of permanent labor disability at the municipality of San Crist√≥bal during 1982-1991. A survey was done to collect data taken from the official model of medical inspections and from the interview with the disabled worker. The results were shown in contingency tables where the variables are related by every year studied. The chi square statistical test was applied. The number of individuals with labor disability was 693. As for reports, the year 1988 predominated with 114. There was a discreet

  5. Natural Products from Antarctic Colonial Ascidians of the Genera <em>Aplidium> and <em>Synoicum>: Variability and Defensive Role

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    Conxita Avila

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ascidians have developed multiple defensive strategies mostly related to physical, nutritional or chemical properties of the tunic. One of such is chemical defense based on secondary metabolites. We analyzed a series of colonial Antarctic ascidians from deep-water collections belonging to the genera <em>Aplidium> and <em>Synoicum> to evaluate the incidence of organic deterrents and their variability. The ether fractions from 15 samples including specimens of the species <em>A.> <em>falklandicum>, <em>A.> <em>fuegiense>, <em>A.> <em>meridianum>, <em>A.> <em>millari> and <em>S.> <em>adareanum> were subjected to feeding assays towards two relevant sympatric predators: the starfish <em>Odontaster> <em>validus>, and the amphipod <em>Cheirimedon> <em>femoratus>. All samples revealed repellency. Nonetheless, some colonies concentrated defensive chemicals in internal body-regions rather than in the tunic. Four ascidian-derived meroterpenoids, rossinones B and the three derivatives 2,3-epoxy-rossinone B, 3-epi-rossinone B, 5,6-epoxy-rossinone B, and the indole alkaloids meridianins A‚ÄďG, along with other minoritary meridianin compounds were isolated from several samples. Some purified metabolites were tested in feeding assays exhibiting potent unpalatabilities, thus revealing their role in predation avoidance. Ascidian extracts and purified compound-fractions were further assessed in antibacterial tests against a marine Antarctic bacterium. Only the meridianins showed inhibition activity, demonstrating a multifunctional defensive role. According to their occurrence in nature and within our colonial specimens, the possible origin of both types of metabolites is discussed.

  6. The State of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Systems in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Dixon, Julia M; Sefa, Nana; Yancey, Arthur; Hollong, Bonaventure G; Hagahmed, Mohamed; Ginde, Adit A; Wallis, Lee A

    2017-06-01

    Introduction Little is known about the existence, distribution, and characteristics of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems in Africa, or the corresponding epidemiology of prehospital illness and injury. A survey was conducted between 2013 and 2014 by distributing a detailed EMS system questionnaire to experts in paper and electronic versions. The questionnaire ascertained EMS systems' jurisdiction, operations, finance, clinical care, resources, and regulatory environment. The discovery of respondents with requisite expertise occurred in multiple phases, including snowball sampling, a review of published scientific literature, and a rigorous search of the Internet. The survey response rate was 46%, and data represented 49 of 54 (91%) African countries. Twenty-five EMS systems were identified and distributed among 16 countries (30% of African countries). There was no evidence of EMS systems in 33 (61%) countries. A total of 98,574,731 (8.7%) of the African population were serviced by at least one EMS system in 2012. The leading causes of EMS transport were (in order of decreasing frequency): injury, obstetric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal complaints. Nineteen percent of African countries had government-financed EMS systems and 26% had a toll-free public access telephone number. Basic emergency medical technicians (EMTs) and Basic Life Support (BLS)-equipped ambulances were the most common cadre of provider and ambulance level, respectively (84% each). Emergency Medical Services systems exist in one-third of African countries. Injury and obstetric complaints are the leading African prehospital conditions. Only a minority (<9.0%) of Africans have coverage by an EMS system. Most systems were predominantly BLS, government operated, and fee-for-service. Mould-Millman NK , Dixon JM , Sefa N , Yancey A , Hollong BG , Hagahmed M , Ginde AA , Wallis LA . The state of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) systems in Africa. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):273-283.

  7. Avaliação e mensuração da sutura palatina mediana por meio da radiografia oclusal total digitalizada em pacientes submetidos à expansão rápida maxilar Evaluation and measurement of midpalatal suture through the digitalized occlusal radiography in patients submitted to rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Nobre David

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar e mensurar a sutura palatina mediana por meio de radiografias oclusais totais de maxila digitalizadas, antes e depois da sua disjun√ß√£o. M√ČTODOS: a amostra constou de 17 pacientes, com idades entre 7 e 22 anos. Radiografias oclusais totais da maxila foram executadas antes e depois da abertura da sutura palatina mediana, e digitalizadas em scanner HP Scanjet 6110 C com adaptador de transpar√™ncias HPC 6261 6100 C, utilizando-se o programa Deskscan II. Para a avalia√ß√£o e medi√ß√£o, foi utilizado o programa Radioimp¬ģ (Radiomemory, MG/Brasil. Na an√°lise estat√≠stica, foram utilizados a m√©dia, o desvio-padr√£o, o coeficiente de varia√ß√£o e os testes "t" e ANOVA. CONCLUS√ēES: ap√≥s os resultados, foi poss√≠vel concluir que (1 na regi√£o dos incisivos, houve uma abertura palatina mediana estatisticamente significativa; (2 houve abertura de diastema entre os incisivos centrais superiores em torno de 69,37% dos casos; (3 houve uma maior abertura da sutura palatina mediana na regi√£o a 10mm a partir da crista para posterior, em compara√ß√£o com a regi√£o a 3mm para posterior do parafuso expansor; (4 na regi√£o a 3mm para posterior do parafuso expansor houve uma abertura de 35,97%, e na regi√£o a 10mm para posterior da crista uma abertura de 69,37%.AIM: to evaluate and to measure the midpalatal suture through digitalized occlusal radiographies before and after its disjunction. METHODS: The sample was comprised by 17 patients, with ages from 7 to 22 years. Occlusal radiographies of these patients were obtained before and after the suture's opening. The occlusal radiographies were digitalized in a HP Scanjet 6100 C scanner with the HPC 6261 6100 C transparencies adaptor and the Deskscan II software. The statistical analysis used average, standard deviation, variation coefficient, "t" test and ANOVA. CONCLUSIONS: After the results, it was possible to conclude that: (1 statistically, there was a significant midpalatal opening in the

  8. ANTRACNOSE DO CAQUIZEIRO CAUSADA POR Colletotrichum horii: INCIDÊNCIA EM RAMOS, FOLHAS, FLORES E FRUTOS EM CAMPO

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    RENATO REZENDE YOUNG BLOOD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a incid√™ncia em v√°rias partes da planta e o desenvolvimento da antracnose do caquizeiro causada por Colletotrichum horiinas cultivares Fuyu e Kakimel produzidas sob os sistemas org√Ęnico e convencional, respectivamente, nas safras de 2010/2011 e 2011/2012, em Campina Grande do Sul, Paran√°, Brasil. Em cada pomar, 10 plantas foram selecionadas aleatoriamente, e 10 ramos do ano por planta, distribu√≠dos ao redor dacopa, foram marcados para as avalia√ß√Ķes de incid√™ncia de antracnose em ramos e folhas, a cada 15 dias. A quantifica√ß√£o de frutos ca√≠dos com ou sem sintomas da doen√ßa foi a cada 15 dias, durante o per√≠odo de crescimento de frutos at√© a colheita, relacionada com a produ√ß√£o total. C. horii em flores foi avaliada em campo e tamb√©m ap√≥s incuba√ß√£o no laborat√≥rio. Infec√ß√£o latente foi observada em frutos verdes coletados aos 90; 120 e 150 dias ap√≥s a flora√ß√£o. Em ambas as safras, observou-se a queda de frutos com sintomas de antracnose entre os meses de janeiro e abril. C. horii √© capaz de infectar flores, permanecer latente e provocar sintomas de antracnose em frutos imaturos. Frutos colhidos sadios apresentaram sintomas em p√≥s-colheita ap√≥s a incuba√ß√£o.

  9. Clinical Relevance of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> DNA-Methylation in Serum of Cervical Cancer Patients

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    G√ľnther K. Bonn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the DNA-methylation status of <em>E>-cadherin (<em>CDH1em> and <em>H>-cadherin (<em>CDH13em> in serum samples of cervical cancer patients and control patients with no malignant diseases and to evaluate the clinical utility of these markers. DNA-methylation status of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> was analyzed by means of MethyLight-technology in serum samples from 49 cervical cancer patients and 40 patients with diseases other than cancer. To compare this methylation analysis with another technique, we analyzed the samples with a denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC PCR-method. The specificity and sensitivity of <em>CDH1em> DNA-methylation measured by MethyLight was 75% and 55%, and for <em>CDH13em> DNA-methylation 95% and 10%. We identified a specificity of 92.5% and a sensitivity of only 27% for the <em>CDH1em> DHPLC-PCR analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that serum <em>CDH1em> methylation-positive patients had a 7.8-fold risk for death (95% CI: 2.2‚Äď27.7; <em>p> = 0.001 and a 92.8-fold risk for relapse (95% CI: 3.9‚Äď2207.1; <em>p> = 0.005. We concluded that the serological detection of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> DNA-hypermethylation is not an ideal diagnostic tool due to low diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. However, it was validated that <em>CDH1em> methylation analysis in serum samples may be of potential use as a prognostic marker for cervical cancer patients.

  10. Fumigant Antifungal Activity of Myrtaceae Essential Oils and Constituents from <em>Leptospermum petersoniiem> against Three <em>Aspergillus> Species

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    Il-Kwon Park

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercial plant essential oils obtained from 11 Myrtaceae plant species were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against <em>Aspergillus ochraceusem>, <em>A. flavusem>, and <em>A. nigerem>. Essential oils extracted from<em> em>Leptospermum> <em>petersonii> at air concentrations of 56 √ó 10‚ąí3 mg/mL and 28 √ó 10‚ąí3 mg/mL completely inhibited the growth of the three <em>Aspergillus> species. However, at an air concentration of 14 √ó 10‚ąí3 mg/mL, inhibition rates of <em>L. petersoniiem> essential oils were reduced to 20.2% and 18.8% in the case of <em>A. flavusem> and <em>A. nigerem>, respectively. The other Myrtaceae essential oils (56 √ó 10‚ąí3 mg/mL only weakly inhibited the fungi or had no detectable affect. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified 16 compounds in <em>L. petersoniiem>> em>essential> em>oil.> em>The antifungal activity of the identified compounds was tested individually by using standard or synthesized compounds. Of these, neral and geranial inhibited growth by 100%, at an air concentration of 56 √ó 10‚ąí3 mg/mL, whereas the activity of citronellol was somewhat lover (80%. The other compounds exhibited only moderate or weak antifungal activity. The antifungal activities of blends of constituents identified in <em>L. petersoniiem> oil indicated that neral and geranial were the major contributors to the fumigant and antifungal activities.

