WorldWideScience

Sample records for total dioxin teq

  1. Estimating the total TEQ in human blood from naturally-occurring vs. anthropogenic dioxins. A dietary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, K [Exponent, Natick, MA (United States); Harris, M [Exponent, Houston, TX (United States); Edwards, M [Exponent, Bellevue, WA (United States); Chu, A; Clark, G [XDS, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Finley, B [Exponent, Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Numerous naturally-occurring compounds in the human diet can bind to the aryl hydrocarbon, or dioxin receptor (AhR) and activate the AhR signaling pathway. These compounds include certain indole carbinols and their derivatives, heterocyclic aromatic amines, flavonoids, carotinoids, vitamin A derivatives (retinoids), and tryptophan metabolites. Several researchers have suggested that the daily dietary intake of these ''endodioxins'', in terms of a TCDD-equivalency (TEQ) is likely to be far greater than that associated with daily background intake of anthropogenic dioxins. The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary data for evaluating whether dietary endodioxins may in fact be significant contributors to the non-PCDD/F and PCB fraction of the blood TEQ. This was accomplished by measuring the total bioassay (CALUX {sup registered}) TEQ in the blood of several volunteers under various dietary regimens. Specifically, blood samples were collected from volunteers who maintained a baseline diet, which was relatively free of vegetables, followed by a diet enriched in endodioxin-containing vegetables. The background blood levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were measured for each volunteer at the beginning of the study in order to establish a baseline TEQ for each participant. To provide a measure of study sensitivity, CALUX {sup registered} analysis was also performed on blood samples from volunteers who took an off-the-shelf indole-3-carbinole (I3C) supplement. I3C is the main dietary ICZ precursor and could be expected to increase the levels of this endodioxin in blood.

  2. Estimating the total TEQ in human blood from naturally-occurring vs. anthropogenic dioxins. A dietary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, K. [Exponent, Natick, MA (United States); Harris, M. [Exponent, Houston, TX (United States); Edwards, M. [Exponent, Bellevue, WA (United States); Chu, A.; Clark, G. [XDS, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Finley, B. [Exponent, Santa Rosa, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Numerous naturally-occurring compounds in the human diet can bind to the aryl hydrocarbon, or dioxin receptor (AhR) and activate the AhR signaling pathway. These compounds include certain indole carbinols and their derivatives, heterocyclic aromatic amines, flavonoids, carotinoids, vitamin A derivatives (retinoids), and tryptophan metabolites. Several researchers have suggested that the daily dietary intake of these ''endodioxins'', in terms of a TCDD-equivalency (TEQ) is likely to be far greater than that associated with daily background intake of anthropogenic dioxins. The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary data for evaluating whether dietary endodioxins may in fact be significant contributors to the non-PCDD/F and PCB fraction of the blood TEQ. This was accomplished by measuring the total bioassay (CALUX {sup registered}) TEQ in the blood of several volunteers under various dietary regimens. Specifically, blood samples were collected from volunteers who maintained a baseline diet, which was relatively free of vegetables, followed by a diet enriched in endodioxin-containing vegetables. The background blood levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were measured for each volunteer at the beginning of the study in order to establish a baseline TEQ for each participant. To provide a measure of study sensitivity, CALUX {sup registered} analysis was also performed on blood samples from volunteers who took an off-the-shelf indole-3-carbinole (I3C) supplement. I3C is the main dietary ICZ precursor and could be expected to increase the levels of this endodioxin in blood.

  3. Blood levels of dioxins, furans, dioxin-like PCBs, and TEQs in general populations: a review, 1989-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Dario; Sindaco, Raffaella; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto

    2012-09-01

    A comprehensive worldwide literature review of blood levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in non-exposed adult general populations was performed. The studies published in 1989-2010 reporting information on polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho-PCBs (nPCBs), mono-ortho-PCBs (mPCBs) levels and Toxic Equivalencies (TEQs, a summary weighted measure of their combined toxicity) were reviewed. TEQs were calculated using as standard the most recent WHO 2005 reevaluation of Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs). Weighted multiple regression analyses adjusted for year, subject's age, type of sample analyzed, method used for values below detection limit, and central tendency measure used were performed for each congener and standardized TEQs (log-transformed). We identified 187 studies regarding 29,687 subjects of 26 countries. Year of blood collection ranged from 1985 to 2008. The studies reporting congener levels 161. In adjusted analyses, European countries showed higher levels of most dioxin-like congeners and TEQs. A strong positive association of subjects' age with most congeners and with TEQ values was found, confirming previous findings. Significant decreases over time (1985-2008) were documented for PCCDs, PCDFs, and TEQs including their contributions. No significant decrease was found for non-ortho-PCBs, notably PCB 126. Only some mono-ortho-PCBs showed clear significant declines. Accordingly, TEQs including only PCB contribution did not decrease over time. In interpreting these findings, it should be considered that for dioxin-like PCBs the analysis period was shorter (17 years), since these compounds were first measured in 1992. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs of Hong Kong adults: results of the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Waiky W K; Yip, Yiu-chung; Choi, Koon-kay; Ho, Y Y; Xiao, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) covered by the Stockholm Convention on POPs. To assess the associated health risk of the Hong Kong population, the dietary exposure of the Hong Kong population and various age-gender subgroups to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs was estimated in the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study (TDS), where food samples were collected and prepared "as consumed". A total of 142 composite food samples, mainly foods of animal origin and their products and oily food, were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like PCBs by the high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) system. Dietary exposures were estimated by combining the analytical results with the food consumption data of Hong Kong adults. The mean and 95th percentile exposures to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs of the Hong Kong population were 21.9 and 59.7 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) month⁻¹ respectively, which amounted to 31.3% and 85.2% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). The main dietary source of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs was "Fish and seafood and their products" (61.9% of the total exposure), followed by "Meat, poultry and game and their products" (20.0%) and "Mixed dishes" (6.95%). The study findings suggest that the Hong Kong population is unlikely to experience the major undesirable health effects of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs.

  5. Emission of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs from metallurgy industries in S. Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Byeong-Woon; Jin, Guang-Zhu; Moon, Young-Hoon; Kim, Min-Kwan; Kyoung, Jong-Dai; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2006-01-01

    The metallurgy industry and municipal waste incinerators are considered the main sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in many countries. This study investigated the emission factors and total emissions of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) emitted from metallurgy industries (including ferrous and nonferrous foundries) in Korea. The toxic equivalency (TEQ) emission factor of PCDD/Fs was the highest for secondary copper production, at 24451 ng I-TEQ/ton. The total estimated emissions of PCDD/Fs from these sources were 35.259 g I-TEQ/yr, comprising 0.088 g I-TEQ/yr from ferrous foundries, 31.713 g I-TEQ/yr from copper production, 1.716 g I-TEQ/yr from lead production, 0.111 g I-TEQ/yr from zinc production, and 1.631 g I-TEQ/yr from aluminum production. The total estimated annual amounts of dioxin-like PCBs emitted from these sources were 13.260 g WHO-TEQ/yr, comprising 0.014 g WHO-TEQ/yr from ferrous foundries, 12.675 g WHO-TEQ/yr from copper production, 0.170 g WHO-TEQ/yr from lead production, 0.017 g WHO-TEQ/yr from zinc production, and 0.384 g WHO-TEQ/yr from aluminum production. The highest emission factor was found for secondary copper smelting, at 9770 ng WHO-TEQ/ton.

  6. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in mackerel obtained from the Japanese market, 1999-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Tadashi; Yamano, Testuo

    2017-09-01

    This study analysed the concentrations and toxic-equivalent (TEQ) levels of dioxin congeners in mackerel commercially available in Japan in early 2000s. The content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was determined in 17 mackerel samples from different areas. TEQ levels in mackerel muscle were 0.78 pg TEQ g - 1 wet weight (wt) on average (range = 0.21-2.26 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt) for PCDD/Fs (PCDDs plus PCDFs), 2.81 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt on average (range = 1.02-8.5 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt) for DL-PCBs, and 3.59 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt on average (range = 1.24-10.8 pg g - 1 wet wt) for dioxins (PCDD/Fs plus DL-PCBs). The results revealed somewhat higher TEQ levels for dioxins compared with the other data for fish and shellfish in the Japanese market. TEQ levels were well correlated with mackerel body weight; the main contributors were tetra- and penta-CDD/Fs, some hexa-CDD/Fs, and all 12 DL-PCBs, which are known to have high bioaccumulation potential. In particular, PCB 126 was mostly responsible for the observed correlation of DL-PCB and dioxins-TEQ levels with mackerel body weight. The average daily intake of dioxins in terms of TEQ through mackerel consumption was estimated to be 4.81 pg TEQ/person/day, accounting for 7% of the total intake of dioxins-TEQ through fish and shellfish in Japan.

  7. Dioxin air emission inventory 1990-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capral Henriksen, T; Illerup, J B; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth [DMU, Dept. of Policy Analysis (Denmark)

    2006-12-15

    The present Danish dioxin air emission inventory shows that the emission has been reduced from 68.6 g I-TEQ in 1990 to 22.0 g I-TEQ in 2004, or about 68% over this period. Most of the significant reductions have been achieved in the industrial sector, where emissions have been reduced from 14.67 g I-TEQ in 1990 to 0.17 g I-TEQ in 2004; a reduction of almost 99%. Lower emissions from steel and aluminium reclamation industries form the major part of the reduction within industry. Emissions from waste incineration reduced from 32.5 g I-TEQ in 1990 to 2.1 g ITEQ in 2004; which is approx. 94%. This is due to installation of dioxin abatement equipment in incineration plants. The most important source of emission in 2004 is residential wood combustion, at 8.5 g I-TEQ, or around 40% of the total emission. In 2004, accidental fires, which are estimated to emit 6.1 g I-TEQ/year, are the second most important source, contributing with around 28% of the total emission. The present dioxin emission inventory for Denmark shows how emissions in 2004 come from sources other than waste incineration plants and industry, which were the largest sources in 1990. (au)

  8. Environmental health risk assessment of dioxin in foods at the two most severe dioxin hot spots in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Vu-Anh, Le; Dunne, Michael; Toms, Leisa-Maree; Tenkate, Thomas; Thi, Minh-Hue Nguyen; Harden, Fiona

    2015-07-01

    Bien Hoa and Da Nang airbases were bulk storages for Agent Orange during the Vietnam War and currently are the two most severe dioxin hot spots. This study assesses the health risk of exposure to dioxin through foods for local residents living in seven wards surrounding these airbases. This study follows the Australian Environmental Health Risk Assessment Framework to assess the health risk of exposure to dioxin in foods. Forty-six pooled samples of commonly consumed local foods were collected and analyzed for dioxin/furans. A food frequency and Knowledge-Attitude-Practice survey was also undertaken at 1000 local households, various stakeholders were involved and related publications were reviewed. Total dioxin/furan concentrations in samples of local "high-risk" foods (e.g. free range chicken meat and eggs, ducks, freshwater fish, snail and beef) ranged from 3.8 pg TEQ/g to 95 pg TEQ/g, while in "low-risk" foods (e.g. caged chicken meat and eggs, seafoods, pork, leafy vegetables, fruits, and rice) concentrations ranged from 0.03 pg TEQ/g to 6.1 pg TEQ/g. Estimated daily intake of dioxin if people who did not consume local high risk foods ranged from 3.2 pg TEQ/kg bw/day to 6.2 pg TEQ/kg bw/day (Bien Hoa) and from 1.2 pg TEQ/kg bw/day to 4.3 pg TEQ/kg bw/day (Da Nang). Consumption of local high risk foods resulted in extremely high dioxin daily intakes (60.4-102.8 pg TEQ/kg bw/day in Bien Hoa; 27.0-148.0 pg TEQ/kg bw/day in Da Nang). Consumption of local "high-risk" foods increases dioxin daily intakes far above the WHO recommended TDI (1-4 pg TEQ/kg bw/day). Practicing appropriate preventive measures is necessary to significantly reduce exposure and health risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Inventory of U.S. 2012 dioxin emissions to atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Henri; Themelis, Nickolas J

    2015-12-01

    In 2006, the U.S. EPA published an inventory of dioxin emissions for the U.S. covering the period from 1987-2000. This paper is an updated inventory of all U.S. dioxin emissions to the atmosphere in the year 2012. The sources of emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), collectively referred to in this paper as "dioxins", were separated into two classes: controlled industrial and open burning sources. Controlled source emissions decreased 95.5% from 14.0 kg TEQ in 1987 to 0.6 kg in 2012. Open burning source emissions increased from 2.3 kg TEQ in 1987 to 2.9 kg in 2012. The 2012 dioxin emissions from 53 U.S. waste-to-energy (WTE) power plants were compiled on the basis of detailed data obtained from the two major U.S. WTE companies, representing 84% of the total MSW combusted (27.4 million metric tons). The dioxin emissions of all U.S. WTE plants in 2012 were 3.4 g TEQ and represented 0.54% of the controlled industrial dioxin emissions, and 0.09% of all dioxin emissions from controlled and open burning sources. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Dioxins, dibenzofurans, dioxin-like PCBs, and DDE in U.S. fast food, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, A; Li, L

    1997-01-01

    Food, especially dairy products, meat, and fish, is the primary source of environmental exposure to dioxins in the general population. Little data exists on dioxin levels in the popular and widely consumed "fast foods". Data presented in a previously published pilot study was limited to measuring only the levels of dioxins and dibenzofurans in three types of U.S. fast food. This study adds to the previous paper by presenting data, in addition to dioxins and dibenzofurans, on the closely related dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the persistent metabolite of DDT, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE), in four types of popular U.S. fast food. These include McDonald's Big Mac Hamburger, Pizza Hut's Personal Pan Pizza Supreme, Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) three piece original recipe mixed dark and white meat luncheon package, and Häagen-Daz chocolate-chocolate chip ice cream. Dioxin plus dibenzofuran dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQ) ranged from 0.03 to 0.28 TEQ pg/g wet or whole weight for the Big Mac, from 0.03 to 0.29 for the Pizza, from 0.01 to 0.31 for the KFC, and from 0.03 to 0.49 TEQ pg/g for the ice cream. Daily TEQ consumption per kilogram body weight (kg/BW), assuming an average 65 kg adult and a 20 kg child, from one serving of each of these fast food ranged between 0.046 and 1.556 pg/kg in adults whereas in children the values were between 0.15 and 5.05 pg/kg. Total measured PCDD/Fs in the Big Mac, Personal Pan Pizza, KFC, and the Häagen-Daz ice cream varied from 0.58 to 9.31 pg/g. Measured DDE levels in the fast foods ranged from 180 to 3170 pg/g. Total mono-ortho PCB levels ranged up to 500 pg/g or 1.28 TEQ pg/g for the KFC and for di-ortho PCBs up to 740 pg/g or 0.014 TEQ pg/g for the pizza sample. Total PCB values in the four samples ranged up to 1170 pg/g or 1.29 TEQ pg/g for the chicken sample.

  11. Dioxin Levels in Mainstream Smoke from Cigarettes with Different TPM Deliveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith CJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of dioxin-like compounds, such as chlorinated dibenzodioxins, chlorinated dibenzofurans and chlorinated biphenyls, in mainstream cigarette smoke has been investigated for seven cigarette brands covering a range of ‘tar’ deliveries from 1 mg to 14 mg. Adjusted per milligram of total particulate matter (TPM, ultra-light cigarettes had the highest concentrations of toxic equivalents (TEQ of 10 fg/mg TPM. As the ‘tar’ delivery increased, lower concentration values were found in lights and full-flavor cigarettes. Calculated on the basis of a pack of twenty cigarettes, mainstream smoke from the ultra-lights and lights products produced values around 200 fg TEQ, and the full-flavor brand produced 575 fg TEQ per pack. Levels of TEQ from dioxin-like compounds in the tobacco section of four cigarette brands did not show significant differences and were similar to previous literature findings.

  12. Are dioxin-like contaminants responsible for the eel ( Anguilla anguilla) drama?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstra, A. P.; van Ginneken, V. J. T.; Murk, A. J.; van den Thillart, G. E. E. J. M.

    2006-03-01

    Eel populations worldwide are dangerously close to collapsing. Our study is the first to show that current levels of dioxin-like contaminants are strong candidates because of their devastating effects on development and survival of eel embryos. Female and male silver eels were artificially stimulated to maturation and reproduction by treatment with carp pituitary extracts and hCG, respectively. During maturation of female European silver eels, about 60 g fat per kg eel is incorporated in the oocytes. Together with the fat, however, persistent organic pollutants such as dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are incorporated too. The total dioxin-like toxic potency of the individual gonad batches was determined as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxine equivalents (TEQs), using an in vitro reporter gene assay. The observed differences in development and survival showed a significant negative correlation with the TEQ levels in the gonads, already at levels far below the maximal allowable level for fish consumption, i.e., 4 ng TEQ/kg fish. The clear inverse relationship between the TEQ level and the survival period of the fertilised eggs strongly suggests that the current levels of dioxin-like compounds seriously impair the reproduction of the European eel. The peak of the environmental levels of dioxin-like PCBs and the decline of eel coincide worldwide, further suggesting that, in addition to other threats, these contaminants contributed significantly to the current collapse in eel populations.

  13. Emission and deposition of dioxins in West Germany - an attempt to strike a balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintermeyer, D.; Rotard, W.

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of new results from emission measurements a quantitative estimation of the contribution of some potential emission sources of dioxins and furans in West Germany is carried out. Only a small amount of PCDD/PCDF of less than 1 g TEq (toxic equivalents) per year is emitted by the volatilization of gas from landfills or its combustion. Furthermore, the use of scavengers in leaded fuels has caused dioxins to be produced by car traffic: In 1988 approx. 13 g TEq were emitted. This is likely to decrease as a result of an ordinance issued in 1992 which prohibits the addition of scavengers. Finally, domestic heating appears to be the strongest source of dioxins out of our calculations accounting for an emission of about 45 g TEq per year. The combustion of solid fuels (coal and wood products) obviously contributes the highest amounts of dioxins and furans to the total PCDD/PCDF emission in this field. The comparison of the calculated sum of all already known and determinable PCDD/PCDF emissions in West Germany (0.8 to 1.2 kg TEq/yr) with the total deposition of approx. 2 to 10 kg TEq per year estimated from measurements reveals a notable discrepancy which can only be explained by the existence of still unknown or underestimated sources. (orig.) [de

  14. Dioxin formation and control in a gasification-melting plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Katsuya; Miyata, Haruo

    2015-10-01

    We investigated dioxin formation and removal in a commercial thermal waste treatment plant employing a gasification and melting process that has become widespread in the last decade in Japan. The aim was to clarify the possibility of dioxin formation in a process operation at high temperatures and the applicability of catalytic decomposition of dioxins. Also, the possible use of dioxin surrogate compounds for plant monitoring was further evaluated. The main test parameter was the influence of changes in the amount and type of municipal solid waste (MSW) supplied to the thermal waste treatment plant which from day to day operation is a relevant parameter also from commercial perspective. Here especially, the plastic content on dioxin release was assessed. The following conclusions were reached: (1) disturbance of combustion by adding plastic waste above the capability of the system resulted in a considerable increase in dioxin content of the flue gas at the inlet of the bag house and (2) bag filter equipment incorporating a catalytic filter effectively reduced the gaseous dioxin content below the standard of 0.1 ng toxic equivalency (TEQ)/m(3) N, by decomposition and partly adsorption, as was revealed by total dioxin mass balance and an increased levels in the fly ash. Also, the possible use of organohalogen compounds as dioxin surrogate compounds for plant monitoring was further evaluated. The levels of these surrogates did not exceed values corresponding to 0.1 ng TEQ/m(3) N dioxins established from former tests. This further substantiated that surrogate measurement therefore can well reflect dioxin levels.

  15. Applicability of the CALUX bioassay for screening of dioxin levels in human milk samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laier, P.; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Larsen, John Christian

    2003-01-01

    The CALUX (chemically activated luciferase expression) bioassay based on rat hepatoma (H4IIE) cells is a sensitive assay for the detection of Ah receptor agonists like 2,3,7,8-substituted chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and related PCBs. In this paper, the assay was optimized...... and applied for monitoring levels of dioxins in human milk samples. Combination effects of dioxin-like compounds were evaluated by testing potential mechanisms of interaction between seven of the major dioxin-like compounds in human milk using the isobole method. Results showed that the compounds acted...... lower REP in CALUX. The total dioxin-like activity was determined in 16 Danish human milk samples and was in the range 20.5-55.8 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. These values were compared with TEQs obtained from GC/MS analysis (range 14.8-43.6 pg TEQ-g(-1) fat) that overall were a little lower than CALUX TEQs...

  16. Dioxin formation from waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibamoto, Takayuki; Yasuhara, Akio; Katami, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    samples were burned, were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Formation of total PCDFs was much higher than that of PCDDs in all samples. The total PCDFs comprised 70%-90% of the total dioxin formed. The amount of total PCDFs formed ranged from 0.78 ng/g (newspaper) to 8,490ng/g (PVC burned in high CO concentration). The amount of total PCDDs formed ranged from 0.02ng/g (newspaper) to 430ng/g (PVC). Coplanar PCBs were found at the lowest level of the dioxins formed. Their formation levels ranged from 0ng/g (newspaper) to 77.6ng/g (PVC). It is obvious that the samples with either inorganic or organic chlorides produced much more dioxins than the sample without chlorides when incinerated under similar conditions. It is not clear how inorganic and organic chloride contribute differently to dioxin formation. Among the metals examined, copper seems to have higher activity toward dioxin formation than other metals. It acted not only as a catalyst but also as a transmitter of heterogeneous chlorine. The toxicity equivalence quantity (TEQ) values generally correlated with the amount of chlorine content in the samples and the amount of dioxin formed in exhaust gases from an incinerator. When the same sample was incinerated at different temperatures, however, the sample burned at low temperature yielded a higher TEQ value than did the sample burned at high temperature. The samples that did not contain chlorine or were not combusted with chlorides exhibited low TEQ values. In contrast, samples with high chlorine content, such as PVC (51.3%), gave high TEQ values. Combustion temperatures may play an important role in dioxin formation in exhaust gases from the incineration of waste materials. However, no significant relationship between dioxin formation and chamber temperatures was reported in the core articles. However, It is obvious that dioxin formation occurred at temperatures above 450'C and was reduced significantly at temperatures above 850 degrees C. The reaction

  17. Isomer pattern and elimination of dioxins in workers exposed at a municipal waste incineration plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAMAMOTO, Kenya; KUDO, Mitsuhiro; ARITO, Heihachiro; OGAWA, Yasutaka; TAKATA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify patterns of serum concentrations of dioxins in the employees of a waste incineration plant and to estimate elimination rates and half-lives of serum dioxin isomers, and the maximum serum concentrations of dioxin isomers at the time of plant shutdown. Sixteen subjects participating 3 times or more in annual health examinations during an 8-yr period from 2000 to 2007 were recruited for this study. Serum concentrations of dioxins expressed as TEQ/g lipid decreased gradually after plant shutdown with the highest decrease observed in polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) followed by polychlorinated deibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and then coplanar PCBs. The serum toxic equivalency (TEQ) concentrations of PCDF and PCDD congeners in the employees were higher than those in the general population survey by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, whereas the serum concentrations of coplanar PCBs were similar to those in the general population. The estimated half-lives and elimination rates of PCDDs and PCDFs in the highly exposed workers increased compared with the moderately exposed workers. The estimated geometric mean serum concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs and total dioxins at the time of plant shutdown were 35, 53 and 107 pg TEQ/g lipid, respectively. PMID:26118856

  18. Associations between dioxins/furans and dioxin-like PCBs in estuarine sediment and blue crab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebens, J.; Mohrherr, C.J.; Karouna-Renier, N. K.; Snyder, R.A.; Rao, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationships between the quantity, toxicity, and compositional profile of dioxin/furan compounds (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in estuarine sediment and in the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). Sediment and blue crab samples were collected in three small urban estuaries that are in relatively close proximity to each other. Results show that differences between PCDD/F and DL-PCB mass concentrations and total toxic equivalents (TEQ) toxicity in sediments of the three estuaries are reflected in those of the blue crab. TEQs are higher in the hepatopancreas of the crabs than in the sediment, but the concentration factor is inversely proportional to the TEQ in the sediments. Congener profiles in the crabs are systematically different from those in the sediments, and the difference is more pronounced for PCDD/Fs than for DL-PCBs, possibly due to differences in metabolization rates. Compared with sediment profiles, more lesser-chlorinated PCDD/Fs that have higher TEFs accumulate in crab hepatopancreas. This selective bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs results in a TEQ augmentation in crab hepatopancreas compared with sediments. The bioaccumulation in the blue crab is also selective for PCDD/Fs over DL-PCBs. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  19. Comparisons of dioxin levels of cucumber varieties and cultivation periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, H.; Watanabe, E.; Ishii, Y.; Ueji, M. [National Inst. for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan); Narita, I.; Nakamura, K. [Saitama Prefecture Agriculture and Forestry Research Center, Saitama (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    According to a 2001 survey on Daily Intake in Japan, the total dioxins intake of a person in Japan amounts to 1.68 pg-TEQ per kg of body weight/day on average. The sharing a percentage of agricultural crops was about 3%in Japanese TDI amounts. However, all cases collect samples from supermarkets to estimate TDI of dioxins, which make it difficult to understand under what environment, food samples were pretreated and cultivated. Especially, TDI values in agricultural crops are probably dependent on the collection situation. In the agricultural environment, some reports indicate that dioxins have accumulated in paddy and upland in Japan due to the past use of some types of agricultural chemicals, which contained dioxins as impurities. Furthermore, taking the atmospheric pathway, for example, dioxins in the ambient air are associated with particulate matter and fall to the ground, contaminating agricultural land. Thus, it has been emphasized that dioxin compounds have a possibility to have adverse effect on vegetables. However, there is little understanding related to this fact in the country and worldwide. Empirical studies conducted in Japan and abroad have reported low residual concentrations of dioxins in cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.), a member of the gourd family. However, there have been extremely few instances of research involving overall comparisons of cultivation environments. Thus, we studied the persistence of dioxins in cucumbers of different varieties cultivated outdoors over varying cultivation periods, conducting thorough experiments to elucidate the actual conditions and mechanisms of dioxin contamination of cucumbers.

  20. Urinary amino acid alterations in 3-year-old children with neurodevelopmental effects due to perinatal dioxin exposure in Vietnam: a nested case-control study for neurobiomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Morikawa, Yuko; Waseda, Tomoo; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study of 3-year-old children in a dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam, the high total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ-PCDDs/Fs)-exposed group during the perinatal period displayed lower Bayley III neurodevelopmental scores, whereas the high 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-exposed group displayed increased autistic traits. In autistic children, urinary amino acid profiles have revealed metabolic alterations in the amino acids that serve as neurotransmitters in the developing brain. Therefore, our present study aimed to investigate the use of alterations in urinary amino acid excretion as biomarkers of dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in highly exposed 3-year-old children in Vietnam. A nested case-control study of urinary analyses was performed for 26 children who were selected from 111 3-year-old children whose perinatal dioxin exposure levels and neurodevelopmental status were examined in follow-up surveys conducted in a dioxin contaminated hot spot. We compared urinary amino acid levels between the following 4 groups: (1) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD-exposed group; (2) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD-exposed group; (3) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and poorly developed group; and (4) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and well-developed group. Urinary levels of histidine and tryptophan were significantly decreased in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group, as well as in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD group, compared with the low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and well-developed group. However, the ratio of histidine to glycine was significantly lower only in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group. Furthermore, urinary histidine levels and the ratio of histidine to glycine were significantly correlated with neurodevelopmental scores, particularly for language and fine motor skills. These results indicate that urinary histidine is specifically associated with dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits, suggesting that

  1. Urinary amino acid alterations in 3-year-old children with neurodevelopmental effects due to perinatal dioxin exposure in Vietnam: a nested case-control study for neurobiomarker discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneko Nishijo

    Full Text Available In our previous study of 3-year-old children in a dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam, the high total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ-PCDDs/Fs-exposed group during the perinatal period displayed lower Bayley III neurodevelopmental scores, whereas the high 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD-exposed group displayed increased autistic traits. In autistic children, urinary amino acid profiles have revealed metabolic alterations in the amino acids that serve as neurotransmitters in the developing brain. Therefore, our present study aimed to investigate the use of alterations in urinary amino acid excretion as biomarkers of dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in highly exposed 3-year-old children in Vietnam. A nested case-control study of urinary analyses was performed for 26 children who were selected from 111 3-year-old children whose perinatal dioxin exposure levels and neurodevelopmental status were examined in follow-up surveys conducted in a dioxin contaminated hot spot. We compared urinary amino acid levels between the following 4 groups: (1 a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD-exposed group; (2 a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD-exposed group; (3 a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and poorly developed group; and (4 a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and well-developed group. Urinary levels of histidine and tryptophan were significantly decreased in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group, as well as in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD group, compared with the low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and well-developed group. However, the ratio of histidine to glycine was significantly lower only in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group. Furthermore, urinary histidine levels and the ratio of histidine to glycine were significantly correlated with neurodevelopmental scores, particularly for language and fine motor skills. These results indicate that urinary histidine is specifically associated with dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits

  2. Occurrence, bioaccumulation and risk assessment of dioxin-like PCBs along the Chenab river, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Mehmood, Adeel; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Zhang, Gan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the occurrence, distribution and dietary risks of seven dl-PCBs (dioxin-like PCBs) in eleven collected fish species from Chenab river, Pakistan. ∑_7dl-PCBs (ng g"−"1, wet weight) burden was species-specific and the maximum average concentrations were found in Mastacembelus armatus (5.43), and Rita rita (5.1). Correlation of each dl-PCBs with δ"1"5N%, indicated a food chain accumulation process of these chemicals into Chenab river, Pakistan. Species-specific toxicity of each dl-PCBs (WHO–PCBs TEQ) was calculated and higher values were found in three carnivore fish species i.e., M. armatus (2.5 pg TEQ g"−"1), R. rita (2.47 pg TEQ g"−"1), Securicola gora (2.98 pg TEQ g"−"1) and herbivore fish species i.e., Cirrhinus mrigala (2.44 pg TEQ g"−"1). The EDI (Estimated Daily Intake) values in most cases exceeded the WHO benchmark (4 pg WHO–TEQ kg"−"1 bw d"−"1) evidencing a potential health risk for consumers via fish consumption from Chenab river. - Highlights: • Dioxin-like PCBs in eleven collected fish species from Chenab river. • ∑_7dl-PCBs (ng/g, ww) burdens were specie-specific. • dl-PCBs (WHO-pg TEQ g"−"1ww) ranged between 0.96 and 2.9 in fish samples. • PCB-126 contribution was predominant towards total WHO dl-PCB TEQs. • Potential human health risk of dl-PCBs via fish consumption from Chenab river. - ∑_7dl-PCBs (ng g"−"1, ww) burdens in collected fish species from Chenab river, Pakistan reflected the potential human health risk via fish consumption.

  3. Environmental contamination and human exposure to dioxin-related compounds in e-waste recycling sites of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sakai, Shinichi; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-07-01

    E-waste recycling using uncontrolled processes is a major source of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs), including not only the regulated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) but also non-regulated brominated and mixed halogenated compounds (PBDD/Fs and PXDD/Fs). Various studies at informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) in Asian developing countries found the soil contamination levels of PCDD/Fs from tens to ten thousand picogram TCDD-equivalents (TEQ) per gram and those of DL-PCBs up to hundreds of picogram TEQ per gram. The air concentration of PCDD/Fs was reported as high as 50 pg TEQ per m(3) in Guiyu, the largest Chinese EWRS. Non-regulated compounds also contributed substantially to the total DL toxicity of the DRC mixtures from e-waste, as evidenced by the high TEQ levels estimated for the currently identifiable PBDD/Fs as well as the large portion of unexplained bioassay-derived TEQ levels in soils/dusts from EWRSs. Considering the high exposure levels estimated for EWRS residents, especially children, comprehensive emission inventories of DRCs from informal e-waste recycling, the identities and toxic potencies of unidentified DRCs released, and their impacts on human health need to be investigated in future studies.

  4. Exposure assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in pasteurised bovine milk using probabilistic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekunte, Adefunke O; Tiwari, Brijesh K; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative exposure assessment is a useful technique to investigate the risk from contaminants in the food chain. The objective of this study was to develop a probabilistic exposure assessment model for dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) in pasteurised bovine milk. Mean dioxins and DL-PCBs (non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs) concentrations (pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)) in bovine milk were estimated as 0.06 ± 0.07 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) for dioxins and 0.08 ± 0.07 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) for DL-PCBs using Monte Carlo simulation. The simulated model estimated mean exposure for dioxins was 0.19 ± 0.29 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1)bw d(-1) and 0.14 ± 0.22 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw d(-1) and for DL-PCBs was 0.25 ± 0.30 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw d(-1) and 0.19 ± 0.22 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw d(-1) for men and women, respectively. This study showed that the mean dioxins and DL-PCBs exposure from consumption of pasteurised bovine milk is below the provisional maximum tolerable monthly intake of 70 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1) (equivalent of 2.3 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw d(-1)) recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (JECFA). Results from this study also showed that the estimated dioxins and DL-PCBs concentration in pasteurised bovine milk is comparable to those reported in previous studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impacts of Perinatal Dioxin Exposure on Motor Coordination and Higher Cognitive Development in Vietnamese Preschool Children: A Five-Year Follow-Up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nghi Ngoc Tran

    Full Text Available Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. Our previous epidemiological studies showed adverse effects of dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment for the first 3 years of life. Subsequently, we extended the follow-up period and investigated the influence of perinatal dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment, including motor coordination and higher cognitive ability, in preschool children. Presently, we investigated 176 children in a hot spot of dioxin contamination who were followed up from birth until 5 years old. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measuring dioxin levels in maternal breast milk. Dioxin toxicity was evaluated using two indices; toxic equivalent (TEQ-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/Fs and concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD. Coordinated movements, including manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance, were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (Movement ABC-2. Cognitive ability was assessed using the nonverbal index (NVI of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II. In boys, total test and balance scores of Movement ABC-2 were significantly lower in the high TEQ- PCDDs/Fs group compared with the moderate and low exposure groups. NVI scores and the pattern reasoning subscale of the KABC-II indicating planning ability were also significantly lower in the high TCDD exposure group compared with the low exposure group of boys. However, in girls, no significant differences in Movement ABC-2 and KABC-II scores were found among the different TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure groups. Furthermore, in high risk cases, five boys and one girl highly exposed to TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD had double the risk for difficulties in both neurodevelopmental skills. These results suggest differential impacts of TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure on motor

  6. Impacts of Perinatal Dioxin Exposure on Motor Coordination and Higher Cognitive Development in Vietnamese Preschool Children: A Five-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nghi Ngoc; Pham, Tai The; Ozawa, Kyoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nguyen, Anh Thi Nguyet; Tran, Tuong Quy; Hoang, Luong Van; Tran, Anh Hai; Phan, Vu Huy Anh; Nakai, Akio; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-01-01

    Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. Our previous epidemiological studies showed adverse effects of dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment for the first 3 years of life. Subsequently, we extended the follow-up period and investigated the influence of perinatal dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment, including motor coordination and higher cognitive ability, in preschool children. Presently, we investigated 176 children in a hot spot of dioxin contamination who were followed up from birth until 5 years old. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measuring dioxin levels in maternal breast milk. Dioxin toxicity was evaluated using two indices; toxic equivalent (TEQ)-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/Fs) and concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Coordinated movements, including manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and balance, were assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (Movement ABC-2). Cognitive ability was assessed using the nonverbal index (NVI) of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II). In boys, total test and balance scores of Movement ABC-2 were significantly lower in the high TEQ- PCDDs/Fs group compared with the moderate and low exposure groups. NVI scores and the pattern reasoning subscale of the KABC-II indicating planning ability were also significantly lower in the high TCDD exposure group compared with the low exposure group of boys. However, in girls, no significant differences in Movement ABC-2 and KABC-II scores were found among the different TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure groups. Furthermore, in high risk cases, five boys and one girl highly exposed to TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD had double the risk for difficulties in both neurodevelopmental skills. These results suggest differential impacts of TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and TCDD exposure on motor coordination and

  7. A total diet study to estimate dioxin-like compounds intake from Taiwan food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, M.S.; Wang, S.M.; Chou, U.; Chen, S.Y.; Huang, N.C.; Liao, G.Y.; Yu, T.P.; Ling, Y.C. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Food is the major route of human intake of toxic dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), which include PolyChlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), PolyChlorinated Dibenzo-p-Furans (PCDFs), and PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Approximately 95% of human DLCs exposure derives from food, with nearly 80% coming from food of animal origin. The DLCs levels in foodstuffs and the food consumption rate are essential to evaluate health risk posing to humans. The lack of DLCs levels in food increases the population's risk to DLCs exposure. The Department of Health, Taiwan has entrusted us to conduct a comprehensive monitoring program on PCDD/Fs levels in Taiwan food (not including plant origin) in 2001 and 2002, In 2003, the program has extended the analytes to include 12 WHO-PCBs. A total diet study (TDS) of DLCs intake from Taiwan food is, therefore, conducted for the first time. The DLCs concentrations in food of animal origin and the food consumption rate are collected. The average daily intake (ADI) and average weekly intake (AWI) of DLCs from food by Taiwan adults is determined.

  8. ANALYSIS OF ANIMAL- AND PLANT-DERIVED FEED INGREDIENTS FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a national survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDD), dibenzofurans (CDF), and dioxin-like coplanar PCBs (PCB) in poultry, elevated concentrations above 20 parts per trillion (ppt) toxic equivalents (TEQ) were found in the fat of 2 broilers. These TEQ values were ...

  9. Origins and transport of aquatic dioxins in the Japanese watershed: soil contamination, land use, and soil runoff events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Masakazu; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Sato, Keisuke; Kim, Suejin; Suzuki, Tasuma; Park, Baeksoo; Saino, Reiko; Nakamura, Masafumi

    2009-06-15

    Significant dioxins accumulations in Japanese forests and paddy fields have been observed, and surface soil runoff caused by rainfall and irrigation (i.e., soil puddling in paddy fields) results in dioxins input into the aquatic environment. An extensive investigation into the origins and transport of aquatic dioxins in the Yasu watershed, Japan was conducted considering surface soil contamination level, land use, and type of soil runoff event (i.e., irrigation runoff [IR], rainfall runoff [RR], and base flow [BF]). Combined use of the chemically activated luciferase expression (CALUX) assay together with high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) efficiently enabled this study, so that origins, transport, and dynamic movement of aquatic dioxins in the watershed were revealed. The particulate organic carbon normalized particulate-dioxins WHO-toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration predicted by the CALUX assay (Spar) was found to be a convenient molecular marker to indicate origins of aquatic dioxins and clearly reflect surface soil contamination level, land use, and soil runoff events. Using experimental results and theoretical modeling, the annual loading amount of dioxins at the middle reach of the river was estimated to be 0.458 mg WHO-TEQ in 2004. More than 96.6% of the annual loading amount was attributed to RR and derived almost evenly from forest and paddy fields at the study location. Because the annual loading amount at the middle reach is less than 0.5% of the total dioxins accumulated in the upper basin, dioxins runoff from the Japanese watershed will continue. This study shows that the combined use of the bioassay with HRGC/HRMS can provide new insights into dioxins transport and fate in the environment.

  10. Importance of clean-up for comparison of TEQ-values obtained by CALUX and chemo-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wouwe, N; Windal, I; Vanderperren, H; Eppe, G; Xhrouet, C; De Pauw, E; Goeyens, L; Baeyens, W

    2004-08-08

    This paper presents Chemically Activated LUciferine gene eXpression (CALUX) TEQ-values obtained for nine plasma samples following two different purification procedures, one of them involving fractionation. CALUX results obtained for the dioxin (DX) and dioxin + PCB (DX + PCB) fractions were then compared to the GC-HRMS TEQ-values calculated for the 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (17 PCDD/F) and 17 PCDD/F + 4 cPCB congeners, respectively. The overestimation of the CALUX (DX fraction) TEQ-values in comparison with the chemo-analyses of the 17 PCDD/F is mainly explained by the presence of other AhR agonists, like brominated compounds. Otherwise, the constancy of the CALUX (DX + PCB fraction) TEQ-value which compares to increasing the GC-HRMS (17 PCDD/F + 4 cPCB) TEQ results raises questions concerning (1) the significance of CALUX results obtained without fractionation as well as (2) the toxicological effect of a cocktail of contaminants on the human health.

  11. Perinatal dioxin exposure and psychosocial and behavioral development in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yumi; Oka, Akira; Tada, Hiroshi; Itabashi, Kazuo; Matsui, Eiko; Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the association between psychosocial and behavioral problems in children at school age and dioxin level in breast milk or estimated dioxin exposure (EDE) through breastfeeding in the general Japanese population. Dioxin level of breast milk at 1month of age and breastfeeding ratio through the first year of life were used to calculate the EDE of infants born in 1998-2005 in Japan. The Japanese Social Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the assessment of children's behavior was sent by mail to mothers whose breast milk underwent the dioxin survey, at the time when their infants were aged 6-13 years. The study subjects were 175 pairs of mothers and their first infants (79 boys, 96 girls). The mean total dioxin levels of breast milk were 18.3 and 19.8 (pgTEQ/g fat) and EDEs were 16.4 and 19.6 (ngTEQ/kg/year) in boys and girls, respectively. In linear multiple regression analyses after adjusting for age at SDQ, maternal age, birth weight and maternal smoking habit, dioxin level in breast milk was not significantly related to the total difficulties score (TDS) of SDQ in boys, B=2.29 (95% CI -7.60-12.18), or in girls, B=-1.04 (95% CI -9.24-7.15). EDE correlated to the TDS in neither boys, B=-0.99 (95% CI -4.14-2.15), nor girls, B=1.08 (95% CI -2.69-4.85). No evidence was found of a correlation between perinatal dioxin exposure and behavioral and psychosocial problems of children measured by SDQ. These results support the benefits of recommending breastfeeding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary intake of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher-Gabernig, Elke; Mischek, Daniela; Moche, Wolfgang; Prean, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) should be assessed regularly. In order to evaluate the contamination levels in various food products on the Austrian market and to assess the dietary exposure of the Austrian population for the first time, a national monitoring programme was conducted from 2005 to 2011. The 235 food products comprised meat, poultry, game and offal, fish and fish products, milk and dairy products, eggs, animal fats and vegetable oils. To estimate the dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, mean concentrations in food were combined with the respective food consumption data from the Austrian food consumption survey. Estimated dietary intakes were expressed as toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs 1998). The mean intakes for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were estimated as 0.77, 0.75 and 0.61 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1) for children, women and men, respectively. The main contributors to total intake were milk and dairy products followed by fish and fish products for children and women, and meat, poultry, game and offal for men (65% and 15% for children, 67% and 14% for women, and 63% and 19% for men, respectively). Comparison of the estimated dietary intakes with the toxicological reference values shows that both children and adults are well below those values.

  13. Dioxins and Nonortho PCBs in Breast Milk of Vietnamese Mothers Living in the Largest Hot Spot of Dioxin Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nishijo, Muneko; Manh, Ho Dung; Tai, Pham The; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Thao, Pham Ngoc; Trung, Nguyen Viet; Waseda, Tomoo; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-05-05

    Bien Hoa Air Base is the largest dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam. In 2012, we recruited 216 mothers who were living in 10 communities around Bien Hoa Air Base and had delivered newborns at a prefecture hospital, and we investigated recent exposure levels of dioxins and nonortho PCBs in their breast milk. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD) was present at 2.6 pg/g lipid in primiparae and 2.2 pg/g lipid in multiparae. Among multiparae and total subjects, significant high prevalence of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD≥5 pg/g lipid and 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD contribution≥40% were observed in mothers living in the five communities closest to Bien Hoa Air Base. The TEQ for nonortho PCBs was 1.6 pg-TEQ/g lipid for primiparae, and this was even lower than that in the unsprayed area. The length of residency was a strong factor to increase dioxins, including 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Residency in the five communities with the highest exposure was a specific risk factor for increased 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD in breast milk. Food intake might contribute partly to the increased levels of dioxin congeners other than 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD in breast milk. These results suggest that Bien Hoa Air Base has led to elevated 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD levels in breast milk of mothers in nearby areas even in the recent years.

  14. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in egg and egg products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanca, Burcu; Cakirogullari, Gul Celik; Ucar, Yunus; Kirisik, Dursun; Kilic, Devrim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in eggs from cage hens without soil contact, pasteurized egg samples and imported egg yolk powder samples in Turkey. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs in eggs and pasteurized egg samples are in the range of 0.247-1.527 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.282-1.762 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 202-1,235 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. For egg yolk powder samples, concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are in the range of 0.122-0.494 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.214-0.640 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 217-1,498 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. All results for PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are below the values of 2.5 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 5.0 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 40 ng g(-1) fat imposed in Turkish Regulation for eggs and egg products, respectively. In all samples 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and PCB126 are the most prominent congeners. Mean estimated daily exposure to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs for Turkish population from egg is 0.011 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)d(-1)kg body weight (bw)(-1). Although the exposure levels are below the TDI of 2 pg WHO-TEQ(1998)kg bw(-1), the results were based only on consumption of egg. In order to estimate total dietary intake for Turkish population, various food items should be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dioxins and endometriosis: cohort study of women in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diliberto, J.; Birnbaum, L. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Staats, D.A. [West Virginia Dept. of Environmental Protection, Charleston, WV (United States); Staats, D.A.; Becker, J.; Jude, D.; Chouinard, S.C.; Smith, T. [Marshall Univ. Medical Center, Huntington, WV (United States); Sirinek, L. [West Virginia Dept. of Environmental Protection, Wheeling, WV (United States); Clark, G. [Xenobiotic Detection Systems Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Landy, R. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3, ESC, Ft. Meade, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The women in this endometriosis/dioxin health study reside in the Kanawha/Ohio River Valley area of West Virginia and comprise a potential cluster (cohort) of individuals who have been exposed to dioxins (dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals) at background levels higher than those seen in other areas of the United States. The emissions from an unique constellation of chemical industries appear to have led to high levels of environmental dioxin contaminants. In addition, this area has a high incidence of endometriosis. Previous animal studies, both in nonhuman primates and rodents, have demonstrated a correlation between dioxin exposure and endometriosis. Human epidemiology studies have suggested an association but have not demonstrated a statistically significant correlation, possibly due to limitations in study design such as insufficient numbers, measurement of only TCDD rather than total equivalents to TCDD (TEQs), and/or lack of surgical ascertainment of endometriosis. The present study is addressing these issues. Thus, we have the unusual congruence of identified emission sources and high background levels of dioxins and a potentially related elevation of endometriosis. Endometriosis is a condition suffered by women in which the endometrial tissue, that usually lines the uterus, migrates to other areas. Most commonly it is found in the abdomen, bladder, ovaries or bowel. Patients with endometriosis experience pelvic pain, irregular bleeding, infertility and other problems. Immune suppression has been associated with severe endometriosis. This debilitating condition is a poorly understood disease. In the United States, this condition affects millions of women in their reproductive years and is showing up more frequently in very young women. Endometriosis will seriously impact future fertility and health care utilization. Data suggest that the rate of endometriosis in the Kanawha and Ohio River valleys is higher than is seen in other regions of the United States.

  16. Impact of Perinatal Dioxin Exposure on Infant Growth: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies in Dioxin-Contaminated Areas in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Maruzeni, Shoko; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Honda, Ryumon; Morikawa, Yuko; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2012-01-01

    Dioxin exposure levels remain elevated in residents living around former US Air Force bases in Vietnam, indicating potential adverse impacts on infant growth. In this study, 210 mother–infant pairs in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam were recruited at the infants’ birth and followed up for 4 months. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans toxic equivalent (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ) in breast milk. The infants’ size was measured at birth and 1 and 4 months after birth, and neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales III at 4 months of age. Among 4 dioxin groups (dioxin levels. Only in boys, cognitive, language, and fine motor scores in the ≥75 percentile group were significantly lower than those in the other groups. These results suggested a considerable impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth, particularly in boys exposed to dioxins at high level of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ. PMID:22815734

  17. A study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the livestock waste compost of Hong Kong, PR China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Q.Y.C.; Chan, A.H.M.; Ma, S.W.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Composting is one of the waste disposal methods adopted for disposal of livestock waste in Hong Kong. The composting livestock waste normally undergoes 6-8 weeks fermentation, followed by 16-20 weeks maturation. The matured compost is sold as soil conditioner in the local market. In 2006, feedstock material and a time-series of compost samples were collected throughout the fermentation and maturation process from the Sha Ling Composting Plant in the New Territories. The feedstock material and compost samples were analyzed for contents of three unintentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs), i.e. dioxins/furans, dioxin-like PCBs and total PCBs. These POPs are unintentionally produced by-products of chemical industrial processes and combustion processes. Selected heavy metals were also analyzed, which served as conservative tracers to determine potential mass loss during the composting process. Levels of contamination by these POPs were found to be low in the matured compost for sale. The mean concentrations (lower-upper bound) of total dioxins/furans, total dioxin-like PCBs and total PCBs were 2.01-2.05 ng I-TEQ/kg dw, 0.04-0.05 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dw and 1.55-1.55 μg/kg dw, respectively. Progressively elevated levels of these POPs were observed in the compost samples during the fermentation process. Analysis of the congener profiles revealed that the heptaCDD and octaCDD were the main contributors to the observed increase in dioxin/furan content. The possible sources of dioxins/furans in the compost were discussed. The study results established a local dioxins/furans emission factor specific to the trade and provided a better estimate of the annual dioxins/furans emission for the livestock waste composting activity in Hong Kong

  18. Residues of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs in eggs, fat and livers of laying hens following consumption of contaminated feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, W.A.; Kan, C.A.; Weg, van der G.; Onstenk, C.G.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    Laying hens were fed with feed from the Belgian dioxin incident diluted ten-fold with non-contaminated feed, resulting in concentrations of 61 ng TEQ kg(-1) PCDD/Fs, 23 ng TEQ kg(-1) non-ortho PCBs, 116 ng TEQ kg(-1) mono-ortho PCBs and 3.2 mg kg(-1) of the seven indicator PCBs. Following exposure

  19. Dioxins and PCBs in game animals: Interspecies comparison and related consumer exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warenik-Bany, Malgorzata; Strucinski, Pawel; Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCB) and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCB) are ubiquitous, persistent toxic compounds that are highly bioaccumulative in nature. Wild-living animals are vulnerable to the negative impacts of human activity. Dioxins and PCBs enter the animal organisms through foraging. Due to the toxicological threat, much attention is paid to these compounds worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the dioxin contamination status of three game animal species (red deer, roe deer, and wild boar) and compare the PCDD/F and PCB congener bioaccumulation in the muscles, abdominal fat and liver. The chemical analysis was performed by the isotope dilution technique (IDMS) with high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Dioxins and PCBs were found in specimens collected from all studied species, suggesting the presence of the test compounds in the environment of the animals. The highest concentrations were found in the livers of all animals. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels in the muscles, adipose tissue and liver were in the order red deer > roe deer > wild boar. PCDD/Fs were the dominant congeners in TEQ value. For all tested species, the dominant contributors to the total WHO-TEQ were PCB-126, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD. Among the PCDD/F congeners in the deer tissues, OCDD, OCDF and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF were dominant, while in wild boar, OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCF occurred in the highest amounts. Among PCBs, PCB-105, 118, 156, 138, 153 and 180 were dominant in all species, but with different levels. The regular consumption of muscle meat from game animals should not cause unacceptable dioxin intake above the Tolerable Weekly Intake (TWI) value for children and adults. However, liver consumption should be avoided, especially by children and pregnant or lactating

  20. Contamination of food samples from Malaysia with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and estimation of human intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Chiang, Pui-Nyuk; Jaafar, Hajjaj Juharullah; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-04-01

    A total of 126 food samples, categorised into three groups (seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products) from Malaysia were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The concentration of PCDD/Fs that ranged from 0.16 to 0.25 pg WHO05-TEQ g(-1) fw was found in these samples. According to the food consumption data from the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), the dietary exposures to PCDD/F from seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products for the general population in Malaysia were 0.064, 0.183 and 0.736 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. However, the exposure was higher in seafood and seafood products (0.415 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and meat and meat products (0.317 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) when the data were estimated using the Malaysian food consumption statistics. The lower exposure was observed in dairy products with an estimation of 0.365 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1). Overall, these dietary exposure estimates were much lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) as recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that the dietary exposure to PCDD/F does not represent a risk for human health in Malaysia.

  1. Effects of cooking on concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and related compounds in fish and meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Tsuguhide; Nakagawa, Reiko; Tobiishi, Kazuhiro; Iida, Takao; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Kumiko; Toyoda, Masatake

    2005-11-02

    We investigated the cooking-induced changes in concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (dioxins) using mackerel and beef. The concentrations of dioxins (29 congeners) were determined by isomer specific analyses and were compared between uncooked and cooked samples. The cooking procedures examined in this study included grilling as a fillet, boiling as a fillet, and boiling as tsumire (small, hand-rolled balls) for mackerel and boiling as a slice, broiling as a slice, and broiling as a hamburger for beef. Three trials were carried out for each cooking method. Generally, concentrations of dioxins were reduced in every cooking trial. When nondetected congener concentrations were assumed to be half the limit of detection for mackerel, the maximum percentage reductions of total concentrations given as 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD equivalents (TEQ) were 31% in grilling as a slice, 14% in boiling as a slice, and 21% in boiling as tsumire under the conditions of this study. In contrast, for beef, the reductions were 42% in boiling as a slice, 42% in broiling as a slice, and 44% in broiling as a hamburger. These results suggest that ordinary cooking processes with heating undoubtedly reduce the dioxin content in animal products, and the reductions estimated should be considered when dioxin intake is evaluated using contamination data for individual food items.

  2. Dietary exposure and risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls of the population in the Region of Valencia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Leyre; Marín, Silvia; Millan, Encarnación; Yusà, Vicent; Font, Guillermina; Pardo, Olga

    2018-04-01

    Dietary exposure of the Valencia Region population to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and PCBs was assessed in the Region of Valencia in 2010-2011. A total of 7700 food samples were collected. Occurrence data were combined with consumption data to estimate dietary exposure in adults (>15 years of age) and young people (6-15 years of age). The estimated intake was calculated by a probabilistic approach. Average intake levels (upper-bound scenario) were 1.58 and 2.76 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg -1 body weight (bw) day -1 for adults and young people, respectively. These average intakes are within range of the tolerable daily intake of 1-4 pg WHO-TEQ kg -1 bw day -1 recommended by WHO, and slightly above the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg TEQ kg -1 bw week -1 and the Provisional tolerable monthly intake of 70 pg TEQ kg -1 bw month -1 set by the Scientific Committee on Food and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food, respectively. These results show that the contamination levels in food and therefore the exposure of the general population to PCDD/Fs and PCBs have declined in this region and therefore show the efficiency of the European risk-management measures. In terms of risk characterisation, the results showed that, under the upper-bound scenario, 22% of the adult and 58% of the young people population could exceed the TWI.

  3. Long-range air transport of dioxin from North American sources to ecologically vulnerable receptors in Nunavut, Arctic Canada. Final report to the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commoner, B.; Woods Bartlett, P.; Eisl, H.; Couchot, K. [City University of New York, Queens College, Center for Biology of Natural Systems, New York, NY (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This study was commissioned by the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (NACEC). It was designed to model on a continental scale the rates of deposition of airborne dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofurans PCDD/PCDF) in the Canadian Arctic territory of Nunavut and to identify the major contributing North American sources. The study was commissioned in response to findings showing twice the level of dioxin concentration in the milk of Inuit mothers than that observed in southern Quebec, despite the fact that there are no significant sources of dioxin in Nunavut or within 500 kms of its boundaries. This high concentration is attributed to indigenous diet, i. e. traditional foods such as caribou, fish and marine mammals, which in turn ingest it from airborne sources through the terrestrial food chain, chiefly through lichen, mosses, shrubs and marine algae. Since these avenues of entry into the food chain cannot be protected from airborne pollutants, remedial action must be directed at the sources that emit dioxin. Results of the study show that of the total North American annual emission of airborne dioxin (4,713 grams toxicity equivalent quotient (TEQ)), Canadian sources account for 364 grams TEQ, United States sources for 2,937 TEQ, Mexican sources 1.412 grams TEQ, and emissions from sources within Nunavut a total of 0.12 grams TEQ. The North American national dioxin inventories include 44,091 sources, of which 5,343 are individual facilities such as trash-burning incinerators, the rest are sources such as backyard trash-burning in the United States and Mexico, but only a handful of sources are responsible for the deposition in Nunavut. The overall conclusion of the study confirm that atmospheric and ecological processes that carry dioxin from its numerous sources through terrestrial and marine food chains to human beings is a problem of continental dimensions. The challenge is to establish analytical methods and

  4. Estimation of Toxicity Equivalent Concentration (TEQ) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of Toxicity Equivalent Concentration (TEQ) of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Idu Ekpeye playground and University of Port ... Effective soil remediation and detoxification method like Dispersion by chemical reaction technology should be deployed to clean-up sites to avoid soil toxicity ...

  5. Associations of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs with diabetes and pre-diabetes: is the toxic equivalency approach useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Charles J; Thompson, Olivia M

    2012-10-01

    Toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds have been established by the World Health Organization. Toxic equivalency (TEQ) was derived using 6 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, 9 chlorinated dibenzofurans and 8 polychlorinated biphenyls, in blood, from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Relationships of 8 individual chemicals, the number of compounds elevated, and TEQ with pre-diabetes and total diabetes (diagnosed and undiagnosed) were investigated using logistic regressions. For the 8 chemicals analyzed separately, values above the 75th percentile were considered elevated, whereas for the other 15 compounds, values above the maximum limit of detection were considered elevated. Pre-diabetes with glycohemoglobin (A1c) 5.9-6.4% was associated with PCB 126, PCB 118 and having one or more compounds elevated (odds ratio 2.47, 95% CI 1.51-4.06). Pre-diabetes with A1c 5.7-5.8% was not associated with any individual chemical or the number of compounds elevated. Total diabetes was associated with 6 of the 8 individual compounds tested, and was associated with having 4 or more compounds elevated. Toxic equivalency ≥81.58 TEQ fg/g was associated with total diabetes (odds ratio 3.08, 95% CI 1.20-7.90), but was not associated with A1c 5.9-6.4%. Having multiple compounds elevated appeared to be important for total diabetes, whereas for pre-diabetes with A1c 5.9-6.4%, having a single compound elevated appeared most important. Diabetes plus A1c ≥5.9% was associated with 34.16-81.57 TEQ fg/g (odds ratio 2.00, 95% CI 1.06-3.77) and with ≥81.58 TEQ fg/g (odds ratio 2.48, 95% CI 1.21-5.11), indicating that half the population has elevated risk for this combination of conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls: inclusion in the toxicity equivalency factor concept for dioxin-like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Martin; Denison, Michael S; Birnbaum, Linda S; Devito, Michael J; Fiedler, Heidelore; Falandysz, Jerzy; Rose, Martin; Schrenk, Dieter; Safe, Stephen; Tohyama, Chiharu; Tritscher, Angelika; Tysklind, Mats; Peterson, Richard E

    2013-06-01

    In 2011, a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) expert consultation took place, during which the possible inclusion of brominated analogues of the dioxin-like compounds in the WHO Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) scheme was evaluated. The expert panel concluded that polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and some dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PBBs) may contribute significantly in daily human background exposure to the total dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs). These compounds are also commonly found in the aquatic environment. Available data for fish toxicity were evaluated for possible inclusion in the WHO-UNEP TEF scheme (van den Berg et al., 1998). Because of the limited database, it was decided not to derive specific WHO-UNEP TEFs for fish, but for ecotoxicological risk assessment, the use of specific relative effect potencies (REPs) from fish embryo assays is recommended. Based on the limited mammalian REP database for these brominated compounds, it was concluded that sufficient differentiation from the present TEF values of the chlorinated analogues (van den Berg et al., 2006) was not possible. However, the REPs for PBDDs, PBDFs, and non-ortho dl-PBBs in mammals closely follow those of the chlorinated analogues, at least within one order of magnitude. Therefore, the use of similar interim TEF values for brominated and chlorinated congeners for human risk assessment is recommended, pending more detailed information in the future.

  7. The dioxins; Les dioxines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    This complete report on the dioxins, after a recall of the dioxins impacts on health, the emissions sources and the researches on these pollutants control and monitoring, details four studies. The first one deals with the dioxins emissions evolution in the atmosphere. The distribution of the emissions in function of the different sources is detailed. The second one concerns results of dioxins measures coming from municipal wastes incineration plants. A list of every french plants, of a 6 tons per hour capacity, is given with the corresponding emissions. Some installations requiring to be in conformity with standards are presented. The third study presents dioxins measures in the milk nearby municipal wastes incinerators. The last one is devoted to the monitoring, the biological effects on health and the regulations. (A.L.B.)

  8. Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds Toxic Equivalency Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA requires that, in addition to the total grams released for the entire dioxin and dioxin-like compounds category, TRI facilities must report the quantity for each individual member on a new Form R Schedule 1.

  9. Impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth: a cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Maruzeni, Shoko; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Luong, Hoang Van; Anh, Tran Hai; Honda, Ryumon; Morikawa, Yuko; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2012-01-01

    Dioxin exposure levels remain elevated in residents living around former US Air Force bases in Vietnam, indicating potential adverse impacts on infant growth. In this study, 210 mother-infant pairs in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam were recruited at the infants' birth and followed up for 4 months. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans toxic equivalent (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ) in breast milk. The infants' size was measured at birth and 1 and 4 months after birth, and neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales III at 4 months of age. Among 4 dioxin groups (language, and fine motor scores in the ≥75 percentile group were significantly lower than those in the other groups. These results suggested a considerable impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth, particularly in boys exposed to dioxins at high level of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ.

  10. A novel source for dioxins present in recycled fat from gelatin production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Eijkeren, van J.C.H.; Zeilmaker, M.J.; Mengelers, M.J.B.; Herbes, R.; Immerzeel, J.; Traag, W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Within a survey on dioxins in animal fat used as feed ingredient, a sample originating from pigs offal was shown to contain 50 ng Toxic Equivalents (TEQ) PCDD/PCDFs kg(-1) fat. Further investigation revealed fat samples with levels as high as 440 ng TEQ kg(-1) fat and contaminated feed with a

  11. Soil dioxin concentrations in Baden-Wuerttemberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, D.

    1993-01-01

    Soil dioxin levels in Baden-Wuerttemberg are generally low. Where high dioxin concentrations have been reported like in Rastatt, Rheinfelden, Crailsheim-Maulach and Eppingen these phenomena are local. Already at less than 100 metres distance, drastically lower concentrations are measured. At 1500 to 2000 metres distance the values are back to the ordinary background level. A programme for detecting sources of emission in the entire state revealed no further sites of heavy contamination. For this assessment of soil dioxin concentrations in Baden-Wuerttemberg 1275 soil samples were used, which is a vast amount also in comparison with nation-wide surveys. The average dioxin content in farmland is about 1 ng I-TEq/kg m T . Soil dioxin concentrations are the higher the greater the density of settlements and industry. In cities they are about three to five times higher than the ubiquitous background concentration. The highest concentrations measured were 5-20 ng I-TE/kg in garden soils in cities. Sewage sludge may be a significant source of dioxin contamination for farmland, far beyond the ubiquitous background concentration. Automobile exhaust gas caused higher soil contamination within 10 m along both sides of the roads as a function of traffic. Because scavengers in gasoline are now prohibited and catalysts are becoming more and more common the rate of additional dioxin and furan contamination due to traffic will decrease. Currently, traffic-related emissions in Baden-Wuerttemberg are well below 2 g I-TEq. (orig./EF) [de

  12. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: impact of the 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pratt, Iona S

    2012-08-01

    The 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland resulted in elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Irish pork and pork products, due to the consumption of contaminated animal feed by pigs. In order to investigate any resulting impact on the Irish population, these contaminants were measured in pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers, collected in 2010. A comparison of the results with similar data from 2002 revealed generally lower concentrations of PCDD\\/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the 2010 samples, confirming the declining trend reported by many authors. Contaminant concentration levels for both 2002 and 2010 were generally slightly lower than those reported internationally, with a mean combined PCDD\\/F and PCB WHO-TEQ of 9.66pgg(-1)fat, for an overall pooled sample of milk from 2010. An apparent slight increase in PCDFs was observed between 2002 and 2010 (from 2.73pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat to 3.21pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat), with the main contributory congener being 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF. While it cannot be totally discounted that the slight increase in 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF and in the overall PCDF WHO-TEQ in breast milk could be attributable to consumption of Irish pork during the 2008 incident, we consider that it is more likely that this was due to other factors, including the predominantly urban\\/industrial sampling locations for the 2010 samples, compared to 2002.

