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Sample records for total debye-waller factor

  1. Debye-Waller factors of the light actinide metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, A.C.; Goldstone, J.A.; Cort, B.; Sheldon, R.I.; Foltyn, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have been using time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction to determine the Debye-Waller factors of the light actinide metals. The Debye-Waller factor is a measure of the mean-square atomic displacement that arises from the thermal motion of the atoms in any solid. Its temperature dependence determines a Debye-Waller temperature, Θ DW , that is characteristic of the elastic properties of the solid. The data are obtained by Rietveld analysis of neutron diffraction powder patterns obtained at several temperatures. The authors will present results for α-U, α-Np, α-Pu and σ-Pu 0.95 Al 0.05 . The Θ DW 's are temperature dependent, and anharmonic interatomic forces seem to be required to explain the results

  2. Debye-Waller Factor in Neutron Scattering by Ferromagnetic Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradezhenko, G. V.; Melnikov, N. B.; Reser, B. I.

    2018-04-01

    We obtain an expression for the neutron scattering cross section in the case of an arbitrary interaction of the neutron with the crystal. We give a concise, simple derivation of the Debye-Waller factor as a function of the scattering vector and the temperature. For ferromagnetic metals above the Curie temperature, we estimate the Debye-Waller factor in the range of scattering vectors characteristic of polarized magnetic neutron scattering experiments. In the example of iron, we compare the results of harmonic and anharmonic approximations.

  3. Pressure effects in Debye-Waller factors and in EXAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Van Hung, E-mail: hungnv@vnu.edu.v [University of Science, VNU Hanoi, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vu Van Hung [Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Ho Khac Hieu [University of Science, VNU Hanoi, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); National University of Civil Engineering, 55 Giai Phong, Hai Ba Trung, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Frahm, Ronald R. [Bergische Universitaet-Gesamthochschule Wuppertal, FB: 8-Physik, Gauss Strasse 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2011-02-01

    Anharmonic correlated Einstein model (ACEM) and statistical moment method (SMM) have been developed to derive analytical expressions for pressure dependence of the lattice bond length, effective spring constant, correlated Einstein frequency and temperature, Debye-Waller factors (DWF) or second cumulant, first and third cumulants in Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at a given temperature. Numerical results for pressure-dependent DWF of Kr and Cu agree well with experiment and other theoretical values. Simulated EXAFS of Cu and its Fourier transform magnitude using our calculated pressure-induced change in the 1st shell are found to be in a reasonable agreement with those using X-ray diffraction (XRD) experimental results. -- Research Highlights: {yields} We have developed anharmonic correlated Einstein model and statistical moment method. {yields} The pressure effects in cumulants including DWF and in EXAFS has been investigated. {yields} Calculated pressure-dependent DWF for Kr, Cu agree with experiment and other results. {yields} Simulated EXAFS and Fourier transform magnitude of Cu agree with those using XRD data.

  4. Pressure effects in Debye-Waller factors and in EXAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Hung; Vu Van Hung; Ho Khac Hieu; Frahm, Ronald R.

    2011-01-01

    Anharmonic correlated Einstein model (ACEM) and statistical moment method (SMM) have been developed to derive analytical expressions for pressure dependence of the lattice bond length, effective spring constant, correlated Einstein frequency and temperature, Debye-Waller factors (DWF) or second cumulant, first and third cumulants in Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at a given temperature. Numerical results for pressure-dependent DWF of Kr and Cu agree well with experiment and other theoretical values. Simulated EXAFS of Cu and its Fourier transform magnitude using our calculated pressure-induced change in the 1st shell are found to be in a reasonable agreement with those using X-ray diffraction (XRD) experimental results. -- Research Highlights: → We have developed anharmonic correlated Einstein model and statistical moment method. → The pressure effects in cumulants including DWF and in EXAFS has been investigated. → Calculated pressure-dependent DWF for Kr, Cu agree with experiment and other results. → Simulated EXAFS and Fourier transform magnitude of Cu agree with those using XRD data.

  5. The Temperature Dependence of the Debye-Waller Factor of Magnesium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sledziewska-Blocka, D.; Lebech, Bente

    1976-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the average Debye-Waller factor for magnesium was measured by means of neutron diffraction spectrometry. The experimental results obtained in the temperature range from 5 to 256 K are compared with theoretical calculations, using the harmonic and quasi-harmonic appro......The temperature dependence of the average Debye-Waller factor for magnesium was measured by means of neutron diffraction spectrometry. The experimental results obtained in the temperature range from 5 to 256 K are compared with theoretical calculations, using the harmonic and quasi......-harmonic approximations and results of previous experiments....

  6. On the Debye-Waller factor in atom-surface scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, N.; Maradudin, A.A.; Celli, V.

    1982-01-01

    A theory for the Debye-Waller factor in atom-surface scattering is presented, to lowest order in the phonon contributions. Multiple-scattering effects as well as the cross-correlated surface atom displacements are included. The theory accounts for experimental data without the necessity of introducing the Armand effect, which is due to the finite size of the incident atom. The work presented here implies that the Kirchhoff approximation fails when the energy of the incident particle is in the energy range of the phonon spectrum. The results of the calculation are presented in the high-temperature limit, and it is observed that the Rayleigh surface phonons contribute three-quarters of the Debye-Waller factor, while the bulk phonons account for the rest. This result is interesting because the calculation of the former contribution is simpler than that of the latter. (author)

  7. Lattice dynamical appraisal of the anisotropic Debye-Waller factors in graphite lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haridasan, T.M.; Sathyamurthy, G.

    1989-12-01

    The Debye-Waller factors in graphite for the atomic motions within the basal plane and also across the basal planes have been calculated using the various lattice dynamical models available to date and a critical comparison is made with the existing experimental data from X ray and neutron scattering studies. The present study reveals the need for further investigation on the nature of atomic motion across the basal planes. (author). 15 refs, 1 tab

  8. XAFS Debye-Waller Factors Temperature-Dependent Expressions for Fe+2-Porphyrin Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakis, Nicholas; Bunker, Grant

    2007-02-01

    We present an efficient and accurate method for directly calculating single and multiple scattering X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) thermal Debye-Waller factors for Fe+2 -porphiryn complexes. The number of multiple scattering Debye-Waller factors on metal porphyrin centers exceeds the number of available parameters that XAFS experimental data can support during fitting with simulated spectra. Using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) under the hybrid functional of X3LYP, phonon normal mode spectrum properties are used to express the mean square variation of the half-scattering path length for a Fe+2 -porphiryn complex as a function of temperature for the most important single and multiple scattering paths of the complex thus virtually eliminating them from the fitting procedure. Modeled calculations are compared with corresponding values obtained from DFT-built and optimized Fe+2 -porphyrin bis-histidine structure as well as from experimental XAFS spectra previously reported. An excellent agreement between calculated and reference Debye-Waller factors for Fe+2-porphyrins is obtained.

  9. XAFS Debye-Waller Factors Temperature-Dependent Expressions for Fe+2-Porphyrin Complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, Nicholas; Bunker, Grant

    2007-01-01

    We present an efficient and accurate method for directly calculating single and multiple scattering X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) thermal Debye-Waller factors for Fe+2 -porphiryn complexes. The number of multiple scattering Debye-Waller factors on metal porphyrin centers exceeds the number of available parameters that XAFS experimental data can support during fitting with simulated spectra. Using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) under the hybrid functional of X3LYP, phonon normal mode spectrum properties are used to express the mean square variation of the half-scattering path length for a Fe+2 -porphiryn complex as a function of temperature for the most important single and multiple scattering paths of the complex thus virtually eliminating them from the fitting procedure. Modeled calculations are compared with corresponding values obtained from DFT-built and optimized Fe+2 -porphyrin bis-histidine structure as well as from experimental XAFS spectra previously reported. An excellent agreement between calculated and reference Debye-Waller factors for Fe+2-porphyrins is obtained

  10. The primary extinction and static Debye-Waller factor in the characterization of textured nickel by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshtab, T.; Palacios G, J.; Cadena A, A.; Kryvko, A.

    2015-01-01

    The texture analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD) implies measurement of pole figures (Pf) from the diffracted intensities considering the model of kinematical dispersion. The extinction phenomenon results in a decrease of diffracted intensity and that in turn in a decrease of pole densities (Pds). The phenomenon appears in the kinematical theory of XRD as the primary extinction and the secondary extinction to characterize the loss of intensity of kinematical dispersion. In turn, the static Debye-Waller factor is an integral characteristic of defects in crystals that is introduced in the kinematical theory of XRD and also is used in dynamical theory of XRD. In this work the correlation between the primary extinction coefficient and the static Debye-Waller factor in the case of textured nickel was determined. The value of static Debye-Waller factor was determined from the value of the calculated primary extinction coefficient. For the evaluation there were used Pds in the maxima of Pf obtained for 111 and 200 reflections with Mo Kα radiation, and the Pds in the maxima of Pf obtained for the first and second orders of these reflections with Cu Kα and Co Kα radiations. There were calculated the dislocation densities in grains using values of static Debye-Waller factor and the extinction coefficients. The dislocation densities calculated from these two characteristics are practically equal. (Author)

  11. Determination of the Debye-Waller Factor of hydrogen in Palladium and Palladium Silver alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodabakhsh, R.

    1986-01-01

    The mean square amplitude of the vibrating hydrogen in metals can be determined by using coherent elastic neutron scattering experiments, inelastic one-phonon scattering measurements. To determine the D.W.F. Debye-Waller Factor from the coherent elastic scattering measurements, information about the positions of atoms within the unit is required, and vice versa. The main difficulty concerning the determination of the D.W.F. from the inelastic experiment is in elimination of multi-phonon contribution from the measured spectrum. However, the D.W.F. of hydrogen in palladium has been usually determined by the intensity of the quasi-elastic line. An integration of the measured scattering law S(Q,W) at constant Q, over a certain energy window ΔE, results in the quasi-elastic intensity. To obtain an accurate result, this window has to be chosen large enough to comprise most of the quasi-elastic line, but sufficiently small so that the phonon contributions are small. The MARX spectrometer is ideally constructed for this type of measurement where the window is about +-1 Mev for incident neutron wavelength, =4.115 A. Thus, the quasi-elastic scattering method was considered the best method of determining the D.W.F. of hydrogen in palladium using the MARX spectrometer. However, if the acoustic part overlaps with the quasi-elastic part, one has to obtain the D.W.F. by fitting the data to a quasi-elastic model. The work to be reported here is the investigation of variations of the D.W.F. of hydrogen in Pd and PdAgsub(0.085) with temperature and extension of the available data to as high a temperature as possible. Therefore the integrated intensity of incoherent quasi-elastic neutron scattering by proton in polycrystallin Pd/H and PdAgsub(0.085)/H was investigated as a function of the scattering vector Q. A quasi-harmonic D.W.F. behaviour was observed at elevated temperatures. The observed Debye-Waller Factor depends strongly on the form of the amplitude weighted frequency

  12. Thermal behaviour of the Debye-Waller factor and the specific heat of anharmonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, R.A.T. de; Tsallis, C.

    1979-08-01

    The influence of the cubic and quartic crystalline anharmonicity on the classical and quantum thermal behaviour of the specific heat, Debye temperaturetheta, Debye-Waller factor W, crystalline expansion and phonon spectrum is studied, within the framework of the Variational Method in Statistical Mechanics. The sistems, mainly focalized are the single oscillator, the mono-atomic linear chain and simple cubic crystal. The trial Hamiltonian is an harmonic one, therefore the various anharmonic influences are mainly absorbed into the renormalization of theta(T). Several differences between the classical and quantum results are exhibited. Satisfactory qualitative agreement with experience was obtained in the low-temperature regime, in particular in what concerns the existence of a minimum in theta(T) which has been observed in Cu, Al, Ag, Au and Pb. For the intermediate-temperature regime the customary linear behaviour of W(T) (hence theta(T) almost constant) is reobtained. Finally in the high-temperature regime, the present treatment leads to a √T - dependence for the W-factor, which implies in the wrong curvature with respect to experimental data. A possible explanation of this disagreement might be related to the melting phenomenon, which is not covered by the present theory. (Author) [pt

  13. Search for anisotropy in the Debye-Waller factor of HCP solid 4He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ashleigh L.; Hinde, Robert J.