  11. Alternativas t√©cnicas para o controle das altera√ß√Ķes dimensionais das resinas acr√≠licas em pr√≥tese total Alternative tecniques for the control of the dimensional alterations in the acrylic resins of the complete dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas GOMEZ

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Os autores prop√Ķem uma nova t√©cnica para diminui√ß√£o dos problemas provenientes das altera√ß√Ķes dimensionais das resinas acr√≠licas utilizadas na confec√ß√£o das pr√≥teses totais. Com essa proposta, conseguiu-se praticamente eliminar essas altera√ß√Ķes dimensionais t√£o prejudiciais √†s pr√≥teses totais.The authors present a new metodology aiming to reduce the dimensional alterations of acrylic resins used for total prosthesis in order to eliminate the dimensional alterations, achiving better total prothesis and decreasing problems for patients.

  12. Assessment of Genetic Fidelity in <em>Rauvolfia em>s>erpentina em>Plantlets Grown from Synthetic (Encapsulated Seeds Following <em>in Vitroem> Storage at 4 ¬įC

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    Mohammad Anis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method was developed for plant regeneration and establishment from alginate encapsulated synthetic seeds of <em>Rauvolfia serpentinaem>. Synthetic seeds were produced using <em>in vitroem> proliferated microshoots upon complexation of 3% sodium alginate prepared in Llyod and McCown woody plant medium (WPM and 100 mM calcium chloride. Re-growth ability of encapsulated nodal segments was evaluated after storage at 4 ¬įC for 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks and compared with non-encapsulated buds. Effects of different media <em>viz>; Murashige and Skoog medium; Lloyd and McCown woody Plant medium, Gamborg‚Äôs B5 medium and Schenk and Hildebrandt medium was also investigated for conversion into plantlets. The maximum frequency of conversion into plantlets from encapsulated nodal segments stored at 4 ¬įC for 4 weeks was achieved on woody plant medium supplement with 5.0 őľM BA and 1.0 őľM NAA. Rooting in plantlets was achieved in half-strength Murashige and Skoog liquid medium containing 0.5 őľM indole-3-acetic acid (IAA on filter paper bridges. Plantlets obtained from stored synseeds were hardened, established successfully <em>ex vitroem> and were morphologically similar to each other as well as their mother plant. The genetic fidelity of <em>Rauvolfia em>clones raised from synthetic seeds following four weeks of storage at 4 ¬įC were assessed by using random amplified polymorphic<em> em>DNA (RAPD and inter-simple sequence repeat<em> em>(ISSR markers. All the RAPD and ISSR profiles from generated plantlets were monomorphic and comparable<em> em>to the mother plant, which confirms the genetic<em> em>stability among the clones. This synseed protocol could be useful for establishing a particular system for conservation, short-term storage and production of genetically identical and stable plants before it is released for commercial purposes.

  13. The EM Earthquake Precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

    2013-12-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two

  14. Classe social: conceitos e esquemas operacionais em pesquisa em saude

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    Rita Barradas Barata

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se a utiliza√ß√£o do conceito de classe em pesquisas em sa√ļde, as diferentes abordagens sociol√≥gicas de estratifica√ß√£o social e de estrutura de classes, o potencial explicativo do conceito em estudos de determina√ß√£o social e desigualdades em sa√ļde, os modelos de operacionaliza√ß√£o elaborados para uso em pesquisas sociol√≥gicas, demogr√°ficas ou de sa√ļde e os limites e possibilidades desses modelos. Foram destacados quatro modelos de operacionaliza√ß√£o: de Singer para estudo da distribui√ß√£o de renda no Brasil, adaptado por Barros para uso em pesquisas epidemiol√≥gicas; de Bronfman & Tuir√°n para o censo demogr√°fico mexicano, adaptado por Lombardi et al para pesquisas epidemiol√≥gicas; de Goldthorpe para estudos socioecon√īmicos ingleses, adaptado pela Sociedade Espanhola de Epidemiologia; e o modelo de Wright para pesquisa em sociologia e ci√™ncia pol√≠tica, tamb√©m usado em inqu√©ritos populacionais em sa√ļde. Em conclus√£o, conceitualmente cada um dos modelos apresentados √© coerente com a concep√ß√£o te√≥rica que os embasam, mas n√£o h√° como optar por qualquer deles, descartando os demais.

  15. Efecto de extractos vegetales de <em>Polygonum hydropiperoidesem>, <em>Solanum nigrumem> y <em>Calliandra pittieriem> sobre el gusano cogollero (<em>Spodoptera frugiperdaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizarazo H. Karol

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El gusano cogollero <em>Spodoptera frugiperdaem> es una de las plagas que más afectan los cultivos en la región de Sumapaz (Cundinamarca, Colombia. En la actualidad se controla principalmente aplicando productos de síntesis química, sin embargo la aplicación de extractos vegetales surge como una alternativa de menor impacto sobre el ambiente. Este control se emplea debido a que las plantas contienen metabolitos secundarios que pueden inhibir el desarrollo de los insectos. Por tal motivo, la presente investigación evaluó el efecto insecticida y antialimentario de extractos vegetales de barbasco <em>Polygonum hydropiperoidesem> (Polygonaceae, carbonero <em>Calliandra pittieriem> (Mimosaceae y hierba mora <em>Solanum nigrumem> (Solanaceae sobre larvas de <em>S. frugiperdaem> biotipo maíz. Se estableció una cría masiva del insecto en el laboratorio utilizando una dieta natural con hojas de maíz. Posteriormente se obtuvieron extractos vegetales utilizando solventes de alta polaridad (agua y etanol y media polaridad (diclorometano los cuales se aplicaron sobre las larvas de segundo instar. Los resultados más destacados se presentaron con extractos de <em>P. hydropiperoidesem>, obtenidos con diclorometano en sus diferentes dosis, con los cuales se alcanzó una mortalidad de 100% 12 días después de la aplicación y un efecto antialimentario representado por un consumo de follaje de maíz inferior al 4%, efectos similares a los del testigo comercial (Clorpiriphos.

  16. Efeito da casca da berinjela (Solanum melongena) sobre as concentra√ß√Ķes plasm√°ticas de triglicer√≠deos, colesterol total e fra√ß√Ķes lip√≠dicas, em cobaias (Cavia porcellus) hiperlipid√™micos ( The effect of the eggplant core on blood lipid concentrations in hypercholesterolemic guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) )

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherem, A.D.R.; Tramonte, V.L.C.G.; Fett, R.; Dokkum, W. van

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the eggplant core on the plasma concentrations of triglycerides, total- LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, in male guinea pigs, randomly assigned into five groups: 1 (N) - normolipidic diet AIN-93G, 2 (NB) - normolipidic diet, supplemented with eggplant core, halfway of the

  17. Poesia em Revista: Oroboro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Alves Gouveia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-784x.2008v8n12p38 A serpente que engole a si mesma é uma figura curiosa do simbolismo de um processo de contínua transformação, de um movimento circular incessante, rumo à infinitude, sem traços de fim ou começo. Oroboro é um nome de origem grega que remete a esta serpente que se morde e penetra em si mesma ao engolir o próprio rabo. Mas também é o nome da revista de cultura editada em Curitiba pelos artistas-editores Ricardo Corona e Eliana Borges.

  18. Hipervitaminose D em animais

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    Paulo V. Peixoto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Por meio de revis√£o da literatura, s√£o apresentados dados referentes ao metabolismo da vitamina D, bem como aos principais aspectos toxicol√≥gicos, cl√≠nicos, bioqu√≠micos, macrosc√≥picos, microsc√≥picos, ultraestruturais, imuno-histoqu√≠micos e radiogr√°ficos de animais intoxicados natural e experimentalmente por essa vitamina, em diferentes esp√©cies. Este estudo objetiva demonstrar a exist√™ncia de muitas lacunas no conhecimento sobre mineraliza√ß√£o fisiol√≥gica e patol√≥gica, em especial na media√ß√£o hormonal do fen√īmeno, bem como alertar para os riscos de ocorr√™ncia dessa intoxica√ß√£o.

  19. A democracia em Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Zaldívar, Julio César Guanche

    2011-01-01

    O triunfo revolucionário de 1959 consagrou em Cuba um novo conceito de democracia, com o intuito de garantir o acesso à vida política ativa de grandes setores da população, antes excluídos. Para isso, foi desenvolvida uma política de inclusão social com caráter universal. A prática política popular deixou as riquezas do país em mãos da população carente e gerou uma grande mobilidade social, fato que foi central para o aumento da participação popular. O contexto de agressão imperialista e o pr...

  20. Tuberculose Infantil em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Carapau, Jo√£o

    2014-01-01

    Dos n√ļmeros recentemente publicados pela Direc√ß√£o Geral da Sa√ļde / N√ļcleo de Tuberculose e Doen√ßas Respirat√≥rias relativos aos anos de 1992 e 1993 e pelo Instituto Nacional de Estat√≠stica relativos a 1994, conclui-se que os casos de Tuberculose (TB) notificados pouco t√™m decrescido nos √ļltimos 15 anos: descida m√©dia anual de 6,3% para os casos em geral e 14% para os menores de 15 anos; a taxa global de incid√™ncia apurada em 1994 voltou a subir ‚ÄĒ 51,1 (52,4 no Continente). Para o autor a me...