  13. Transport and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Thuong, Nguyen; Hung, Nguyen Xuan; Mo, Nguyen Thi; Thang, Nguyen Manh; Huy, Pham Quang; Van Binh, Hoang; Nam, Vu Duc; Van Thuy, Nguyen; Son, Le Ke; Minh, Nguyen Hung

    2015-10-01

    The Bien Hoa airbase (south of Vietnam) is known as one of the Agent Orange hotspots which have been seriously contaminated by Agent Orange/dioxin during the Vietnam War. Hundreds of samples including soil, sediment and fish were collected at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot for assessment of the environmental contamination caused by dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The toxicity equivalency quotient (TEQ) concentration of PCDD/Fs in soil and sediment varied from 7.6 to 962,000 and 17 to 4860 pg/g dry wt, respectively, implying very high contamination of PCDD/Fs in several areas. PCDD/F levels in fish ranged between 1.8 and 288 pg/g TEQ wet wt and was generally higher than advisory guidelines for food consumption. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-TCDD) contributed 66-99 % of TEQ for most of the samples, suggesting 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) from Agent Orange as the major source of the contamination. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs was observed in soil column with high TEQ levels above 1000 pg/g dry wt (Vietnamese limit for necessary remediation activities- TCVN 8183:2009 (2009)) even at a depth of 1.8 m. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs has probably mainly taken place during the "Ranch Hand" defoliant spray activities due to the leaks and spills of phenoxy herbicides and solvents. The congener patterns suggest that transports of PCDD/Fs by weathering processes have led to their redistribution in the low-land areas. Also, an estimate for the total volume of contaminated soil requiring remediation to meet Vietnamese regulatory limits is provided.

  14. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fishes from the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, Michigan, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Yi; Jones, Paul D.; Holem, Ryan R.; Khim, Jong Seong; Chang, Hong; Kay, Denise P.; Roark, Shaun A.; Newsted, John L.; Patterson, William P.; Giesy, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing biological factors associated with species-specific accumulation of contaminants is one of the major focuses in ecotoxicology and environmental chemistry studies. In this study, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and non- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were analyzed in various fish species from the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers (12 fish species; n = 314 individuals), Michigan, USA. Due to their migratory habits, greater δ 13 C stable isotope values were found in walleye and white sucker among 12 fish species. Meanwhile, the δ 15 N values indicated that the trophic status was least in carp and greatest in largemouth bass. The greatest total concentrations of dioxins were found in fishes with the lowest trophic status (carp (n = 50) followed by channel catfish (n = 49)), and concentrations of ΣPCDD/Fs (20-440 pg/g ww (wet weight)), ΣPCBs (16-690 ng/g ww), and TEQs (6.8-350 pg/g ww) in carp were also greater than the least mean concentrations in other fishes. Contributions of various biological factors to the species accumulation were assessed. Body weight and lipid content were found to be the most significant factors influencing accumulation of ΣPCDD/Fs. Lipid content and trophic level seemed to be dominant factors determining accumulation of ΣPCB and TEQs, but negative correlations between trophic status and concentrations of ΣPCBs and TEQs were observed possibly due to the great concentrations in benthivorous fishes such as carp occupying lower trophic levels. These factors can be used to predict the contaminant levels of dioxins and health risks of the fishes in the river ecosystem.

  15. Triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry: A real alternative to high resolution magnetic sector instrument for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bermejo, Ángel; Ábalos, Manuela; Sauló, Jordi; Abad, Esteban; González, María José; Gómara, Belén

    2015-08-19

    This paper reports on the optimisation, characterisation, validation and applicability of gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in its tandem operation mode (GC-QqQ(MS/MS) for the quantification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs, dioxins) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in environmental and food matrices. MS/MS parameters were selected to achieve the high sensitivity and selectivity required for the analysis of this type of compounds and samples. Good repeatability for areas (RSD = 1-10%, for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs) and for ion transition ratios (RSD = 0.3-10%, for PCDD/Fs, and 0.2-15%, for DL-PCBs) and low instrumental limits of detection, 0.07-0.75 pg μL(-1) (for dioxins) and 0.05-0.63 pg μL(-1) (for DL-PCBs), were obtained. A comparative study of the congener specific determination using both GC-QqQ(MS/MS) and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) was also performed by analysing several fortified samples and certified reference materials (CRMs) with low (feed and foodstuffs), median (sewage sludge) and high (fly ash) toxic equivalency (TEQ) concentration levels, i.e. 0.60, 1.83, 72.9 and 3609 pg WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs) g(-1). The agreement between the results obtained for the total TEQs (dioxins) on GC-QqQ(MS/MS) and GC-HRMS in all the investigated samples were within the range of ±4%, and that of DL-PCBs at concentration levels of 0.84 pg WHO-TEQs (DL-PCBs) g(-1), in the case of feedstuffs, was 0.11%. Both instrumental methods have similar and comparable linearity, precision and accuracy. The GC-QqQ(MS/MS) sensitivity, lower than that of GC-HRMS, is good enough (iLODs in the down to low pg levels) to detect the normal concentrations of these compounds in food and environmental samples. These results make GC-QqQ(MS/MS) suitable for the quantitative analysis of dioxins and DL-PCBs and a real alternative tool to the reference sector HRMS instruments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  16. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, naphthalenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the edible fish caught from the Baltic Sea and lakes in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isosaari, Pirjo; Hallikainen, Anja; Kiviranta, Hannu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Parmanne, Raimo; Koistinen, Jaana; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2006-01-01

    A total of 156 fish composite samples were collected from five areas of the Baltic Sea and from three lakes and analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The European Union's maximum permissible level for PCDD/Fs, 4 pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight (fw), was exceeded in salmon, river lamprey and Baltic herring. In other species from the Baltic Sea, the 90th percentile was 3.42 pg WHO PCDD/F -TEQ/g fw. In the lake fish, the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs were only 29-46% of those in the same species caught from the Baltic Sea, whereas the concentrations of PBDEs in the lake fish were as high as in the Baltic Sea fish. Dioxin-like PCBs contributed to the total dioxin-like toxicity of PCBs and PCDD/Fs by 49 ± 12% in all the analysed samples. - Lake fish is less contaminated with dioxins, PCBs and chloronaphthalenes than Baltic Sea fish but similarly contaminated with polybrominated diphenyl ethers

  17. Polychlorinated dioxins and furans from the World Trade Center attacks in exterior window films from lower Manhattan in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra; Ikonomou, Michael G; Butt, Craig M; Diamond, Miriam L; Truong, Jennifer

    2005-04-01

    Samples of ambient organic films deposited on exterior window surfaces from lower Manhattan and Brooklyn in New York City were collected six weeks after the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001 and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Total tetra- through octa-CDD/F concentrations in window films within 1 km of the WTC site in lower Manhattan ranged up to 630,000 pg/m2 (estimated as a mass concentration of ca. 1,300,000 pg/ g) and a maximum toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration of 4700 TEQ/m2 (ca. 10 000 pg TEQ/g). Measurements at a background site 3.5 km away in Brooklyn showed lower concentrations at 130 pg TEQ/m2 (260 pg TEQ/g). Ambient gas-phase PCDD/F concentrations estimated for each site using an equilibrium partitioning model suggested concentrations ranging from ca. 2700 fg-TEQ/m3 near the WTC site to the more typical urban concentration of 20 fg-TEQ/m3 atthe Brooklyn site. Multivariate analyses of 2,3,7,8-substitued congeners and homologue group profiles suggested unique patterns in films near the WTC site compared to that observed at background sites in the study area and in other literature-derived combustion source profiles. Homologue profiles near the WTC site were dominated by tetra-, penta-, and Hexa-CDD/Fs, and 2,3,7,8-substituted profiles contained mostly octa- and hexachlorinated congeners. In comparison, profiles in Brooklyn and near mid-Manhattan exhibited congener and homologue patterns comprised mainly of hepta- and octa-CDDs, similar to that commonly reported in background air and soil.

  18. Levels of polybrominated diphenyl-ethers and polybrominated dioxins in fish, total diet study food groups, and Japanese meals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashizuka, Y.; Nakagawa, R.; Hori, T.; Tobiishi, K.; Iida, T. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Dazaifu (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Since they were found in mother's milk and blood in several studies, the polybrominated diphenyl-ethers (PBDEs) and other polybrominated flame-retardants (BFRs) that are used in plastics, electrical appliances, and textiles have been recognized as ubiquitous pollutants. BFRs are precursors of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs). Recently, 2,3,7,8-TBDD/Fs and PBDEs have been detected in adipose tissue and blood in Japanese people. Food is naturally suspected. However, there is very few information on food contamination with those brominated compounds in Japan. Therefore, we measured the levels of PBDEs and PBDD/Fs in various fish samples, meal samples, and total diet study (TDS) food groups and estimated Japanese people's dietary intake of PBDD/Fs and PBDEs.

  19. CHLOROBENZENES, CHLOROPHENOLS, PAHS AND LOW CHLORINATED DIOXIN/FURAN AS POST-BOILER TOXICITY INDICATORS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous research studies have been conducted to establish indicator compounds for fast and less costly predictive monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and furan (PCDD/F) toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs). Many studies have shown that chlorobenzenes and chlorophen...

  20. Association of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in human blood with nephropathy among US teens and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Charles J; Thompson, Olivia M

    2016-06-01

    We assessed the association of three chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, a chlorinated dibenzofuran, and four dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human blood with nephropathy (microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria) among teens and young adults (12-30 years old) having normal glycohemoglobin (A1c Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in human blood: causes or consequences of diabetic nephropathy? Environ Res 2014;132:126-31), the cut-offs for these chemicals being considered elevated, were defined as the 75th percentile. Using these same cut-offs again, the proportion of those with one or more of the eight dioxin-like compounds elevated was 9.9%. The four chemicals associated with nephropathy were 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, PCB 126, PCB 169, and PCB 156. The proportion with one or more of these four dioxin-like chemicals elevated was 3.9% (unweighted n=46) and the odds ratio (OR) for nephropathy was 7.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-28.1]. The association was strong among females (OR 17.4, 95% CI 3.4-88.6), but among males there were no cases of nephropathy when one or more of the four dioxin-like chemicals were elevated, and therefore no association. In a separate analysis, elevated toxic equivalency, defined using the eight dioxin-like chemicals (TEQ8), was associated with nephropathy. TEQ8 ≥50.12 fg/g included 2.6% of the sample (unweighted n=28) and had an OR of 5.8 (95% 1.3-25.9) for nephropathy. As found in the analysis of one or more of four dioxin-like chemicals elevated, TEQ8 ≥50.12 fg/g was associated with nephropathy among females (OR 11.9, 95% CI 1.6-87.2), but not males. Trends for least-squares means also differed by gender, but there were no significant differences in mean TEQ8 between normal subjects and those having nephropathy in either males or females. We also evaluated pre-diabetes (A1c 5.7-6.4%) without nephropathy and found no associations when one or more of four dioxin-like compounds were elevated, or when TEQ8 was

  1. CHLOROBENZENES, CHLOROPHENOLS, PHAS AND LOW CHLORINATED DIOXIN/FURAN POST-BOILER TOXICITY INDICATORS IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research has sought indicator compounds for fast and less costly predictive monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and furans, PCDD/F, toxic equivalent concentrations or TEQs. Studies have shown chlorobenzenes and chlorophenols had a good correlation with TEQ, suggesting ...

  2. The relationships between dioxin accumulation in human body and eating habits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajihara, H; Miura, A [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Univ. of Niigata, Niigata (Japan); Sasaki, S; Hasegawa, Y; Ando, N; Ozawa, T; Takahashi, Y [Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of Niigata, Niigata (Japan); Nakadaira, H; Yamamoto, M [Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Univ. of Niigata, Niigata (Japan); Nakamura, S; Shimada, K [Niigata Prefectural Kamo Hospital, Niigata (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Exposure of human to dioxins was dominated by food. In Japan, the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of dioxins is set at 4 pg-TEQ/kg/day. However, important parameters, such as adsorption rate and half-life, which are used in the calculation process to determining the TDI of dioxins, were not intensively clarified. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between dioxin accumulation in the human body and eating habits, in order to obtain information on the accumulation behavior of dioxins ingested by humans.

  3. Temporal trends in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and PCBs among adult women living in Chapaevsk, Russia: a longitudinal study from 2000 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns Jane S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study assessed the temporal trend in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls (PCBs among residents of a Russian town where levels of these chemicals are elevated due to prior industrial activity. Methods Two serum samples were collected from eight adult women (in 2000 and 2009, and analyzed with gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Results The average total toxic equivalency (TEQ decreased by 30% (from 36 to 25 pg/g lipid, and the average sum of PCB congeners decreased by 19% (from 291 to 211 ng/g lipid. Total TEQs decreased for seven of the eight women, and the sum of PCBs decreased for six of eight women. During this nine year period, larger decreases in serum TEQs and PCBs were found in women with greater increases in body mass index. Conclusions This study provides suggestive evidence that average serum concentrations of dioxins, furans, and PCBs are decreasing over time among residents of this town.

  4. Dioxin/ Furan Level in the Malaysian Oil Palm Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuan Fauzan Tuan Omar; Ainie Kuntom; Aishah Abdul Latiff

    2013-01-01

    Environmental samples collected from oil palm premises were evaluated for dioxins/ furans contamination. The samplings were carried out at oil palm premises located in Banting (Premise A) and in Teluk Intan (Premise B), involving two environmental matrices namely ambient air and soil. The soil samples were collected in the plantations while ambient air samples were collected in the vicinity of the mills and refineries. The results of the analyses showed that the level of dioxins/ furans in ambient air were generally higher in oil palm premise located adjacent to industrial establishments. The concentration levels at premise A mill and refinery located adjacent to industrial establishments, ranged from 64.14 WHO-TEQ fg m -3 to 131.87 WHO-TEQ fg m -3 , while for premise B mill and refinery located in the rural area, ranged from 9.93 WHO-TEQ fg m -3 to 16.66 WHO-TEQ fg m -3 . Meanwhile for soil samples, the highest concentrations were recorded in soil collected near roads used heavily by vehicles. The concentration levels of soil samples collected at premise A and premise B plantations ranged from 1.910 WHO-TEQ pg g -1 dry weight to 3.305 WHO-TEQ pg g -1 dry weight. (author)

  5. Release of chlorinated, brominated and mixed halogenated dioxin-related compounds to soils from open burning of e-waste in Agbogbloshie (Accra, Ghana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Goto, Akitoshi; Takahashi, Shin; Itai, Takaaki; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2016-01-25

    Although complex mixtures of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) can be released from informal e-waste recycling, DRC contamination in African e-waste recycling sites has not been investigated. This study examined the concentrations of DRCs including chlorinated, brominated, mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs, PXDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in surface soil samples from the Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling site in Ghana. PCDD/F and PBDD/F concentrations in open burning areas (18-520 and 83-3800 ng/g dry, respectively) were among the highest reported in soils from informal e-waste sites. The concentrations of PCDFs and PBDFs were higher than those of the respective dibenzo-p-dioxins, suggesting combustion and PBDE-containing plastics as principal sources. PXDFs were found as more abundant than PCDFs, and higher brominated analogues occurred at higher concentrations. The median total WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration in open burning soils was 7 times higher than the U.S. action level (1000 pg/g), with TEQ contributors in the order of PBDFs>PCDD/Fs>PXDFs. DRC emission to soils over the e-waste site as of 2010 was estimated, from surface soil lightness based on the correlations between concentrations and lightness, at 200mg (95% confidence interval 93-540 mg) WHO-TEQ over three years. People living in Agbogbloshie are potentially exposed to high levels of not only chlorinated but also brominated DRCs, and human health implications need to be assessed in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Carcinogenicity of individual and a mixture of dioxin-like compounds in female Harlan Sprague Dawley rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, N.; Nyska, A. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Crockett, P. [Constella Group, Research Triangle Park, NC (US)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    The human health risk posed by exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated-dioxins (PCDDs), -furans (PCDFs) and - biphenyls (PCBs), present in the food and the environment is one of widespread concern throughout the industrialized world. The dioxin Toxic Equivalency Factor (TEF) approach is currently the most feasible interim approach for assessing and managing the risk posed by exposure to mixtures of these compounds and has been formally adopted by regulatory bodies in many countries, the International Programme on Chemical Safety and the World Health Organization. The TEF methodology is a relative potency scheme that estimates the total exposure and biological effects of a mixture of chemicals based on a common mechanism of action involving an initial binding of the compound to the Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). An implicit assumption of the TEF methodology is that the combined risk of effects of the different congeners is dose additive. Therefore, the total dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of a mixture of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs may be estimated by the summation of the mass of each compound in the mixture after adjustment for its potency relative to that of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). While dose additivity is supported for certain mixtures for some biological endpoints in some experimental models, this has never been evaluated for cancer risk. Here we present a summary of four chronic rodent bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program (US Department of Health and Human Services) that evaluated the carcinogenicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3.3',4,4',5- pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) and 2,3,4,7,8 pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) and a mixture of these three dioxin-like compounds in female Harlan Sprague Dawley rats. Data from these studies will be used to test the hypothesis of dose-additivity of carcinogenicity by a defined mixture of dioxin-like compounds.

  7. Characteristics of dioxin emissions from a Waelz plant with acid and basic kiln mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Pao Chen; Chi, Kai Hsien; Chen, Mei Lien; Chang, Moo Been

    2012-01-30

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in the flue gas of a Waelz plant operated in acid and basic modes, respectively. To abate (PCDD/F) and other pollutants, the plant operates with a post-treatment of flue gases by activated carbon injection and subsequent filtration. Relatively high PCDD/F discharge by fly ashes is found with acid kiln mode of the Waelz process. Therefore, basic kiln mode of the Waelz process is investigated and compared in this plant. With the adsorbent injection rate of 7 kg/h (95 mg/Nm(3)), the PCDD/F concentration in stack gas was measured as 0.123 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) in the basic operating mode. The added Ca(OH)(2) reacted with metal catalysts and HCl((g)) in the flue gas and thus effectively suppressed the formation of PCDD/Fs. PCDD/F concentrations in fly ashes sampled from the dust settling chamber, cyclone, primary filter and secondary filter in basic kiln mode were significantly lower than that in acid kiln mode. Total PCDD/F emission on the basis of treating one kg of electric arc furnace dust in the basic operation mode was 269 ng I-TEQ/kg EAF-dust treated which was significantly lower than that in acid mode (640 ng I-TEQ/kg EAF-dust treated). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dioxin-related compounds in breast milk of women from Vietnamese e-waste recycling sites: levels, toxic equivalents and relevance of non-dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Katsura, Kana; Suzuki, Go; Tuyen, Le Huu; Takasuga, Takumi; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-08-01

    Although informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) are hotspots of both polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs), human exposure to the latter has not been studied in details. This study investigated the accumulation levels and profiles of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) in breast milk samples from women living in two Vietnamese EWRSs and estimated the intake contribution from e-waste-related exposure. Screening results using Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase gene eXpression assay (DR-CALUX) showed higher dioxin-like (DL) activities in samples from the EWRS Bui Dau than in those from the EWRS Trang Minh and a reference site (2.3-10 vs 1.7-4.8 and 0.60-5.7 pg CALUX-TEQ/g lipid, n=10, 6 and 9, respectively). Chemical analysis results of selected samples show that the WHO-TEQ levels of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and PBDD/Fs in EWRS samples were not significantly higher than in those from the reference site (0.22-7.4 vs 1.1-3.0 pg/g lipid) and within the Vietnamese background range, but women involved in recycling accumulated higher concentrations of PCDFs (13-15 vs 2.3-8.8 pg/g lipid) and PBDFs (1.1-1.5 vs <1.1 pg/g lipid). By comparing the DRC profile in milk of these women with the reported profile in house dust from the same site, dust ingestion was estimated to contribute most of the intake for tetraBDF, 37 per cent to 55 per cent for penta-octaCDFs, but less than twenty per cent for PCDDs and DL-PCBs, and 26 per cent for total WHO-TEQs. The DL activities in some EWRS milk samples were not fully explained by chemical data, suggesting contribution from unidentified compounds. The estimated WHO-TEQ intake doses for breastfed infants (1.3-33 pg/kg/d) mostly exceeded the tolerable value, especially for those living in the EWRSs; and unidentified DRCs might increase further the dioxin-related health risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk assessments of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian

    2006-01-01

    -p-dioxin (TCDD). The toxic responses include dermal toxicity, immunotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. Toxic equivalency factors have been established for the other PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCB relative to TCDD, and the combined toxicity of a sample can be expressed...... as toxic equivalent (WHO-TEQ). The EC Scientific Committee for Food evaluated these compounds in 2001. The assessment used the most sensitive adverse toxicological end-points of TCDD in experimental animals. These were developmental and reproductive effects in the male offspring of rats administered TCDD......,3,7,8-substituted PCDD and PCDF, and the dioxin-like PCB, and expressed as a group tolerable weekly intake of 14 pg WHC-TEQ/kg bw. The FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) performed a similar assessment whereas the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has paid more attention to human data...

  10. Dioxins, DL-PCB and NDL-PCB accumulation profiles in livers from sheep and cattle reared in North-western Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, A; Brizio, P; Guaraldo, P; Stella, C; Cappa, C; Baioni, E; Spalenza, V; Nebbia, C; Abete, M C

    2016-06-01

    Products of animal origin represent the main route of human exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-compounds). Recently, concerns have been raised about ovine products, particularly the liver, in which relatively high levels of DL-compounds have been reported. We surveyed ovine and bovine livers in areas with no known sources of dioxin or DL-PCB contamination, in order to assess accumulation patterns for both DL-compounds and non-DL (NDL-) PCBs. None of the ovine and bovine samples exceeded the current Maximum Limits (MLs) for DL-compounds. Liver DL-compound TEQ concentrations were up to 5-fold higher in sheep than in cows. No statistically significant differences in total NDL-PCBs levels were found. The main contributors to TEQ levels were the Penta- and Hexa-chlorinated PCDFs and PCB 126. The results confirm the increased bioaccumulation in ovine liver towards specific DL-compounds even in ewes reared in areas with no known sources of PCDD/Fs or DL-PCBs contamination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics of particle-bound polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in atmosphere used in carbon black feeding process at a tire manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kuen-Yuan; Lai, Chia-Hsiang; Peng, Yen-Ping; Yen, Ting-Yu

    2015-12-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were estimated for different particle size distributions in a carbon black feeding process at a tire manufacturing plant on 15 days in March and April of 2014. A total of 75 integrated air samples were collected using a micro-orifice uniform deposition impactor (MOUDI). Particle-bound PCDD/Fs were analyzed using a high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS). Concentrations of thoracic particles and total particles produced in the carbon black feeding process of a tire manufacturing plant were measured in ranges of 0.19-2.61 and 0.28-4.22 mg/m(3), respectively. On all sampling days, the three most abundant species of PCDD/Fs were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, and OCDF. The mean concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were 0.74-6.83 pg/m(3) within five particle size ranges. Total I-TEQ in particulate matter (PM)18 and PM2.5-10, respectively. However, the total I-TEQ of thoracic PM contributed approximately 74 % of the total I-TEQ of total PM. The assessment of health risk indicates that exposure to fractions of thoracic PM by inhalation poses a significant cancer risk (>10(-6)).

  12. Measurement of Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guthery William

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available D’ordinaire, les furanes et les dioxines chlorés (ci-après dénommées ‘les dioxines’ ne sont pas détectés dans la fumée de cigarette à des niveaux susceptibles de dépasser les limites dites de sécurité recommandées et tracées par les agences de protection de l’environnement et de la santé. Par convention, ces substances sont mesurées selon leur équivalence toxique totale (TEQ. La méthode mise au point par le présent groupe combine la chromatographie en phase gazeuse ultrasensible et la spectrométrie de masse en tandem (GC-MS/MS. Le seuil de détection (LOD a été posé à 4,3 pg TEQ/cigarette, à savoir en-dessous de la norme ISO 3308 relative au tabac et produits du tabac. Les dioxines présentes dans la fumée de cigarette ne sont pas soumises à un quelconque contrôle réglementaire de routine. Cependant, certains congénères de la dioxine sont hautement toxiques et ont été qualifiés par la United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA de constituants nocifs et potentiellement nocifs (HPHC de la fumée de cigarette. Par conséquent se pose la question des modalités de suivi et de mesure de l’incertitude lorsque la (les substance(s à analyser n’apparaissent normalement pas dans la matrice concernée. En l’absence d’une cigarette de référence contenant des niveaux de dioxine supérieurs au seuil de détection, nous avons préparé des éprouvettes contenant des quantités connues de 17 congénères de la dioxine considérés par l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS comme présentant une toxicité significative. Le présent article apporte des données qui concernent les taux de transfert et ont été relevées à l’aide d’une machine à fumer utilisée dans des conditions conformes aux recommandations de Health Canada Intense (HCI et à la norme ISO 3308 (ISO. Par ailleurs, il propose un moyen d’estimer l’incertitude (U en se fondant sur la valeur TEQ. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 26

  13. Dioxin emission factors for automobiles from tunnel air sampling in Northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Moo Been; Chang, Shu Hao; Chen, Yuan Wu; Hsu, Hsuan Chien

    2004-06-05

    This study measured PCDD/F concentrations in tunnel air and vehicle exhaust. The ambient air samples were collected with air samplers (Tisch PS-1) complying with USEPA TO-9A. The results indicate that the tunnel air had a PCDD/F TEQ concentration about two times as high as that of outside air (47.3 and 57.1 fg-I-TEQ/m3 for tunnel air vs. 37.1 fg-I-TEQ/m3 and 23.3 fg-I-TEQ/m3 for outside air, respectively). This provides the direct evidence that PCDD/F compounds are emitted from the combustion processes in gasoline- and diesel-fueled engines. According to the tunnel study, the emission factors ranged from 5.83 to 59.2 pg I-TEQ/km for gasoline vehicles and 23.32 to 236.65 pg I-TEQ/km of diesel vehicles. This indicates that the dioxin emission factor in Taiwan is lower than that measured in USA, Norway and Germany. When the speed of the diesel vehicle was set at 40 km/h, the dioxin concentration emitted from diesel vehicle was 278 pg/m3 (6.27 pg-I-TEQ/m3) from tailpipe testing. However, when the diesel vehicle was idled, the dioxin concentration increased greatly to 4078 pg/m3 (41.9 pg-I-TEQ/m3). From the results of tunnel air sampling, the PCDD/Fs emission from automobiles in Taiwan was estimated as 3.69 g I-TEQ per year. Copryright 2003 Elsevier B.V.

  14. A comparison of dioxins, dibenzofurans and coplanar PCBs in uncooked and broiled ground beef, catfish and bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, A; Dellarco, M; Päpke, O; Olson, J

    1998-01-01

    The primary source of dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar PCBs for the general population is food, especially meat, fish, and dairy products. However, most data on the levels of these chemicals is from food in the raw or uncooked state. We report here the effect of one type of cooking (broiling) on the levels of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs in ground beef (hamburger), bacon and catfish. Samples of hamburger, bacon, and catfish were broiled and compared to uncooked samples in order to measure changes in the amounts of dioxins in cooked food. The total amount of PCDD, PCDF, and coplanar PCB TEQ decreased by approximately 50% on average for each portion as a result of broiling the hamburger, bacon and catfish specimens. The mean concentration (pg TEQ/kg, wet weight) of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs, however, remained the same in the hamburger, increased by 83% in the bacon, and decreased by 34% in the catfish. On average, the total measured concentration (pg/kg) of the congeners of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs increased 14% in the hamburger, increased 29% in the bacon, and decreased 33% in the catfish.

  15. Follow-up on analysis of dioxins in residues from Swedish waste incineration; Uppfoeljande undersoekning av dioxin i rester fraan svensk avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindskog, Aasa (Tyrens, Stockholm (Sweden)) (ed.)

    2009-10-15

    As a consequence of a debate in the late 1990's, a major study of the residues from waste incineration was performed in Sweden. In 1999, samples were collected from 21 of the 22, at the time, existing plants. Focus of the study was to analyse dioxin in flue gas treatment residue. A few analyses were also done on slag/bottom ash. A new follow-up study was decided to be carried out after some years. The present report present the result from the follow-up study from 2006 where 24 out of 29 waste incineration plants participated. Between 1999 and 2006 a number of changes have taken place in the waste incineration industry. A few new plants have been built, a few have been closed, a new and stricter law has come into force and the technical development has continued. These changes have together led to a positive development for waste incineration. As a result, the dioxin content in the flue gas residues has decreased, when the results from the two studies are being compared. The decrease is even larger for slag/bottom ash. In the 1999 study the dioxin content in the flue gas treatment residues varied from 0,2 ng/g to 18 ng/g (I-TEQ) with an average of 2-3 ng/g. The total amount for all plants was 160 g. The variation between the dioxin content in the flue gas treatment residues in the later study is smaller, the lowest value is 0,3 ng/g and the highest 5 ng/g. The average is 1,6 ng/g and the median is 1,2 ng/g, both lower that the values from 1999. The total dioxin amount for 2006 is larger than for 1999, 185 g. Although, it must be considered that the amount of incinerated waste has almost doubled during the same period. The dioxin content in the slag/bottom ash has decreased since the former study was performed. At 1999, samples of slag/bottom ash from only seven plants were analysed. The median was 0,03 ng/g and the total dioxin amount from all plants was approximated to 10 g. In the 2006 study the median amounted to 0,005 ng/g and the total amount to 9 g

  16. Emissions of chlorinated dioxins and furans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeker, G.; Bruckmann, P.; Gliwa, H.

    1994-01-01

    Already now the estimated daily average input of about 2 pg I-TEQ/kg body weight for an adult exceeds the preventive value of 1 pg I-TEQ/(kg x d) proposed by the Federal Environmental Agency (UBA) and the Federal Health Office (BGA), although the intervention value of 10 pg/(kg x d) also proposed by UBA and BGA has not been reached yet. To be able to take well-aimed measures to reduce dioxin emissions into the environment, it is necessary to collect sufficient information about the sources, the history of origins and the efficiency of control measures. The high number of investigations conducted into waste incineration plants, which can be explained by increasing public awareness of the disposal problem, gave the impression that waste incineration is one of the major causes of dioxin emissions into the environment. Analyses of the ambient air situation revealed that there is a considerable lack of information about the sources of dioxin emissions. For example, systematic investigations in North Rhine-Westphalia, which have not been finished yet, identified sintering plants as the main dioxin emittors. It can be concluded already now that control measures are indispensable for these plants to improve the ambient air situation; a few waste gas cleaning methods were tested. The realisation of the 17th Order Implementing the Federal Immission Control Act (17th BImSchV) (emission control of dioxins from waste incineration plants), the 19th BImSchV (prohibition of Cl and Br additions to fuels) and the further spread of the controlled catalytic coverter for passenger cars will make industrial dioxin sources even more relevant. This underlines the necessity for control measures in this field. (orig.) [de

  17. Contribution of tobacco smoking to dioxin accumulation: opposite effects according to gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierens, S.; Bernard, A. [Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Eppe, G.; Focant, J.F.; Pauw, E. De [Univ. of Liege (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Tobacco smoke contains a variety of polycyclic hydrocarbons including dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans). It has been estimated that smoking 20 cigarettes per day should lead to a dioxin intake almost equivalent to that from food (1 to 3 pg TEQ/kg bw/day), the major source of human exposure. However, studies that have measured dioxins in smokers have found no increased levels, some of them even reporting significantly lower values than in non-smokers. We show here that dioxins concentrations are affected by a gender-smoking interaction that could exert a confounding effect.

  18. FORMATION OF DIOXINS AND FURANS DURING MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Lopes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thermal treatment is an interesting strategy to dispose of municipal solid waste: it reduces the volume and weight of the material dumped in landfills and generates alternative energy. However, the process emits pollutants, such as dioxins and furans. The present study evaluated MSW gasification-combustion integrated technologies in terms of dioxin and furan emission; and compared the obtained data with literature results on incineration, to point out which operational features differentiate the release of pollutants by these two processes. The results show that the process of integrated gasification and combustion emitted 0.28 ng N-1 m-3, expressed in TEQ (Total Equivalent Toxicity, of PCDD/F, less than the maximum limits allowed by local and international laws, whereas incineration normally affords values above these limits and requires a gas treatment system. The distinct operational conditions of the two thermal processes, especially those related to temperature and the presence of oxygen and fixed carbon, led to a lower PCDD/F emission in gasification.

  19. Dioxins and PCBs in ostrich meat and eggs: levels and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Jadwiga; Strucinski, Pawel; Mikolajczyk, Szczepan; Pajurek, Marek; Maszewski, Sebastian; Pietron, Wojciech

    2017-12-01

    Although consumption of eggs is an essential part of our diet, limited information is available for table eggs other than those laid by hens. The aim of our study was to determine concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like (DL-) and non-dioxin-like (NDL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in ostrich eggs and meat available on the Polish market, in order to obtain baseline information on the current status of these pollutants in comparison to poultry products. Obtained data were compared with the binding EU limits set for chicken eggs and meat. The levels of individual PCDD/Fs and PCBs congeners varied considerably. The percentage share of total WHO toxic equivalency factor (WHO-TEQ) content indicates the dominant role of PCDD/Fs. High concentrations of PCDD/F and DL-PCBs, in the range of 0.85-74.48 pg WHO-TEQ g -1 fat, were found in ostrich eggs; this exceeds the maximum level permitted for chicken eggs by a factor of up to 15. Eight of the 11 egg samples exceeded the action level for hen eggs. Although the ostrich meat concentrations of PCDD/Fs do not exceed the limit established for poultry muscle (1.75 pg g -1 fat), average contents of PCDD/Fs exceeded almost four times the levels in chicken and turkey muscle. Human exposure was evaluated and the resulting risk was characterised. Taking into account the low average consumption of ostrich eggs, the resulting exposure to dioxins for the general population can be considered as negligibly low. However, the individuals who frequently consume such eggs may be at risk of elevated exposure. Although ostrich products are not consumed frequently, such data are nevertheless useful for food safety purposes.

  20. Daily intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) in foodstuffs consumed in Tarragona, Spain: a review of recent studies (2001-2003) on human PCDD/PCDF exposure through the diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocio, Ana; Domingo, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) were measured in foodstuffs randomly acquired in various locations of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain) in September 2002. A total of 36 composite samples, belonging to various food groups (vegetables, fruits, meat and meat products, fish and seafood, cereals, pulses, milk, dairy products, eggs, and oils and fats) were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. The dietary intake of PCDD/Fs was subsequently determined. For calculations, recent data on consumption of the selected food items were used. Total dietary intake of PCDD/Fs for the general population of Tarragona County was estimated to be 59.6 pg I-TEQ/day (63.8 pg WHO-TEQ/day). Fish and seafood (33.7%), oils and fats (15.3%), cereals (14.4%), and dairy products (13.7%) were the most important contributors to this intake. This PCDD/F intake is notably lower than the intake estimated in 1998 for the same geographical area, 210.1 pg I-TEQ/day. The current PCDD/F dietary intake is below the tolerable intake range of 1-4 pg TEQ/kg body weight/day established by the WHO in 1998. Finally, the current intake is compared with the dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs recently (2001-2003) reported for a number of regions and countries

  1. Sorption, mobility, and fate of 1,4,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.; Hakk, H. [USDA ARS Biosciences Research Lab., Fargo (United States); Fan, Z.; Casey, F. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Most dioxins are released into the environment through low temperature combustion processes, which include waste incineration and metal refining. Incineration of medical and municipal wastes in the early 1990s was estimated to generate 0.7g -5 kg dioxin Toxic Equivalents (TEQ)/yr and 2-3 kg TEQ/yr of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) emissions, respectively. Governmental regulatory controls on waste incinerators have resulted in an annual decrease of dioxins/furans emissions from 13.5 kg TEQ/yr to 2.8 kg TEQ/yr from 1987 to 1995. Recently backyard burning of household waste has been shown to produce more PCDDs/PCDFs per mass burned than a typical modern municipal waste incinerator and has been estimated to account for 22% of the dioxin emissions in North America from 1996-1997. These combustion processes result in direct deposition of dioxins on soil. While degradation studies of PCDDs/PCDFs have been conducted on contaminated soils, little is known about the sorption, transport, and fate of dioxins in various soil types. 1,4,7,8- Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1478-TCDD) was also found to be a significant congener of the dioxins in ball clay.7 Ball clay had been used as an anti-caking agent in soybean meal of animal feed but its use has subsequently been discontinued. The main goal of this study was to identify the fate and transport of 1478-TCDD in various soils and sand through the use of laboratory batch and soil column experiments.

  2. Multivariate Analysis and Prediction of Dioxin-Furan ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer Review Draft of Regional Methods Initiative Final Report Dioxins, which are bioaccumulative and environmentally persistent, pose an ongoing risk to human and ecosystem health. Fish constitute a significant source of dioxin exposure for humans and fish-eating wildlife. Current dioxin analytical methods are costly, time-consuming, and produce hazardous by-products. A Danish team developed a novel, multivariate statistical methodology based on the covariance of dioxin-furan congener Toxic Equivalences (TEQs) and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and applied it to North Atlantic Ocean fishmeal samples. The goal of the current study was to attempt to extend this Danish methodology to 77 whole and composite fish samples from three trophic groups: predator (whole largemouth bass), benthic (whole flathead and channel catfish) and forage fish (composite bluegill, pumpkinseed and green sunfish) from two dioxin contaminated rivers (Pocatalico R. and Kanawha R.) in West Virginia, USA. Multivariate statistical analyses, including, Principal Components Analysis (PCA), Hierarchical Clustering, and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS), were used to assess the relationship between the FAMEs and TEQs in these dioxin contaminated freshwater fish from the Kanawha and Pocatalico Rivers. These three multivariate statistical methods all confirm that the pattern of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs) in these freshwater fish covaries with and is predictive of the WHO TE

  3. The impact of production type and region on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations in Canadian chicken egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Sadler, Amy R; Quade, Sue C; Sun, Wing-Fung; Kosarac, Ivana; Hayward, Stephen; Ryan, J Jake

    2012-11-01

    Chicken eggs from five different production types (conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range, organic and free run) were collected, when available, from three regions (west, central and east) of Canada to determine persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (∑37 congeners) in yolks from the eggs ranged from 0.162 ng g(-1) lipid to 24.8 ng g(-1) lipid (median 1.25 ng g(-1) lipid) while the concentration of the sum of the 6 indicator PCBs ranged from 0.100 ng g(-1) lipid to 9.33 ng g(-1) lipid (median 0.495 ng g(-1) lipid). Total polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations ranged from 2.37 pg g(-1) lipid to 382 pg g(-1) lipid (median 9.53 pg g(-1) lipid). The 2005 WHO toxic equivalency (TEQ) ranged from 0.089 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+dioxin-like[DL]-PCB) g(-1) lipid to 12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid (median 0.342 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations were significantly different (pcollection. In contrast to observations in Europe, PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in Canadian egg yolks were not impacted solely by the production type (e.g., conventional, free range, organic, etc.) used to maintain the laying chickens. Additionally, only one Canadian free range yolk from western Canada (12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid) exceeded the European toxic equivalent concentration limits for eggs (5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). This differs from observations in Europe where free range/home produced eggs frequently have higher POP concentrations than eggs from other production types. Median PCB dietary intake estimates based on consumption of eggs were less than 10 ng d(-1) while median PCDD/F intakes were less than 45 pg d(-1). Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Possible additional exposure to dioxin and dioxin-like compounds from waste incineration. Biomonitoring using human milk and animal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, C.; M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Murk, A. [Wageningen Univ., Dept. of Toxicology (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    In the ambit of an Environmental Health Survey Program relative to a MSW facility, which has been operating near to Lisbon since 1999 a biomonitoring study using human breast milk has been performed. Specific aims of this study were: (1) determine whether living in the vicinity of the incinerator increases dioxin maternal body burden and accordingly perinatal (intra-uterus and lactacional) exposure; (2) to investigate the possibility of increased human exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds via locally produced food items from animal origin. Therefore, levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds have been determined in human milk samples collected in the vicinity of the incinerator and in a control area, for comparison. From the same areas, cow and sheep milk and eggs from free-range chickens have also been collected to get an indication of possible local additional exposure to air-borne dioxins via the food chain. Analyses of TCDD-equivalents (TEQs) were mainly performed with a reporter gene assay for dioxin-like activity, the DR-CALUX bioassay (Dioxin Responsive Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression).To determine congeners profile, some human milk samples have also been analysed for PCDD/Fs and relevant dioxin-like PCBs, by using high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Both the Ethics Committees of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, and of the Maternity Dr. Alfredo da Costa have approved the study protocol.

  5. Dioxin-like chemicals in soil and sediment from residential and industrial areas in central South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, Claudine; Quinn, Laura P; Pieters, Rialet; Jordaan, Ilse; Visser, Maret; Kylin, Henrik; Borgen, Anders R; Giesy, John P; Bouwman, Henk

    2009-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a global concern due to their ubiquitous presence and toxicity. Currently, there is a lack of information regarding POPs from South Africa. Here we report and interpret concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and co-planar-biphenyls (PCBs) in soils and sediments collected from central South Africa. High resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) and the H4IIE-luc bio-assay were used to identify and quantify individual PCDD/F congeners and to report the total concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), respectively. TCDD-EQs determined by use of the bio-assay, and concentrations of WHO(2005)-TEQ (toxic equivalents) determined by chemical analysis, were similar. The limit of detection (LOD) for the bio-assay was 0.82 and 2.8 ng TCDD-EQ kg(-1), dw for sediment and soil, respectively. EQ20 concentrations determined by use of the bio-assay ranged from industrial area of Vanderbijlpark and the residential area of Klerksdorp contained the greatest concentrations. Based on the congener-specific HRGC/HRMS analyzes, concentrations of WHO(2005)-TEQ ranged from 0.12 to 32 ng WHO(2005)-TEQ kg(-1), dw in sediments, and between 0.34 and 20 ng WHO(2005)-TEQkg(-1), dw in soils. The sources, processes and threats that govern and are associated with the lesser concentrations in sediment and greater concentrations in soils need further investigation.

  6. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Liu, Lidan; Li, Cheng; Zhou, Xin; Xia, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic environmental pollutants that are often found in sediments. The Yangtze and Yellow rivers in China are two of the largest rivers in Asia and are therefore important aquatic ecosystems; however, few studies have investigated the PCDD/F and PCB content in the sediments of these rivers. Accordingly, this study was conducted to generate baseline data for future environmental risk assessments. In the present study, 26 surface sediments from the middle reaches of the Yellow and Yangtze rivers were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl) PCBs by high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yellow River were 2.1-19.8, 1.11-9.9, and 0.08-0.57 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yangtze River were 6.1-84.9, 1.8-24.1, and 0.13-0.29 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. Total organic carbon and dl-PCB contents in the Yellow River were significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.64, P < 0.05). It is well known that total organic carbon plays a role in the transport and redistribution of dl-PCB. Principal component analysis indicated that PCDD/Fs may arise from pentachlorophenol, sodium pentachlorophenate, and atmospheric deposition, while dl-PCBs likely originate from burning of coal and wood for domestic heating. The dioxin levels in the river sediments examined in this study were relatively low. These findings advance our knowledge regarding eco-toxicity and provide useful information regarding contamination sources.

  7. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Kadoorie Biological Sciences Building, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Man, Yu Bon [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Xing, Guan Hua [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); China National Environmental Monitoring Center, 100012, Beijing (China); Wu, Sheng Chun [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Murphy, Margaret B. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Xu, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 430072, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2013-10-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives “early warning” to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1–4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. - Highlights: ► Freshwater fish are contaminated by PCDD/F at 2 e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents are exposed to unsafe levels of PCDD/Fs through dietary exposure. ► H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive screening tool for PCDD/Fs.

  8. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Man, Yu Bon; Xing, Guan Hua; Wu, Sheng Chun; Murphy, Margaret B.; Xu, Ying; Wong, Ming H.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives “early warning” to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1–4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. - Highlights: ► Freshwater fish are contaminated by PCDD/F at 2 e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents are exposed to unsafe levels of PCDD/Fs through dietary exposure. ► H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive screening tool for PCDD/Fs

  9. Fetal exposure markers of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampa, Erik; Eguchi, Akifumi; Todaka, Emiko; Mori, Chisato

    2018-04-01

    Fetal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated-p-dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been associated with a number of adverse health outcomes. Although the placenta acts as a barrier between the mother and the fetus, these contaminants transfer through the placenta exposing the fetus. Several studies have investigated placental transfer, but few have assessed the co-variation among these contaminants. Maternal blood, cord blood, and cord tissue were collected from 41 Japanese mother-infant pairs and analyzed for dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs. Hierarchical cluster analysis followed by principal component analysis were used to assess the co-variation. Two stable clusters of dioxin-like PCBs were found in maternal and cord blood. One cluster of low/medium chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs was present in all three matrices with 2,3',4,4',5-PeCB(#118) and 3,3',4,4',5-PeCB(#126) explaining the majority of the clusters' variances. Medium/high chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs clustered in maternal blood and cord blood but not in cord tissue. 2,3,4,4',5-PeCB(#114) and 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-HpCB(#189) explained the majority of the clusters' variances. There was a substantial correlation between the sum of dioxin-like PCBs and total PCDD/F in all three matrices. The sum of the four suggested PCBs plus 3,3',4,4'-TeCB(#77) correlated well with total PCDD/F in all three matrices. Apart from the dioxin-like PCBs, little co-variation existed among the studied contaminants. The five PCBs can be used as fetal exposure markers for dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs in maternal and cord blood respectively. In cord tissue, more higher chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs need to be measured as well.

  10. Temporal trend of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran and dioxin like-polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in food from Taiwan markets during 2004–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chang Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB in foodstuffs have decreased over the past decade in many countries. However, the trend for the levels of these compounds in foodstuffs in Taiwan remains unknown. In this study, we compared the distribution of PCDD/F and PCB in nine foodstuff categories acquired from Taiwan markets from 2004 to 2012. The levels expressed as World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs in the different foodstuffs tested were as follows: fish, average 0.463 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample > seafood, 0.163 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > eggs, 0.150 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > oils, 0.126 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > meats, 0.095 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > dairy products, 0.054 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > cereals, 0.017 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > vegetables, 0.013 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > fruits, 0.009 pg WHO98-TEQ/g. Levels were particularly high in crab (average: 0.6 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample (1.243 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample and large marine fish (0.6. In Taiwan, a decreasing trend of PCDD/Fs or dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs was observed in meat, dairy, eggs, and vegetables, whereas an elevated trend was observed in cereals or the levels were nearly equal in fruits and oils at alternative time shift. Dl-PCBs contributed to 60–65% toxicity equivalence levels in fish and seafood, but only to 13–40% in meat and cereal samples. The decreasing trend was consistent with the results in other countries; however, the trends in cereals, fruits, and oils were in contrast to previous results reported in other countries. Cereals and fruits are important crops in southern Taiwan, and the local pollution generated by industries or incinerators may seriously affect the distribution of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. To ensure food safety, a risk assessment for residents living in different areas should be adopted for all food categories simultaneously in the future.

  11. Optimization of an oil leaching process to reduce the level of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fishmeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oterhals, Åge; Kvamme, Bjørn

    2013-05-01

    Fishmeal produced from fish caught in polluted fishing areas might contain dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) above maximum permitted levels (MPL) for use in feed. Decontamination of the fishmeal can be achieved by hexane extraction. The principal objective of this study was to optimize a more environmentally friendly alternative based on oil leaching of the moist presscake intermediate product during fishmeal manufacturing. A central composite design and response surface methodology was used to study the influence of the process variables temperature (T), presscake moisture content (MC) and leaching time (LT) on the decontamination process. A significant squared MC effect was observed, resulting in an optimum leaching rate at 27% MC. This corresponds to 5% improved dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzo furan (PCDD/F)-PCB toxic equivalent (TEQ) reduction compared to normal presscake (55% MC). The initial leaching rate was fast, with a TEQ reduction of 69% after only 2 min at 87 °C and 55% MC. Under the best experimental conditions (87 °C, 38% MC, 12 min LT) a TEQ reduction of 82% was achieved. Excess oil in the presscake after the leaching operation could be removed by use of a water washing step. No reduction in protein quality measured by mink digestibility could be observed. The results confirm that the oil leaching process is robust and offers easily achievable TEQ levels well below present MPLs based on process conditions normally used by the industry. Comparative effects on non-dioxin-like PCBs are expected. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth: a cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneko Nishijo

    Full Text Available Dioxin exposure levels remain elevated in residents living around former US Air Force bases in Vietnam, indicating potential adverse impacts on infant growth. In this study, 210 mother-infant pairs in dioxin-contaminated areas in Vietnam were recruited at the infants' birth and followed up for 4 months. Perinatal dioxin exposure levels were estimated by measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans toxic equivalent (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ in breast milk. The infants' size was measured at birth and 1 and 4 months after birth, and neurodevelopment was evaluated using the Bayley Scales III at 4 months of age. Among 4 dioxin groups (<25, 25-50, 50-75, ≥75 percentile of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ, cross-sectional comparisons of body size and neurodevelopment scales and comparisons of longitudinally assessed body size were performed respectively. At birth, head circumference of girls in the ≥75 percentile group was significantly larger than those in the <25 and 50-75 percentile groups. At 4 months of age, the weight and body mass index (BMI of boys in the ≥75 percentile group were significantly lower than those in the other groups. Increase in weight was significantly lower in the ≥75 percentile group in both sexes from birth to 1 month but only in boys at 1-4 months of age. Estimated marginal mean values in a mixed model of weight and BMI during the first 4 months of life were significantly lower in the ≥75 percentile group in boys. In girls, marginal mean values for head circumference were increased with increase in dioxin levels. Only in boys, cognitive, language, and fine motor scores in the ≥75 percentile group were significantly lower than those in the other groups. These results suggested a considerable impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on infant growth, particularly in boys exposed to dioxins at high level of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ.

  13. Evaluation of the release of dioxins and PCBs during kiln-firing of ball clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, Kendra; Meeker, John D; Luksemburg, William; Maier, Martha; Garabrant, David; Demond, Avery; Franzblau, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Ball clay is known to be naturally contaminated with high levels of polychlorinated di-benzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). This study evaluated the potential for PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) release during the kiln firing of ball clay in an art studio. Toxic equivalence (TEQ) were calculated using World Health Organization (WHO) 2005 toxic equivalence factors (TEF) and congener concentrations. Ten bags of commercial ball clay were found to have an average TEQ of 1,370 nanograms/kilogram (ng kg(-1)) dry weight (dw), almost exclusively due to PCDDs (99.98% of TEQ). After firing, none of the 29 dioxin-like analytes was measured above the limits of detection (LOD) in the clay samples. Air samples were taken during firings using both low-flow and high-flow air samplers. Few low-flow air samples contained measurable levels of dioxin congeners above the LOD. The mean TEQ in the high volume air samples ranged from 0.07 pg m(-3) to 0.21 pg m(-3) when firing ball clay, and was 0.11 pg m(-3) when no clay was fired. These concentrations are within the range measured in typical residences and well-controlled industrial settings. The congener profiles in the high-flow air samples differed from the unfired clay; the air samples had a considerable contribution to the TEQ from PCDFs and PCBs. Given that the TEQs of all air samples were very low and the profiles differed from the unfired clay, it is likely that the PCDDs in dry ball clay were destroyed during kiln firing. These results suggest that inhalation of volatilized dioxins during kiln firing of dry ball clay is an unlikely source of exposure for vocational and art ceramicists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assays of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in actually contaminated soils using transgenic tobacco plants carrying a recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hideyuki; Gion, Keiko; Utani, Yasushi; Wakai, Taketo; Kodama, Susumu; Eun, Heesoo; Kim, Yun-Seok; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 carrying the recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor XD4V-mediated β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was used for assay of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds consisting of polychlorinated dibenzeno-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) in actually contaminated soils. The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 showed a significant dose-dependent induced GUS activity when cultured on MS medium containing PCB126 [toxic equivalency factor (TEF) = 0.1]. In contrast, PCB169 and PCB180, which have 0.03 of TEF and unassigned TEF values, respectively, did not significantly induce GUS activity under the same conditions as with PCB126. When the tobacco plants were cultivated for up to 5 weeks on actually contaminated soils with dioxins and dioxin-like compounds collected from the periphery of an incinerator used for disposal of residential and industrial wastes, GUS activity in the leaves was dose-dependently increased. The plants clearly detected 360 pg-TEQ g(-1) of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in this assay. There was a positive correlation between GUS activity and TEQ value of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the plants. This assay does not require any extraction and purification processes for the actually contaminated soil samples.

  15. Xenoestrogenic and dioxin-like activity in blood of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Simon E; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Bechshøft, Thea Ø; Vorkamp, Katrin; Letcher, Robert J; Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C

    2013-07-01

    The aims of the project were to (i) extract the lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the blood of 99 East Greenland polar bears and assess the combined mixture effect on the estrogen receptor (ER) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated transactivity; (ii) To evaluate whether the receptor transactivities were associated with selected POP markers, and (iii) compare the receptor transactivities in polar bears with earlier studies on Greenlandic Inuit. Lipophilic POPs were extracted using a combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). ER mediated transactivity was determined using the ER luciferase reporter MVLN cell assay. The extracts were tested alone (XER) and together with 17β-estradiol (E2) as a physiological mimic (XERcomp). Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) compounds were extracted by a combination of SPE and the Supelco Dioxin Prep System®. AhR mediated dioxin-like transactivity was determined using the AhR luciferase reporter Hepa 1.12cR cell assay. Agonistic ER transactivity was elicited by 19% of the samples, and a further increased E2 induced ER response was found for 52%, whereas 17% antagonized the E2 induced ER response. Positive correlations were found in subadult bears between XER and several POP biomarkers. XER and XERcomp correlated positively to each other. A total of 91% of the polar bear blood extracts elicited agonistic AhR transactivity. The AhR-TCDD equivalent (AhR-TEQ) median levels were higher among adult bears compared to subadult bears, but not significantly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dioxin emissions and sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The papers presented at the seminar discussed dioxin emissions and sources, dioxin pollution of soils, waste water and sewage sludge, stocktaking of emission sources, and exposure and risk analyses for dioxin and other pollutants. (EF) [de

  17. A survey of dioxin-like contaminants in fish from recreational fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimstad, Eldbjørg Sofie; Grønstøl, Gaute; Hetland, Karl Torstein; Alarcon, Javier Martinez; Rylander, Charlotta; Mariussen, Espen

    2015-08-01

    The dioxin and dioxin-like compounds are regarded as one of the most toxic group of environmental contaminants. Food for the commercial market is regularly monitored for their dioxin levels and the concentration allowed in food is strictly regulated. Less is known about locally caught fish from recreational fishing, which is often brought home for consumption. This can be fish caught from nearby lakes or streams or fish with marine origin close to industrial areas or harbours that are not regularly monitored for their dioxin levels. In this study, we established collaboration with schools in 13 countries. We received 203 samples of 29 different fish species of which Atlantic cod was the most abundant followed by brown trout and pollock. In general, the majority of samples from the participating countries had low concentrations (between 0.1 and 0.2 pg/g chemical-activated luciferase gene expression toxic equivalency wet weight (CALUX TEQ w.w.)) of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. Only 18 samples had concentrations above 1 pg/g CALUX TEQ w.w., and only 2 dab samples had concentration above maximum levels set by the European Commission. The Atlantic cod samples showed a significant reduction in the concentrations of dioxins with increasing latitude indicating less contamination of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in the north of Norway. The results indicate that a moderate consumption of self-caught fish at presumed non-contaminated sites does not represent a major risk for exposure to dioxins or dioxin-like compounds at concentrations associated with adverse health effects. Recreational fishermen should, however, obtain knowledge about local fish consumption advice.

  18. Dioxin levels in foods: estimations of diet in Tarragona (Spain); Niveles de dioxinas en alimentos: estimacion de la ingesta a traves de la dieta en Tarragona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, J.L.; Granero, S.; Schuhmacher, M.

    1997-12-31

    Thirty-five food samples from local supermarkets of Tarragona were analyzed for dioxin levels. On lipid basis, dioxin concentrations in meat, fish, eggs, and oils were similar or even lower than those previously reported in other countries. However, dioxin levels in milk vegetables, and cereals were higher in the current study. According to these results and taking into account the consumption habits of the population of Tarragona, the dietary intake was estimated to be 210 pg TEQ/day. Although this value is comparatively higher than the dietary intake of dioxins found in other surveys whether vegetables, fruits , cereals and pulses are not included in our calculations, a dioxin daily intake of 117 pg TEQ is obtained. This value is closer to the data reported for a number of countries. (Author) 22 refs.

  19. Dioxin, furan and PCB serum levels in a South African Tswana population: comparing the polluting effects of using different cooking and heating fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Rialet; Focant, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    In South Africa, 26-50% of households use solid fuel for cooking food and heating houses. When used as fuel, wood and chlorinated waste are known sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Here, we compare PCDD/F, dioxin-like PCB (DL-PCB), and non-DL-PCB (NDL-PCB) levels in serum of 693 Tswana individuals in the North West province, who either burn solid biofuels or have access to electricity, gas, and paraffin. This is the first South African study on dioxin levels in humans with more than 100 participants. Serum was pooled according to fuel use, as well as to confounding factors such as gender and age. Solid-phase extraction was used to remove the target analytes from serum, after which the extracts were further refined automatically using a combination of multilayer sorbents. Compound concentrations were determined by high-resolution mass spectrometry after high-resolution gas chromatography. Mean serum lipid content was determined enzymatically to be 5.91 ± 0.42 g/L. The PCDD/F and DL-PCB levels were similar to global concentrations reported for non-exposed adults. The mean of the total Toxic Equivalencies (ΣTEQ) was 6.9 ± 3.3 pg/g lipid and the mean NDL-PCB was 70.1 ± 42.8 ng/g lipid. The mean concentrations of the PCDDs, PCDFs and the corresponding World Health Organization-TEQ (WHO-TEQ) of the population using electricity, gas, and paraffin were greater than of those reliant on solid biomass (p = 0), whereas the DL-PCBs, their corresponding WHO-TEQ, and NDL-PCBs were greater for the population who use biofuels but not significantly so. The females had higher serum levels of the PCDDs (p = 0) and PCDFs (not significant) whereas the PCBs were higher for the males (p = 0). Breastfeeding women presented lower levels of all compound classes than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p=0) and older subjects manifested greater pollutant loads than the younger generation (p = 0

  20. Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of potential health impacts of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in recycled water for indirect potable reuse was conducted. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD and dibenzofurans (PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs congeners have been developed by the World Health Organization to simplify the risk assessment of complex mixtures. Samples of secondary treated wastewater in Perth, Australia were examined pre-and post-tertiary treatment in one full-scale and one pilot water reclamation plant. Risk quotients (RQs were estimated by expressing the middle-bound toxic equivalent (TEQ and the upper-bound TEQ concentration in each sampling point as a function of the estimated health target value. The results indicate that reverse osmosis (RO is able to reduce the concentration of PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCBs and produce water of high quality (RQ after RO=0.15. No increased human health risk from dioxin and dioxin-like compounds is anticipated if highly treated recycled water is used to augment drinking water supplies in Perth. Recommendations for a verification monitoring program are offered.

  1. Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Cook, Angus; Devine, Brian; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Linge, Kathryn; Weinstein, Philip

    2008-01-01

    An assessment of potential health impacts of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in recycled water for indirect potable reuse was conducted. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners have been developed by the World Health Organization to simplify the risk assessment of complex mixtures. Samples of secondary treated wastewater in Perth, Australia were examined pre-and post-tertiary treatment in one full-scale and one pilot water reclamation plant. Risk quotients (RQs) were estimated by expressing the middle-bound toxic equivalent (TEQ) and the upper-bound TEQ concentration in each sampling point as a function of the estimated health target value. The results indicate that reverse osmosis (RO) is able to reduce the concentration of PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCBs and produce water of high quality (RQ after RO=0.15). No increased human health risk from dioxin and dioxin-like compounds is anticipated if highly treated recycled water is used to augment drinking water supplies in Perth. Recommendations for a verification monitoring program are offered. PMID:19151430

  2. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in seafood samples from Malaysia: estimated human intake and associated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-07-01

    A total of 127 and 177 seafood samples from Malaysia were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), respectively. The World Health Organization-toxic-equivalency quotients (WHO-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs varied from 0.13 to 1.03 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas dl-PCBs ranged from 0.33 to 1.32 pg TEQ g(-1). Based on food-consumption data from the global environment monitoring system-food contamination monitoring and assessment programme, calculated dietary exposures to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from seafood for the general population in Malaysia were 0.042 and 0.098 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1), respectively. These estimations were quite different from the values calculated using the Malaysian food-consumption statistics (average of 0.313 and 0.676 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, respectively). However, both of the dietary exposure estimations were lower than the tolerable daily intake recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that seafood from Malaysia does not pose a notable risk to the health of the average consumer.

  3. Maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is associated with language delay in 3year old Norwegian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, I H; Haugen, M; Schjølberg, S; Vejrup, K; Knutsen, H K; Brantsæter, A L; Meltzer, H M; Alexander, J; Magnus, P; Kvalem, H E

    2016-05-01

    Prenatal exposure to dioxins and PCBs is potentially harmful to the developing fetus and may increase the risk of delayed or impaired neurodevelopment. Several studies have reported negative associations between prenatal exposure to these compounds and aspects of cognition related to language in early childhood. The aim was to examine the association between maternal low level dietary exposure to dioxins and PCB during pregnancy and language development in 3year old children in a large group of mother-child pairs participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). This study includes 44,092 children of women who were recruited to the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) during the years 2002-2009. Maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs was estimated based on a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) answered mid-pregnancy and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian foods. Exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-compounds) was expressed in total toxic equivalents (TEQ), and PCB-153 was used as marker for non-dioxin-like PCBs (ndlPCBs). Children's language skills at age 3 were assessed by parental report including a Dale and Bishop grammar rating and questions about communication skills from the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ). Logistic regression models adjusted for confounders were used to examine the association between maternal dietary exposure to dl-compounds or PCB-153 and language development in children. The maternal dietary exposure to dl-compounds and PCB-153 was generally low, and 98% of women had intakes of dl-compounds ≤14pg TEQ/kg bw/week, which is the tolerable weekly intake set by EU's Scientific Committee for Food (SCF). High maternal exposure (>14pg TEQ/kg bw/week of dl-compounds (median 2.6pg/kg bw/day, range 2-16) or >97.5-percentile intake of PCB-153 (median 11ng/kg bw/day, range 5-28) was associated with higher odds of incomplete grammar (in boys and girls, adjusted ORs 1.1 to 1

  4. Dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs in a large cohort of pregnant women: results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Ida H; Knutsen, Helle K; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kvalem, Helen E

    2013-09-01

    Exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy and breastfeeding may result in adverse health effects in children. Prenatal exposure is determined by the concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in maternal blood, which reflect the body burden obtained by long term dietary exposure. The aims of this study were (1) to describe dietary exposure and important dietary sources to dioxins and PCBs in a large group of pregnant women and (2) to identify maternal characteristics associated with high dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs. Dietary exposure to dioxins (sum of toxic equivalents (TEQs) from dioxin-like (dl) compounds) and PCB-153 in 83,524 pregnant women (gestational weeks 17-22) who participated in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) during the years 2002-2009 was calculated based on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian food. The median (interquartile range, IQR) intake of PCB-153 (marker of ndl-PCBs) was 0.81 (0.77) ng/kg bw/day. For dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, the median (IQR) intake was 0.56 (0.37) pg TEQ/kg bw/day. Moreover, 2.3% of the participants had intakes exceeding the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14pg TEQ/kg bw/week. Multiple regression analysis showed that dietary exposure was positively associated with maternal age, maternal education, weight gain during pregnancy, being a student, and alcohol consumption during pregnancy and negatively associated with pre-pregnancy BMI and smoking. A high dietary exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compounds (TEQ) was mainly explained by the consumption of seagull eggs and/or pate with fish liver and roe. Women who according to Norwegian recommendations avoid these food items generally do not have dietary exposure above the tolerable intake of dioxins and dl-PCBs. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Perinatal dioxin exposure and the neurodevelopment of Vietnamese toddlers at 1 year of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tai The; Nishijo, Muneko; Nguyen, Anh Thi Nguyet; Tran, Nghi Ngoc; Hoang, Luong Van; Tran, Anh Hai; Nguyen, Trung Viet; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-12-01

    Dioxin concentrations remain elevated in both the environment and in humans residing near former US Air Force bases in South Vietnam. This may potentially have adverse health effects, particularly on infant neurodevelopment. We followed 214 infants whose mothers resided in a dioxin-contaminated area in Da Nang, Vietnam, from birth until 1 year of age. Perinatal exposure to dioxins was estimated from toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs-TEQ), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TetraCDD) concentrations in breast milk. In infants, daily dioxin intake (DDI) was used as an index of postnatal exposure through breastfeeding. Neurodevelopment of toddlers was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III). No significant differences in neurodevelopmental scores were exhibited for cognitive, language or motor functions between four exposure groups of PCDDs/Fs-TEQ or 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD. However, social-emotional scores were decreased in the high PCDDs/Fs-TEQ group and the high 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD group compared with those with mild exposure, after adjusting for confounding factors. Cognitive scores in the mild, moderate, and high DDI groups were significantly higher than those in low DDI group, but there were no differences in cognitive scores among the three higher DDI groups. These results suggest that perinatal exposure to dioxins may affect social-emotional development of 1-year-old toddlers, without diminishing global neurodevelopmental function. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of Polychlorinated Diben-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Flue Gas by High Resolution Gas Chromatography Coupled with High Resolution Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.; Yan, J. H.; Li, X. D.; Cen, K. F.