    2016-02-01

    The properties of hexagonal close packed (hcp) solid 4He are dominated by large atomic zero point motions. An accurate description of these motions is therefore necessary in order to accurately calculate the properties of the system, such as the Debye-Waller (DW) factors. A recent neutron scattering experiment reported significant anisotropy in the in-plane and out-of-plane DW factors for hcp solid 4He at low temperatures, where thermal effects are negligible and only zero-point motions are expected to contribute. By contrast, no such anisotropy was observed either in earlier experiments or in path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations of solid hcp 4He. However, the earlier experiments and the PIMC simulations were both carried out at higher temperatures where thermal effects could be substantial. We seek to understand the cause of this discrepancy through variational quantum Monte Carlo simulations utilizing an accurate pair potential and a modified trial wavefunction which allows for anisotropy. Near the melting density, we find no anisotropy in an ideal hcp 4He crystal. A theoretical equation of state is derived from the calculated energies of the ideal crystal over a range of molar volumes from 7.88 to 21.3 cm3, and is found to be in good qualitative agreement with experimental data.

  14. Ab Initio Calculation of XAFS Debye-Waller Factors for Crystalline Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakis, Nicholas

    2007-02-01

    A direct an accurate technique for calculating the thermal X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) Debye-Waller factors (DWF) for materials of crystalline structure is presented. Using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) under the hybrid X3LYP functional, a library of MnO spin—optimized clusters are built and their phonon spectrum properties are calculated; these properties in the form of normal mode eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors are in turn used for calculation of the single and multiple scattering XAFS DWF. DWF obtained via this technique are temperature dependent expressions and can be used to substantially reduce the number of fitting parameters when experimental spectra are fitted with a hypothetical structure without any ad hoc assumptions. Due to the high computational demand a hybrid approach of mixing the DFT calculated DWF with the correlated Debye model for inner and outer shells respectively is presented. DFT obtained DWFs are compared with corresponding values from experimental XAFS spectra on manganosite. The cluster size effect and the spin parameter on the DFT calculated DWFs are discussed.

  15. X-ray Debye-Waller factor measurements of solid 3He and 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arms, D.A.; Shah, R.S.; Simmons, R.O.

    2003-01-01

    X-ray synchrotron radiation was used to measure Debye-Waller factors of helium crystals for both 3 He and 4 He in both hcp and fcc phases. To our knowledge, there are no previous measurements for 3 He. The ranges studied for 3 He and 4 He crystals were 11.52-12.82 and 10.95-12.13 cm 3 , respectively, and 11.5-18.2 and 12.0-20.3 K. With small uncertainty, only a Gaussian dependence upon momentum transfer Q was found, and no anisotropy was detected in the hcp phase. Mean square atomic deviations, 2 >, and Lindemann ratios were obtained. Large Lindemann ratios confirm that these solids are highly anharmonic. The 2 > values agree within an average 1% with computations of Draeger and Ceperley from path integral Monte Carlo methods including unusual extrapolations to the thermodynamic limit. Because the path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) computations exhibit a T 3 dependence for 2 >, which also depends upon molar volume, an empirical analysis was made of the present data as well as of published x-ray and neutron data on hcp 4 He. The volume dependencies are similar to those found from calorimetry, over a large volume range, and the temperature dependencies show similar systematic variations with molar volume both in x-ray data and PIMC results

  16. Anharmonic correlated Debye model high-order expanded interatomic effective potential and Debye-Waller factors of bcc crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hung, Nguyen, E-mail: hungnv@vnu.edu.vn [Department of Physics, Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hue, Trinh Thi [Department of Physics, Hanoi University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai, Thanh Xuan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Khoa, Ha Dang [School of Engineering Physics, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Vuong, Dinh Quoc [Quang Ninh Education & Training Department, Nguyen Van Cu, Ha Long, Quang Ninh (Viet Nam)

    2016-12-15

    High-order expanded interatomic effective potential and Debye-Waller factors (DWFs) for local vibrational amplitudes in X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) of bcc crystals have been studied based on the anharmonic correlated Debye model. DWFs are presented in terms of cumulant expansion up to the fourth order and the many-body effects are taken into account in the present one-dimensional model based on the first shell near neighbor contribution approach used in the derivations of the anharmonic effective potential and XAFS cumulants where Morse potential is assumed to describe the single-pair atomic interaction. Analytical expressions for the dispersion relation, correlated Debye frequency and temperature and four first temperature-dependent XAFS cumulants have been derived based on the many-body perturbation approach. Thermodynamic properties and anharmonic effects in XAFS of bcc crystals described by the obtained cumulants have been in detail discussed. The advantage and efficiency of the present theory are illustrated by good agreement of the numerical results for Mo, Fe and W with experiment.

  17. The primary extinction and static Debye-Waller factor in the characterization of textured nickel by X-ray diffraction; La extincion primaria y el factor estatico de Debye-Waller en la caracterizacion de niquel con textura mediante difraccion de rayos X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshtab, T.; Palacios G, J. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Av. IPN s/n, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Cadena A, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas, Av. IPN s/n, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Kryvko, A., E-mail: kryshtab@gmail.com [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Unidad Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-07-01

    The texture analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD) implies measurement of pole figures (Pf) from the diffracted intensities considering the model of kinematical dispersion. The extinction phenomenon results in a decrease of diffracted intensity and that in turn in a decrease of pole densities (Pds). The phenomenon appears in the kinematical theory of XRD as the primary extinction and the secondary extinction to characterize the loss of intensity of kinematical dispersion. In turn, the static Debye-Waller factor is an integral characteristic of defects in crystals that is introduced in the kinematical theory of XRD and also is used in dynamical theory of XRD. In this work the correlation between the primary extinction coefficient and the static Debye-Waller factor in the case of textured nickel was determined. The value of static Debye-Waller factor was determined from the value of the calculated primary extinction coefficient. For the evaluation there were used Pds in the maxima of Pf obtained for 111 and 200 reflections with Mo Kα radiation, and the Pds in the maxima of Pf obtained for the first and second orders of these reflections with Cu Kα and Co Kα radiations. There were calculated the dislocation densities in grains using values of static Debye-Waller factor and the extinction coefficients. The dislocation densities calculated from these two characteristics are practically equal. (Author)

  18. Phasons modulate the atomic Debye-Waller factors in incommensurate structures: Experimental evidence in ThBr4 at 55 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madariaga, G.; Perez-Mato, J.M.; Aramburu, I.

    1993-01-01

    The incommensurate displacive structure of β-ThBr 4 at 55 K has been determined from a neutron diffraction data set including main reflections and first-order satellites. The superspace group is Psub(s anti 1 s1)sup(I4 1 /amd). Final agreement factors are 0.0193, 0.0186 and 0.045 for all, main and satellite reflections, respectively. It is shown that the effect of phasons on the atomic Debye-Waller factors can be quantified by two additional structural parameters: The modulus β 11,2 Br and the phase χ 11,2 Br of a second harmonic that spatially modulates the temperature factors of Br atoms. Results are in good agreement, within the resolution of the experimental data, with the theoretically expected value for χ 11,2 Br . Crystal data for the average structure: M r =551.65, tetragonal, I4 1 /amd, a=8.919(1), c=7.902(1) A, V=628.6(2) A 3 , Z=4, D x =5.82 Mg m -3 , λ=0.84 A, wavevector q=0.32c*. (orig.)

  19. Effect of anharmonicity and Debye-Waller factor on the superconductivity of PdHsub(x) and PdDsub(x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griessen, R.; Groot, D.G. de

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of existing superconducting tunnelling, neutron scattering, electrical resistivity and Raman scattering data and new thermal expansion, elastic moduli and point-contact spectroscopy data it is concluded that the anharmonicity of the proton (deuteron)-palladium potential is such that Msub(H)#betta#sub(H) 2 /(Msub(D)#betta#sub(D) 2 ) = 1.12 +- 0.05 Msub(H(D)) is the mass and #betta#sub(H(D)) the frequency of the vibration of hydrogen (deuterium). This anharmonicity is approximately 2 times too weak to reproduce the observed inverse isotope effect in the superconducting transition temperature of concentrated PdHsub(x) and PdDsub(x) alloys. Within a pseudopotential formalism it is shown that the Debye-Waller factor arising from the large zero-point amplitude of the interstitial hydrogen (deuterium) leads to a contribution to the inverse isotope effect in Tsub(c) which is as large as that of anharmonicity alone. (Auth.)

  20. An alternative explanation of the change in T-dependence of the effective Debye-Waller factor at T{sub c} or T{sub B}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngai, K. L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); CNR-IPCF, Largo Bruno Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Habasaki, J. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2014-09-21

    The cusp-like temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor or non-ergodicity parameter f{sub Q}(T) at some temperature T{sub c} above T{sub g} found by experiments in several fragile glassformers has been considered as critical evidence for validity of the ideal Mode Coupling Theory (MCT). A comprehensive review of experimental data of f{sub Q}(T) and beyond brings out various problems of the MCT predictions. For example, the molten salt, 0.4Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}-0.6KNO{sub 3} (CKN), was the first glassformer measured by neutron scattering to verify the cusp-like behavior of f{sub Q}(T) at T{sub c} predicted by ideal MCT. While the fits of the other scaling laws of MCT to viscosity, light scattering, and dielectric relaxation data all give T{sub c} in the range from 368 to 375 K, there is no evidence of cusp-like behavior of f{sub Q}(T) at T{sub c} from more accurate neutron scattering data obtained later on by Mezei and Russina [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 11, A341 (1999)] at temperatures below 400 K. In several molecular glass-formers, experiments have found at temperatures below T{sub c} that [1−f{sub Q}(T)] is manifested as nearly constant loss (NCL) in the frequency dependent susceptibility. The NCL persists down to below T{sub g} and is not predicted by the ideal MCT. No clear evidence of the change of T-dependence of f{sub Q}(T) at any T{sub c} was found in intermediate and strong glassformers, although ideal MCT does not distinguish fragile and strong glassformers in predicting the critical behavior of f{sub Q}(T) a priori. Experiments found f{sub Q}(T) changes T-dependence not only at T{sub c} but also at the glass transition temperature T{sub g}. The changes of T-dependence of f{sub Q}(T) at T{sub c} and T{sub g} are accompanied by corresponding changes of dynamic variables and thermodynamic quantities at T{sub B} ≈ T{sub c} and at T{sub g}. The dynamic variables include the relaxation time τ{sub α}(T), the non-exponentiality parameter n(T), and

  1. A computer program for lattice-dynamical evaluation of Debye-Waller factors and thermodynamic functions for minerals, starting from empirical force fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilati, T.; Dermartin, F.; Gramaccioli, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    A wide-purpose computer program has been written (Fortran) for lattice dynamical evaluation of crystallographic and thermodynamic properties of solids, especially minerals or inorganic substances.The program essentially consists of a routine affording first and second derivatives of energy with respect to mass weighted coordinates, properly modulated by a wave vector algorithm, so that diagonalization can immediately follow and arrive at frequencies, density of states, and eventually to thermodynamic functions and Debye-Waller parameters thorough an automatic Brillouin-zone sampling procedure. The input consists of crystallographic data (unit-cell parameters, space group symmetry operations, atomic coordinates), plus atomic charge and empirical parameters, such as force constants or non-bonded atom-atom interaction energy functions in almost any form. It is also possible to obtain the structure corresponding to the energy minimum, or even to work with partial rigid bodies, in order to reduce the order of the dynamical matrices. The program provides for automatic symmetry labelling of the vibrational modes, in order to compare them with the experimental data; there is possibility of improving the empirical functions through a minimization routine. Examples of application and transferability of force fields to a series of minerals are provided. (author)

  2. Laser ablation characteristics of metallic materials: Role of Debye-Waller thermal parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, M Z

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with a solid target results in the formation of a crater and a plasma plume. The characteristics of both depend on physical properties of target material, environmental conditions, and laser parameters (e.g. wavelength, pulse duration, energy, beam diameter) etc. It has been shown for numerous metals and their alloys that plasma threshold fluence, plasma threshold energy, ablation efficiency, ablation yield, angular distribution of laser produced plasma (LPP) ions, etc. are a unique function of the Debye-Waller thermal parameter B or the mean-square amplitude of atomic vibration of the target material for given experimental conditions. The FWHM of the angular distribution of LPP ions, ablation yield, and ablation efficiency increase whereas plasma threshold fluence and plasma threshold energy decrease as B-factor of the target material increases

  3. Absorptive form factors for high-energy electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, D.M.; King, Q.A.

    1990-01-01

    The thermal diffuse scattering contribution to the absorptive potential in high-energy electron diffraction is calculated in the form of an absorptive contribution to the atomic form factor. To do this, the Einstein model of lattice vibrations is used, with isotropic Debye-Waller factors. The absorptive form factors are calculated as a function of scattering vector s and temperature factor M on a grid which enables polynomial interpolation of the results to be accurate to better than 2% for much of the ranges 0≤Ms 2 ≤6 and 0≤M≤2 A 2 . The computed values, together with an interpolation routine, have been incorporated into a Fortran subroutine which calculates both the real and absorptive form factors for 54 atomic species. (orig.)