  1. Universidade em ruinas?

    OpenAIRE

    Katuta, √āngela Massumi; UEL/CCE/Departamento de Geoci√™ncias

    2010-01-01

    A Universidade, desde as suas origens no s√©culo XII, sempre esteve atrelada a institui√ß√Ķes e setores hegem√īnicos da sociedade. Segundo Trindade (2000), a sua ‚Äúinven√ß√£o‚ÄĚ ocorreu em plena Idade M√©dia na Europa, sob a prote√ß√£o da Igreja romana, sendo que as Universidades de Bolonha (1108) e Paris (1211) foram as primeiras a serem criadas¬†

  2. Prolapso vaginal e uterino em ovelhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Bianchi R. Alves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou realizar um estudo retrospectivo sobre os prolapsos vaginal e uterino em ovelhas atendidas no Servi√ßo de Cl√≠nica de Bovinos e Pequenos Ruminantes (CBPR da FMVZ/USP no per√≠odo compreendido entre 2000 a 2010, no qual, foram atendidas 56 ovinos com problemas inerentes ao sistema reprodutivo, dessas, 25 apresentaram prolapso vaginal ou uterino (44,6%. O prolapso vaginal total foi o de maior frequ√™ncia (72%. As ovelhas acometidas, em sua maioria, possu√≠am idade superior a quatro anos (64%, eram sem ra√ßa definida (44% ou da ra√ßa Ile de France (40%. As manifesta√ß√Ķes cl√≠nicas observadas durante a maioria dos atendimentos foram: taquipn√©ia, taquicardia, mucosas oculares avermelhadas indicando estado de toxemia, dec√ļbito esternal ou lateral, apatia e anorexia. O tratamento institu√≠do para todos os casos foi a limpeza, desinfec√ß√£o e reintrodu√ß√£o do √≥rg√£o prolapsado. A sutura de B√ľhner foi feita em 84% dos casos e a histeropexia em um caso (4%. A evolu√ß√£o foi satisfat√≥ria em 80% dos casos atendidos, nos demais casos (20% observou-se √≥bito da f√™mea acometida. Do total de √≥bitos, os prolapsos vaginais foram respons√°veis por 60% (3/5 e os prolapsos uterinos por 40% (2/5. A etiologia dos prolapsos n√£o foi definida nos casos atendidos, sendo esses associados com o per√≠odo p√≥s-parto em sua maioria (56%, provavelmente associados com quadros de hipocalcemia, altas concentra√ß√Ķes s√©ricas de estr√≥geno e hipertonia uterina. Al√©m disso, a predisposi√ß√£o gen√©tica n√£o pode ser descartada.

  3. Global format for energy-momentum based time integration in nonlinear dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2014-01-01

    A global format is developed for momentum and energy consistent time integration of second‚Äźorder dynamic systems with general nonlinear stiffness. The algorithm is formulated by integrating the state‚Äźspace equations of motion over the time increment. The internal force is first represented...... of mean value products at the element level or explicit use of a geometric stiffness matrix. An optional monotonic algorithmic damping, increasing with response frequency, is developed in terms of a single damping parameter. In the solution procedure, the velocity is eliminated and the nonlinear...

  4. Robertson-Walker solutions for various types of energy-momentum tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.

    1976-01-01

    Robertson-Walker solutions are important in general relativity as universe solutions. This paper contains a number of Robertson-Walker-type solutions for certain cases, namely, for noncharged massless scalar meson fields, viscous fluids, Hookean elastic mediums, and Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic systems. (author)

  5. Ion energy/momentum effects during ion assisted growth of niobium nitride films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingenberg, Melissa L.

    The research described herein was performed to better understand and discern ion energy vs. ion momentum effects during ion beam assisted (IBAD) film growth and their effects on residual stress, crystalline structure, morphology, and composition, which influence film tribological properties. NbxN y was chosen for this research because it is a refractory material that can possess a large number of crystalline structures, and it has been found to have good tribological properties. To separate the effects of momentum transfer per arriving atom (p/a), which considers bombarding species mass, energy, and ion-to-atom transport ratio, from those of energy deposition per arriving atom (E/a), a mass independent parameter, different inert ion beams (krypton, argon, and neon) were used to create a matrix of coatings formed using similar energy deposition, but different momentum transfer and vice versa. Deposition was conducted in a research-scale IBAD system using electron beam evaporation, a radio frequency ion source, and a neutral nitrogen gas backfill. Films were characterized using x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and residual stress analysis. Direct and quantifiable effects of bombardment were observed; however, energy deposition and momentum transfer effects could not be completely separated, confirming that thin film processes are complex. Complexities arose from ion-specific interactions (ion size, recoil energy, per cent reflected neutrals, Penning ionization, etc.) and chemistry effects that are not considered by the simple models. Overall, it can be stated that bombardment promoted nitride formation, nanocrystallinity, and compressive stress formation; influenced morphology (which influenced post-deposition oxygen uptake) and stress evolution; increased lattice parameter; modified crystalline phase and texture; and led to inert gas incorporation. High stress levels correlated strongly with material disorder and closed-structured morphologies.

  6. Expanding the FCI to Eevaluate Conceptual Mastery of Energy, Momentum, and Rotational Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chediak, Alex; Hay, Katrina

    2010-03-01

    Normalized gain on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has deservedly become a widely accepted assessment tool to evaluate conceptual mastery in a high school, college, or university-level mechanics course. Left out of this assessment, however, are important physics concepts typically presented in the same course. Conservation of energy and momentum as well as rotational motion receive scant (if any) coverage on the FCI (or, for that matter, the Mechanics Baseline Test). Yet these concepts are foundational for popular majors such as mechanical engineering, where high failure rates are often a concern. A revised assessment tool is presented, one that incorporates the strengths of the FCI (and preserves the straightforward multiple choice format), but assesses these other mechanics-related concepts. Ten additional questions are included, inspired in part by material from the Physics Education Group at the University of Washington and in part by the authors' own experiences with common student misperceptions. The questions are given as pre- and post tests at the authors' institutions, California Baptist University and Pacific Lutheran University, in both calculus-based and algebra-based mechanics courses, exploring breadth of applicability for our findings. We present normalized gain data for the traditional thirty FCI questions and for our ten additional questions.

  7. Stars of bosons with non-minimal energy-momentum tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Bij, J.J.; Gleiser, M.

    1987-02-01

    We obtain spherically symmetric solutions for scalar fields with a non-minimal coupling őĺ absolute value of phi 2 R to gravity. We find, for fields of mass m, maximum masses and number of particles of order M/sub max/ ‚ąľ 0.73őĺ/sup 1/2/ M/sub Planck/ 2 /m, and N/sub max/ ‚ąľ 0.88őĺ/sup 1/2/ M/sub Planck/ 2 /m 2 respectively, for large positive őĺ. For large negative őĺ we find, M/sub max/ ‚ąľ 0.66 absolute value of őĺ/sup 1/2/ M/sub Planck/ 2 /m, and N/sub max/ ‚ąľ 0.72 absolute value of őĺ/sup 1/2/ M/sub Planck/ 2 /m 2

  8. Stars of bosons with non-minimal energy-momentum tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Bij, J.J.; Gleiser, M.

    1987-01-01

    We obtain spherically symmetric solutions for scalar fields with a non-minimal coupling őĺvertical strokeŌÜvertical stroke 2 R to gravity. We find, for zeronode fields of mass m, maximum masses and number of particles of order M max ‚ČÖ 0.73őĺ 1/2 M Planck 2 /m, and N max ‚ČÖ 0.88őĺ 1/2 x M Planck 2 /m 2 respectively, for large positive őĺ. For large negative őĺ we find M max ‚ČÖ 0.66vertical strokeőĺvertical stroke 1/2 M Planck 2 /m, and N max ‚ČÖ 0.72vertical strokeőĺvertical stroke 1/2 x M Planck 2 /m 2 . We also calculate the critical mass and particle number for higher radial nodes of the scalar field and find that both quantities grow approximately linearly for large node number n. (orig.)

  9. Quantum energy-momentum tensor in space-time with time-like killing vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.P.; Zel'nikov, A.I.

    1987-01-01

    An approximate expression for the vacuum and thermal average őľőĹ > ren of the stress-energy tensor of conformal massless fields in static Ricci-flat space-times is constructed. The application of this approximation to the space-time of a Schwarzschild black hole and its relation to the Page-Brown-Ottewill approximation are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  10. Energy-momentum structure of the krypton valence shell by electron-momentum spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, R.; Braidwood, S.W.; McCathy, I.E.; Weigold, E.; Brunger, M.J.

    1996-03-01

    Momentum distributions and spectroscopic factors are obtained in a high resolution electron-momentum spectroscopy study of krypton at 1000 eV. The shapes and relative magnitudes of the momentum profiles are in good agreement with the results of calculations made within the distorted-wave impulse approximation (DWIA) framework. The DWIA describes the relative magnitudes of the 4p and 4s manifolds as well as giving a good representation of the shapes of the respective 4p and 4s cross sections. Results for the momentum profiles belonging to excited 2 P o and 2 S e manifolds are also presented. Spectroscopic factors for transitions belonging to the 2 p o and 2 S e manifolds are assigned up to a binding energy of 42 eV. The spectroscopic factor for the lowest 4s transition is 0.51 ¬Ī 0.01, whereas that for the ground-state 4p transition is 0.98¬Ī 0.01. Comparisons of the present binding energies and spectroscopic factors are made against the results of several many-body calculations and photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) results. In addition, a new procedure is outlined, utilising the experimental 4p and 4s manifold cross sections, that provides information on possible initial state configuration interaction effects in krypton. 50 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  11. On the infimum of the energy-momentum spectrum of a homogeneous Bose gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Derezinski, J.; Zin, P.

    We consider second quantized homogeneous Bose gas in a large cubic box with periodic boundary conditions, at zero temperature, and in the grand canonical setting (the chemical potential őľ is fixed, the number of particles can vary). We investigate upper bounds on the infimum of the energy...

  12. Acarofauna em plantas ornamentais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jania Claudia Camilo dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE O cultivo e o comercio de plantas ornamentais vem cada vez mais ganhando espa√ßo no Brasil, pela grande variedade das esp√©cies existentes e exuber√Ęncia de suas flores, que oferecem uma maior riqueza ao local. Dessa forma, o objetivo desse trabalho foi realizar o levantamento da popula√ß√£o de √°caros associados √†s plantas ornamentais no munic√≠pio de Arapiraca-AL, em fun√ß√£o dos diversos problemas acarretados por essa esp√©cie. O levantamento foi realizado entre os meses de abril a mar√ßo, atrav√©s de amostragens mensais de folhas coletadas da parte basal, intermedi√°ria e apical de plantas existentes em pra√ßas e jardins. Foram coletados 55 √°caros pertencentes √† ordem Prostigmata em 20 fam√≠lias de plantas. As plantas com as maiores riquezas de √°caros foram as Coleus blumei L. e Bxuxus sempervirens L., que apresentaram 65% dos valores amostrais. Analisando-se as coletas realizadas, pode-se observar que houve uma maior incid√™ncia populacional de √°caros na coleta do m√™s de maio, cuja percentagem foi de 36% de √°caros levantados, sendo que no levantamento dos dados amostrais de mar√ßo a percentagem encontrada foi de 14%, nas amostragens dos meses de abril e junho, a percentagem amostrada dos dados foi de 22 e 28%, respectivamente. O estudo do levantamento de √°caros em plantas ornamentais permitiu observar a rela√ß√£o entre √°caros e a rela√ß√£o com a planta hospedeira, facilitando posteriormente um estudo mais aprofundado sobre plantas hospedeiras, e pode-se observar que em per√≠odos chuvosos ocorre uma menor incid√™ncia populacional.