    2007-01-01

    In 1988 the first municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator plant was built in Shenzhen, China. Since then Beijing, Shanghai and other big cities have built a few MSW incineration plants. MSW incineration has gradually been used in some cities of China due to its advantages such as significant volume reduction (about 90%), mass reduction (about 70%), and toxicity reduction of the waste and energy recovery. However, MSW incineration is sometimes considered to the general public as the secondary pollution source, because of concerns about is toxic combustion byproducts (TCBs). Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are the most toxic compounds among the TCBs. In this paper, PCDD/Fs in flue gas produced from a MSW incinerator were isokinetically withdrawn and collected in a multi component sampling train. Then the PCDD/Fs samples were extracted, concentrated and cleaned up step by step. Finally, the determination of PCDD/Fs was carried out by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The two PCDD/Fs emission levels were the similar, which was 0.115 and 0.096ng TEQ/Nm3 although different sampling time. The PCDD/Fs emission levels were lower than the PCDD/Fs emission regulation in China (1.0 ng TEQ / Nm3) and close to the developed countries' regulations, i.e., 0.1ng TEQ/Nm3. 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) was the dominant congener of the total TEQ

  7. Dioxin-like exposures and effects on estrogenic and androgenic exposures and micronuclei frequency in mother-newborn pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Mathiesen, Line

    2010-01-01

    In utero exposure to environmental dioxin-like, estrogen and androgen compounds can cause adverse health effects. Little is known about potential interactions in vivo between dioxin-like compounds, estrogens and androgens during fetal development in humans. Therefore we explored the potential...... interactions in vivo between dioxin-like compounds, estrogens, androgens using chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX)(R) bioassays in maternal and umbilical cord blood plasma concurrently collected at the time of planned Caesarean section from 98 healthy pregnancies. The dioxin-like activity was also...... determined after placental transfer of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the ex vivo human placenta perfusion system. Similar dioxin-like activity in maternal and cord blood (37 versus 33pg CALUX(R)-TEQ/g plasma lipids, P>0.05) was detected and it demonstrates transplacental transfer. Increased...

  8. Concentrations of dioxins and dioxine-like PCBs in feed material in the Netherlands, 2001-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Schoss, S.; Jong, de J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain insights into contamination of feed materials used in the Netherlands with dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Monitoring results from the period 2001-11, covering in total 4938 samples, were

  9. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non-ortho-PCBs in eggs of white-tailed sea eagles collected along the Swedish coast in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlöf, Ulrika; Helander, Björn; Zebühr, Yngve; Bignert, Anders; Asplund, Lillemor

    2012-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and dioxin-like non-ortho-PCBs were measured in white-tailed sea eagle (WTSE) eagle eggs collected along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea during the period 1992-2004. The eggs represent two different subpopulations with significantly different nestling brood sizes; the Baltic Proper (BP) with an approximately normal nestling brood size (1.62), and the south Bothnian Sea (sBS) with reduced nestling brood size (1.22) combined with a significantly higher rate of dead eggs. The aim was to investigate if this difference in reproductive outcome was linked to differences in exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Three eggs collected in Greenland in 2000 were included in the study to provide a reference sea eagle population outside of the Baltic Sea region. The concentrations of ∑PCDD, ∑PCDF and ∑non-ortho-PCB in the two subpopulations from the Baltic Sea (BS) region ranged from 0.41-4.1, 1.2-5.3 and 180-970 ng/g lipids, respectively, while in the Greenland population the ranges were 0.11-0.16, 0.22-0.33 and 57-83 ng/g lipid, respectively. 2,3,4,7,8-PCDF was the predominant congener in all areas and accounted for on average 31-49% of the total ∑PCDD/F concentrations. The total toxic equivalents (TEQ) in sBS WTSEs were higher (approximately 39 ng TEQ/g lipid) than reported in eggs for many other birds, and the major contributors to the TEQ in the Baltic Sea were the non-ortho-PCBs. A principal component analysis (PCA) showed a difference in congener pattern between the two Baltic regions that was statistically significant (Hotelling's T(2) test). We found no significant differences in the total TEQ between the two populations (sBS-BP) and thus no evidence was found linking the reproductive impairment in WTSE in sBS to the concentrations of PCDD/Fs or non-ortho-PCBs in the eggs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in human blood: causes or consequences of diabetic nephropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Charles J; Thompson, Olivia M

    2014-07-01

    Nephropathy, or kidney disease, is a major, potential complication of diabetes. We assessed the association of 6 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, 9 chlorinated dibenzofurans and 8 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood with diabetic nephropathy in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (unweighted N=2588, population estimate=117,658,357). Diabetes was defined as diagnosed or undiagnosed (glycohemoglobin ≥ 6.5%) and nephropathy defined as urinary albumin to creatinine ratio >30 mg/g, representing microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria. For the 8 chemicals analyzed separately, values above the 75th percentile were considered elevated, whereas for the other 15 compounds values above the maximum limit of detection were considered elevated. Seven of 8 dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, analyzed separately, were found to be associated with diabetic nephropathy. The chemicals associated with diabetic nephropathy were: 1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran; PCB 126; PCB 169; PCB 118; and PCB 156. Three of the 8 dioxins and dioxin-like compounds; 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran and PCB 118; expressed as log-transformed continuous variables; were associated with diabetes without nephropathy. When 4 or more of the 23 chemicals were elevated the odds ratios were 7.00 (95% CI=1.80-27.20) for diabetic nephropathy and 2.13 (95% CI=0.95-4.78) for diabetes without nephropathy. Log-transformed toxic equivalency (TEQ) was associated with both diabetic nephropathy, and diabetes without nephropathy, the odds ratios were 2.35 (95% CI=1.57-3.52) for diabetic nephropathy, and 1.44 (95% CI=1.11-1.87) for diabetes without nephropathy. As the kidneys function to remove waste products from the blood, diabetic nephropathy could be either the cause or the consequence (or both) of exposure to dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs. Copyright © 2014

  11. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in e-waste plastic in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindiku, O; Babayemi, J O; Tysklind, M; Osibanjo, O; Weber, R; Watson, A; Schlummer, M; Lundstedt, S

    2015-10-01

    Plastics from cathode ray tube (CRT) casings were sampled in Nigeria and analysed for their polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PBDD/F) content. PBDD/Fs, consisting mainly of PBDFs, were detected in BFR containing plastic with a median (mean) concentration of 18,000 ng/g (41,000 ng/g). The PBDD/Fs levels were highest in samples containing PBDEs, but the levels of PBDFs were two orders of magnitude higher than the levels reported in the technical PBDE mixtures and where frequently exceeding 1000 μg/g of PBDE content. These higher levels are likely to arise from additional transformation of PBDEs during production, use, recycling, or storage, but the processes responsible were not identified in this study. PBDD/Fs in CRT casings containing1,2-bistribromophenoxyethane (TBPE) were dominated by tetrabrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TBDDs) with concentrations around 10 μg/g of the TBPE content. The PBDD/Fs in CRT casings containing tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were found at concentrations around 0.1 μg/g of TBBPA levels. Casings treated with TBPE or TBBPA often contained PBDEs (and PBDF) as impurities-probably originating from recycled e-waste plastics. It was estimated that the 237,000 t of CRT casings stockpiled in Nigeria contain between 2 and 8 t of PBDD/Fs. The total PBDD/F contamination in polymers arising from total historic PBDE production/use is estimated in the order of 1000 t. TEQ values of CRT samples frequently exceeded the Basel Convention's provisional low POPs content of 15 ng TEQ/g. Due to the significant risks to health associated with PBDD/Fs, more detailed studies on the exposure routes from PBDD/Fs in stockpiles are needed.

  12. Fast Sampling and Analysis of Offgas Dioxins/Furans Using a Thermal Desorption-Gas Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitworth, C. G.; Rees, R. T.; Reick, K. G.; Montgomery, J. L.; Battleson, D. M.; LeFever, J.; Sears, L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy is using or evaluating several Alternatives-to- Incineration (ATI) technologies for treating hazardous wastes and low-level mixed wastes. ATI treatment technologies may have the potential for generating gaseous or other emissions of polychlorinated dioxins/furans, a class of highly toxic compounds which are regulated to very low levels. At present, the emission limit for dioxins/furans from hazardous waste incinerators is 0.2 ng TEQ/dscm (0.4 ng TEQ/dscm w/TC). Emissions from ATI technologies are expected to be subject to similar restrictions

  13. Fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in a fly ash treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsing-Wang; Wu, Yee-Lin; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-09-01

    To understand the fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in a fly ash treatment plant that used the Waelz rotary kiln process (hereafter the Waelz process), the samples of input and output media were collected and analyzed. The most important PCDD/F source in input mass was electric arc furnace (EAF) fly ash, which had a mean PCDD/F content of 18.51 ng/g and contributed more than 99% of PCDD/F input mass, whereas the PCDD/F input mass fractions contributed by the coke, sand, and ambient air were only 0.04%, 0.02%, and 0.000002%, respectively. For the PCDD/F output mass in the Waelz process, the major total PCDD/F contents of 43.73 and 10.78 ng/g were in bag-filter and cyclone ashes, which accounted for approximately 69% and 17%, respectively, whereas those of stack flue gas and slag were 14% and 0.423%, respectively. The Waelz process has a dechlorination mechanism for higher chlorinated congeners, but it is difficult to decompose the aromatic rings of PCDD/Fs. Therefore, this resulted in the accumulation of lower chlorinated congeners. The output/input ratio of total PCDD/F mass and total PCDD/F international toxicity equivalence (I-TEQ) was 0.62 and 1.19, respectively. Thus, the Waelz process for the depletion effect of total PCDD/F mass was positive but minor, whereas the effect for total PCDD/F I-TEQ was adverse overall.

  14. Comprehensive evaluation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in surface soils and river sediments from e-waste-processing sites in a village in northern Vietnam: Heading towards the environmentally sound management of e-waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Suzuki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The management of electronic waste (e-waste, which can be a source of both useful materials and toxic substances, depending on the processing method, is important for promoting material cycling. In this study, we used the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX assay combined with gas chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry to evaluate the levels of dioxin-like compounds in surface soils and river sediments collected in and around an e-waste-processing village in northern Vietnam. The WHO-TEQs (Toxic equivalents of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs, and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs in soils collected in January 2012 ranged from 0.29 to 310 pg/g (median 2.9 pg/g, n = 32, and the WHO-TEQs in sediments ranged from 0.96 to 58 pg/g (median 4.4 pg/g, n = 8. Dioxin-like activities (CALUX-TEQs [2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalent] in soils collected in January 2012, 2013, and 2014 ranged from <30 to 4300 pg/g (median <30 pg/g, n = 96, and the activities in sediments ranged from <30 to 4000 pg/g (median 33 pg/g, n = 24. Dioxin-like compounds accumulated in samples collected around e-waste-processing areas such as open-burning sites and e-waste-processing workshops, and the compounds may be transported from their sources to surrounding areas over the course of several years. Some of the CALUX-TEQs, but not WHO-TEQs, values were higher than the maximum acceptable WHO-TEQs promulgated by various authorities, indicating that all dioxin-like compounds should be evaluated in samples collected from e-waste-processing areas. Our findings suggest that open burning and open storage of e-waste should be prohibited and that wastewater treatment should be implemented at each workshop to reduce contamination by dioxin-like compounds from e-waste.

  15. Dioxins contamination of food in Italy: an overview of the situation 1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scortichini

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Istituto Zooprofilattico dell’Abruzzo e Molise ‘G. Caporale’ (IZS A&M has been monitoring contamination of food by the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDF as part of the National Surveillance Plan (NSP in Italy since 1999, on license from the Italian Ministry of Health. Between 1999 and 2000, 238 samples (including meat, fish, eggs, milk, fat, feedstuffs were analysed. The results of the tests were expressed in terms of international toxic equivalents (I-TEQs from NATO/CCMS, 1988 and World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs. These results showed contamination levels comparable to those detected in similar studies conducted in other European countries for products such as milk (mean: 0.81 pg I-TEQ/g fat, meat (mean: 0.73 pg I-TEQ/g fat and fat (mean: 0.51 pg I-TEQ/g fat. The highest dioxin content was found in fish (mean: 5.28 pg I-TEQ/g fat and fish feeds (mean 6.60 pg ITEQ/ g fat. These two matrices also showed complete duplication of contamination profiles. Other edible matrices (milk, meat, eggs revealed the presence of HpCDD and OCDD. This could be due to the introduction into Italy of the animal feed additive choline chloride contaminated by these congenerse.

  16. Pathological changes of suspected tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxins/tetrachloro dibenzofurans toxication in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of tetrachlorodibenzo-r-dioxins (TCDDs and tetra chlorinated dibenzofurans (TCDFs may affect human or animal health such as cancer, reproductive failure, dermaltoxicities and neurologic effects. The present study describes the effects of TCDD/TCDFs contamination in feed to various tissues of beef cattle to which TCDD/TCDFs were detected byGC MS/MS. The results revealed that POPs (DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin and endrin as a precursor for dioxins were detected in all samples except drinking water. The total concentration of OC in soils was Nd – 42.73 mg/kg, grasses (3.30 – 27.66 mg/kg, well water (0.82 – 1.00 mg/kg, feed mill (3.90 mg/kg, sera (Nd – 13.08 mg/kg and meats (Nd – 100.72 mg/kg. Futhermore, the TEQ residues of TCDDs/TCDFs in beef were 4496.66 - 20642.40 pg/g from Yogyakarta, and 717.13pg/g (beef and 0.037 pg/g (brain tissues from Solo (Central Java. The concentration of TCDD/TCDFs residues in beef was above the maximum residue limit (MRL at 2 pg/g. Animal feeds is regarded as the main source of dioxins contamination in meats. Macroscopic changes were general anaemia, cachexia, fibrotic liver, athropic heart, ruminal impaction, constipated intestinal, haemorrhagic kidney, and ptechiae in the brain. Microscopically were depleted spleen vacuolation of interseptum, haemorrhages and accumulation of hemosiderin. Heart shows degeneration, fragmentation and pale cardiac muscle and swollen nuclei. Liver was pale, degeneration of epithelial cells and congestion. Lungs were pneumonia, oedema pulmonum and mild haemorrhage. Intestines showed haemorrhage and infiltration of mononuclear cells, neutrophyls and eosinophyls. Brain was haemorrhage, perivascular cuffs and intranuclear inclusion bodies. The animal was suffering from haemorrhagic enteritis, encephalitis, and hepatic degeneration.

  17. Health risk assessment of exposure to dioxin-like PCBs and dioxins in the City of Menen (Belgium)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouwen, J.; Provoost, J.; Cornelis, C.; Bronders, J.; Fre, R. de; Clauvenbergern, R. van [Flemish Insitute for Technological Research (Vito) (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    The City of Menen is a well-outlined residential area located in the neighbourhood of two waste incinerators. The waste incinerators (Menen (Belgium) and Roncq (France)) are in full operation since the eighties. Emission measurements indicate that they fulfil the European Union dioxin emission standard of 0.1 ng TEQ/m{sup 3}. Despite this, new deposition measurements and analysis of milk in this region indicate a high burden of the local environment with dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). It should be noted that formerly the City of Menen was also surrounded by other potential dioxin sources, among them a dye factory, some small illegal cable burning houses, a pressed board manufacturer, and a metal recycling plant. Before 1984, fly ashes of the waste incinerator were locally used as road materials and transported. This could be a secondary source. Additionally the Environmental Inspection has regularly noticed some large open waste fires in this region and follows up the situation. On request of the Public Waste Agency of Flanders (OVAM) an inventory of all dioxin measurements within the city area was made. The ratio of the dioxin-like PCBs compared to the PCDD/Fs in these measurement results was unexpectedly high. As a consequence of this and in order to achieve an optimal risk assessment for the people living in the City of Menen an additional sampling of soil, vegetables and eggs was carried out. This article focuses on the relative amounts of dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs in the different media and the consequences for the outcome of the risk assessment.

  18. A baseline study on levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs, non-dioxin-like PCBs and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) from different parts of the Barents Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julshamn, Kaare; Duinker, Arne; Berntssen, Marc; Nilsen, Bente M.; Frantzen, Sylvia; Nedreaas, Kjell; Maage, Amund

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Livers of cod from the Barents Sea have been analysed for dioxins, PCBs and PBDEs. • The overall mean concentration of dioxins and DL-PCBs was 14.2 ng TEQ WHO-2005 /kg ww. • The concentrations of dioxins and DL-PCBs varied between 1.0 and 151 ng TEQ/kg ww. • 20% of the samples had concentrations higher than 20 ng TEQ/kg ww. • The highest concentrations of dioxins and PCB were found in samples from the east area of the Barents Sea. -- Abstract: This study is one of several baseline studies on commercially important Norwegian wild fish species that will provide information concerning metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and food safety. The cod liver is a traditional food product in Norway and a potential source for POPs in the diet. The concentrations of dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs), non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs, PCB 6 ) and polybrominated flame retardants (PBDEs) were determined in the liver of 784 individual Northeast Arctic cod caught at 32 positions in the Barents Sea in the period from 2009–2010. In addition, muscle samples from 30 individual cod were analysed for the same substances. The mean concentration of the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs for all samples was 14.2 ng TEQ who-2005 /kg ww with a variation between 1.0 and 151 ng TEQ/kg ww. The concentrations of POPs in the fillet samples were very low

  19. Dioxin Exposure Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dioxin Exposure Initiative (DEI) is no longer active. This page contains a summary of the dioxin exposure initiative with illustrations, contact and background information.Originally supported by scientist Matthew Lorber, who retired in Mar 2017.

  20. Dietary exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in The Netherlands anno 2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mul, de A.; Bakker, M.I.; Zeilmaker, M.J.; Traag, W.A.; Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Boon, P.E.; Klaveren, van J.D.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, representative occurrence data for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in food were obtained and used to estimate dietary exposure of the Dutch population. Food composite samples were analyzed as well as single fish and vegetables samples. Total dioxin concentrations in animal products

  1. Dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fish in general and in particular from Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, H. [Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and Food, Hamburg (Germany); Ruoff, U. [Federal Research Centre For Nutrition and Food, Kiel (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Commission Regulation No 466/2001 establishes maximum levels for dioxins in foodstuffs, foreseeing to review the maximum levels by 31 December 2006 and to include dioxin-like PCBs in the levels to be set. Fish is known to accumulate dioxins and dioxin related compounds in the lipid phase of their tissue. To collect information of the actual contamination levels in fish species on the German market, samples were taken from fishing grounds important for the supply and in particular from the Baltic Sea. Sampling concentrates on fish species with higher fat content like mackerel (Scomber scombrus), salmon (Salmo salar), trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), red fish (Sebastes sp.) and herring (Clupea harengus), because lean fish species are known to be less contaminated. Herring is the most important fat fish species for the German fish processing industry with a market share of 19% in 2001. The annual demand is approximately 149.000 t. Herring and other fish species accumulate PCDD/Fs with increasing age and dioxin levels in the edible part of eastern Baltic herring exceeds the maximum limit of 4 ng WHOPCDD/ F-TEQ/kg wet weight (w.w.) at ages of 4 - 6 years, corresponding to sizes of approximately 17 - 18 cm and a weight of 40 g, respectively. Hence Isosaari recommended to use preferably young fish from this area for human consumption. However, the German herring industry is based on the processing of large herring with a minimum weight of > 85g up to 250g. Therefore our interest focused on herring sizes of potential interest for the German processing industry. Samples were collected in September 1999 within two weeks covering an area from the Skagerrak to the Coast of Latvia. Additionally the contamination levels in sprat (Sprattus sprattus), flounder, brown trout (Salmo trutta) and in spring spawning herring from commercial landings around the area of Ruegen have been analysed.

  2. Dioxins: validation of food frequency questionnaire and intake in a group of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Joanna; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata; Helbin, Jadwiga; Potocki, Artur

    2017-09-21

    A lot of has been heard about dioxins and dioxins-like compounds. These molecules are typically connected in public awareness with affairs. The main source of dioxins for humans is food (90% of typical exposition); thus, assessment of dioxins intake and monitoring of levels of dioxins in food remain an important issue. The aim of the presented work was checking the reproducibility of the authors' semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, focusing on products that may contain dioxins and related compounds among adolescents. The uptake of these compounds was also assessed using obtained data. For survey purposes, an album of food products from the questionnaire was constructed. A modified semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was constructed and distributed twice in a 2-week time span among 55, 15-year-old, students of secondary schools. The correlation coefficient for both declared frequencies and assessed amounts in the case of the majority of food items was above 0.70. The average assessed intake of dioxins and related compounds was 1.57pgWHO-TEQ/kg body weight per day, and 1.85 pgWHO-TEQ/kg body weight per day, during test and retest, respectively. The modified semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire is a reproducible tool that can be used for adolescents. Average intake in the analyzed group was lower than the Tolerable Daily Intake, but in contrast to other countries remains one of the highest intakes in a comparable age group. The main sources of dioxins exposition were fish (38%), and meat products.

  3. Validation of rapid dioxin screening by GC-FID in fish products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassompierre, M.; Munck, L.; Bro, R.; Tomasi, G.; Engelsen, S.B. [Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Copenhagen (Denmark). Food Technology, Institute of Food Science, Centre for Advanced Food Studies

    2004-09-15

    A novel, cost- and time-effective dioxin screening method was developed and validated for fish product. The method is based on multivariate covariance between fatty acid composition monitored by GC-FID and dioxin content as teq WHO pg/ g fat. A dioxin range varying from 1.1 to 47.1 pg TEQ-WHO/ g fat using 65 fish meal samples was accessible for model calibration. An optimal multivariate dioxin prediction model was developed based on automatic peak integration, thereby enabling extraction of the area of 140 peaks from the gas chromatogramms. Models were produced employing partial least squares regression (PLS) based upon the duplicate GC-FID run and 46 specific peaks, selected after variable selection from the 140 investigated. The best results were yielded by local pls modelling employing three latent variables based upon the 12 nearest neighbors. For each prediction sample, the neighbors, yielding the 12 smallest sum of squares of differences to the test sample using the 140 peaks, were extracted from the whole calibration set and a local model built using these 12 chromatograms and related dioxin content. Prediction performance was thereafter validated for 10 fully independent samples. The performance of this model, yielded a correlation of 0.85 (r{sup 2}) and a root mean square error of prediction of 2.3 pg PCDD/F TEQWHO/ g fat.

  4. Management of risk to human health posed by dioxins under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, L. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    The Canadian federal Toxic Substances Management Policy requires that for substances which: - are toxic - persist in the environment - bioaccumulate - result predominantly from human activity the ultimate goal is virtual elimination. Because dioxins and furans satisfy these criteria, the management objective is virtual elimination of measurable releases of these substances into the environment. Measurable releases are defined as releases above the Level of Quantification (LoQ), which is the lowest concentration that can be accurately measured using sensitive but routine sampling and analytical methods. For dioxins and furans released to air, that level is 32 picograms of toxic equivalents (TEQ) per cubic metre.

  5. Micropore-free surface-activated carbon for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins-dibenzofurans and non-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmochi, Yukio; Tsutsumi, Kaori; Arikawa, Akihiro; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2002-11-22

    2,3,7,8-Substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and non-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) account for almost all of the total toxic equivalents (TEQ) in environmental samples. Activated carbon columns are used to fractionate the samples for GC-MS analysis or bioassay. Micropore-free surface-activated carbon is highly selective for PCDD/Fs and non-ortho-PCBs and can improve the conventional activated carbon column clean-up. Along with sulfuric acid-coated diatomaceous earth columns, micropore-free surface-activated carbon provides a rapid, robust, and high-throughput sample preparation method for PCDD/Fs and non-ortho-PCBs analysis.

  6. Dioxins/furans and PCBs in Canadian human milk: 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Sadler, Amy R; Casey, Valerie A; Breton, François; Sun, Wing-Fung; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fraser, William D

    2017-10-01

    Human milk was collected between 2008 and 2011 as part of the Maternal - Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study that was initiated to establish Canadian national estimates of maternal and infant exposure to a broad suite of environmental contaminants (e.g., persistent organic pollutants [POPs], trace elements, phthalates, etc.). Among the 1017 human milk samples collected, 298 were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). World Health Organization (WHO) toxic equivalency concentrations (WHO TEQ 2005 ) for PCDD/F+dioxin-like (DL) PCB ranged from 2.2pg TEQ 2005 g -1 lipid to 27pg TEQ 2005 g -1 lipid. The relative contribution of PCDDs to the overall WHO TEQ 2005 (PCDD/F+DL PCB) has decreased from earlier investigations into POP levels in Canadian human milk. Significantly higher PCB concentrations were observed in milk from women born in Europe relative to those born in Canada (pmilk ∑PCB concentrations (p=0.018), with elevated concentrations observed in milk from women >30years relative to those milk from primiparous women (p=0.019) and those >30years relative to those milk since the last sampling of human milk was performed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pentachlorophenol from an old henhouse as a dioxin source in eggs and related human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Jadwiga; Strucinski, Pawel; Mikolajczyk, Szczepan; Maszewski, Sebastian; Rachubik, Jaroslaw; Pajurek, Marek

    2016-01-01

    High levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were detected in free-range eggs, and these levels reached a concentration of 29.84 ± 7.45 pg of WHO-TEQ/g of fat. This value exceeded the EU maximum permitted level of 2.5 pg of WHO-TEQ/g of fat for PCDD/F congeners by twelve-fold. A chemical analysis (HRGC-HRMS) revealed elevated amounts of OCDD, OCDF, HxCDD, HpCDD and HpCDF. During the investigation, samples of feed, soil, wall scrapings, wooden ceiling of the henhouse and tissues from laying hens were examined for dioxin contents (30 samples altogether). The long and complicated investigation found that the source of dioxins in the poultry farm was pentachlorophenol-treated wood, which was used as structural components in the 40-year-old farm building adapted to a henhouse. The wooden building material contained PCDD/Fs at a concentration of 3922.60 ± 560.93 pg of WHO-TEQ/g and 11.0 ± 2.8 μg/kg of PCP. The potential risk associated with dioxin intake was characterized by comparing the theoretically calculated weekly and monthly intakes with the toxicological reference values (TRVs), namely the Tolerable Weekly Intake (TWI) and Provisional Tolerable Monthly Intake (PTMI) values of 14 pg of WHO-TEQ/kg of bw and 70 pg of WHO-TEQ/kg of bw, respectively. The intake of dioxins estimated for high egg consumers (approximately 5-6 eggs/week) exceeded the TWI and PTMI values, which may pose a risk of delayed adverse health effects. The estimated dose of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs for children consuming 5 eggs per week exceeded the TWI by as much as 450% because of their nearly 5-fold-lower body weight. Although the dioxin intake estimated for the average consumption of eggs in the general population did not exceed any of the TRVs applied (58.7% TWI and 51.1% PTMI), such a situation should be considered unacceptable from a public health perspective because eggs are not the only source of these contaminants. Copyright © 2015

  8. Relation among cytochrome P450, AH-active PCB congeners and dioxin equivalents in pipping black-crowned night-heron embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from a relatively uncontaminated site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic cytochrome P-450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P-450 proteins, induced up to 85-fold relative to the reference site, were associated with concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to express toxicity through the arylhydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Multiple regression revealed that up to 86% of the variation of cytochrome P450 measurements was accounted for by variation in the concentration of these PCB congeners. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of sample extracts, predicted mathematically (summed product of PCB congener concentrations and toxic equivalency factors), and dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), derived by bioassay (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells), were greatest in Cat Island samples. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r-2 often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data extend previous observations in heron embryos of an association between P450 and total PCB burdens to include Ah-active PCB congeners, and presumably other compounds, which interact similarly with the Ah receptor. Benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, and cytochrome P450 1A appear to be the most reliable measures of exposure to Ah-active PCB congeners in black-crowned night-heron embryos. These findings provide further evidence that cytochrome P450-associated parameters have considerable value as a biomarker for assessing environmental contamination of wetlands.

  9. Maternal dietary intake of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls and birth size in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Caspersen, Ida H; Kvalem, Helen E; Knutsen, Helle K; Duarte-Salles, Talita; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Kogevinas, Manolis; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha

    2013-10-01

    Maternal diet not only provides essential nutrients to the developing fetus but is also a source of prenatal exposure to environmental contaminants. We investigated the association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy and birth size. The study included 50,651 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Dietary information was collected by FFQs and intake estimates were calculated by combining food consumption and food concentration of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non-dioxin-like PCBs. We used multivariable regression models to estimate the association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs and fetal growth. The contribution of fish and seafood intake during pregnancy was 41% for dietary dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs and 49% for dietary non-dioxin-like PCBs. Further stratified analysis by quartiles of seafood intake during pregnancy was conducted. We found an inverse dose-response association between dietary intake of dioxins and PCBs and fetal growth after adjustment for confounders. Newborns of mothers in the upper quartile of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs intake had 62g lower birth weight (95% CI: -73, -50), 0.26cm shorter birth length (95% CI: -0.31, -0.20) and 0.10cm shorter head circumference (95% CI: -0.14, -0.06) than newborns of mothers in the lowest quartile of intake. Similar negative associations for intake of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs were found after excluding women with intakes above the tolerable weekly intake (TWI=14pg TEQ/kg bw/week). The negative association of dietary dioxins and PCBs with fetal growth was weaker as seafood intake was increasing. No association was found between dietary dioxin and PCB intake and the risk for small-for-gestational age neonate. In conclusion, dietary intakes of dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy were negatively associated with fetal growth, even at intakes below the TWI. © 2013.

  10. Level and characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in feed and feed additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingyun; Ding, Gangdou; Zhou, Zhiguang; Liu, Xun; Wang, Yixiao; Xie, HeidQunhui; Xu, Tuan; Wang, Pu; Zhao, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Feed security is a prerequisite for safe animal food products. In this study, 13 groups of feed and feed ingredients, totaling 2067 samples, were collected in the period of 2011 to 2014 from China. The highest mean level of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) was found in fish meals and shell powders, with a concentration of 60.35ng/kg, followed by mineral origin materials. In terms of the toxicity equivalent concentration, the fish oil group showed the highest PCDD/F levels because of their bio-accumulation through the aquatic food chain, with an average concentration of 1.26ng WHO-TEQ/kg, while the lowest level was observed in compound feed for chickens and pigs, with an average value of 0.16ng WHO-TEQ/kg. OCDD and OCDF were the predominant congeners in all groups except fish oils, in which the primary congeners were 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 2,3,7,8-TCDF. For zinc chloride samples, different from other zinc-based compound samples, the main congeners were 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF (17%), 1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HpCDF (15%), 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF (12%) and OCDF (30%). Considering toxicity equivalency factors, the dominant congeners were 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1, 2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, and the contribution to the total TEQ was 29%, 16%, 14% and 12%, respectively. Overall, 2.1% (43 out of 2067) of all the analyzed samples exceeded the different individual 'European Union maximum limited levels for PCDD/Fs. This study is beneficial for the determination of the status of contamination levels of feed and feed ingredients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. No effects of dioxin singly on limb malformations in macaque monkeys through epidemiological and treated studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaoka, Kazuo; Iida, Hiroko [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Primate Research Insitute, Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry; Watanabe, Kunio [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Primate Research Institute, Field Research Center; Goda, Hiroshi [Towa Kagaku Co., Ltd. (Japan); Ihara, Toshio; Nagata, Ryoichi [Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd. (Japan). Safety Research Facility; Yasuda, Mineo [Hiroshima International Univ. (Japan). Fac. of Health Sciences, Dept. of Clinical Engineering; Kubata, Shunichiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Life Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences

    2004-09-15

    Human populations exposed with highly dioxin were suspected to be caused immunological dysfunctions, carcinogenesis, and developmental and reproductive dysfunctions. Because of species resemblances, the dioxin effects have been investigating using monkeys as a model for assessment of dioxin exposure on human health. Since 1957 the limb malformations of monkeys in Japan have been reported. The higher frequency of them was found in provisional groups of monkeys who were given the same kind of food for human. The chromosomal abnormalities are excluded from the factor for the congenital limb malformations that are still producing in Japan. In this study, the relations between dioxin and the limb malformations of macaque monkeys were estimated by the epidemiological and administered researches. The dioxin levels in monkeys were measured at two districts that one has the provisional groups including monkeys with limb malformations and the other has breeding groups never seeing the malformations for a long time. TEQ was calculated by the levels of dioxin isomers in the monkeys and the values show no difference between the two places and between the individuals with and without the limb malformations. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was administered via subcutaneous to pregnant rhesus monkeys from the day 20 of gestation to the day 90 after birth. The exposed babies, including the offspring and died in neonatal, had observed normal limbs in the range of 30-300 ng TCDD /kg of body weight.

  12. Health risk assessment for polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated naphthalenes in seafood from Guangzhou and Zhoushan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Qinting; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Miyake, Yuichi; Okazawa, Tsuyoshi; Lau, Ridge K.F.; Chen Kun; Wyrzykowska, Barbara; So, M.K.; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Lam, Paul K.S.

    2007-01-01

    This study determined the concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in common seafood in two Chinese coastal cities (Guangzhou and Zhoushan), and assessed the health risk due to the daily consumption of contaminated seafood. Twenty-six pooled samples, belonging to five food categories (fish, bivalves, shrimp, crab, and cephalopods), were purchased from local markets in Guangzhou and Zhoushan in 2003 and 2004. These samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non- and mono-ortho-PCBs (coplanar PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/DFs). The concentrations of total PCBs and coplanar PCBs in fish samples were higher in Guangzhou than in Zhoushan, while the levels of PCNs and PCDDs/DFs were comparable between the two cities. The total daily intake values of dioxin-like compounds were 1.05 and 0.86 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight in Guangzhou and Zhoushan, respectively. Hazard ratios of non-cancer risk in the two cities were all less than unity. - Health risk assessment of organochlorine compounds associated with seafood consumption reveals low health risks for two coastal populations in China

  13. Sources and distribution of polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans in soil and sediment from the Yellow Sea region of China and Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naile, Jonathan E.; Khim, Jong Seong; Wang Tieyu; Wan Yi; Luo Wei; Hu Wenyou; Jiao Wentao; Park, Jinsoon; Ryu, Jongseong; Hong, Seongjin; Jones, Paul D.; Lu Yonglong

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in soils and sediments from the Yellow Sea region. Korean soils and sediments mostly contained detectable PCDD/Fs and showed a widespread distribution among locations. Soil and sedimentary PCDD/Fs from China were comparable to or less than those in Korea. The patterns of relative concentrations of individual congeners in soils were different between the two countries, but similar in sediments. Sources of PCDD/Fs in China and Korea were found to be independent of each other and their distributions reflected matrix-dependent accumulation. Spatial distribution indicated some point sources in Korea while Chinese sources were more widespread and diffuse. PCDD/Fs measured in the coastal areas of the Yellow Sea were comparable to or less than those previously reported in for eastern Asia. However, ΣTEQs in soils and sediments were near to or, in some cases exceeded environmental quality guidelines. - Research highlights: → PCDDs were comparable or greater than PCDFs for Yellow Sea soils and sediments. → PCDD/Fs congener patterns in soils were different but similar in sediments. → PCDD/Fs congener patterns varied among regions reflecting regional activities. → Sources of PCDD/Fs in China and Korea were mainly independent of each other. → ΣTEQs in Yellow Sea soils and sediments often exceeded corresponding guidelines. - PCDD/Fs in soils and sediments along the Yellow Sea indicated both point and non-point sources and their contribution to total TEQs differed among land uses and by regional activities.

  14. Effects of energy conservation in major energy-intensive industrial sectors on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Jing; Lu Yonglong; Wang Tieyu; Giesy, John P.; Chen Chunli

    2010-01-01

    China has set an ambitious target of increasing energy efficiency by 20% and reducing pollution discharges by 10% over the period 2006-2010. Promoting advanced technologies and closing outdated facilities are widely recognized as important measures to achieve these targets. These actions can also indirectly decrease release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The objectives of this paper are to identify and quantify reductions of PCDD/F emissions to air due to measures such as phasing out of obsolete facilities in the four most energy-intensive industrial sectors. Reductions in PCDD/F emissions from power generation were estimated to be 7, 33 and 38 g I-TEQ in 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively. For the cement industry, reductions were estimated to be 680 g I-TEQ between 2007 and 2008, and 740 g I-TEQ between 2009 and 2010. For the iron and steel industry, the reduction was estimated to be 113.3 g I-TEQ over the period 2007-2010, which includes 76.6 g I-TEQ in 2007. For the coke industry, the reduction was estimated to be 68 g I-TEQ in 2007 and 62 g I-TEQ in 2008.

  15. Surface dust criteria for dioxin and dioxin-like compounds for re-entry to buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, J.; Brorby, G.; Warmerdam, J. [Exponent, Oakland, CA (United States); Paustenbach, D. [ChemRisk, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction. Building reentry criteria for dioxin TEQ, as measured by surface wipes, vary greatly, from as low as 1 ng/m{sup 2} to as high as 125 ng/m{sup 2}1. Recently, the World Trade Center Indoor Air Taskforce calculated a reentry criterion of 2 ng TEQ/m{sup 2} for a residential exposure. This number was based on the EPA's draft cancer slope factor (CSF) of 1 x 10{sup 6} (mg/kg-day)-1, and various exposure parameters, dermal absorption values, and a cancer risk criterion of 1 x 10{sup -4}. An indoor 'degradation' parameter was also included in the calculations. However, a single criterion based on a single set of assumptions cannot be universally applied to all sites with contaminated surfaces. Reentry criteria that consider a wider range of exposure scenarios, exposure pathways, bioavailability, and behavioral parameters would be very useful to risk managers who may have to address multiple diverse situations in the coming years. This paper describes our recommended reentry ''building surface'' criteria for four exposure scenarios: (1) adult occupational, (2) adult residential, (3) childhood ''occupational'' (i.e., school), and (4) childhood residential.

  16. Pentachlorophenol from an old henhouse as a dioxin source in eggs and related human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Jadwiga; Strucinski, Pawel; Mikolajczyk, Szczepan; Maszewski, Sebastian; Rachubik, Jaroslaw; Pajurek, Marek

    2016-01-01

    High levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were detected in free-range eggs, and these levels reached a concentration of 29.84 ± 7.45 pg of WHO-TEQ/g of fat. This value exceeded the EU maximum permitted level of 2.5 pg of WHO-TEQ/g of fat for PCDD/F congeners by twelve-fold. A chemical analysis (HRGC-HRMS) revealed elevated amounts of OCDD, OCDF, HxCDD, HpCDD and HpCDF. During the investigation, samples of feed, soil, wall scrapings, wooden ceiling of the henhouse and tissues from laying hens were examined for dioxin contents (30 samples altogether). The long and complicated investigation found that the source of dioxins in the poultry farm was pentachlorophenol-treated wood, which was used as structural components in the 40-year-old farm building adapted to a henhouse. The wooden building material contained PCDD/Fs at a concentration of 3922.60 ± 560.93 pg of WHO-TEQ/g and 11.0 ± 2.8 μg/kg of PCP. The potential risk associated with dioxin intake was characterized by comparing the theoretically calculated weekly and monthly intakes with the toxicological reference values (TRVs), namely the Tolerable Weekly Intake (TWI) and Provisional Tolerable Monthly Intake (PTMI) values of 14 pg of WHO-TEQ/kg of bw and 70 pg of WHO-TEQ/kg of bw, respectively. The intake of dioxins estimated for high egg consumers (approximately 5–6 eggs/week) exceeded the TWI and PTMI values, which may pose a risk of delayed adverse health effects. The estimated dose of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs for children consuming 5 eggs per week exceeded the TWI by as much as 450% because of their nearly 5-fold-lower body weight. Although the dioxin intake estimated for the average consumption of eggs in the general population did not exceed any of the TRVs applied (58.7% TWI and 51.1% PTMI), such a situation should be considered unacceptable from a public health perspective because eggs are not the only source of these contaminants

  17. Towards controlling dioxins emissions from power boilers fuelled with salt-laden wood waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthe, C.; Karidio, I.; Uloth, V.

    1997-01-01

    An evaluation of the dioxins emissions from a power boiler fuelled with salt-laden wood waste has provided insights on potential control technologies. Whereas a reduction in stack particulate levels does not preclude a corresponding reduction in dioxins emissions, good combustion conditions, in combination with an efficient secondary collection device for particulate removal, were found to offer effective control (stack emissions of 0.064 to 0.086 ng TEQ/m 3 ). Regarding minimization of dioxins formation at source, a preliminary assessment of the possible beneficial effect of an attenuated chlorine:sulphur ratio was encouraging. A more accurate assessment requires additional trials, preferably longer in duration, to eliminate any possible memory effects. (author)

  18. Dioxins from medical waste incineration: Normal operation and transient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Yan, Mi; Fu, Jian-ying; Lu, Sheng-yong; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Jian-hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are key pollutants in waste incineration. At present, incinerator managers and official supervisors focus only on emissions evolving during steady-state operation. Yet, these emissions may considerably be raised during periods of poor combustion, plant shutdown, and especially when starting-up from cold. Until now there were no data on transient emissions from medical (or hospital) waste incineration (MWI). However, MWI is reputed to engender higher emissions than those from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). The emission levels in this study recorded for shutdown and start-up, however, were significantly higher: 483 ± 184 ng Nm(-3) (1.47 ± 0.17 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for shutdown and 735 ng Nm(-3) (7.73 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for start-up conditions, respectively. Thus, the average (I-TEQ) concentration during shutdown is 2.6 (3.8) times higher than the average concentration during normal operation, and the average (I-TEQ) concentration during start-up is 4.0 (almost 20) times higher. So monitoring should cover the entire incineration cycle, including start-up, operation and shutdown, rather than optimised operation only. This suggestion is important for medical waste incinerators, as these facilities frequently start up and shut down, because of their small size, or of lacking waste supply. Forthcoming operation should shift towards much longer operating cycles, i.e., a single weekly start-up and shutdown. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Catalytic Filtration: A proven technology for Dioxin emission control from waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.T.; Xu, Zhengtian

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and di benzofurans (PCD/ Fs), in a family of dioxin derivatives with high toxicity, often associated with environmental pollution are the most toxic man made substances, emitted in gas and solid phases during incineration of waste. The threat of dioxin is drawing increasing attention around the world. Governments around the world are phasing in more stringent dioxin emission regulations, and reports about dioxin levels in food products have generated widespread concerns among the public. Issues related to dioxin emissions and disposals are moving up the environmental agenda demanding the most effective and environmentally sound technologies. With heightened public awareness, more stringent regulations, and potential penalties for non-compliance, its more important than ever to avoid the risks associated with inadequate dioxin control. The permissible dioxin emission in most industrial nations is less than 0.1 ng (TEQ)/ Nm 3 and permissible dust emission is from less than 10 to less than 50 mg/ Nm 3 . The common system to remove dioxin is installing an injection process for powdered activated carbon (PAC). This was seen as a proven and widely used technology to control dioxin. This sorbent based system moves dioxin and furan molecules from the gas stream to the solid residue. There are new concerns about existing or future landfill restrictions on the amount and toxicity of sorbent levels in fly ash. Other alternatives are non-flammable additives and catalytic technologies. The non-flammable additives are not proven to control dioxin at temperatures above 200 degree Celsius. Catalytic filter technology can be high initial investment but gaining popularity for operational benefits and reduction of solid residues for landfill. Several criteria are being considered to compare the initial cost of the catalytic filter system and the cost reduction of exhaust gas treatment that can pay for the return of the investment. Field experiences

  20. Prediction of the PCDD/F and dl-PCB 2005-WHO-TEQ content based on the contribution of six congeners: Toward a new screening approach for fish samples?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cariou, Ronan; Marchand, Philippe; Venisseau, Anais; Brosseaud, Aline; Bertrand, Dominique; Qannari, El Mostafa; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Current European Union regulation regarding polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in food and feed is based on Toxic Equivalent Quotient (TEQ) concept. For confirmatory purpose, the isotope-dilution method associated to a measurement by gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry is usually the method of choice for precisely measuring the 29 target congeners in three separated fractions. Time and cost related to these analyses are very significant. Various kinds of screening concepts can be considered. In the present study, we elaborated and validated a prediction model for the 2005 World Health Organization TEQ in fish, based on the measurement of 4 PCDD/F and 2 non-ortho dl-PCB congeners, potentially analyzable in a single extracted fraction by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Large independent datasets have been used for model elaboration (n = 108) and validation (n = 363, n = 357 and n = 6). - This study describes a statistical regression model approach for screening PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in fish.

  1. Assessment on dioxin-like compounds intake from various marine fish from Zhoushan Fishery, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangyong; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Lei; Zhong, Kai; Shang, Xiaohong; Zhao, Yunfeng; Tong, Zhendong; Yu, Xinwei; Li, Jingguang; Wu, Yongning

    2015-01-01

    Sea fish consuming is an important intake source of dioxin-like compounds, especially for the coastal residents. To assess the intake levels of these contaminants from sea fish and to provide risk-based consumption advice, concentrations of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were measured in 32 commonly consumed fish species from Zhoushan Fishery, China. Due to the different accumulation influenced by fat content, feed habits and living zone in the sea area, the levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and dl-PCBs in different fish species varied significantly ranging from 0.002 to 0.078pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight, from 0.002 to 0.553pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight and from 0.003 to 2.059pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight, respectively. Based on mean fish consuming rate in China, the estimated maximum possible dioxin-like compounds intake through different fish species ranged from 0.26 to 65.61pgTEQkg(-1)bwmonth(-1). Bullet mackerel has the highest monthly intake level which was much higher than other fish species and very close to the provisional tolerable monthly intake (70pgTEQkg(-)(1)bwmonth(-)(1)) proposed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Hence, comparing to other fish species, the consumption of Bullet mackerel from Zhoushan Fishery should be cautious to reduce the potential health risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Značaj emisije polikloriranih dibenzo-p-dioksina i dibenzofurana iz procesa proizvodnje željeza i čelika (Importance of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans Emissions from Iron and Steel Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmit, Z.

    2006-12-01

    dibenzo-p-dioxins(PCDDs, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs. These compounds are the least explored of all known pollutions generated in the metallurgical processes, in terms of the impact of their emissions to the environment.The paper provides elementary toxicity data for these compounds and a survey of reference data on the currently completed listings of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in the world and in Croatia, illustrating that the metallurgical process account for most of the total emission of these compounds into the environment.Based on the experience of the developed countries that are at the same time the largest iron and steel producers, we calculated an estimate of potential emissions of dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from metallurgical processes in Croatia. The calculation took into account the coking processes, iron ore sintering processes, pig iron production, cast iron, openhearth steel and EAF steel production.The estimated total emission of dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from metallurgical processes to the environment in the time period between 1990 and 2000 in Croatia was m = 3.987 g I-TEQ and annual emission in the same period ranged from QI-TEQ= 1.284 g a-1 in 1990 to QI-TEQ = 0.153 g a-1 in 1995.Emissions of these compounds from metallurgical processes that were active in less recent past were also calculated and the values in the time period between 1960 and 2000 ranged from m =2.888 g I-TEQ in 1980 to m = 0.153 g I-TEQ in 1995.Based on the data on the existing facilities for steel production in electric arc furnaces we estimated that annual emission of dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans could amount to QI-TEQ ~ 0.260 g a-1, whereas the future emission of these compounds from the existing cast iron facilities could be QI-TEQ ~ 0.100 g a-1.In the research follow-up for the impact of metallurgical processes on the overall emission of these compounds

  3. Dioxin in Danish air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikelsoe, J.; Andersen, H.V. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-09-15

    To gain more knowledge about dioxin levels, sources and emissions in Denmark, the Danish government year 2001 initiated the Danish Dioxin Monitoring Program. The program is a series of investigations, comprising soil, compost, percolate, bio-ash, incineration of municipal and hazardous waste, deposition, air, lake and fjord sediment as well as cows milk and human milk. The present paper describes the preliminary results for the continued investigation of air. Deposition of dioxin over land or sea is of major importance for the human exposure, which takes place mainly from food intake. The dioxin are emitted mainly to the atmosphere, therefore air measurements are well suited for tracking the transport and fate of dioxin from sources to exposure. Whereas measurements from chimneys has been frequently used to estimate the industrial emission from point sources such as incinerators, air measurements also include emission from diffuse sources such as larger urban or industrial regions, residential quarters, and from evaporation. Furthermore, emission measurements must be done on known sources, whereas air measurements include contribution from unknown source. The major drawbacks of air measurements are the long duration required (years), and the results depends on meteorological conditions, such as temperature, rainfall, wind speed and direction. The purpose of the present study has been to measure dioxins in Danish air, emphasizing - background concentrations and annual variation - difference between urban, rural and residential zones - influence from local sources and long range transport - connection between dioxin in air and deposition.

  4. PCB and Dioxin content of Swedish waste fuels; PCB- och dioxininnehaall i svenska avfallsbraenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, Evalena (Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)) (and others)

    2009-06-15

    Reported dioxin data in the literature presents a rather large variation, 1-255 ng I-TEQ/kg, among different municipal solid waste (MSW) mixture samples taken within different countries. However the variation is not only large between different countries, a significant variation is reported within each study as well. Results that shows the importance of using reliable and representative sampling methods. The majority of the reported dioxin levels is within 4 to 45 ng I-TEQ/kg waste. In some of the reported studies the dioxin content has as well been analysed in sources-sorted fractions. The majority, 90-95%, of the detected dioxins were found in the fraction consisting of textiles and leather. This study aims to analyse the amount and variations, of the toxic dioxin and PCB congeners within a typical MSW mixture in Sweden, before it is energy recovered in a waste incineration plant. The study includes 20 samples, taken from two different plants in Sweden i.e. Renova and Boraas Energi och Miljoe, during 2007/2008. A well evaluated sampling method were used at both plants to achieve representative samples. Each sampling campaign resulted in a 30 kg sample that was transported in sealed containers to a laboratory. The heat value and a complete determination of the elementary content was analysed as well as the levels of toxic dioxins and PCBs in all samples. All results, both organic and inorganic, were rather similar between the two incineration plants. The resemblance within the results is an outcome of that good and representative sampling method has been used during the sampling campaigns. The average value (+/- standard deviation) of all 20 samples is 29 +/-15 ng I-TEQ per kilo of dry MSW. An average value which is within the lower range of the previous reported levels in the literature. The lower dioxin content within Swedish MSW mixtures is most likely due to the relative well-controlled waste management and sorting system in Sweden. The majority of the

  5. Study of dioxin and dioxin-like PCB levels in fatty fish from Sweden 2000-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankarberg, E.; Bjerselius, R.; Aune, M.; Darnerud, P.O.; Larsson, L.; Andersson, A.; Toernkvist, A.; Glynn, A. [Swedish National Food Administration, Research and Development Dept., Uppsala (Sweden); Tysklind, M.; Bergek, S. [Environmental Chemistry, Umea Univ. (Sweden); Lundstedt-Enkel, K. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); Karlsson, L. [Inst. of Freshwater Research, National Board of Fisheries, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    The levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in fatty fish from the Baltic Sea area are still of major concern in Sweden, although the levels have decreased in Baltic Sea biota since the 1970. During later years this decrease seems to have leveled off, and at least dioxin levels in Baltic herring seem to be more or less the same during the last 10 years period. Harmonised EU maximum levels have been established for PCDD/Fs in fish and fishery products for human consumption, and the maximum level is 4 pg WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ/g fresh weight. Certain fatty fish species in the Baltic Sea are shown to have levels of PCDD/Fs exceeding the maximum level. However, because of protective dietary advice, Sweden and Finland have an exemption from the Council regulation that allows national marketing of fish and fishery products that exceed the maximum level for PCDD/F. For dioxin-like PCBs, common EU maximum levels have not yet been established. However, during 2004 the Commission will review the present maximum levels for dioxins in the light of new data, with a particular aim to include dioxin-like PCBs. The Swedish National Food Administration (NFA) has undertaken a survey to analyse the concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in fatty fish in the Baltic Sea area. The study presents results from analyses of eel (Anguilla anguilla), salmon (Salmo salar), brown trout (Salmo trutta), whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), herring (Clupea harengus), sprat (Sprattus sprattus), cod (Gadus morhua callarias) and vendace (roe) (from Coregonus albula) from several locations in the Baltic Sea. This study reports the fifth part of the results from the analyses. The entire study is available on www.slv.se as interim reports 1-5.

  6. Dioxin body burden of persons living near incinerators and sintering plants: results from Belgium; Evaluation de la charge corporelle en dioxines des riverains d'incinerateurs et de la siderurgie: resultats d'une etude realisee en Belgique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierens, S.; Bernard, A. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Unite de Toxicologie Industrielle et de Medecine du Travail, Faculte de Medecine, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Focant, J.F.; Eppe, G.; Pauw, E. de [Liege Univ., Lab. de Spectrometrie de Masse (CART) (Belgium)

    2005-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact on local residents' exposure to dioxines and coplanar PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) of two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI), one in an industrial area and the other in a rural zone, and two sintering plants, all located in Wallonia (Belgium). In all, 142 volunteers subjects living around these facilities and 63 volunteer referents from an unpolluted rural area were recruited and compared. They completed a self-administered questionnaire that furnished information about dietary habits, smoking habits, anthropometric characteristics, residential history and health status. They also provided blood samples under fasting conditions so that the body burden of dioxines (17 PCDD/Fs congeners) and coplanar PCBs could be assessed. After adjustment for co-variates determined by multiple linear regression analysis, serum concentrations of dioxines and coplanar PCBs in subjects living in the vicinity of the MSWI in the industrial area and of the sintering plants were similar to those of referents. In contrast, subjects living in the vicinity of the rural MSWI had significantly higher serum levels of dioxines (geometric mean, 38 vs 24 pg TEQ/g fat, p{<=}0.0001) and coplanar PCBs (geometric mean, 10.8 vs 7.0 pg TEQ/g fat, p{<=}0.05). Age-adjusted dioxin levels in referents did not vary with local animal fat consumption, but dioxin concentrations in subjects living around the MSWIs correlated positively with their intake of local animal fat, with levels almost doubled in subjects with the highest intake. These results show that the dioxines and coplanar PCBs emitted by MSWIs can indeed accumulate in the body of residents who consume animal products of local origin. (authors)

  7. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in marine fish from Shandong, China, and human dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yanping; Jiang, Dafeng; Li, Fenghua; Chen, Jindong; Li, Wei; Jiao, Yanni; Li, Lu

    2018-05-22

    The occurrence and human dietary exposure of 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in 41 marine fish samples from Shandong Province of China were investigated. The DL-PCB congeners were extracted using automated Soxhlet extraction, purified via a composite column cleanup procedure and analyzed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. DL-PCB congeners were found in all analyzed samples, with a mean concentration of 0.887 ng/g ww (wet weight). The TEQ concentrations of DL-PCBs in individual fish samples ranged from 0.011 to 9.214 pg WHO TEQ/g ww. The mean dietary intake for all fish species was 36.5 pg TEQ/kg bw/month, which was lower than the provisional tolerable monthly intake of 70 pg TEQ/kg bw/month set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. To monitor the trend of DL-PCBs in fish for food safety control it is necessary to maintain a surveillance program.

  8. Relative effect potency estimates of dioxin-like activity for dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like PCBs in adults based on two thyroid outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnovec, Tomáš; Jusko, Todd A; Šovčíková, Eva; Lancz, Kinga; Chovancová, Jana; Patayová, Henrieta; Palkovičová, L'ubica; Drobná, Beata; Langer, Pavel; Van den Berg, Martin; Dedik, Ladislav; Wimmerová, Soňa

    2013-08-01

    Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) are an important component in the risk assessment of dioxin-like human exposures. At present, this concept is based mainly on in vivo animal experiments using oral dosage. Consequently, the current human TEFs derived from mammalian experiments are applicable only for exposure situations in which oral ingestion occurs. Nevertheless, these "intake" TEFs are commonly-but incorrectly-used by regulatory authorities to calculate "systemic" toxic equivalents (TEQs) based on human blood and tissue concentrations, which are used as biomarkers for either exposure or effect. We sought to determine relative effect potencies (REPs) for systemic human concentrations of dioxin-like mixture components using thyroid volume or serum free thyroxine (FT4) concentration as the outcomes of interest. We used a benchmark concentration and a regression-based approach to compare the strength of association between each dioxin-like compound and the thyroid end points in 320 adults residing in an organochlorine-polluted area of eastern Slovakia. REPs calculated from thyroid volume and FT4 were similar. The regression coefficient (β)-derived REP data from thyroid volume and FT4 level were correlated with the World Health Organization (WHO) TEF values (Spearman r = 0.69, p = 0.01 and r = 0.62, p = 0.03, respectively). The calculated REPs were mostly within the minimum and maximum values for in vivo REPs derived by other investigators. Our REPs calculated from thyroid end points realistically reflect human exposure scenarios because they are based on chronic, low-dose human exposures and on biomarkers reflecting body burden. Compared with previous results, our REPs suggest higher sensitivity to the effects of dioxin-like compounds.

  9. The influence of maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy on ADHD symptoms and cognitive functions in Norwegian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Ida Henriette; Aase, Heidi; Biele, Guido; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Skogan, Annette Holth; Zeiner, Pål; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Knutsen, Helle K

    2016-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (dioxins) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with potentially adverse impact on child neurodevelopment. Whether the potential detrimental effects of dioxins and PCBs on neurodevelopment are of specific or unspecific character is not clear. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs on ADHD symptoms and cognitive functioning in preschoolers. We aimed to investigate a range of functions, in particular IQ, expressive language, and executive functions. This study includes n=1024 children enrolled in a longitudinal prospective study of ADHD (the ADHD Study), with participants recruited from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Boys and girls aged 3.5years participated in extensive clinical assessments using well-validated tools; The Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment interview (PAPA), Stanford-Binet 5th revision (SB-5), Child Development Inventory (CDI), and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Preschool version (BRIEF-P). Maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs was estimated based on a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) answered mid-pregnancy and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian foods. Exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-compounds) was expressed in total toxic equivalents (TEQ), and PCB-153 was used as marker for non-dioxin-like PCBs (ndl-PCBs). Generalized linear and additive models adjusted for confounders were used to examine exposure-outcome associations. Exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compound was not significantly associated with any of the outcome measures when analyses were performed for boys and girls together. After stratifying by sex, adjusted analyses indicated a small inverse association with language in girls. An increase in the exposure variables of 1 SD was associated with a reduction in language score of -0.2 [CI -0.4, -0

  10. Serum dioxin concentration and age at Menarche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, M.; Samuels, S.; Eskenazi, B. [Univ. of California at Berkeley (United States); Mocarelli, P.; Gerthoux, P.M. [Univ. of Milano-Biococca (Italy); Needham, L.; Patterson, D. Jr. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States)

    2004-09-15

    To date, no epidemiologic studies have examined the association of TCDD exposure and age at menarche. Three studies, however, have examined the relation of dioxin-like compounds to pubertal development, with inconsistent conclusions. A study of daughters of Michigan women who had consumed polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) in food in 1973, found an earlier age at menarche among daughters whose mothers had higher serum PBB levels 8. No differences were found in age at menarche of Taiwanese women who were exposed postnatally (but premenarche) to PCBs and PCDFs via consumption of contaminated rice oil (Yu-Cheng) compared to unexposed 9. In Flemish adolescents, there was no relation of age at menarche with current serum levels of dioxin-like compounds as measured by Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression bioassay toxic equivalents (CALUX-TEQ) or individual PCB congeners 118, 153, and 180 10. On July 10, 1976, as a result of a chemical explosion, residents of Seveso, Italy experienced the highest levels of TCDD exposure in a human population. Twenty years later (1996-1998), the Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS), a retrospective cohort study, was initiated to determine whether the women were at higher risk for reproductive disease. Among participants in SWHS, we have observed that TCDD levels are associated with an increase in menstrual cycle length among those who were premenarcheal at exposure, but not in those who were postmenarcheal at exposure 11. Consistent with animal studies 12, this suggests that females may be particularly susceptible to the effects of TCDD during early stages of development, e.g. in utero or pre-pubertal. Thus, here we examine the association of individual serum TCDD and age of menarche among women who were premenarcheal in 1976, at the time of explosion.

  11. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 on development of 'technology to promote reduction of discharge of dioxins and development of technology to suppress discharge of dioxins in aluminum product manufacturing processes'; 1999 nendo dioxine rui haishutsu sakugen sokushin gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Aluminium seihin seizo kotei ni okeru dioxin rui no haishutsu yokusei seigyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development has been performed with an objective to reduce discharge of dioxins in aluminum product manufacturing processes. With regard to the quantity of chlorine used in aluminum molten metal refining process, the refining tests using 100% chlorine gas and the mixed gas (nitrogen gas mixed at 80%) revealed that either gas has approximately the same degassing performance, and the use of the mixed gas can reduce the amount of chlorine used. Dioxin concentrations in the gas discharged from the refining process were measured under the refining condition using less amount of chlorine. As a result, it was verified that, in the case of using 20% chlorine gas plus 80% nitrogen gas, the concentrations of dioxins decrease to about l/6, or 0.6 ng-TEQ/N{sup 3}. The studies on suppressing the discharge of dioxins from the facility to wash chlorine treatment exhaust gas discovered that dioxin concentration in the scrubber circulating solution can be suppressed to 1/10 or less by means of gravity precipitation and separation of the suspended liquid. It was also made clear that pH should preferably be controlled to 10.5 to separate suspended substances from the precipitated solution. (NEDO)

  12. PCDD/F, dioxin-like and markers PCBs in trouts from French aquaculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, P.; Matayron, G.; Gade, C.; Le Bizec, B.; Andre, F. [LABERCA-ENVN, Nantes (France)

    2004-09-15

    Since the introduction of 12 ''dioxin-like'' polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into the assessment of a tolerable daily intake (TDI) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1998, the analytical determination of nonand mono-ortho PCBs is of increasing interest in the scientific community. The European Commission has already published a regulation that sets maximum limits for dioxins in foodstuffs (Council Regulation 2375/01/EC amending Commission regulation (EC) N 466/2001 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs). As an additional feature of the reduction strategy for this group of compounds, the European Commission has planned to include the dioxinlike PCBs in the limit values for food and feeding stuffs starting at the end of 2004. The LABERCA (French National Reference Laboratory for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs)) and the CIPA (French Interprofessional Committee for Aquaculture products) reported levels in French farmed trout according to WHO-TEQ expression and sum of Markers PCBs (m-PCBs). It must be emphasized that this survey only represents a snapshot in time. The results cannot be used to determine the potential contamination of other batches that have not been tested. However, the fish samples were taken from 58 aquaculture sites and 10 fishes were pooled from each site. It is the reason why the results can be interpreted as a good indicative of the contamination levels in farmed trout produced in France.