  4. Robust parameterization of elastic and absorptive electron atomic scattering factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, L.M.; Ren, G.; Dudarev, S.L.; Whelan, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    A robust algorithm and computer program have been developed for the parameterization of elastic and absorptive electron atomic scattering factors. The algorithm is based on a combined modified simulated-annealing and least-squares method, and the computer program works well for fitting both elastic and absorptive atomic scattering factors with five Gaussians. As an application of this program, the elastic electron atomic scattering factors have been parameterized for all neutral atoms and for s up to 6 A -1 . Error analysis shows that the present results are considerably more accurate than the previous analytical fits in terms of the mean square value of the deviation between the numerical and fitted scattering factors. Parameterization for absorptive atomic scattering factors has been made for 17 important materials with the zinc blende structure over the temperature range 1 to 1000 K, where appropriate, and for temperature ranges for which accurate Debye-Waller factors are available. For other materials, the parameterization of the absorptive electron atomic scattering factors can be made using the program by supplying the atomic number of the element, the Debye-Waller factor and the acceleration voltage. For ions or when more accurate numerical results for neutral atoms are available, the program can read in the numerical values of the elastic scattering factors and return the parameters for both the elastic and absorptive scattering factors. The computer routines developed have been tested both on computer workstations and desktop PC computers, and will be made freely available via electronic mail or on floppy disk upon request. (orig.)

  5. A summary of the low angle x-ray atomic scattering factors which have been measured by the critical voltage effect in High Energy Electron Diffraction (HEED)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, A.G.; Fisher, R.M.

    1987-08-01

    A tabulated summary of all the accurate (/approximately/0.1%) low-angle x-ray atomic scattering (form) factors which have been determined by the systematic critical voltage technique in HEED is presented. For low atomic number elements (Z/approx lt/40) the low angle form factors can be significantly different to best free atom values, and so the best band structure calculated and/or x-ray measured form factors consistent with the critical voltage measurements are also indicated. At intermediate atomic numbers Z≅40→50 only the very low-angle form factors appear to be different to the best free atom values, and even then only by a small amount. For heavy elements (Z/approx lt/70) the best free atom form factors appear to agree very closely with the critical voltage measured values and so, in this case, critical voltage measurements give very accurate measurements of Debye-Waller factors. 48 refs

  6. A Total Factor Productivity Toolbox for MATLAB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Balk (Bert); J. Barbero (Javier); J.L. Zofío (José)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractTotal Factor Productivity Toolbox is a new package for MATLAB that includes functions to calculate the main Total Factor Productivity (TFP) indices and their decompositions, based on Shephard’s distance functions and using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) programming techniques. The

  7. AN ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana GÂRDU

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The high performing East Asian development model sparked controversies in the academia: its success was ascribed alternatively to nation-states, markets, and sociocultural factors. This paper undertakes a comparative assessment of the last two generations of submodels, i.e. ASEAN-4 and China, by quantifying and interpreting their total factor productivity (TFP using the Solow Model. Results show that capital accumulation was their major growth driver before the beginning of the millennium. Subsequently growth is led by technical change in ASEAN-32, and capital inputs respectively in late industrialising economies, i.e., China and the Philippines. The main differences between the two submodels consist in levels in growth rates and technical progress contributions, which are strongly sped up in China by transition and integration in global production networks. For ASEAN-4 average null or negligible TFP values in the 1990s point to structural vulnerabilities that surface during the Asian financial crisis. ASEAN-3’s recovery is led by technical change though.

  8. Original Article Blood Loss and Influencing Factors in Primary Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KIGZ

    aid the surgeon in the African region estimate the expected blood loss after total hip replacement. We conducted a study to quantify the blood loss following total hip arthroplasty and to determine the factors .... Hemoglobin European Overview (OSTHEO) study: blood management in elective knee and hip arthroplasty in ...

  9. Total-factor energy efficiency in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xingping; Cheng Xiaomei; Yuan Jiahai; Gao Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a total-factor framework to investigate energy efficiency in 23 developing countries during the period of 1980-2005. We explore the total-factor energy efficiency and change trends by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA) window, which is capable of measuring efficiency in cross-sectional and time-varying data. The empirical results indicate that Botswana, Mexico and Panama perform the best in terms of energy efficiency, whereas Kenya, Sri Lanka, Syria and the Philippines perform the worst during the entire research period. Seven countries show little change in energy efficiency over time. Eleven countries experienced continuous decreases in energy efficiency. Among five countries witnessing continuous increase in total-factor energy efficiency, China experienced the most rapid rise. Practice in China indicates that effective energy policies play a crucial role in improving energy efficiency. Tobit regression analysis indicates that a U-shaped relationship exists between total-factor energy efficiency and income per capita. - Research Highlights: → To measure the total-factor energy efficiency using DEA window analysis. → Focus on an application area of developing countries in the period of 1980-2005. → A U-shaped relationship was found between total-factor energy efficiency and income.

  10. Ultrafast electron diffraction from non-equilibrium phonons in femtosecond laser heated Au films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, T. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Trigo, M.; Reid, A. H.; Dürr, H. A. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Li, R.; Vecchione, T.; Shen, X.; Weathersby, S.; Coffee, R.; Hartmann, N.; Wang, X. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Reis, D. A. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); PULSE Institute, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-01-25

    We use ultrafast electron diffraction to detect the temporal evolution of non-equilibrium phonons in femtosecond laser-excited ultrathin single-crystalline gold films. From the time-dependence of the Debye-Waller factor, we extract a 4.7 ps time-constant for the increase in mean-square atomic displacements. The observed increase in the diffuse scattering intensity demonstrates that the energy transfer from laser-heated electrons to phonon modes near the X and K points in the Au fcc Brillouin zone proceeds with timescales of 2.3 and 2.9 ps, respectively, faster than the Debye-Waller average mean-square displacement.

  11. KLE Translog production function and total factor productivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klacek, J.; Vošvrda, Miloslav; Schlosser, Š.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 4 (2007), s. 261-274 ISSN 0322-788X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : total factor productivity * translog production function * aggregate production function * least squares method * ridge regression Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  12. Total Factor Productivity Convergence in Africa: Panel Unit Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study tested absolute and conditional convergence of Total Factor Productivity in Africa using a sample of 23 countries and TFP data covering the period between 1960 and 2003 while deploying the panel unit root methodology. Countries that have experienced sustained economic growth rate are found to have ...

  13. Juveniles' Miranda comprehension: Understanding, appreciation, and totality of circumstances factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelle, Heather; Romaine, Christina L Riggs; Goldstein, Naomi E S

    2015-06-01

    This study examined juvenile justice-involved youths' understanding and appreciation of the Miranda warnings' rights to silence and legal counsel using the Miranda Rights Comprehension Instruments (Goldstein, Zelle, & Grisso, 2012). It also examined the relationships between totality of circumstances factors and understanding and appreciation of rights. Data were collected from 183 youths (140 boys) in pre- and postadjudication facilities in 2 states. Overall, youths demonstrated greater difficulty on measures of appreciation than understanding, with particular deficits in their abilities to comprehend the abstract concept of the right to silence. Results varied slightly by instrument, highlighting the importance of a multimodal assessment of these complex abilities. Examination of totality of circumstances factors identified relationships between some factors (e.g., age, verbal IQ, academic achievement) and Miranda comprehension, but revealed that other factors (e.g., gender, number of previous arrests) were not significantly related to Miranda understanding or appreciation. The findings support a nuanced conceptualization of Miranda rights comprehension that acknowledges the complexity of understanding and appreciating the warnings. Empirical analyses also support the continued use of some totality of circumstances factors and abandonment of others. Findings underscore the necessity of multimodal assessment and interpretation when conducting capacity to waive Miranda rights evaluations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Risk factors for renal dysfunction after total hip joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Basim Kamil; Sahlström, Arne; Dessau, Ram Benny Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Renal injury and dysfunction are serious complications after major surgery, which may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of our study was to identify the possible risk factors for renal dysfunction after total hip joint replacement surger...... creatinine. Smoking, diabetes mellitus, high BMI, gender, and duration of surgery were not identified as significant risk factors........ METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted among 599 consecutive primary hip joint replacements performed between January 2011 and December 2013. According to the RIFLE criteria, increased postoperative serum creatinine was considered indicative of postoperative renal injury. The Welch two-sample test......, hypertension, general anesthesia, high ASA scores, low intra-operative systolic BP, and prophylactic dicloxacillin as significant risk factors. Low baseline systolic BP, low baseline diastolic blood pressure, and hip fracture diagnosis were independent risk factors for postoperative increase in serum...

  15. Risk factors for total hip arthroplasty aseptic revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatod, Monti; Cafri, Guy; Namba, Robert S; Inacio, Maria C S; Paxton, Elizabeth W

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient, operative, implant, surgeon, and hospital factors associated with aseptic revision after primary THA in patients registered in a large US Total Joint Replacement Registry. A total of 35,960 THAs registered from 4/2001-12/2010 were evaluated. The 8-year survival rate was 96.7% (95% CI 96.4%-97.0%). Females had a higher risk of aseptic revision than males. Hispanic and Asian patients had a lower risk of revision than white patients. Ceramic-on-ceramic, ceramic-on-conventional polyethylene, and metal-on-conventional polyethylene bearing surfaces had a higher risk of revision than metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene. Body mass index, health status, diabetes, diagnosis, fixation, approach, bilateral procedures, head size, surgeon fellowship training, surgeon and hospital volume were not revision risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Therapeutic education of total laryngectomy patients: Influence of social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woisard, V; Galtier, A; Baumann, L; Delpierre, C; Puech, M; Balaguer, M

    Current health policies promote patient education, parti­cu­lar­ly in oncology. Therapeutic education program must be tailo­red to the characteristics, needs and expectations of the population. In the ENT Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Larrey Hospital in Toulouse, a therapeutic education program for patient with total laryngectomy has been experienced since 2011. But its propagation remains difficult. The aim of this study is to determine if social factors are nfluencing the parti­cipation of the laryngectomized population in the program. The brochure explaining this program and a registration form coupled with a survey questionnaire were distributed to the regio­nal population of patient with total laryngectomy. After two months of investigation we collected 42 responses. It is clear from their analysis that social factors underlie partici­pa­tion, particularly educational level, available financial resources level and the socio-professional group.

  17. Total Factor Productivity Convergence in German States Since Reunification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista

    2018-01-01

    A quarter-century after reunification, labor productivity in the states of eastern Germany continues to lag systematically behind the West. Persistent gaps in total factor productivity (TFP) are the proximate cause; conventional and capital-free measurements confirm a sharp slowdown in TFP growth...... of managers, low startup intensity and the distribution of firm size in the East rather than R&D activities....

  18. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J.-L.; Wang, S.-C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes energy efficiencies of 29 administrative regions in China for the period 1995-2002 with a newly introduced index. Most existing studies of regional productivity and efficiency neglect energy inputs. We use the data envelopment analysis (DEA) to find the target energy input of each region in China at each particular year. The index of total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) then divides the target energy input by the actual energy input. In our DEA model, labor, capital stock, energy consumption, and total sown area of farm crops used as a proxy of biomass energy are the four inputs and real GDP is the single output. The conventional energy productivity ratio regarded as a partial-factor energy efficiency index is computed for comparison in contrast to TFEE; our index is found fitting better to the real case. According to the TFEE index rankings, the central area of China has the worst energy efficiency and its total adjustmentof energy consumption amount is over half of China's total. Regional TFEE in China generally improved during the research period except for the western area. A U-shape relation between the area's TFEE and per capita income in the areas of China is found, confirming the scenario that energy efficiency eventually improves with economic growth

  19. Incidental Parathyroidectomy during Total Thyroidectomy: Risk Factors and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios K. Manatakis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the incidence of accidental parathyroidectomy in our series of total thyroidectomies, to investigate its clinical and biochemical consequences, and to identify potential risk factors. Methods. Patients who underwent total thyroidectomy between January 2006 and December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Pathology reports were reviewed to identify those cases who had an incidental parathyroidectomy and these were compared to patients with no parathyroidectomy, in terms of clinical (age, sex, and symptoms of hypocalcemia, pathological (thyroid specimen weight, Hashimoto thyroiditis, and malignancy, and biochemical (serum calcium and phosphate levels factors. Results. 281 patients underwent total thyroidectomy during the study period. Incidental parathyroidectomy was noticed in 24.9% of cases, with 44.3% of parathyroid glands found in an intrathyroidal location. Evidence of postoperative biochemical hypocalcemia was noticed in 28.6% of patients with parathyroidectomy, compared with 13.3% in the no-parathyroidectomy group (p=0.003. Symptomatic hypocalcemia was observed in 5.7% and 3.8%, respectively (p=0.49. Age, sex, thyroid specimen weight, Hashimoto thyroiditis, and malignancy did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions. Our study found an association of incidental parathyroidectomy with transient postoperative biochemical hypocalcemia, but not with clinically symptomatic disease. Age, sex, thyroid gland weight, Hashimoto thyroiditis, and malignancy were not identified as risk factors.