  13. How <em>Varroa> Parasitism Affects the Immunological and Nutritional Status of the Honey Bee, <em>Apis melliferaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Aronstein

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of the parasitic mite <em>Varroa destructorem> on the immunological and nutritional condition of honey bees, <em>Apis melliferaem>, from the perspective of the individual bee and the colony. Pupae, newly-emerged adults and foraging adults were sampled from honey bee colonies at one site in S. Texas, USA. <em>Varroa>‚ÄĎinfested bees displayed elevated titer of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV, suggestive of depressed capacity to limit viral replication. Expression of genes coding three anti-microbial peptides (<em>defensin1, abaecin, hymenoptaecinem> was either not significantly different between <em>Varroa>-infested and uninfested bees or was significantly elevated in <em>Varroa>-infested bees, varying with sampling date and bee developmental age. The effect of <em>Varroa> on nutritional indices of the bees was complex, with protein, triglyceride, glycogen and sugar levels strongly influenced by life-stage of the bee and individual colony. Protein content was depressed and free amino acid content elevated in <em>Varroa>-infested pupae, suggesting that protein synthesis, and consequently growth, may be limited in these insects. No simple relationship between the values of nutritional and immune-related indices was observed, and colony-scale effects were indicated by the reduced weight of pupae in colonies with high <em>Varroa> abundance, irrespective of whether the individual pupa bore <em>Varroa>.

  14. Desempenho produtivo e bioecon√īmico de frangos de corte criados em diferentes sistemas de aquecimento

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu,Paulo Giovanni de; Baêta,Fernando da Costa; Abreu,Valéria Maria Nascimento; Soares,Paulo Rubens; Perdomo,Carlos Cláudio; Silva,Martinho de Almeida e

    2000-01-01

    RESUMO - Este experimento foi realizado em duas fases para estudar o efeito de diferentes sistemas de aquecimento em piso sobre os desempenhos produtivo e bioecon√īmico de frangos de corte. Um total de 500 pintos de um dia, 50% macho e 50% f√™mea, em cada c√≠rculo de prote√ß√£o, foi distribu√≠do em um delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com sete tratamentos e quatro blocos. Os sistemas de aquecimento testados foram: placa de fibra de vidro sem cobertura de lona pl√°stica; placa de fibr...

  15. Synthesis and Spectroscopic Analysis of Novel 1<em>H-Benzo[d>]imidazoles Phenyl Sulfonylpiperazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad M. Qandil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A group of benzimidazole analogs of sildenafil, 3-benzimidazolyl-4-methoxy-phenylsulfonylpiperazines 2‚Äď4 and 3-benzimidazolyl-4-methoxy-<em>N,N>-dimethyl- benzenesulfonamide (5, were efficiently synthesized. Compounds 2‚Äď5 were characterized by NMR and MS and contrary to the reported mass spectra of sildenafil, the spectra of the piperazine-containing compounds 2‚Äď4 showed a novel fragmentation pattern leading to an <em>m/z> = 316. A mechanism for the formation of this fragment was proposed.

  16. Comparison of Serum Concentrations of Total Cholesterol and Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most dangerous tropical diseases that complicates HIV infection in Nigeria to date. Over two million Nigerians are known to be infected with TB and many more are at risk of the infection. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol and total lipid of 117 female TB patients attending chest clinic at ...

  17. Changes in total and differential white cell counts, total lymphocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Published reports on the possible changes in the various immune cell populations, especially the total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts, during the menstrual cycle in Nigerian female subjects are relatively scarce. Aim: To determine possible changes in the total and differential white blood cell [WBC] counts, ...

  18. Anestesia Diploica em Endodontia

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Ricardo Ribeiro Veiga de

    2013-01-01

    Trabalho final do 5¬ļ ano com vista √† atribui√ß√£o do grau de mestre no √Ęmbito do ciclo de estudos de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Dent√°ria apresentado √† Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra. Objetivos Comparar a efic√°cia das t√©cnicas de anestesia convencionais, a anestesia infiltrativa periapical, com a anestesia diploica. Metodologia Foram selecionados 32 volunt√°rios, saud√°veis, aos quais foram administradas ambas as t√©cnicas anest√©sicas no dente 1.4. Numa primeira fase os...

  19. Burnout em Cuidadores Formais

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Juliana Marisa Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Disserta√ß√£o apresentada √† Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para a obten√ß√£o do grau de Mestre em Psicologia, ramo de Psicologia Cl√≠nica e da Sa√ļde Este estudo √© sobre a S√≠ndrome de Burnout e teve como objetivo geral compreender se o Burnout est√° presente nos cuidadores formais da Santa Casa da Miseric√≥rdia de Castelo de Paiva e quais as vari√°veis socioprofissionais que poder√£o exercer influ√™ncia no seu aparecimento. Pretendeu-se avaliar o Burnout dos cuidadores a tr...

  20. Biología y ciclo reproductivo de <em>Apanteles gelechiidivorisem> (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, parasitoide de <em>Tuta absolutaem> (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajonero Johanna

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    <em>Apanteles gelechiidivorisem> es un parasitoide de larvas de <em>Tuta absolutaem> (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, una plaga importante de cultivos como el tomate y la papa. El uso de este insecto para el control biol√≥gico no se ha implementado eficientemente debido a la falta de conocimiento de la biolog√≠a, espec√≠ficamente del ciclo de vida y el efecto de factores externos, como la temperatura, en su capacidad paras√≠tica. Se evalu√≥ el desarrollo y la capacidad reproductiva de <em>A. gelechiidivorisem> en cuatro condiciones t√©rmicas: 14, 20, 26 y 32 ¬įC. En la evaluaci√≥n del desarrollo se realiz√≥ una descripci√≥n del ciclo, se determin√≥ la duraci√≥n total de este, se estimaron los umbrales t√©rmicos para cada estadio utilizando el modelo de Lactin y se hallaron los grados d√≠a. En la evaluaci√≥n de la capacidad reproductiva se variaron las densidades del hospedero ofrecidas a una pareja reci√©n emergida de la avispa de 5 hasta 160 y se cont√≥ el n√ļmero de adultos emergidos con los cuales se evalu√≥ longevidad y fecundidad. Adicionalmente se ajust√≥ un modelo de respuesta funcional. La duraci√≥n del ciclo de vida para las temperaturas evaluadas fue de 39 d√≠as en 14 ¬įC, 34 en 20 ¬įC, 19 en 26 ¬įC y 17 en 32 ¬įC. La longevidad fue de 7,5 (14 ¬įC, 7 (20 ¬įC, 5 (26 ¬įC y 2,4 (32 ¬įC d√≠as. La temperatura a la cual se pueden optimizar los par√°metros reproductivos de esta avispa se encuentra entre 20 y 26 ¬įC.

  1. EMS providers do not use FOAM for education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Joshua; Donovan, Colleen; McCoy, Jonathan

    2018-05-24

    Free open access to medical education (FOAM, #FOAM) is the free availability of educational materials on various medicine topics. We hope to evaluate the use of social media and FOAM by emergency medical services (EMS) providers. We designed an online survey distributed to EMS providers with questions about demographics and social media/FOAM use by providers. The survey was sent to the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) EMS Listserv of medical directors and was asked to be distributed to their respective agencies. The survey was designed to inquire about the providers' knowledge of FOAM and social media and their use of the above for EMS education. There were 169 respondents out of a total of 523 providers yielding a response rate of 32.3%. Fifty-three percent of respondents are paramedics, 37% are EMT-Basic trained, and the remainder (16%) were "other." The minority (20%) of respondents had heard of FOAM. However, 54% of respondents had heard of "free medical education online" regarding pertinent topics. Of the total respondents who used social media for education, 31% used Facebook and 23% used blogs and podcasts as resources for online education. Only 4% of respondents stated they produced FOAM content. Seventy-six percent of respondents said they were "interested" or "very interested" in using FOAM for medical education. If FOAM provided continuing medical education (CME), 83% of respondents would be interested in using it. Social media is not used frequently by EMS providers for the purposes of FOAM. There is interest within EMS providers to use FOAM for education, even if CME was not provided. FOAM can provide a novel area of education for EMS.

  2. Total hip arthroplasty in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alma Becic; Johnsen, S√łren Paaske; Overgaard, S√łren

    2005-01-01

    The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs.......The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs....

  3. Congruences of totally geodesic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plebanski, J.F.; Rozga, K.

    1989-01-01

    A general theory of congruences of totally geodesic surfaces is presented. In particular their classification, based on the properties of induced affine connections, is provided. In the four-dimensional case canonical forms of the metric tensor admitting congruences of two-dimensional totally geodesic surfaces of rank one are given. Finally, congruences of two-dimensional extremal surfaces are studied. (author)

  4. O insight em psiquiatria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida P. Cardoso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O sinal de que algo est√° a acontecer contribui para que o paciente reconhe√ßa que alguma coisa de estranho se est√° a passar consigo. Este reconhecimento faz com que o sujeito possa desempenhar uma fun√ß√£o activa e seja um elemento colaborante do seu processo de recupera√ß√£o. Cada doen√ßa apresenta, contudo, diferentes sintomas, uma vez que cada doen√ßa psiqui√°trica consiste em diferentes perturba√ß√Ķes com diversos efeitos sobre o funcionamento mental. Desta maneira, o fen√≥meno do insight que √© registado em cada doen√ßa √© diferente e expressa-se sob diferentes formas, n√£o somente devido √†s manifesta√ß√Ķes cl√≠nicas da doen√ßa mas tamb√©m devido √†s caracter√≠sticas individuais do sujeito.