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 on development of technology to promote reduction of discharge of dioxins. Development of technology to reduce discharge of dioxins in steel manufacturing processes; 1999 nendo dioxin rui haishutsu sakugen sokushin gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Seiko kotei ni okeru dioxin rui haishutsu sakugen gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development has been performed on a scrap melting process to make dioxins emission concentration to 0.2 ng-TEQ/Nm{sup 3} or less in steel making electric furnaces. The testing facility is of semi-sealed structure, consisting of an arc dissolution furnace, an exhaust gas combustion section, an auxiliary combustion chamber, and a quenching chamber. In the arc dissolution chamber, oxygen and coke are blown in at the same time as turning the arc power supply on, and then secondary combustion air was blown in to burn carbon monoxide gas generated from steel melting. The temperature was raised to about 850 degrees C at which dioxins are decomposed in the auxiliary combustion chamber, and then quenched to 200 degrees C or lower in the quenching chamber to prevent recombination of dioxins. As a result of the test, the exhaust gas temperature after the combustion was estimated to have reached about 900 degrees C at which dioxins are decomposed. In addition, because it was possible to control the exhaust gas temperature at the outlet of the auxiliary combustion chamber to about 850 degrees C and the exhaust gas temperature at the outlet of the quenching chamber to 200 degrees C or lower, the dioxins concentration at the outlet of the quenching chamber was reduced successfully to the targeted value or lower. (NEDO)

  14. Concentrations of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feed materials in the Netherlands, 2001-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamse, Paulien; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; Schoss, Stefanie; de Jong, Jacob; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain insights into contamination of feed materials used in the Netherlands with dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Monitoring results from the period 2001-11, covering in total 4938 samples, were statistically analysed and evaluated against the statutory limits set at the beginning or during this period. The percentage of samples exceeding maximum levels set within the European Union for either dioxins or the sum of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs were below 1% for most feed categories, except for fish meal (4.1%), clay minerals (binders and anti-caking agents) (3.4%), and vegetable oils and byproducts (1.7%). For most feed categories, non-compliance with the action threshold (roughly 33% lower than maximum levels) for either dioxins or dioxin-like PCBs was up to three times higher than non-compliance with the respective maximum levels. Exceedance of action thresholds was just above 1% for animal fat, pre-mixtures and feed materials of plant origin excluding vegetable oils. For the categories fish meal, clay minerals, and vegetable oils and byproducts, the action thresholds were exceeded by 5.0%, 9.8% and 3.0% of the samples, respectively. In general, the percentages of samples that exceeded the action thresholds and maximum levels were lower than those reported for the European Union by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). In most of the feed materials, there seems to be a decreasing trend in concentrations of dioxins or dioxin-like PCBs over the years. However, a lowering of the limits of quantification during this period and the low concentrations in most samples precludes drawing strong conclusions.

  15. An assessment of dioxin contamination from the intermittent operation of a municipal waste incinerator in Japan and associated remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Nobuo; Takaoka, Masaki

    2013-04-01

    Significant dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs)) pollution from a municipal solid waste incinerator was discovered in 1997 in Osaka prefecture/Japan. The cause and mechanism of pollution was identified by a detailed assessment of the environment and incinerator plant. The primary sources of PCDD/PCDF pollution were high dioxin releases from an intermittently operated waste incinerator with PCDD/PCDF emissions of 150 ng-TEQ/Nm(3). PCDD/PCDF also accumulated in the wet scrubber system (3,000 μg TEQ/L) by adsorption and water recirculation in the incinerator. Scrubber water was air-cooled with a cooling tower located on the roof of the incinerator. High concentrations of dioxins in the cooling water were released as aerosols into the surrounding and caused heavy soil pollution in the area near the plant. These emissions were considered as the major contamination pathway from the plant. Decontamination and soil remediation in and around the incinerator plant were conducted using a variety of destruction technologies (including incineration, photochemical degradation and GeoMelt technology). Although the soil remediation process was successfully finished in December 2006 about 3% of the waste still remains. The case demonstrates that releases from incinerators which do not use best available technology or which are not operated according to best environmental practices can contaminate their operators and surrounding land. This significant pollution had a large impact on the Japanese government's approach toward controlling dioxin pollution. Since this incident, a ministerial conference on dioxins has successfully strengthened control measures.

  16. Dioxins and PCBs in feed and food--review from European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malisch, Rainer; Kotz, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    During the 1990s, a number of adverse contamination incidents focussed the attention of the media and the general public on food safety. This led to the evaluation of safety measures with regard to dioxin intake from food. Important aspects regarding dioxins and PCBs in the food chain are reviewed here, allowing a contextual understanding of the present situation through its chronological developments. About 90-98% of the average exposure of humans to dioxins and PCBs results from dietary intake, with food of animal origin being the predominant source. Therefore, animal feed contributes considerably to the presence of these compounds in food. The detection of the "real" source of a contamination event in the food chain is a complex scientific problem and requires specific knowledge on production processes and changes of patterns during bioaccumulation. This is demonstrated by complex investigations performed in three studies on two continents to identify the source (e.g. from contamination of cow's milk in Germany, to citrus pulp pellets from Brazil as an ingredient in feed, then to contaminated lime for neutralization and finally to a landfill with residues of vinyl chloride monomer production). This example shows also the substantial economic losses resulting from incidents in the food chain and the consequences to global trade. In 2001, the EU Scientific Committee on Food established a group tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight and concluded that a considerable proportion of the European population would exceed this TWI. On the global level, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) provides scientific advice to the Codex Alimentarius Commission and therefore contributes to harmonized international food standards. In its evaluation of 2001, JECFA derived a provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of 70 pg TEQ/kg body weight. The sum of the median intake of PCDD/F-TEQ and PCB-TEQ exceeded the PTMI in Western European

  17. Dioxins and PCBs in feed and food — Review from European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malisch, Rainer; Kotz, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    During the 1990s, a number of adverse contamination incidents focussed the attention of the media and the general public on food safety. This led to the evaluation of safety measures with regard to dioxin intake from food. Important aspects regarding dioxins and PCBs in the food chain are reviewed here, allowing a contextual understanding of the present situation through its chronological developments. About 90–98% of the average exposure of humans to dioxins and PCBs results from dietary intake, with food of animal origin being the predominant source. Therefore, animal feed contributes considerably to the presence of these compounds in food. The detection of the “real” source of a contamination event in the food chain is a complex scientific problem and requires specific knowledge on production processes and changes of patterns during bioaccumulation. This is demonstrated by complex investigations performed in three studies on two continents to identify the source (e.g. from contamination of cow's milk in Germany, to citrus pulp pellets from Brazil as an ingredient in feed, then to contaminated lime for neutralization and finally to a landfill with residues of vinyl chloride monomer production). This example shows also the substantial economic losses resulting from incidents in the food chain and the consequences to global trade. In 2001, the EU Scientific Committee on Food established a group tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight and concluded that a considerable proportion of the European population would exceed this TWI. On the global level, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) provides scientific advice to the Codex Alimentarius Commission and therefore contributes to harmonized international food standards. In its evaluation of 2001, JECFA derived a provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of 70 pg TEQ/kg body weight. The sum of the median intake of PCDD/F-TEQ and PCB-TEQ exceeded the PTMI in

  18. Dioxins and PCBs in feed and food — Review from European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malisch, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.malisch@cvuafr.bwl.de; Kotz, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    During the 1990s, a number of adverse contamination incidents focussed the attention of the media and the general public on food safety. This led to the evaluation of safety measures with regard to dioxin intake from food. Important aspects regarding dioxins and PCBs in the food chain are reviewed here, allowing a contextual understanding of the present situation through its chronological developments. About 90–98% of the average exposure of humans to dioxins and PCBs results from dietary intake, with food of animal origin being the predominant source. Therefore, animal feed contributes considerably to the presence of these compounds in food. The detection of the “real” source of a contamination event in the food chain is a complex scientific problem and requires specific knowledge on production processes and changes of patterns during bioaccumulation. This is demonstrated by complex investigations performed in three studies on two continents to identify the source (e.g. from contamination of cow's milk in Germany, to citrus pulp pellets from Brazil as an ingredient in feed, then to contaminated lime for neutralization and finally to a landfill with residues of vinyl chloride monomer production). This example shows also the substantial economic losses resulting from incidents in the food chain and the consequences to global trade. In 2001, the EU Scientific Committee on Food established a group tolerable weekly intake (TWI) of 14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight and concluded that a considerable proportion of the European population would exceed this TWI. On the global level, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) provides scientific advice to the Codex Alimentarius Commission and therefore contributes to harmonized international food standards. In its evaluation of 2001, JECFA derived a provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) of 70 pg TEQ/kg body weight. The sum of the median intake of PCDD/F-TEQ and PCB-TEQ exceeded the PTMI in

  19. Estimation of Freely-Dissolved Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, 2,3,7,8-Substituted Congeners and Homologs of Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Water for Development of Total Maximum Daily Loadings for the Bluestone River Watershed, Virginia and West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, working closely with the State of West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is undertaking a polychlorinated biphenyl source assessment study for the Bluestone River watershed. The study area extends from the Bluefield area of Virginia and West Virginia, targets the Bluestone River and tributaries suspected of contributing to polychlorinated biphenyl, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran contamination, and includes sites near confluences of Big Branch, Brush Fork, and Beaver Pond Creek. The objectives of this study were to gather information about the concentrations, patterns, and distribution of these contaminants at specific study sites to expand current knowledge about polychlorinated biphenyl impacts and to identify potential new sources of contamination. Semipermeable membrane devices were used to integratively accumulate the dissolved fraction of the contaminants at each site. Performance reference compounds were added prior to deployment and used to determine site-specific sampling rates, enabling estimations of time-weighted average water concentrations during the deployed period. Minimum estimated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in water were about 1 picogram per liter per congener, and total concentrations at study sites ranged from 130 to 18,000 picograms per liter. The lowest concentration was 130 picograms per liter, about threefold greater than total hypothetical concentrations from background levels in field blanks. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in water fell into three groups of sites: low (130-350 picogram per liter); medium (640-3,500 picogram per liter; and high (11,000-18,000 picogram per liter). Concentrations at the high sites, Beacon Cave and Beaverpond Branch at the Resurgence, were about four- to sixfold higher than concentrations estimated for the medium group of sites

  20. Citizen participatory dioxin monitoring campaign by pine needles as biomonitor of ambient air dioxin pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komichi, I.; Takatori, A. [Environmental Research Institute Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Aoyama, T. [Musashi Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Environment and Informations; Vrzic, B. [Maxxam Analytics Inc. HRMS Laboratory, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    The needle-type leaves of Japanese black pine trees (hereafter abbreviated as pine needles) have been used as an effective bio-monitor of ambient air pollution. Miyata Laboratory of Setsunan University has reported that the pine needles accumulate PCDDs and PCDFs (hereafter abbreviated as D/F) through photosynthesis and respiration during their lifetime. On the basis of this study, we have revealed the correlation between ambient air and pine needle concentrations to be estimated at or near 1:10 by analyzing long term continuous ambient dioxin monitoring data and that of pine needles sampled from the same area as ambient air in the Kanagawa Prefecture in 1999. Since then, the citizen groups of each local area all over Japan have started monitoring the ambient air dioxin concentration levels by using pine needles. Samples analyzed during these 5 years totaled more than 650 throughout Japan. The results of these citizen participatory environmental monitoring activities are the tremendous effects achieved in reducing the dioxin levels. This occurs through observation of the dioxin emission sources such as Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Plants as well as the Industrial Waste Incineration plants, which exist in numbers exceeding several thousands in Japan. This short paper will present the results of 56 municipalities of western Japan where ambient air dioxin levels have improved steadily against local averages during these 5 years.

  1. Evaluation and interconversion of various indicator PCB schemes for ∑PCB and dioxin-like PCB toxic equivalent levels in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Reiner, Eric J; Chen, Tony; Morse, Dave; Arhonditsis, George B; Drouillard, Ken G

    2015-01-06

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remain chemicals of concern more than three decades after the ban on their production. Technical mixture-based total PCB measurements are unreliable due to weathering and degradation, while detailed full congener specific measurements can be time-consuming and costly for large studies. Measurements using a subset of indicator PCBs (iPCBs) have been considered appropriate; however, inclusion of different PCB congeners in various iPCB schemes makes it challenging to readily compare data. Here, using an extensive data set, we examine the performance of existing iPCB3 (PCB 138, 153, and 180), iPCB6 (iPCB3 plus 28, 52, and 101) and iPCB7 (iPCB6 plus 118) schemes, and new iPCB schemes in estimating total of PCB congeners (∑PCB) and dioxin-like PCB toxic equivalent (dlPCB-TEQ) concentrations in sport fish fillets and the whole body of juvenile fish. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) for regressions conducted using logarithmically transformed data suggest that inclusion of an increased number of PCBs in an iPCB improves relationship with ∑PCB but not dlPCB-TEQs. Overall, novel iPCB3 (PCB 95, 118, and 153), iPCB4 (iPCB3 plus 138) and iPCB5 (iPCB4 plus 110) presented in this study and existing iPCB6 and iPCB7 are the most optimal indicators, while the current iPCB3 should be avoided. Measurement of ∑PCB based on a more detailed analysis (50+ congeners) is also overall a good approach for assessing PCB contamination and to track PCB origin in fish. Relationships among the existing and new iPCB schemes have been presented to facilitate their interconversion. The iPCB6 equiv levels for the 6.5 and 10 pg/g benchmarks of dlPCB-TEQ05 are about 50 and 120 ng/g ww, respectively, which are lower than the corresponding iPCB6 limits of 125 and 300 ng/g ww set by the European Union.

  2. Global deposition of airborne dioxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Shawn; Hui, Joe; Alojado, Zoraida; Lam, Vicky; Cheung, William; Zeller, Dirk; Steyn, Douw; Pauly, Daniel

    2013-10-15

    We present a global dioxin model that simulates one year of atmospheric emissions, transport processes, and depositions to the earth's terrestrial and marine habitats. We map starting emission levels for each land area, and we also map the resulting deposits to terrestrial and marine environments. This model confirms that 'hot spots' of deposition are likely to be in northern Europe, eastern North America, and in parts of Asia with the highest marine dioxin depositions being the northeast and northwest Atlantic, western Pacific, northern Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean. It also reveals that approximately 40% of airborne dioxin emissions are deposited to marine environments and that many countries in Africa receive more dioxin than they produce, which results in these countries being disproportionately impacted. Since human exposure to dioxin is largely through diet, this work highlights food producing areas that receive higher atmospheric deposits of dioxin than others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Low-temperature thermal decomposition of dioxin-like compounds in fly ash: combination of chemical analysis with in vitro bioassays (EROD and DR-CALUX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnisch, Peter A; Hosoe, Kazunori; Shiozaki, Ken; Ozaki, Hironori; Nakamura, Kazuo; Sakai, Shin-Ichi

    2002-12-01

    To investigate the dechlorination of fly ash during low-temperature treatment under oxygen-deficient conditions (thermocatalyic treatment or Hagenmaier process), six fly ash samples from six different incineration plants were treated in a laboratory experiment or in the actual plant, either under ideal (400 degrees C, 120 min) or intermediate (300 degrees C, 30 min) conditions. The aim of the present study was to confirm the decrease in the I-TEQ (international toxicity equivalency) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans (PCDD/Fs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (co-PXBs) and, also for the first time, the decrease in the sum of dioxin-like toxicity (bioassay- or bio-TEQ) of all kinds of other dioxin-like Ah receptor agonists (such as PXDD/Fs, PXBs, PXN, X = Br, F) measured by two state-of-the-art cell-based Ah receptor-dependent bioassays: H4IIE-Ethoxy-Resorufin-o-Deethylase (EROD) and H4IIE-luc/DR-Chemical Activated Luciferase expression (DR-CALUX). The treatment efficiency was calculated on the basis of the reduction in the I-TEQ and bio-TED values. For these fly ash samples, the treatment efficiency, as measured by chemical analysis, was higher than 99%, and 85%-99%, in the case of the bio-TED values, indicating that these Ah receptor binding toxic compounds were sufficiently decomposed. Bio-TEQ values for untreated fly ash samples (n = 6) were on average 1.2 times (range 0.7-1.9), for the H4IIE-EROD assay, and 2.8 times (1.1-4.9), for the DR-CALUX assay, higher than I-TEQ values measured by chemical analyses (sum of PCDD/Fs and co-PCBs). In the case of these fly ash samples treated under ideal conditions and therefore low in contaminants, the bio-TEQ values were on average 1.4 times (range 0.9-1.8), for the H4IIE-EROD assay, and 5.1 times (range 1.2-12), for the DR-CALUX assay, higher than the I-TEQ values.

  4. The detection of dioxin- and estrogen-like pollutants in marine and freshwater fishes cultivated in Pearl River Delta, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, X.; Ching, L.Y. [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Cheng, S.H. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wong, M.H. [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Croucher institute of Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wong, Chris K.C., E-mail: ckcwong@hkbu.edu.h [Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Croucher institute of Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-06-15

    In this study we aimed to assess the dioxin- and estrogen-like activities of contaminants extracted from twenty species of freshwater and seawater fishes, using luciferase reporter assays. Transfected MCF7 cells were treated with sample extracts and luciferase activities were then measured at 24-h of post-treatment. The mean values of the detected dioxin- and estrogen-like activities in the freshwater fishes were 25.3 pg TEQ/g ww and 102.3 pM EEQ/g ww whereas in the seawater fishes, the values were 46.2 pg TEQ/g ww and 118.8 pM EEQ/g ww. Using sample-relevant dosage of estrogen, inductions of cell proliferation markers (i.e. retinoblastoma, cyclin D) and stimulations of cell growth were revealed by Western blotting, colony formation and BrdU uptake assays. A cotreatment with TCDD significantly reduced these effects. Using the sample extracts with different dioxin- and estrogen-like activities, similar observation was revealed. The data highlighted the mixture effect of food contaminants on human health. - The data reveals the potential risk of dietary intake of endocrine-disrupting chemicals.

  5. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in home-produced eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Ten Dam, Guillaume; van Bruggen, Mark; Jeurissen, Suzanne M F; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Theelen, Rob M C; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2016-05-01

    Home produced eggs from 62 addresses in the Netherlands were investigated for the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs), both dioxin-like (dl) and non-dioxin-like (ndl). Compared to commercial eggs, levels were relatively high with a median of 4.6 pg TEQ g(-1) fat for the sum of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and a highest level of 18.9 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. A number of samples showed clearly elevated ndl-PCB levels with a median of 13 ng g(-1) fat and a highest level of 80 ng g(-1) fat. There were no clear regional differences, even though part of the samples were derived from the rather industrial Rotterdam/Rijnmond area. Based on the congener patterns, former backyard burning of waste seems the most likely source for most eggs, with two exceptions where other sources contributed to the contamination. Similar is true for the ndl-PCBs. The study shows that average levels are about ten-fold higher than commercial eggs and may substantially contribute to the intake of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs by consumers. Intervention measures to reduce the intake of these contaminants by laying hens are advised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Soil dioxins levels at agriculture sites and natural preserve areas of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Jin-juh; Lin, Kae-Long; Chung, Jen-Chir; Liaw, Shu-Liang

    2007-08-17

    In this study, agriculture soil in Taiwan has been sampled and analyzed to determine the background level of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/DF) in the agricultural and nature preserve areas. Another objective is to investigate relationship between soil characteristics and air deposition in Taiwan. The results indicate that in nature preserve areas the topsoil shows an extraordinary profile of PCDD/DF compared to that in the air deposition. The PCDD/DF levels of the low-contaminated agricultural soils are compatible with those of the nature preserves soils. However, in the highly-contaminated agricultural soils, there is an abrupt jump in their concentrations, 10-100 times higher. The overall I-TEQ values of the background topsoils range from 0.101 to 15.2 ng I-TEQ/kg. Near industrial/urban areas in Taiwan the PCDD/DF are slightly higher compared to those in the low concentration group. Typically, the PCDD/DF background values found in this survey fall in the 90% confidence interval and can thus, be deemed the background levels in Taiwan. Ninety-five percent of these data are below the European and American soil standard of 10 ng I-TEQ/kg d.w. The PCDD/DF profile with one neighborhood soil sample was shown no significant difference.

  7. Investigation of Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans (PCDD/Fs and Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Bbiphenyls (dl-PCBs in Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs was conducted in a pooled sample of breast milk from 27 first-time mothers (primiparous living in twelve locations at mesoregion industrial area, southern of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between August 2012 and July 2014. Questionnaires with questions regarding to food habits, social and economic conditions, places of dwelling were applied. Mothers were breast-feeding only one infant and milk was collected between 4 and 6 weeks after delivery. TEQs of PCDDs/Fs, and dl-PCBs were 10.6, 4.77, 6.96 TEQ pg/g, respectively. The understanding and identification of pollution sources may be helpful for taking better counter measures against breast milk dioxin contamination. It’s important for pregnant women to have a diet free as possible of contaminants chemical. Further research must be undertaken in the context of epidemiological investigations to more accurately assess the effects of these compounds. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;}    

  8. Dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non-dioxin-like PCBs in foodstuffs : occurrence and dietary intake in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, A.J.; Bakker, M.I.; Baumann, R.A.; Boon, P.E.; Freijer, J.I.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Liem, A.K.D.; Traag, W.A.; Vries, de J.

    2004-01-01

    Data on occurrence of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs] and dibenzofurans [PCDFs]), dioxin-like PCBs (polychlorinated non-ortho and mono-ortho biphenyls) and non-dioxin-like PCBs (as represented by the so-called indicator-PCBs: congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) in food

  9. PCB Concentrations and Dioxin-like Activity in Blood Samples from Danish School Children and Their Mothers living in Urban and Rural Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Thit A; Erdmann, Simon E; Long, Manhai

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is of major concern due to a diversity of adverse effects from prolonged exposure and bioaccumulation. Manufacturing of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a subgroup of POPs, has been prohibited for many decades; however, human exposure still...... occurs due to the persistent nature of the chemicals. The concentrations of the dioxin-like PCB congeners 105, 118 and 156 and the non-dioxin-like PCB congeners 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, HCB and β-HCH as well as the dioxin-like activity using the Ah......R transactivity assay were analysed in blood samples from Danish schoolchildren and their mothers in the European framework of the DEMOCOPHES/COPHES projects. The participants were selected from an urban and a rural area, respectively. The PCB concentrations and the AhR-TEQ (TCDD toxic equivalent) were...

  10. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyl emissions from different smelting stages in secondary copper metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Secondary copper production has received much attention for its high emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) reported in previous studies. These studies focused on the estimation of total PCDD/F and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions from secondary copper smelters. However, large variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions reported in these studies were not analyzed and discussed further. In this study, stack gas samples at different smelting stages (feeding-fusion, oxidation and deoxidization) were collected from four plants to investigate variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions and characteristics during the secondary copper smelting process. The results indicate that PCDD/F emissions occur mainly at the feeding-fusion stage and these emissions contribute to 54-88% of the total emissions from the secondary copper smelting process. The variation in feed material and operating conditions at different smelting stages leads to the variation in PCDD/F emissions during the secondary copper smelting process. The total PCDD/F and PCB discharge (stack gas emission+fly ash discharge) is consistent with the copper scrap content in the raw material in the secondary copper smelters investigated. On a production basis of 1 ton copper, the total PCDD/F and dl-PCB discharge was 102, 24.8 and 5.88 μg TEQ t(-1) for the three plants that contained 100%, 30% and 0% copper scrap in their raw material feed, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modelling deposition of dioxin in Denmark; Modellering af dioxindeposition i Danmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantzius Hansen, K.; Christensen, Jesper H.

    2008-06-15

    We have estimated the deposition of dioxin in Denmark for the years 1970, 1975, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2004 as well as the contribution to air concentrations and depositions from Danish sources relative to the contribution from other European sources. The estimate is based on model simulations with the high-resolution atmospheric chemistry transport model DEHM, where dioxin is modelled as one compound in form of particles. Two different expert emission estimates from EMEP's Meteorological Synthesizing Centre East were used as model input. There are large differences in estimated emissions for some countries from 1990 and onwards, which has a large influence on the simulated depositions. However, it has not been possible to determine which estimate is the most realistic. The concentrations of dioxin in air as well as the depositions increase slightly up to 1980, from where they decrease until 2004. The simulated air concentrations in 2004 are 3,2 fg I-TEQ/m3 and 0,8 fg I-TEQ/m3 for the two emission estimates. The deposited amount of dioxin to Danish land surfaces are 36 g I-TEQ and 9 g I-TEQ for the two emission estimates for 2004. The relative contribution from Danish sources to the deposition of dioxin to Danish land surfaces are 14% and 15% for the two emission estimates for 2004. Despite of large differences in emissions and simulated air concentrations and depositions between the two applied emission estimates, the relative contribution of the Danish sources to the deposition in Denmark does not differ much between the two emission estimates. The contribution of Danish sources to the deposition to Danish land surfaces is estimated to be between 10% and 20%, although there is a large regional variation, from less than 5% to more than 40%. It should be kept in mind that there are sources that are not included in this estimate, such as sources outside Europe and re-emission from previously deposited dioxin, which potentially can give a large

  12. The Relationship between Dioxin Congeners in the Breast Milk of Vietnamese Women and Sister Chromatid Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Suzuki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between dioxin concentrations in breast milk and the sister chromatid exchange (SCE frequency in women from herbicide-sprayed and non sprayed areas. Blood samples were taken from 21 women with high TCDD (tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels from sprayed areas, 23 women with moderate TCDD levels from sprayed areas, and 19 women from non sprayed areas to determine their SCE frequency. The SCE frequencies for the high and moderate TCDD groups from the sprayed area and for the non sprayed area group were 2.40, 2.19, and 1.48 per cell, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that the standardized β values for 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexaCDD (β = 0.60, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptaCDD (β = 0.64, and octaCDD (β = 0.65 were higher than those for TCDD (β = 0.34 and 1,2,3,7,8-pentaCDD (β = 0.42. The adjusted R2 value for polyCDDs (R2 = 0.38 was higher than that for polyCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ (toxic equivalents; R2 = 0.23. This study therefore shows that levels of hexa-, hepta-, and octaCDD, which were previously regarded as being less toxic than TCDD, are closely related to SCE frequency and that the level of dioxin (pg/g lipid is potentially more useful as an indicator than TEQ value for explaining SCE frequency.

  13. Dioxin inhalation doses from wood combustion in indoor cookfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcross, Amanda L.; Katharine Hammond, S.; Canuz, Eduardo; Smith, Kirk R.

    2012-03-01

    Approximately 3 billion people worldwide rely on solid biomass fuels for household cooking and space heating, and approximately 50-60% use wood, often indoors in poorly ventilated situations. Daily exposures to high concentrations of smoke from cookstoves inside kitchens create large smoke exposures for women cooks and their small children. The smoke from burning the wood fuel contains hundred of toxic compounds, including dioxins and furans some of the most toxic compounds known to science. Health effects from exposure to dioxins include reproductive and developmental problems, damage the immune system, interference with hormones and also cause cancer. This study measured concentrations of dioxins and furans in a typical Guatemalan village home during open cookfires. Measured concentrations averaged 0.32 ± 0.07 ng m-3 over 31 fires. A Monte Carlo simulation was conducted using parameter estimates based on 8 years of research experience in the study area. The estimated total daily intake of 17 particle phase dioxin and furans for women, a 5-year-old child and a 6-month-old infant were 1.2 (S.D. = 0.4), 1.7 (S.D. = 0.7) and 2.0 (S.D. = 0.5) respectively. The 46% of babies have and estimated total daily intake (TDI) which exceed the WHO TDI guideline for dioxins and furans, 3% of women and 26% of 5-year-old children based solely inhalation of particle phase dioxins in woodsmoke from an open cooking fire. These values maybe underestimates, as they did not include gas phase concentrations or ingestion of dioxins and furans through food, which is the largest route of exposure in the developed world.

  14. Temporal trends in dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aroha; Hedman, Jenny E; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Haglund, Peter; Cousins, Ian T; Wiberg, Karin; Bignert, Anders

    2013-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCBs) concentrations in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) have been relatively stable since the mid to late 1990s. It is unclear why concentrations in Baltic herring are not following the observed decreases in other environmental matrices. Here, changes in long-term temporal trends in Baltic herring were examined. A number of biological variables were examined alongside the temporal trends to investigate whether fish biology e.g., growth (length, weight, age), lipid content, reproductive phase or fishing date may provide an explanation for the temporal trends observed. Significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends were observed for PCDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQPCDD/F) at three of the four sites (lipid weight (lw) and wet weight (ww), Swedish west coast lw only); however, other TEQ values e.g., TEQPCDD, TEQPCDF, TEQdl-PCB, TEQPCDD/F+dl-PCB were inconsistent, decreasing at some sites but not others. In the most recent 10 years of data, fewer significant decreases were seen overall. Over the examined time period, significant decreases (Bothnian Bay, p<0.01, southern Baltic Proper, p<0.02) and increases (Swedish west coast, p<0.02) in lipid content, growth dilution or lack thereof, and significant changes in age were observed. However herring were not randomly selected which biases this result. Continual efforts to decrease PCDD/F and dl-PCB emissions and to locate/reduce hotspots are necessary, while bearing in mind that herring biology may be impeding faster decreases of these chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The dioxins in broad daylight; Les dioxines au grand jour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claveri, B.; Mersch, J. [BioMonitor, 57 - Florange (France)

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of the Eco-Industries 2000 meeting, the ATEE organized a colloquium on the dioxins in the environment. This book presents the seven papers proposed at this colloquium bringing information on the dioxins and the furans molecular structure, their biological impacts on the environment, the monitoring and regulations in the domain and some example of remedial actions in the metal and wood industry. (A.L.B.)

  16. Peptides Trapping Dioxins: A Docking-Based Inverse Screening Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Perez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and cost-effective computational methodology for designing and rationalizing the selection of small peptides as receptors for dioxin-like compounds was proposed. The backbone of the dioxin Ah receptor binding site was used to design a series of penta- and hexapeptide libraries, with 1400 elements in total. Peptide flexibility was considered and 10 conformers were found to be a good option to represent peptide conformational space with fair speed-accuracy ratio. Each peptide conformer was treated as a possible receptor, generating a dedicated box and then running a docking process using as ligands a family of 76 dibenzo-p-dioxins and 113 dibenzofurans mono- and polychlorinated. Significant predictions were confirmed by comparing primary structure of top and bottom ranked peptides binding dioxins confirming that scrambled positions of the same amino acids gave completely different predicted binding. The hexapeptide EWFQPW, with the best binding score, was chosen as selective sorbent material in solid-phase extraction. The retention performances were tested using the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and two polychlorinated biphenyls in order to verify the hexapeptide specificity. The solid-phase extraction experimental procedure was optimized, and analytical parameters of hexapeptide sorbent material were compared with the resin without hexapeptide and a commercial reversed phase cartridge.

  17. Phenyltrichlorosilane-functionalized magnesium oxide microspheres: Preparation, characterization and application for the selective extraction of dioxin-like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils with matrix solid-phase dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Dongqin [Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jin, Jing [Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Li, Fang [Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Sun, Xiaoli [Department of Chemistry, Lishui University, Lishui 32300 (China); Dhanjai; Ni, Yuwen [Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Chen, Jiping, E-mail: chenjp@dicp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Magnesium oxide microspheres functionalized with phenyltrichlorosilane (PTS-MgO) were synthesized by surface modification through silanization reaction, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption. The result indicated that PTS-MgO not only possessed the ability of enhancing the retention with PAHs, but also weakening the interference from chlorinated compounds. As a sorbent for the matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction, PTS-MgO was used to selectively extract seven dioxin-like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (DL-PAHs) from soil samples. Various parameters affecting the recoveries of seven DL-PAHs were investigated and optimized, such as sorbent/sample mass ratio, grinding time, rinsing and eluting conditions. Under the optimized conditions, the developed method combining MSPD with HPLC-FLD exhibited good sensitivity (0.02–0.12 ng g{sup −1} detection of limits) and linearity (linear correlation coefficient greater than 0.9997). Satisfactory recoveries with DL-PAHs spiked at two levels (10 and 80 ng g{sup −1}) were obtained in the range of 72.2–113.1% with RSD < 9.6%, indicating that PTS-MgO had a potential in MSPD extraction of DL-PAHs in soils. Additionally, the proposed MSPD-HPLC-FLD method was also verified by detecting seven DL-PAHs in the standard reference soil. Based on the developed method, DL-PAHs in soil samples were detected with the concentration ranging from 70.08 to 555.05 ng g{sup −1} dry weight (dw). The total toxic equivalency quotients (TEQ) of seven DL-PAHs varied from 9.93 to 143.94 ng TEQ/g dw. - Highlights: • Phenyltrichlorosilane modified magnesium oxide microsphere (PTS-MgO) was presented. • PTS-MgO was used for a new sorbent material in matrix solid-phase dispersion. • The sorbent showed high selectivity for DL-PAHs with satisfactory recoveries obtained. • The

  18. Use of olive oil for soil extraction and ultraviolet degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isosaari, P; Tuhkanen, T; Vartiainen, T

    2001-03-15

    This paper represents a successful laboratory-scale photolysis of soil-bound tetra- to octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in olive oil. The irradiation source consisted of two blacklight lamps emitting light at a near-ultraviolet range. Samples used in the experiments included pure 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran, PCDD/F extract made of a wood preservative (chlorophenol product Ky 5), and soil that was highly contaminated with PCDD/Fs. Degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran dissolved in olive oil proceeded rapidlywith a first-order reaction half-life of 13 min. Irradiation of a soil sample resulted in an 84% reduction in PCDD/F toxicity equivalent (I-TEQ) in 17.5 h. A more complete degradation of soil-bound PCDD/Fs was achieved after extraction of the soil with olive oil. The oil was effective in solubilizing PCDD/Fs. After one extraction at room temperature, only 9% of I-TEQ remained in soil. Irradiation of the resulting extract reduced toxicity of the extract by 99%, and even the highly chlorinated congeners octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and octachlorodibenzofuran degraded easily (97 and 99% degradation, respectively). Photodegradation byproducts found included diphenyl ether and small amounts of dechlorination products, which were mainly nontoxic PCDD/Fs. Degradation was probably mediated by light absorption of unsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds in olive oil, leading to sensitized photolysis of PCDD/Fs.

  19. Dioxins and furans in breast milk: a case study of mothers from southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs and polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs was conducted in a pooled sample of breast milk from 27 primiparous mothers living in 12 locations in the meso-region industrial area of southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between August 2012 and July 2013. Questionnaires with questions regarding food habits, social and economic conditions and places of dwelling were applied. Milk was collected between four and six weeks after delivery from mothers were breast-feeding only one infant. The toxic equivalency (TEQ of PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs were 10.6, 4.77, 6.96 TEQ pg/g, respectively. The understanding and identification of pollution sources may be helpful for applying better counter measures against breast milk dioxin contamination. It is important for pregnant women to have a diet that is as free as possible from chemical contaminants. Further research must be undertaken in the context of epidemiological investigations to more accurately assess the effects of these compounds. The background contamination by PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs in mothers living at industrial area in Rio de Janeiro is lower than that generally found in industrialized countries.

  20. Particle-bound polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the atmosphere of Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liping; Mai, Bixian; Meng, Xiangzhou; Bi, Xinhui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Peng, Ping'an

    A short-term sampling scheme was devised to determine the levels of particle-bound polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in Guangzhou atmosphere and to evaluate the impact of PCDD/Fs on the lives of the inhabitants in Guangzhou. Samples were collected from four different districts of Guangzhou City, and the results indicated that industrial activities had tremendous influence on the levels of atmospheric PCDD/Fs in these districts. The mean PCDD/Fs concentrations (mean I-TEQ values) for Huadu, Liwan, Tianhe and Huangpu districts were 3815 fg m -3 (104.6 fg I-TEQ m -3), 12 777 fg m -3 (430.5 fg I-TEQ m -3), 6963 fg m -3 (163.7 fg I-TEQ m -3) and 10 953 fg m -3 (769.3 fg I-TEQ m -3), respectively, which were higher than the concentration ranges for other cities in the world. The mean concentrations of particulate organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were 17.61±0.94 and 3.17±0.21 μg m -3 for Huadu district, 44.18±2.29 and 13.32±0.75 μg m -3 for Liwan district, 33.53±1.72 and 9.89±0.56 μg m -3 for Tianhe district, and 29.52±1.53 and 8.87±0.53 μg m -3 for Huangpu district, respectively. The relationship between PCDD/Fs concentrations and OC and EC concentrations demonstrated that EC could be a better predictor for the concentration of PCDD/Fs. Detailed source analysis indicated that the PCDD/Fs in Guangzhou were derived from small diffuse combustion sources, e.g., traffic sources, domestic burning of fossil fuels, non-industrial combustion sources and industrial combustion sources. Results of daily intake of PCDD/Fs by inhaling air suggested that the inhalation exposure of PCDD/Fs by the inhabitants in Liwan district is relatively high.

  1. Effects of lactational exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins on immune response and thyroid hormone systems in Japanese male and female infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, J. [School of Health Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuji, H. [Kitakyushu-Tsuyazaki Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Iida, T.; Nakagawa, R.; Matsueda, T.; Hirakawa, H. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiraha, A.; Yanagawa, T. [Graduate School of Mathematics, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukushige, J. [Fukuoka Children' s Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Watanabe O.B.G.Y. Clinic, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Our environments including food have been polluted with some organochlorine compounds such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Japanese people have also been contaminated with these chemicals. Consequently, some pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexans (HCHs), 1,1,1-trichloro- 2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane (DDT), dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide (HCE), and PCBs have been determined in Japanese breast milk and their mean or median concentrations on fat weight basis were about 420, 330, 3, 4 and 110 ppb, respectively. Their levels were considered more than 100 to 10,000 times higher than those of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), so-called dioxins, in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalent (TEQ) value as a whole. Therefore, we should give due attention to possible health consequences of these organochlorine pesticides and PCBs as well as dioxins in Japanese infants. We have already reported effects of the perinatal exposure to these compounds on lymphocyte subsets and thyroid hormone statuses in the peripheral blood of Japanese infants. In this study, in order to clarify the sexual distinction in their effects on the immune response and thyroid hormone systems, we investigated the lymphocyte subsets and thyroid related chemicals in the blood of Japanese male and female infants in relation to their concentrations of the breast milk.

  2. AN ASSESSMENT OF DIOXIN LEVELS IN PROCESSED ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of dioxin-like compounds in ball clay was discovered in 1996 as a result of an investigation to determine the sources of elevated levels of dioxin found in two chicken fat samples from a national survey of poultry. The investigation indicated that soybean meal added to chicken feed was the source of dioxin contamination. Further investigation showed that the dioxin contamination came from the mixing of a natural clay known as

  3. Development of a rotavirus vaccine: clinical safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarlet, Max; Schödel, Florian

    2009-12-30

    Initial approaches for rotavirus vaccines were based on the classical "Jennerian" approach and utilized simian and bovine rotavirus strains, which provided cross-protection against human rotavirus strains but did not cause illness in infants and young children because of their species-specific tropism. The demonstrated efficacy of these vaccines was not consistent across studies. Thus, human-animal reassortants containing an animal rotavirus backbone with human rotavirus surface G and/or P proteins were developed, which demonstrated more consistent efficacy than that observed with the non-reassortant rotavirus strains. The pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq, contains 5 human-bovine reassortant rotaviruses consisting of a bovine (WC3) backbone with human rotavirus surface proteins representative of the most common G (G1, G2, G3, G4) or P (P1A[8]) types worldwide. The present review focuses on the development of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine RotaTeq. Results of a large-scale Phase III clinical study showed that three doses of RotaTeq were immunogenic, efficacious, and well tolerated with no increased clinical risk of intussusception. RotaTeq was efficacious against rotavirus gastroenteritis of any severity (74%) and severe disease (98-100%), using a validated clinical scoring system. Reductions in rotavirus-associated hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits, for up to 2 years post-vaccination, were 95% in Europe, 97% in the United States, and 90% in the Latin American/Caribbean regions. RotaTeq was recently shown to be up to 100% effective in routine use in the US in reducing hospitalizations and ED visits and 96% effective in reducing physician visits. Additional studies in 8 different locations in the US have shown 85-95% reduction in rotavirus-associated hospitalizations and/or ED visits in the first 2-2.5 years of routine use.

  4. Modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor target genes in circulating lymphocytes from dairy cows bred in a dioxin-like PCB contaminated area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girolami, Flavia; Spalenza, Veronica; Carletti, Monica; Sacchi, Paola; Rasero, Roberto; Nebbia, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Animal productions (i.e. fish, eggs, milk and dairy products) represent the major source of exposure to dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorobiphenyls for humans. The negative effects of these highly toxic and persistent pollutants are mediated by the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) that elicits the transcriptional induction of several genes, including those involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Previously we demonstrated the presence and functioning of the AHR signaling pathway in primary cultures of bovine blood lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate by real time PCR the expression and the inducibility of selected target genes (i.e. AHR, AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), AHR repressor, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) in uncultured cells from dairy cows naturally exposed to DL-compounds. The study was carried out on two groups of animals bred in a highly polluted area and characterized by a different degree of contamination, as assessed by bulk milk TEQ values, and a control group reared in an industry free area. Bovine lymphocytes expressed only AHR, ARNT and CYP1B1 genes to a detectable level; moreover, only CYP1B1 expression appeared to be correlated to TEQ values, being higher in the most contaminated group, and decreasing along with animal decontamination. Finally, lymphocytes from exposed cows displayed a lower inducibility of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 after the in vitro treatment with a specific AHR ligand. In conclusion, our results indicate that DL-compound contaminated cows may display significant changes in AHR-target gene expression of circulating lymphocytes. - Highlights: ► The expression of AHR-target genes in blood bovine lymphocytes was evaluated. ► The lymphocyte CYP1B1 expression appears to be related to bulk milk TEQ values. ► Blood lymphocytes from dairy cows might represent a matrix for dioxin biomonitoring

  5. Modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor target genes in circulating lymphocytes from dairy cows bred in a dioxin-like PCB contaminated area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girolami, Flavia [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Spalenza, Veronica [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Carletti, Monica [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Sacchi, Paola [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Rasero, Roberto [Department of Animal Production, Epidemiology and Ecology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy); Nebbia, Carlo [Department of Animal Pathology, University of Turin, Via Leonardo da Vinci 44, 10095 Grugliasco (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Animal productions (i.e. fish, eggs, milk and dairy products) represent the major source of exposure to dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorobiphenyls for humans. The negative effects of these highly toxic and persistent pollutants are mediated by the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) that elicits the transcriptional induction of several genes, including those involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Previously we demonstrated the presence and functioning of the AHR signaling pathway in primary cultures of bovine blood lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate by real time PCR the expression and the inducibility of selected target genes (i.e. AHR, AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), AHR repressor, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) in uncultured cells from dairy cows naturally exposed to DL-compounds. The study was carried out on two groups of animals bred in a highly polluted area and characterized by a different degree of contamination, as assessed by bulk milk TEQ values, and a control group reared in an industry free area. Bovine lymphocytes expressed only AHR, ARNT and CYP1B1 genes to a detectable level; moreover, only CYP1B1 expression appeared to be correlated to TEQ values, being higher in the most contaminated group, and decreasing along with animal decontamination. Finally, lymphocytes from exposed cows displayed a lower inducibility of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 after the in vitro treatment with a specific AHR ligand. In conclusion, our results indicate that DL-compound contaminated cows may display significant changes in AHR-target gene expression of circulating lymphocytes. - Highlights: ► The expression of AHR-target genes in blood bovine lymphocytes was evaluated. ► The lymphocyte CYP1B1 expression appears to be related to bulk milk TEQ values. ► Blood lymphocytes from dairy cows might represent a matrix for dioxin biomonitoring.

  6. Neurodevelopmental retardation, as assessed clinically and with magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography, associated with perinatal dioxin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Tusscher, G W; Leijs, M M; de Boer, L C C; Legler, J; Olie, K; Spekreijse, H; van Dijk, B W; Vulsma, T; Briët, J; Ilsen, A; Koppe, J G

    2014-09-01

    In 1980s Western Europe, human perinatal exposure to background levels of dioxins was rather high. We therefore evaluated the neurodevelopment of our cohort during the prepubertal period and in adolescence. At prepubertal age (7-12 years) 41 children were tested. Both neuromotor functioning and psychological testing were performed (Dutch version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) and the Dutch version of the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 4-18 years (CBCL 4-18) and the Teacher Report Form (TRF)). Neurophysiological tests were performed using magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography. In adolescence (14-18 years) the behavior of 33 children was studied again (CBCL and TRF). And the levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) were measured in serum. At prepubertal age no association was found between perinatal dioxin exposure and verbal, performal and total IQ or with the Touwen's test for neuromotor development. There were behavioral problems associated with both prenatal and postnatal dioxin exposure. In adolescence there were problems associated with the current dioxin levels and dioxin-like-PCBs. Neurophysiological tests revealed clear negative dysfunction. An increase in latency time after a motion stimulus (N2b) of 13 ms (= a delay of 10%) is associated with the higher prenatal dioxin exposure. A similar delay was measured in testing cognitive ability by analyzing the odd ball measurements, N200 and P300, together with an amplitude decrease of 12 %. The delay is indicative of a defective myelinisation and the decrease in amplitude of a loss of neurons. We found effects on behavior in association with the perinatal dioxin exposure and in adolescence in association with the current dioxin levels. Neurophysiological testing is instrumental in the detection of effects of perinatal background levels of chemicals on brain development in normal, healthy children. The clinical, neurological and psychological tests commonly used are

  7. Persistence and dioxin-like toxicity of carbazole and chlorocarbazoles in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumbo, John; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Pfister, Gerd; Nguyen, Nghia; Schroll, Reiner; Munch, Jean Charles; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2015-01-01

    Halogenated carbazoles have recently been detected in soil and water samples, but their environmental effects and fate are unknown. Eighty-four soil samples obtained from a site with no recorded history of pollution were used to assess the persistence and dioxin-like toxicity of carbazole and chlorocarbazoles in soil under controlled conditions for 15 months. Soil samples were divided into two temperature conditions, 15 and 20 °C, both under fluctuating soil moisture conditions comprising 19 and 44 drying-rewetting cycles, respectively. This was characterized by natural water loss by evaporation and rewetting to -15 kPa. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and cleanup were performed after incubation. Identification and quantification were done using high-resolution gas chromatogram/mass spectrometer (HRGC/MS), while dioxin-like toxicity was determined by ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction in H4IIA rat hepatoma cells assay and multidimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (mQSAR) modelling. Carbazole, 3-chlorocarbazole and 3,6-dichlorocarbazole were detected including trichlorocarbazole not previously reported in soils. Carbazole and 3-chlorocarbazole showed significant dissipation at 15 °C but not at 20 °C incubating conditions indicating that low temperature could be suitable for dissipation of carbazole and chlorocarbazoles. 3,6-Dichlorocarbazole was resistant at both conditions. Trichlorocarbazole however exhibited a tendency to increase in concentration with time. 3-Chlorocarbazole, 3,6-dibromocarbazole and selected soil extracts exhibited EROD activity. Dioxin-like toxicity did not decrease significantly with time, whereas the sum chlorocarbazole toxic equivalence concentrations (∑TEQ) did not contribute significantly to the soil assay dioxin-like toxicity equivalent concentrations (TCDD-EQ). Carbazole and chlorocarbazoles are persistent with the latter also toxic in natural conditions.

  8. Projecting the effectiveness of RotaTeq® against rotavirus-related hospitalisations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Chaouki El Khoury

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available RotaTeq® (Merck & Company, Inc, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA is an oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5 that has shown high and consistent efficacy in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis (RGE in randomised clinical trials previously conducted in industrialised countries with high medical care resources. To date, the efficacy and effectiveness data for RV5 are available in some Latin American countries, but not Brazil. In this analysis, we projected the effectiveness of RV5 in terms of the percentage reduction in RGE-related hospitalisations among children less than five years of age in four regions of Brazil, using a previously validated mathematical model. The model inputs included hospital-based rotavirus surveillance data from Goiânia, Porto Alegre, Salvador and São Paulo from 2005-2006, which provided the proportions of rotavirus attributable to serotypes G1, G2, G3, G4 and G9, and published rotavirus serotype-specific efficacy from the Rotavirus Efficacy and Safety Trial. The model projected an overall percentage reduction of 93% in RGE-related hospitalisations, with an estimated annual reduction in RGE-related hospitalisations between 42,991-77,383 in the four combined regions of Brazil. These results suggest that RV5 could substantially prevent RGE-related hospitalisations in Brazil.

  9. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a U.S. meat market basket and estimates of dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwe, Janice K; Larsen, Gerald L

    2005-08-01

    Persistent environmental contaminants including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed in 65 meat samples collected from supermarkets across the U.S. in 2001. The samples included hamburger, sirloin steaks, pork chops, bacon, and whole chickens from nine different cities. The average PCDD/F/non-ortho-PCB toxic equivalency (TEQ) for all the samples was 0.55 pg/g of lipid (nd (nondetect) = DL (detection limit)/2) with a range from nondetectable to 3.21 pg/g of lipid. For PBDEs, eight congeners were routinely found in the meat samples with an average sum of 1.71 ng/g of lipid (nd = DL/2) and a range from nondetectable to 16.6 ng/g of lipid. While average TEQs were similar to recent values reported in Europe and Asia, the sums of PBDEs in chicken and pork were 3-20 times higher than levels reported in Spain and Japan for these foods. The presence of a few outliers raised the average PBDE sums and indicated that isolated sources of contamination may exist that, if identified, could be removed from the U.S. animal production chain. Using these TEQ and PBDE values and USDA food consumption data, the estimated dietary intake ranges from meat products were 5.3-16.0 pg TEQ and 14.9-44.7 ng of PBDEs/d or 0.1-0.3 pg TEQ and 0.3-0.5 (ng of PBDEs/kg of body mass)/d for an average individual, similar to intakes in other countries.

  10. Dioxins - essential characteristics. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunn, H.

    1993-01-01

    'The dioxins' is the name of a large family of environmentally significant chemicals which, being stereoisomers of 2,3,7,8 TCDD, are all assumed to have similar effects. They include PCDD, PCDF, PBDD, PBDF, and possibly also a whole number of PCBs. Altogether, average ingestion of dioxins and furans in Germany amounts to a toxicity equivalent of 93.5 pg TCDD per person and day, 24.6 pg of which are 2,3,7,8 TCDD. Assuming the average weight of an adult to be 70 kg, this means an average ingestion of 1.3 pg TE/kg body weight and day. Fuerst et al. obtained similar results in their study on dioxin ingestion, average daily intake of dioxins and furans amounting to 85 pg TE per person. This is equivalent to an intake of 1.2 pg TE/kg body weight and day. Breaking down daily PCDD and PCDF intake by food category, the authors obtained the following data: Meat and meat products (beef, veal pork, chicken): 27.5 pg TE/person and day; fish and fish products 27 pg TE/person and day; milk and dairy products (milk, cheese, butter) 26.9 pg TE/person and day; vegetable oils (salad oil, margarine) 3.8 pg TE/person and day. This amounts to an overall intake of 85 pg TE/person and day. (orig./EF) [de

  11. A General Model of Dioxin Contamination in Breast Milk: Results from a Study on 94 Women from the Caserta and Naples Areas in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivezzi, Gaetano; Piscitelli, Prisco; Scortichini, Giampiero; Giovannini, Armando; Diletti, Gianfranco; Migliorati, Giacomo; Ceci, Roberta; Rivezzi, Giulia; Cirasino, Lorenzo; Carideo, Pietro; Black, Dennis M.; Garzillo, Carmine; Giani, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Caserta and Naples areas in Campania Region experience heavy environmental contamination due to illegal waste disposal and burns, thus representing a valuable setting to develop a general model of human contamination with dioxins (PCDDs-PCDFs) and dioxin-like-PCBs (dl-PCBs). Methods: 94 breastfeeding women (aged 19–32 years; mean age 27.9 ± 3.0) were recruited to determine concentrations of PCDDs-PCDFs and dl-PCBs in their milk. Individual milk samples were collected and analyzed according to standard international procedures. A generalized linear model was used to test potential predictors of pollutant concentration in breast milk: age, exposure to waste fires, cigarette smoking, diet, and residence in high/low risk area (defined at high/low environmental pressure by a specific 2007 WHO report). A Structural Equation Model (SEM) analysis was carried out by taking into account PCDDs-PCDFs and dl-PCBs as endogenous variables and age, waste fires, risk area and smoking as exogenous variables. Results: All milk samples were contaminated by PCDDs-PCDFs (8.6 pg WHO-TEQ/98g fat ± 2.7; range 3.8–19) and dl-PCBs (8.0 pg WHO-TEQ/98g fat ± 3.7; range 2.5–24), with their concentrations being associated with age and exposure to waste fires (p dioxins concentrations in people living in low risk areas than those from high risk areas (p Dioxins concentration in women living in areas classified at low environmental pressure in 2007 WHO report was significantly influenced by exposure to burns. PMID:24217180

  12. Human exposure to PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin like PCBs in Japan, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mato, Y.; Nakayama, S. [Japan Environmental Sanitation Center, Kawasaki (Japan); Suzuki, N.; Morita, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Kadokami, K. [Kitakyushu City Inst. of Environmental Sciences, Kitakyushu (Japan); Katatani, N. [Univ. of Yamanashi, Kofu (Japan); Nakano, T. [Hyogo Prefectural Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Sciences, Kobe (Japan); Matsuoka, T.; Takei, T. [Ministry of the Environment, Tokyo (Japan); Uchiyama, I. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Miyata, H. [Setsunan Univ., Hirakata (Japan); Toyoda, M. [Jissen Women' s Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In our previous study, we have estimated the level of human exposure to dioxins (PCDDs, PCDFs, and Dioxin like PCBs) in Japan based on dioxins monitoring data and results of total diet studies (TDS) in fiscal 2000 (April 2000- March 2001). It has been reported that the national PCDDs/DFs emission in 2001 against the 1997 level has been reduced by approximately 77% In addition, reduction of environmental levels was reported. The enforcement of Japan's Law Concerning Special Measures against Dioxins has significant impact on the reduction of the average dioxins concentrations in the ambient air. Therefore, the transitions of Japanese dioxins exposure levels in recent years are worthy of attention. In order to determine exposure level in fiscal 2001, collection and compilation for surveillance results derived from the regular environmental monitoring under the law as well as other dioxins surveys by national and local governmental bodies were continued, and the data were analyzed. The exposure level in fiscal 2001 was estimated by a ''point'' estimate (i.e., a single value derived from arithmetic means) approach based on the collected data. Because dioxins exposure is not clearly below the level of concern, an emphasis is placed on the importance of quantitatively characterizing the variability in exposure assessments. Therefore, the ''probabilistic'' approach using a Monte Carlo simulation was also conducted. However, elaboration in curve fitting to the distribution of dioxins intake through diet wasn't completely achieved due to the limitation of TDS data size in fiscal 2000 (n=16) in our previous study. In the present study, the curve fitting to diet were updated and elaborated, based on larger size of TDS data (n=54) by combining all the data in fiscal 1998-2001.

  13. An assessment of dioxin levels in processed ball clay from the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C. [USEPA, Stennis Space Ctr. Mississippi (United States); Schaum, J. [USEPA, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction The presence of dioxin-like compounds in ball clay was discovered in 1996 as a result of an investigation to determine the sources of elevated levels of dioxin found in two chicken fat samples from a national survey of poultry. The investigation indicated that soybean meal added to chicken feed was the source of dioxin contamination. Further investigation showed that the dioxin contamination came from the mixing of a natural clay known as ''ball clay'' with the soybean meal as an anti-caking agent. The FDA subsequently discontinued the use of contaminated ball clay as an anti-caking agent in animal feeds. The source of the dioxins found in ball clay has yet to be established. A comparison of the characteristic dioxin profile found in ball clay to those of known anthropogenic sources from the U.S.EPA Source Inventory has been undertaken, and none of those examined match the features found in the clays. These characteristic features together with the fact that the geologic formations in which the clays are found are ancient suggest a natural origin for the dioxins. The plasticity of ball clays makes them an important commercial resource for a variety of commercial uses. The percentage of commercial uses of ball clay in 2000 included: 29% for floor and wall tile, 24% for sanitary ware, 10% pottery, and 37% for other industrial and commercial uses. The total mining of ball clay in the U.S. for 2003 was 1.12 million metric tons. EPA is examining the potential for the environmental release of dioxins from the processing/use of ball clays and evaluating potential exposure pathways. Part of this overall effort and the subject of this study includes the analysis of dioxin levels found in commercially available ball clays commonly used in ceramic art studios.

  14. Reproduction of European eel jeopardised by high levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraerts, C; Focant, J-F; Eppe, G; De Pauw, E; Belpaire, C

    2011-09-01

    Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analysed in muscle tissue from yellow phased European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from 38 sites in Belgium. Dioxin concentrations in eel vary considerably between sampling locations, indicating that yellow eel is a good indicator of local pollution levels. Measured levels of dioxin-like PCBs are much higher than those of the dioxins and furans. In the majority of the sites, eel has levels considered to be detrimental for their reproduction. Field levels of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs are therefore suggested as an additional causal factor contributing to the decline of the European eel. 42% of the sampling sites show especially dioxin-like PCB levels exceeding the European consumption level (with a factor 3 on average). Human consumption of eel, especially in these highly contaminated sites, seems unjustified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dioxins and dl-PCBs in gull eggs from Spanish Natural Parks (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Laura; Gene'rosa Martrat, Ma; Parera, Jordi; Bertolero, Albert; Ábalos, Manuela; Santos, Francisco Javier; Lacorte, Silvia; Abad, Esteban

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs), concretely those so-called as dioxin-like PCBs, in yellow-legged gull eggs (Larus michahellis) collected from five Natural Parks (some of them National Parks) in Spain during the period 2010-2013. PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were detected in all the samples. Due to the proximity to important urban and industrial areas higher concentrations were determined in colonies located in the Northern Mediterranean coast than those found in the Southern Mediterranean or Atlantic colonies where a softer anthropogenic impact occurs. Mean ∑PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 49 to 223pg/g lipid weight (lw) and ∑dl-PCB concentrations varied from 146 to 911ng/g lw. In the Natural Park of the Ebro Delta (Northern Mediterranean coast) two gull species share habitat: yellow-legged and Audouin gull (Larus audouinii). Eggs from both species were collected and PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels compared. The species that feeds exclusively on pelagic fish (L. audouinii) had significantly higher PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels than the scavenger L. michahellis, pointing out the diet-dependent differences in the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants between similar cohabitant breeding species. Finally, mean TEQ values were in general below those considered as critical for toxicological effects in birds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB in human blood and milk from German mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittsiepe, J.; Schrey, P.; Lemm, F.; Wilhelm, M. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Abt. fuer Hygiene, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin (Germany); Fuerst, P. [Chemisches Landes- und Staatliches Veterinaeruntersuchungsamt, Muenster (Germany); Kraft, M. [Ministerium fuer Umwelt und Naturschutz, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Duesseldorf (Germany); Eberwein, G. [Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, Essen (Germany); Winneke, G. [Medizinisches Inst. fuer Umwelthygiene an der Heinrich-Heine Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Human biomonitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofuranes (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is done by analyzing both blood and milk samples. With reference to calculation of Toxicity Equivalents (TEq) as published by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1998 determination of 17 PCDD/F congeners together with 4 non- and 8 mono-ortho PCB congeners is the preferred method. In contrast to data on PCDD/F only little is known on background levels of dioxin-like PCB in human blood or milk samples. In the present study we report on PCDD/F and PCB levels in human blood samples of pregnant women living in an industrialized area of Germany and of human milk samples from the same women taken in the first weeks after birth. The investigations demonstrate the current background levels found in Germany, make a contribution for the assessment of preand postnatal exposure of infants and show correlations between the two matrices.

  17. Human exposure to dioxin from combustion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    Because of their extreme toxicity, much concern and debate has arisen about the nature and extent of human exposure to dioxin. Since municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators are known to emit polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polycholorinated dibenzofurnas (PCDFs) many people who live near MSW incinerators fear that they will be exposed to high levels of dioxin and subsequently develop cancer. What is often overlooked in this debate, however, is the fact that the general population is continuously being exposed to trace amounts of dioxin as exemplified by the fact that virtually all human adipose tissue samples contain dioxin at levels of 3 parts per trillion (ppt) or greater. This paper provides a perspective on MSW incineration as a source of human exposure to dioxin by comparing this exposure source with exposure to background environmental contamination and evaluates some of the potential key sources of PCDD/PCDF input into the enviroment. 32 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Dioxins in processes of incineration of wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez John; Espinel Jorge; Ocampo Alonso; Londono Carlos

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a door to come into the subject of dioxins, which is a little bit known in Colombia. In this way, in order to clarify and to get a wider knowledge about dioxins and waste incineration process, it has been divided in three main sections. The first one gives a basic information about origin, effects on the human health and a chemical definition of dioxins; in the second one the main kind of incinerator processes are given to know, also a deeper knowledge of reaction formation. The last part emphasizes options to control dioxins emissions in incineration systems

  19. Radiolytic decomposition of dioxins in liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Changli; Taguchi, M.; Hirota, K.; Takigami, M.; Kojima, T.

    2006-01-01

    The dioxins including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are some of the most toxic persistent organic pollutants. These chemicals have widely contaminated the air, water, and soil. They would accumulate in the living body through the food chains, leading to a serious public health hazard. In the present study, radiolytic decomposition of dioxins has been investigated in liquid wastes, including organic waste and waste-water. Dioxin-containing organic wastes are commonly generated in nonane or toluene. However, it was found that high radiation doses are required to completely decompose dioxins in the two solvents. The decomposition was more efficient in ethanol than in nonane or toluene. The addition of ethanol to toluene or nonane could achieve >90% decomposition of dioxins at the dose of 100 kGy. Thus, dioxin-containing organic wastes can be treated as regular organic wastes after addition of ethanol and subsequent γ-ray irradiation. On the other hand, radiolytic decomposition of dioxins easily occurred in pure-water than in waste-water, because the reaction species is largely scavenged by the dominant organic materials in waste-water. Dechlorination was not a major reaction pathway for the radiolysis of dioxin in water. In addition, radiolytic mechanism and dechlorinated pathways in liquid wastes were also discussed. (authors)

  20. Correlation between human maternal-fetal placental transfer and molecular weight of PCB and dioxin congeners/isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Chisato; Nakamura, Noriko; Todaka, Emiko; Fujisaki, Takeyoshi; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Nakaoka, Hiroko; Hanazato, Masamichi

    2014-11-01

    Establishing methods for the assessment of fetal exposure to chemicals is important for the prevention or prediction of the child's future disease risk. In the present study, we aimed to determine the influence of molecular weight on the likelihood of chemical transfer from mother to fetus via the placenta. The correlation between molecular weight and placental transfer rates of congeners/isomers of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins was examined. Twenty-nine sample sets of maternal blood, umbilical cord, and umbilical cord blood were used to measure PCB concentration, and 41 sample sets were used to analyze dioxins. Placental transfer rates were calculated using the concentrations of PCBs, dioxins, and their congeners/isomers within these sample sets. Transfer rate correlated negatively with molecular weight for PCB congeners, normalized using wet and lipid weights. The transfer rates of PCB or dioxin congeners differed from those of total PCBs or dioxins. The transfer rate for dioxin congeners did not always correlate significantly with molecular weight, perhaps because of the small sample size or other factors. Further improvement of the analytical methods for dioxin congeners is required. The findings of the present study suggested that PCBs, dioxins, or their congeners with lower molecular weights are more likely to be transferred from mother to fetus via the placenta. Consideration of chemical molecular weight and transfer rate could therefore contribute to the assessment of fetal exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Uncertainty evaluation of the determination of toxic equivalent quantity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soil by isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bing; Liu Aimin; Huang, Yeru

    2014-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in soil samples were analyzed by isotope dilution method with high resolution gas chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry (ID-HRGC/HRMS), and the toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) were calculated. The impacts of major source of measurement uncertainty are discussed, and the combined relative standard uncertainties were calculated for each 2, 3, 7, 8 substituted con- gener. Furthermore, the concentration, combined uncertainty and expanded uncertainty for TEQ of PCDD/Fs in a soil sample in I-TEF, WHO-1998-TEF and WHO-2005-TEF schemes are provided as an example. I-TEF, WHO-1998-TEF and WHO-2005-TEF are the evaluation schemes of toxic equivalent factor (TEF), and are all currently used to describe 2,3,7,8 sub- stituted relative potencies.