  20. Dual economies and international total factor productivity differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chanda, Areendam; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a framework that decomposes aggregate total factor productivity (TFP) into a component reflecting relative efficiency across sectors, and another component that reflects the absolute level of efficiency. A development accounting analysis suggests that as much as 85......% of the international variation in aggregate TFP can be attributed to variation in relative efficiency across sectors. Estimation results show that recent findings highlighting the importance of strong protection of property rights, financial development and geographical advantage for the level of TFP, can be explained...

  1. La productividad total de factores en el sector manufacturero chileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Candia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza el cambio en la productividad total de factores del sector manufacturero chileno estimando el índice de Malmquist del periodo 1998-2010. El análisis envolvente de datos permite calcular este índice para determinar el cambio de la PTF y descomponerlo en eficiencia técnica y cambio tecnológico. Los resultados indican que en este periodo la PTF se redujo debido principalmente al cambio tecnológico, mientras que la eficiencia técnica se mantuvo constante.

  2. Health information technology vendor selection strategies and total factor productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Eric W; Huerta, Timothy R; Menachemi, Nir; Thompson, Mark A; Yu, Feliciano

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare health information technology (HIT) adoption strategies' relative performance on hospital-level productivity measures. The American Hospital Association's Annual Survey and Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society Analytics for fiscal years 2002 through 2007 were used for this study. A two-stage approach is employed. First, a Malmquist model is specified to calculate hospital-level productivity measures. A logistic regression model is then estimated to compare the three HIT adoption strategies' relative performance on the newly constructed productivity measures. The HIT vendor selection strategy impacts the amount of technological change required of an organization but does not appear to have either a positive or adverse impact on technical efficiency or total factor productivity. The higher levels in technological change experienced by hospitals using the best of breed and best of suite HIT vendor selection strategies may have a more direct impact on the organization early on in the process. However, these gains did not appear to translate into either increased technical efficiency or total factor productivity during the period studied. Over a longer period, one HIT vendor selection strategy may yet prove to be more effective at improving efficiency and productivity.

  3. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Satoshi; Hu, Jin-Li

    2008-01-01

    This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan-how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan

  4. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, Satoshi [Faculty of Economics, Kyushu Sangyo University, 2-3-1 Matsukadai, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 813-8503 (Japan); Hu, Jin-Li [Institute of Business and Management, National Chiao Tung University (China)

    2008-02-15

    This study computes the regional total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) in Japan by employing the data envelopment analysis (DEA). A dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for the period 1993-2003 is constructed. There are 14 inputs, including three production factors (labor employment, private, and public capital stocks) and 11 energy sources (electric power for commercial and industrial use, electric power for residential use, gasoline, kerosene, heavy oil, light oil, city gas, butane gas, propane gas, coal, and coke). GDP is the sole output. Following Fukao and Yue [2000. Regional factor inputs and convergence in Japan - how much can we apply closed economy neoclassical growth models? Economic Review 51, 136-151 (in Japanese)], data on private and public capital stocks are extended. All the nominal variables are transformed into real variables, taking into consideration the 1995 price level. For kerosene, gas oil, heavy oil, butane gas, coal, and coke, there are a few prefectures with TFEEs less than 0.7. The five most inefficient prefectures are Niigata, Wakayama, Hyogo, Chiba, and Yamaguchi. Inland regions and most regions along the Sea of Japan are efficient in energy use. Most of the inefficient prefectures that are developing mainly upon energy-intensive industries are located along the Pacific Belt Zone. A U-shaped relation similar to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is discovered between energy efficiency and per capita income for the regions in Japan. (author)

  5. Risk factors for acute nerve injury after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Teena; Nguyen, Joseph T; Sasaki, Mayu; Wu, Anita; Bogner, Eric; Burge, Alissa; Cogsil, Taylor; Dalal, Aashka; Halvorsen, Kristin; Cummings, Kelianne; Su, Edwin P; Lyman, Stephen

    2018-06-01

    In this we study identified potential risk factors for post-total knee arthroplasty (TKA) nerve injury, a catastrophic complication with a reported incidence of 0.3%-1.3%. Patients who developed post-TKA nerve injury from 1998 to 2013 were identified, and each was matched with 2 controls. A multivariable logistic regression model was built to calculate odds ratios (ORs). Sixty-five nerve injury cases were identified in 39,990 TKAs (0.16%). Females (OR 3.28, P = 0.003) and patients with history of lumbar pathology (OR 6.12, P = 0.026) were associated with increased risk of nerve injury. Tourniquet pressure nerve injury was unexpected and requires further investigation. Muscle Nerve 57: 946-950, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. An Assessment of Three Northeast Asian Economies’ Total Factor Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana GÂRDU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available East Asian economies have achieved spectacular growth rates in a relatively short timespan outstripping the rest of the developing world. Hence the concern of both scholarly and policymaking circles for their peculiar development strategies. Both their spectacular rise and provisional decline after the Asian financial crisis (AFC were explained from three major perspectives: statism, neoliberalism, and neoconfucianism.The paper purports to quantify and interpret the pre-crisis total factor productivity (TFP of three Northeast Asian economies by using the Solow Model. The interdependencies between their TFP dynamics were investigated via a VAR Model. The findings suggest that labour contribution has decreased over time in favour of capital inputs and/or TFP as speedy industrialisation, and a gradual refinement of international specialisation proceeded. However low or even negative TFP during the 1990s signal the emergence of structural problems that decelerate growth, and increase these economies’ vulnerability to exogenous shocks.

  7. Energy consumption and total factor productivity growth in Iranian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Moghaddasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the relation between energy consumption and growth of total factor productivity (TFP of agriculture in Iran from 1974 to 2012 using Solow residual method. The results from estimated aggregate Cobb–Douglas production function showed that one percent change in the value of labor, capital and energy will lead to 4.07, 0.09 and 0.49 percent change in agriculture value added, respectively. Also in a long term, based on the Johansen cointegration test, there is a negative relation between TFP growth and energy consumption in Iranian agriculture which might be due to cheap and inefficient energy use in this sector. Gradual liberalization of energy price and use of so called green box support policies is recommended.

  8. TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF 57Fe-MÖSSBAUER SPECTRA FOR A 〖〖Fe〗_Fc^II-Fe〗_tpy^II-〖Fe〗_Fc^II TRINUCLEAR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Sirbu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 57Fe Mӧssbauer spectra were recorded for 1'-terpyridine ferrocenecarboxylic acid and [bis(1'-terpyridine ferrocenecarboxylic acid Fe(II]2+ in the temperature range 7 – 293 K. The temperature dependence of the Quadrupole Splitting, Isomer Shift and Debye-Waller factor are discussed. The Debye temperature for the iron nuclei in the investigated compounds was determined.

  9. An investigation of the chromium oxidation state of a monoanionic chromium tris(catecholate) complex by X-ray absorption and EPR spectroscopies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pattison, D I; Levina, A; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    The well-known monoanionic Cr tris(3,5-di-tert-butylcatecholato) complex, [Cr(DTBC)3]-, has been studied by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The multiple-scattering fit to the XAFS gave good correlation (R = 19.8%) and good values for all of the bond lengths, angles, and Debye-Waller factors. The p...

  10. Ecological total-factor energy efficiency of regions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lanbing; Hu Jinli

    2012-01-01

    Most existing energy efficiency indices are computed without taking into account undesirable outputs such as CO 2 and SO 2 emissions. This paper computes the ecological total-factor energy efficiency (ETFEE) of 30 regions in China for the period 2005–2009 through the slack-based model (SBM) with undesirable outputs. We calculate the ETFEE index by comparing the target energy input obtained from SBM with undesirable outputs to the actual energy input. Findings show that China's regional ETFEE still remains a low level of around 0.600 and regional energy efficiency is overestimated by more than 0.100 when not looking at environmental impacts. China's regional energy efficiency is extremely unbalanced: the east area ranks first with the highest ETFEE of above 0.700, the northeast and central areas follow, and the west area has the lowest ETFEE of less than 0.500. A monotone increasing relation exists between the area's ETFEE and China's per capita GDP. The truncated regression model shows that the ratio of R and D expenditure to GDP and the degree of foreign dependence have positive impacts, whereas the ratio of the secondary industry to GDP and the ratio of government subsidies for industrial pollution treatment to GDP have negative effects, on the ETFEE. - Highlights: ► Most energy efficiency indices ignore undesirable outputs such as CO 2 and SO 2 emissions. ► The ecological total-factor energy efficiency (ETFEE) is computed by slack-based model (SBM). ► The datasets contains 30 regions in China for the period 2005–2009. ► China's regional energy efficiency is extremely unbalanced. ► A monotone increasing relation exists between ETFEE and per capita GDP.

  11. Factors affecting wound ooze in total knee replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, U; Ahmad, R; Aspros, D; Bannister, GC

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Wound ooze is common following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and persistent wound infection is a risk factor for infection, and increased length and cost of hospitalisation. PATIENTS AND METHODS We undertook a prospective study to assess the effect of tourniquet time, peri-articular local anaesthesia and surgical approach on wound oozing after TKA. RESULTS The medial parapatellar approach was used in 59 patients (77%) and subvastus in 18 patients (23%). Peri-articular local anaesthesia (0.25% Bupivacaine with 1:1,000,000 adrenalin) was used in 34 patients (44%). The mean tourniquet time was 83 min (range, 38–125 min). We found a significant association between cessation of oozing and peri-articular local anaesthesia (P = 0.003), length of the tourniquet time (P = 0.03) and the subvastus approach (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Peri-articular local anaesthesia, the subvastus approach and shorter tourniquet time were all associated with less wound oozing after total knee arthroplasty. PMID:20836920

  12. Preoperative risk factors in total thyroidectomy of substernal goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bove A

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aldo Bove, Raffaella Maria Di Renzo, Gauro D’Urbano, Manuela Bellobono, Vincenzo D’ Addetta, Alfonso Lapergola, Giuseppe Bongarzoni Department of Medicine, Dentistry and Biotechnology, University “G. d’Annunzio” Chieti-Pescara, Chieti Scalo, Italy Abstract: The definition of substernal goiter (SG is based on variable criteria leading to a considerable variation in the reported incidence (from 0.2% to 45%. The peri- and postoperative complications are higher in total thyroidectomy (TT for SG than that for cervical goiter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preoperative risk factors associated with postoperative complications. From 2002 to 2014, 142 (8.5%; 98 women and 44 men of the 1690 patients who underwent TT had a SG. We retrospectively evaluated the following parameters: sex, age, histology, pre- and retrovascular position, recurrence, and extension beyond the carina. These parameters were then related to the postoperative complications: seroma/hematoma, transient and permanent hypocalcemia, transient and permanent laryngeal nerve palsy, and the length of surgery. The results were further compared with a control group of 120 patients operated on in the same period with TT for cervical goiter. All but two procedures were terminated via cervicotomy, where partial sternotomies were required. No perioperative mortality was observed. Results of the statistical analysis (Student’s t-test and Fisher’s exact test indicated an association between recurrence and extension beyond the carina with all postoperative complications. The group that underwent TT of SG showed a statistically significant higher risk for transient hypocalcemia (relative risk =1.767 with 95% confidence interval: 1.131–2.7605, P=0.0124, and need to treat =7.1 and a trend toward significance for transient recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (relative risk =6.7806 with 95% confidence interval: 0.8577–53.2898, P=0.0696, and need to treat =20.8 compared to the

  13. Factors influencing initial cup stability in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirouche, Farid; Solitro, Giovanni; Broviak, Stefanie; Gonzalez, Mark; Goldstein, Wayne; Barmada, Riad