  5. Antibioticos profilaticos em neurocirurgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo A. Brandt

    1979-03-01

    Full Text Available O √≠ndice de infec√ß√Ķes p√≥s-operat√≥rias em pacientes neuro-cir√ļrgicos que receberam antibi√≥ticos profil√°ticos neste per√≠odo foi comparado com o de pacientes que n√£o receberam antibi√≥ticos. Infec√ß√Ķes ocorreram em propor√ß√Ķes significativamente maiores nos pacientes que receberam antibi√≥ticos, particularmente naqueles com afec√ß√Ķes intracranianas graves; estas infec√ß√Ķes foram graves e fatais na maioria dos casos. A administra√ß√£o de antibi√≥ticos profil√°ticos nestes pacientes n√£o s√≥ foi incapaz de prevenir o aparecimento de infec√ß√Ķes p√≥s-operat√≥rias, como aparentemente favoreceu o seu desenvolvimento. Tal se deveu, provavelmente, √† destrui√ß√£o do equil√≠brio microbiano no organismo, favorecendo o desenvolvimento de germes patog√™nicos e resistentes aos antibi√≥ticos usuais

  6. A democracia em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Guanche Zaldívar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O triunfo revolucion√°rio de 1959 consagrou em Cuba um novo conceito de democracia, com o intuito de garantir o acesso √† vida pol√≠tica ativa de grandes setores da popula√ß√£o, antes exclu√≠dos. Para isso, foi desenvolvida uma pol√≠tica de inclus√£o social com car√°ter universal. A pr√°tica pol√≠tica popular deixou as riquezas do pa√≠s em m√£os da popula√ß√£o carente e gerou uma grande mobilidade social, fato que foi central para o aumento da participa√ß√£o popular. O contexto de agress√£o imperialista e o pr√≥prio desenvolvimento do processo produziram a consolida√ß√£o de no√ß√Ķes que limitaram a participa√ß√£o popular: o apogeu da burocracia, a compreens√£o da unidade como unanimidade e o seguimento, em certa medida, de correntes do marxismo sovi√©tico. Os desafios atuais para aprofundar a democracia em Cuba se apresentam em tr√™s planos: socializar o poder, promover a sociodiversidade e desenvolver a ideologia revolucion√°ria.El triunfo revolucionario de 1959 consagr√≥ en Cuba un nuevo concepto de democracia, basado en garantizar acceso a la vida pol√≠tica activa a grandes sectores poblacionales, antes excluidos de ella. Para ello desarroll√≥ una pol√≠tica de inclusi√≥n social con car√°cter universal. La pr√°ctica pol√≠tica popular puso las riquezas del pa√≠s en manos de los despose√≠dos y gener√≥ gran movilidad social, hecho que result√≥ clave para el aumento de la participaci√≥n popular. El contexto de agresi√≥n imperialista y el propio desarrollo del proceso produjo el afianzamiento de nociones que limitaron la participaci√≥n popular: el auge de la burocracia, la comprensi√≥n de la unidad como unanimidad y el seguimiento, en parte, de corrientes del marxismo sovi√©tico. Los desaf√≠os actuales se presentan en tres planos para profundizar la democracia en Cuba: socializar el poder, promover la sociodiversidad y desarrollar la ideolog√≠a revolucionaria.The revolutionary triumph of 1959 established in Cuba a new concept of democracy, one that

  7. Identified EM Earthquake Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth, II; Saxton, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After a number of custom rock experiments, two hypotheses were formed which could answer the EM wave model. The first hypothesis concerned a sufficient and continuous electron movement either by surface or penetrative flow, and the second regarded a novel approach to radio transmission. Electron flow along fracture surfaces was determined to be inadequate in creating strong EM fields, because rock has a very high electrical resistance making it a high quality insulator. Penetrative flow could not be corroborated as well, because it was discovered that rock was absorbing and confining electrons to a very thin skin depth. Radio wave transmission and detection worked with every single test administered. This hypothesis was reviewed for propagating, long-wave generation with sufficient amplitude, and the capability of penetrating solid rock. Additionally, fracture spaces, either air or ion-filled, can facilitate this concept from great depths and allow for surficial detection. A few propagating precursor signals have been detected in the field occurring with associated phases using custom-built loop antennae. Field testing was conducted in Southern California from 2006-2011, and outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013. The antennae have mobility and observations were noted for

  8. Co-Autoria em Ensino e Pesquisa em Administração e Contabilidade no Brasil: Uma Década em Análise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lélis Balestrin Espartel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma das principais tend√™ncias verificadas nos √ļltimos anos √© o aumento da colabora√ß√£o cient√≠fica, caracterizada pela co-autoria. Muitos autores destacam a import√Ęncia do tema e indicam o crescimento da co-autoria na produ√ß√£o acad√™mica. Entretanto, em √Ęmbito nacional, nenhum trabalho considerou a an√°lise de co-autoria no campo da Administra√ß√£o. Com base nisso, este estudo, de car√°ter bibliom√©trico, analisou os artigos publicados em co-autoria nos anais dos congressos promovidos pela ANPAD no per√≠odo entre 2001 e 2010, perfazendo 12 eventos: 10 Encontros da ANPAD (EnANPAD e 2 Encontros de Ensino e Pesquisa em Administra√ß√£o e Contabilidade (EnEPQ. Ao total foram investigados 778 trabalhos. De uma forma geral, nota-se que grande parte dos trabalhos conduzidos em Administra√ß√£o no Brasil, na √ļltima d√©cada, utiliza a co-autoria. Quanto ao formato dos artigos, observa-se que a co-autoria prevalece nos estudos emp√≠ricos, enquanto os estudos te√≥ricos s√£o desenvolvidos, em sua maioria, por um √ļnico autor. No caso dos trabalhos te√≥ricos, elaborados em co-autoria, nota-se, em m√©dia, um n√ļmero menor de autores do que em trabalhos emp√≠ricos. Dentre os emp√≠ricos realizados em co-autoria, tamb√©m h√° diferen√ßas significativas, sendo que os trabalhos quantitativos apresentaram uma m√©dia de autores superior a dos artigos qualitativos. Tamb√©m foi realizada uma an√°lise da rede formada pelas 197 IES identificadas, fazendo considera√ß√Ķes sobre a sua densidade, dist√Ęncia geod√©sica m√©dia, centraliza√ß√£o e proximidade entre os elos. Acrescido a estas an√°lises, discuss√Ķes e considera√ß√Ķes a respeito da co-autoria em Administra√ß√£o tamb√©m s√£o apresentadas no artigo. Sugest√Ķes de pesquisas futuras s√£o propostas.

  9. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  10. Salmonella sp. bacteriology monitoring in laying hens at different growing and laying periods from poultry farms in Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza Monitoramento bacteriológico para Salmonella sp. em poedeira comercial em diferentes fases de recria e produção de empresas avícolas da Região Metropolitana de Fortaleza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuella Evangelista da Silva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This work aimed to verify <em>Salmonella> occurrence in laying hen flocks from eight poultry farms in Metropolitan Region of Fortaleza city. Swab collections were performed in transport boxes of day-old-chicks, totaling 40 feces samples (5 samples/flock, which presented no <em>Salmonella> contamination. Bacterial analyses from a pool of feces were performed in the same flocks at 10, 20, 30 and 40 weeks of age. <em>Salmonella enterica em>rough strain and <em>Salmonella em>Newport were found in two flocks at 20 and 40 weeks of age, respectively. These results suggest that the birds were infected with <em>Salmonella em>after their arrival in the poultry farms. It was verified that 25% of the poultry farms presented positive feces samples for <em>Salmonella> contamination, indicating the need for a more efficacious preventive program in the poultry farms for egg production. This work suggests that day old birds were of <em>Salmonella> contamination which indicates no vertical <em>Salmonella> transmission, however the rearing phase present failures regarding bacterial control.

     

    KEY WORDS: Bacteriology, chickens, eggs, feces, Salmonella.

    O presente trabalho objetivou investigar a presen√ßa de <em>Salmonella em>em lotes de poedeiras comerciais de oito empresas da regi√£o metropolitana de Fortaleza,CE, Brasil. Realizaram-se suabes em cinco caixas de transporte por lote das oito empresas analisadas, totalizando quarenta amostras de mec√īnio, sendo todas negativas para <em>Salmonella. em>Os mesmos lotes (oito foram monitorados na d√©cima, vig√©sima, trig√©sima e quadrag√©sima semanas de idade com exame bacteriol√≥gico de <em>pool> de cem fezes frescas. Foram isoladas <em>Salmonella> <em>enterica em>subsep√©cie <em>enterica> cepa rugosa e<em> Salmonella em>Newport> em>das amostras de fezes nas empresas 2 e 6 na

  11. Osteoporose em caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F√°bio B. Rosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de casos de osteoporose em caprinos provenientes de uma propriedade na √°rea de abrang√™ncia do LPV-UFSM, determinando a epidemiologia, o quadro cl√≠nico-patol√≥gico e discutindo os prov√°veis mecanismos patogen√©ticos. Cinco cabras, f√™meas, SRD, de seis meses a seis anos de idade foram afetadas. As cabras eram mantidas em campo nativo, sem suplementa√ß√£o com ra√ß√£o e sob superlota√ß√£o. Os principais sinais cl√≠nicos foram emagrecimento, dificuldade de locomo√ß√£o e perman√™ncia em dec√ļbito por longos per√≠odos. As principais altera√ß√Ķes macrosc√≥picas nos ossos examinados foram vistas nas superf√≠cies de corte e caracterizavam-se por deple√ß√£o do osso esponjoso (porosidade e redu√ß√£o acentuada da espessura do osso cortical. Havia tamb√©m marcada atrofia serosa da gordura da medula √≥ssea. Microscopicamente, nas regi√Ķes avaliadas (√ļmero proximal, r√°dio distal, f√™mur distal, t√≠bia proximal e corpos das v√©rtebras lombares foi observada redu√ß√£o moderada a acentuada do n√ļmero e da espessura das trab√©culas √≥sseas nas ep√≠fises e met√°fises dos ossos longos e nos corpos vertebrais. Os achados cl√≠nico-patol√≥gicos indicaram que a osteoporose observada provavelmente foi causada pela desnutri√ß√£o. As altera√ß√Ķes √≥sseas (diminui√ß√£o no n√ļmero e na espessura das trab√©culas do osso esponjoso sugerem que ambos os mecanismos, m√° forma√ß√£o √≥ssea e reabsor√ß√£o √≥ssea aumentada, contribu√≠ram para a ocorr√™ncia de osteoporose nos caprinos deste estudo.

  12. Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services ‚ÄĒ The Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC) database integrates premarket and postmarket data about medical devices. It includes information pulled from CDRH databases...

  13. Nutritional management after total laryngectomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    28 September 2010 with a known diagnosis of cancer of the larynx. The patient, who underwent a total laryngectomy on 13 October, had a tracheostomy inserted .... status, leading to improved quality of life and better response to treatment.4.