  2. Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in municipal solid waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.-C.; Hsi, H.-C.; Wang, Y.-F.; Lin, S.-L.; Guo-Ping Chang-Chien

    2010-01-01

    The stack flue gases and the ashes in different units of two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) are sampled to investigate the characteristics of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Bottom ashes (BA) exhibited much higher PBDD/F (8.11-52.2 pg TEQ/g) and PBDE contents (20.4-186 ng/g) than those of fly ashes (0.0932-2.02 pg TEQ/g and 0.332-25.5 ng/g), revealing that the PBDD/Fs and PBDEs in the feeding waste may not be completely destroyed. The PBDE concentrations/contents in the stack flue gases (26.1-109 ng/Nm 3 ) and in the BA (20.4-186 ng/g) of the MSWIs could reach three orders higher than those in the atmosphere and reference soils. PBDE contributions to the environment from the stack flue gases or the reutilization of BA of MSWIs should not be ignored from the developing PBDE inventory. - Municipal solid waste incinerators contributed PBDEs and PBDD/Fs to the environment through stack flue gases and reutilization of bottom ashes.

  3. A solid-phase extraction method for analyzing trace amounts of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in waste water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sung Cho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Korean government has regulated emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fsin waste water of manufacturing facilities producing chlorinated compounds since 2009. As this regulation is expected to bereinforced in 2013 to 50 pg I-TEQ/L, a large sample volume is required for the analysis of trace amounts of PCDD/Fs in wastewater. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE is used to extract PCDD/Fs from aqueous samples; however, its low efficiency makes itinadequate for analyzing large sample volumes. Herein, we present a disk-type solid-phase extraction (SPE method for the analysisof dioxin at a part per quadrillion level in waste water. This SPE system contains airtight glass covers with a decompressionpump, which enables continuous semi-automated extraction. Small (0.5 L and large (7 L samples were extracted using LLE andSPE methods, respectively. The method detection limits (MDLs were 0.001−0.25 and 0.015−4.1 pg I-TEQ/L for the SPE andLLE methods, respectively. The concentrations of detected congeners with both methods were similar. However, the concentrationsof several congeners that were not detected with the LLE method were quantified using the SPE method

  4. Biodegradation of 2,3,7,8 TCDD by anaerobic and aerobic microcosms collected from bioremediation treatments for cleaning up dioxin contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Dang Thi; Tuan, Mai Anh; Viet, Nguyen Quoc; Sanh, Nguyen Thi [Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology (VAST) (Viet Nam). Inst. of Biotechnology; Sau, Trinh Khac [Vietnam-Russian Tropical Center (Viet Nam); Papke, O. [ERGO Forschungsgesellschaft, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    There are many microbes that can degrade polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurants (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been isolated including purified bacteria, actinomycetes, white rods, filamentous fungi, anaerobes and also anaerobic and aerobic consortia. Bioremediation one of biological remediation has been studied as hopeful alternative to physical and chemical treatments that using for cleaning up PCDDs, PCDFs. In Vietnam for cleaning up ''hot spot'' of some former military air bases, bioremediation has been studying in different scales of Danang site. After 18 to 24 month treatments, the reduction of toxicity was significally detected. In order to study biodegradability by different groups and one of dominated strain that are existing microorganisms in our treatments, the investigation of 2,3,7,8 TCDD anaerobic and aerobic degradations was carried out in the laboratory condition. Anaerobic microbial consortium containing three different bacteria such as two Gram- negative vibrio and rod and one gram positive cocoides bacteria. This consortium could degrade 118 pg TEQ/ml 2,3,7,8 TCDD after 133 days under sulfate reduction. Concentration of 2,3,7,8 TCDD in the soil extract that adding to medium at starting point of cultivation was 144.6 pg TEQ/ml. About 81% toxicity was removed. Aerobic consortium containing all three Gram-negative bacteria and one fungal strain. After 9 day shaking at 180 rpm/min and 30 C, 85.6 % of 164.45 pg TEQ/ml 2,3,7,8 TCDD was removed. Other preliminary results of study of 2,3,7,8 TCDD biodegradation as sole carbon and energy by show that this strain FDN30 could remove 43,45 pg TEQ/ml (59%) of 73,1 pgTEQ/ml adding dioxin after two weeks. These findings explain why high concentration of contaminants in treated soil was decreased after two year treatment. Indigenous microorganisms play leading role in the detoxification of 2,3,7,8 TCDD in contaminated soils.

  5. Formation of dioxins from incineration of foods found in domestic garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katami, Takeo; Yasuhara, Akio; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2004-02-15

    There has been great concern about the large amounts of garbage produced by domestic households in the modern world. One of the major sources of dioxins (PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs) in the environment is the combustion of domestic waste materials. Exhaust gases from an incinerator, in which mixtures of 67 food items--including fruits, vegetables, pasta, seafoods, meats, and processed foods and seasoned foods--were analyzed for dioxins. Gases collected at the chimney port (9.15 ng/g) contained less total dioxins than those collected at the chamber port (29.1 ng/g). The levels of Cl1-Cl6-PCDDs and Cl1-Cl5-PCDFs were much lower in the gas collected at the chimney port than in the gas collected at the chamber port. The levels of Cl7-Cl8-PCDDs and Cl6-Cl8-PCDFs were higher in the gas collected at the chimney port than in the gas collected at the chamber port. A total of Cl4-Cl8-PCDDs (1.84-3.04 ng/g) comprised over 80% of the total PCDDs formed (2.24-4.00 ng/g). Total PCDFs (16.2-22.6 ng/g) comprised 78-86% of the total dioxins formed (18.9-29.1 ng/g). The PCDFs formed in the greatest amounts were M1CDFs (9.68-10.7 ng/g). Mixtures of commonly consumed food items produced ppb levels of total dioxins in exhaust gases upon combustion, suggesting that incineration of domestic food wastes is one of the sources of dioxins in the environment. A mixture containing some seasoned foods, such as mayonnaise spread on bread, produced more dioxins (29.1 ng/g) than a mixture without seasoned foods did (18.9 ng/g).

  6. Health risk assessment of dioxin exposure in the City of Menen (Belgium)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouwen, J.; Provoost, J.; Cornelis, C.; Bronders, J. [Flemish Inst. for Tech. Research (VITO) (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    The City of Menen is a well-outlined residential area located in the neighbourhood of two waste incinerators. The waste incinerators (Menen (Belgium) and Roncq (France)) were in full operation since the eighties. Both waste incinerators are still operational and emission measurements indicate that they fulfil the European Union dioxin emission standard of 0.1 ng TEQ/m{sup 3}. Despite of this, new deposition measurements and analysis of milk in this region indicate a high burdening of the local environment with dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). It should be noted that formerly the City of Menen was also surrounded by other potential dioxin sources, among them a dye factory, some small illegal cable burning houses, a pressed board manufacturer, and a metal recycling plant. In the past, before 1984, fly ashes of the waste incinerator were locally valorized as road materials and transported. This could be a secondary source. Additionally the Environmental Inspection has regularly noticed some large open wastefires in this region and follows up the situation. On request of the Public Waste Agency of Flanders (OVAM) an inventory of all measurements in this area was made. An additional sampling of soil, vegetables and eggs was carried out in order to achieve an optimal human risk assessment for the City of Menen. At first instance this risk assessment was carried out by using a deterministic approach. The used human exposure model calculates point estimates based on a combination of unique parameter values. This, however, gives no indication of the variation of the model output. The value of a model parameter is chosen such that a conservative point estimate is obtained for the risk index. Due to variation, it is often unclear how conservative this estimate really is. Hence the variation of the calculated risk index is not known. The calculations of the risk index are subjected to

  7. Patterns of dioxin-altered mRNA expression in livers of dioxin-sensitive versus dioxin-resistant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franc, Monique A. [University of Toronto, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical Sciences Building, Toronto, ON (Canada); Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Department of Pharmacogenomics, 1000 Route 202 South, P.O. Box 300, Raritan, NJ (United States); Moffat, Ivy D.; Boutros, Paul C.; Okey, Allan B. [University of Toronto, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical Sciences Building, Toronto, ON (Canada); Tuomisto, Jouni T.; Tuomisto, Jouko [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, Centre for Environmental Health Risk Analysis, Kuopio (Finland); Pohjanvirta, Raimo [University of Helsinki, Department of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Helsinki (Finland)

    2008-11-15

    Dioxins exert their major toxicologic effects by binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and altering gene transcription. Numerous dioxin-responsive genes previously were identified both by conventional biochemical and molecular techniques and by recent mRNA expression microarray studies. However, of the large set of dioxin-responsive genes the specific genes whose dysregulation leads to death remain unknown. To identify specific genes that may be involved in dioxin lethality we compared changes in liver mRNA levels following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in three strains/lines of dioxin-sensitive rats with changes in three dioxin-resistant rat strains/lines. The three dioxin-resistant strains/lines all harbor a large deletion in the transactivation domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Despite this deletion, many genes exhibited a ''Type-I'' response - that is, their responses were similar in dioxin-sensitive and dioxin-resistant rats. Several genes that previously were well established as being dioxin-responsive or under AHR regulation emerged as Type-I responses (e.g. CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1 and Gsta3). In contrast, a relatively small number of genes exhibited a Type-II response - defined as a difference in responsiveness between dioxin-sensitive and dioxin-resistant rat strains. Type-II genes include: malic enzyme 1, ubiquitin C, cathepsin L, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase and ferritin light chain 1. In silico searches revealed that AH response elements are conserved in the 5'-flanking regions of several genes that respond to TCDD in both the Type-I and Type-II categories. The vast majority of changes in mRNA levels in response to 100 {mu}g/kg TCDD were strain-specific; over 75% of the dioxin-responsive clones were affected in only one of the six strains/lines. Selected genes were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR in dose-response and time-course experiments and responses of some genes were

  8. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the venture business assisting type regional consortium - Core industry creation type. Research and development of energy conservation oriented collective detoxification system for dioxins and toxic heavy metals in fly ash and soil; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Hibai dojochu no dioxin rui yugai jukinzoku no sho energy gata ikkatsu mugaika shori system ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Efforts are made to develop a system to collectively detoxify dioxins and heavy metals in incinerator fly ash or in polluted soil using microbes and/or chemicals. In the use of chemicals, verification tests are conducted for a system to detoxify dioxins and toxic heavy metals simultaneously. In the use of microbes, an effort is made to develop a low cost energy conservation type treatment system based on what is provided by the study of microbes such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium. As for the treatment of fly ash, an effort is made to recycle it into resources usable in the development of marketable products. For the detoxification of dioxins using chemicals, they are dechlorinated in a chemical reduction reaction. For their detoxification with help of microbes, it is found in an experiment of ash fly dioxin decomposition using Phanerochaete chrysosporium that the microbe reduces dioxins in both liquid phase and solid phase systems. The result of verification tests using chemicals shows that the reference level of 3ng-TEQ/g is easily cleared in the treatment of high concentration ash fly. In the detoxification of heavy metals, data is obtained indicating that the elution level of lead in ash fly is found reduced by 70-85% after treatment. (NEDO)

  9. Limited mobility of dioxins near San Jacinto super fund site (waste pit) in the Houston Ship Channel, Texas due to strong sediment sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchouarn, Patrick; Seward, Shaya M; Cornelissen, Gerard; Arp, Hans Peter H; Yeager, Kevin M; Brinkmeyer, Robin; Santschi, Peter H

    2018-02-20

    Sediments from a waste pit in Houston Ship Channel (HSC) were characterized using a number of molecular markers of natural organic matter fractions (e.g., pyrogenic carbon residues, PAHs, lignins), in addition to dioxins, in order to test the hypothesis that the dispersal and mobility of dioxins from the waste pit in the San Jacinto River is minimal. Station SG-6, sampled at the site of the submerged waste pit, had the highest dioxin/furan concentrations reported for the Houston Ship Channel/Galveston Bay (HSC/GB) system (10,000-46,000 pg/g), which translated into some of the highest reported World Health Organization Toxic Equivalents (TEQs: 2000-11,000 pg/g) in HSC sediments. Using a multi-tracer approach, this study confirmed our hypothesis that sludges from chlorinated pulps are a very likely source of dioxins/furans to this pit. However, this material also contained large quantities of additional hydrophobic organic contaminants (PAHs) and pyrogenic markers (soot-BC, levoglucosan), pointing to the co-occurrence of petroleum hydrocarbons and combustion byproducts. Comparison of dioxin/furan signatures in the waste pit with those from sediments of the HSC and a control site suggests that the remobilization of contaminated particles did not occur beyond the close vicinity of the pit itself. The dioxins/furans in sediments outside the waste pit within the HSC are rather from other diffuse inputs, entering the sedimentary environment through the air and water, and which are comprised of a mixture of industrial and municipal sources. Fingerprinting of waste pit dioxins indicates that their composition is typical of pulp and paper sources. Measured pore water concentrations were 1 order of magnitude lower than estimated values, calculated from a multiphase sorption model, indicating low mobility of dioxins within the waste pit. This is likely accomplished by co-occurring and strong sorbing pyrogenic and petrogenic residues in the waste pit, which tend to keep

  10. Optøjer og dioxiner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    2008-01-01

    brintatomer er udskiftet med chlor (såkaldt chlor-substitueret dioxin), man tænker på, når man snakker om dioxin (se boks). Dioxiner er ekstremt giftige stoffer. Indtagelse of nogle få milligram regnes for dødelig for en voksen person. Det er dog ikke realistisk at blive udsat for så meget dioxin, og der...... findes ingen kendte dødsfald på grund of akut dioxinforgiftning. Til gengæld kan dioxin påvirke et bestemt proteinsystem ved navn aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), give fosterskader og sandsynligvis fremkalde kræftsygdomme. Dioxin og brande. Dioxiner dannes let som reaktionsprodukter ved kemiske...... flammerne til røgen, mens resten blev tilbage i asken. Røgen spredes over store områder, og dioxinen falder ned lidt overalt. Forholdene betyder meget for dioxindannelsen, idet dårlig og ustabil forbrænding ved lave temperaturer (som det ofte er tilfældet ved brande) vil give relativt mere dioxin. Desuden...

  11. Dioxin in the atmosphere of Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikelsoee, J.; Hovmand, M.F.; Andersen, Helle V.; Bossi, R.; Johansen, Elsebeth; Chrillesen, M.A.

    2006-03-15

    Occurrence and geographical distribution of dioxin was investigated in air and deposition at selected locations in Denmark, three forest sites in the background area, a city site in Copenhagen and a village site. At two sites simultaneously determination of dioxins concentrations in the ambient atmosphere and bulk precipitation were carried out during a period of three years. (au)

  12. Dioxins and polyvinylchloride in combustion and fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengmei; Buekens, Alfons; Jiang, Xuguang; Li, Xiaodong

    2015-07-01

    This review on polyvinylchloride (PVC) and dioxins collects, collates, and compares data from selected sources on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), or in brief dioxins, in combustion and fires. In professional spheres, the incineration of PVC as part of municipal solid waste is seldom seen as a problem, since deep flue gas cleaning is required anyhow. Conversely, with its high content of chlorine, PVC is frequently branded as a major chlorine donor and spitefully leads to substantial formation of dioxins during poorly controlled or uncontrolled combustion and open fires. Numerous still ill-documented and diverse factors of influence may affect the formation of dioxins during combustion: on the one hand PVC-compounds represent an array of materials with widely different formulations; on the other hand these may all be exposed to fires of different nature and consequences. Hence, attention should be paid to PVC with respect to the ignition and development of fires, as well as attenuating the emission of objectionable compounds, such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and dioxins. This review summarises available dioxin emissions data, gathers experimental and simulation studies of fires and combustion tests involving PVC, and identifies and analyses the effects of several local factors of influence, affecting the formation of dioxins during PVC combustion. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Dioxin (TCDD induces epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and sperm epimutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Manikkam

    Full Text Available Environmental compounds can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in subsequent generations following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study examined the ability of dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo[p]dioxin, TCDD to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to dioxin during fetal day 8 to 14 and adult-onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. The incidences of total disease and multiple disease increased in F1 and F3 generations. Prostate disease, ovarian primordial follicle loss and polycystic ovary disease were increased in F1 generation dioxin lineage. Kidney disease in males, pubertal abnormalities in females, ovarian primordial follicle loss and polycystic ovary disease were increased in F3 generation dioxin lineage animals. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome identified 50 differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR in gene promoters. These DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures. Observations demonstrate dioxin exposure of a gestating female promotes epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and sperm epimutations.

  14. Dioxins, furans, biphenyls, arsenic, thorium and uranium in natural and anthropogenic sources of phosphorus and calcium used in agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelar, A.C., E-mail: avelara@ufmg.br [Department of Animal Sciences, Veterinary School, Universidad de Federal de Minas Gerais Avenida Antonio Carlos, 6627 Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Ferreira, W.M. [Department of Animal Sciences, Veterinary School, Universidad de Federal de Minas Gerais Avenida Antonio Carlos, 6627 Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Pemberthy, D. [Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Universidad de Antioquia, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Ingeniería, Grupo Catálisis Ambiental, Calle 70 No. 52-2, Medellín (Colombia); Abad, E. [Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, C/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Amaral, M.A. [Department of Animal Sciences, Veterinary School, Universidad de Federal de Minas Gerais Avenida Antonio Carlos, 6627 Campus UFMG, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the presence of dioxins, furans and biphenyls, and the inorganic contaminants such as arsenic (As), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) in three main products used in Agriculture in Brazil: feed grade dicalcium phosphate, calcined bovine bone meal and calcitic limestone. The first two are anthropogenic sources of phosphorus and calcium, while calcitic limestone is a natural unprocessed mineral. Regarding to dioxin-like substances, all samples analyzed exhibited dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) concentrations below limit of detection (LOD). In general, achieved is in accordance with regulation in Brazil where is established a maximum limit in limestone used in the citric pulp production (0.50 pg WHO-TEQ g{sup −1}). In addition, reported data revealed very low levels for limestone in comparison with similar materials reported by European legislation. As result for toxic metals, achieved data were obtained using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). On one hand, limestone sample exhibits the largest arsenic concentration. On another hand, dicalcium phosphate exhibited the largest uranium concentration, which represents a standard in animal nutrition. Therefore, it is phosphorus source in the animal feed industry can be a goal of concern in the feed field. - Highlights: • PCDD/Fs dl- PCBs is not a matter since levels below the LOD in phosphate materials subject of study. • Significant accumulation of As and U in Limestone. Th was originally found in dicalcium phosphate. • High concentration of U in dicalcium phosphate suggests that a special attention should be paid.

  15. Express Detection of Pentachlorophenol as Dioxins Precursor in Natural Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalia S. Krikounova

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid detection method for the pesticide pentachlorophenol (PCP — polarization fluoroimmunoassay (PFIA — in the dynamic range of 10–9,000 ppb was developed. PCP may form polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, making environmental monitoring of this compound an issue of great importance. In order to optimize the PFIA procedure, a number of fluorescein-labeled PCP derivatives and similar compounds (tracers were synthesized, and the influence of their structure on PFIA characteristics was studied. Also, two antisera were tested in developing PFIA for PCP. The developed method is highly specific for PCP and can be used for its determination in water samples at a level down to 10 ppb. Total time of the assay for 10 samples is about 7 min. The assay provides a useful and a highly practical screening tool for the processing of large numbers of samples and for the preliminary estimation of potential dioxins contamination in water resources.

  16. The influence of electrodialytic remediation on dioxin (PCDD/PCDF) levels in fly ash and air pollution control residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor M; Jensen, Pernille E

    2016-04-01

    Fly ash and Air Pollution Control (APC) residues collected from three municipal solid waste incinerators in Denmark and Greenland were treated by electrodialytic remediation at pilot scale for 8-10 h. This work presents for the first time the effect of electrodialytic treatment on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and how these levels impact on the valorization options for fly ash and APC residue. PCDD/PCDF levels in the original residues ranged between 4.85 and 197 ng g(-1), being higher for the electrostatic precipitator fly ash. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) varied ten fold, ranging 0.18-2.0 ng g(-1) I-TEQ, with penta and hexa-homologs being most significant for toxicity. After the electrodialytic treatment PCDD/PCDF levels increased in the residues (between 1.4 and 2.0 times). This does not mean PCDD/PCDF were synthesized, but else that soluble materials dissolve, leaving behind the non-water soluble compounds, such as PCDD/PCDF. According to the Basel Convention, PCDD/PCDF levels in these materials is low (residue could eventually be valorized, for instance as construction material, provided end-of-waste criteria are set and that a risk assessment of individual options is carried out, including the end-of-life stage when the materials become waste again. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in rice straw smoke and their origins in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minomo, Kotaro; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Hosono, Shigeo; Kawamura, Kiyoshi

    2011-08-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) contained in the smoke generated from rice straw burning in post-harvest paddy fields in Japan were analyzed to determine their congener profiles. Both the apportionment of toxic equivalent (TEQ) by using indicative congeners and the comparison of the homolog profiles showed that the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in the rice-straw smoke were greatly influenced by those present as impurities in pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chlornitrofen (CNP, 4-nitrophenyl-2,4,6-trichlorophenyl ether) formulations that had been widely used as herbicides in paddy fields in Japan. Further, in order to investigate the effects of paddy-field soil on the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in rice-straw smoke, PCDD/PCDF/DL-PCB homolog profiles of rice straw, rice-straw smoke and paddy-field soil were compared. Rice-straw smoke was generated by burning rice straw on a stainless-steel tray in a laboratory. The results suggested that the herbicides-originated PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs and the atmospheric PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs contributed predominantly to the presence of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs in the rice-straw smoke while the contribution of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs formed during rice straw burning was relatively minimal. The major sources of the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs found in the rice-straw smoke were attributed primarily to the paddy-field soil adhered to the rice straw surface and secondarily to the air taken by the rice straw. The principal component analysis supported these conclusions. It is concluded that rice straw burning at paddy fields acts as a driving force in the transfer of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs from paddy-field soil to the atmosphere. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. PCB 126 and Other Dioxin-Like PCBs Specifically Suppress Hepatic PEPCK Expression via the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenshuo; Sargis, Robert M.; Volden, Paul A.; Carmean, Christopher M.; Sun, Xiao J.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds encompass a group of structurally related heterocyclic compounds that bind to and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The prototypical dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a highly toxic industrial byproduct that incites numerous adverse physiological effects. Global commercial production of the structurally similar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), however, commenced early in the 20th century and continued for decades; dioxin-like PCBs therefore contribute significantly to total dioxin-associated toxicity. In this study, PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB, was evaluated with respect to its direct effects on hepatic glucose metabolism using primary mouse hepatocytes. Overnight treatment with PCB 126 reduced hepatic glycogen stores in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, PCB 126 suppressed forskolin-stimulated gluconeogenesis from lactate. These effects were independent of acute toxicity, as PCB 126 did not increase lactate dehydrogenase release nor affect lipid metabolism or total intracellular ATP. Interestingly, provision of cells with glycerol instead of lactate as the carbon source completely restored hepatic glucose production, indicating specific impairment in the distal arm of gluconeogenesis. In concordance with this finding, PCB 126 blunted the forskolin-stimulated increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA levels without affecting glucose-6-phosphatase expression. Myricetin, a putative competitive AhR antagonist, reversed the suppression of PEPCK induction by PCB 126. Furthermore, other dioxin-like PCBs demonstrated similar effects on PEPCK expression in parallel with their ability to activate AhR. It therefore appears that AhR activation mediates the suppression of PEPCK expression by dioxin-like PCBs, suggesting a role for these pollutants as disruptors of energy metabolism. PMID:22615911

  19. PCB 126 and other dioxin-like PCBs specifically suppress hepatic PEPCK expression via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshuo Zhang

    Full Text Available Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds encompass a group of structurally related heterocyclic compounds that bind to and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. The prototypical dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a highly toxic industrial byproduct that incites numerous adverse physiological effects. Global commercial production of the structurally similar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, however, commenced early in the 20(th century and continued for decades; dioxin-like PCBs therefore contribute significantly to total dioxin-associated toxicity. In this study, PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB, was evaluated with respect to its direct effects on hepatic glucose metabolism using primary mouse hepatocytes. Overnight treatment with PCB 126 reduced hepatic glycogen stores in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, PCB 126 suppressed forskolin-stimulated gluconeogenesis from lactate. These effects were independent of acute toxicity, as PCB 126 did not increase lactate dehydrogenase release nor affect lipid metabolism or total intracellular ATP. Interestingly, provision of cells with glycerol instead of lactate as the carbon source completely restored hepatic glucose production, indicating specific impairment in the distal arm of gluconeogenesis. In concordance with this finding, PCB 126 blunted the forskolin-stimulated increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK mRNA levels without affecting glucose-6-phosphatase expression. Myricetin, a putative competitive AhR antagonist, reversed the suppression of PEPCK induction by PCB 126. Furthermore, other dioxin-like PCBs demonstrated similar effects on PEPCK expression in parallel with their ability to activate AhR. It therefore appears that AhR activation mediates the suppression of PEPCK expression by dioxin-like PCBs, suggesting a role for these pollutants as disruptors of energy metabolism.

  20. Tracing and analytical results of the dioxin contamination incident in 2008 originating from the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heres, L; Hoogenboom, R; Herbes, R; Traag, W; Urlings, B

    2010-12-01

    High levels of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) in pork were discovered in France and the Netherlands at the end of 2008. The contamination was rapidly traced back to a feed stock in the Republic of Ireland (RoI). Burning oil, used for the drying of bakery waste, appeared to be contaminated with PCBs. Consequently, very high levels up to 500 pg TEQ g⁻¹ fat were found in pork. The congener pattern clearly pointed to PCB-oil as a source, but the ratio between the non-dioxin-like indicator PCBs (PCBs 28, 52, 101, 138, 152 and 180) and PCDD/Fs was much lower than observed during the Belgian incident, thereby limiting the suitability of indicator PCBs as a marker for the presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. This paper describes the tracking and tracing of the incident, the public-private cooperation, the surveillance activities and its results. A major lesson to be learned from this incident is the importance of good private food safety systems. In this incident, it was the private surveillance systems that identified the origin of contamination within 10 days after the first signal of increased dioxin levels in a product. On the other hand, retrospective analyses showed that signals were missed that could have led to an earlier detection of the incident and the source. Above all, the incident would not have occurred when food safety assurance systems had been effectively implemented in the involved feed chain. It is discussed that besides primary responsibility for effective private food safety systems, the competent authorities have to supervise whether the food safety procedures are capable of coping with these kinds of complex food safety issues, while private food companies need to implement the law, and public authorities should supervise and enforce them. Finally, it is discussed whether the health risks derived from consumption of the contaminated batches of meat may have been underestimated during the incident due to the unusually high intake of dioxins.

  1. In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) affects tooth development in rhesus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Iku; Kazuhiro, Tsuga; Yasumasa, Akagawa [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Mineo, Yasuda; Hiroshi, Sumida [Hiroshima International Univ. (Japan); Akihiro, Arima; Toshio, Ihara [Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd., Kagoshima (Japan); Shunichiro, Kubota [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Kazuo, Asaoka [Kyoto Univ., Inuyama (Japan). Primate Research Institute; Takumi, Takasuga [Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc., Kyoto (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The current tolerable daily intake (TDI) of dioxin and dioxin related compounds has been set at 4 pg TEQ/kg/day in Japan. This value was calculated from the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) in experimental animals, mostly rodents. Gray et al. reported that a single oral dose of 200 ng/kg of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to pregnant rats on day 15 of gestation resulted in abnormalities of reproductive organs in the offspring. The maternal body burden at this dose was measured to be 86 ng/kg. To attain this body burden level, human daily intake was calculated to be 43.6 pg/kg/day. An uncertainty factor of 10 was applied to this value, and the human TDI was established. However, due to great differences in the biological half life of TCDD between human and rodents, the validity of this calculation is questioned. To obtain more reliable LOAEL in the second generation, we initiated a long-term study in rhesus monkeys in 1999. In rodents, teeth are known to be targets of developmental toxicity of dioxin. In utero and lactational TCDD exposure affects rat incisor and molar development. In humans also tooth abnormalities were reported among populations exposed to dioxins. In our monkey experiment, some young were stillborn or died neonatally. These animals provided us with a unique opportunity to study tooth development in primate young exposed to TCDD in utero and lactationally. By macroscopic observation we found some tooth abnormalities among died young exposed to TCDD5. This prompted us to examine surviving young by radiography. This is an interim report of our findings in these young.

  2. Levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food and feed in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallani, B.; Verstraete, F. [European Commission, DG SANCO, Brussels (Belgium); Boix, A.; Holst, C. von; Anklam, E. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Geel (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    Regulation (EC) No 466/2001 as amended by Council Regulation (EC) No 2375/2001 of November 2001 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs, inter alia dioxins, stipulates that foodstuffs should not, when placed on the market, contain higher contaminant levels than those specified in that Regulation. The Regulation also states that the Commission shall review Section 5 of Annex I, which outlines the maximum levels for dioxins and furans in food, by 31 December 2004 at the latest, in the light of new data on the presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, in particular with a view to the inclusion of dioxin-like PCBs in the levels to be set. Section 5 of Annex I shall be further reviewed by 31 December 2006 at the latest with the aim of significantly reducing the maximum levels. An EC Recommended Monitoring Programme for Food (Ref 1) was discussed to provide the Commission with the necessary data to make it possible to meet these commitments. A considerable amount of data was received by the Commission on the occurrence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food and was analysed to determine whether any patterns emerge in the ratios between dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in certain food types or in certain areas. Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as amended by Commission Directive 2003/57/EC of 17 June 2003 on undesirable substances in animal feed establishes maximum levels for dioxins in several feed materials and compound feeding stuffs. Similar revision clauses to the Regulation on food apply to this Directive on feeding stuffs. A monitoring programme similar to the one recommended for food was discussed for undesirable substances in animal feed (Ref 2). Data submitted by Member states on the occurrence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feed have also been analysed to determine whether any patterns emerge in the ratios between dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in certain feedstuffs or in certain areas. This paper describes

  3. Increased levels of dioxin-like substances in adipose tissue in patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zamora, M A; Mattioli, L; Parera, J; Abad, E; Coloma, J L; van Babel, B; Galceran, M T; Balasch, J; Carmona, F

    2015-05-01

    Are the levels of biologically active and the most toxic dioxin-like substances in adipose tissue of patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) higher than in a control group without endometriosis? DIE patients have higher levels of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in adipose tissue compared with controls without endometriosis. Some studies have investigated the levels of dioxin-like substances, in serum samples, in patients with endometriosis, with inconsistent results. Case-control study including two groups of patients. The study group (DIE group) consisted of 30 patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery because of DIE. In all patients, an extensive preoperative work-up was performed including clinical exploration, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and transvaginal sonography. All patients with DIE underwent a confirmatory histological study for DIE after surgery. The non-endometriosis control group (control group), included the next consecutive patient undergoing laparoscopic surgery in our center due to adnexal benign gynecological disease (ovarian or tubal procedures other than endometriosis) after each DIE patient, and who did not present any type of endometriosis. During the surgical procedure 1-2 g of adipose tissue from the omentum were obtained. Dioxin-like substances were analyzed in adipose tissue in DIE patients and controls without endometriosis. The total toxic equivalence and concentrations of both dioxins and PCBs were significantly higher in patients with DIE in comparison with the control group (P dioxins (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [2,3,7,8-TCDD] and 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD]) (P dioxins and PCBs widely vary in different countries. Furthermore, the strict eligibility criteria used may preclude generalization of the results to other populations and the surgery-based sampling frame may induce a selection bias. Finally, adipose tissue was obtained only from the omentum, and not from other

  4. Dioxin-like activities in serum across European and Inuit populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Manhai; Andersen, Birgitte S; Lindh, Christian H; Hagmar, Lars; Giwercman, Aleksander; Manicardi, Gian-Carlo; Bizzaro, Davide; Spanò, Marcello; Toft, Gunnar; Pedersen, Henning S; Zvyezday, Valentyna; Bonde, Jens Peter; Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva C

    2006-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides can cause a series of adverse effects on e.g. reproduction in animals and humans, many of which involve the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The aim of the present study was to compare the integrated serum level of AhR mediated activity among European and Inuit populations, and evaluate whether the activity was associated to the selected POP markers, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE). Methods The study included 338 males from Greenland (Inuit's), Sweden, Warsaw (Poland) and Kharkiv (Ukraine). The AhR transactivity of serum extracts alone (AhRag) and competitive AhR activity (AhRcomp) upon co-exposure with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were determined in the lipophilic serum fraction containing the POPs using the AhR mediated luciferase reporter Hepa1.12cR cell assay. Results The European groups showed higher median level of AhR-TEQ (TCDD toxic equivalents) compared to the Inuit's, whereas higher incidence of Inuits sample further induced AhRcomp activity. Neither AhRag nor AhR-TEQ were correlated to CB-153 or p,p'-DDE for any of the study groups. Multiple regressions showed a significant heterogeneity of association between the CB-153 and the AhRcomp across the study groups, and accordingly a negative association between AhRcomp and CB-153 was found for the Kharkiv group. Conclusion No consistent correlation between AhR activities and two POP markers was found. Although the difference of AhRag between European and Inuit men could not be explained by CB-153 or p,p'-DDE levels alone, we believe that the variation of AhR serum activity reflects different pattern of POP exposure, genetics and/or life style factors. PMID:16725033

  5. Occurrence of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Fruit and Vegetables from the "Land of Fires" Area of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Mauro; De Roma, Antonella; Cavallo, Stefania; Diletti, Gianfranco; Baldi, Loredana; Scortichini, Giampiero

    2017-11-10

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo- p -concentrations dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fruit and vegetables collected in farms located in the well-known "Land of Fires" area of Southern Italy, in an effort to learn more about the environmental pollution of this high-risk area due to illegal waste dumping and uncontrolled burning near cultivated fields. Concentrations were in the range 0.011-2.26 ng g -1 for the six "indicator" non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), and 0.0009-0.096 pg WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ) g -1 for the sum of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and PCDD/Fs. Lacking maximum limits for these contaminants in fruit and vegetables, the concentration values found were compared with the action levels set out in the EU Recommendations. These levels were never exceeded in the examined samples. In the present study, the highest mean value for PCDD/Fs + DL-PCB corresponded to apricots, olives, and nuts, while the lowest values were observed in endive and green beans. The results showed also that NDL-PCB levels in apricots were much higher than in any other food, suggesting that they can accumulate PCBs: this fruit might be proposed as a "sentinel" of the presence of these contaminants in the environment.

  6. Perinatal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and infant growth and body mass index at seven years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iszatt, N.; Stigum, H; Govarts, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Background Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Experimental studies suggest perinatal exposure to EDCs results in later obesity. However, the few epidemiological investigations on dioxins are inconclusive. We investigated perinatal exposure to dioxins...... and dioxin-like compounds, infant growth and body mass index (BMI) in childhood. Methods We pooled data from 3 European birth cohorts (Belgian, Norwegian, Slovak) with exposure assessment in cord blood or breast milk. Two cohorts had dioxin-like toxicity assessed using dioxin-responsive chemical......-activated luciferase expression (DR-CALUX) bioassay and one cohort had measured concentrations of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenols with CALUX relative potency values applied. Growth was cohort- and sex-specific change in weight-for-age z-score between birth and 24 months (N = 367). BMI...

  7. A cross-sectional analysis of dioxins and health effects in municipal and private waste incinerator workers in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAMAMOTO, Kenya; KUDO, Mitsuhiro; ARITO, Heihachiro; OGAWA, Yasutaka; TAKATA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was intended to examine health effects of 678 male workers employed during an 8-yr period from 2000 to 2007 at 36 municipal and private waste incineration plants in Japan. Blood samples were obtained for analysis of concentrations of dioxins including coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) and evaluation of health effects. Health effects including diabetes were surveyed via a physician’s interview or clinical data from blood samples. There was a certain difference in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) between the incinerator workers and Japanese general population, although no differences in the concentrations of total dioxins or polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) were found between the two groups. A few positive correlations between serum levels of PCDDs and PCDFs and the results of laboratory and physiological tests were found, but coplanar PCBs showed significant relations with 14 parameters of the tests. The background serum levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and total dioxins were significantly associated with the prevalence of diabetes. No essential differences in serum concentrations of total dioxins and in prevalence of diabetes between our subjects and the general population suggested that the incinerator workers were marginally exposed to dioxins in the workplace without any recognizable adverse health effects. PMID:26212412

  8. In vitro bioassays for detecting dioxin-like activity--application potentials and limits of detection, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichbaum, Kathrin; Brinkmann, Markus; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Hecker, Markus; Giesy, John P; Engwall, Magnus; van Bavel, Bert; Hollert, Henner

    2014-07-15

    Use of in vitro assays as screening tool to characterize contamination of a variety of environmental matrices has become an increasingly popular and powerful toolbox in the field of environmental toxicology. While bioassays cannot entirely substitute analytical methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the increasing improvement of cell lines and standardization of bioassay procedures enhance their utility as bioanalytical pre-screening tests prior to more targeted chemical analytical investigations. Dioxin-receptor-based assays provide a holistic characterization of exposure to dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) by integrating their overall toxic potential, including potentials of unknown DLCs not detectable via e.g. GC-MS. Hence, they provide important additional information with respect to environmental risk assessment of DLCs. This review summarizes different in vitro bioassay applications for detection of DLCs and considers the comparability of bioassay and chemical analytically derived toxicity equivalents (TEQs) of different approaches and various matrices. These range from complex samples such as sediments through single reference to compound mixtures. A summary of bioassay derived detection limits (LODs) showed a number of current bioassays to be equally sensitive as chemical methodologies, but moreover revealed that most of the bioanalytical studies conducted to date did not report their LODs, which represents a limitation with regard to low potency samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Mode of action of dioxin-like versus non-dioxin-like PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeters, G. [VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), Dept. of Environemental Toxicology (Belgium)]|[Antwerp Univ. (Belgium); Birnbaum, L. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Exposure of humans to polychlorinated biphenyls has been associated with different adverse effects such as immune impairment, changes in hormone levels, reproductive and neuropsychological changes and cancer. It is difficult to attribute the observed effects to either dioxin-like, non-dioxin-like PCBs or to both. All known human exposures are mixed, comprising dioxin and non-dioxin like PCB congeners as well as dioxins and furans. The purpose of this work was to evaluate, based on mechanistic data available in the open literature, whether non-dioxin like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) themselves may pose specific health risks. It is clear that dioxin and NDL-PCBs differ in the spectrum of metabolizing enzymes they induce, but the mechanistic links to health of these biochemical changes remain unclear at the moment. NDL-PCBs also cause immunotoxicity and tumor promotion via different mechanisms than do dioxin-like PCBs. We focus on neurotoxicity which has been associated with developmental exposure to PCBs and which is considered as one of the most sensitive adverse health effects.

  10. Contamination of free-range chicken eggs with dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent organic pollutants that enter the body mainly by food intake. A small margin exists between current exposure levels in the human population and the levels causing biological effects. Therefore, stringent control of

  11. Dioxin and dioxin-like PCB exposure of non-breastfed Dutch infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, P J M; Bakker, Martine I; Korver, K R; Goor Ghanaviztchi, K van; Wijnen, Joop H van

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of humans to PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs, i.e. polychlorinated non-ortho and mono-ortho biphenyls) occurs predominantly via the intake of food. Young children have a relatively high intake of these substances, due to their

  12. Historical trend of dioxin and agrochemical in rice straw and their impact on meat and dairy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masunaga, S.; Kameda, Y.; Hamada, H.; Nakanishi, J.

    2002-07-01

    Dioxin and dioxin-like PCB impurities in agrochemicals used previously in paddy fields have fawn out and ultimately precipitated and accumulated in sediments in Japanese bays and lakes. Earlier we reported that the maximum impurities flew out during the 1960s and the 1970s. Meanwhile total daily intake (TDI) study revealed Japanese dioxins daily intake has decreased since 1977, especially polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated di benzofurans (PCDD/DFs) from dairy products and meat and egg products. Besides polychlorinated biphenyls (co-PCBs) from fishes and shellfishes also showed similar trend. In this study pesticides and congener specific pattern of PCDD/DFs and co-PCBs in old rice straws were measured in order to find out straw exposure level. In addition, we estimated the daily PCDD/DFs intake from dairy products, meat and eggs originated from impurities in straws. (Author)

  13. Reduction of dioxins-furans formed in combustion and Denovo synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the acceptance that Denovo synthesis of dioxins and furans occurs on the surface of flyash particles in the temperature range of 200 degrees C-400 degrees C, establishes that post combustion formation of dioxins must be addressed. Dioxin-guran emission reduction can be achieved by addition of synthesis inhibitors, adsorbers, catalytic destruction, or utilization of the inherent capability of silica-alumina for chemisorption of the dioxins and furans within appropriate temperature ranges. The chemisorption procedure, as applied to commercial incinerator operation adds no additional equipment or capital and operating costs to the system. The equilibria rather kinetics controls the absorption. Thus, wide variation in inlets are accepted by the system with no externally induced system response required. Experience at the Commerce, California waste to energy system established reductions of total dioxin and furan cogeners to 1.9 ng/Nm 3 from inlet concentrations ranging from 28 to 735 ng/Mm 3 , within the existing acid gas-particulate-heavy metal removal system, using only temperature control to affect the removal by chemisorption

  14. U.S. Food and Drug Administration's dioxin monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    South, P.; S. Kathleen Egan; Troxell, T.; P. Michael Bolger [U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, College Park (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are a group of environmental contaminants whose primary route of human exposure occurs via the consumption of fatty foods of animal origin. Recent safety risk assessments conducted by national and international organizations broadly agree that risk management actions should be developed to decrease DLC exposure. Since the mid-1990s, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has tested specific foods with the goal of describing and reducing DLC exposure. In 2001, FDA developed a strategy for DLCs (http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/{proportional_to}lrd/dioxstra.html) and substantially expanded its dioxin monitoring program to obtain more comprehensive data on background levels of DLCs in specific food and feed samples as well as to identify and reduce pathways of DLC contamination. FDA's dioxin monitoring program analyzes food collected under its Total Diet Study (TDS) and food and feed from targeted sampling. The TDS is FDA's ongoing market basket survey of approximately 280 core foods in the U.S. food supply. FDA targeted sampling collects and analyzes foods suspected of having both higher DLC levels and more variability in those levels than other foods. The contribution of dietary DLCs to overall exposure and the possible introduction of DLCs in animalbased food via the use of particular feed components was recently identified by the National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Implications of Dioxin in the Food Supply and confirmed FDA's approach articulated in its dioxin strategy.

  15. The dioxines in environment and health; Les dioxines dans l'environnement et la sante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-15

    Dioxines and furans are chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Their half life in environment are 10 years. their half life in human organism is 7 years. The techniques to measure and identify these components are complex. Dioxines emissions come from incomplete combustion. 60% of dioxines emissions come from domestic wastes incineration. Soils contamination is made by atmospheric particulates deposit. Dioxines are low soluble in water. The principal mode of exposure for man is the food chain (90 to 95% of global exposure). The effects of dioxines are cancer appearance, increase of congenital malformations, decrease of sex ratio at birth (excess of girls ), decrease of fertility, decrease of birth weight, late on sexual maturity and neurological development. Among other toxic effects are an increase of cardio vascular diseases and increase of lipid rate in blood. (N.C.)

  16. Serum Dioxin and Memory Among Veterans of Operation Ranch Hand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patches, Johnson; Cary, Martin; Grubbs, William; Jackson, William; Robinson, Julie; Pavuk, Marian

    2007-01-01

    The authors used the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised to assess memory among Air Force veterans exposed to Agent Orange and its contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin...

  17. Application of the emission inventory model TEAM: Uncertainties in dioxin emission estimates for central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, M.P.J.; Kok, H.; Quass, U.

    2006-01-01

    This study uses an improved emission inventory model to assess the uncertainties in emissions of dioxins and furans associated with both knowledge on the exact technologies and processes used, and with the uncertainties of both activity data and emission factors. The annual total emissions for the

  18. DIOXINS AND ENDOMETRIOSIS: COHORT STUDY OF WOMEN IN WEST VIRGINIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanawha Valley of West Virginia has a history of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin contamination (dioxin, TCDD). The bulk of the dioxin found in this area appears to be derived from the production of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and the disposal of associated wa...

  19. Anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of polychlorinated dioxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunge, Michael [Aarhus Univ. (DK). Dept. of Biological Sciences, Microbiology, and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Centre (iNANO); Lechner, Ute [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. of Biology/Microbiology

    2009-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) are among the most harmful environmental contaminants. Their widespread distribution due to unintentional or unknown release coincides with environmental persistence, acute and chronic toxicity to living organisms, and long-term effects due to the compounds' tendency for bioaccumulation and biomagnification. While microbial aerobic degradation of PCDD/Fs is mainly reported for the turnover of low chlorinated congeners, this review focuses on anaerobic reductive dehalogenation, which may constitute a potential remediation strategy for polychlorinated compounds in soils and sediments. Microorganisms in sediments and in microcosms or enrichment cultures have been shown to be involved in the reductive dechlorination of dioxins. Bacteria related to the genus Dehalococcoides are capable of the reductive transformation of dioxins leading to lower chlorinated dioxins including di- and monochlorinated congeners. Thus, reductive dehalogenation might be one of the very few mechanisms able to mediate the turnover of polychlorinated dioxins by reducing their toxicity and paving the way for a subsequent breakdown of the carbon skeleton. (orig.)

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins, -furans, and -biphenyls in three species of Antarctic penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsolini, Simonetta; Borghesi, Nicoletta; Schiamone, Alessandra; Focardi, Silvano

    2007-09-01

    Fish-eating seabirds are recognized to be at risk of accumulating toxic contaminants due to their high position in the trophic web and to their low ability to metabolize xenobiotic compounds. Penguins are widely distributed in Antarctica and represent an important fraction of the Antarctic biomass. They feed mainly on krill and, depending on krill availability, also on fish. It has been reported that predators may be a sink for volatile and toxic chemicals and this may pose a serious environmental problem. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDDs), -furans (PCDFs), and -biphenyls (PCBs), including non-ortho congeners, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and p,p'-DDE, were quantified in three species of Antarctic Pygoscelids in order to evaluate their accumulation patterns. The potential toxicity of twenty-two dioxin-like congeners was assessed and expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD equivalents (TEQs). Differences between males and females were investigated. Blood samples of the Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae, Chinstrap penguin Pygoscelis antarctica and Gentoo penguin Pygoscelis papua were collected at Admiralty Bay, King George Is (62 degrees 10'39" S, 58 degrees 26'46" W) in February 2004. Halogenated hydrocarbons were identified and quantified using gas chromatography coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses. Results are expressed on a wet weight basis. HCB, p,p'-DDE and sigmaPCBs were higher in Adélie penguins (6.7 +/- 6.1, 8.2 +/- 3.3 and 9.8 +/- 3.8 ng/g, respectively) than in Chinstrap and Gentoo penguins, both of which showed values in the same order of magnitude, but approximately 40% lower than Adélie penguins. Hexa-CBs ranged 35-45% of the residue. Low-chlorinated PCBs (nos. 70+76+95+ 56+60+101) accounted for 40-60% in the three species. PCB101 made up 15% of the residue in Adélie penguins. PBDEs were 291 +/- 477, 107 +/- 104 and 116 +/- 108 pg/g in Adélie, Chinstrap and Gentoo penguins, respectively; the

  1. Influence of cAMP on reporter bioassays for dioxin and dioxin-like compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Ayumi; Yao, Jian; Yamauchi, Kozue; Hiramatsu, Nobuhiko; Hayakawa, Kunihiro; Meng, Yiman; Maeda, Shuichiro; Kitamura, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    In reporter assays for detection of dioxins, the dioxin-responsive element (DRE) is generally used as a sensor sequence. In several systems, the CYP1A1 promoter containing DREs (DRE cyp ) is inserted into a part of the long terminal repeat of mouse mammary tumor virus (LTR MMTV ) to improve sensitivity of assays. We found that DRE cyp -LTR MMTV responds not only to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds but also to forskolin, a cAMP-elevating agent. This effect was dose-dependent and reproduced by other cAMP-elevating agents including 8-bromo-cAMP and 3-isobutyl-methylxanthine. The cAMP response element (CRE) and CRE-like sequences were absent in DRE cyp -LTR MMTV and not involved in this process. In contrast to the effect of dioxin, the activation of DRE cyp -LTR MMTV by cAMP was independent of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor for DRE. Furthermore, neither DRE cyp , LTR MMTV nor the consensus sequence of DRE alone was activated in response to cAMP. These data elucidated for the first time that the combination of DRE cyp with LTR MMTV causes a peculiar response to cAMP and suggested that use of AhR antagonists is essential to exclude false-positive responses of DRE cyp -LTR MMTV -based bioassays for detection and quantification of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds

  2. Environmental pollution by dioxin and its biodegradation; Dioxin ni yoru kankyo osen to sono biseibutsu bunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojiri, H.; Yamane, H.; Omori, T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) exhibit similar chemical and biological properties. Because of their highly toxic activity, the pollution with these compounds, which are called dioxin-related compounds, is one of the most serious environmental problems. In this review, we described the analytical methods of dioxin-related compounds in environmental samples, especially in the exhaust gas from the incineration site of municipal solid waste. In addition, we described the present situation of environmental pollution by dioxin-related compounds, including pollution levels in environmental, human, and food samples, daily intakes, and risk assessment. On the other hand, a number of microorganisms have been reported which are able to degrade dioxin-related compounds including PCDDs and PCDFs. These microorganisms are classified into two groups, lignin-degrading white rot fungi and the dioxin-degrading bacteria. We also described the degradation pathways of dioxin-related compounds in these microorganisms, and their degradative enzymes. 47 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Genetic diversity of G1P[8] rotavirus VP7 and VP8* antigens in Finland over a 20-year period: No evidence for selection pressure by universal mass vaccination with RotaTeq® vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Maria; Vesikari, Timo

    2013-10-01

    Two live-attenuated oral vaccines (Rotarix™ and Rotateq®) against rotavirus gastroenteritis were licensed in 2006 and have been introduced into National Immunization Programs (NIPs) of several countries. Large scale use of rotavirus vaccines might cause antigenic pressure on circulating rotavirus types or lead to selection of new rotaviruses thus decreasing vaccine efficacy. We examined the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the surface proteins VP7 and VP4 (cleaved to VP8(*) and VP5(*)) of a total of 108 G1P[8] rotavirus strains collected over a 20-year period from 1992, including the years 2006-2009 when rotavirus vaccine (mainly Rotarix™) was available, and the years 2009-2012 after implementation of RotaTeq® vaccine into the NIP of Finland. In G1 VP7 no changes at amino acid level were observed. In VP8(*) periodical fluctuation of the sublineage over the study period was found with multiple changes both at nucleotide and amino acid levels. Most amino acid changes were in the dominant antigenic epitopes of VP8(*). A change in VP8(*) sublineage occurred between 2008 and 2009, with a temporal correlation to the use of Rotarix™ up to 30% coverage in the period. In contrast, no antigenic changes in the VP8(*) protein appeared to be correlated to the exclusive use of RotaTeq® vaccine after 2009. Nevertheless, long-term surveillance of antigenic changes in VP4 and also VP7 proteins in wild-type rotavirus strains is warranted in countries with large scale use of the currently licensed live oral rotavirus vaccines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Modulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor target genes in circulating lymphocytes from dairy cows bred in a dioxin-like PCB contaminated area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Flavia; Spalenza, Veronica; Carletti, Monica; Sacchi, Paola; Rasero, Roberto; Nebbia, Carlo

    2013-04-15

    Animal productions (i.e. fish, eggs, milk and dairy products) represent the major source of exposure to dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorobiphenyls for humans. The negative effects of these highly toxic and persistent pollutants are mediated by the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) that elicits the transcriptional induction of several genes, including those involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Previously we demonstrated the presence and functioning of the AHR signaling pathway in primary cultures of bovine blood lymphocytes. The aim of the present study was to investigate by real time PCR the expression and the inducibility of selected target genes (i.e. AHR, AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), AHR repressor, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1) in uncultured cells from dairy cows naturally exposed to DL-compounds. The study was carried out on two groups of animals bred in a highly polluted area and characterized by a different degree of contamination, as assessed by bulk milk TEQ values, and a control group reared in an industry free area. Bovine lymphocytes expressed only AHR, ARNT and CYP1B1 genes to a detectable level; moreover, only CYP1B1 expression appeared to be correlated to TEQ values, being higher in the most contaminated group, and decreasing along with animal decontamination. Finally, lymphocytes from exposed cows displayed a lower inducibility of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 after the in vitro treatment with a specific AHR ligand. In conclusion, our results indicate that DL-compound contaminated cows may display significant changes in AHR-target gene expression of circulating lymphocytes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Emissions and dioxins formation from waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, A.I.; Zagaroli, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes current knowledge on dioxins formation and emission from waste incinerators. The pertinent Italian law and effects on man health are dealt with, too. The picture of existing municipal incinerators is presented concerning both the actual emission levels and the monitored levels in the environment. Sampling and analysis systems of these organic chlorinated micro-pollutants and current theories on precursors, formation mechanisms, and influence of different parameters are also described. The last section deals with some of the techniques that can be used to reduce dioxins formation and emission from municipal incinerators. (author)

  6. Relationship between dioxin concentration and particle size for suspended sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, K.; Sakurai, T.; Choi, J.W.; Suzuki, N.; Morita, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of the present study was to find out how the amounts of adsorbed dioxins, i.e., polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), mono-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and non-ortho-PCBs, vary with the particle size of suspended sediment. As dioxins are hydrophobic, they tend to adsorb onto particles suspended in water, and the determination of which dioxin congeners readily dissolve in water or adsorb onto particles is central to the characterization of dioxin behavior in water/sediment systems. Presumably suspension of sediments and the size of the particles govern the transfer of dioxins to aquatic organisms. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the relationship between the amount of dioxins and the particle-size distribution of resuspended, rather than settled, sediment.

  7. Monitoring of dioxin-like, estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities in sediments of the Bizerta lagoon (Tunisia) by means of in vitro cell-based bioassays: contribution of low concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louiz, I; Kinani, S; Gouze, M-E; Ben-Attia, M; Menif, D; Bouchonnet, S; Porcher, J M; Ben-Hassine, O K; Aït-Aïssa, S

    2008-09-01

    We used an array of in vitro cell-based bioassays to assess dioxin-like, estrogenic and (anti-)androgenic activities in organic extracts of sediments from the Bizerta lagoon, one of the largest Tunisian lagoons subjected to various anthropogenic and industrial pressures. The sediments were sampled both in winter and summer 2006 in 6 stations differently impacted and in one reference station located in the seawards entrance of Ghar el Melh lagoon. Chemical analyses of the 16 priority PAHs showed that the sediments were low to moderately contaminated (2-537 ng/g dry weight). By using the estrogen- (MELN) and androgen-responsive (MDA-kb2) reporter cell lines, significant estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities were detected only in the Menzel Bourguiba (MB) site, the most contaminated site, both in winter and summer. By using 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction in the fish PLHC-1 cell line after both 4 and 24 h of cell exposure, dioxin-like activities were detected in all analysed samples. Dioxin-like activities were higher after 4 h exposure, and varied according to the sites and the sampling season. While highly significant correlation was observed between bioassay- and chemical analyses-derived toxic equivalents (TEQs), PAHs accounted for only a small part (up to 4%) of the detected biological activities, suggesting that other readily metabolised EROD-inducing compounds were present. This study argues for the use of short time exposure to assess biological TEQs in low contaminated samples and provides new induction equivalent factors (IEF(4h)) for 16 PAHs in the PLHC-1 cell line. Finally, our results stress the need to further characterise the nature of organic chemical contamination as well as its long-term impacts on aquatic wildlife in the Bizerta lagoon.

  8. Dioxin exposure in breast milk and infant neurodevelopment in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Pham The; Nishijo, Muneko; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Honda, Ryumon; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2013-09-01

    Dioxin levels in the breast milk of mothers residing near hot spots of dioxin contamination areas in South Vietnam remain much higher than in unsprayed areas, suggesting that fetuses and breast-fed infants may be exposed to high levels of dioxins. The present study investigated the association of infant neurodevelopment in early infancy and dioxin exposure during the perinatal period. The study involved 216 mother-infant pairs living near the Da Nang airbase, a dioxin contaminated area in Vietnam. Mothers and infants were followed from birth until infants were 4 months old. Dioxin levels in breast milk were measured to estimate the perinatal dioxin exposure, including the infant daily dioxin intake (DDI) via breastfeeding. Infant neurodevelopmental parameters, including cognitive, language and motor domains were assessed at approximately 4 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition (Bayley-III). The level of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans-toxic equivalents in breast milk and the infant DDI showed significant inverse correlations with neurodevelopmental scores. When the subjects were divided into four groups according to dioxin levels in breast milk, the moderate and high DDI groups had significantly lower cognitive, composite motor and fine motor scores, and the high polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans-toxic equivalents group had significantly lower fine motor score than the low exposure group. For all domains, neurodevelopmental scores were decreased with increase in the level of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The present study demonstrates a considerable impact of perinatal dioxin exposure on neurodevelopment in 4-month-old infants living in contaminated areas in Vietnam.

  9. A study to evaluate the levels of dioxin-like compounds in dairy feeds in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorber, M.; Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, WA, DC (United States); Greene, C.; Cyrus, A. [Versar, Inc., Springfield, VA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The primary route for general population exposure to dioxin-like compounds is through the consumption of animal fats, with bovine-derived meat, milk and dairy products comprising over 50% of total exposure in the United States. The primary route of exposure hypothesized for cattle is airborne deposition of dioxins onto the leaves of feed crops. Over the last few years additional pathways of exposure have been identified associated with contaminated feed additives such as ball clay, mineral supplements, and animal byproducts. Studies by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) have shown that incidental contact with pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood by cattle have resulted in elevated tissue levels. Although the air-to-leaf pathway is still considered by most researchers to be the dominant pathway of exposure, the lack of any systematic examination of animal feeds to quantify the contribution of the air-to-leaf pathway has been a major gap in our empirical understanding of dioxin exposure. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with USDA and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has undertaken a program to study the presence of dioxin-like compounds in animal feeds. Two phases of this program have been completed, and this paper reports on the third phase. The first phase was a study on the mass balance of dioxins in lactating cows. The objective of that study was to quantify the role feeds play in total dairy cow exposure. The second phase of the program involved the collection and measurement of dioxins in minor feed components. Dioxins in specific targeted animal feed components of interest, including animal byproducts (beef, pork, poultry by-products, fish meal) and plant byproducts (deodorizer distillates from corn, soybean, peanut, cottonseed, and canola processers; cane and beet molasses), were measured. The third phase of the project, reported here, involved component sampling of dairy feeds around the US.

  10. CLOSURE OF A DIOXIN INCINERATION FACILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Mobile Incineration System, whihc was operated at the Denney Farm site in southwestern Miissouri between October 1985 and June 1989, treated almost six million kilograms of dioxin-contaminated wastes from eight area sites. At the conclusi...

  11. Radioimmunoassay for chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albro, P.W.; Chae, K.; Luster, M.I.; Mckinney, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The invention provides a double-antibody radioimmunoassay method for the determination of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, particularly, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, in environmental samples including animal tissues such as monkey liver and adipose tissues. The limit of detection is approximately 25 picograms for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Assuming an appropriate cleanup procedure is used, chlorinated dibenzofurans are the only likely interferences, and these can be distinguished through the use of two antisers of different dibenzo-furan/dibenzodioxin selectivities. The invention includes the preparation of a reproducible antigen, an appropriate radiolabeled hapten, and effective sample extracts. A feature of the assay method is the use of a nonionic detergent (e.g., ''cutscum'' or ''triton x-305'') to solubilize the extremely hydrophobic dibenzo-p-dioxins in a manner permitting their binding by antibodies. The immunoassay is applicable to screening samples in order to minimize the demand for mass spectrometric screening, and to routine monitoring for exposure to known chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in potentially contaminated environments

  12. DIOXINS AND ENDOMETRIOSIS: A PLAUSIBLE HYPOTHESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A potential connection exists between the increasing prevalence of endometriosis and exposure to organochlorine chemicals. There is evidence that dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) can increase the incidence and severity of the disease in monkeys and can promote the growth or survival of end...

  13. Consequences of 40 Years' Dioxin Intoxication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.; Dubská, Z.; Malík, J.; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2009), s. 494-494 ISSN 1556-3650. [The International Congress of the European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists /29./. 12.05.2009-15.05.2009, Stockholm] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : dioxins * intoxication Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  14. Michigan dioxin exposure study: planning phase and protocol development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaens, P. [Univ. of Michigan, Coll. of Engineering, Ann Arbor (United States); Garabrant, D.; Franzblau, A. [Univ. of Michigan, School for Public Health, Ann Arbor (United States); Gillespie, B. [Univ. of Michigan, Center for Statistics, Ann Arbor (United States); Lepowski, J. [Univ. of Michigan, Inst. for Social Research, Ann Arbor (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The University of Michigan has been commissioned to conduct one of the largest environmental epidemiology studies (700 residents) of dioxin exposure among the population of Michigan to describe the pattern of serum dioxin levels among adults and to understand the factors that explain variation in serum dioxin levels. The study is being undertaken (2004-2006) in response to concerns among the population of Midland and Saginaw Counties that dioxins from the Dow Chemical Company facilities in Midland have resulted in contamination of areas of the City of Midland and have contaminated the sediments in the Tittabawassee River flood plain. There is concern that body burdens of dioxins are elevated because of environmental contamination. The appropriate way to respond to these concerns is to measure the serum dioxin levels in a probability sample of the population in the region and to estimate each individual's past exposure to various factors that are believed to contribute to the body burden of dioxins. By measuring factors that reflect potential exposure to dioxins through air, water, soil, food intake, occupations, and various recreational activities, we can identify the factors that correlate with (and explain variation in) serum dioxin levels. The central goal of the study is to determine which factors explain variation in serum dioxin levels, and to quantify how much variation each factor explains. This paper provides information on the planning phase, study scope and objectives.

  15. Molecular and biological characterization of the 5 human-bovine rotavirus (WC3)-based reassortant strains of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq (registered)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthijnssens, Jelle; Joelsson, Daniel B.; Warakomski, Donald J.; Zhou, Tingyi; Mathis, Pamela K.; Maanen, Marc-Henri van; Ranheim, Todd S.; Ciarlet, Max

    2010-01-01

    RotaTeq (registered) is a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine that contains five human-bovine reassortant strains (designated G1, G2, G3, G4, and P1) on the backbone of the naturally attenuated tissue culture-adapted parental bovine rotavirus (BRV) strain WC3. The viral genomes of each of the reassortant strains were completely sequenced and compared pairwise and phylogenetically among each other and to human rotavirus (HRV) and BRV reference strains. Reassortants G1, G2, G3, and G4 contained the VP7 gene from their corresponding HRV parent strains, while reassortants G1 and G2 also contained the VP3 gene (genotype M1) from the HRV parent strain. The P1 reassortant contained the VP4 gene from the HRV parent strain and all the other gene segments from the BRV WC3 strain. The human VP7s had a high level of overall amino acid identity (G1: 95-99%, G2: 94-99% G3: 96-100%, G4: 93-99%) when compared to those of representative rotavirus strains of their corresponding G serotypes. The VP4 of the P1 reassortant had a high identity (92-97%) with those of serotype P1A[8] HRV reference strains, while the BRV VP7 showed identities ranging from 91% to 94% to those of serotype G6 HRV strains. Sequence analyses of the BRV or HRV genes confirmed that the fundamental structure of the proteins in the vaccine was similar to those of the HRV and BRV references strains. Sequences analyses showed that RotaTeq (registered) exhibited a high degree of genetic stability as no mutations were identified in the material of each reassortant, which undergoes two rounds of replication cycles in cell culture during the manufacturing process, when compared to the final material used to fill the dosing tubes. The infectivity of each of the reassortant strains of RotaTeq (registered) , like HRV strains, did not require the presence of sialic acid residues on the cell surface. The molecular and biologic characterization of RotaTeq (registered) adds to the significant body of clinical data supporting the

  16. Biomonitoring of organic airborne pollutants in particular dioxins and furans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobel, W.; Maier-Reiter, W.; Sommer, B.; Finkbeiner, M.