    2014-12-01

    One of the main goals in total hip replacement is to preserve the integrity of the hip kinematics, by well positioning the cup and to make sure its initial stability is congruent and attained. Achieving the latter is not trivial. A finite element model of the cup-bone interface simulating a realistic insertion and analysis of different scenarios of cup penetration, insertion, under-reaming and loading is investigated to determine certain measurable factors sensitivity to stress-strain outcome. The insertion force during hammering and its relation to the cup penetration during implantation is also investigated with the goal of determining the initial stability of the acetabular cup during total hip arthroplasty. The mathematical model was run in various configurations to simulate 1 and 2mm of under-reaming at various imposed insertion distances to mimic hammering and insertion of cup insertion into the pelvis. Surface contact and micromotion at the cup-bone interface were evaluated after simulated cup insertion and post-operative loading conditions. The results suggest a direct correlation between under-reaming and insertion force used to insert the acetabular cup on the micromotion and fixation at the cup-bone interface. While increased under-reaming and insertion force result in an increase amount of stability at the interface, approximately the same percentage of surface contact and micromotion reduction can be achieved with less insertion force. We need to exercise caution to determine the optimal configuration which achieves a good conformity without approaching the yield strength for bone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of safe practices in hospitals’ total factor productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R Huerta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Timothy R Huerta1, Mark A Thompson2, Eric W Ford31Center for Health Innovation, Education, and Research, 2Rawls College of Business, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA; 3Forsyth Medical Center Distinguished Professor of Health Care, The University of North Carolina Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USAAbstract: The dual aims of improving safety and productivity are a major part of the health care reform movement hospital leaders must manage. Studies exploring the two phenomena conjointly and over time are critical to understanding how change in one dimension influences the other over time. A Malmquist approach is used to assess hospitals’ relative productivity levels over time. Analysis of variance (ANOVA algorithms were executed to assess whether or not the Malmquist Indices (MIs correlate with the safe practices measure. The American Hospital Association’s annual survey and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ Case Mix Index for fiscal years 2002–2006, along with Leapfrog Group’s annual survey for 2006 were used for this study. Leapfrog Group respondents have significantly higher technological change (TC and total factor productivity (TFP than nonrespondents without sacrificing technical efficiency changes. Of the three MIs, TC (P < 0.10 and TFP (P < 0.05 had significant relationships with the National Quality Forum’s Safe Practices score. The ANOVA also indicates that the mean differences of TFP measures progressed in a monotonic fashion up the Safe Practices scale. Adherence to the National Quality Forum’s Safe Practices recommendations had a major impact on hospitals’ operating processes and productivity. Specifically, there is evidence that hospitals reporting higher Safe Practices scores had above average levels of TC and TFP gains over the period assessed. Leaders should strive for increased transparency to promote both quality improvement and increased productivity.Keywords: safety, productivity, quality, safe

  15. Impact on quality culture of total quality management practices factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faihan Mosaad Saud Alotaibi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated total quality management practices and quality culture of Saudi Arabian contractors. Improving the quality can be achieved through implementation of total quality management although studies and researches work regarding this improvement is still lacking. A quantitative approach using the survey method was employed. With assistance from the Saudi Arabia Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs, survey questionnaires were distributed to selected contractors in Saudi Arabia. The collected data were analysed using correlation, and multiple regression analyses. The key findings were the confirmation of significant relationships between all total quality management practices and quality culture and a positive relationship between quality management practices and quality culture. Furthermore, total quality management practices were found to be able to explain 68.1% of the variance in quality culture, while quality culture explained 12.5% of the variance in competitiveness. Quality culture was found to only partially mediate the relationship between total quality management practices and competitiveness.

  16. Impact of socioeconomic factors on outcome of total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrack, Robert L; Ruh, Erin L; Chen, Jiajing; Lombardi, Adolph V; Berend, Keith R; Parvizi, Javad; Della Valle, Craig J; Hamilton, William G; Nunley, Ryan M

    2014-01-01

    Few data exist regarding the impact of socioeconomic factors on results of current TKA in young patients. Predictors of TKA outcomes have focused primarily on surgical technique, implant details, and individual patient clinical factors. The relative importance of these factors compared to patient socioeconomic status is not known. We determined whether (1) socioeconomic factors, (2) demographic factors, or (3) implant factors were associated with satisfaction and functional outcomes after TKA in young patients. We surveyed 661 patients (average age, 54 years; range, 18-60 years; 61% female) 1 to 4 years after undergoing modern primary TKA for noninflammatory arthritis at five orthopaedic centers. Data were collected by an independent third party with expertise in collecting healthcare data for state and federal agencies. We examined specific questions regarding satisfaction, pain, and function after TKA and socioeconomic (household income, education, employment) and demographic (sex, minority status) factors. Multivariable analysis was conducted to examine the relative importance of these factors for each outcome of interest. Patients reporting incomes of less than USD 25,000 were less likely to be satisfied with TKA outcomes and more likely to have functional limitations after TKA than patients with higher incomes; no other socioeconomic factors were associated with satisfaction. Women were less likely to be satisfied and more likely to have functional limitations than men, and minority patients were more likely to have functional limitations than nonminority patients. Implants were not associated with outcomes after surgery. Socioeconomic factors, in particular low income, are more strongly associated with satisfaction and functional outcomes in young patients after TKA than demographic or implant factors. Future studies should be directed to determining the causes of this association, and studies of clinical results after TKA should consider stratifying patients

  17. Corporate financial structure, misallocation and total factor productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uras, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the quantitative relevance of the cross-sectional dispersion of corporate financial structure in explaining the intra-industry allocation efficiency of productive factors. I solve a heterogeneous firms model with financial constraints and distortions to the marginal rental-rate of

  18. Patient factors in referral choice for total joint replacement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner-Spady, Barbara L; Marshall, Deborah A; Bohm, Eric; Dunbar, Michael J; Loucks, Lynda; Hennigar, Allan W; Frank, Cy; Noseworthy, Tom W

    2014-04-01

    Although the option of next available surgeon can be found on surgeon referral forms for total joint replacement surgery, its selection varies across surgical practices. Objectives are to assess the determinants of (a) a patient's request for a particular surgeon; and (b) the actual referral to a specific versus the next available surgeon. Questionnaires were mailed to 306 consecutive patients referred to orthopedic surgeons. We assessed quality of life (Oxford Hip and Knee scores, Short Form-12, EuroQol 5D, Pain Visual Analogue Scale), referral experience, and the importance of surgeon choice, surgeon reputation, and wait time. We used logistic regression to build models for the 2 objectives. We obtained 176 respondents (response rate, 58%), 60% female, 65% knee patients, mean age of 65 years, with no significant differences between responders versus nonresponders. Forty-three percent requested a particular surgeon. Seventy-one percent were referred to a specific surgeon. Patients who rated surgeon choice as very/extremely important [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 6.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.57-16.64] and with household incomes of $90,000+ versus <$30,000 (OR, 5.74; 95% CI, 1.56-21.03) were more likely to request a particular surgeon. Hip patients (OR, 3.03; 95% CI, 1.18-7.78), better Physical Component Summary-12 (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.02-1.63), and patients who rated surgeon choice as very/extremely important (OR, 3.88; 95% CI, 1.56-9.70) were more likely to be referred to a specific surgeon. Most patients want some choice in the referral decision. Providing sufficient information is important, so that patients are aware of their choices and can make an informed choice. Some patients prefer a particular surgeon despite longer wait times.

  19. Psychological factors as risk factors for poor hip function after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benditz A

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Achim Benditz,1 Petra Jansen,2 Jan Schaible,1 Christina Roll,1 Joachim Grifka,1 Jürgen Götz1 1Department of Orthopedics, University Medical Center Regensburg, Asklepios Klinikum Bad Abbach, Bad Abbach, 2Department of Sport Science, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany Abstract: Recovery after total hip arthroplasty (THA is influenced by several psychological aspects, such as depression, anxiety, resilience, and personality traits. We hypothesized that preoperative depression impedes early functional outcome after THA (primary outcome measure. Additional objectives were perioperative changes in the psychological status and their influence on perioperative outcome. This observational study analyzed depression, anxiety, resilience, and personality traits in 50 patients after primary unilateral THA. Hip functionality was measured by means of the Harris Hip Score. Depression, state anxiety, and resilience were evaluated preoperatively as well as 1 and 5 weeks postoperatively. Trait anxiety and personality traits were measured once preoperatively. Patients with low depression and anxiety levels had significantly better outcomes with respect to early hip functionality. Resilience and personality traits did not relate to hip functionality. Depression and state anxiety levels significantly decreased within the 5-week stay in the acute and rehabilitation clinic, whereas resilience remained at the same level. Our study suggests that low depression and anxiety levels are positively related to early functionality after THA. Therefore, perioperative measurements of these factors seem to be useful to provide the best support for patients with risk factors. Keywords: total hip arthroplasty, psychological factors, depression, state anxiety, trait anxiety, resilience, personality traits

  20. Risk factors for postoperative complications after total laryngectomy following radiotherapy or chemoradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, N B; Kristensen, C.A.; Andersen, E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the rates of and risk factors for postoperative complications following total laryngectomy in patients treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiation. DESIGN: Retrospective longitudinal study. SETTING: Tertiary medical centres. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 143 patients undergoin...

  1. Revision Total Hip Arthoplasty: Factors Associated with Re-Revision Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Khatod, M; Cafri, G; Inacio, MCS; Schepps, AL; Paxton, EW; Bini, SA

    2015-01-01

    The survivorship of implants after revision total hip arthroplasty and risk factors associated with re-revision are not well defined. We evaluated the re-revision rate with use of the institutional total joint replacement registry. The purpose of this study was to determine patient, implant, and surgeon factors associated with re-revision total hip arthroplasty.A retrospective cohort study was conducted. The total joint replacement registry was used to identify patients who had undergone revi...

  2. Total Ambient Dose Equivalent Buildup Factor Determination for Nbs04 Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckic, Paulina; Hayes, Robert B

    2018-06-01

    Buildup factors are dimensionless multiplicative factors required by the point kernel method to account for scattered radiation through a shielding material. The accuracy of the point kernel method is strongly affected by the correspondence of analyzed parameters to experimental configurations, which is attempted to be simplified here. The point kernel method has not been found to have widespread practical use for neutron shielding calculations due to the complex neutron transport behavior through shielding materials (i.e. the variety of interaction mechanisms that neutrons may undergo while traversing the shield) as well as non-linear neutron total cross section energy dependence. In this work, total ambient dose buildup factors for NBS04 concrete are calculated in terms of neutron and secondary gamma ray transmission factors. The neutron and secondary gamma ray transmission factors are calculated using MCNP6™ code with updated cross sections. Both transmission factors and buildup factors are given in a tabulated form. Practical use of neutron transmission and buildup factors warrants rigorously calculated results with all associated uncertainties. In this work, sensitivity analysis of neutron transmission factors and total buildup factors with varying water content has been conducted. The analysis showed significant impact of varying water content in concrete on both neutron transmission factors and total buildup factors. Finally, support vector regression, a machine learning technique, has been engaged to make a model based on the calculated data for calculation of the buildup factors. The developed model can predict most of the data with 20% relative error.

  3. La influencia de factores sistémicos en el uso de las prótesis totales Influence of systemic factors in use of total prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Andrade Lima Chaves

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerando la posible influencia de las enfermedades sistémicas y de los medicamentos utilizados para su tratamiento en la cavidad bucal, el presente estudio se propone realizar una revisión de la literatura sobre el tema, enfatizando la influencia de estos factores en el uso de las prótesis totales (PTs, con el fin de proporcionar al cirujano-dentista un mejor conocimiento científico para la realización de ese tipo de tratamiento rehabilitador.According to the possible influence of systemic diseases and of drugs used for its treatment in buccal cavity, the aim of present study is to carry out a review of literature on this topic, emphasizing on influence of these factors on use of the total prostheses (PTs, allowing to surgeon-dentist a better scientific knowledge to creation of this type of rehabilitation treatment.

  4. Regional economic development in Europe : the role of total factor productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Klasing, Mariko J.; Milionis, Petros

    2018-01-01

    Regional economic development in Europe: the role of total factor productivity. Regional Studies. This paper documents the fact that the large and persistent differences in economic development across subnational regions in European Union countries can largely be attributed to differences in total

  5. Microscopic view of disorder in the ordered phase of superionic RbAg4I5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, M.

    1983-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy in 129 I was employed to verify the existence and investigate the properties of local disorder in the ''ordered'' state of the superionic conductor RbAg 4 I 5 . Studies were conducted in the temperature range of 4--180 K covering the low-temperature #betta# phase (T 129 I nucleus, produced by the neighboring Ag ions, has a continuous linear temperature dependence down to 4.2 K. The hyperfine constants and the Debye-Waller factor showed no discontinuity at T/sub c/. The anomalous existence of the single line has been attributed to a fast fluctuating efg due to local hopping of the Ag ions. This dynamic disorder is present even at low temperatures where (8--10)% of Ag ions are locally hopping, and its occurrence increases drastically at T>T/sub c/. A nonharmonic Debye-Waller factor was observed from which a linear temperature-dependent Debye temperature could be derived

  6. Risk factors for accelerated polyethylene wear and osteolysis in ABG I total hip arthroplasty

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gallo, J.; Havránek, Vítězslav; Zapletová, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 1 (2013), 19-26 ISSN 0341-2695 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) OC 168 Program:OC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : risk * factors * accelerated * polyethylene * wear * osteolysis * ABG * total * arthroplasty Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics Impact factor: 2.019, year: 2013

  7. Prognostic factors for survival after salvage total laryngectomy following radiotherapy or chemoradiation failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, N B; Andersen, E; Kristensen, C A

    2017-01-01

    with higher N classification and need for lymph node excision during salvage total laryngectomy along with use of frozen sections. The high number of patients with recurrence within 1 year after salvage total laryngectomy occurred although thorough and regular follow-up visits were performed.......OBJECTIVE: The primary aims were to determine the rates of and prognostic factors for overall survival, disease-specific survival and disease-free survival following salvage total laryngectomy. DESIGN: Retrospective longitudinal study. SETTING: Tertiary medical centres. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 142...... survival, disease-specific survival and disease-free survival were 37.7%, 54.9% and 55.3%, respectively. N classification at primary diagnosis, lymph node excision and postoperative complications within 1 year after salvage total laryngectomy were prognostic factors for shorter overall survival, disease...