  14. Four Novel Cellulose Synthase (CESA Genes from <em>Birch> (<em>Betula platyphylla em>Suk. Involved in Primary and Secondary Cell Wall Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose synthase (CESA, which is an essential catalyst for the generation of plant cell wall biomass, is mainly encoded by the <em>CesA> gene family that contains ten or more members. In this study; four full-length cDNAs encoding CESA were isolated from<em> Betula platyphyllaem> Suk., which is an important timber species, using RT-PCR combined with the RACE method and were named as <em>BplCesA3em>, <em>‚ąí4em>,> ‚ąí7 em>and> ‚ąí8em>. These deduced CESAs contained the same typical domains and regions as their <em>Arabidopsis> homologs. The cDNA lengths differed among these four genes, as did the locations of the various protein domains inferred from the deduced amino acid sequences, which shared amino acid sequence identities ranging from only 63.8% to 70.5%. Real-time RT-PCR showed that all four <em>BplCesAs> were expressed at different levels in diverse tissues. Results indicated that BplCESA8 might be involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis and floral development. BplCESA3 appeared in a unique expression pattern and was possibly involved in primary cell wall biosynthesis and seed development; it might also be related to the homogalacturonan synthesis. BplCESA7 and BplCESA4 may be related to the formation of a cellulose synthase complex and participate mainly in secondary cell wall biosynthesis. The extremely low expression abundance of the four BplCESAs in mature pollen suggested very little involvement of them in mature pollen formation in <em>Betula>. The distinct expression pattern of the four <em>BplCesAs> suggested they might participate in developments of various tissues and that they are possibly controlled by distinct mechanisms in <em>Betula.>

  15. Transmandibular approach to total maxillectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Total Maxillectomy through transfacial approach has been practiced in the treatment of Cancer for more than a decade. Its role in T3 - T4 tumors extending posteriorly through gthe bony wall is questionable, since an oncological radical procedure is often not possible. Recurrences in the infratemporal fossa are common. Despite the addition of radiotherapy five year survivals have not significantly improved. Transmandibular approach to Total Maxillectomy overcomes this shortcoming by including ...

  16. Leadership and Total Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    leadership and management skills yields increased productivity. This paper will focus on the skills required of senior level leaders (leaders at the...publication until it has been cleared by the appropriate mii..-, service or government agency. Leadership and Total Quality Management An Individual Study...llty Codes fAvti1 and/or DltISpecial Abstract AUTHOR: Harry D. Gatanas, LTC, USA TITLE: Leadership and Total Quality Management FORMAT- Individual

  17. <em>N>-Substituted 5-Chloro-6-phenylpyridazin-3(2<em>H>-ones: Synthesis, Insecticidal Activity Against <em>Plutella xylostella em>(L. and SAR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of <em>N>-substituted 5-chloro-6-phenylpyridazin-3(2<em>H>-one derivatives were synthesized based on our previous work; all compounds were characterized by spectral data and tested for <em>in vitroem> insecticidal activity against <em>Plutella xylostellaem>. The results showed that the synthesized pyridazin-3(2<em>H>-one compounds possessed good insecticidal activities, especially the compounds 4b, 4d, and 4h which showed > 90% activity at 100 mg/L. The structure-activity relationships (SAR for these compounds were also discussed.

  18. INDICADORES EM SANEAMENTO

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Samuel Alves Barbi; C√īrtes, Larissa Silveira; Coelho Netto, Taiana; Freitas Junior, Moacyr Moreira de

    2016-01-01

    Este artigo se prop√Ķe a analisar a evolu√ß√£o dos prestadores de servi√ßos de saneamento do estado de MinasGerais entre os anos de 2005 e 2010 com base nos indicadores do Sistema Nacional de Informa√ß√Ķes em Saneamento(SNIS). Foram definidos par√Ęmetros t√©cnicos para a an√°lise dos indicadores, classificados os resultados como satisfat√≥rios(verdes) ou insatisfat√≥rios (vermelhos). Esta categoriza√ß√£o atende a concep√ß√£o da Regula√ß√£o Sunshine, trazendo √† tona omonitoramento do progresso das a√ß√Ķes no set...

  19. Em favor da talassografia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Boudou

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A Talassografia (‚Äúdescri√ß√£o do mar‚ÄĚ interessa-sepelos impactos f√≠sicos, biol√≥gicos, ecol√≥gicos... culturais da violenta antropiza√ß√£o dos ambientes costeiros (oce√Ęnicos e continentais, caracterizados pelaexig√ľidade, vulnerabilidade, fragilidade e plasticidade. Como o Brasil √© um ‚Äúpa√≠s mar√≠timo‚ÄĚ, os ge√≥-grafos (os talass√≥grafos brasileiros s√£o convidadosa intensificar suas pesquisas nas √°reas costeiras e acriar novas estruturas para divulg√°-las: Revista, Encontros, Associa√ß√£o, P√≥s-Gradua√ß√£o... tudo em prolda talassografia.

  20. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  1. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation

  2. Total 2004 annual report; TOTAL 2004 rapport annuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  3. INFLU√äNCIA ESTOICA NA CONCEP√á√ÉO DE <em>STATUS> E <em>DICTUM> COMO <em> QUASI RES EM> (ŠĹ°ŌÉőĪőĹőĶ√¨ ŌĄőĻőĹő¨ EM ABERLARDO STOIC INFLUENCE IN ABELARD'S CONCEPTION OF <em>STATUS> AND <em>DICTUM> AS <em>QUASI RESem> (ŠĹ°ŌÉőĪőĹőĶ√¨ ŌĄőĻőĹő¨.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hamelin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Na sua obra, Pedro Abelardo (1079-1142 destaca duas no√ß√Ķes metaf√≠sicas que fundamentam sua teoria l√≥gica: o <em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">statusem> e o <em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">dictum propositionisem>, ao causar, respectivamente, a imposi√ß√£o (<em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">impositioem> dos termos universais e o valor de verdade das proposi√ß√Ķes. Trata-se de express√Ķes que se referem a naturezas ontol√≥gicas peculiares, na medida em que n√£o s√£o consideradas coisas (<em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">resem>, mesmo que constituem causas. Todavia, tamb√©m n√£o s√£o nada. Abelardo as chama de ‚Äėquase coisas‚Äô (<em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;">quasi resem>. No presente artigo, explicamos, primeiro, essas duas no√ß√Ķes essenciais da l√≥gica abelardiana, antes de tentar, em seguida, encontrar a fonte dessa metaf√≠sica particular. Em oposi√ß√£o a comentadores importantes da l√≥gica de Abelardo, que estimam que haja uma forte influ√™ncia plat√īnica sobre essa concep√ß√£o espec√≠fica, defendemos antes, com apoio de textos significativos e de acordo com o nominalismo abelardiano, que a maior ascend√™ncia sobre a metaf√≠sica do nosso autor √© a do estoicismo, sobretudo, antigo.In his work, Peter Abelard (1079-1142 highlights two metaphysical notions, which sustain his logical theory: the <em>status> and the <em>dictum propositionisem>, causing respectively both the imposition (<em>impositio> of universal terms and the thuth-value of propositions. Both expressions refer to peculiar ontological natures, in so far as they are not considered things (<em>res>, even if they constitute causes. Nevertheless, neither are they ‚Äėnothing‚Äô. Abelard calls them ‚Äėquasi-things‚Äô (<em>quasi resem>. In the present article, we expound first these two essential notions of Abelardian logic before then trying to find the source of this particular metaphysics. Contrary to some important

  4. Ploidia de DNA em astrocitomas: estudo em 66 pacientes brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRUTMAN-ZVEIBIL DEBORAH

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A determina√ß√£o do conte√ļdo de DNA nuclear (fra√ß√£o de fase S e ploidia de DNA foi realizada por meio de an√°lise de imagem em 66 astrocitomas, a partir de material fixado em formalina e seccionado em cortes de 5 micr√īmetros corados pela t√©cnica de Feulgen. Nossos resultados mostraram forte rela√ß√£o entre a idade do paciente, grau histol√≥gico e sobrevida , com a ploidia de DNA e o percentual de c√©lulas em fase de s√≠ntese. A an√°lise da atividade proliferativa de astrocitomas intracranianos √© a nosso ver muito √ļtil no entendimento do comportamento biol√≥gico , do progn√≥stico e para o planejamento terap√™utico dessas les√Ķes.

  5. Association between anti-endomysial antibody and total intestinal villous atrophy in children with coeliac disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgenc F

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence to suggest that detection of anti-gliadin antibody (AGA and anti-endomysial antibody (EmA can serve as sensitive markers of the degree of histological abnormalities in patients with coeliac disease. AIM: To evaluate the association between the presence of AGA and EmA and villous atrophy in intestinal biopsies of children with suspected coeliac disease. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Intestinal samples of 46 children with failure to thrive, chronic diarrhoea, malabsorption and short stature with either AGA and/or EmA positivity were evaluated, retrospectively. The diagnosis of coeliac disease was based on ESPGHAN criteria. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Patients with total villous atrophy who fulfilled the ESPGHAN criteria for the diagnosis of coeliac disease were diagnosed to have coeliac disease. Nine patients without villous atrophy were taken as negative controls for this study. AGA-IgA was measured both by immunoflourescence (IF and ELISA and EmA-IgA by IF while patients were on normal diet. Relationship between autoantibody positivity and intestinal total villous atrophy was evaluated. RESULTS: Overall positivity for AGA IgA was 85% (39/46 by IF+ELISA and EmA positivity was 85% (39/46 by IF within the study group. Histological examination revealed total villous atrophy with lymphocyte infiltration and crypt hyperplasia in 37 (80% patients. AGA IgA was positive in 14 (38% and 31 (84% of these children by ELISA and IF, respectively. EmA positivity was detected in 35/37 (95% cases with atrophy and 4/9 (44% without atrophy (p=0.002. Thirty out of 37 (81% patients with villous atrophy had both AGA IgA (IF and EmA positivity (p=0.186. All of the sixteen patients that had both positive AGA IgA (ELISA+IF and EmA had total villous atrophy (p=0.037. CONCLUSION: A significant association between total villous atrophy and EmA positivity has been documented in this study.

  6. Medo de falar em p√ļblico em uma amostra da popula√ß√£o: preval√™ncia, impacto no funcionamento pessoal e tratamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo J. Fonseca D'El Rey

    Full Text Available O medo de falar em p√ļblico constitui um subtipo n√£o reconhecido da fobia social em estudos epidemiol√≥gicos. Para se verificar a preval√™ncia, o impacto no funcionamento pessoal e a procura por tratamento do medo de falar em p√ļblico, foi realizada uma pesquisa com 452 residentes da cidade de S√£o Paulo, Brasil. Trinta e dois porcento dos entrevistados reportaram ansiedade excessiva quando falavam para um grande grupo de pessoas. No total, 13% dos entrevistados relataram que o medo de falar em p√ļblico resultou em grande interfer√™ncia em seu trabalho, vida social e educa√ß√£o, ou causou sofrimento acentuado. Esta pesquisa ap√≥ia a inclus√£o de formas graves do medo de falar em p√ļblico no constructo diagn√≥stico da fobia social e sugere, tamb√©m, que essa ansiedade de falar em p√ļblico pode ter um impacto negativo na vida de muitos indiv√≠duos na comunidade.