    1992-01-01

    Standardised grass and borecole cultures were used as bioindicators in the course of planning procedures for emitters. The studies show that such standardised cultures are suitable cumulative indicators of the dioxin and furan content of the atmosphere. Accumulation of dioxins and furans at the site are also evident in the naturally growing vegetation. The levels found for dioxins and furans are calculated by estimating health risks by means of a model of pollutant transfer within the human food chain. (orig.) [de

  17. Anaerobic transformation of chlorinated dioxins by microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian, L. [Fachgebiet Technische Biochemie, Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany); Lechner, U. [Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie, Martin-Luther-Univ. Halle-Wittenberg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Mixed bacterial cultures catalyze diverse chlorodioxin-dehalogenation pathways. Some of these pathways lead to relatively harmless end products, which can undergo further biological degradation e.g. by aerobic bacteria. However, the possible formation of highly toxic products is a critical problem for a bioremediation approach but also for untreated sites where such dechlorination reactions can occur. Bioaugmentation with suitable pure or mixed cultures is promising. This has recently been demonstrated in a tetrachloroethene-contaminated groundwater using a Dehalococcoidescontaining inoculum that almost completely converted tetrachloroethene to ethene without accumulation of the toxic intermediate vinyl chloride. With Dehalococcoides sp. strain CBDB1 the first bacterium is now known, that grows by dehalorespiration with dioxins. Learning from the physiology and biochemistry of this bacterium will help us to understand the role of these bacteria in the environment and to predict the fate of dioxin pollution.

  18. The dioxins - essential characteristics. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunn, H.

    1993-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) belong to the group of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. They are predominantly of anthropogenic origin, except for those originating from fires caused by lightning or volcanic eruption. PCDD, according to the present knowledge, are absolutely useless. They are toxic, lipophilic, hardly degradable, and therefore ubiquitous in environment and food chain. PCDD have also been found in breast milk. Because their carcinogenic mechanism of action is little known, the toxicological evaluation of PCDD is still incomplete. Even lowest concentrations of PCDD may be detrimental to health. These characteristics are reason with enough to group PCDD not with xenobiotics, but with harmful substances. Closely related to PCDD in their origin and characteristics are polychlorinated dibenzofuranes (PCDF), which therefore are frequently ranked among ''the dioxins'': Essential characteristics of PCDD and PCDF are discussed. (orig.) [de

  19. An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has released an external review draft entitled, An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios(External Review Draft). The public comment period and the external peer-review workshop are separate processes that provide opportunities for all interested parties to comment on the document. In addition to consideration by EPA, all public comments submitted in accordance with this notice will also be forwarded to EPA’s contractor for the external peer-review panel prior to the workshop. EPA has realeased this draft document solely for the purpose of pre-dissemination peer review under applicable information quality guidelines. This document has not been formally disseminated by EPA. It does not represent and should not be construed to represent any Agency policy or determination. The purpose of this report is to describe an exploratory investigation of potential dioxin exposures to artists/hobbyists who use ball clay to make pottery and related products.

  20. Size fractionation of waste-to-energy boiler ash enables separation of a coarse fraction with low dioxin concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidemann, E.; Allegrini, Elisa; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) formed in modern Waste-to-Energy plants are primarily found in the generated ashes and air pollution control residues, which are usually disposed of as hazardous waste. The objective of this study was to explore the occurrence of PCDD....../F in different grain size fractions in the boiler ash, i.e. ash originating from the convection pass of the boiler. If a correlation between particle size and dioxin concentrations could be found, size fractionation of the ashes could reduce the total amount of hazardous waste. Boiler ash samples from ten...... sections of a boiler's convective part were collected over three sampling days, sieved into three different size fractions - 0.355. mm - and analysed for PCDD/F. The coarse fraction (>0.355. mm) in the first sections of the horizontal convection pass appeared to be of low toxicity with respect to dioxin...

  1. Radiolytic degradation of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and octachlorodibenzofuran in organic solvents and treatment of dioxin-containing liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Changli; Hirota, Koichi; Taguchi, Mitsumasa; Takigami, Machiko; Kojima, Takuji

    2007-01-01

    Degradations of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF) were studied by 60 Co γ-ray in organic solvents: ethanol, n-nonane, and toluene. Both OCDD and OCDF were degraded more efficiently in ethanol than in n-nonane or toluene. The degradation is mainly attributed to electrons and in part to solvent radicals. The addition of ethanol to dioxin-containing liquid wastes enhanced effectively the degradation of dioxins; the liquid wastes did not exhibit the dioxin toxicity at a dose of 100 kGy

  2. Comparison of thermochemically calculated and measured dioxin contents in the off-gas of a sinter plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, P; Eriksson, G; Neuschuelz, D [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Huettenkunde, Aachen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans form a family of more than 200 compounds which are relatively stable in the biosphere and tend to accumulate in the human body. The tetra- to hexa-chlorinated dioxins and furans are considered highly toxic. To facilitate the assessment of the total toxicity of dioxin and furan mixtures, the estimated toxic effects of the individual compounds relative to the 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were introduced as Toxic Equivalent Factors which yield, when multiplied with the respective concentrations, the Toxic Equivalent (TE) of the mixture. Toxic dioxins and furans are unintentionally formed in a number of industrial combustion processes such as waste incineration and iron ore sintering, in the chemical industry and in household heating. To keep the emissions as low as possible, off-gas clearing systems for the collection of dioxins and furans are increasingly prescribed by the authorities. In addition, it appears desirable to select process conditions that are unfavourable for the formation of these compounds. A simulation of the relevant processes on the basis of thermodynamic data may be helpful in defining such process conditions. To simulate dioxin formation in the sintering process, all major gas-solid reactions taking place in the sinter bed must also be simulated. A sufficiently accurate reproduction of the off-gas compositions along the length of the sinter strand requires detailed assumptions concerning the relative amounts of `active` O{sub 2} as well as the distribution of reacting carbon and water over the strand length. From this basis, an equilibrium calculation for the gas/solid reactions at the sintering temperature of 1150 deg C and an equilibrium calculation restricted to the gas phase at 700 deg C produced values for the concentrations of the major off-gas constituents in very good agreement with the measured values. The further assumption that below 700 deg C all reactions are frozen

  3. Comparison of thermochemically calculated and measured dioxin contents in the off-gas of a sinter plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, P.; Eriksson, G.; Neuschuelz, D. [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Huettenkunde, Aachen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans form a family of more than 200 compounds which are relatively stable in the biosphere and tend to accumulate in the human body. The tetra- to hexa-chlorinated dioxins and furans are considered highly toxic. To facilitate the assessment of the total toxicity of dioxin and furan mixtures, the estimated toxic effects of the individual compounds relative to the 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were introduced as Toxic Equivalent Factors which yield, when multiplied with the respective concentrations, the Toxic Equivalent (TE) of the mixture. Toxic dioxins and furans are unintentionally formed in a number of industrial combustion processes such as waste incineration and iron ore sintering, in the chemical industry and in household heating. To keep the emissions as low as possible, off-gas clearing systems for the collection of dioxins and furans are increasingly prescribed by the authorities. In addition, it appears desirable to select process conditions that are unfavourable for the formation of these compounds. A simulation of the relevant processes on the basis of thermodynamic data may be helpful in defining such process conditions. To simulate dioxin formation in the sintering process, all major gas-solid reactions taking place in the sinter bed must also be simulated. A sufficiently accurate reproduction of the off-gas compositions along the length of the sinter strand requires detailed assumptions concerning the relative amounts of `active` O{sub 2} as well as the distribution of reacting carbon and water over the strand length. From this basis, an equilibrium calculation for the gas/solid reactions at the sintering temperature of 1150 deg C and an equilibrium calculation restricted to the gas phase at 700 deg C produced values for the concentrations of the major off-gas constituents in very good agreement with the measured values. The further assumption that below 700 deg C all reactions are frozen

  4. Dioxin contamination in the soil. South of Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Tuan Anh; Tarradellas, J.; DeAlancastro, F.; Grandjean, D. [CECOTOX-ISTE-ENAC-EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Doan, Thanh Vu; Huynh, Thi Minh Hang [National Univ. of Hochiminh City, Inst. for Environment and Resources (Viet Nam)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxin is a common name given to a group of persistent and very toxic chemicals, also known as dioxins and furans. These chemicals include 75 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and 135 chlorinated dibenzo furans. The most toxic of these compounds is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and the isomers with chlorines substituted in the 2,3,7,8 positions. Dioxin in the environment is measured and reported in terms of 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents, which are the actual concentrations of each dioxin or furan congener multiplied by its relative toxicity. The amount of dioxin in a sample is the sum of the concentration of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDD-equivalents. The problem of dioxin contamination in South of Vietnam has been reported in many documents as a typical case because there are many areas affected by the toxic chemicals from US-Vietnam War. Although the War ended in 1975, to date no large-scale epidemiological study has been performed to assess the effects of the herbicides used on the Vietnamese people and ecosystem. Nowadays, the study on this problem is relatively difficult because many times passed (over 28 years) and every thing has been changed (not in origin form): a grand part of dioxin had been degraded or transfered into biological food web. In addition, the document collection and sampling planning are not easy work due to the complete formalities or military secrets. In this paper we present our primary result on dioxin contamination of three selected areas, including: Ma Da Forest, Cam Lo District - Quang Tri Province and Da Nang Airport. These are also the common names that reported in the documents related to the dioxin contamination problem.

  5. Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in composts and digestates from European countries as determined by the in vitro bioassay and chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beníšek, Martin; Kukučka, Petr; Mariani, Giulio; Suurkuusk, Gert; Gawlik, Bernd M; Locoro, Giovanni; Giesy, John P; Bláha, Luděk

    2015-03-01

    Aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion plays an important role in reduction of organic waste by transforming the waste into humus, which is an excellent soil conditioner. However, applications of chemical-contaminated composts on soils may have unwanted consequences such as accumulation of persistent compounds and their transfer into food chains. The present study investigated burden of composts and digestates collected in 16 European countries (88 samples) by the compounds causing dioxin-like effects as determined by use of an in vitro transactivation assay to quantify total concentrations of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-(AhR) mediated potency. Measured concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibeno-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) equivalents (TEQbio) were compared to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected chlorinated compounds, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), indicator PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Median concentrations of TEQbio (dioxin-like compounds) determined by the in vitro assay in crude extracts of various types of composts ranged from 0.05 to 1.2 with a maximum 8.22μg (TEQbio)kg(-1) dry mass. Potencies were mostly associated with less persistent compounds such as PAHs because treatment with sulfuric acid removed bioactivity from most samples. The pan-European investigation of contamination by organic contaminants showed generally good quality of the composts, the majority of which were in compliance with conservative limits applied in some countries. Results demonstrate performance and added value of rapid, inexpensive, effect-based monitoring, and points out the need to derive corresponding effect-based trigger values for the risk assessment of complex contaminated matrices such as composts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dioxin/POPs legacy of pesticide production in Hamburg: part 1--securing of the production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Roland; Varbelow, Hans Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    α-Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), β-HCH, and γ-HCH (lindane) were recently included as new persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Stockholm Convention. Therefore, the chemicals need to be globally addressed, including the disposal of historic wastes. At most sites, the approximately 85% of HCH waste isomers were dumped. At a former lindane factory in Hamburg and some other factories the HCH, waste was recycled producing residues with high polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) levels. The soil and ground water under the former pesticide factory was/is highly contaminated with HCH (260 tons), chlorobenzenes (550 tons), and PCDD/PCDF (6 kg toxic equivalents (TEQ)). This contamination did not result from disposal operations but from spillages and leakages during the 30 years of the factory's production history. A containment wall has been constructed around the production area to prevent the dispersal of the pollutants. The ground water is managed by a pump and treat system. Over the last 15 years, approximately 10-30 tons of this pollution reservoir has been pumped and incinerated. For the contaminated production buildings, specific assessment and demolition technologies have been applied. In addition to their HCH waste isomer deposition, former lindane/HCH productions need to be assessed for possible recycling practice of HCH and related PCDD/PCDF contamination of the production area and buildings. Since such recycling activities have taken place at several factories in different countries, the experience of assessment and management of the described production area and contaminated buildings could be valuable. Such assessment could be addressed within the frame of the Stockholm Convention.

  7. Analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans using simultaneous dual gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirler, W.; Voto, G.; Donega, M. [Eco-Research, Bolzano (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) are two classes of environmental contaminants. Seventeen congeners exist that are substituted in the 2,3,7,8 position and are considered to be the most toxic. Due to the large number (210) of compounds of the PCDD/F family, gas chromatographic (GC) separation of these from the cluster of less toxic isomers is a difficult task. At present no commercially available column can separate all 2,3,7,8 substituted congeners from the remaining PCDD/F. The co elution of less toxic with toxic congeners can cause false TEQ related results, because mass spectrometry cannot differentiate between toxic and non toxic congeners within the same homologous group. To overcome this, the analysis is performed using at least two capillary GC columns, of different polarity. Non polar columns can separate chlorine homologous groups and all toxic congeners from each other but not from all nontoxic congeners. Thus, a polar column should be used in addition for specific separation. Exchange of a GC column on a HRGC-HRMS system is usually a time consuming procedure. Significant time saving can be achieved using a mass spectrometer coupled to two GCs, that allows switching between two different GC columns, without disturbing the measurement conditions of the mass spectrometer. The aim of the present work was to develop a method that permits to work simultaneously with both GCs in order to further improve time savings.

  8. Emission of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs from Underfiring System of Coke Oven Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Bigda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A coke oven battery is not considered as a significant source of PCDDs/PCDFs emissions; however, due to small amounts of chlorine in coal dioxins, dibenzofurans may be formed. The paper presents the attempts to determine the level of emission of PCDDs/PCDFs from the COB underfiring system and to confront the obtained results with the calculations based on the mass balance of chlorine in the coking process and reactions of both chlorophenols formation and PCDDs and PCDFs formation from mono- and polychlorophenols. There were PCDDs/PCDFs concentrations measured in flue gases from the underfiring system of two COBs at a Polish coking plant. The measurements included both an old and a new battery. The obtained concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs were lower than reported in the literature (0.5-1.7 ng I-TEQ/tcoke, while the results for old COB were on average 3 times higher than for the new one. It was found that PCDD/F emission from COB underfiring system is insignificant and that PCDDs/PCDFs formation during coal coking should consider the mechanisms of their formation from mono- and polychlorophenols, as well as the influence of process parameters on the synthesis.

  9. Optimizing bulk milk dioxin monitoring based on costs and effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lascano Alcoser, V.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Dioxins are environmental pollutants, potentially present in milk products, which have negative consequences for human health and for the firms and farms involved in the dairy chain. Dioxin monitoring in feed and food has been implemented to detect their presence and estimate their levels in food

  10. Emission of Dioxins from Danish Wood-Stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Madsen, Henrik; Hansen, K.

    1994-01-01

    The main purpose of the investigation was to estimate the annual dioxin emission from Danish wood-stoves. 4 stoves of different designs and 3 types of fuel were tested in 2 operating conditions. Sampling was carried out in a dilution tunnel, making reproducible sampling possible. The dioxin...

  11. Dioxin emissions into the air in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, J. de

    1996-01-01

    In 1989 in The Netherlands elevated dioxin concentrations were found in cow's milk originating from areas a.o. located near Municipal Solid Waste Combustion (MSWC) facilities. This induced the Dutch government to set up an extensive programme for making an inventory of all possible dioxin sources in

  12. Review of State Soil Cleanup Levels for Dioxin (December 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report summarizes a survey of state soil cleanup levels for dioxin and characterizes the science underlying these values. The objective of this project was to summarize existing state cleanup levels for dioxin in soil, together with their scientific bases where availa...

  13. Dioxin body burden among blood donors before and after the Belgian dioxin/PCB incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debacker, N.; Sasse, A.; Wouwe, N. Van; Windal, I.; Carbonnelle, S.; Overmeire, I. Van; Sartor, F.; Goeyens, L.; Oyen, H. Van [Scientific Inst. of Public Health, Brussels (Belgium); Eppe, G.; Xhrouet, C.; Pauw, E. De [Centre of Analysis of Residues in Traces, Luik (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    In spring 1999, Belgium faced a severe food contamination when about 50 kg of PCBs containing 1 g of dioxins were introduced in the food chain. The possible public health impact of this food chain contamination was subject of a debate between different scientists. According to Vrijens et al. and Bernard et al. there was no significant public health impact, whereas van Larebeke et al. presumed the opposite claiming a significant increase of cancer incidence. These risk assessments were based on measurements of dioxins/PCBs in contaminated foods and nutritional habits observed in a selected group of adolescents (14-18 years old) using simulation techniques or on the estimation of the incremental cancer risk associated with the incremental levels of exposure to dioxins/PCBs during the incident. In the meantime, an epidemiological survey has been carried out in order to measure the dioxin levels in plasma samples collected before and after the incident. The aim of this paper is to report the preliminary results of this epidemiological survey.

  14. Overview of Dioxin Kinetics and Application of Dioxin Physiologically Based Phannacokinetic (PBPK) Models to Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The available data on the pharmacokinetics of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in animals and humans have been thoroughly reviewed in literature. It is evident based on these reviews and other analyses that three distinctive features of TCDD play important roles in dete...

  15. Dioxins levels in Australia. Key findings of studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivory, A.; Mobbs, C. [Australian Government Department of the Environment and Heritage (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    The Australian Government established the National Dioxins Program (NDP) in 2001 to improve knowledge about levels of dioxins in Australia. The program aims to determine levels, assess the risks to Australians and the environment, and to consider appropriate management actions. Starting in mid 2001and completed in 2004, the studies constituted the largest survey of dioxin levels ever undertaken in Australia. The findings will contribute to debate on how to deal with dioxins in Australia, as well as helping to meet obligations under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, which Australia ratified on 20 May 2004. These studies will also contribute to a better understanding about dioxins in the southern hemisphere. This paper provides a summary of the key findings of these studies and the risk assessments.

  16. AN ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) FOR DETERMINING DIOXINS IN SEDIMENT AND SOIL SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dioxins comprise a family of compounds chemically referred to as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The most toxic of these compounds is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a known human carcinogen. Dioxins are formed ...

  17. Survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls in US meat and poultry, 2012-13: toxic equivalency levels, patterns, temporal trends and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Sara J; O'Keefe, Margaret; Muñiz-Ortiz, Jorge G; Clinch, Nelson; Basu, Pat

    2017-11-01

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducts a statistically based survey of the domestic meat supply (beef, pork, chicken and turkey) to determine current levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (no-PCBs) every 5 years. Fat samples for each slaughter class were collected from US federally licensed slaughter facilities. The samples were processed and analysed for 17 PCDD/Fs and three no-PCBs. The sum of PCDD, PCDF and no-PCB toxic equivalencies (sum-TEQ) calculated using 2005 toxic-equivalency factors for all slaughter classes ranged from non-detect (n.d.) to 6.47 pg TEQ g -1 lipid. The median sum-TEQs, when n.d. = 0.5 LOD, for beef, pork, chicken and turkey were 0.66, 0.12, 0.13 and 0.34 pg TEQ g -1 lipid respectively. A comparison of the current survey with the previous three surveys shows a declining trend, with decreasing differences between medians; differences between the median sum-TEQs from 2007-08 and 2012-13 were -10%, -29%, -33% and -25% for beef, pork, chicken and turkey respectively. Several beef samples underwent further characterisation and congener patterns from these beef samples suggested pentachlorophenol treated wood as the likely exposure source. US consumer exposure to these compounds is relatively low and no slaughter class contributed more than 26% to the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) chronic oral reference dose of 0.7 pg TEQ kg -1 bw day -1 .

  18. Formation of dioxins and furans during combustion of treated wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tame, Nigel W.; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z.; Kennedy, Eric M. [Process Safety and Environment Protection Research Group, School of Engineering, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2007-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F, dioxin) are produced in combustion of wood treated with copper-based preservatives. This review summarises and analyses the pertinent literature on the role of preservatives in the formation of dioxin in the low-temperature, vitiated environment that exists in the domestic combustion of wood, and in large-scale fires. Until recently, the role of preservatives was not thoroughly examined in the literature with respect to fires, as incineration attracted most of the research focus. However, latest studies have demonstrated that some current and emerging wood preservatives significantly increase dioxin formation during combustion in domestic stoves and in fires. The following pathways are identified: (i) copper, a common biocide that is chemically bound to the wood, is an important dioxin catalyst, (ii) preservative metals promote smouldering of wood char following cessation of flaming, providing the required temperature environment for dioxin formation, and (iii) chlorinated organics added as secondary preservative components yield dioxin precursors upon thermal decomposition. These conclusions indicate that it remains hazardous to dispose of preservative impregnated timber via domestic combustion even if arsenic is not present. (author)

  19. The proficiency testing of determination of dioxins in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, R.; Tsutsumi, T.; Maitani, T. [National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Toyoda, M. [Jissen Womens Univ., Hino (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Food intake is the main route of human dioxin exposure, making the determination of dioxins in food indispensable for risk assessment and risk management of dioxins. The uncertainty of analytical results, however, can be very great because of the low concentration of the analytes and complicated cleanup procedures. The risk assessment of dioxins based on analytical results also suffers from a similar degree of uncertainty. The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan has published ''Guideline for the Determination of Dioxins in Food'' to standardize the analytical procedures. The guideline contains the quality assurance procedures to obtain reliable analytical results and recommends participation in the relevant proficiency testing scheme. The proficiency testing provides the fair evaluation of the analytical results. The central science laboratory in England and the food and drug safety center in Japan offer the proficiency testing on food. The National Institute of Health Sciences of Japan (NIHS) also has carried out proficiency testing of dioxins in food since 1998 to assure the quality of analytical results for dioxins. In this presentation we will show the results of 5 rounds of proficiency testing.

  20. Prenatal vitamin A deficiency impairs adaptive immune responses to pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq®) in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Sukumar; Chattha, Kuldeep S; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Saif, Linda J

    2014-02-07

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is associated with increased childhood mortality and morbidity in impoverished Asian and African countries, but the impact of VAD on rotavirus (RV) vaccine or infection is poorly understood. We assessed effects of gestational and dietary induced pre- and post-natal VAD and vitamin A supplementation on immune responses to a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq(®) in a neonatal gnotobiotic pig model. Vaccine efficacy was assessed against virulent G1P[8] human rotavirus (HRV) challenge. VAD and vitamin A sufficient (VAS) piglets were derived from dietary VAD and VAS sows, respectively. VAD piglets had significantly lower levels of hepatic vitamin A compared to that of VAS piglets. RotaTeq(®)-vaccinated VAD piglets had 350-fold higher fecal virus shedding titers compared to vaccinated VAS piglets post-challenge. Only 25% of vaccinated non-vitamin A supplemented VAD piglets were protected against diarrhea compared with 100% protection rate in vaccinated non-supplemented VAS piglets post-challenge. Intestinal HRV specific immune responses were compromised in VAD piglets. Vaccinated VAD piglets had significantly lower ileal HRV IgG antibody secreting cell (ASC) responses (pre-challenge) and duodenal HRV IgA ASC responses (post-challenge) compared to vaccinated VAS piglets. Also, intestinal HRV IgA antibody titers were 11-fold lower in vaccinated VAD compared to vaccinated VAS piglets post-challenge. Persistently elevated levels of IL-8, a pro-inflammatory mediator, and lower IL-10 responses (anti-inflammatory) in vaccinated VAD compared to VAS piglets suggest more severe inflammatory responses in VAD piglets post-challenge. Moreover higher IFN-γ responses pre-challenge were observed in VAD compared to VAS piglets. The impaired vaccine-specific intestinal antibody responses and decreased immunoregulatory cytokine responses coincided with reduced protective efficacy of the RV vaccine against virulent HRV challenge in VAD piglets. In

  1. Radiolytic treatment of dioxin contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, K.A.; Hilarides, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Recent work in our laboratory has demonstrated that γ-radiolysis is a feasible method by which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) can be converted to products of negligible toxicity. In the presence of 25% water, 2.5% non-ionic surfactant and at a dose of 800 kGy greater than 98% destruction was achieved in a standard soil artificially contaminated with 100 ppb TCDD. By-product analysis has illustrated that the destruction occurs via step-wise reductive dechlorination producing a suite of lesser chlorinated dioxins. These results in combination with scavenger studies, target theory calculations and yields indicate that direct radiation effects account for the major route of destruction. Radiolysis has also been conducted on a real soil contaminated with TCDD and other chlorinated aromatic compounds verifying the results of model studies. Based on the data of these experiments some designs of batch gamma systems are considered and a discussion of estimated capital and operating costs associated with γ-radiolysis is presented. Given the high costs of the alternatives (i.e. incineration), radiolysis appears to be not only technically feasible, but it may also be economically competitive. (author)

  2. The need and Potential of Biosensors to Detect Dioxins and Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls along the Milk, Eggs and Meat Food Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chobtang, J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Haasnoot, W.; Kijlstra, A.; Meerburg, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) are hazardous toxic, ubiquitous and persistent chemical compounds, which can enter the food chain and accumulate up to higher trophic levels. Their determination requires sophisticated methods, expensive facilities and instruments,

  3. Dioxin and furan emissions from landfill gas-fired combustion units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caponi, F.R.; Wheless, E.; Frediani, D.

    1998-01-01

    The 1990 Federal Clean Air Act Amendments require the development of maximum achievable control technology standards (MACT) for sources of hazardous air pollutants, including landfill gas-fired combustion sources. The Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking (ICCR) Federal Advisory Committee is a group of stakeholders from the public and private sector whose charge is to develop recommendations for a unified set of federal toxic air emissions regulations. Specifically, the group will establish MACT standards for industrial-commercial-institutional combustion sources. The ICCR proceedings have given rise to considerable interest in potential dioxin and furan emissions from landfill gas-fired combustion units. In order to establish the potential of dioxin and furan emissions from this group of combustion sources, a world-wide literature search was conducted. A total of 22 references were evaluated. The references covered a wide range of test programs, testing methodologies and combustion equipment type. The most abundant data were for landfill gas-fired flares (shrouded and afterburners) and I.C. engines. Because of limitations in obtaining actual test reports with complete lab data and QA/QC results, and a lack of knowledge as to the exact types of waste received at the European landfills, the test data from these sources, for the purposes of this paper, are considered qualitative. The conclusion reached from review of the test data is that there is a potential for dioxin and furan emissions from landfill gas-fired combustion units, but at very low levels for well operated systems

  4. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like PCBs in Irish farmed salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruemping, R.; Hamm, S.; Stegemann, D.; Maulshagen, A. [eurofins/GfA, Muenster (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    A recent survey published by Hites in the journal Science compared the level of organochlorine contaminants including PCBs and dioxins in farmed versus wild salmon collected from around the world. Most organochlorine substances analysed in the study show a significantly higher concentration level in farmed than in wild salmon. While dioxin and PCB levels of wild fish mainly reflect the contamination level of the environment in which the fish is grown, the dioxin and PCB concentration in farmed fish may mainly be attributed to the fish feed used. In January 2004, the Irish Sea Fisheries Board (BIM) conducted the present study on the concentration of Polychlorinated Dibenzo(p)dioxins (PCDDs), Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxinlike PCBs (WHO-PCBs) in farmed salmon from two locations in Ireland. The present study should examine whether the PCDD/F and WHO-PCB levels of Irish farmed salmon correlate to the dioxin data for farmed Atlantic salmon from other countries in Northern Europe (e.g. Scotland, Faroe Islands and Norway) presented in the study by Hites. In the Hites survey, raw salmon filets with skin on were tested. Since PCBs, dioxins and other organic pollutants are mainly bound to the fish fat, a reduction of fat content by removal of the skin was supposed to lower the amount of organic contaminants. Thus, the effect of skin removal on the dioxin and PCB levels was also examined in the present study. In addition, the influence of cooking the fish meat was investigated.

  5. Study on dioxins and furans in the maternal milk in France. Press conference of June 30, 2000; Etude sur les dioxines et les furanes dans le lait maternel en France. Conference de presse du 30 juin 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs), known as 'dioxins' belong to the chemical family of the polychlorinated organic compounds (POCs). They are ubiquitous and very stable pollutants. The carcinogenicity and the accumulation of these compounds in living organisms, as well as accidents such as Seveso, have led to an increasing interest in this chemical family among the population, politics and scientists. The Health Ministry and the Environment and Energy Management Agency have entrusted the National institute for Public Health surveillance (InVS) and the Rhones-Alpes Centre of Epidemiology and Public Health (CAREPS) to conduct a study which will establish the position of France on 'dioxins' within the EU and will identify the factors which could influence the different levels in the population. This study was conducted between 1998 and 1999 in collaboration with the French lactariums. Because of the lack of acceptability for blood or adipose tissue samples, most of the studies on population exposure have been based on breast milk sample analyses. A total of 244 milk samples for 'dioxins' analysis were collected from mothers who also completed a questionnaire giving information on various factors influencing the levels. This study gives the first results in France on POC concentrations allowing a comparison with those of our european neighbouring countries. In addition, in considering future policy options, it will constitute a first point to establish a surveillance programme on exposures via maternal milk. (authors)

  6. In utero exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and anogenital distance in newborns and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafeiadi, Marina; Agramunt, Silvia; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Besselink, Harrie; Mathianaki, Kleopatra; Karakosta, Polyxeni; Spanaki, Ariana; Koutis, Antonis; Chatzi, Leda; Vrijheid, Martine; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2013-01-01

    Anogenital distance in animals is used as a measure of fetal androgen action. Prenatal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in rodents causes reproductive changes in male offspring and decreases anogenital distance. We assessed whether in utero exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds adversely influences anogenital distance in newborns and young children (median age, 16 months; range, 1-31 months). We measured anogenital distance among participants of the "Rhea" mother-child cohort study in Crete and the Hospital del Mar (HMAR) cohort in Barcelona. Anogenital distance (AGD; anus to upper penis), anoscrotal distance (ASD; anus to scrotum), and penis width (PW) were measured in 119 newborn and 239 young boys; anoclitoral (ACD; anus to clitoris) and anofourchetal distance (AFD; anus to fourchette) were measured in 118 newborn and 223 young girls. We estimated plasma dioxin-like activity in maternal blood samples collected at delivery with the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR CALUX®) bioassay. Anogenital distances were sexually dimorphic, being longer in males than females. Plasma dioxin-like activity was negatively associated with AGD in male newborns. The estimated change in AGD per 10 pg CALUX®-toxic equivalent/g lipid increase was -0.44 mm (95% CI: -0.80, -0.08) after adjusting for confounders. Negative but smaller and nonsignificant associations were observed for AGD in young boys. No associations were found in girls. Male infants may be susceptible to endocrine-disrupting effects of dioxins. Our findings are consistent with the experimental animal evidence used by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization to set recommendations for human dioxin intake.

  7. Xenoestrogenic and dioxin-like activity in blood of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Simon Erik; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the project were to (i) extract the lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the blood of 99 East Greenland polar bears and assess the combined mixture effect on the estrogen receptor (ER) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated transactivity; (ii) To evaluate...... whether the receptor transactivities were associated with selected POP markers, and (iii) compare the receptor transactivities in polar bears with earlier studies on Greenlandic Inuit. Lipophilic POPs were extracted using a combination of solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid...... induced ER response. Positive correlations were found in subadult bears between XER and several POP biomarkers. XER and XERcomp correlated positively to each other. A total of 91% of the polar bear blood extracts elicited agonistic AhR transactivity. The AhR-TCDD equivalent (AhR-TEQ) median levels were...

  8. The use of the DR CALUX bioassay and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls for screening of elevated levels of dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in eel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Ron; Bovee, Toine; Traag, Win A; Hoogerbrugge, Ronald; Baumann, Bert; Portier, Liza; Weg, Guido van de; Vries, Jaap de

    2006-01-01

    The DR CALUX bioassay is a very suitable screening method for dioxins and dioxin-like-PCBs in feed and food. This was, e. g. demonstrated in a survey in the Netherlands to control the dioxin levels in eel. The DR CALUX assay, but also indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were evaluated as a

  9. Dioxins and environment Dioxinas y medio ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena García Lobo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the generic term of dioxin is named the groups of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD and the polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF, typical representans of the persistent organic compounds (POPs. They are obtained as not desired secondary products from several industrial process in which chlorine is used in some of its phases. The dioxins have centrated in the last decade an important part if the medical investigations in environmental health do to its notable toxicity, since they are one of the more powerful toxic chemical substances created by mankind, characterized for affecting the nervous and inmunitary system, being implicated into appearance of difference types of cancer and causing the appearance of several endocrine disorders, because of what they have been nowadays classified as endocrine disruptors. On degradation, bioaccumulation and on a large scale atmospheric transport capacity between the several environmental phases, make them to be considerate nowadays as dangerous compounds for human beings.Con el término genérico dioxinas se designa al grupo de las dibenzo-p-dioxinas policloradas (PCDD y de los dibenzofuranos policlorados (PCDF, representantes típicos de los compuestos orgánicos persistentes (COPs. Se obtienen como productos secundarios no deseados de diversos procesos industriales en los que se emplea cloro en alguna de sus etapas. Las dioxinas han centrado en la última década una parte importante de la investigación médica en salud ambiental debido a su notable toxicidad, ya que son las sustancias químicas peligrosas más potentes creadas por el hombre, afectando al sistema nervioso e inmunitario, estando implicadas en la aparición de distintos tipos de cáncer y provocando la aparición de alteraciones hormonales, clasificándose actualmente como disruptores endocrinos. Por otra parte, su persistencia en el medio ambiente, resistencia a la degradación, bioacumulación y capacidad de transporte atmosf

  10. Dihydroxylation of 4-substituted 1,2-dioxines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Tony V; Pedersen, Daniel Sejer; Taylor, Dennis K

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of 2-C-branched erythritol derivatives, including the plant sugar (+/-)-2-C-methylerythritol 2, was achieved through a dihydroxylation/reduction sequence on a series of 4-substituted 1,2-dioxines 3. The asymmetric dihydroxylation of 1,2-dioxines was examined, providing access...... to optically enriched dihydroxy 1,2-dioxanes 4. The synthesized 1,2-dioxanes were converted to other erythro sugar analogues and tetrahydrofurans through controlled cleavage of the endoperoxide linkage....

  11. Dynamic zebrafish interactome reveals transcriptional mechanisms of dioxin toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Alexeyenko

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate hypotheses regarding the mechanisms by which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin causes toxicity, we analyzed global gene expression changes in developing zebrafish embryos exposed to this potent toxicant in the context of a dynamic gene network. For this purpose, we also computationally inferred a zebrafish (Danio rerio interactome based on orthologs and interaction data from other eukaryotes.Using novel computational tools to analyze this interactome, we distinguished between dioxin-dependent and dioxin-independent interactions between proteins, and tracked the temporal propagation of dioxin-dependent transcriptional changes from a few genes that were altered initially, to large groups of biologically coherent genes at later times. The most notable processes altered at later developmental stages were calcium and iron metabolism, embryonic morphogenesis including neuronal and retinal development, a variety of mitochondria-related functions, and generalized stress response (not including induction of antioxidant genes. Within the interactome, many of these responses were connected to cytochrome P4501A (cyp1a as well as other genes that were dioxin-regulated one day after exposure. This suggests that cyp1a may play a key role initiating the toxic dysregulation of those processes, rather than serving simply as a passive marker of dioxin exposure, as suggested by earlier research.Thus, a powerful microarray experiment coupled with a flexible interactome and multi-pronged interactome tools (which are now made publicly available for microarray analysis and related work suggest the hypothesis that dioxin, best known in fish as a potent cardioteratogen, has many other targets. Many of these types of toxicity have been observed in mammalian species and are potentially caused by alterations to cyp1a.

  12. Dust levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs) in the Taiwanese elementary school classrooms: Assessment of the risk to school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yan-You; Que, Danielle E; Chuang, Chun-Yu; Chao, How-Ran; Shy, Cherng-Gueih; Hsu, Yi-Chyun; Lin, Chun-Wen; Chuang, Kuo Pin; Tsai, Chih-Chung; Tayo, Lemmuel L

    2016-12-01

    Elementary school classroom dust is an important source of exposure to polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans and diphenyl ethers (PBDD/DF/DEs) for school-age children. Our goal is thus to investigate concentrations of PBDD/DF/DEs in elementary school classroom dust to further assess the impact on school-age children via ingestion. The dust from classrooms, including both normal (NR) and computer classrooms (CR), was collected from six urban and four rural schools. Fourteen PBDEs and twelve PBDD/Fs were measured using high-resolution gas-chromatography/high-resolution mass-spectrometry. The mean levels of Σ 14 PBDEs in NR and CR dust from the urban classrooms were 370 and 2510ng/g and those whose dust from the rural classrooms were 464 and 1780ng/g. The means of ΣPBDD/Fs were 0.0401ng-WHO 2005 -TEQ/g (concentration: 4.72ng/g) in urban NR dust, 0.0636ng-WHO 2005 -TEQ/g (7.51ng/g) in urban CR dust, 0.0281ng-WHO 2005 TEQ/g (3.60ng/g) in rural NR dust, and 0.0474ng-WHO 2005 TEQ/g (6.28ng/g) in rural CR dust. The PBDEs pattern in NR dust was quite different from that in CR dust, but the PBDD/Fs patterns in NR and CR dust were similar. A linearly significant correlation coefficient (n=20, r=0.862, pschool classrooms. This study assessed the risks (daily intake and cancer and non-cancer risks) of PBDEs and PBDD/Fs for the children from the classroom dust, and the calculated risk values did not exceed the related thresholds. With regard to the exposure scenarios for school-age children in an indoor environment, the results suggest that they might ingest more dust PBDD/DF/DEs in their homes than in the schools. In conclusion, the exposure of Taiwanese elementary school children to PBDD/DF/DEs via indoor dust was with a safe range based on our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Documents for Recommended Toxicity Equivalency Factors for Human Health Risk Assessments of Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA’s) updated approach for evaluating the human health risks from exposures to environmental media containing dioxin-like compounds (DLCs).

  14. Incinerators and health. Exposure to dioxines of the population living near U.I.O.M. state of knowledge and protocol of an exposure study; Incinerateurs et sante. Exposition aux dioxines de la population vivant a proximite des UIOM. Etat des connaissances et protocole d'une etude d'exposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-15

    For several years, dioxines, very stable and ubiquitous pollutants that can be found in the food chain, have drawn continuous attention from actors implicated in waste management, from the general population and from scientists. Indeed, waste incineration is still a cause for concern for the general public in light of the significant emission of pollutants, specifically dioxines, emitted by certain waste incinerators that were recently shut down or brought up to standards. Between 1998 and 2003, the total number of incinerators in France decreased from 300 to 123, and their dioxin emissions were significantly reduced. Public health studies are nevertheless necessary because of the continued presence of dioxines in the environment. The Institut de veille sanitaire (National Institute of Public Health Surveillance) and the Agence francaise de securite sanitaire des aliments (French Food Safety Agency) convened a group of experts to better understand the dioxin exposure of people residing in close proximity to municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) as well as the determinants of this exposure, specifically the consumption of local products. This report gathers the existing data necessary for the production of a study protocol. It contains four parts dealing respectively with: - the contribution of MSWIs to dioxin exposure by air and food consumption while identifying relevant criteria to select MSWIs for the protocol and the method determining the area(s) of study; - the most adapted food study method to estimate dioxin exposure via food consumption, specifically the consumption of food commodities produced in the local atmospheric deposition area of a MSWI and the identification of the type of population most appropriate for the study; - a selection of the most relevant biological indicators of dioxin exposure and PCBs, their levels as recorded in various countries and their variation factors; - and a proposal for a multicenter study protocol. This study will be

  15. Incinerators and health. Exposure to dioxines of the population living near U.I.O.M. state of knowledge and protocol of an exposure study; Incinerateurs et sante. Exposition aux dioxines de la population vivant a proximite des UIOM. Etat des connaissances et protocole d'une etude d'exposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-11-15

    For several years, dioxines, very stable and ubiquitous pollutants that can be found in the food chain, have drawn continuous attention from actors implicated in waste management, from the general population and from scientists. Indeed, waste incineration is still a cause for concern for the general public in light of the significant emission of pollutants, specifically dioxines, emitted by certain waste incinerators that were recently shut down or brought up to standards. Between 1998 and 2003, the total number of incinerators in France decreased from 300 to 123, and their dioxin emissions were significantly reduced. Public health studies are nevertheless necessary because of the continued presence of dioxines in the environment. The Institut de veille sanitaire (National Institute of Public Health Surveillance) and the Agence francaise de securite sanitaire des aliments (French Food Safety Agency) convened a group of experts to better understand the dioxin exposure of people residing in close proximity to municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) as well as the determinants of this exposure, specifically the consumption of local products. This report gathers the existing data necessary for the production of a study protocol. It contains four parts dealing respectively with: - the contribution of MSWIs to dioxin exposure by air and food consumption while identifying relevant criteria to select MSWIs for the protocol and the method determining the area(s) of study; - the most adapted food study method to estimate dioxin exposure via food consumption, specifically the consumption of food commodities produced in the local atmospheric deposition area of a MSWI and the identification of the type of population most appropriate for the study; - a selection of the most relevant biological indicators of dioxin exposure and PCBs, their levels as recorded in various countries and their variation factors; - and a proposal for a multicenter study protocol. This study will be

  16. Emissions of PCDD/Fs in flue gas from a medical waste incinerator in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiao; Liu, Tao; Qiang, Ning; Li, Zhaohai; Cao, Yiqi; Xie, Li; Zhao, Yuanchen

    2017-12-01

    Emission characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 17 congeners from a medical waste incineration plants in Shanghai, China were investigated. Results showed that the dioxin concentration ranged from 5.0 to 23.3ng I-TEQ (Toxic Equivalent Quantity) Nm-3 under normal combustion concentration. The high dioxin incidence area was found in the boiler outlet and the bag filter inlet, and over 95% of the dioxins were present in the gaseous state. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) accounted for a higher proportion of the total amount of PCDD/Fs than polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs).

  17. Emission profiles of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from secondary metallurgy industries in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Pedro; Viana, Paula; Vinhas, Tereza; Rivera, J; Gaspar, Elvira M S M

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports, for the first time, a study of dioxin emissions from 10 siderurgies and metallurgies, secondary copper, aluminum and lead metallurgies, in Portugal. The study reports the emission factors and total emission amounts of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The congener patterns were characterized and are discussed. The results showed that the total amount of PCDFs is higher than PCDDs in flue gas of each industrial unit. The toxic equivalent emission factors of pollutants emitted are 3098-3338 ngI-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 597-659 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in siderurgies production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 3.9-4.5 g I-TEQyr(-1)), 50-152 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 24-121 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.0010-0.0016 g I-TEQyr(-1)) and 5.8-5715 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 0.49-259 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in non-ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.00014-0.12 g I-TEQyr(-1)). The HCB emission from siderurgies production is 0.94-3.2 mg t(-1) (total estimated emission amounts released 0.94-3.8 g yr(-1)), being much smaller, residual, in the emissions of the other types of plants (0.0012-0.026 mg t(-1) production and total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.013-1.7 mg yr(-1)). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dioxines en PCB's in Chinese wolhandkrab; invloed van grootte en variatie door het seizoen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.J.J.; Vries, de P.; Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2015-01-01

    De monitoringsstudies naar de vervuilingsgraad van Chinese Wolhandkrab (WHK) die vanaf 2010 in Nederlandse wateren worden uitgevoerd tonen aan dat de WHK sterk vervuild kan zijn met polychloordibenzo-p-dioxines en -furanen (PCDD/F's, verderop aangeduid als 'dioxines'), met dioxine-achtige

  19. Formation and removal of dioxins in a MSWI during different operating periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.C.; Hwang, J.F. [Center for Environmental, Safety, and Health Technology, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsin-Chu (Taiwan). Environmental Health and Air Pollution Division; Chang, M.B.; Chi, K.H. [National Central University, Chungli (Taiwan). Graduate Inst. of Environmental Engineering

    2004-09-15

    There was little literature to report the dioxin emission concentrations and characteristics during start-up and burndown periods. This research aims to establish the databases of dioxin concentrations in the flue gas and evaluate the dioxin removal efficiencies by air pollution control devices (APCDs) at different operating periods (during start-up, normal operating and burn down periods).

  20. A chain model for dioxins: from emission to cow's milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slob W; Klepper O; van Jaarsveld JA

    1993-01-01

    A chain model for dioxins is discussed relating dioxin levels in cow's milk to emissions. It was used to explain the elevated dioxin concentrations found in cow's milk at various MSW incinerators. It also served as an aid in the selection of locations for milk analyses in still

  1. INFLUENCE OF SHORT-TERM DIETARY MEASURES ON DIOXIN CONCENTRATIONS IN HUMAN-MILK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PLUIM, HJ; BOERSMA, ER; KRAMER, [No Value; OLIE, K; VANDERSLIKKE, JW; KOPPE, JG

    Breast-feeding may expose infants to high levels of toxic chlorinated dioxins. To diminish intake of these lipophilic compounds by the baby, two diets were tested for their ability to reduce concentrations of dioxins in human milk. The diets were a low-fat/high-carbohydrate/low-dioxin diet (about

  2. 75 FR 17857 - Removal of Obsolete References to Herbicides Containing Dioxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Herbicides Containing Dioxin AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... health effects of exposure to herbicides containing dioxin and radiation to remove the obsolete references to herbicides containing dioxin. This final rule reflects changes made by the Agent Orange Act of...

  3. Effect of flock Size on Dioxin Levels in eggs from Chickens kept Outside

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijlstra, A.; Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2007-01-01

    To decrease dioxin uptake by the general population the European Union (EU) has set limits to the dioxin content of many foodstuffs including eggs. Eggs from free foraging chickens are known to have a higher dioxin content compared with confined laying hens, and the question is whether these eggs

  4. Impacts of cooking technique on polychlorinated biphenyl and polychlorinated dioxins/furan concentrations in fish and fish products with intake estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Breakell, Kenneth; Verigin, Victor; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Del Gobbo, Liana; Diamond, Miriam; Vanderlinden, Loren; Sit, Daniel

    2013-01-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations were determined in composites of 18 different fish products and were prepared as raw, baked, boiled, and fried. ∑PCB concentrations were found to range from 0.12 ng·g(-1) whole weight (ww) in raw octopus to 33 ng·g(-1) ww in baked mackerel. Boiled monkfish was found to have the lowest ∑PCDD/F concentrations (0.41 pg·g(-1) ww), while maximum concentrations were observed in fried catfish (59 pg·g(-1) ww). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in fish were generally reduced during cooking, although differences were small. The average PCB reduction in finfish was 7.9%, while an increase in PCB mass was observed in non-finfish (2.9%). PCDD/F losses, on average, were observed in both the finfish (3.6%) and non-finfish products (25%). Maximum ∑PCB, ∑PCDD/F, and TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) (toxic equivalency) intakes, based on 150 g serving size, were determined to be 3300 ng (mackerel), 6600 pg (catfish), and 270 pg (catfish), respectively. PCB and PCDD/F changes associated with cooking generally were small (fish products (e.g., catfish).

  5. Human dietary exposure and levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) in free-range eggs close to a secondary aluminum smelter, Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadrone, S.; Brizio, P.; Nespoli, R.; Stella, C.; Abete, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    PCDD/Fs and PCBs are environmentally persistent substances that have been associated with adverse effects on human health. Contamination of soils, animal feed and pastures leads to their bioaccumulation of in food products of animal origin, which are considered the major source of intake of these contaminants in humans. We analyzed eggs from free-range hens, sampled from small farms, located within a distance of 4.5 km from a secondary aluminum smelter in Northern Italy. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs were higher in eggs from locations close to the plant, and strongly exceeded the limits set by EU Regulation 1259/2011 (2.5 pg WHO TEQ fat g"−"1 for PCDD/Fs, 5.0 pg WHO TEQ g"−"1 for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs L, 40 ng g"−"1 for NDL-PCBs). Consuming contaminated eggs may pose a risk for human health, especially for children (≤9 years) and infants (≤3 years), due to the 2-fold excess of the current exposure limits. - Highlights: • We analyzed free-range eggs from farms close to a secondary aluminum smelter (ALS). • Concentrations of dioxins and PCBs strongly exceeded the limit set by EU Regulation. • Concentrations decrease at increasing distances from the plant. • Consuming contaminated eggs may pose a health risk for humans. - Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs are of concern in free-range eggs close to a secondary aluminum smelter.

  6. Dioxin exposure and porcine reproductive hormonal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoraszczuk Ewa L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the action of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD during both the follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle, the direct effect of TCDD was investigated in vitro using a system of primary monolayer cell culture. Granulosa and theca cells were collected from the preovulatory follicles and cultured as a co-culture, thus resembling follicles in vivo. Luteal cells were isolated from the corpora lutea collected during the midluteal phase. In both cases cells were isolated from the ovaries of animals exhibiting natural estrus cycle. Results of these experiments suggest that TCDD decreases estradiol secretion by follicular cells and progesterone secretion by luteal cells in a dose-dependent manner. It was also shown that TCDD disrupts steroidogenesis through its influence on the activity of enzymes involved in the steroid biosynthesis cascade. In luteal cells, its action is mediated via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR and is probably independent of estrogen receptor (ER stimulation. Endocrine disruptors that interfere with estradiol production in the follicles can act as ovulatory disruptors, and while interfering with progesterone production by luteal cells they can act as abortifacients.

  7. Dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in farmed salmon of various origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl, H. [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Ernaehrung und Nahrung, Hamburg (Germany); Ruoff, U. [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Ernaehrung und Nahrung, Kiel (Germany); Schwind, K.H.; Jira, W. [Bundesforschungszentrum fuer Ernaehrung und Nahrung, Kulmbach (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    With a market share of 8.4% in 2001 (approx. 100,000 t) farmed salmon is one of the most important fish species on the German market. The world wide production of salmon in 2001 was approximately 1.2 Mio t. Norway has produced around 450,000 t of Atlantic salmon of which 60,000 t has been exported to Germany. Other important suppliers of salmon to the German market are Scotland, Denmark, Chile and Ireland. The annual amount from Ireland is relatively small, being approximately 2,000 t. Most salmon is raised under conventional farming conditions. During the last years also high priced organically grown salmon is available on the German market, mainly produced in Ireland. With 800 t per year the market share of organically farmed salmon is less than 1%. Within the context of a study to develop methods for the detection of organically produced products taking salmon as example it was checked if the contaminant levels and/or the contaminant patterns are suitable to differentiate between organically and conventionally farmed salmon. Conventionally farmed salmon, referred as to farmed salmon, was collected from different European farms; organically farmed salmon, referred as to organic salmon, came from Ireland as well as wild Atlantic salmon, which was included into the study. In the present study dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs, marker PCBs and a range of organochlorine pesticides (toxaphene, chlordane, DDT, HCB etc.) in the muscle meat of salmon were investigated.

  8. Rapid methods for dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs in food and feedingstuffs. State of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnisch, P.A. [eurofins-GfA, Muenster (Germany); Hoogenboom, R. [RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    The increasing number of local dioxin crises since 2002 becoming more and more apparent due to stricter controls of feed and food in the European Union and the globally increasing number of countries applying similar guidelines make it necessary to establish reliable, time and cost-effective screening methods for the dioxin intake through nutritional pathways. Five years after the last overview presentation about all kinds of different bio-analytical detection methods (BDMs) and the establishment of quality guidelines for screening methods, time has come to include as well the improvements in the chemical methods to speed up the analysis. This review gives an overview about the state-of-the-art improvements and gives a future outlook for both methods, chemical and bio-analytical approach for rapid analyses of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Now several new ways of improvement are currently in the pipeline of research and testing, such as PCR, proteomic biomarkers and in case of the clean-up ASE11, PowerPrep and different detection methods as well as different other ways of indicators for dioxins (e.g. correlations to fatty acids).

  9. Dioxins: diagnostic and prognostic challenges arising from complex mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysavy, Noel M.; Maaetoft-Udsen, Kristina; Turner, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Dioxins are ubiquitous environmental challenges to humans, with a pervasiveness that arises from 200?years of rapid industrialization and mechanization of Western societies and which is now extending into the developing world. In spite of their penetrance of the human biota, these compounds...... such as cancer and diabetes, which are already multifactorial and highly complex, creates the context for the current review paper. Here, we summarize dioxin exposure paradigms and the resulting physiological effects that have been documented in animals and humans. Novel insights into potential endogenous end...... exogenous ligands, as well as the mechanisms by which these ligands impact acute and chronic cellular processes, are discussed. We develop the idea that the diagnosis of dioxin exposure, the subtleties of the cellular effects of the compounds and prognosis of the long-term effects of exposure are problems...

  10. Gamma radiation for the decontamination of soil containing dioxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhor, M.P.; Wethington, J.A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Dioxin-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) contamination poses an environmental danger. Different methods for the cleanup of contaminated sites have been proposed. The G value for dioxin dispersed in soil wetted with ethanol is much greater than G values for typical aromatic hydrocarbons. Doses > 6.24 x 10 23 eV/kg lead to decreasing rates of destruction of TCDD, and doses > 24.97 x 10 23 eV/kg are not very effective. Gamma irradiation of contaminated soil apparently will not result in large (powers of 10) decontamination factor. The concept of using gamma radiation for the degradation of TCDD in contaminated soil is about as good or as bad as other methods being tested

  11. The European Dioxin Emission Inventory. Stage II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quass, U.; Fermann, M.; Broeker, G.

    2001-07-01

    For Stage II of the European Dioxin Project the following objectives were set: - Amendment of existing emission data collected for most relevant emission sources in order to reduce uncertainties of emission estimates. Collecting first emission data from countries not yet performing dioxin emission measurement programs. Extending the inventory of dioxin emissions to ambient air produced in Stage I by a complementary study on emissions to land and water. Extending the regional scope of data collection to countries in Central Europe. The report of Stage II of the European Dioxin Project is presented in 3 Volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview on the background and approach of different activities carried out and on the results obtained. These results are put into a broader view regarding the dioxin reduction measures in Europe leading to conclusions and recommendation for future work. Volume 2 of the report contains a detailed presentation of the sub-projects carried out. The chapters of Volume 2 are structured in a similar manner and start with a short summary in order to allow for a fast cross-reading. In the case of the desk-top studies an overview of the main results or statements is given. Regarding emission measurements details on the experimental set-up and the facilities being investigated are presented. Volume 3 contains a re-evaluation of the dioxin emission inventory presented for the most relevant sources types in the Stage I report. New data gathered from the projects of Stage II as well as from independent activities in the European countries are considered for a revision of the 1995 emission estimates. Additionally, based on current trends and activities the PCDD/F emissions for the years 2000 and 2005 are estimated. Finally, an attempt is made to evaluate the PCDD/F emission reduction rates which might be possible to achieve by the year 2005 compared to 1985. (orig.)

  12. Correlations between dioxin-like and indicators PCBs: Potential consequences for environmental studies involving fish or sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babut, M.; Miege, C.; Villeneuve, B.; Abarnou, A.; Duchemin, J.; Marchand, P.; Narbonne, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Among the numerous PCB congeners, most of the dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) need to be characterized by hyphenated techniques. It has been shown in several instances that these congeners are well related to the total PCB content in fish. We examined datasets collected mainly in France, on freshwater and marine fish and sediments. A statistical model linking DL- and indicator PCBs was developed for a dataset composed of freshwater fishes, and proved to predict well DL-PCBs from indicator PCBs in all other fish sets, including marine ones. Type II error rates remained low in almost all fish sets. A similar correlation was observed in sediments. Non-dioxin-like PCBs elicit various adverse effects and represent 95% of the total PCBs. A European guideline for them is needed; the correlation between DL- and indicator PCBs could help develop this standard in the future. - Dioxin-like PCBs in fish and maybe sediments are rather well predicted by indicator PCBs.

  13. Dioxin-like activity of brominated dioxins as individual compounds or mixtures in in vitro reporter gene assays with rat and mouse hepatoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, G; Nakamura, M; Michinaka, C; Tue, N M; Handa, H; Takigami, H

    2017-10-01

    In vitro reporter gene assays detecting dioxin-like compounds have been developed and validated since the middle 1990's, and applied to the determination of dioxin-like activities in various samples for their risk management. Data on characterizing the potency of individual brominated dioxins and their activity in mixture with chlorinated dioxins are still limited on the cell-based assay. This study characterized the dioxin-like activities of the 32 brominated dioxins, such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs), coplanar polybrominated biphenyls, mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PXDFs), as a sole component or in a mixture by DR-CALUX (dioxin-responsive chemically activated luciferase expression) using the rat hepatoma H4IIE cell line and XDS-CALUX (xenobiotic detection systems-chemically activated luciferase expression) assays using the mouse hepatoma H1L6.1 cell line. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD-relative potencies (REPs) of most of the brominated dioxins were within a factor of 10 of the WHO toxicity equivalency factor (WHO-TEF) for the chlorinated analogues. The REPs of a few PXDFs were an order of magnitude higher than the corresponding WHO-TEFs, indicating their toxicological importance. Results with reconstituted mixtures suggest that the activity of brominated and chlorinated dioxins in both CALUX assays was dose-additive. Thus, obtained results indicated the applicability of the CALUX assays as screening tools of brominated dioxins together with their chlorinated analogues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of dioxins in marine copepods and fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiong; Yang Liuyan; Wang Wenxiong

    2011-01-01

    Despite the great concerns about dioxins in the marine environments, the biokinetics and bioaccumulation of these compounds in marine organisms remains little known. Using radioactive tracers the aqueous uptake, dietary assimilation efficiency, and elimination of dioxins were measured in marine phytoplankton, copepods and seabream. The calculated uptake rate constant of dioxins decreased with increasing trophic levels, whereas the dietary assimilation efficiency (AE) was 28.5-57.6% in the copepods and 36.6-70.2% in the fish. The dietary AE was highly dependent on the food concentrations and food type. The elimination rate constant of dioxin in the copepods varied with different exposure pathways as well as food concentration and food type. Biokinetic calculation showed that dietary accumulation was the predominant pathway for dioxin accumulation in marine copepods and fish. Aqueous uptake can be an important pathway only when the bioconcentration of dioxins in the phytoplankton was low. - Highlights: → Radiotracer was used to quantify the biokinetics of dioxins in a marine food chain. → Aqueous uptake rate of dioxins decreased with increasing trophic levels. → Dietary assimilation efficiencies were comparable between the copepods and the fish. → Both food type and density significantly affected the dietary assimilation of dioxins. → Diet was the predominant pathway for dioxin accumulation in marine copepods and fish. - Biokinetic calculation showed that dietary accumulation was the predominant pathway for dioxin accumulation in marine copepods and fish.

  15. Scientific opinion on the assessment of a decontamination process for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fish oil by physical filtration with activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    the amount of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs). All feed decontamination processes must comply with the acceptability criteria specified in the Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786. The data...... to demonstrate the safe disposal of the waste material. The CONTAM Panel concluded that on the basis of the information submitted by the feed business operator the proposed decontamination process to remove dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and DL-PCBs from the fish oil by means of physical filtration with activated carbon...

  16. Ecotoxicity and risk to human fish consumers of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish near the Hanford Site (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delistraty, Damon

    2013-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to quantify three groups of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (i.e., dioxin-like toxic equivalents [TEQ], non-dioxin-like PCBs, total PCBs) in fish in several species, tissues, and locations in the Columbia River near the Hanford Site. For TEQ and total PCBs, fish ecotoxicity and risk to human fish consumers were also evaluated. Non-dioxin-like PCBs were not assessed for toxicity, due to lack of available benchmarks. In sturgeon liver, TEQ was significantly higher (Pfillet than in other species (except carp) and significantly higher (Pfillet, relative to bass. All PCB residues in carcass were significantly elevated (Pfillet. In addition to PCB source, many factors (e.g., dietary composition, tissue lipid content, fish mobility and home range, age, toxicokinetic processes, seasonal adaptations) influence patterns in PCB bioaccumulation across species, tissues, and locations. TEQ and total PCB residues in liver, fillet, and carcass, observed in this study, were below corresponding no effect residues for TEQ and Aroclors in the literature for fish survival, growth, and reproduction. In contrast, TEQ and total PCBs in fillet in this study exceeded USEPA tissue screening levels for cancer (1E-6 risk) and noncancer (hazard quotient [HQ]=1) toxicity for human fish consumers. Key uncertainties in these comparisons to assess toxicity relate to variation in fish species sensitivity to PCBs and use of Aroclor data in the literature to represent total PCBs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Brominated Dioxins: Little-Known New Health Hazards - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskorska-Pliszczyńska Jadwiga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the present state of the science concerning the polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs and dibenzofurans (PBDFs. Everywhere in the world people are exposed to anthropogenic origin chemicals. Some of them are long-lived organic compounds, which persist over the years in the environment. Persistent organic pollutants, such as organohalogen compounds, accumulate in environmental and biological compartments and have adverse effects on the health of humans and animals. Little is known about the brominated and mixed chloro/bromo dioxin and furans. Existing literature suggests that brominated dioxins and furans have similar toxicity profiles to their chlorinated analogues. The exposure data are extremely limited, showing a major data gap in estimating the potential environmental and health risk of these chemicals. The rapid increase in the use of brominated flame retardants (the main source of these pollutants has raised the level of concern over environmental and health damage from brominated dioxins and furans. It is likely that human as well as wildlife exposure to these contaminants will increase with their greater use. The findings reported here present strong evidence of the PBDDs and PBDFs as an emerging new class of contaminants.

  18. Sludge as dioxins suppressant in hospital waste incineration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, M.; Li, X.; Yang, J.; Chen, T.; Lu, S.; Buekens, A.G.; Olie, K.; Yan, J.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen containing compounds such as ammonia, urea and amines can effectively inhibit the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Sewage sludge accumulates both sulfur and nitrogen during wastewater treatment so it could be used to reduce PCDD/Fs formation.

  19. Dioxin monitoring in fats oils for the feed industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, van E.D.; Sterrenburg, P.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present project was to determine the most critical steps in the production of fats and oils. First, production processes of vegetables oils, animal fat, fish oil, biodiesel and fat blending were studied and experts from the industry as well as in-house dioxin experts were consulted to

  20. Effect of ARA9 on dioxin receptor mediated transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, M.J.; Whitelaw, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    The dioxin (Aryl hydrocarbon) receptor (DR) is a unique bHLH transcription factor which is activated by binding of planar aromatic hydrocarbons typified by dioxin (TCDD). The active receptor is key to metabolism of aryl hydrocarbon xenobiotics by being a potent inducer of CYP1A1 gene activity. Chlorinated dioxins are inert to metabolism and initiate multifarious toxicities, including potent tumour promotion. These ill-effects are mediated by the activated DR and we are studying the mechanisms by which the ligand binding domain of the DR controls activity of the protein. The DR ligand binding domain resides within a PAS (Per/Arnt/Sim homology) region which is contiguous with the bHLH. The latent bHLH/PAS dioxin receptor (DR) is found in the cytoplasm of most mammalian cell types in a complex with heat shock protein 90, a novel immunophilin like protein termed ARA9/XAP2/AIP, and the co-chaperone p23. Here we use antisense ARA9 constructs to reveal that in the absence of ARA9, the DR is unable to form a transcriptionally active complex. Co-expression of antisense ARA9 with a form of the DR which is constitutively targeted to the nucleus leads to dramatically decreased levels of the nuclear DR protein, implying that ARA9 may function beyond its currently proposed role in cytoplasmic retention of the latent DR

  1. THE INVENTORY OF DIOXINS IN THE CHECHEN REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Y. Shahtamirov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of calculations of the emission of dioxins in ambient air from stationary sources, transport and combustion processes on the territory of the Chechen Republic in different periods of industrial development. The main sources are the processes of uncontrolled burning of solid waste, fires and transport.

  2. Trend of cancer risk of Chinese inhabitants to dioxins due to changes in dietary patterns: 1980-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Ling, Zaili; Zhao, Yuan; Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin

    2016-02-01

    Food ingestion is a major route for human exposure and body burden to dioxins. We estimated the potential influence of changes in dietary patterns in Chinese population on human health risk to 2,3,7,8-TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) over the last three decades. We performed multiple modeling scenario investigations to discriminate the contribution of 2,3,7,8-TCDD emissions and changes in dietary patterns to the cancer risks (CR) to dioxins. Results showed that changes in dietary patterns, featured by decreasing consumption of total grain (including all unprocessed grains) and vegetables and increasing intake of animal-derived foodstuffs, caused increasing CR from 7.3 × 10-8 in 1980 to 1.1 × 10-7 in 2009. Varying dietary patterns contributed 17% to the CR of Chinese population in 2009 under the fixed emission in 1980. The CR to 2,3,7,8-TCDD in urban and eastern China residents was higher considerably than those who lived in rural area and western China, attributable to higher emissions, household income, and greater intake of animal-derived foodstuffs in urban and eastern China inhabitants. On the other hand, more rapid increasing trend of the CR was found in rural residents due to their more rapid increase in the consumption of fat-dominated foods as compared with urban residents.