  8. Weak coupling theory of the ripplon limited mobility of a 2-D electron lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahm, A.J.; Mehrotra, R.

    1981-01-01

    The one ripplon-n phonon scattering contribution to the mobility of a 2D electron lattice supported by a liquid helium substrate is calculated in first order perturbation theory to all orders of n in the weak coupling limit. The Debye Waller factor is shown to limit the momentum transfer at large ripplon wave-vectors and high temperatures causing a minimum in the mobility as a function of temperature. (orig.)

  9. Contrast of HOLZ lines in energy-filtered convergent-beam electron diffraction patterns from silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmpfuhl, G.; Krahl, D.; Uchida, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Higher-order Laue-zone (HOLZ) lines were investigated in convergent-beam electron diffraction patterns from silicon near the low-indexed zone axes [100], [110] and [111]. The visibility of these lines depends on the effective structure potentials of the reflections from the first Laue zone depending on their Debye-Waller factor. The contrast of the HOLZ lines is strongly reduced by inelastically scattered electrons. They can be excluded by an imaging Ω filter for energy losses above 2 eV. The diffraction patterns were compared with many-beam calculations. Without absorption, an excellent agreement could be achieved for the [111] and [100] zone axes, while the simulation of the [110] zone-axis pattern needed a calculation with absorption. The reason for this observation is explained in the Bloch-wave picture. Calculations with absorption, however, lead to artefacts in the intensity distribution of the [100] HOLZ pattern. In order to obtain agreement with the experiment, the Debye-Waller factor had to be modified in different ways for the different zone axes. This corresponds to a strong anisotropy of the Debye-Waller factor. To confirm this observation, the temperature dependence of the itensity distributions of the HOLZ patterns was investigated between 50 and 680 K. At room temperature, the parameter D in the Debye-Waller factor exp(-Ds 2 ) was determined as 0.13, 0.26 and 0.55 A 2 for the zone axes [100], [111] and [110], respectively. The reliability of the conclusions is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Total flavonoid concentrations of bryophytes from Tianmu Mountain, Zhejiang Province (China: Phylogeny and ecological factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available The flavonoids in bryophytes may have great significance in phylogeny and metabolism research. However, to date there has been little research on bryophyte metabolites, especially flavonoids. To redress this somewhat, we determined flavonoid concentrations of bryophytes from Tianmu Mountain through a colorimetric assay and considered the factors influencing the results. This is the first time that the flavonoid contents of bryophytes have been examined in detail. The results revealed a range of total flavonoid concentrations in 90 samples collected from Tianmu Mountain from 1.8 to 22.3 mg/g (w/w. The total flavonoid contents of liverworts were generally higher than those of mosses; acrocarpous mosses had generally higher values than that of pleurocarpous mosses. The total flavonoid contents of bryophytes growing at lower light levels were general higher than those growing in full-sun. The total flavonoid contents of epiphytic bryophytes were highest, while those of aquatic bryophytes were the lowest. Total flavonoid contents of species growing at low-latitudes were much higher than those at high-latitude individuals. In conclusion, total flavonoid contents of bryophytes have some connection with plant phylogeny; more flavonoids might be contained in relatively primitive bryophytes. Meanwhile, the effects of ecological factors on total flavonoid contents of bryophytes exist; light and habitat (especially tree habitat and river habitat might be representative factor.

  11. Industry efficiency and total factor productivity growth under resources and environmental constraint in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X H

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity.

  12. Cirrhosis is a risk factor for total hip arthroplasty for avascular necrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Thomas; Overgaard, Søren; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - There are limited data on risk factors for avascular necrosis of the hip, but cirrhosis has been proposed as a risk factor. We examined the association between cirrhosis and incidence of total hip arthroplasty for avascular necrosis. Methods - We used nationwide healthcare......,052 reference individuals. Their median age was 57 years, and 65% were men. 45 cirrhosis patients and 44 reference individuals underwent total hip arthroplasty for avascular necrosis. Cirrhosis patients' HR for a total hip arthroplasty for avascular necrosis was 10 (95% CI: 6-17), yet their 5-year risk...... of avascular necrosis was only 0.2%. For the reference individuals, the 5-year risk was 0.02%. Interpretation - Cirrhosis is a strong risk factor for avascular necrosis of the hip, but it is rare even in cirrhosis patients....

  13. Revision total hip arthoplasty: factors associated with re-revision surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatod, Monti; Cafri, Guy; Inacio, Maria C S; Schepps, Alan L; Paxton, Elizabeth W; Bini, Stefano A

    2015-03-04

    The survivorship of implants after revision total hip arthroplasty and risk factors associated with re-revision are not well defined. We evaluated the re-revision rate with use of the institutional total joint replacement registry. The purpose of this study was to determine patient, implant, and surgeon factors associated with re-revision total hip arthroplasty. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. The total joint replacement registry was used to identify patients who had undergone revision total hip arthroplasty for aseptic reasons from April 1, 2001, to December 31, 2010. The end point of interest was re-revision total hip arthroplasty. Risk factors evaluated for re-revision total hip arthroplasty included: patient risk factors (age, sex, body mass index, race, and general health status), implant risk factors (fixation type, bearing surface, femoral head size, and component replacement), and surgeon risk factors (volume and experience). A multivariable Cox proportional hazards model was used. Six hundred and twenty-nine revision total hip arthroplasties with sixty-three (10%) re-revisions were evaluated. The mean cohort age (and standard deviation) was 57.0 ± 12.4 years, the mean body mass index (and standard deviation) was 29.5 ± 6.1 kg/m(2), and most of the patients were women (64.5%) and white (81.9%) and had an American Society of Anesthesiologists score of associated with the risk of re-revision. For every ten-year increase in patient age, the hazard ratio for re-revision decreases by a factor of 0.72 (95% confidence interval, 0.58 to 0.90). For every five revision surgical procedures performed by a surgeon, the risk of revision decreases by a factor of 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.86 to 0.99). At the time of revision, a new or retained cemented femoral implant or all-cemented hip implant increases the risk of revision by a factor of 3.19 (95% confidence interval, 1.22 to 8.38) relative to a retained or new uncemented hip implant. A ceramic on a

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for postoperative delirium in total joint arthroplasty patients: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenliang; Ke, Xiurong; Wang, Xiaoqing; Sun, Xiaoliang; Wang, Juncheng; Yang, Guojing; Xia, Haijie; Zhang, Lei

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the incidence and clinical features of delirium after total joint arthroplasty, and to establish the potential risk factors for postoperative delirium. A total of 212 consecutive patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty, who met the inclusion and exclusive criteria were enrolled. The general characteristics, preoperative and postoperative hematological variables were documented respectively. According to the presence of delirium, all patients were divided into the delirium group and non-delirium group. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to identify the possible predictors for postoperative delirium. At a minimum of 6months of follow-up, 35 patients were observed with postoperative delirium at an estimated total incidence of 16.5%. The incidence of delirium was statistically higher in hip arthroplasty (22.8%) than that in knee arthroplasty (7.1%). The multivariate regression analysis identified older age (OR=1.590, P=0.023), a history of stroke (OR=190.23, P=0.036), preoperative PaO 2 (OR=1.277, P=0.018) and equivalent fentanyl dose (OR=1.010, P=0.012) as the predictive factors for postoperative delirium after total joint arthroplasty. The incidence of postoperative delirium after total joint arthroplasty is higher than expected. Based on our findings, we suggest that the surgeons should focus on those patients who have these risk factors and ensure the appropriate management to avoid postoperative delirium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Trends in hospital labor and total factor productivity, 1981-86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Jerry; Pope, Gregory C.

    1989-01-01

    The per-case payment rates of Medicare's prospective payment system are annually updated. As one element of the update factor, Congress required consideration of changes in hospital productivity. In this article, calculations of annual changes in labor and total factor productivity during 1981-86 of hospitals eligible for prospective payment are presented using several output and input variants. Generally, productivity has declined since 1980, although the rates of decline have slowed since prospective payment implementation. According to the series of analyses most relevant for policy, significant hospital productivity gains occurred during 1983-86. This may justify a lower update factor. PMID:10313278

  16. Predictive factors for pharyngocutaneous fistulization after total laryngectomy: a Dutch Head and Neck Society audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansaat, Liset; van der Noort, Vincent; Bernard, Simone E.; Eerenstein, Simone E. J.; Plaat, Boudewijn E. C.; Langeveld, Ton A. P. M.; Lacko, Martin; Hilgers, Frans J. M.; de Bree, Remco; Takes, Robert P.; van den Brekel, Michiel W. M.

    2018-01-01

    Incidences of pharyngocutaneous fistulization (PCF) after total laryngectomy (TL) reported in the literature vary widely, ranging from 2.6 to 65.5%. Comparison between different centers might identify risk factors, but also might enable improvements in quality of care. To enable this on a national

  17. Effect of finite sample dimensions and total scatter acceptance angle on the gamma ray buildup factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sukhpal; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Charanjeet; Thind, Kulwant Singh; Mudahar, Gurmel S.

    2008-01-01

    The simultaneous variation of gamma ray buildup factors with absorber thickness (up to 6.5 mfp) and total scatter acceptance angle (which is the sum of incidence and exit beam divergence) in the media of high volume flyash concrete and water was studied experimentally using a point isotropic 137 Cs source

  18. Dietary factors associated with plasma high molecular weight and total adiponectin levels in apparently healthy women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Melistas, Labros; Fappa, Evaggelia; Vidra, Nikoletta; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate associations between dietary factors and high molecular weight (HMW) as well as total adiponectin in a sample of apparently healthy adult Mediterranean women. DESIGN AND METHODS: Two hundred and twenty women were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric and body

  19. BMI, total and abdominal fat distribution, and cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gishti, Olta; Gaillard, Romy; Durmus, Busra; Abrahamse, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; de Jonge, Layla L; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2015-05-01

    More specific total body and abdominal fat mass measures might be stronger associated with cardiovascular risk factors in childhood, than BMI. We examined the independent associations of total and abdominal fat measures with cardiovascular risk factors in school age children. We performed a population-based cohort study among 6,523 children. At the age of 6 y, we measured childhood BMI, and general and abdominal fat mass, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and ultrasound and cardiovascular risk factors. Conditional on BMI, higher fat mass percentage and abdominal fat mass were associated with higher blood pressure, total- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, insulin and c-peptide levels, but with lower left ventricular mass and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (P values children. Higher childhood adiposity measures were associated with increased odds of cardiovascular risk factors clustering, with the strongest effect for fat mass percentage (odds ratios: 3.01 (95% confidence interval: 2.67, 3.9). Our results suggest that general and abdominal fat measures are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in childhood, independent from BMI. These measures may provide additional information for identification of children with an adverse cardiovascular profile.

  20. Total Factor Productivity, Demographic Traits and ICT: Empirical Analysis for Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal MEHMOOD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances a model to explain the total factor productivity in Asian countries, most of which are labor surplus and are endowed with substantial human capital. Such promising demographic potentials are considered as complementary factors to use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT. Population with such favorable demographic traits and access to ICT results in higher Total factor productivity (TFP. We call this as Demo-Tech-TFP Model and is tested by using data for 2000-2010 of 24 Asian countries. Econometric concerns like presence of endogenous and/or predetermined covariates and small time-series and cross-sectional dimensions of panel dataset are tackled by using System Generalized Method of Moments (SYS-GMM. Results show considerable support for the Demo-Tech-TFP hypothesis. Need is to design such models that suit the local demography and patterns of technological diffusion currently taking place in developing countries.