  7. Intoxicação por Senna occidentalis (Leg. Caesalpinoideae em bovinos em pastoreio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Claudio S.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available S√£o descritos tr√™s surtos da intoxica√ß√£o por Senna occidentalis em bovinos em cria√ß√£o extensiva, exclusivamente em pastoreio, durante o outono e in√≠cio do inverno, em tr√™s estabelecimentos do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os bovinos afetados tinham acesso a antigas lavouras de soja ou restevas de lavouras de soja e milho altamente infestados por fedegoso (S. occidentalis. No estabelecimento 1, de um total de 34 novilhas (de aprox. 18 meses de idade, 10 morreram (29,1%; no estabelecimento 2, morreram 9 (4,2% de um total de 212 vacas prenhes e, no estabelecimento 3, morreram 6 (12,0% de um total de 50 animais. O curso cl√≠nico variou de 3 a 6 dias, e os sinais cl√≠nicos inclu√≠am urina marrom-escura, fraqueza muscular, tremores, andar cambaleante, dec√ļbito esternal e morte. Os animais, mesmo em dec√ļbito, permaneciam alerta e com reflexos normais, alimentando-se e bebendo √°gua at√© poucas horas antes da morte. No estabelecimento 2, os bovinos come√ßaram a adoecer 7 dias ap√≥s terem sido retirados do campo infestado pela planta. As principais altera√ß√Ķes observadas na necropsia foram √°reas claras na musculatura esquel√©tica, principalmente nos m√ļsculos dos membros posteriores e estrias esbranqui√ßadas na musculatura card√≠aca. A principal les√£o microsc√≥pica era de degenera√ß√£o e necrose nos m√ļsculos esquel√©ticos (miopatia degenerativa t√≥xica multifocal multif√°sica. Os dados epidemiol√≥gicos, cl√≠nicos, de necropsia e histopatol√≥gico permitiram concluir pelo diagn√≥stico de intoxica√ß√£o por S. occidentalis, nesses tr√™s surtos.

  8. Busca de estruturas em grandes escalas em altos redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, N. V.; Sodré, L., Jr.; Cypriano, E.

    2003-08-01

    A busca por estruturas em grandes escalas (aglomerados de gal√°xias, por exemplo) √© um ativo t√≥pico de pesquisas hoje em dia, pois a detec√ß√£o de um √ļnico aglomerado em altos redshifts pode por v√≠nculos fortes sobre os modelos cosmol√≥gicos. Neste projeto estamos fazendo uma busca de estruturas distantes em campos contendo pares de quasares pr√≥ximos entre si em z√ā √ā3√ā 0.9. Os pares de quasares foram extra√≠dos do cat√°logo de V√©ron-Cetty & V√©ron (2001) e est√£o sendo observados com os telesc√≥pios: 2,2m da University of Hawaii (UH), 2,5m do Observat√≥rio de Las Campanas e com o GEMINI. Apresentamos aqui a an√°lise preliminar de um par de quasares observado nos filtros i'(7800 √Ö) e z'(9500 √Ö) com o GEMINI. A cor (i'-z') mostrou-se √ļtil para detectar objetos "early-type" em redshifts menores que 1.1. No estudo do par 131046+0006/J131055+0008, com redshift ~ 0.9, o uso deste m√©todo possibilitou a detec√ß√£o de sete objetos candidatos a gal√°xias "early-type". Num mapa da distribui√ß√£o projetada dos objetos para 22 escala. Um outro argumento em favor dessa hip√≥tese √© que eles obedecem uma rela√ß√£o do tipo Kormendy (raio equivalente X brilho superficial dentro desse raio), como a apresentada pelas gal√°xias el√≠pticas em z = 0.

  9. The role of Nicotiana gluca Graham (paraguayan herbs) as an adjuvant in immunomodulation of Newcastle disease vaccine for broilers Estudo da ação de Nicotiana glauca Graham (erva paraguaia) como coadjuvante em vacina contra a doença de Newcastle em frangos de corte

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiane Pereira Gentilini; Telmo Vidor; Rog√©rio Freitag; Marcos Ant√īnio Anciuti; Caren Gularte Quincozes; Marlete Brum Cleff; Geferson Fischer; Carlos Eduardo Nogueira

    2008-01-01

    The <em>Nicotiana glaucaem> is a native plant species from Argentina, but found all over South América, being used against headaches, rheumatism, injuries, ulcers, and so on. Researchers have considered it as having immunomodulation effect. This study was conducted to investigate the use of a aqueous extract of <em>Nicotiana glauca em>Graham as an immunomodulator (adjuvant) of a Newcastle disease vaccine.. A total of 56 broilers were distributed into 4 ...

  10. Extraction of Dihydroquercetin<em> em>from <em>Larix gmeliniem>i> em>with Ultrasound-Assisted and Microwave-Assisted Alternant Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangang Zu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An ultrasound and microwave assisted alternant extraction method (UMAE was applied for extracting dihydroquercetin (DHQ from <em>Larix gmeliniem>i> wood. This investigation was conducted using 60% ethanol as solvent, 1:12 solid to liquid ratio, and 3 h soaking time. The optimum treatment time was ultrasound 40 min, microwave 20 min, respectively, and the extraction was performed once. Under the optimized conditions, satisfactory extraction yield of the target analyte was obtained. Relative to ultrasound-assisted or microwave-assisted method, the proposed approach provides higher extraction yield. The effect of DHQ of different concentrations and synthetic antioxidants on oxidative stability in soy bean oil stored for 20 days at different temperatures (25 ¬įC and 60 ¬įC was compared. DHQ was more effective in restraining soy bean oil oxidation, and a dose-response relationship was observed. The antioxidant activity of DHQ was a little stronger than that of BHA and BHT. Soy bean oil supplemented with 0.08 mg/g DHQ exhibited favorable antioxidant effects and is preferable for effectively avoiding oxidation. The <em>L. gmeliniiem> wood samples before and after extraction were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the UMAE method is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation.

  11. Calidad total en el ICESI

    OpenAIRE

    González Zamora, José Hipólito

    2010-01-01

    En primer lugar deseo dar la bienvenida esta reunión al ingeniero Francisco Gensini, director ejecutivo de INCOLDA, quien ha sido fuente constante de inspiración para el trabajo relacionado con Control Total de Calidad (C.T.C.) que se ha venido desarrollando en el ICESI. El ingeniero Gensini ha logrado aglutinar alrededor de INCOLDA al grupo de seis empresas de la región, líderes en el estudio y aplicación de los principios del Control Total de Calidad , es decir Rica Rondo S.A., Banco de Oc...

  12. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantolog√≠a de la Cl√≠nica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el a√Īo 2009, mediante pr√≥tesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, t√©cnica que se ha incorporado a la pr√°ctica estomatol√≥gica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se sigui√≥ un protocolo que comprendi√≥ una fase quir√ļrgica, procedimiento con o sin realizaci√≥n de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 a√Īos de edad, que acudi√≥ a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le hab√≠an elaborado tres pr√≥tesis en los √ļltimos dos a√Īos y ninguna reun√≠a los requisitos de retenci√≥n que √©l necesitaba para sentirse seguro y c√≥modo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacci√≥n total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad est√©tica y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ort√≠z" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  13. Preferencia alimenticia del √°caro depredador <em>Balaustium> sp. en condiciones controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu√Īoz Karen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Se evalu√≥ la preferencia de presas de <em>Balaustium> sp., enemigo natural de diferentes artr√≥podos plaga, y el cual es nativo de la Sabana de Bogot√°. En unidades experimentales construidas con foliolos de plantas de rosa se colocaron independientemente individuos de <em>Balaustium> sp. y se registr√≥ el n√ļmero de presas consumidas. De esta manera se determin√≥ la preferencia de los tres estados m√≥viles del √°caro depredador <em>Balaustium> sp. por diferentes edades de tres presas. Las especies y edades de las presas estudiadas fueron: huevos, ninfas y adultos de <em>Trialeurodes vaporariorumem>, huevos, ninfas y adultos de <em>Tetranychus urticaeem>, y larvas de primer y segundo instar y adultos de <em>Frankliniella occidentalisem>. Los estados menos desarrollados fueron preferidos, aunque se observ√≥ que los adultos del depredador tienen gran habilidad para consumir adultos de <em>T. vaporariorumem>. La presa preferida por las larvas de <em>Balaustium> sp. fue los huevos de <em>T. urticaeem> con una proporci√≥n de consumo de 0,54 de los huevos que se ofrecieron de esta presa; las deutoninfas del depredador eligieron huevos de <em>T. vaporariorumem> (0,537 o de <em>T. urticaeem> (0,497 y los adultos de <em>Balaustium> sp. prefrieron los huevos de <em>T. vaporariorumem> (0,588.

  14. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in selected Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, C T; Balachandran, Indira

    2012-05-01

    Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia nilotica: 80.63 mg gallic acid equivalents, Acacia catechu 78.12 mg gallic acid equivalents, Albizia lebbeck 66.23 mg gallic acid equivalents). The highest total flavonoid content was revealed in Senna tora which belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The present study also shows the ratio of flavonoids to the phenolics in each sample for their specificity.

  15. Conjuntivite em animais de companhia

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Mariana Inês Pereira Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Disserta√ß√£o de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterin√°ria, Ci√™ncias Veterin√°rias A conjuntivite √© a doen√ßa ocular mais frequentemente diagnosticada em Medicina Veterin√°ria, tanto em c√£es como em gatos. O facto de a conjuntiva ser uma membrana mucosa t√£o exposta a agentes externos faz com que esteja bastante suscet√≠vel a sofrer les√Ķes, com consequente inflama√ß√£o. Nesta disserta√ß√£o abordam-se os diferentes tipos de conjuntivite, que s√£o classificados de acordo com a sua etiologia. No Hospita...

  16. Conhecimento e interesse em economia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo√£o Antonio de Paula

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo argumenta em favor da necessidade de preservar o pluralismo em economia. Discute: i a natureza do conhecimento e de sua produ√ß√£o; ii as especificidades da produ√ß√£o do conhecimento em economia e os condicionamentos hist√≥rico-culturais do conhecimento; iii as implica√ß√Ķes da hegemonia de certa concep√ß√£o de m√©todo em economia.The article argues the need to preserve the pluralism in economics. The article examines: i the nature of the knowledge and of its production; ii the specificity of the knowledge production in economics and the historical and cultural conditionings of the knowledge; iii the implications of the hegemony of a certain methodological conception in economics.

  17. Total Synthesis of Adunctin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethe, Dattatraya H; Dherange, Balu D

    2018-03-16

    Total synthesis of (¬Ī)-adunctin B, a natural product isolated from Piper aduncum (Piperaceae), has been achieved using two different strategies, in seven and three steps. The efficient approach features highly atom economical and diastereoselective Friedel-Crafts acylation, alkylation reaction and palladium catalyzed Wacker type oxidative cyclization.