  3. Perinatal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and infant growth and body mass index at seven years: A pooled analysis of three European birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iszatt, Nina; Stigum, Hein; Govarts, Eva; Murinova, Lubica Palkovicova; Schoeters, Greet; Trnovec, Tomas; Legler, Juliette; Thomsen, Cathrine; Koppen, Gudrun; Eggesbø, Merete

    2016-09-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Experimental studies suggest perinatal exposure to EDCs results in later obesity. However, the few epidemiological investigations on dioxins are inconclusive. We investigated perinatal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, infant growth and body mass index (BMI) in childhood. We pooled data from 3 European birth cohorts (Belgian, Norwegian, Slovak) with exposure assessment in cord blood or breast milk. Two cohorts had dioxin-like toxicity assessed using dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase expression (DR-CALUX) bioassay and one cohort had measured concentrations of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenols with CALUX relative potency values applied. Growth was cohort- and sex-specific change in weight-for-age z-score between birth and 24months (N=367). BMI was calculated at around 7years (median 7.17, interquartile range [IQR] 7.00-7.37years, N=251), and overweight defined according to international standards for children equivalent to adult BMI >25kg/m(2) (Cole and Lobstein, 2012). We fitted multivariate models using generalized estimating equations, and tested effect modification by sex, breastfeeding and cohort. Results per 10pgCALUXTEQ/g lipid increase in exposure. Dioxin exposure was highest in the Belgian and lowest in the Norwegian cohort; median (IQR) of the pooled sample 13 (12.0) pgCALUXTEQ/g lipid. Perinatal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds appeared associated with increased growth between 0 and 24months (adjusted estimate for change in z-score: β=0.07, 95% CI: -0.01, 0.14). At 7years, dioxins exposure was associated with a statistically significant increase in BMI in girls (adjusted estimate for BMI units β=0.49, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.91) but not in boys (β=-0.03, 95% CI: -0.55, 0.49) (p-interaction=0.044). Furthermore, girls had a 54% (-6%, 151%) increased risk of overweight at 7years (p-interaction=0.023). Perinatal exposure to

  4. Dioxin-like PCB in indoor air contaminated with different sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzow, B.G.J.; Mohr, S.; Ostendorp, G. [Landesamt fuer Gesundheit und Arbeitssicherheit des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek (Germany); Kerst, M.; Koerner, W. [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz, Augsburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been used in public building constructions for various purposes in the 1960s and 1970s, mainly as an additive to concrete, caulking, grout, paints, as a major constitutent of permanent elastic Thiokol rubber sealants and flame retardant coatings of acoustic ceiling tiles. Offgazing of semivolatile PCB from building materials can nowadays still result in considerable house-dust contamination and in indoor air concentrations exceeding 10,000 ng/m{sup 3}. In Germany, PCB levels in indoor air in non-occupational settings have been regulated with a tolerable total PCB concentration of 300 ng /m{sup 3} and an intervention level of 3000 ng/m{sup 3}. Lower re-entry criteria have been proposed by Michaud et al. Technical mixtures of PCB contain dioxin-like non- and mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners and are contaminated with trace amounts of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and mainly dibenzofurans (PCDF), sharing overlapping toxic effects and physicochemical properties. We report here on levels of dioxinlike PCB measured in buildings with various PCB sources and correlations among PCDD/PCDF and dioxin-like PCB and di-ortho PCB.

  5. DNA binding properties of dioxin receptors in wild-type and mutant mouse hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthill, S.; Poellinger, L.

    1988-01-01

    The current model of action of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin) entails stimulation of target gene transcription via the formation of dioxin-receptor complexes and subsequent accumulation of the complexes within the cell nucleus. Here, the authors have analyzed the DNA binding properties of the dioxin receptor in wild-type mouse hepatoma (Hepa 1c1c7) cells and a class of nonresponsive mutant cells which fail to accumulate dioxin-receptor complexes within the nucleus in vivo. In vitro, both the wild-type and mutant [ 3 H]dioxin-receptor complexes exhibited low affinity for DNA-cellulose (5-8% and around 4% retention, respectively) in the absence of prior biochemical manipulations. However, following chromatography on heparin-Sepharose, the wild-type but not the mutant dioxin receptor was transformed to a species with an increased affinity for DNA (40-50% retention on DNA-cellulose). The gross molecular structure of the mutant, non DNA binding dioxin receptor did not appear to be altered as compared to that of the wild-type receptor. These results imply that the primary deficiency in the mutant dioxin receptor form may reside at the DNA binding level and that, in analogy to steroid hormone receptors, DNA binding of the receptor may be an essential step in the regulation of target gene transcription by dioxin

  6. Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans) in traditional clay products used during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.; Talidda, A.; Malisch, R.; Kotz, A.; Tritsher, A.; Fiedler, H.; Zeilmaker, M.J.; Kooijman, M.; Wienk, K.J.H.; Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Geophagy, the practice of consuming clay or soil, is encountered among pregnant women in Africa, Eastern Asia and Latin America, but also in Western societies. However, certain types of clay are known to contain high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs).

  7. Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans from Kelp and Copper Sulfate: Initial Investigations of Dioxin Formation in Mineral Feed Supplements (Journal Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2002, dioxins were discovered in animal feed ingredients during a random sampling by Irish officials and subsequently traced to particular mineral supplements produced at a Minnesota plant in the United States. These products sold under the names of SQM Mineral Products and C...

  8. Impact of estuarine gradients on reductive dechlorination of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in river sediment enrichment cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Hang T; Häggblom, Max M

    2017-02-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) are among the most persistent organic pollutants. Although the total input of PCDDs into the environment has decreased substantially over the past four decades, their input via non-point sources is still increasing, especially in estuarine metropolitan areas. Here we report on the microbially mediated reductive dechlorination of PCDDs in anaerobic enrichment cultures established from sediments collected from five locations along the Hackensack River, NJ and investigate the impacts of sediment physicochemical characteristics on dechlorination activity. Dechlorination of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-TeCDD) and abundance of Dehalococcoides spp. negatively correlated with salinity and sulfate concentration in sediments used to establish the cultures. 1,2,3,4-TeCDD was dechlorinated to a lesser extent in cultures established from sediments from the tidally influenced estuarine mouth of the river. In cultures established from low salinity sediments, 1,2,3,4-TeCDD was reductively dechlorinated with the accumulation of 2-monochlorodibenzo-p-dioxin as the major product. Sulfate concentrations above 2 mM inhibited 1,2,3,4-TecDD dechlorination activity. Consecutive lateral- and peri- dechlorination took place in enrichment cultures with a minimal accumulation of 2,3-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in active cultures. A Dehalococcoides spp. community was enriched and accounted for up to 64% of Chloroflexi detected in these sediment cultures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using the dioxin receptor-calux in vitro bioassay to screen marine harbor sediments for compounds with a dioxin-like mode of action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronkhorst, J.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Murk, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of dioxin-like compounds in sediments from harbors and reference sites along the Dutch coast was investigated using the dioxin receptor–chemically activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX) bioassay. The DR-CALUX response varied between 0.2 and 136 ng/kg dry weight expressed in

  10. Dioxins, dioxin-like compounds, and PBDEs in the U.S. domestic meat supply: trends and levels 2003 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the mid-1990s, 2002-2003, 2007-2008, and again in 2012-2013 the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducted statistical surveys for dioxin and dioxin-like compound (PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs) residues in domestic meat and poultry. The surveys were conducted to determine background levels of diox...

  11. In Utero Exposure to Compounds with Dioxin-like Activity and Birth Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vafeiadi, Marina; Agramunt, Silvia; Pedersen, Marie

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds may affect fetal growth and development. We evaluated the association between in utero dioxin-like activity and birth outcomes in a prospective European mother-child study. METHODS: We measured dioxin-like activity in maternal...... and cord blood plasma samples collected at delivery using the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR CALUX) bioassay in 967 mother-child pairs, in Denmark, Greece, Norway, Spain, and England. Multiple linear regression models were used to investigate the associations with birth...... weight, gestational age, and head circumference. RESULTS: Plasma dioxin-like activity was higher in maternal sample than in cord samples. Birth weight was lower with medium (-58 g [95% confidence interval (CI) = -176 to 62]) and high (-82 g [-216 to 53]) tertiles of exposure (cord blood) compared...

  12. 2nd report on DIOXINE of the working group of the Federal Government and the countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basler; Rosenkranz; Schuster

    1993-11-01

    The report presented by the limited company DIOXINE has been discussed by the 37th Conference of environment ministers on November 21-22, 1991. The conference of environment ministers charged the limited company DIOXINE with the continuation of work. It considered it especially necessary to document and evaluate data recorded centrally, to improve the data situation with regard to dioxine impact of different environmental media, as well as to derive transferable standard and limiting values secured by science. (orig./EF) [de

  13. Xenoestrogenic and dioxin-like activity in blood of East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Simon Erik; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian

    2013-01-01

    chromatography (HPLC). ER mediated transactivity was determined using the ER luciferase reporter MVLN cell assay. The extracts were tested alone (XER) and together with 17β-estradiol (E2) as a physiological mimic (XERcomp). Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) compounds were extracted by a combination of SPE...... and the Supelco Dioxin Prep System®. AhR mediated dioxin-like transactivity was determined using the AhR luciferase reporter Hepa 1.12cR cell assay. Agonistic ER transactivity was elicited by 19% of the samples, and a further increased E2 induced ER response was found for 52%, whereas 17% antagonized the E2...

  14. Systematic analysis and the overall toxicity evaluation of dioxins and hexachlorobenzene in human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, K.; Ogawa, M.; Takekuma, M.; Ohmura, A. [Dioxin Reasearch Group, Saitama Institute of Public Health, Saitama (Japan); Kawaguchi, M.; Ito, R.; Nakazawa, H. [Hoshi Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Matsuki, Y. [Japan Food Hygiene Association, Tokyo (Japan). Inst. of Food Hygiene

    2004-09-15

    The hexachlorobenzene (HCB), a type of organochlorine pesticide (OCP), was used as a fungicide for seed, and as a wood preservative. Also, HCB exists in the by-products found in the manufacturing process of chlorinated organic chemicals, and is generated by garbage incineration. The HCB is a so-called, unintended toxic pollutant as well as dioxins, and HCB is then specified for Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). According to a recent study, it was pointed out that HCB binds to the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor, resulting in dioxin-like effects and bioaccumulates. Therefore, the overall toxicity evaluation of dioxins and HCB in human body, especially in human milk, should be examined, because HCB is universally detected in human milk. Until now, many studies regarding the dioxins or OCPs polluted in human milk have been reported. However, there are only a few reports that analyze both dioxins and HCB in the same sample, because repeated sampling and large amounts of samples of human milk were generally difficult to acquire. Moreover, few studies are available for the overall toxicity evaluation of dioxins and HCB in human milk. The aim of the present study was to develop the systematic analysis method of dioxins and HCB, and to obtain additional information about the overall toxicity evaluation of dioxins and HCB in human milk. The correlation between the HCB residue level and each dioxin isomer in the human milk was also considered.

  15. Identification of dioxin-like and estrogenic compounds in sediment using CALUX {sup registered} assay-directed fractionation combined with two-dimensional comprehensive GCxGC-ToF MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houtman, C.; Lamoree, M.; Legler, J.; Brouwer, A. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Inst. for Environmental Studies; Jover, E. [I.I.Q.A.B.-C.S.I.C., Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Adahchour, M. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy

    2004-09-15

    The dioxin responsive (DR-) and estrogen responsive (ER-) CALUX {sup registered} -assays (Chemical Activated Luciferase Gene Expression) are mechanism-based, rapid and extremely sensitive in vitro reporter gene bioassays developed to assess dioxin-like and estrogenic activity. They provide useful information about the total dioxin-like or estrogenic potential of complex mixtures of chemicals in environmental samples. They are especially useful if combined with instrumental analytical approaches, as e.g. in bioassay-directed fractionation. In this approach, bioassays are used to direct fractionation and chemical analysis in order to elucidate compounds responsible for the toxic activity found in a sample. The present study was undertaken to elucidate dioxin-like and estrogenic chemicals in sediment from the harbor of the small town of Zierikzee in the Dutch delta area. Former research had shown high dioxin-like and estrogenic activity in sediment from this location. DR- and ER-CALUX {sup registered} assay were used to direct fractionation and chemical analysis of sediment extract. Active fractions were analyzed with comprehensive multidimensional GC x GC-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry to elucidate responsible compounds.

  16. Levels of dioxin-like compounds in Taiwan foodstuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, M.S.; Wang, S.M.; Chou, U.; Chen, S.Y.; Huang, N.C.; Liao, G.Y.; Yu, T.P.; Ling, Y.C. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    Food is the major route of human intake of toxic dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), which include PolyChlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), PolyChlorinated DibenzoFurans (PCDFs), and WHO PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Approximately 95% of human DLCs exposure derives from food, with nearly 80% coming from food of animal origin. The DLCs levels in foodstuffs and the consumption rate of foodstuffs are essential to evaluate health risk posing to humans. The lack of DLCs levels in foodstuffs increases the population risk to DLCs exposure. The Department of Health, Taiwan has entrusted us to conduct a comprehensive monitoring program on PCDD/Fs levels in Taiwan foodstuffs in 2001 and 2002. In 2003, the program has extended the analytes to include 12 WHO-PCBs. The DLCs levels in Taiwan foodstuffs is, therefore, being surveyed for the first time.

  17. Decomposition of dioxin analogues and ablation study for carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Toshihiko

    2002-01-01

    Two application studies associated with the free electron laser are presented separately, which are the titles of 'Decomposition of Dioxin Analogues' and 'Ablation Study for Carbon Nanotube'. The decomposition of dioxin analogues by infrared (IR) laser irradiation includes the thermal destruction and multiple-photon dissociation. It is important for us to choose the highly absorbable laser wavelength for the decomposition. The thermal decomposition takes place by the irradiation of the low IR laser power. Considering the model of thermal decomposition, it is proposed that adjacent water molecules assist the decomposition of dioxin analogues in addition to the thermal decomposition by the direct laser absorption. The laser ablation study is performed for the aim of a carbon nanotube synthesis. The vapor by the ablation is weakly ionized in the power of several-hundred megawatts. The plasma internal energy is kept over an 8.5 times longer than the vacuum. The cluster was produced from the weakly ionized gas in the enclosed gas, which is composed of the rough particles in the low power laser more than the high power which is composed of the fine particles. (J.P.N.)

  18. The aromatic polycyclic chlorinated hydrocarbons (HAPC) or ''dioxin'' 30 june 2000; Les hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques chlores (HAPC) ou ''dioxines'' 30 juin 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coulombier, D.; Plenel, L.

    2000-06-01

    The authors propose in this paper a pocket-book on the dioxin also called HAPC. It presents the emission sources of the dioxin, the population exposed, the effects on the public health, the risk assessment, the dioxin in the food and the environment and the regulation in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  19. COHORT OF WOMEN LIVING IN OR NEAR A HIGHLY INDUSTRIALIZED AREA OF KANAWHA RIVER VALLEY IN WEST VIRGINIA: ENDOMETRIOSIS AND BLOOD LEVELS OF DIOXIN AND DIOXIN-LIKE CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Historical releases of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals with subsequent impacts to environmental media in the Kanawha River Valley (KRV) of West Virginia have been well documented.' The bulk of dioxin found in this area appears to be derived from the production of 2,...

  20. PCB and dioxin levels in plasma and human milk of 418 Dutch women and their infants : predictive value of PCB congener levels in maternal plasma for fetal and infant's exposure to PCBs and dioxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman-Esseboom, C.; Huisman, M.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.; Paauw, C.G. van der; Tuinstra, L.G.M.T.; Boersma, E.R.; Sauer, P.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are potentially hazardous compounds in the environment for human beings. In order to investigate PCB and dioxin exposure of Dutch women and their neonates, levels were examined

  1. PCB AND DIOXIN LEVELS IN PLASMA AND HUMAN-MILK OF 418 DUTCH WOMEN AND THEIR INFANTS - PREDICTIVE VALUE OF PCB CONGENER LEVELS IN MATERNAL PLASMA FOR FETAL AND INFANTS EXPOSURE TO PCBS AND DIOXINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOOPMANESSEBOOM, C; HUISMAN, M; WEISGLASKUPERUS, N; VANDERPAAUW, CG; TUINSTRA, LGMT; BOERSMA, ER; SAUER, PJJ

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are potentially hazardous compounds in the environment for human beings. In order to investigate PCB and dioxin exposure of Dutch women and their neonates, levels were examined

  2. Comparison of dioxin-like PCBs in passive air and vegetation samples surrounding a metal reclamation incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucaciu, C.M.; Fayez, L.; Reiner, E.J.; Kolic, T.M.; MacPherson, K.A.; Crozier, P.W.; Emerson, R. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON (Canada); Wania, F. [Toronto Univ., Scarborough, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physical and Environmental Sciences

    2004-09-15

    In 1998 the WHO identified 12 PCBs to be dioxin-like (DLPCB). This list includes 4 coplanar: 77, 81, 126, 169 and 8 mono-ortho: 105, 114, 118, 123, 156, 157, 167 and 189 congeners. Determination of DLPCBs allows results to be converted into TEQ (toxic equivalent quantity of 2,3,7,8-TCDD) values and enables data comparison at very low (sub ppt (pg/g)) levels. Vegetation and air samples were collected from an area surrounding a metal recovery incinerator in order to assess spatial and temporal trends for DLPCBs stemming from the long term operation of the incinerator. Foliage samples were harvested in September (1999 - 2 sets, 2000 to 2003) from maple and ash trees surrounding the incinerator at varying distances. Mature tree leaves are exposed to atmospheric deposition of PCBs for about 4 months (June to September) and the levels determined in foliage are representative of DLPCBs in the atmosphere surrounding each tree. Additionally, a passive air sampling technique based on the sorption of gaseous pollutants on XAD-2 (a styrene-divinylbenzene co-polymer) resin was used for measuring long-term average gas-phase concentrations in the area surrounding the incinerator. Ten passive samplers were placed adjacent to trees previously sampled for DLPCBs at locations presented in Figure 1. The deployment period, lasting approximately 4 month (June to September 2003), corresponds to the time that mature leaves were present on the adjacent trees. Four other air samplers were placed close to a main highway in Toronto in order to compare the concentration of DLPCB in the urban area with the concentration in the rural area surrounding the incineration facility. Passive air samplers allow the characterization of the gaseous distribution of DLPCBs in the atmosphere. The advantages of using this technique are that it is independent of the atmospheric conditions (winds, precipitation, UV exposure) and can be used for sampling year round. Atmospheric deposition is expected to control

  3. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of dioxin-furans and dioxin-like PCBs from environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Pedro; Viana, Paula; Vinhas, Tereza; Capelo, J L; Rivera, J; Gaspar, Elvira M S M

    2008-05-30

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) applying three extraction cycles, temperature and pressure, improved the efficiency of solvent extraction when compared with the classical Soxhlet extraction. Polychlorinated-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like PCBs (coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs)) in two Certified Reference Materials [DX-1 (sediment) and BCR 529 (soil)] and in two contaminated environmental samples (sediment and soil) were extracted by ASE and Soxhlet methods. Unlike data previously reported by other authors, results demonstrated that ASE using n-hexane as solvent and three extraction cycles, 12.4 MPa (1800 psi) and 150 degrees C achieves similar recovery results than the classical Soxhlet extraction for PCDFs and Co-PCBs, and better recovery results for PCDDs. ASE extraction, performed in less time and with less solvent proved to be, under optimized conditions, an excellent extraction technique for the simultaneous analysis of PCDD/PCDFs and Co-PCBs from environmental samples. Such fast analytical methodology, having the best cost-efficiency ratio, will improve the control and will provide more information about the occurrence of dioxins and the levels of toxicity and thereby will contribute to increase human health.

  4. Low-dose dioxins alter gene expression related to cholesterol biosynthesis, lipogenesis, and glucose metabolism through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathway in mouse liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shoko; Shirakawa, Hitoshi; Tomita, Shuhei; Ohsaki, Yusuke; Haketa, Keiichi; Tooi, Osamu; Santo, Noriaki; Tohkin, Masahiro; Furukawa, Yuji; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Komai, Michio

    2008-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a common environmental contaminant. TCDD binds and activates the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), leading to adverse biological responses via the alteration of the expression of various AHR target genes. Although small amounts of TCDD are consumed via contaminated daily foodstuffs and environmental exposures, the effects of low-dose TCDD on gene expression in animal tissues have not been clarified, while a number of genes affected by high-dose TCDD were reported. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed gene expression profiles in livers of C57BL/6N mice that were orally administered relatively low doses of TCDD (5, 50, or 500 ng/kg body weight (bw) day -1 ) for 18 days. The hepatic TCDD concentrations, measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, were 1.2, 17, and 1063 pg toxicity equivalent quantity (TEQ)/g, respectively. The mRNA level of the cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 was significantly increased by treatment with only TCDD 500 ng/kg bw day -1 . DNA microarray and quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed changes in the expression of genes involved in the circadian rhythm, cholesterol biosynthesis, fatty acid synthesis, and glucose metabolism in the liver with at all doses of TCDD employed. However, repression of expression of genes involved in energy metabolism was not observed in the livers of Ahr-null mice that were administered the same dose of TCDD. These results indicate that changes in gene expression by TCDD are mediated by AHR and that exposure to low-dose TCDD could affect energy metabolism via alterations of gene expression

  5. Long-term persistence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in air, soil and sediment around an abandoned pentachlorophenol factory in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Cheng; Zheng, Minghui; Zhang Bing; Gao Lirong; Liu Lidan; Zhou Xin; Ma Xiaodong; Xiao Ke

    2012-01-01

    Air, soils and sediments surrounding an abandoned pentachlorophenol (PCP) factory were sampled to determine the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), unintentionally formed during PCP production. The mean concentration of PCDD/Fs in ambient air was one order of magnitude higher than that of the reference site. A trend of decreasing concentrations with increasing distance from the factory was observed, suggesting this site has a significant influence on the regional ambient air. As for soil samples collected within 3 km from the factory and sediment samples from the adjacent rivers, high levels of contamination were found with WHO-TEQ concentrations of 193 ± 211 pg/g and 667 ± 978 pg/g, respectively. The PCDD/F homologue profiles of all samples were consistent with those found in the technical product of PCP, with OCDD as the dominant congener. These results indicate PCDD/Fs in the historical contaminated site pose a long-term impact on surrounding environment. - Highlights: ► PCDD/Fs were investigated in various environmental compartments surrounding an abandoned pentachlorophenol (PCP) factory. ► High levels of PCDD/F contamination were found in ambient air, soils and the sediments around this factory. ► PCDD/F homologue profiles were consistent with PCDD/Fs in technical product of PCP. ► PCDD/Fs in this historical contaminated site pose a long-term impact on surrounding environment. - PCDD/Fs around an abandoned pentachlorophenol factory pose a long-term impact on surrounding environment.

  6. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in home-produced eggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Dam, ten G.; Bruggen, van Mark; Jeurissen, Suzanne; Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Theelen, R.M.C.; Zeilmaker, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Home produced eggs from 62 addresses in the Netherlands were investigated for the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs), both dioxin-like (dl) and non-dioxin-like (ndl). Compared to commercial eggs, levels were relatively high with a median of 4.6

  7. 78 FR 48156 - Update to An Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the United States for the Years... document entitled, Update to An Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in... the report: An Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the United...

  8. 40 CFR 63.9915 - What test methods and other procedures must I use to demonstrate initial compliance with dioxin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must I use to demonstrate initial compliance with dioxin/furan emission limits? 63.9915 Section 63.9915....9915 What test methods and other procedures must I use to demonstrate initial compliance with dioxin... limit for dioxins/furans in Table 1 to this subpart, you must follow the test methods and procedures...

  9. 75 FR 57779 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the SAB Dioxin Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... a Public Meeting of the SAB Dioxin Review Panel AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...) Staff Office announces a public meeting of the SAB Dioxin Review Panel to continue its review of EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments, External Review Draft...

  10. Size fractionation of waste-to-energy boiler ash enables separation of a coarse fraction with low dioxin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidemann, E; Allegrini, E; Fruergaard Astrup, T; Hulgaard, T; Riber, C; Jansson, S

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) formed in modern Waste-to-Energy plants are primarily found in the generated ashes and air pollution control residues, which are usually disposed of as hazardous waste. The objective of this study was to explore the occurrence of PCDD/F in different grain size fractions in the boiler ash, i.e. ash originating from the convection pass of the boiler. If a correlation between particle size and dioxin concentrations could be found, size fractionation of the ashes could reduce the total amount of hazardous waste. Boiler ash samples from ten sections of a boiler's convective part were collected over three sampling days, sieved into three different size fractions - 0.355 mm - and analysed for PCDD/F. The coarse fraction (>0.355 mm) in the first sections of the horizontal convection pass appeared to be of low toxicity with respect to dioxin content. While the total mass of the coarse fraction in this boiler was relatively small, sieving could reduce the amount of ash containing toxic PCDD/F by around 0.5 kg per tonne input waste or around 15% of the collected boiler ash from the convection pass. The mid-size fraction in this study covered a wide size range (0.09-0.355 mm) and possibly a low toxicity fraction could be identified by splitting this fraction into more narrow size ranges. The ashes exhibited uniform PCDD/F homologue patterns which suggests a stable and continuous generation of PCDD/F. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of aldehyde oxidase 1 and aldehyde oxidase homologue 1 as dioxin-inducible genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Steven P.; Choi, Hyun Ho; Chapman, Brett; Whitekus, Michael J.; Terao, Mineko; Garattini, Enrico; Hankinson, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidases are a family of highly related molybdo-flavoenzymes acting upon a variety of compounds of industrial and medical importance. We have identified aldehyde oxidase 1 (AOX1) as a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin) inducible gene in the mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa-1. AOX1 mRNA levels were not increased by dioxin in mutant derivatives of the Hepa-1 cell line lacking either functional aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) or aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) proteins, thus demonstrating that transcriptional induction of AOX1 in response to dioxin occurs through the AHR pathway. Dioxin induction of AOX1 mRNA was also observed in mouse liver. In addition, levels of AOX1 protein as well as those of aldehyde oxidase homologue 1 (AOH1), a recently identified homolog of AOX1, were elevated in mouse liver in response to dioxin. Employing an aldehyde oxidase specific substrate, AOX1/AOH1 activity was shown to be induced by dioxin in mouse liver. This activity was inhibited by a known inhibitor of aldehyde oxidases, and eliminated by including tungstate in the mouse diet, which is known to lead to inactivation of molybdoflavoenzymes, thus confirming that the enzymatic activity was attributable to AOX1/AOH1. Our observations thus identify two additional xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes induced by dioxin

  12. Residues of dioxins and PCBs in fat of growing pigs and broilers fed contaminated feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Kan, C.A.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Weg, van der G.; Onstenk, C.G.M.; Traag, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the kinetics of PCBs and dioxins, 3 week old broilers and 3 month old pigs were fed with a 10-fold diluted feed from the Belgium crisis for one week, followed by a period on clean feed. In the case of broilers this resulted in levels for dioxins, non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs in fat

  13. AN ASSESSMENT OF DIOXIN LEVELS IN PROCESSED BALL CLAY FROM THE U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of dioxin-like compounds in ball clay was discovered in 1996 as a result of an investigation to determine the sources of elevated levels of dioxin found in two chicken fat samples from a national survey of poultry. The investigation indicated that soybean meal added...

  14. SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PCDD/PCDF AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS IN EDIBLE VEGETABLE OILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reassessment of the toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) identifies ingestion as a key route of human exposure to these compounds. The reassessme...

  15. Dioxin concentration in milk, faeces and tissues of cows related to feed contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, A.J.; Kamphues, J. [Inst. of Animal Nutrition, School of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Wiesmueller, T. [Federal State Office for Consumer Protection, Potsdam (Germany); Appuhn, H. [Agricultural Investigation and Research Inst., Hameln (Germany); Stehr, D. [District Government of Lueneburg (Germany); Severin, K. [Chamber for Agriculture, Hannover (Germany); Landmann, D. [Agricultural Teaching and Research Facility, Echem (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxin contamination of feed and food is a frequently discussed problem, even in the press. The EU legislation sets maximum levels for dioxins in food and feeding stuffs. The dioxin concentration of milk, faeces and tissues of lactating cows grazing in an area of higher dioxin level in the soil and grass, has been tested in part 1 of this small scale field study. Soil intake of grazing cows can reach 1.5 kg soil/d under extreme meteorological conditions. Considering that, the dioxin load of soil and the degree of contamination of feedstuffs could play an important role regarding the exposition of grazing animals. Due to repeated flooding the area the experiment took place was known for a higher dioxin level in soil and grass. The area was separated in a depression and an elevation (in flooding areas depressions are known for their higher dioxin level). Grassland is not only used for grazing animals, but also to obtain hay or grass silage. In part 2 of the field study grass silage obtained on the same area, was fed to dry cows to test whether or not there a risk for milk quality after parturition. The primary aim of this field study was to investigate different matrices at different moments of the experiment. The secondary aim was to develop recommendations on how to prevent or at least how to minimize the dioxin load of feed and with it of food, if food producing animals graze on such areas.

  16. Pollution Status of Dioxins Persistent Organic Pollutants in Guangxi and Control Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Hua; Fan Yongji; Feng Bo; Chen Zhiming; Mo Zhaoyu

    2017-01-01

    Production and pollution control situations of dioxins persistent organic pollutants in Guangxi were introduced.Pollution status of dioxins persistent organic pollutants in Guangxi was understood,and the existing problems in pollution control were analyzed,and finally pollution control countermeasures and suggestions were proposed.

  17. Dioxin in Midland: A Case Study of Press Coverage of Expert Disagreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palen, John

    Drawing from articles appearing in several national publications about the dioxin contamination found in Midland, Michigan, in l983, a case study examined how the publications handled the phenomenon of expert disagreement concerning the nature of dioxin. Specifically, it examined how the publications handled expert disagreement about (1) the way…

  18. U.S. EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network: Analytical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA has established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to determine the temporal and geographical variability of atmospheric chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), furans (CDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at rural and non-impacted locatio...

  19. Journal Article: Quality Assurance Considerations for An Ambient Dioxin Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency initiated the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) in 1998. NDAMN has three primary purposes: 1. To provide measurements of background atmospheric levels of dioxin-like compounds in different geographic regions of the Unite...

  20. Journal Article: EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn): Design, Implementation, and Final Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) established the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) in June of 1998, and operated it until November of 2004. The objective of NDAMN was to determine background air concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (...

  1. Perinatal exposure to dioxins perturbs learning performance of the rat in a dose-specific fashion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojo, R.; Rieko, H.; Masaki, K.; Junzo, Y.; Chiharu, T. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxins (chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin congeners and related compounds including coplanar PCBs) are transferred transplacentally and lactationally from mothers to the developing brain of offspring. Maternal exposure to dioxins are suspected to cause adverse effects on the advanced brain function of offspring, because Previous studies indicate that the most toxic dioxin congener, 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), affected the advanced brain function of rats, even when mothers had been exposed to a relatively low level of dioxins that would not affect themselves. In coplanar PCBs, which are dioxin-like, toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) are based on similar toxicity to TCDD and on a common mechanism of action, mediated by the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). However, non-coplanar PCBs, which are considered to be non-dioxin-like PCBs, also show adverse effects on the learning and memory functions of offspring. In the present study, we hypothesize that coplanar PCBs have two types of toxicities, one is the similar to TCDD and the other is the specific toxicity of PCB itself. To address this hypothesis, effects of maternal exposure to one of the coplanar PCBs, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126, 1997 WHO TEF = 0.1), on learning and behavioural performance of rats assessed by schedule-controlled operant behavior (SCOB) were examined and compared to TCDD.

  2. An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios (Final Report, 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Exploratory Study: Assessment of Modeled Dioxin Exposure in Ceramic Art Studios. This report investigates the potential dioxin exposure to artists/hobbyists who use ball clay to make pottery and related products. Derm...

  3. One-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting and genotyping wild-type group A rotavirus strains and vaccine strains (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) in stool samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijatovic-Rustempasic, Slavica; Esona, Mathew D.; Tam, Ka Ian; Quaye, Osbourne; Bowen, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Group A rotavirus (RVA) infection is the major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young children worldwide. Introduction of two live-attenuated rotavirus vaccines, RotaTeq® and Rotarix®, has dramatically reduced RVA associated AGE and mortality in developed as well as in many developing countries. High-throughput methods are needed to genotype rotavirus wild-type strains and to identify vaccine strains in stool samples. Quantitative RT-PCR assays (qRT-PCR) offer several advantages including increased sensitivity, higher throughput, and faster turnaround time. Methods. In this study, a one-step multiplex qRT-PCR assay was developed to detect and genotype wild-type strains and vaccine (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) rotavirus strains along with an internal processing control (Xeno or MS2 RNA). Real-time RT-PCR assays were designed for VP7 (G1, G2, G3, G4, G9, G12) and VP4 (P[4], P[6] and P[8]) genotypes. The multiplex qRT-PCR assay also included previously published NSP3 qRT-PCR for rotavirus detection and Rotarix® NSP2 and RotaTeq® VP6 qRT-PCRs for detection of Rotarix® and RotaTeq® vaccine strains respectively. The multiplex qRT-PCR assay was validated using 853 sequence confirmed stool samples and 24 lab cultured strains of different rotavirus genotypes. By using thermostable rTth polymerase enzyme, dsRNA denaturation, reverse transcription (RT) and amplification (PCR) steps were performed in single tube by uninterrupted thermocycling profile to reduce chances of sample cross contamination and for rapid generation of results. For quantification, standard curves were generated using dsRNA transcripts derived from RVA gene segments. Results. The VP7 qRT-PCRs exhibited 98.8–100% sensitivity, 99.7–100% specificity, 85–95% efficiency and a limit of detection of 4–60 copies per singleplex reaction. The VP7 qRT-PCRs exhibited 81–92% efficiency and limit of detection of 150–600 copies in multiplex reactions. The VP4 qRT-PCRs exhibited 98.8

  4. Dioxin-like chemicals in bivalves and sediment collected from around Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, J.F.; Muller, R.; Goudkamp, K. [EnTox, The University of Queensland, Brisbane (AU)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    The aquatic environment is a significant sink for persistent organic pollutants including dioxin-like chemicals. Besides continuous investigations into sources of higher chlorinated PCDD that have initially been found in soils, and later in dugong and sediments little is known about the levels of dioxin-like chemicals in Australia's aquatic environment. In 2002 the National Dioxin Program (NDP) was commissioned by the Department of Environment and Heritage, Australia. One focus of the NDP was to evaluate background levels of dioxin-like chemicals in Australia's environment. One component of the 'Environmental Levels' project aimed to identify dioxinlike chemicals in the aquatic environment including bivalves collected in both marine, estuarine and freshwater systems. Here we report results from the NDP aquatic study with a particular emphasis on the levels of dioxin-like chemicals in bivalves and sediments respectively in areas from where the bivalves were collected.

  5. Surveillance program on dioxin-like compounds in fatty food in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh Junghyuck; Choi Dongmi; Lee Eunju; Hong Mooki [Korea Food and Drug Administration, Seoul (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Although dioxin-like compounds (PCDD/Fs and co-planar PCBs) are environmental contaminants mainly produced from municipal waste incineration, the main route of human intake of these are food. This is because these chemicals have strong tendencies to bioaccumulate in lipid-rich compartments of organisms because of their highly lipophilic property. The contamination levels of dioxin-like compounds depends on species. Species with a higher fat content may have higher contamination levels so that detectable levels are found in fatty food such as meat, eggs, dairy products and fishes. Therefore it is very important to measure the levels of dioxin-like compounds in food(especially fatty food) and to do the risk assessment. The aim of this study was to measure the levels of dioxin-like compounds of retail food in Korea and then assess the health risks potentially associated with the dioxin-like compounds intake.

  6. Technologies for destruction dioxins; Tecnologias de destruccion y eliminacion de dioxinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinman, D. O.

    2002-07-01

    Processes which will achieve up to 100-fold reduction of exhaust gas emissions of dioxin as proposed for the new German Standards are reviewed. A combination of processes which remove fly ash, NOx, SOx, HCl and other pollutants will also remove dioxins. Reduction of chlorinated compounds fed to the incinerator is not likely to make any significant difference. Good turbulence with elimination of cold spots in the firebox will ensure initial thermal destruction. Dioxins are synthesized on fly ash particles at temperatures between 200 and 400 degree centigree. Rapid temperature reduction across this range by water injection will greatly reduce dioxin levels. Catalytic inhibitors can also be used. Since dioxin is adsorbed on fly ash, efficient scrubbing is essential for high removal efficiency. Sorption on active carbon fixed filter and flight stream process in fabric filter are also being evaluated. (Author)

  7. Associations between congenital cryptorchidism in newborn boys and levels of dioxins and PCBs in placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, H E; Koskenniemi, J J; Sundqvist, E

    2012-01-01

    In animal studies, exposure to dioxins has been associated with disrupted development of the male reproductive system, including testicular maldescent. Some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have also dioxin-like effects. In addition, one previous case-control study has reported an association...... between congenital cryptorchidism and colostrum PCB levels. We performed a case-control study to evaluate whether congenital cryptorchidism in boys was associated with increased levels of dioxins or PCBs in placenta reflecting foetal exposure. In addition, associations between placenta levels...... controls) and 168 Danish (39 cases, 129 controls)] were analysed for 17 toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 37 PCBs (including 12 dioxin-like PCBs). Infant serum samples taken at 3 months were analysed for reproductive hormones. No significant differences between cases...

  8. Proteomic Profiling of the Dioxin-Degrading Bacterium Sphingomonas wittichii RW1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Colquhoun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphingomonas wittichii RW1 is a bacterium of interest due to its ability to degrade polychlorinated dioxins, which represent priority pollutants in the USA and worldwide. Although its genome has been fully sequenced, many questions exist regarding changes in protein expression of S. wittichii RW1 in response to dioxin metabolism. We used difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS to identify proteomic changes induced by growth on dibenzofuran, a surrogate for dioxin, as compared to acetate. Approximately 10% of the entire putative proteome of RW1 could be observed. Several components of the dioxin and dibenzofuran degradation pathway were shown to be upregulated, thereby highlighting the utility of using proteomic analyses for studying bioremediation agents. This is the first global protein analysis of a microorganism capable of utilizing the carbon backbone of both polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans as the sole source for carbon and energy.

  9. Polybrominated, polychlorinated and monobromo-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in marine surface sediments from Hong Kong and Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Hidenori; Takahashi, Shin; Lam, Paul K.S.; Min, Byung-Yoon; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated occurrences and distribution patterns of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), monobromo-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (MoBPCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in marine surface sediments collected from the coastal waters of Hong Kong and Korea. In most sampling sites, concentrations of PCDDs were the highest, followed by DL-PCBs, PCDFs, PBDFs, PBDDs, MoBPCDDs and MoBPCDFs in this order. Levels of PBDD/Fs were generally 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than chlorinated analogues. Levels of PCDDs are higher than PCDFs in Hong Kong while levels of PBDFs are higher than PBDDs in Korea (p < 0.05). Report of PBDD/Fs and MoBPCDD/Fs in sediments from East Asian countries is novel and original. Environmental levels of PBDD/Fs are supposed to start increasing in accordance with rising production, use and disposal of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and recycling processes of e-waste in Asian developing countries. - Brominated and mixed halogenated dioxins/furans in Hong Kong and Korean waters are emitted from industrial activities

  10. TRENDS IN DIOXIN AND PCB CONCENTRATIONS IN MEAT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from several studies suggest that concentrations of dioxins rose in the environment from the 1930s to about the 1960s/70s and have been declining over the last decade or two. The most direct evidence of this trend is lake core sediments, with some other evidence from older vegetation, soil, and sludge samples. It has been generally assumed, but not empirically demonstrated, that dioxin levels in the human diet follow the same general pattern. Pinsky and Lorber (1998) investigated this possibility using body burden data for 2,3,7,8-TCDD from the 1970s, 80s, and 90s, combined with simple first-order, single-compartment pharmacokinetic modeling. Using a Bayesian statistical approach, they back-calculated doses of 2,3,7,8-TCDD through the 20th century. Their best-fit 2,3,7,8-TCDD temporal dose regime showed low doses at the beginning of the century, rising to a peak in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and then dropping to current doses. Their predicted peak dose of 2,3,7,8-TCDD was up to an order of magnitude higher than current doses. The study of this paper takes this general investigation one step further. Exposures to dioxin occur primarily through food consumption, and in particular, through animal fat consumption. If exposure was higher in earlier decades of the 20th century, it should be reflected in higher animal fat concentrations of these compounds. Fourteen preserved meat samples from various decades of the 20th century were obtained and an

  11. Emission of dioxins from fireplaces and wood-burning stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.J.; Vikelsoee, J.; Madsen, H.

    1994-01-01

    In 1988 the Environmental Report No. 149 was published. The result of this investigation was that exceptionally large quantities of dioxin were emitted from burning of clean wood in fireplaces and wood-burning stoves. The conclusion was, however, that it was a preliminary investigation subject to great uncertainties. So it was recommended to make further investigations. The project was continued in 1990, and the present report is the result of this investigation. The fuels applied were logged and treated as an integral part of the test in order to take precautions against contamination. A new test arrangement with a dilution channel was developed in order to be able to take samples. The dilution channel made it possible to take out representative samples for the entire combustion process. Four wood-burning stoves were chosen for the experiments. Two stoves representing those sold from 1960 till 1990. One new stove approved according to DS 887 and finally a prototype stove. The dioxin analysis method was developed so that it could better handle the presence of tar in the samples taken. Danmarks Miljoe Undersoegelse (DMU) - The Danish Environmental Investigations - carried out a great work of development and documentation in this field. Before the main experiment a validation of the sampling and the analysis method was made. The conclusion was that the sampling and analysis method was satisfactory and that a continuity from Environmental Project no. 149 was ensured. During the execution of the present project a probable explanation of the high dioxin emission has been found which were reported in Environmental Project No. 149. The reason is in all probability contamination from burning of pressure-creosoted wood with burning of clean wood. The present report contains a number of appendices showing results from single experiments, references and a number of references to supplementary reports which were elaborated during the progress of the work. (EG)

  12. Electron beam treatment of toxic volatile organic compounds and dioxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Takuji

    2006-01-01

    Considerations of wastes based on the reduction, reuse and recycle in daily life are primary measures to conserve our environment, but the control technology is necessary to support these measures. The electron beam (EB) process is promising as an advanced purification process having advantages such as a quick treatment of big volume gas, applicability even for very low concentration pollutants as the further purification at the downstream of existing process, and decomposition of pollutants into non-toxic substances by one process. The EB technology has been developed for treatment of toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ventilation gas and dioxins in solid waste incineration flue gas. (author)

  13. Environmental applications of the electron-capture detector - dioxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, F.

    1981-01-01

    The main characteristic that makes the determination of dioxins one of the most difficult and challenging is that these compounds are fortunately present at very small concentrations in most instances. However, because of their extremely high activity, they must be determined down to the lowest level possible with the technology available. The most sophisticated techniques are therefore required to ensure the highest specificity and sensitivity. The author discusses the use of the ECD and the dependence of its success on a high degree of purity of the sample and extremely efficient GC columns. (Auth./C.F.)

  14. Synthesis of a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Dioxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Brattoli

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A molecularly imprinted polymer for recognising selectively 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD was made by a new non-covalent method employing a“dummy” template. The proposed way represents a simplification of a synthetic schemeproposed by Lübke et al.[1] for covalent imprinting. Comparison of extraction yields of thenovel polymer, a non imprinted polymer and an imprinting polymer, prepared by theoriginal procedure demonstrates the binding capacity of the proposed polymer, which is inprinciple applicable to solid phase extraction (SPE of dioxin.

  15. New data for the discussion about combustion, dioxin and health; Nuevas aportaciones al controvertido debate sobre incineracion, dioxinas y salud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, S. L. [Universidad Rovira i Virgili. Reus. Tarragona (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, TCDD) is created unintentionally as a byproduct of human activities such as combustion, paper belaching, and manufacture of chlorine and organochlorine chemicals. Most information concerning human health risks of dioxin is based on highly exposed industrial cohorts with well established high levels of exposure to TCDD. However, information regarding to the health effects from chronic exposure to low levels of dioxin is very scarce. This paper has two main goals. Firstly, to review the most known international affairs related with a massive exposure to dioxin. Secondly, to assess if the pronounced reduction detected in the emissions of dioxins and furans by the MSWI of Tarragona (Spain) would also result in a notable decrease in the levels of dioxins in environmental matrices collected in the vicinity of the MSWI. The current results show that in comparison with the emission sources of dioxins and furans in the same area of the facility, the health risks due to the current emissions of dioxins and furans by the plant would be of small significance for the population living in the neighbour hod. Moreover, we also show that the daily consumption of 200 g/day of semiskimmed milk instead of the same amount of whole milk would be much more relevant to decrease dioxin exposure that the reduction in dioxin emissions resulting from the technical improvements carried out recently in the MSWI. (Author)

  16. Curbing dioxin emissions from municipal solid waste incineration in China: re-thinking about management policies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-09-01

    As one of the countries with large amounts of dioxin releases, the control of dioxins is a major challenge for China. Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration should be considered a high priority source of dioxin emissions because it is playing an increasingly more important role in waste management. MSW incineration in China has much higher emission rates of dioxins than in the developed countries, partially resulting from the gaps in the technologies of incineration and flue gas cleaning. Moreover, the current management policies and practices also contribute significantly to the problem. We recommend lowering dioxin emission standard, strengthening fly ash management, and improving regulation enforcement to reduce dioxin releases into the environment from MSW incineration. We also propose that alternative strategies should be considered on dioxin control and call for an expansion of economic instruments in waste management to reduce waste generation and thus the need for incineration. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hepatic transcriptomic responses to TCDD in dioxin-sensitive and dioxin-resistant rats during the onset of toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutros, Paul C.; Yao, Cindy Q.; Watson, John D.; Wu, Alexander H.; Moffat, Ivy D.; Prokopec, Stephenie D.; Smith, Ashley B.; Okey, Allan B.; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    The dioxin congener 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes a wide range of toxic effects in rodent species, all of which are mediated by a ligand-dependent transcription-factor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). The Han/Wistar (Kuopio) (H/W) strain shows exceptional resistance to many TCDD-induced toxicities; the LD 50 of > 9600 μg/kg for H/W rats is higher than for any other wild-type mammal known. We previously showed that this resistance primarily results from H/W rats expressing a variant AHR isoform that has a substantial portion of the AHR transactivation domain deleted. Despite this large deletion, H/W rats are not entirely refractory to the effects of TCDD; the variant AHR in these animals remains fully competent to up-regulate well-known dioxin-inducible genes. TCDD-sensitive (Long-Evans, L-E) and resistant (H/W) rats were treated with either corn-oil (with or without feed-restriction) or 100 μg/kg TCDD for either four or ten days. Hepatic transcriptional profiling was done using microarrays, and was validated by RT-PCR analysis of 41 genes. A core set of genes was altered in both strains at all time points tested, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, Nqo1, Aldh3a1, Tiparp, Exoc3, and Inmt. Outside this core, the strains differed significantly in the breadth of response: three-fold more genes were altered in L-E than H/W rats. At ten days almost all expressed genes were dysregulated in L-E rats, likely reflecting emerging toxic responses. Far fewer genes were affected by feed-restriction, suggesting that only a minority of the TCDD-induced changes are secondary to the wasting syndrome.

  18. Measurements of dioxin emissions during co-firing in a fluidised bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Gulyurtlu; A.T. Crujeira; P. Abelha; I. Cabrita [INETI, Lisbon (Portugal). Departamento de Engenharia Energetica e Controle Ambiental

    2007-09-15

    The emissions of dioxins could be considerable when fuels with high chlorine content are used, particularly in fluidised beds due to constraints to use temperatures in the range 800-900{sup o}C for other considerations. However, mixing of fuels with different characteristics may lead to a reduction in dioxin emissions. Studies are currently being undertaken at the above-mentioned department in mixing fuels of varying chlorine and sulphur contents to monitor the emissions of dioxins both in the gas and solid phases. Furthermore, the influence of certain elements like Cu in the ash in the emissions of dioxins is also studied to verify the catalytic effect. The INETI pilot-scale test facility is used for the combustion work. Two different coals, namely Colombian and Polish, are used as the base fuel. The supplementary fuels for co-firing include MBM and straw pellets. The combustion temperature is maintained at about 800-830{sup o}C range without any limestone addition. The residence time of over 2 s is respected. Results obtained by far suggest that the presence of sulphur in both fuels have a very strong effect on the eventual emissions of dioxins and the synergy regarding to reduce the dioxins below the levels permitted is possible by mixing fuels based on their characteristics. The paper reports the results obtained and evaluates the effect of fuel nature and operating conditions on the emissions of dioxins. 34 refs., 8 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Alteration of keratinocyte differentiation and senescence by the tumor promoter dioxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Soma S.; Swanson, Hollie I.

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to the environmental contaminant dioxin, elicits a variety of responses, which includes tumor promotion, embryotoxicity/teratogenesis, and carcinogenesis in both animals and humans. Many of the effects of dioxin are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix)/PAS transcription factor. We initiated this study to determine whether dioxin's tumor-promoting activities may lie in its ability to alter proliferation, differentiation, and/or senescence using normal human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs). Here, we report that dioxin appears to accelerate differentiation as measured by flow cytometry and by increased expression of the differentiation markers involucrin and filaggrin. In addition, dioxin appears to increase proliferation as indicated by an increase in NADH/NADPH production and changes in cell cycle. Finally, dioxin decreases SA (senescence associated) β-galactosidase staining, an indicator of senescence, in the differentiating keratinocytes. These changes were accompanied by decreases in the expression levels of key cell cycle regulatory proteins p53, p16 INK4a , and p14 ARF . Our findings support the idea that dioxin may exert its tumor-promoting actions, in part, by downregulating the expression levels of key tumor suppressor proteins, which may impair the cell's ability to maintain its appropriate cellular status

  20. Dioxin induces expression of hsa-miR-146b-5p in human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tuan; Xie, Heidi Q; Li, Yunping; Xia, Yingjie; Sha, Rui; Wang, Lingyun; Chen, Yangsheng; Xu, Li; Zhao, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Dioxin can cause a series of neural toxicological effects. MicroRNAs (miRs) play important roles in regulating nervous system function and mediating cellular responses to environmental pollutants, such as dioxin. Hsa-miR-146b-5p appears to be involved in neurodegenerative diseases and brain tumors. However, little is known about effects of dioxin on the expression of hsa-miR-146b-5p. We found that the hsa-miR-146b-5p expression and its promoter activity were significantly increased in dioxin treated SK-N-SH cells, a human-derived neuroblastoma cell line. Potential roles of hsa-miR-146b-5p in mediating neural toxicological effects of dioxin may be due to the regulation of certain target genes. We further confirmed that hsa-miR-146b-5p significantly suppressed acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and targeted the 3'-untranslated region of the AChE T subunit, which has been down-regulated in dioxin treated SK-N-SH cells. Functional bioinformatic analysis showed that the known and predicted target genes of hsa-miR-146b-5p were involved in some brain functions or cyto-toxicities related to known dioxin effects, including synapse transmission, in which AChE may serve as a responsive gene for mediating the effect. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Effect of dioxin on normal and leukemic human hematopoietic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambertenghi-Deliliers, G.; Soligo, D. [Univ. degli Studi, Milan (Italy). Dipt. die Ematologia, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico IRCCS; Fracchiolla, N.S. [Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico IRCCS, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Ematologia; Servida, F. [Fondazione Matarelli, Milan (Italy); Bertazzi, P.A. [Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Medicina del Lavoro

    2004-09-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) arises from chlorination of phenolic substrates or from partial combustion of organic materials in the presence of chlorine sources. TCDD has a large number of biological effects such as long-lasting skin disease, cardiovascular disease, diabete and cancer. TCDD is the prototypical agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a member of the erb-A family that also includes the receptors for steroids, thyroid hormones, peroxisome proliferators and retinoids. When bound to dioxin, the AhR can bind to DNA and alter the expression of some genes including cytokines and growth factors. In this study, we analyzed the effect of escalating doses of TCDD on human CD34{sup +} progenitor cells from the leukapheresis of normal donors stimulated with G-CSF as well as the human myeloid leukemic cell lines HL60 (promyelocytic leukemia) and K562 (chronic myelogenous leukemia). The possible specific modulation of gene expression induced by the TCDD exposure was then tested by means of microarray analyses.

  2. Effect of dioxin exposure on aromatase expression in ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Lan; Leung, Lai K.

    2008-01-01

    Because of their persistence in the environment dioxins are one of the most concerned classes of carcinogens. Displaying both pro- and anti-agonistic properties to some hormone receptors, the pollutants are also known to be endocrine disruptors. Humans can be exposed to this pollutant through contaminated food, air, drinking water, etc. The female hormone estrogen may initiate various physiological functions, and excessive exposure to this hormone is a documented risk factor for carcinogenesis. Cyp19 (aromatase) catalyses the last step of estrogen biosynthesis, while cyp1a1 can hydroxylate and deactivate the hormone. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD) on aromatase expression in the brain and adipose tissue in ovariectomized Sprague Dawley rats. Female rats were given 2.5 μg/kg TCDD p.o. before and after ovariectomy. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis indicated that pre-ovariectomy administration of TCDD could significantly reduce aromatase expression in the brain but increase the expression in the adipose tissue. In addition, increased plasma estrogen level and uterine weight were observed in these rats. These parameters did not change in rats with post-ovariectomy TCDD treatment. Our results suggested that the timing of exposure to the toxicant could determine the estrogenicity of TCDD. No correlation between cyp1a1 and cyp19 expression was observed

  3. Dioxin, PCB and PBDE exposure in grey heron (ardea cinerea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, A.; Thompson, H.; Dsilva, K.; White, S.; Rose, M. [Central Science Laboratory, York (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-15

    In the United Kingdom recent investigations have detected elevated levels of mortality and bone disease in grey herons at an established colony in Nottinghamshire along the course of the river Trent (4). The causes of mortality are unclear but deformities recorded in the other birds include multiple fracture of the tarsus, tibia and metacarpal bones. These findings have prompted a pilot study into assessing the level of environmental contaminants in the tissue and eggs of these birds. Two classes of contaminants have the potential to cause the deformities observed in the birds - heavy metals such as selenium, cadmium, arsenic mercury and lead, and halogenated organic contaminants such as dioxins, and PCBs. This paper discusses levels of these contaminants in the samples of eggs taken from the colony. Additional samples of eggs were also collected from a colony in Hertfordshire and from a site in the north of the country. The discussion will be limited to the halogenated organic contaminants as the levels of heavy metals were similar in all sites and were generally at or above background levels. Given the increased utilisation of brominated flame retardant chemicals over the last decade and the similarities in structure and environmental persistence of some of these compounds to the dioxins and PCBs, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) were also measured in the samples.

  4. Emissions of dioxin and dibenzofuran from electric arc furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueira, S. L.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes work done in order to clarify the formation mechanism of highly toxic micropoUutants, such as dioxins and dibenzofurans, from electric arc furnaces used in the production of carbon steel from scrap. The study is allowing to derive relationships between the levels of airborne micropoUutants and the operational parameters of the production process so that an abatement of pollution could be achieved. By using the European standard method CEN 1948 for dioxin like compounds sampling and measurement, it was possible to determine the characteristic fingerprint of micropoUutants emitted by this particular stationary source.

    Este artículo contiene resultados del trabajo ejecutado para el esclarecimiento de los mecanismos de formación de los micropolutantes muy tóxicos, como dioxinas y dibenzofuranos, que son emitidos por los hornos de arco eléctrico utilizados en la producción de acero. Estos estudios han permitido relacionar las concentraciones de polutantes emitidos a la atmósfera con las condiciones operación del homo eléctrico. Utilizando el método normalizado CEN 1948 para captación y análisis de muestras de compuestos análogos a las dioxinas ha sido posible determinar el perfil característico de los micropolutantes emitidos por esta fuente

  5. The Need and Potential of Biosensors to Detect Dioxins and Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls along the Milk, Eggs and Meat Food Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aize Kijlstra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs are hazardous toxic, ubiquitous and persistent chemical compounds, which can enter the food chain and accumulate up to higher trophic levels. Their determination requires sophisticated methods, expensive facilities and instruments, well-trained personnel and expensive chemical reagents. Ideally, real-time monitoring using rapid detection methods should be applied to detect possible contamination along the food chain in order to prevent human exposure. Sensor technology may be promising in this respect. This review gives the state of the art for detecting possible contamination with dioxins and DL-PCBs along the food chain of animal-source foods. The main detection methods applied (i.e., high resolution gas-chromatography combined with high resolution mass-spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS and the chemical activated luciferase gene expression method (CALUX bioassay, each have their limitations. Biosensors for detecting dioxins and related compounds, although still under development, show potential to overcome these limitations. Immunosensors and biomimetic-based biosensors potentially offer increased selectivity and sensitivity for dioxin and DL-PCB detection, while whole cell-based biosensors present interpretable biological results. The main shortcoming of current biosensors, however, is their detection level: this may be insufficient as limits for dioxins and DL-PCBs for food and feedstuffs are in pg per gram level. In addition, these contaminants are normally present in fat, a difficult matrix for biosensor detection. Therefore, simple and efficient extraction and clean-up procedures are required which may enable biosensors to detect dioxins and DL-PCBs contamination along the food chain.

  6. The Need and Potential of Biosensors to Detect Dioxins and Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls along the Milk, Eggs and Meat Food Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobtang, Jeerasak; de Boer, Imke J. M.; Hoogenboom, Ron L. A. P.; Haasnoot, Willem; Kijlstra, Aize; Meerburg, Bastiaan G.

    2011-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) are hazardous toxic, ubiquitous and persistent chemical compounds, which can enter the food chain and accumulate up to higher trophic levels. Their determination requires sophisticated methods, expensive facilities and instruments, well-trained personnel and expensive chemical reagents. Ideally, real-time monitoring using rapid detection methods should be applied to detect possible contamination along the food chain in order to prevent human exposure. Sensor technology may be promising in this respect. This review gives the state of the art for detecting possible contamination with dioxins and DL-PCBs along the food chain of animal-source foods. The main detection methods applied (i.e., high resolution gas-chromatography combined with high resolution mass-spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) and the chemical activated luciferase gene expression method (CALUX bioassay)), each have their limitations. Biosensors for detecting dioxins and related compounds, although still under development, show potential to overcome these limitations. Immunosensors and biomimetic-based biosensors potentially offer increased selectivity and sensitivity for dioxin and DL-PCB detection, while whole cell-based biosensors present interpretable biological results. The main shortcoming of current biosensors, however, is their detection level: this may be insufficient as limits for dioxins and DL-PCBs for food and feedstuffs are in pg per gram level. In addition, these contaminants are normally present in fat, a difficult matrix for biosensor detection. Therefore, simple and efficient extraction and clean-up procedures are required which may enable biosensors to detect dioxins and DL-PCBs contamination along the food chain. PMID:22247688

  7. The need and potential of biosensors to detect dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls along the milk, eggs and meat food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobtang, Jeerasak; de Boer, Imke J M; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Haasnoot, Willem; Kijlstra, Aize; Meerburg, Bastiaan G

    2011-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) are hazardous toxic, ubiquitous and persistent chemical compounds, which can enter the food chain and accumulate up to higher trophic levels. Their determination requires sophisticated methods, expensive facilities and instruments, well-trained personnel and expensive chemical reagents. Ideally, real-time monitoring using rapid detection methods should be applied to detect possible contamination along the food chain in order to prevent human exposure. Sensor technology may be promising in this respect. This review gives the state of the art for detecting possible contamination with dioxins and DL-PCBs along the food chain of animal-source foods. The main detection methods applied (i.e., high resolution gas-chromatography combined with high resolution mass-spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) and the chemical activated luciferase gene expression method (CALUX bioassay)), each have their limitations. Biosensors for detecting dioxins and related compounds, although still under development, show potential to overcome these limitations. Immunosensors and biomimetic-based biosensors potentially offer increased selectivity and sensitivity for dioxin and DL-PCB detection, while whole cell-based biosensors present interpretable biological results. The main shortcoming of current biosensors, however, is their detection level: this may be insufficient as limits for dioxins and DL-PCBs for food and feedstuffs are in pg per gram level. In addition, these contaminants are normally present in fat, a difficult matrix for biosensor detection. Therefore, simple and efficient extraction and clean-up procedures are required which may enable biosensors to detect dioxins and DL-PCBs contamination along the food chain.

  8. PBDD/Fs in surface sediments from the East River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, M; Peng, P A; Chen, D Y; Chen, P; Zhou, L

    2009-09-01

    The contamination status of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) was preliminarily investigated in surface sediments from the East River. The concentrations of eight 2,3,7,8-substituted tetra- to hexa- PBDD/Fs were found to be in the range of 0.32-110 (mean 13) pg g(-1) and the corresponding TEQ concentrations were 0.087-18 (mean 2) pg I-TEQ g(-1). All sediments were characterized by the dominant PBDFs. 2,3,4,7,8-PeBDF was the most important TEQ contributor, accounting for 47%-77% of the total I-TEQ of PBDD/Fs. PCDD/Fs contributed dominantly to the total TEQs of PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in most samples except of the sediment from the Shima River. The higher PBDD/F concentrations in the Shima River may be attributed to the use of BFRs in the electrical and electronics industries, which posed a potential risk of dioxins on ecological system.

  9. Bioanalytical characterisation of multiple endocrine- and dioxin-like activities in sediments from reference and impacted small rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinani, Said, E-mail: said@dcmr.polytechnique.f [Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), BP2, F-60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Departement de Chimie des Mecanismes Reactionnels, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Bouchonnet, Stephane, E-mail: stephane.bouchonnet@dcmr.polytechnique.f [Departement de Chimie des Mecanismes Reactionnels, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Creusot, Nicolas [Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), BP2, F-60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Bourcier, Sophie [Departement de Chimie des Mecanismes Reactionnels, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Balaguer, Patrick [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), U896, Montpellier, F-34298 (France); Porcher, Jean-Marc [Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), BP2, F-60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Ait-Aissa, Selim, E-mail: selim.ait-aissa@ineris.f [Unite d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), BP2, F-60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2010-01-15

    A comprehensive evaluation of organic contamination was performed in sediments sampled in two reference and three impacted small streams where endocrine disruptive (ED) effects in fish have been evidenced. The approach combined quantitative chemical analyses of more than 50 ED chemicals (EDCs) and a battery of in vitro bioassays allowing the quantification of receptor-mediated activities, namely estrogen (ER), androgen (AR), dioxin (AhR) and pregnane X (PXR) receptors. At the most impacted sites, chemical analyses showed the presence of natural estrogens, organochlorine pesticides, parabens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (16 PAHs), bisphenol A and alkylphenols, while synthetic steroids, myco-estrogens and phyto-estrogens were not detected. Determination of toxic-equivalent amounts showed that 28-96% of estrogenic activities in bioassays (0.2-6.3 ng/g 17beta-estradiol equivalents) were explained by 17beta-estradiol and estrone. PAHs were major contributors (20-60%) to the total dioxin-like activities. Interestingly, high PXR and (anti)AR activities were detected; however, the targeted analysed compounds could not explain the measured biological activities. This study highlighted the presence of multiple organic EDCs in French river sediments subjected to mixed diffuse pollution, and argues for the need to further identify AR and PXR active compounds in the aquatic environment. - Multiple endocrine disrupting chemicals (ER, AR, AhR and PXR ligands) are detected in French river sediments using a panel of in vitro bioassays and analytical methods.

  10. FY 1999 report on the results of the investigational study of dioxin emission mechanism/control; 1999 nendo dioxin hassei kiko yokusei chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of promoting the utilization of energy from waste, studies were conducted on the dioxin emission mechanism and non-Br base fire retardant materials which emit no Br base dioxin, and the FY 1999 results were summarized. In the study, using a small-fluidized bed experimental incinerator, survey was made of effects of organic/inorganic chlorine included in solid general waste on the formation/discharge of dioxins. As a result of the experiment, it was found out that organic chlorine compounds discharge more dioxins than inorganic ones, and that the combustion method in which rapid formation of volatile matter in furnace is controlled to realize the homogeneous mixed state is important for control of dioxins. In the study of non-Br base fire retardant materials, a preliminary experiment was conducted on new fire retardant materials added with inorganic carrier, metal complex, etc. to make the confirmation of fire retardation by liquid phase reaction of polymer in combustion conditions and the study of fire retardation by separating liquid phase reaction, pyrolysis reaction, and gaseous phase reaction. Further, simulation of the combustion of polymer materials was carried out. (NEDO)

  11. Study on distributions and recoveries of tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in a mm5 sampling train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkel, J.M.; James, R.H.; Baughman, K.W.