  1. Cirrhosis is a risk factor for total hip arthroplasty for avascular necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleuran, Thomas; Overgaard, Søren; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Jepsen, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Background and purpose - There are limited data on risk factors for avascular necrosis of the hip, but cirrhosis has been proposed as a risk factor. We examined the association between cirrhosis and incidence of total hip arthroplasty for avascular necrosis. Methods - We used nationwide healthcare data to identify all Danish residents diagnosed with cirrhosis in 1994-2011, and matched them 1:5 by age and sex to non-cirrhotic reference individuals from the general population. We excluded people with a previous total hip arthroplasty, a previous hip fracture, or a previous diagnosis of avascular necrosis. We used stratified Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for cirrhosis patients relative to reference individuals, adjusting for potential confounders. We used the cumulative incidence function to compute 5-year risks. Results - We included 25,421 cirrhosis patients and 114,052 reference individuals. Their median age was 57 years, and 65% were men. 45 cirrhosis patients and 44 reference individuals underwent total hip arthroplasty for avascular necrosis. Cirrhosis patients' HR for a total hip arthroplasty for avascular necrosis was 10 (95% CI: 6-17), yet their 5-year risk of avascular necrosis was only 0.2%. For the reference individuals, the 5-year risk was 0.02%. Interpretation - Cirrhosis is a strong risk factor for avascular necrosis of the hip, but it is rare even in cirrhosis patients.

  2. Predictive factors for pharyngocutaneous fistulization after total laryngectomy: a Dutch Head and Neck Society audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansaat, Liset; van der Noort, Vincent; Bernard, Simone E; Eerenstein, Simone E J; Plaat, Boudewijn E C; Langeveld, Ton A P M; Lacko, Martin; Hilgers, Frans J M; de Bree, Remco; Takes, Robert P; van den Brekel, Michiel W M

    2018-03-01

    Incidences of pharyngocutaneous fistulization (PCF) after total laryngectomy (TL) reported in the literature vary widely, ranging from 2.6 to 65.5%. Comparison between different centers might identify risk factors, but also might enable improvements in quality of care. To enable this on a national level, an audit in the 8 principle Dutch Head and Neck Centers (DHNC) was initiated. A retrospective chart review of all 324 patients undergoing laryngectomy in a 2-year (2012 and 2013) period was performed. Overall PCF%, PCF% per center and factors predictive for PCF were identified. Furthermore, a prognostic model predicting the PCF% per center was developed. To provide additional data, a survey among the head and neck surgeons of the participating centers was carried out. Overall PCF% was 25.9. The multivariable prediction model revealed that previous treatment with (chemo)radiotherapy in combination with a long interval between primary treatment and TL, previous tracheotomy, near total pharyngectomy, neck dissection, and BMI model. PCF performance rate (difference between the PCF% and the predicted PCF%) per DHNC, though, shows that not all differences are explained by factors established in the prediction model. However, these factors explain enough of the differences that, compensating for these factors, hospital is no longer independently predictive for PCF. This nationwide audit has provided valid comparative PCF data confirming the known risk factors from the literature which are important for counseling on PCF risks. Data show that variations in PCF% in the DHNCs (in part) are explainable by the variations in these predictive factors. Since elective neck dissection is a major risk factor for PCF, it only should be performed on well funded indication.

  3. Applying total interpretive structural modeling to study factors affecting construction labour productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayali Shrikrishna Sandbhor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Construction sector has always been dependent on manpower. Most of the activities carried out on any construction site are labour intensive. Since productivity of any project depends directly on productivity of labour, it is a prime responsibility of the employer to enhance labour productivity. Measures to improve the same depend on analysis of positive and negative factors affecting productivity. Major attention should be given to factors that decrease the productivity of labour. Factor analysis thus is an integral part of any study aiming to improve productivity.  Interpretive structural modeling is a methodology for identifying and summarizing relationships among factors which define an issue or problem. It provides a means to arrange the factors in an order as per their complexity. This study attempts to use the latest version of interpretive structural modeling i.e. total interpretive structural modeling to analyze factors negatively affecting construction labour productivity. It establishes interpretive relationship among these factors facilitating improvement in the overall productivity of construction site.

  4. Selective Sequential Zero-Base Budgeting Procedures Based on Total Factor Productivity Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ishikawa; E. F. Sudit

    1981-01-01

    The authors' purpose in this paper is to develop productivity-based sequential budgeting procedures designed to expedite identification of major problem areas in bugetary performance, as well as to reduce the costs associated with comprehensive zero-base analyses. The concept of total factor productivity is reviewed and its relations to ordinary and zero-based budgeting are discussed in detail. An outline for a selective sequential analysis based on monitoring of three key indicators of (a) i...

  5. Industry Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity Growth under Resources and Environmental Constraint in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Li, Ling; Xia, X. H.

    2012-01-01

    The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity. PMID:23365517

  6. Industry Efficiency and Total Factor Productivity Growth under Resources and Environmental Constraint in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Tao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of China's industry has been seriously depending on energy and environment. This paper attempts to apply the directional distance function and the Luenberger productivity index to measure the environmental efficiency, environmental total factor productivity, and its components at the level of subindustry in China over the period from 1999 to 2009 while considering energy consumption and emission of pollutants. This paper also empirically examines the determinants of efficiency and productivity change. The major findings are as follows. Firstly, the main sources of environmental inefficiency of China's industry are the inefficiency of gross industrial output value, the excessive energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. Secondly, the highest growth rate of environmental total factor productivity among the three industrial categories is manufacturing, followed by mining, and production and supply of electricity, gas, and water. Thirdly, foreign direct investment, capital-labor ratio, ownership structure, energy consumption structure, and environmental regulation have varying degrees of effects on the environmental efficiency and environmental total factor productivity.

  7. Total factor productivity (TFP) growth agriculture in pakistan: trends in different time horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Mushtaq, K.; Ashfaq, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study estimated total factor productivity (TFP) growth of agriculture sector of Pakistan for the period 1971-2006 by employing Tornqvist-Theil (T-T) index number methodology. Most of the conventional inputs were used in constructing the input index. The output index includes major crops, minor crops, important fruits and vegetables and four categories of livestock products. The study estimated TFP growth rates for different decades. The results showed that TFP growth rate was lowest during the decade of 70s (0.96 percent) and highest during the last six years of the study period (2.86 percent). The decade of 80s and 90s registered TFP growth rate of 2.24 percent and 2.46 percent, respectively. The results also explained that TFP growth contributed about 33 percent to total agricultural output growth during the decade of 70s and this contribution increased up to 83 percent during the last six years of the study period. The contribution of TFP growth to total agricultural output growth was 53 and 81 percent during the decades of 80s and 90s, respectively. The study observed that macro level government policies, institutional factors and weather conditions are the major key factors that influenced TFP growth. (author)

  8. Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, Chris R.; Horwitz, Mitchell E.; Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly; Folz, Rodney J.; Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

  9. Risk factors for revision of primary total hip arthroplasty: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopetz Julian JZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous papers have been published examining risk factors for revision of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA, but there have been no comprehensive systematic literature reviews that summarize the most recent findings across a broad range of potential predictors. Methods We performed a PubMed search for papers published between January, 2000 and November, 2010 that provided data on risk factors for revision of primary THA. We collected data on revision for any reason, as well as on revision for aseptic loosening, infection, or dislocation. For each risk factor that was examined in at least three papers, we summarize the number and direction of statistically significant associations reported. Results Eighty-six papers were included in our review. Factors found to be associated with revision included younger age, greater comorbidity, a diagnosis of avascular necrosis (AVN as compared to osteoarthritis (OA, low surgeon volume, and larger femoral head size. Male sex was associated with revision due to aseptic loosening and infection. Longer operating time was associated with revision due to infection. Smaller femoral head size was associated with revision due to dislocation. Conclusions This systematic review of literature published between 2000 and 2010 identified a range of demographic, clinical, surgical, implant, and provider variables associated with the risk of revision following primary THA. These findings can inform discussions between surgeons and patients relating to the risks and benefits of undergoing total hip arthroplasty.

  10. A cross-country analysis of total factor productivity using micro-level data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Şeker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Total factor productivity (TFP is a crucial measure of efficiency and thus an important tool for policymakers. However, research on comparison of TFP performances using micro-level data across developing countries has been limited due to the unavailability of homogenous data sources. This study aims to fill this crucial gap by using a data set which has been collected through a large body of surveys conducted across 69 developing countries following the same methodology. The homogenous nature of the data and the diverse set of questions included in the surveys provide unique opportunity to compare average productivity performances of firms across a large set of characteristics and business environment factors. The analysis performed here provides the groundwork for testing various stylized facts about TFP and its related factors such as exporting, innovation, access to finance, foreign ownership, and regulations across developing countries.

  11. Preoperative psychosocial risk factors for poor outcomes at 1 and 5 years after total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Trela-Larsen, Lea; Whitehouse, Michael R; Blom, Ashley W

    2017-10-01

    Background and purpose - Psychosocial factors are important risk factors for poor outcomes in the first year after total knee replacement (TKR), however their impact on long-term outcomes is unclear. We aimed to identify preoperative psychosocial risk factors for poor outcomes at 1 year and 5 years after TKR. Patients and methods - 266 patients were recruited prior to TKR surgery. Knee pain and function were assessed preoperatively and at 1 and 5 years postoperative using the WOMAC Pain score, WOMAC Function score and American Knee Society Score (AKSS) Knee score. Preoperative depression, anxiety, catastrophizing, pain self-efficacy and social support were assessed. Statistical analyses involved multiple linear regression and mixed effect linear regression. Results - Higher anxiety was a risk factor for worse pain at 1 year postoperative. No psychosocial factors were associated with any outcomes at 5 years postoperative. Analysis of change over time found that patients with higher pain self-efficacy had lower preoperative pain and experienced less improvement in pain up to 1 year postoperative. Higher pain self-efficacy was associated with less improvement in the AKSS up to 1 year postoperative but more improvement between 1 and 5 years postoperative. Interpretation - Preoperative anxiety was found to influence pain at 1 year after TKR. However, none of the psychosocial variables were risk factors for a poor outcome at 5 years post-operative, suggesting that the negative effects of anxiety on outcome do not persist in the longer-term.

  12. Quality of life factors and survival after total or extended maxillectomy for sinonasal malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James; Isaiah, Amal; Wolf, Jeffrey S; Lubek, Joshua E

    2015-04-01

    Total and extended maxillectomy results in significant morbidity that can have an effect on quality of life factors. Modern reconstructive techniques have ameliorated this effect, but they have not been quantified. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the quality of life factors and survival of patients undergoing total or extended maxillectomy for malignant disease. A retrospective study was performed of all patients who had undergone total or extended maxillectomy at a tertiary care cancer center from January 2008 to May 2013. The minimum follow-up period was 6 months. The quality of life factors analyzed included swallowing function and diet consistency, pain control, and postoperative complications. A total of 25 patients (13 women and 12 men) met the inclusion criteria. Using the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, 76% of the patients had stage IV disease. Of the 25 patients, 13 received a free tissue transfer, 11 an obturator flap, and 1 a regional flap. None of the patients with a free tissue transfer experienced failure. The tumor size had no systemic influence on the reconstructive method chosen (P = .32 to P = .98). The median follow-up period was 41 weeks (range 24 to 252). One death was recorded, and 10 patients were lost to follow-up. Eleven patients progressed to a regular diet. Fifteen patients required a tracheostomy, and all were decannulated at a mean of 14 days postoperatively. One patient had dental implants placed. The type of reconstruction did not influence swallowing function (P = .49) or long-term pain (P = .38). The mean pain score was 4.9 ± 2.7. Pain management proved difficult in 7 patients. Also, 6 patients developed a surgical site infection, 3 of whom required a return to the operating room. Seven patients were readmitted to the hospital for complications; however, the reconstructive method did not influence the incidence of complications (P = .64). The inevitable morbidity, with respect to quality

  13. Clinical Characteristics and Risk Factors for the Development of Postoperative Hepatic Steatosis After Total Pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Tatsuo; Ishida, Masaharu; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Sakata, Naoaki; Yoshimatsu, Gumpei; Naitoh, Takeshi; Katayose, Yu; Egawa, Shinichi; Unno, Michiaki

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of hepatic steatosis after pancreatectomy is known to be associated with the remnant pancreatic function. However, other risk factors for hepatic steatosis after pancreatectomy remain unknown. The aims of this study were to identify other risk factors in addition to the remnant pancreatic function and elucidate the relationship between postoperative hepatic steatosis and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in totally pancreatomized patients. Forty-three patients who underwent total pancreatectomy were analyzed. Hepatic steatosis was defined as the attenuation of unenhanced computed tomography values. Clinical findings and laboratory data were compared between patients with and without hepatic steatosis. Sixteen (37.2%) patients developed hepatic steatosis after total pancreatectomy, with marked declines in the Controlling Nutritional Status score and body mass index. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the attenuation of computed tomography values was correlated with female sex (P = 0.002), early postoperative serum albumin levels (P = 0.003), and pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy with high-dose pancrelipase (P = 0.032). Postoperative hepatic steatosis after pancreatectomy is associated with sex, malnutrition, and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. High-dose pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy may have preventive effects on hepatic steatosis occurring after pancreatectomy.