  18. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...

  19. What is Total Quality Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, William A.

    1996-01-01

    Provides a general overview of Total Quality Management (TQM) and explains why there is pressure for change in higher education institutions. Defines TQM and the various themes, tools, and beliefs that make it different from other management approaches. Presents 14 principles and how they might be applied to student affairs. (RJM)

  20. A totally diverting loop colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, N. D.; Gartell, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    A technique is described where the distal limb of a loop colostomy is tied with nylon or polydioxanone. This ensures total faecal diversion and dispenses with the supporting rod, enabling early application of stoma appliances. The technique does not interfere with the traditional transverse closure of a loop colostomy. PMID:8379632

  1. A generalization of total graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Afkhami

    2018-04-12

    Apr 12, 2018 ... product of any lower triangular matrix with the transpose of any element of U belongs to U. The ... total graph of R, which is denoted by T( (R)), is a simple graph with all elements of R as vertices, and ...... [9] Badawi A, On dot-product graph of a commutative ring, Communications in Algebra 43 (2015). 43‚Äď50.

  2. Total synthesis of nepetoidin B

    Science.gov (United States)

    The total synthesis of nepetoidin B (the 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethenyl ester of 3-(3,4-dihydroxy¬phenyl)-2-propenoic acid) has been achieved in two steps from commercially available 1,5-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadien-3-one. Tetramethylated nepetoidin B was prepared directly by Baeyer-Villig...

  3. The "Total Immersion" Meeting Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Coleman

    1980-01-01

    The designing of intelligently planned meeting facilities can aid management communication and learning. The author examines the psychology of meeting attendance; architectural considerations (lighting, windows, color, etc.); design elements and learning modes (furniture, walls, audiovisuals, materials); and the idea of "total immersion meeting…

  4. First total synthesis of Boehmenan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The first total synthesis of dilignan Boehmenan has been achieved. A biomimetic oxidative coupling of the ferulic acid methyl ester in the presence of silver oxide is the crucial step in the synthesis sequence, generating the dihydrobenzofuran skeleton. Hydroxyl group was protected with DHP and reducted with LiAlH4 to ...

  5. MODIFIED TECHNIQUE OF TOTAL LARYNGECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Spirińá

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical technique of total laryngectomy is well presented in many surgical textbooks. Essentially, it has remained the same since Gluck an Soerensen in 1922 described all its details. Generally, it stresses the U shape skin incision with releasing laryngeal structures and removing larynx from up to down. Further, pharyngeal reconstruction is performed with different kinds of sutures in two or more layers and is finished with skin suture and suction drainage. One of worst complications following this surgery is pharyngocutaneous fistula (PF. Modifications proposed in this this article suggests vertical skin incision with larynx removal from below upwards. In pharyngeal reconstruction we used the running locked suture in submucosal plan with ‚Äětobacco sac‚Äú at the end on the tongue base instead of traditional T shaped suture. Suction drains were not used.The aim of study was to present the modified surgical technique of total laryingectomy and its impact on hospital stay duration and pharyngocutanous fistula formation. In this randomized study we analyzed 49 patients operated with modified surgical technique compared to 49 patient operated with traditional surgical technique of total laryngectomy. The modified technique of total laryngectomy was presented. Using modified technique we managed to decrease the PF percentage from previous 20,41% to acceptable 8,16% (p=0,0334. Also, the average hospital stay was shortened from 14,96 to 10,63 days (t =-2.9850; p=0.0358.The modified technique of total laryngectomy is safe, short and efficient surgical intervention which decreases the number of pharyngocutaneos fistulas and shortens the hospital stay.

  6. FDI, licensing, e crescimento da produtividade total de fatores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flavia Bonzaninit

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho analisamos os impactos de dois canais de transfer√™ncia internacional de tecnologia, investimento direto estrangeiro e licenciamento (FDI e licensing, sobre o crescimento da produtividade total de fatores (TFP numa amostra de 88 pa√≠ses, para o per√≠odo 1980-2006. Em rela√ß√£o a Pessoa (2008, trazemos aqui tr√™s contribui√ß√Ķes originais: inclu√≠mos na especifica√ß√£o do modelo econom√©trico uma vari√°vel de composi√ß√£o dos fluxos estrangeiros de capital; nossa amostra compreende tamb√©m pa√≠ses pobres e em desenvolvimento, e n√£o s√≥ da OCDE; oferecemos um tratamento do problema de endogeneidade t√≠pico em regress√Ķes de crescimento tendo como vari√°veis explicativas medidas do tipo "abertura financeira" dos pa√≠ses.We analyze the impacts of two international technology transfer channels, foreign direct investment (FDI and licensing, on total factor productivity (TFP growth in a sample of 88 countries for the period 1980-2006. Comparing with Pessoa (2008, we bring here three original contributions: we include in the econometric model specification a variable which captures the composition of foreign capital flows; our sample comprises poor and developing countries too, not only OECD's; we offer a treatment for the typical endogeneity problem found in growth regressions which have as explanatory variables measures like countries' "financial openness".

  7. Solubilidade e disponibilidade dos micronutrientes em fertilizantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vale

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A legisla√ß√£o brasileira exige que os micronutrientes nos fertilizantes sejam garantidos pelo teor total presente. Isto abre um precedente para a utiliza√ß√£o de produtos n√£o considerados como fontes de micronutrientes na fabrica√ß√£o dos fertilizantes. Todavia, a efici√™ncia agron√īmica desses produtos √© ainda duvidosa. Objetivou-se realizar um trabalho para caracterizar a solubilidade e a disponibilidade dos micronutrientes em trinta fertilizantes comerciais, por meio do uso de cinco extratores qu√≠micos: a √°gua e solu√ß√Ķes de √°cido c√≠trico a 2%, de citrato neutro de am√īnio na dilui√ß√£o 1 + 9, de DTPA 0,005 mol L-1 e de EDTA 0,005 mol L-1. Os resultados mostraram a baixa solubilidade dos micronutrientes met√°licos (cobre, ferro, mangan√™s e zinco dos fertilizantes tipo "fritas". O √°cido c√≠trico a 2% mostrou-se promissor na caracteriza√ß√£o da disponibilidade de cobre, mangan√™s e zinco para as plantas. Para o ferro n√£o houve uma defini√ß√£o entre os extratores estudados. O boro teve boa solubilidade, tanto nos fertilizantes sol√ļveis, como nos insol√ļveis em √°gua, e a garantia pelo teor total mostrou-se bom indicativo da disponibilidade do elemento. Para o molibd√™nio a solubilidade foi maior para os fertilizantes com baixo teor do elemento. A garantia dos micronutrientes cati√īnicos pelo teor total, conforme exige a legisla√ß√£o, n√£o indicou a sua real disponibilidade nos fertilizantes comerciais, mostrando a necessidade de uma defini√ß√£o de extratores para esse fim.

  8. Security Analysis of the Electronic Management System for a Total Site Utility System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manso Cortes, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Security Analysis of the Electronic Management System (EMS) of a Total Site Utility System as proposed under the scope of the Efenis project. The Efenis project has been funded by the European Commission via the seventh framework programme (EC FP7) with the aim to improve ...

  9. Subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Ottesen, Bent; Alling M√łller, Lars Mikael

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare long-term results of subtotal vs total abdominal hysterectomy for benign uterine diseases 14 years after hysterectomy, with urinary incontinence as the primary outcome measure. STUDY DESIGN: This was a long-term follow-up of a multicenter......, randomized clinical trial without blinding. Eleven gynecological departments in Denmark contributed participants to the trial. Women referred for benign uterine diseases who did not have contraindications to subtotal abdominal hysterectomy were randomized to subtotal (n = 161) vs total (n = 158) abdominal...... from discharge summaries from all public hospitals in Denmark. The results were analyzed as intention to treat and per protocol. Possible bias caused by missing data was handled by multiple imputation. The primary outcome was urinary incontinence; the secondary outcomes were pelvic organ prolapse...

  10. Institutional total energy case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulfinghoff, D.

    1979-07-01

    Profiles of three total energy systems in institutional settings are provided in this report. The plants are those of Franciscan Hospital, a 384-bed facility in Rock Island, Illinois; Franklin Foundation Hospital, a 100-bed hospital in Franklin, Louisiana; and the North American Air Defense Command Cheyenne Mountain Complex, a military installation near Colorado Springs, Colorado. The case studies include descriptions of plant components and configurations, operation and maintenance procedures, reliability, relationships to public utilities, staffing, economic efficiency, and factors contributing to success.

  11. Total synthesis of (-)- and (+)-tedanalactam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Majik, M.S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Tilve, S.G.

    : The Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol.74(16); 6378-6381 1 Total Synthesis of (-) and (+)-Tedanalactam Mahesh S. Majik, † Peruninakulath S. Parameswaran, ‡ and Santosh G. Tilve* ,† Department of Chemistry, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Goa 403..., displaying a wide range of biological activities. 1 Piperidones are key synthetic intermediates 2 for the synthesis of piperidine ring due to the presence of keto function which allows the introduction of other groups. Piperidones are also known...

  12. Intrathoracic Hernia after Total Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Tashiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic hernias after total gastrectomy are rare. We report the case of a 78-year-old man who underwent total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction for residual gastric cancer. He had alcoholic liver cirrhosis and received radical laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy for gastric cancer 3 years ago. Early gastric cancer in the remnant stomach was found by routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We initially performed endoscopic submucosal dissection, but the vertical margin was positive in a pathological result. We performed total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction by laparotomy. For adhesion of the esophageal hiatus, the left chest was connected with the abdominal cavity. A pleural defect was not repaired. Two days after the operation, the patient was suspected of having intrathoracic hernia by chest X-rays. Computed tomography showed that the transverse colon and Roux limb were incarcerated in the left thoracic cavity. He was diagnosed with intrathoracic hernia, and emergency reduction and repair were performed. Operative findings showed that the Roux limb and transverse colon were incarcerated in the thoracic cavity. After reduction, the orifice of the hernia was closed by suturing the crus of the diaphragm with the ligament of the jejunum and omentum. After the second operation, he experienced anastomotic leakage and left pyothorax. Anastomotic leakage was improved with conservative therapy and he was discharged 76 days after the second operation.

  13. NIF total neutron yield diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Gary W.; Ruiz, Carlos L.

    2001-01-01

    We have designed a total neutron yield diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which is based on the activation of In and Cu samples. The particular approach that we have chosen is one in which we calibrate the entire counting system and which we call the ''F factor'' method. In this method, In and/or Cu samples are exposed to known sources of DD and DT neutrons. The activated samples are then counted with an appropriate