    1990-12-01

    14 C-dioxin tracers were used to evaluate whole MM5 sampling train recoveries of dioxin and to determine the distribution of dioxins spiked into a sampling train that was concurrently sampling emissions from a burn of either natural gas ('clean' burn) or kerosene ('dirty' burn). The spike tests were made with a pilot-scale furnace constructed and operated in the laboratory. Recovery of 14 C-dioxin from the MM5 sampling train was determined by scintillation spectrometry. The experimental results indicate that the amount of spiked TCDD- 14 C recovered was approximately 85% during a natural gas test and 83% during a kerosene test. The amount of spiked OCDD- 14 C recovered was approximately 88% during a kerosene test. Also, the data indicate that during the kerosene tests OCDD- 14 C is collected primarily in the front half of the sampling train but TCDD- 14 C is often found in the XAD and the rear filter bell, riser and condenser of the sampling train. During the natural gas tests, TCDD- 14 C was primarily in the XAD. The distribution of the TCDD- 14 C in the kerosene tests was dependent on the rigid operation of the sampling train. The information from the study will be used to determine procedural areas that need improvements or modifications to allow the efficient collection and accurate determination of trace levels of dioxins and furans using the MM5 Method

  12. Concentrations and trophic magnification of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in marine fish from the Bohai coastal area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lili; Wang, Shasha; Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Xia, Dan; Qiao, Lin; Liu, Wenbin

    2018-03-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) have been found widely in the aquatic environment and can be transferred through food chains, which can magnify or dilute their toxic effects on humans. In this study, PCNs were analyzed in samples of 17 species of fish with different dietary habits collected in the Bohai coastal area in China. Dichloronaphthalenes, which have rarely been quantified in previous studies, were determined. The total PCN concentrations were from 7.3 to 214 pg/g wet weight, and the highest concentration was found in ditrema. The trichloronaphthalenes were the most abundant PCNs, followed by the dichloronaphthalenes and pentachloronaphthalenes. The relatively high contributions of the less-chlorinated homologs to the total PCN concentrations indicated that the main PCN sources around the Bohai were industrial thermal process emissions rather than technical PCN formulations. The trophic magnification factors of the PCN homologs were from 3.1 to 9.9, indicating that PCNs were biomagnified by fish. The trophic magnification factor of dichloronaphthalene and trichloronaphthalenes was 5.8 and 6.4, respectively, indicating for the first time that dichloronaphthalene and trichloronaphthalenes can undergo trophic magnification by fish. The two highest trophic magnification factors were for the pentachloronaphthalenes and hexachloronaphthalenes, probably because these PCNs having fewer vicinal carbon atoms without chlorine atoms attached are less easily biotransformed than the other homologs. The dioxin-like toxicities of the PCNs in the samples, expressed as potential toxic equivalences (TEQs), were assessed. The highest total TEQ was 0.0090 pg/g ww, in Pacific herring, and the hexachloronaphthalenes were the dominant contributors to the total TEQs in the fish samples. The PCN TEQs were much lower than the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl TEQs found in fish from the Bohai in previous studies, and

  13. Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran congeners in air particulate and marine sediment standard reference materials (SRMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, C H; Turle, R; Poole, G; Thibert, B; Brubaker, W W; Schantz, M M; Wise, S A

    2001-02-01

    Due to the limited number of environmental matrix certified reference materials (CRMs) with assigned values for natural levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), an interlaboratory study was undertaken by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Environment Canada to establish reference concentration values for selected PCDD/Fs in two well-characterized NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs): SRM 1649a (Urban Dust) and SRM 1944 (New York/New Jersey Waterway Sediment). Results from 14 laboratories were used to provide reference values for the seventeen 2, 3, 7, 8-substituted PCDD/F congeners, the totals for individual tetra- through hepta-substituted PCDD/F homologues, and the total amount of tetra- through hepta-substituted PCDD/Fs. The mass fractions for the individual 2, 3, 7, 8-substituted congeners range from approximately 0.01 microg/kg to 7 microg/kg dry mass.

  14. Separation and recovery of dioxins using a heavy ion irradiation film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, S; Iida, S; Ohbayashi, Y [Meiji Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2004-02-01

    It is demonstrated that halogenated dioxin and its derivatives can be separated from polluted aqueous solutions using pervaporation technique with a nanopore membrane fabricated by heavy-ion beam irradiation. The concentration of dioxin in the sample solution was set below 1 ppm. Polyethyleneterphthalate membrane was used. The membrane was first irradiated with high energy Xe-ions of 450 MeV with a fluence of 3 x 10{sup 3} to 3 x 10{sup 9} ions/cm{sup 2} using TIARA facility of JAERI Takasaki, etched with 6 mol/l NaOH solution resulting in formation of pores with diameter ranging from several to 40 nm, followed by grafting with monomers having affinity to dioxin. Dibenzo-p-dioxin was used to obtain permeability data. Separation factor obtained were within the range from 10 to 50. (S. Ohno)

  15. Health risks from dioxin and related compounds: evaluation of the EPA reassessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on EPA's Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of TCDD and Related Compounds, National Research Council

    Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency presented a comprehensive review of the scientific literature in its 2003 draft reassessment of the risks of dioxin, the agency did not sufficiently quantify...

  16. Dioxins and dibenzofurans in the environment; Dioxinas y dibenzofuranos en el medio ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, M.; Fernandez, H.; Sastre, A.; Diez Sanz, F. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain)

    1996-11-01

    The dioxins and dibenzofurans are toxic substances. They are doing in a few of industrial process and are dangerous for the environment. This article presents the analysis of these substances: characterization, origin and transmission in the environment. (Author)

  17. Identification of Baltic Sea salmon based on PCB and dioxin profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren; Lund, Kirsten H.; Cederberg, Tommy Licht

    2016-01-01

    , important to be able to enforce correct labeling of geographical origin through authentication. One authentication strategy is to examine trace markers specific for a geographical origin. The chemical contaminants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-. p-dioxins and dibenzofurans...

  18. Dioxins - how dangerous are they and where do they come from?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, Kristian M.

    2001-01-01

    Dioxins are very toxic. Relatively small amounts can cause chronic effects on man such as retarded growth, disturbed metabolism of vitamin A, reduced immunity, lowered testosterone production and skin damage. Dioxins may cause deformity or cancer of the liver or intestine. In Norway, the maximum recommended daily consumption is much lower than the levels for which effects on man and animals have been observed. The daily consumption by the average Norwegian is about half the recommended maximum dose and comes almost entirely from the food, fat food in particular. The effects of very low levels of dioxins are disputed. The article discusses the main sources of dioxins. Some are the result of human activities. Many occur naturally, as in some occurrences of clay

  19. Serum dioxin and psychological functioning in U.S. Air Force veterans of the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, Joel E; Barrett, Drue H; Morris, Robert D; Jackson, William G

    2003-02-01

    Using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory, we assessed the psychological functioning of U.S. Air Force veterans exposed to Agent Orange and its contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlodibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), during the Vietnam War. Index subjects were veterans of Operation Ranch Hand (N = 1,109). Comparisons (N = 1,493) were U.S. Air Force veterans not involved with spraying herbicides. We found few consistent psychological abnormalities associated with serum dioxin levels. Ranch Hand veterans with higher dioxin levels showed some difficulties in anxiety, somatization, depression, and a denial of psychological factors. However, those with background levels also showed indications of emotional distress, primarily in emotional numbing and lability; a guarded, suspicious, and withdrawn style of relating to others; and unusual thoughts or behaviors.

  20. LOW COST SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TREATMENT FOR SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH DIOXIN, PCP AND CREOSOTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA's NRMRL conducted successful treatability tests of innovative solidification/stabilization (S/S) formulations to treat soils contaminated with dioxins, pentachlorophenol (PCP), and creosote from four wood preserving sites. Formulations developed during these studies wer...

  1. First results from dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the population from Madeira Island, Portugal. Part 1. Biomonitoring in blood of the general population living near to a solid waste incinerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel; Sampaio, C. [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Lisbon (Portugal); J. Mauricio Melim [Public Health Regional Dept., Funchal (Portugal); Aguiar, P. [National School of Public Health, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2004-09-15

    The present study is one of a series of papers describing selected results of the ongoing projects, designed to ultimately evaluate the potential impact on public health of the updated solid waste incinerator. Addressing dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, specific aims of this study were: (i) to determine whether living in the vicinity of the Meia Serra incinerator increases the dioxin body burden of the general population; (ii) to investigate other potential determinants of dioxin exposure in this population for prevention priorities; (iii) to provide data on the extent and pattern of exposure of the general population to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds by determining respective toxicity levels and congeners profile in blood samples.

  2. Investigation on main source of dioxin analogues in human breast milk (second report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, H.; Nakao, T.; Aozasa, O.; Ohta, S. [Setsunan Univ., Hirakata (Japan); Iwamatsu, T. [Teijin Eco Science, Co. Ltd., Matsuyama (Japan); Fujimine, Y. [Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Tokushima (Japan); Fukui, S. [Fukui Lactation Consultation, Amagasaki (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In many countries, the breast milk sample has been used as a suitable indicator in order to examine human exposure level to Dioxins. In general, the breast milk level is considered to be reflecting to their accumulation level in the body. In addition, it is considered that ca. 60% of the accumulation amount of Dioxins is excreted to the baby through breast milk by nursing for a year. However, are these things true? In 1989, Frust et al. reported a time course of concentrations of Dioxins (abbreviated as Dioxins) in breast milk of one German during a period of 1 - 60 weeks after delivery. In the case of PCDFs, the level of 10 - 13 weeks after delivery was remarkably higher than that of 5 weeks. In addition, the PCBs level on the 10 to 13 weeks was also higher in comparison with on the 1 week. Thus, their pollution levels did not always decrease with a passing of time after childbirth. This suggests that all Dioxins in breast milk might be not derived from their storage in the body. Therefore, in 2001, we investigated the time alteration on the pollution level of Dioxins in breast milk from nine mothers and on their infants' daily intake of Dioxins by nursing. Consequently, it was revealed that the average daily intake of PCDD/DFs (PCDDs + PCDFs) was roughly constant during a period of 5 to 180 days after delivery. If all PCDD/DFs in breast milk are derived from only their body storage, the pollution level in milk must decrease in a linear course during a period of 5 to 180 days after delivery. However, thus linear decrease of pollution level was not observed in all tested mothers. These results indicated that PCDD/DFs in milk might be also delivered from other sources except for their storage in the body. Therefore, in this study, we tried to investigate the source of Dioxins in human breast milk.

  3. Flavonoids and resveratrol as regulators of Ah-receptor activity: protection from dioxin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutel'yan, V A; Gapparov, M M; Telegin, L Yu; Devichenskii, V M; Pevnitskii, L A

    2003-12-01

    In 2002 FAO and WHO published a joint appeal to state and public organizations and scientific community to take every effort to control the contents of dioxin and related biphenyls in the environment and food products. The toxic effects of dioxin are realized via its interaction with the Ah-receptor. Here we reviewed modern notions about the structure and functions of Ah-receptor. Particular attention was given to antagonists and agonists of the Ah-receptor, including various flavonoids and resveratrol.

  4. Survey of serum concentrations of dioxins, furans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in a small non-random sample of U.S. residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassman, J. [Brooklyn Coll. CUNY, Health and Nutrition Sciences, Brooklyn, New York, NY (United States); Patterson, D.G. Jr.; Needham, L.L. [National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Spencer, D.L.; Masten, S.A. [Environmental Toxicology Program, National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2004-09-15

    This cross sectional assessment of serum dioxin concentrations was conducted as part of a larger study to examine the relationship between dioxin exposure and gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Recent reports indicate that environmental levels of dioxins have declined since the mid-1980's. Except for the recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), there has been little systematic surveillance of serum dioxins levels in the US general population. Here, we report the serum concentrations of 22 congeners of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and their relationship with age, sex, smoking, and meat consumption.

  5. Risk assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food. Comments by the German Federal Environmental Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, A.; Neumeier, G.; Rappolder, M.; Konietzka, R. [Federal Environmental Agency, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Potential health effects of dioxins are an important issue of concern to both politicians and the public. As all humans are exposed to measurable levels of dioxins and related substances, the determination of the tolerated daily intake is a very significant decision. Moreover the revision of this value is not only of academic interest but may also directly influence limit values guiding risk reduction measures, target levels such as those for tolerated residues in food. Council Regulation (EC) No 2375/2001 (setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in food) states in 11: ''Target levels indicate the levels to be achieved in order to ultimately bring human exposure for the majority of the population down to the TWI set by the Scientific Committee''. These target values will be set before 31 December 2004. Thus the level of the TDI may indirectly influence entire sectors of industry in some member countries such as the fish industry of some Nordic States or the feed industry throughout the European Union. Recommendations of a daily intake should involve a very low likelihood of a risk for humans. In particular some prerequisites have to be fulfilled: The proposed TDI has to protect all subpopulations. In the case of dioxin this is of high importance as the exposure of infants through breast feeding may exceed the exposure of adults by one or two orders of magnitude. The degree of uncertainty should be indicated at every step of the risk assessment as requested by the Communication from the Commission on the Precautionary Principle ''Where possible, a report should be made which indicates the assessment of the existing knowledge and the available information, providing the views of the scientists on the reliability of the assessment as well as on the remaining uncertainties. If necessary, it should also contain the identification of topics for further scientific research'' Uncertainty of the models applied should be

  6. Cyp1a reporter zebrafish reveals target tissues for dioxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kun-Hee [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hye-Jeong [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Hee [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suhyun [Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Williams, Darren R. [New Drug Targets Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myeong-Kyu [Department of Neurology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young Do [Department of Biochemistry, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Teraoka, Hiroki [School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu (Japan); Park, Hae-Chul [Graduate School of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Choy, Hyon E., E-mail: hyonchoy@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Boo Ahn, E-mail: bashin@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seok-Yong, E-mail: zebrafish@chonnam.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: •2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the most toxic anthropogenic substance ever identified. •Transgenic cyp1a reporter zebrafish reveals target tissues for TCDD. •The retinal bipolar cells, otic vesicle, lateral line, pancreas, cloaca and pectoral fin bud are novel targets in zebrafish for TCDD. •Our findings will further understanding of human health risks by TCDD. -- Abstract: 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the unintentional byproduct of various industrial processes, is classified as human carcinogen and could disrupt reproductive, developmental and endocrine systems. Induction of cyp1a1 is used as an indicator of TCDD exposure. We sought to determine tissues that are vulnerable to TCDD toxicity using a transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. We inserted a nuclear enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (EGFP) into the start codon of a zebrafish cyp1a gene in a fosmid clone using DNA recombineering. The resulting recombineered fosmid was then used to generate cyp1a reporter zebrafish, embryos of which were exposed to TCDD. Expression pattern of EGFP in the reporter zebrafish mirrored that of endogenous cyp1a mRNA. In addition, exposure of the embryos to TCDD at as low as 10 pM for 72 h, which does not elicit morphological abnormalities of embryos, markedly increased GFP expression. Furthermore, the reporter embryos responded to other AhR ligands as well. Exposure of the embryos to TCDD revealed previously reported (the cardiovascular system, liver, pancreas, kidney, swim bladder and skin) and unreported target tissues (retinal bipolar cells, otic vesicle, lateral line, cloaca and pectoral fin bud) for TCDD. Transgenic cyp1a reporter zebrafish we have developed can further understanding of ecotoxicological relevance and human health risks by TCDD. In addition, they could be used to identify agonists of AhR and antidotes to TCDD toxicity.

  7. A review of the neurotoxicity of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seegal, R. [Albany Univ., NY (United States). Wadsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health and School of Public Health

    2004-09-15

    It is perhaps both presumptuous and somewhat nostalgic for me to present research findings from both myself and others describing the changes in central nervous system (CNS) function that occur following exposure to non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at the 2004 Dioxin meeting. Presumptuous because my presentation occurs during this meeting where the majority of the research is concerned with the consequences of exposure to dioxins (the most toxic substance produced by man) and nostalgic because, in 1992, I presented some of my earliest work demonstrating that non-dioxin-like PCBs were capable of significantly altering neurochemical function. Much has changed in the intervening twelve years. Laboratories in the United States and Europe now routinely study and describe the neurotoxicological effects of developmental and in vitro exposure to non-dioxin-like PCBs. My task will be to briefly describe the highlights of that research and suggest additional approaches that will hopefully increase our ability to understand the mechanisms of action of non-dioxin-like PCBs on neuronal and behavioral function in populations of exposed humans.

  8. Automated rapid analysis for dioxins and PCBs in food, feedingstuff and environmental matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelscher, K.; Maulshagen, A.; Behnisch, P.A. [eurofins-GfA, Muenster (Germany); Shirkhan, H. [Fluid Management Systems Inc., Waltham, MA (United States); Lieck, G. [University of Applied Science, Steinfurt (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Today there is a need to develop high throughput specific and sensitive methods for the determination of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and indicator-PCBs to ensure their rapid and reliable quantification in several kinds of food and feedingstuffs. Ideally one method would fit for several matrices with highest quality standards and with the possibility of a cost/time-effective samplehandling. However, generally in case of the numerous different PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and indicator-PCBs as well as the large concentration range to cover this is quite difficult to fulfill. The implementation of an automated sample-treatment flow process (''dioxin street''), which contains an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), a Power-Prep workstation (Fluid Management Systems, FMS) for automated clean-up, a Syncore Polyvap (Buechi, Switzerland) for solvent evaporation and a HRGC/HRMS (VG AutoSpec) analysis as detection method for several kinds of different matrices is described here. The aim of the present study is to confirm the high quality, low limits of quantification (LOQ), low PCB background levels and reliability of the Power-Prep system in combination with ASE extraction for dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and indicator-PCBs.

  9. Dioxin and phthalate uptake and assimilation by the green mussel Perna viridis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wen-Xiong; Zhang, Qiong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the aqueous uptake and dietary assimilation (trophic transfer) of two endocrine disrupting compounds (dioxin and phathalic acid) in the green mussel Perna viridis were quantified. During short-term exposure period, dioxin rapidly sorbed onto phytoplankton and its accumulation was much higher than that of phthalate. The uptake of these two compounds by the mussels increased with increasing temperature and salinity (for dioxin only). The dietary assimilation of the two contaminants was rather modest (10–64% for dioxin and 20–47% for phthalate), and was greatly dependent on the food species and concentration. Interestingly, dietary assimilation increased with increasing diatom food concentration. Gut passage time was partially responsible for the variable dietary assimilation. Given the high dissolved uptake rate and the modest dietary assimilation, aqueous exposure was predicted to be the dominant bioaccumulation source for both dioxin and phthalate in the green mussels under most conditions. -- Capsule: Aqueous uptake was the predominant pathway for dioxin and phthalate accumulation in marine green mussels

  10. Estimated dietary dioxin exposure and breast cancer risk among women from the French E3N prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjou, Aurélie M N; Fervers, Béatrice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Philip, Thierry; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure

    2015-03-17

    Dioxins are environmental and persistent pollutants mostly emitted from combustion facilities (e.g. waste incinerators, metal and cement industries). Known to be endocrine disrupting chemicals, dioxins are suspected to increase breast cancer (BC) risk. Although diet is considered the primary source of dioxin exposure, no previous study has been published on dietary dioxin exposure in relation to BC risk. We aimed to assess dietary dioxin exposure among women from the E3N cohort and estimate BC risk associated with this exposure. The study included 63,830 women from the E3N cohort who completed a diet history questionnaire (DHQ) in 1993 and were followed until 2008. Dietary dioxin exposure was estimated by combining consumption data from the E3N DHQ and food dioxin contamination data from a French national monitoring program. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox models adjusted for BC risk factors. Mean dietary dioxin exposure was estimated at 1.3 ± 0.4 pg/kg body weight (BW)/day. A 0.4 pg/kg BW/d increase in dioxin intake was not associated with overall BC risk (HR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.05). A significant decrease in risk of estrogen receptor negative (ER-)/progesterone receptor negative (PR-) tumors was observed among post-menopausal women in the upper quartile of estimated dioxin intake (HR for Q4 vs. Q1: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.96; P for trend across quartiles = 0.0463). Overall, no association between estimated dietary dioxin exposure and BC risk was found among E3N women. Further studies should include both dietary and environmental exposures to determine whether low-dose dioxin exposure is associated with BC risk.

  11. 40 CFR 721.9662 - Thieno[3,4-b]-1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Thieno[3,4-b]-1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9662 Thieno[3,4-b]-1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI). (a) Chemical...-b]-1,4-dioxin, 2,3-dihydro- (9CI) (PMN P-95-1825; CAS No. 126213-50-1) is subject to reporting under...

  12. Relative effect potency estimates of dioxin-like activity for dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like PCBs in adults based on cytochrome P450 1A1 and 1B1 gene expression in blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimmerová, Soňa; van den Berg, Martin; Chovancová, Jana; Patayová, Henrieta; Jusko, Todd A; van Duursen, Majorie B M; Palkovičová Murínová, Ľubica; Canton, Rocio F; van Ede, Karin I; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the risk assessment of PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like (DL) PCBs, regulatory authorities support the use of the toxic equivalency factor (TEF)-scheme derived from a heterogeneous data set of the relative effect potency (REPs) estimates. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine REPs for

  13. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of informal e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Ghana, and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Fobil, Julius N; Till, Holger; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Wilhelm, Michael; Feldt, Torsten

    2015-06-01

    The formation and environmental release of highly toxic organohalogen compounds associated with informal recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (e-waste) is a growing problem at e-waste dumps/recycling sites (EWRSs) in many developing countries worldwide. We chose a cross-sectional study design to measure the internal exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of individuals working on one of the largest EWRSs of Africa, located at Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana, and in controls from a suburb of Accra without direct exposure to EWRS activities. In whole blood samples of 21 age matched male exposed individuals (mean age: 24.7 years, SD 6.0) and 21 male controls (mean age: 24.4 years, SD 5.7) 17 PCDD/F congeners were determined. Moreover three indicator PCB congeners (#138, #153 and #180) were measured in blood of 39 exposed (mean age: 27.5 years, SD 11.7) and 19 non-exposed (mean age: 26.8 years, SD 9.7) patients. Besides a health examination, biometric and demographic data, residential and occupational history, occupational exposures and working conditions were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. In the exposed group, median PCDD/F-concentrations were 6.18 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 2.1-42.7) and significantly higher compared to the control group with 4.60 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 1.6-11.6). Concentrations were different for 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD, three HexaCDD and all 10 PCDF congeners, indicating a combustion pattern. Using a multivariate regression analysis exposure to EWRS activities was the most important determinant for PCDD/F exposure. Median PCB levels for the indicator congeners #138, #153 and #180 were 0.011, 0.019 and 0.008 μg/l whole blood (ranges: 0.002-0.18, 0.003-0.16, 0.002-0.078) in the exposed group and, surprisingly, significantly higher in the controls (0.037, 0.062 and 0.022; ranges: 0.005-0.46, 0.010-0.46, 0.004-0.21). In a

  14. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  15. Environmental dioxin contamination in Chapaevsk, Russia: an evaluation of potential human health risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revich, B. [Center for Demography and Human Ecology of Inst. for Forecasting, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sergeyev, O. [Chapaevsk Medical Association, Chapaevsk (Russian Federation); Zeilert, V. [Central Medical Hospital, Chapaevsk (Russian Federation); Hauser, R. [Dept. of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The town of Chapaevsk (population 80 thousand) is located in Middle Volga region. During 1967- 1987 a chemical plant there produced hexachlorcyclohexan (lindan) and its derivatives. Later it produced crop protection chemicals (liquid chlorine, acids, methyl chloroform, vinyl chloride, and some other chemicals). Previously it was considered that hexachlorane production was responsible for dioxin contamination in the city's environment. Tests seemed to confirm it. But after the production was stopped in 1987, a continued output of dioxin was still observed. At present the plant stands practically idle; the main contamination source is represented by the old technological equipment, the plant's territory and industrial wastes. In 1994 an average concentration of dioxins in the air was 0.116 pg/m{sup 3}. The calculations were made when the plant worked at 20% capacity, so one can extrapolate that dioxin air emissions had been higher previously. Moving away from the plant one can see the decrease in dioxin levels down to 36.8 ng/kg in downtown (2.7 km from the plant); down to 3.9 ng/kg in the southern part of the city; down to 0.9 ng/kg at 10 - 15 km from the plant. Private house owners (18,000 in Chapaevsk) grow essentially all their vegetables and fruits for their own use, thus receiving an additional dioxin load. The results received in Chapaevsk boys study show a high proportion of the boys consumed locally grown or raised foods during their lifetime: over 70% consumed locally produced dairy products, over 50% consumed locally raised chickens or eggs, and over 80% consumed locally caught fish during their lifetime. In 1994 we began studies of dioxins impact on human health with the following aims: (1) to estimate dioxin levels in human blood and milk; (2) to estimate incidence and mortality rates, and specifically describe reproductive health in the population according to official statistical data; (3) to estimate dioxin exposure as a risk factor for

  16. Association between Blood Dioxin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease in an Endemic Area of Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yuan Huang

    Full Text Available Dioxin is an industrial pollutant related to various diseases, but epidemiological data on its effects on the kidney are limited. Therefore, we conducted a study to evaluate the association between dioxin exposure and chronic kidney disease (CKD and identify the related factors.We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study and recruited participants from an area where the residents were exposed to dioxin released from a factory. We defined a "high dioxin level" as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs ≥ 20 pg WHO98-TEQDF/g lipid in the serum and defined CKD as having an estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73m2 or a diagnosis of CKD by a physician. The renal function was assessed between 2005 and 2010, and we excluded those who had had kidney diseases before the study started. Comparisons between patients of CKD and those who did not have CKD were made to identify the risk factors for CKD.Of the 2898 participants, 1427 had high dioxin levels, and 156 had CKD. In the univariate analyses, CKD was associated with high dioxin levels, age, gender, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and high insulin and uric acid levels. After adjusting for other factors, we found high dioxin levels (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-2.99, female gender (AOR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.20-2.53, hypertension (AOR = 1.68, 95%CI: 1.17-2.42, high insulin levels (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.26-3.61, high uric acid levels (AOR = 4.25, 95% CI: 2.92-6.20, and older age (AOR = 4.66, 95% CI: 1.87-11.62 for 40-64 year and AOR = 26.66, 95% CI: 10.51-67.62 for age ≥ 65 year were independent predictors of CKD.A high dioxin level was associated with an increased prevalence of CKD. Therefore, the kidney function of populations with exposure to dioxin should be monitored.

  17. Estimated cancer risk of dioxins to humans using a bioassay and physiologically based pharmacokinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Wakae; Aoki, Yasunobu

    2006-01-01

    The health risk of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds to humans was analyzed quantitatively using experimental data and mathematical models. To quantify the toxicity of a mixture of three dioxin congeners, we calculated the new relative potencies (REPs) for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (PeCDD), and 2,3,4,7,8- pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), focusing on their tumor promotion activity. We applied a liver foci formation assay to female SD rats after repeated oral administration of dioxins. The REP of dioxin for a rat was determined using dioxin concentration and the number of the foci in rat liver. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK model) was used for interspecies extrapolation targeting on dioxin concentration in liver. Toxic dose for human was determined by back-estimation with a human PBPK model, assuming that the same concentration in the target tissue may cause the same level of effect in rats and humans, and the REP for human was determined by the toxic dose obtained. The calculated REPs for TCDD, PeCDD, and PeCDF were 1.0, 0.34, and 0.05 for rats, respectively, and the REPs for humans were almost the same as those for rats. These values were different from the toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) presented previously (Van den Berg, M., Birnbaum, L., Bosveld, A.T.C., Brunstrom, B., Cook, P., Feeley, M., Giesy, J.P., Hanberg, A., Hasegawa, R., Kennedy, S.W., Kubiak, T., Larsen, J.C., Rolaf van Leeuwen, F.X., Liem, A.K.D., Nolt, C., Peterson, R.E., Poellinger. L., Safe, S., Schrenk, D., Tillitt, D, Tysklind, M., Younes, M., Waern, F., Zacharewski, T., 1998. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife. Environ. Health Perspect. 106, 775-792). The relative risk of excess liver cancer for Japanese people in general was 1.7-6.5 x 10 -7 by TCDD only, and 2.9-11 x 10 -7 by the three dioxins at the present level of contamination

  18. Association between Blood Dioxin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease in an Endemic Area of Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yuan; Wu, Cheng-Long; Wu, Jin-Shang; Chang, Jung-Wei; Cheng, Ya-Yun; Kuo, Yau-Chang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Lee, Ching-Chang; Guo, How-Ran

    2016-01-01

    Dioxin is an industrial pollutant related to various diseases, but epidemiological data on its effects on the kidney are limited. Therefore, we conducted a study to evaluate the association between dioxin exposure and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and identify the related factors. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study and recruited participants from an area where the residents were exposed to dioxin released from a factory. We defined a "high dioxin level" as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) ≥ 20 pg WHO98-TEQDF/g lipid in the serum and defined CKD as having an estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73m2 or a diagnosis of CKD by a physician. The renal function was assessed between 2005 and 2010, and we excluded those who had had kidney diseases before the study started. Comparisons between patients of CKD and those who did not have CKD were made to identify the risk factors for CKD. Of the 2898 participants, 1427 had high dioxin levels, and 156 had CKD. In the univariate analyses, CKD was associated with high dioxin levels, age, gender, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and high insulin and uric acid levels. After adjusting for other factors, we found high dioxin levels (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-2.99), female gender (AOR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.20-2.53), hypertension (AOR = 1.68, 95%CI: 1.17-2.42), high insulin levels (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.26-3.61), high uric acid levels (AOR = 4.25, 95% CI: 2.92-6.20), and older age (AOR = 4.66, 95% CI: 1.87-11.62 for 40-64 year and AOR = 26.66, 95% CI: 10.51-67.62 for age ≥ 65 year) were independent predictors of CKD. A high dioxin level was associated with an increased prevalence of CKD. Therefore, the kidney function of populations with exposure to dioxin should be monitored.

  19. Non-dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyl indicator congeners in Northwest Atlantic spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Gelais, Adam T; Aeppli, Christoph; Burnell, Craig A; Costa-Pierce, Barry A

    2017-07-15

    In the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (NWAO), spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) is a promising commercial species following of collapse of traditional groundfish stocks. There are little available data assessing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in NWAO spiny dogfish. Here, six non-dioxin like PCB indicator congeners used in European Union regulations (EU NDL-PCB) were quantified via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in 50 mature male spiny dogfish landed in southern New England. The average total concentration of EU NDL-PCBs was 58±43ng/g (mean±1 standard deviation). PCB values (corrected for co-elution) were below the 200ng/g EU regulatory limit. Results provide first recent regional insight into the PCB content of spiny dogfish in the NWAO. However, our study offers only a snapshot of one particular dogfish population, and might not be representative for the whole NWAO. This study underscores the need for further testing in this species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Presence of dioxins and furans in EDAR muds; Presencia de dioxinas y furanos en fangos de EDAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elvira, M.; Alonso, A.M.; Dominguez, A.; Lorenzo, P. de

    1997-12-31

    The polychlorodibenzyl-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorodibenzyl-furans (PCDFs) are two groups of organochklorated substances with similar structure and properties, which cover a total of 210 compounds and are characterised by their high persistence and toxicity. Of all the isomers, particularly toxic are those substituted in positions 2,3,7,and 8. The presence of these substances in EDAR muds make these appear, due to their enormous production, as a new source for the accumulation and transmission of said contaminants. On this matter, several countries have already established concentrations limits for these compounds in muds which are applied to agricultural land, in order to avoid or minimise the risk derived from their accumulation in the soil and in the trophic chain. (Author) 4 refs. u

  1. Hydrothermal treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for dioxin decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yuyan; Zhang, Pengfei; Chen, Dezhen; Zhou, Bin; Li, Jianyi; Li, Xian-wei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The first study to apply Fe-sulfate in hydrothermal treatment of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash for dioxin decomposition. ► The first study to comprehensively evaluate the effect of hydrothermal treatment on dioxin decomposition and heavy metal stabilization in municipal solid waste incineration fly ash. ► Gaussian software chemical computational simulation was performed to investigate the mechanism of dioxin decomposition based on quantum chemistry calculation, and to support the experimental data by the calculation results. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatment of MSWI fly ash was performed in this paper with a purpose to reduce its dioxin content. First a hydrothermal reactor was set up with a mixture of ferric sulphate and ferrous sulphate serviced as the reactant, then the effects caused by reaction conditions such as reaction temperature, pre-treatment by water-washing and reactant dosage were checked; the results showed that as a promising technology, hydrothermal treatment exhibited considerable high efficiencies in decomposition of PCDDs/PCDFs and good stabilization of heavy metals as well. Experimental results also showed that for dioxin destruction, higher reaction temperature is the most important influencing factor followed by Fe addition, and pre-treatment of raw fly ash by water-washing increased the destruction efficiencies of dioxins only very slightly. Finally with help of Gaussian software chemical computational simulation was performed to investigate the mechanism of dioxin decomposition based on quantum chemistry calculation. The calculation results were supported by the experimental data. The leaching toxicities of hydrothermal products were higher than upper limits defined in the latest Chinese standard GB 16889-2008 for sanitary landfill disposal, thus an auxiliary process is suggested after the hydrothermal treatment for heavy metal stabilization.

  2. Dioxin-like compounds are not associated with bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women from Nunavik (Canada: results of a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra-Cristina Paunescu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bone strength in Inuit people appears lower than that of non-Aboriginals. Inuit are exposed to persistent organic pollutants including dioxin-like compounds (DLCs through their traditional diet that comprises predatory fish and marine mammal fat. Results from experimental and population studies suggest that some DLCs can alter bone metabolism and increase bone fragility. Objective. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to examine the relationship between the stiffness index (SI and plasma concentrations of total DLCs or specific dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs in Inuit women of Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada. Methods. SI was determined by ultrasonography at the right calcaneus of 194 Inuit women aged 35–72 years who participated to Qanuippitaa? How Are We? Nunavik Inuit Health Survey in 2004. Plasma total DLC levels were quantified by measuring the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–mediated transcriptional activity elicited by plasma sample extracts in a cell-based reporter gene assay. Plasma concentrations of DL-PCBs nos. 105, 118, 156, 157, 167 and 189 were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. We used multiple linear regression analyses to investigate relations between total DLCs or specific DL-PCBs and SI, taking into consideration several potential confounders. Results. Neither total plasma DLCs nor specific DL-PCBs were associated with SI after adjustment for several confounders and covariates. Conclusion. Our results do not support a relation between exposure to DLCs and bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women of Nunavik.

  3. Dioxin-like compounds are not associated with bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women from Nunavik (Canada): results of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunescu, Alexandra-Cristina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Dodin, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Bone strength in Inuit people appears lower than that of non-Aboriginals. Inuit are exposed to persistent organic pollutants including dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) through their traditional diet that comprises predatory fish and marine mammal fat. Results from experimental and population studies suggest that some DLCs can alter bone metabolism and increase bone fragility. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to examine the relationship between the stiffness index (SI) and plasma concentrations of total DLCs or specific dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in Inuit women of Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada). SI was determined by ultrasonography at the right calcaneus of 194 Inuit women aged 35-72 years who participated to Qanuippitaa? How Are We? Nunavik Inuit Health Survey in 2004. Plasma total DLC levels were quantified by measuring the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated transcriptional activity elicited by plasma sample extracts in a cell-based reporter gene assay. Plasma concentrations of DL-PCBs nos. 105, 118, 156, 157, 167 and 189 were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We used multiple linear regression analyses to investigate relations between total DLCs or specific DL-PCBs and SI, taking into consideration several potential confounders. Neither total plasma DLCs nor specific DL-PCBs were associated with SI after adjustment for several confounders and covariates. Our results do not support a relation between exposure to DLCs and bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women of Nunavik.

  4. Additional exposure of the Irish adult population to dioxins and PCBs from the diet as a consequence of the 2008 Irish dioxin food contamination incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlustos, C; Anderson, W; Flynn, A; Pratt, I

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the discovery of elevated levels of dioxins and PCBs in a porcine fat sample taken as part of the national residues monitoring programme led to the detection of a major feed contamination incidence in the Republic of Ireland. To estimate additional exposure to dioxins and PCBs due to the contamination incident, all data associated with the contamination incident were collected and reviewed. An exposure model was devised that took into account the proportion of contaminated product reaching the final consumer during the contamination incident window and which utilised all additional information that became available after the incident occurred. Exposure estimates derived for both dioxins and PCBs showed that the body burden of the general population remained largely unaffected by the contamination incident and only approximately 10% were exposed to elevated levels of dioxins and PCBs. Whilst this proportion of the population experienced quite a significant additional load to the existing body burden, the estimated exposure values do not suggest that these would be associated with adverse health effects, based on current knowledge. The exposure period was also limited in time to approximately 3 months, following the recall of contaminated meat immediately on detection of the contamination.

  5. THE 2005 WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION RE-EVALUATION OF HUMAN AND MAMMALIAN TOXIC EQUIVALENCY FACTORS FOR DIOXINS AND DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2005 a WHO-IPCS expert meeting was held in Geneva during which the toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for dioxin like compounds, including some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were re-evaluated. For this re-evaluation process the refined TEF database recently published by...

  6. The international validation of bio- and chemical-anlaytical screening methods for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs: the DIFFERENCE project rounds 1 and 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loco, van J.; Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Roos, P.; Carbonnelle, S.; Boer, de J.; Goeyens, L.; Beernaert, H.

    2004-01-01

    The European research project DIFFERENCE is focussed on the development, optimisation and validation of screening methods for dioxin analysis, including bio-analytical and chemical techniques (CALUX, GC-LRMS/MS, GC x GC-ECD) and on the optimisation and validation of new extraction and clean-up

  7. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs in free range eggs from Vietnam, including potential health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.T.; Traag, W.A.; Murk, A.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Chicken and duck eggs collected from three different areas in Vietnam were examined for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). These regions included a background area, an area sprayed with Agent Orange and the Bien Hoa airbase area where Agent Orange was handled by the US

  8. Environment-related properties of polyhydroxylated dibenzo-p-dioxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jia-Qi; Qu, Rui-juan; Flamm, Alison; Liu, Hong-Xia; Xu, Ying; Wang, Zun-Yao

    2012-01-01

    Polyhydroxylated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PHODDs) are important metabolic and synthetic products of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Two types of hydrogen bonds exist in PHODD molecules: one between a hydroxyl group (HO) and an oxygen atom of the ether bond, and the other between two ortho hydroxyls of a benzene ring. By fully optimized calculation with density functional theory (DFT), their bond energies were ascertained to be approximately 9–14 kJ/mol and 15–19 kJ/mol respectively by the comparison of standard Gibbs energy of formation (Δ f G θ ) between different molecules, which was experimentally verified. The two types of hydrogen bonds affect the hydrophilicity and stability of the molecules. The torsional potential of hydroxyls and the orientation making the congener most stable were obtained. The octanol-water partition coefficients (logK ow s) were calculated based on the group contribution method, and the standard state entropy (S θ ), standard enthalpy (Δ f H θ ) of formation and Δ f G θ were obtained from the combination of DFT calculation and isodesmic reaction for the stable PHODD congeners. The number and position of hydroxyl substitution (N PHOS ) were employed as descriptors to establish quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR) models. Although the hydrophilicity of PHODDs increases with the number of hydroxyl groups, it is impaired by the intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The logK ow s of PHODDs are much smaller than those of PCDDs, and the variation trend with the number of substituents is different. In addition, the relative stability order of PHODD congeners was theoretically proposed, which is quite different from that of PCDDs. Considering the ionization in water, first-order ionization constants of PHODDs were calculated according to the results of SMD method of Self-Consistent Reaction Field Theory (SCRF), and they were influenced by the hydrogen bonds. - Highlights: ► Hydroxyl torsional potential and hydrogen

  9. Environment-related properties of polyhydroxylated dibenzo-p-dioxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jia-Qi; Qu, Rui-juan [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of the Environment, Xianlin Campus, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Flamm, Alison [U.S. Fulbright Student Grantee, School of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, Hong-Xia [School of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001 (China); Xu, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of the Environment, Xianlin Campus, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Wang, Zun-Yao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of the Environment, Xianlin Campus, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2012-01-01

    Polyhydroxylated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PHODDs) are important metabolic and synthetic products of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Two types of hydrogen bonds exist in PHODD molecules: one between a hydroxyl group (HO) and an oxygen atom of the ether bond, and the other between two ortho hydroxyls of a benzene ring. By fully optimized calculation with density functional theory (DFT), their bond energies were ascertained to be approximately 9-14 kJ/mol and 15-19 kJ/mol respectively by the comparison of standard Gibbs energy of formation ({Delta}{sub f}G{sup {theta}}) between different molecules, which was experimentally verified. The two types of hydrogen bonds affect the hydrophilicity and stability of the molecules. The torsional potential of hydroxyls and the orientation making the congener most stable were obtained. The octanol-water partition coefficients (logK{sub ow}s) were calculated based on the group contribution method, and the standard state entropy (S{sup {theta}}), standard enthalpy ({Delta}{sub f}H{sup {theta}}) of formation and {Delta}{sub f}G{sup {theta}} were obtained from the combination of DFT calculation and isodesmic reaction for the stable PHODD congeners. The number and position of hydroxyl substitution (N{sub PHOS}) were employed as descriptors to establish quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models. Although the hydrophilicity of PHODDs increases with the number of hydroxyl groups, it is impaired by the intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The logK{sub ow}s of PHODDs are much smaller than those of PCDDs, and the variation trend with the number of substituents is different. In addition, the relative stability order of PHODD congeners was theoretically proposed, which is quite different from that of PCDDs. Considering the ionization in water, first-order ionization constants of PHODDs were calculated according to the results of SMD method of Self-Consistent Reaction Field Theory (SCRF), and they were influenced by the hydrogen

  10. National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (Ndamn) Report of the Results of Atmospheric Measurements of Pcdds, Pcdfs, and Dioxin-Like PCBs in Rural and Remote Areas of the U.S. from June 1998 Through November 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) established the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to help characterize the ubiquitous presence of dioxins in the environment. This final report represents the 2013 update to NDAMN.

  11. Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum using programmable-temperature vaporization gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhong, Yuxin; Liu, Xin; Bao, Yan; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning; Cai, Zongwei; Li, Jingguang

    2017-09-01

    The determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in blood from a non-occupational population is essential for the investigation of adverse health effects from these pollutants. In this study, a sensitive method based on programmable-temperature vaporization with large-volume injection coupled with gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry was developed to determine these pollutants in 1-2 mL of human serum samples. Various key parameters of programmable-temperature vaporization injector, including vent temperature, vent time, vent flow, transfer temperature and transfer time were optimized by factorial design. The accuracy and precision as well as applicability were assessed by determining polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in calibration standard solutions, standard reference materials and real human serum samples from non-occupational population. The method detection limits of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were 1.5-9.0 and 0.005-0.02 ng/kg wet weight, respectively. By comparing with typically splitless injection, the application of programmable-temperature vaporization injector could effectively lead to higher detectable rate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in 1-2 mL of human serum samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Perinatal dioxin exposure, cytochrome P-450 activity, liver functions and thyroid hormones at follow-up after 7-12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Tusscher, Gavin W.; Guchelaar, Henk-Jan; Koch, Joost; Ilsen, Adri; Vulsma, Thomas; Westra, Matthijs; van der Slikke, Johannes W.; Olie, Kees; Koppe, Janna G.

    2008-01-01

    Prenatal and lactational exposure to Dutch "background" dioxin levels may cause health effects spanning many years. In addition, perinatal studies have shown a relationship between dioxin exposure and thyroid disturbance. To assess the later health effects of prenatal and lactational dioxin exposure

  13. Use of green washing fluids in a washing process for dioxin contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwalee Yotapukdee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High levels of dioxin contamination in soil have significant environmental challenges. Soil washing is a successful remediation process that is primarily used to treat coarse soils. Several literature studies have used various kinds of chemical washing liquids to remove dioxins from soils, though there are secondary environmental effects. This study intends to develop environmentally friendly soil washing methods that are effective in dioxin removal at an acceptable cost. Sugarcane wine, compost leachate, and ground fish broth were chosen as potential washing liquids. Each washing liquid was analyzed to determine its content of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs and volatile organic compounds (VOCs. These compounds are related to their bio-surfactant content. Several of the identified compounds had properties to help remove dioxins from contaminated soil. In the experiments, high removal efficiencies were observed, up to 70%~95% after five to six washes. Although effective removal was observed, a significant amount of wastewater was produced and the problems were not completely resolved. Thus, the optimal washing conditions are necessary to minimize the overall costs, while improving the process effectiveness. Moreover, an appropriate treatment method is required for wastewater containing dioxins.

  14. Health related war dioxin in Vietnam today, methodological approach in evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thom, Le Hong; Tran, Manh Hung; Phung, Tri Dung [Ministry of Health, Ha Noi (Viet Nam)

    2004-09-15

    The Chemical war, that lasted for more than 10 years (1961-1971) had ended 30 years ago, but its severe outcomes on exposed human health seem to be far from ending. By the newest calculations, there should be more than 80 million of herbicides, including no less than 500 kg of Dioxin - 2,3,7,8-TCDD have been sprayed over land of South Vietnam. Dioxin the most ecotoxic agent, that human knowns to now, and have been researched by many scientists over the world. The studies conducted in experimental animals and partly in human tissues, have demonstrated, that dioxin cause the toxicity for many biofunctions, especially for systems like: nervous, digestive, immunoresponses, reproductive health, skin disorders, and carcinogenicity. It seems to be, that Viet nam have become a ''biggest laboratory'' of dioxin testing and its effects studying over the world. Many research into human health have been done, but the opinions of health outcomes, related to dioxin exposure still cause the debates. A lot of studies conducted on nature and man in Viet nam also, unfortunately there is not yet the overview general, concerning the methodological as epidemiological criteria. This report sum up the health, especially the reproductive outcomes, based strictly on the epidemiological disciplines.

  15. Characteristic vibrational frequencies of toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrizi, Barbara; Cumis, Mario Siciliani de; Viciani, Silvia; D’Amato, Francesco; Foggi, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Database reporting FT-IR spectra for 13 of the 17 toxic PCDDs and PCDFs congeners. • Use of FT-IR database for quantification of toxic PCDD/Fs in complex matrix. • Monitoring of dioxin emissions from waste incinerators. - Abstract: The possibility to monitor in real-time the emission of dioxins produced by incineration of waste or by industrial processes is nowadays a necessity considering the high toxicity of these compounds, their persistence in the environment and their ability to bio-accumulate in the food chain. Recently it has been demonstrated the potentiality of detecting dioxins in carbon tetrachloride via MIR Quantum Cascade Lasers. A fundamental step in real time monitoring of dioxins emission is the possibility to recognize the most toxic congeners within complex mixtures and at low concentrations. Taking into account the lack of spectroscopic data about these very toxic environmental pollutants and the necessity to monitor their emissions we have recorded infrared spectra of 13 of the 17 most toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. In this way we have obtained a small database that we have used to test the ability of a linear regression algorithm to recognize each congener and its relative concentration in complex mixtures of these compounds

  16. Characteristic vibrational frequencies of toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrizi, Barbara, E-mail: patrizi@lens.unifi.it [LENS, University of Florence, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); CNR, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Largo Enrico Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Cumis, Mario Siciliani de; Viciani, Silvia; D’Amato, Francesco [CNR, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Largo Enrico Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Foggi, Paolo [LENS, University of Florence, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); CNR, Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, Largo Enrico Fermi 6, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Università degli Studi di Perugia, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via Elce di Sotto 8, 06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Database reporting FT-IR spectra for 13 of the 17 toxic PCDDs and PCDFs congeners. • Use of FT-IR database for quantification of toxic PCDD/Fs in complex matrix. • Monitoring of dioxin emissions from waste incinerators. - Abstract: The possibility to monitor in real-time the emission of dioxins produced by incineration of waste or by industrial processes is nowadays a necessity considering the high toxicity of these compounds, their persistence in the environment and their ability to bio-accumulate in the food chain. Recently it has been demonstrated the potentiality of detecting dioxins in carbon tetrachloride via MIR Quantum Cascade Lasers. A fundamental step in real time monitoring of dioxins emission is the possibility to recognize the most toxic congeners within complex mixtures and at low concentrations. Taking into account the lack of spectroscopic data about these very toxic environmental pollutants and the necessity to monitor their emissions we have recorded infrared spectra of 13 of the 17 most toxic congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. In this way we have obtained a small database that we have used to test the ability of a linear regression algorithm to recognize each congener and its relative concentration in complex mixtures of these compounds.

  17. Concentration and distribution of dioxins and related compounds in various human organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, T.; Hirakawa, H.; Hori, T.; Tobiishi, K.; Matsueda, T. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Dazaifu, Fukuoka (Japan); Todaka, T. [Japan Food Hygiene Association, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, S. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture, Tokyo (Japan); Yamada, T. [Keio Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Non-Co-PCBs) and mono-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Mono-Co-PCBs) accumulate in the human body due to their highly lipophilic properties. In recent years, there has been some concern about the potential health effects of dioxins and related chemicals for the general population of humans. Although there exists an enormous amount of data on this subject, most of it is from breast milk and blood, due to ease of collection; information concerning concentrations and distribution in various human organs hardly exists. Therefore, new data concerning various human tissues is required to evaluate the pathophysiological significance of dioxins and related compounds in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration levels and distribution of dioxins and related compounds in various human organ tissues. We previously reported on the concentration levels in the human liver and adipose tissues from 28 donors. In this paper, we determined the concentrations of dioxin-like isomers in 8 organs, including blood, lungs, liver, bile, spleen, pancreas, kidney and mesentery fat from 20 donors.

  18. Curbing dioxin emissions from municipal solid waste incineration in China: Re-thinking about management policies and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Hefa, E-mail: hefac@umich.ed [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Hu Yuanan [Education Program for Gifted Youth, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94025 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    As one of the countries with large amounts of dioxin releases, the control of dioxins is a major challenge for China. Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration should be considered a high priority source of dioxin emissions because it is playing an increasingly more important role in waste management. MSW incineration in China has much higher emission rates of dioxins than in the developed countries, partially resulting from the gaps in the technologies of incineration and flue gas cleaning. Moreover, the current management policies and practices also contribute significantly to the problem. We recommend lowering dioxin emission standard, strengthening fly ash management, and improving regulation enforcement to reduce dioxin releases into the environment from MSW incineration. We also propose that alternative strategies should be considered on dioxin control and call for an expansion of economic instruments in waste management to reduce waste generation and thus the need for incineration. - The management policies and practices need to be improved to curb the increasing dioxin releases from municipal solid waste incineration in China.

  19. Curbing dioxin emissions from municipal solid waste incineration in China: Re-thinking about management policies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Hefa; Hu Yuanan

    2010-01-01

    As one of the countries with large amounts of dioxin releases, the control of dioxins is a major challenge for China. Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration should be considered a high priority source of dioxin emissions because it is playing an increasingly more important role in waste management. MSW incineration in China has much higher emission rates of dioxins than in the developed countries, partially resulting from the gaps in the technologies of incineration and flue gas cleaning. Moreover, the current management policies and practices also contribute significantly to the problem. We recommend lowering dioxin emission standard, strengthening fly ash management, and improving regulation enforcement to reduce dioxin releases into the environment from MSW incineration. We also propose that alternative strategies should be considered on dioxin control and call for an expansion of economic instruments in waste management to reduce waste generation and thus the need for incineration. - The management policies and practices need to be improved to curb the increasing dioxin releases from municipal solid waste incineration in China.

  20. 75 FR 7591 - Guidance on Recommended Interim Preliminary Remediation Goals for Dioxin in Soil at CERCLA and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-SFUND-2009-0907; FRL-9114-6] RIN 2050-ZA05 Guidance on Recommended Interim Preliminary Remediation Goals for Dioxin in Soil at CERCLA and RCRA Sites; Extension of... Interim Preliminary Remediation Goals for Dioxin in Soil at Comprehensive Environmental Response...

  1. Development of a Passive Multisampling Method to Measure Dioxins/Furans and Other Contaminant Bioavailability in Aquatic Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    FINAL REPORT Development of a Passive Multisampling Method to Measure Dioxins/Furans and Other Contaminant Bioavailability in Aquatic...passive multisampling method to measure Dioxins/Furans 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER and other contaminant bioavailability in aquatic sediments...This also indicates the bioavailability or pressure (fugacity) of contaminants on organisms2 and consequently represents the exposure level for

  2. Effects of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins on cognitive abilities in Dutch children at 42 months of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patandin, S; Lanting, Caren; Mulder, PGH; Boersma, ER; Sauer, PJJ; Weisglas-Kuperus, N

    Objective: To study possible adverse effects of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dioxins on cognitive functioning in young children. Methods: In a follow-up of the Dutch PCB/Dioxin study, cognitive abilities were assessed with the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children

  3. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  4. Potencies of red seabream AHR1- and AHR2-mediated transactivation by dioxins: implication of both AHRs in dioxin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Su-Min; Iida, Midori; Hirano, Masashi; Iwata, Hisato; Kim, Eun-Young

    2013-03-19

    To evaluate species- and isoform-specific responses to dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in the red seabream ( Pagrus major ), we constructed a reporter gene assay system. Each expression plasmid of red seabream AHR1 (rsAHR1) and AHR2 (rsAHR2) together with a reporter plasmid containing red seabream CYP1A 5'-flanking region were transfected into COS-7 cells. The cells were treated with graded concentrations of seven DRC congeners including 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF, and PCB126. Both rsAHR1 and rsAHR2 exhibited dose-dependent responses for all the tested congeners. The rsAHR isoform-specific TCDD induction equivalency factors (rsAHR1- and rsAHR2-IEFs) were calculated on the basis of 2,3,7,8-TCDD relative potency derived from the dose-response of each congener. The rsAHR1-IEFs of PeCDD, HxCDD, TCDF, PeCDF, and HxCDF were estimated as 0.17, 0.29, 2.5, 1.5, and 0.27, respectively. For PCB126, no rsAHR1-IEF was given because of less than 10% 2,3,7,8-TCDD maximum response. The rsAHR2-IEFs of PeCDD, HxCDD, TCDF, PeCDF, HxCDF, and PCB126 were estimated as 0.38, 0.13, 1.5, 0.93, 0.20, and 0.0085, respectively. The rsAHR1/2-IEF profiles were different from WHO toxic equivalency factors for fish. In silico docking simulations supported that both rsAHRs have potentials to bind to these congeners. These results suggest that dioxin toxicities may be mediated by both rsAHRs in red seabreams.

  5. Combination of a Fast Cleanup Procedure and a DR-CALUX® Bioassay for Dioxin Surveillance in Taiwanese Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ding-Yan; Lee, Yi-Pin; Li, Chiu-Ping; Chi, Kai-Hsien; Liang, Bo-Wei P.; Liu, Wen-Yao; Wang, Chih-Cheng; Lin, Susana; Chen, Ting-Chien; Yeh, Kuei-Jyum C.; Hsu, Ping-Chi; Hsu, Yi-Chyun; Chao, How-Ran; Tsou, Tsui-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to determine dioxin levels in 800 soil samples collected from Taiwan. An in vitro DR-CALUX® assay was carried out with the help of an automated Soxhlet system and fast cleanup column. The mean dioxin level of 800 soil samples was 36.0 pg-bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs)/g dry weight (d.w.). Soil dioxin-BEQs were higher in northern Taiwan (61.8 pg-BEQ/g d.w.) than in central, southern, and eastern Taiwan (22.2, 24.9, and 7.80 pg-BEQ/g d.w., respectively). Analysis of multiple linear regression models identified four major predictors of dioxin-BEQs including soil sampling location (β = 0.097, p contamination. Soil samples collected in northern Taiwan, and especially in Bade City, soils near industrial areas, and soils with darker color may contain higher dioxin-BEQ levels. PMID:24806195

  6. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin impairs human B lymphopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jinpeng; Phadnis-Moghe, Ashwini S.; Crawford, Robert B.; Kaminski, Norbert E.

    2017-01-01

    The homeostasis of peripheral B cell compartment requires lifelong B lymphopoiesis from hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). As a result, the B cell repertoire is susceptible to disruptions of hematopoiesis. Increasing evidence, primarily from rodent models, shows that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) regulates hematopoiesis. To study the effects of persistent AHR activation on human B cell development, a potent AHR agonist and known environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was utilized. An in vitro B cell development model system was established by co-culturing human cord blood-derived HSCs with irradiated human primary bone marrow stromal cells. Using this in vitro model, we found that TCDD significantly suppressed the total number of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) in a concentration-dependent manner. Cell death analysis demonstrated that the decrease in cell number was not due to cytotoxicity by TCDD. In addition, TCDD markedly decreased CD34 expression on HSPCs. Structure-activity relationship studies using dioxin congeners demonstrated a correlation between the relative AHR binding affinity and the magnitude of decrease in the number of HSPCs and CD34 expression, suggesting that AHR mediates the observed TCDD-elicited changes in HSPCs. Moreover, a significant reduction in lineage committed B cell-derived from HSCs was observed in the presence of TCDD, indicating impairment of human B cell development. Similar effects of TCDD were observed regardless of the use of stromal cells in cultures indicating a direct effect of TCDD on HSCs. Collectively, we demonstrate that AHR activation by TCDD on human HSCs impairs early stages of human B lymphopoiesis.

  7. Dioxin contamination in food - Bayreuth, Germany, from September 28 to October 1, 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büchert, Arne; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Dyke, P.

    2001-01-01

    for the design of monitoring programs, analytical methods, and quality assurance. Though data from Northern Europe shows that the general population exposure to dioxin and PCB has decreased during the last ten years these compounds continue to be a risk of accidental contamination of the food chain. The most...... to be supplemented by measures to prevent direct contamination of feeding stuff or food to reduce general population exposure further.......Dioxin and PCB monitoring programs for food and feeding stuff in most countries of the world, including many European Countries are currently inadequate. Better control of food production lines and food processing procedures is needed to minimize entry of dioxin to the food chain and will help...

  8. State of the art and advances in the impact assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Marco; Torretta, Vincenzo; Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic and persistent organic pollutants that are able to enter the food chain, accumulate in the fat tissues of animals, and consequently pose a serious risk for human health. Consolidated tools for exposure assessment have been implemented during the last decades and widely used, both in the environmental monitoring and in modeling activities. Although the emissive trend and the concentrations in the environment have gradually decreased during the last 20 years, some situations are still underrated and not adequately controlled by the environmental legislation. On the other hand, a complete monitoring of all the pathways of exposure to PCDD/Fs and PCBs is technically and economically unfeasible. Therefore, this paper aims at providing an overview of the traditional approaches used to assess the impacts of PCDD/Fs and PCBs and presenting the novelties introduced during the last years. After an initial characterization of their toxicity and their effects on health, this paper focuses on activities and situations that can result in critical releases of PCDD/Fs and PCBs into the atmosphere and that can represent a hidden threat for the population. In the final part, this study presents the current methodologies for exposure assessment, summarizes the food chain models in a unified way, and puts the light on new methods that can help environmental scientists, risk assessors, and decision makers to estimate the risk related to exposure to PCDD/Fs in different contexts.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Mixed Halogen Dioxins and Furans in Fire Debris Utilizing Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Gas Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organtini, Kari L; Myers, Anne L; Jobst, Karl J; Reiner, Eric J; Ross, Brian; Ladak, Adam; Mullin, Lauren; Stevens, Douglas; Dorman, Frank L

    2015-10-20

    Residential and commercial fires generate a complex mixture of volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile compounds. This study focused on the semi/nonvolatile components of fire debris to better understand firefighter exposure risks. Using the enhanced sensitivity of gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (APGC-MS/MS), complex fire debris samples collected from simulation fires were analyzed for the presence of potentially toxic polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PXDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs). Extensive method development was performed to create multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) methods for a wide range of PXDD/Fs from dihalogenated through hexa-halogenated homologue groups. Higher halogenated compounds were not observed due to difficulty eluting them off the long column used for analysis. This methodology was able to identify both polyhalogenated (mixed bromo-/chloro- and polybromo-) dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the simulated burn study samples collected, with the dibenzofuran species being the dominant compounds in the samples. Levels of these compounds were quantified as total homologue groups due to the limitations of commercial congener availability. Concentration ranges in household simulation debris were observed at 0.01-5.32 ppb (PXDFs) and 0.18-82.11 ppb (PBDFs). Concentration ranges in electronics simulation debris were observed at 0.10-175.26 ppb (PXDFs) and 0.33-9254.41 ppb (PBDFs). Samples taken from the particulate matter coating the firefighters' helmets contained some of the highest levels of dibenzofurans, ranging from 4.10 ppb to 2.35 ppm. The data suggest that firefighters and first responders at fire scenes are exposed to a complex mixture of potentially hundreds to thousands of different polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans that could negatively impact their health.

  10. Photocatalytic reductive dechlorination of 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin by Pd modified g-C3N4 photocatalysts under UV-vis irradiation: Efficacy, kinetics and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiafeng; Long, Gaoyuan; Luo, Yang; Sun, Runze; Chen, Mengxia; Li, Yajun; Zhou, Yanfang; Xu, Xinhua; Zhao, Weirong

    2018-05-09

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), as a group of notorious anthropogenic environmental toxicants, are arguably ubiquitous in nature. In this study, we investigated the photocatalytic reductive dechlorination of 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2-CDD) over Pd/g-C 3 N 4 catalysts under UV-vis irradiation. The g-C 3 N 4 and a series of Pd/g-C 3 N 4 catalysts were prepared by thermal polymerization and mechanical mixing-illumination method and characterized by XRD, TEM, BET, SEM and UV-vis DRS analyses. Among all the samples, the Pd/g-C 3 N 4 (5 wt%) yielded the optimal dechlorination activity with a total 2-CDD conversion of 54% within 4 h, and 76% of those converted 2-CDD were evolved to dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD). The kinetics of dechlorination could be described as pseudo-first-order decay model (R 2  > 0.84). Corresponding rate constants (k) increased from 0.052 to 0.17 h -1 with Pd contents up to 5 wt% and decreased to 0.13 h -1 with a 10 wt% of Pd. The enhanced activities originated from the surface plasmonic resonance (SPR) effect of Pd nanoparticles and the formation of Schottky barrier between Pd and g-C 3 N 4 , which extend the spectrum responsive range and suppress the charge recombination of g-C 3 N 4 . This is the first report on the photocatalytic reductive removal of PCDDs and may provide a new approach for PCDDs pollution control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dioxin-like activity in environmental and human samples from Greenland and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    and humans. We found that some pesticides, plasticizers and phytoestrogens can activate the AhR, and the combined effect of compounds with no or weak AhR potency cannot be ignored. The significant DL-activity in the wastewater effluent indicates the treatment is not sufficient to prevent contamination...... of surface waters with dioxins. Our results from human studies suggest that the serum DL-activity reflect the complex mixture of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Greenlandic Inuit had lower serum DL-activity level compared to Europeans, probably due to long distance from the dioxin sources and UV...

  12. Rapid measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and planar chlorobiphenyls using microcolumn chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, T.L.; Haines, B.K.; Tokarczyk, R.; Uthe, J.F. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Halifax, NS (Canada). Biological Sciences Branch

    1997-05-01

    The concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran classes and chlorobiphenyl in lobster from Atlantic Canada was measured using a newly developed quick and low-cost measuring method. The method is based on saponification followed by extraction into hexane, clean-up by gel-permeation chromatography and sulfuric acid treatment, and the separation of the non-ortho-chlorinated chlorobiphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from other chlorinated compounds. Detection limits as low as 1-5 pg.g{sup -1} wet wt. were achieved for some of the chlorinated compounds.

  13. Dioxin-like activity of environmental compounds in human blood and environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    and humans. We found that some pesticides, plasticizers and phytoestrogens can activate the AhR, and the combined effect of compounds with no or weak AhR potency cannot be ignored. The significant DL-activity in the wastewater effluent indicates the treatment is not sufficient to prevent contamination...... of surface waters with dioxins. Our results from human studies suggest that the serum DL-activity reflect the complex mixture of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Greenlandic Inuit had lower serum DL-activity level compared to Europeans, probably due to long distance from the dioxin sources and UV...

  14. Emissions and dioxins formation from waste incinerators; Emissioni di diossine da inceneritori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbone, A I; Zagaroli, M [ENEA - Dipartimento Protezione Ambientale e Salute dell