  14. Totally implantable central venous access port infections in patients with digestive cancer: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touré, Abdoulaye; Vanhems, Philippe; Lombard-Bohas, Catherine; Cassier, Philippe; Péré-Vergé, Denis; Souquet, Jean-Christophe; Ecochard, René; Chambrier, Cécile

    2012-12-01

    Central venous access port-related bloodstream infection (CVAP-BSI) is associated with morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. This study examined the incidence rates and risk factors for CVAP-BSI in adult patients with digestive cancer. This prospective observational cohort study was performed from 2007 to 2011 in 2 oncology units of a university hospital. Incidence rate was expressed as number of CVAP-BSI per 1,000 catheter-days. A Cox regression model was used to identify risk factors for CVAP-BSI. A total of 315 patients were included. CVAP-BSI occurred in 41 patients (13.0%). The overall incidence rate was 0.76/1,000 catheter-days. The rate was higher in patients with esophageal cancer (1.28. P = .05) and pancreatic cancer (1.24; P = .007). Risk factors independently associated with CVAP-BSI were World Health Organization performance status between 2 and 4, catheter utilization-days in the previous month, pancreatic cancer, and parenteral nutrition. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci and enterobacteria were the main microorganisms isolated. In adult patients with digestive cancer, pancreatic cancer, cumulative catheter utilization-days, World Health Organization performance status, and parenteral nutrition were identified as independent risk factors for CVAP-BSI. Patients with any of these risk factors could be candidates for preventive strategies. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. P-Selectin: An Unpredicted Factor for Deep Vein Thrombosis after Total Hip Arthroplasty

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    Dongquan Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT is a severe complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA. It leads to acute pulmonary embolism, a life-threatening disease. P-selectin is a 140-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein. Elevated P-selectin was associated with 1.7-fold increase in the risk of venous thrombosis. Materials and Methods. To confirm the association, a total of 91 subjects who received primary total hip arthroplasty using lateral approach performed by one skilled orthopedic surgeon were studied. All the patients were consecutively enrolled at the Center of Diagnosis and Treatment for Joint Diseases, Drum Tower Hospital affiliated to the Medical School of Nanjing University from 2010 to 2012. All the subjects received venography 3–5 days after operation. We measured P-selectin by means of a highly sensitive sandwich ELISA technique and a commercially available test reagent set. Results. No significant association was detected between P-selectin and DVT (all P  values>0.05. ΔsP-selectin was correlated with weight, APTT after operation, history of DVT, and diagnosis of primary disease ( P values were 0.03, 0.03, 0.04, and 0.02, resp.. Conclusion. P-selectin may not be a predicted factor for deep vein thrombosis after total hip arthroplasty.

  16. Colesterol total e fatores associados: estudo de base escolar no sul do Brasil Colesterol total y factores asociados: estudio de base escolar en el sur del Brasil Associated factors to total cholesterol: school based study in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauren Lúcia de Araújo Bergmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Evidências têm sugerido que uma parcela importante de crianças e adolescentes apresenta níveis elevados de colesterol total. OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de hipercolesterolemia e fatores associados em escolares de 7 a 12 anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base escolar de uma amostra aleatória composta por 1.294 escolares de 7 a 12 anos, de Caxias do Sul (RS. Os escolares responderam a uma entrevista com informações sobre nível socioeconômico, hábitos alimentares e hábitos de atividade física e de lazer. Foram realizadas medidas de colesterol total, de aptidão cardiorrespiratória, de massa corporal, estatura para o cálculo do índice de massa corporal. Para o tratamento dos dados foram utilizadas as análises univariada, bivariada e multivariada. RESULTADOS: A análise multivariada identificou que indivíduos com o nível socioeconômico alto (OR: 1,70; IC: 1,05-2,75, do sexo feminino (OR: 1,32; IC: 1,03-1,67, e com excesso de peso (OR: 1,40; IC: 1,10-1,77 apresentam chances aumentadas de terem colesterol total aumentado (> 3º tercil. CONCLUSÃO: Elevados níveis de colesterol total em escolares de 7 a 12 anos estão associados ao nível socioeconômico alto, ao sexo feminino e ao excesso de peso. O incentivo a um estilo de vida ativo e a hábitos alimentares adequados pode auxiliar no controle dos níveis de colesterol e diminuir os fatores de risco.FUNDAMENTO: Evidencias han sugerido que una parte importante de niños y adolescentes presenta niveles elevados de colesterol total. OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de hipercolesterolemia y factores asociados en escolares de 7 a 12 años de edad. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal de base escolar de una muestra aleatoria compuesta por 1.294 escolares de 7 a 12 años, de Caxias do Sul (RS. Los escolares respondieron una entrevista con informaciones sobre nivel socioeconómico, hábitos alimenticios y hábitos de actividad física y de ocio. Fueron realizadas

  17. An ignored risk factor in toxicology: The total imprecision of exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    twice as much for maternal hair. The total imprecision of these biomarkers much exceeded the normal laboratory variability of less than 5%. Such imprecision can cause underestimation of dose-related toxicity, and data analysis should therefore include sensitivity analyses that take this factor...... were determined in cord blood, cord tissue, and maternal hair. We determined their mutual correlations and their associations with the child's neurobehavioral effect variables at age 7 years. The exposure biomarkers correlated well with one another, but the cord blood mercury concentration showed......Quality assurance of exposure biomarkers usually focuses on laboratory performance only. Using data from a prospective birth cohort study in the Faroe Islands, we have assessed the total imprecision of exposure biomarkers. As biomarkers of prenatal methylmercury exposure, mercury concentrations...

  18. Total Factor Productivity Growth, Technical Progress & Efficiency Change in Vietnam Coal Industry - Nonparametric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Vu Hung

    2018-03-01

    This research applies Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach to analyze Total Factor Productivity (TFP) and efficiency changes in Vietnam coal mining industry from 2007 to 2013. The TFP of Vietnam coal mining companies decreased due to slow technological progress and unimproved efficiency. The decadence of technical efficiency in many enterprises proved that the coal mining industry has a large potential to increase productivity through technical efficiency improvement. Enhancing human resource training, technology and research & development investment could help the industry to improve efficiency and productivity in Vietnam coal mining industry.

  19. Factores de riesgo total en familias migrantes en Soledad, Atlántico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Cecilia Sánchez Isaza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Colombia vive  hoy por hoy uno de sus más grandes problemas sociales como es la migración de familias a nivel  inter-municipales e inter-departamentales, lo que hace necesario la caracterización del factor de riesgo total  en estas familias para su intervención. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio cuantitativo descriptivo transversal  donde se seleccionaron 70 familias migrantes constituidas por 344 individuos, que viven aledaños a un barrio del municipio de Soledad, y se utilizó el instrumento  Riesgo Familiar total (RFT 5-33 de Pilar Amaya, con las categorías: socio-demográfico, factores de riesgo y riesgo total. Resultados: Dentro de todos los  factores de riesgo familiar que pone en  un riesgo  alto a estas familias migrantes  son: condiciones de vivienda y vecindario con un 59%,  situación económica con un 24% y condiciones afectivas con un 14%, menor frecuencia se da en servicios y practica de salud con un 10% y manejo de menores con 10%. Discusión: La problemática que viene afectando a las poblaciones rurales, aun cuando el gobierno viene desarrollando planes direccionados hacia las familias migrantes, los problemas de infraestructura de las viviendas y la situación socio-económica en ellos se refleja en su salud. Y más aun cuando algunas investigaciones han demostrado como se les ha venido vulnerando sus derechos. Conclusiones: Sobre el predominio de las familias migrantes con riesgo alto, se  aprecia que estadísticamente  los componentes de estas  variables son  independientes, pero  el comportamiento observado puede ser el resultado de efectos causales similares. Cómo citar este artículo: Sánchez DC, Cataño N. Factores de riesgo total en familias migrantes en Soledad, Atlántico. Rev Cuid. 2016; 7(1: 1152-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.v7i1.174

  20. Rate and Risk Factors for Periprosthetic Joint Infection Among 36,494 Primary Total Hip Arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllopoulos, Georgios K; Soranoglou, Vasileios G; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Sculco, Thomas P; Poultsides, Lazaros A

    2018-04-01

    As periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) can have tremendous health and socioeconomic implications, recognizing patients at risk before surgery is of great importance. Therefore, we sought to determine the rate of and risk factors for deep PJI in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). Clinical characteristics of patients treated with primary THA between January 1999 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. These included patient demographics, comorbidities (including the Charlson/Deyo comorbidity index), length of stay, primary diagnosis, total/allogeneic transfusion rate, and in-hospital complications, which were grouped into local and systemic (minor and major). We determined the overall deep PJI rate, as well as the rates for early-onset (occurring within 2 years after index surgery) and late-onset PJI (occurring more than 2 years after surgery). A Cox proportional hazards regression model was constructed to identify risk factors for developing deep PJI. Significance level was set at 0.05. A deep PJI developed in 154 of 36,494 primary THAs (0.4%) during the study period. Early onset PJI was found in 122 patients (0.3%), whereas late PJI occurred in 32 patients (0.1%). Obesity, coronary artery disease, and pulmonary hypertension were identified as independent risk factors for deep PJI after primary THA. The rate of deep PJIs of the hip is relatively low, with the majority occurring within 2 years after THA. If the optimization of modifiable risk factors before THA can reduce the rate of this complication remains unknown, but should be attempted as part of good practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A comment on the calculation of the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ming-Chung

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a no-output growth model to conveniently calculate the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) index originally proposed by Hu and Wang (2006). The TFEE index serves as a very well-known and popular means of estimating overall energy efficiency. While many previous studies have used the indicator of energy inefficiency, including the indicator of energy intensity (i.e., Energy input/Gross Domestic Product (GDP)) to measure energy efficiency, Hu and Kao (2007) point out that the indicator of energy intensity is not only a partial-factor energy efficiency indicator, but that this partial-factor ratio is also quite inappropriate for analyzing the impact of changing energy use over time. The TFEE index overcomes the disadvantage of the indicator of energy intensity as mentioned above, but five steps are needed to calculate the TFEE score. In this study, we provide a no-output growth model to conveniently calculate the TFEE score. Furthermore, we extend this no-output growth model to an output growth model. This study concludes that the output growth model not only makes it easier to calculate the TFEE index than the model proposed by Hu and Wang (2006) and Hu and Kao (2007), but that it can also obtain better TFEE scores. - Highlights: ► The comment is on the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) index. ► Two extension models are no-output growth model and output growth model. ► The model in this study makes it easier to calculate the TFEE index.

  2. Factores relacionados con el éxito del mantenimiento productivo total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis García Alcaraz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El mantenimiento productivo total (TPM es una herramienta ampliamente usada en las áreas productivas, encaminada a incrementar la disponibilidad de la maquinaria y equipo de producción y los beneficios económicos de las empresas. Sin embargo, no se conocen los factores administrativos que aseguren su éxito de implantación. En este artículo se presentan los resultados de una encuesta que constó de 20 ítems y fue aplicada a 203 gerentes y supervisores de mantenimiento de empresas localizadas en Ciudad Juárez, la cual debía ser respondida en una escala Likert. El cuestionario se validó mediante el índice Alfa de Cronbach, se aplicó un análisis factorial exploratorio (AFE mediante el método de componentes principales y se realizó una rotación Varimax y se determinó que solamente 3 factores podían explicar el 65,06% de la varianza total, los cuales estaban relacionados con el compromiso de la gerencia, la cultura de limpieza e integración de operadores en decisiones de TPM. Además, se realizó un análisis factorial confirmatorio (AFC para validar los resultados obtenidos, confirmándose los hallazgos del AFE.

  3. Industry-level total-factor energy efficiency in developed countries: A Japan-centered analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Satoshi; Hu, Jin-Li

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This study compares Japan with other developed countries for energy efficiency at the industry level. • We compute the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) for industries in 14 developed countries in 1995–2005. • Energy conservation can be further optimized in Japan’s industry sector. • Japan experienced a slight decrease in the weighted TFEE from 0.986 in 1995 to 0.927 in 2005. • Japan should adapt energy conservation technologies from the primary benchmark countries: Germany, UK, and USA. - Abstract: Japan’s energy security is more vulnerable today than it was before the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. To alleviate its energy vulnerability, Japan has no choice but to improve energy efficiency. To aid in this improvement, this study compares Japan’s energy efficiency at the industry level with that of other developed countries. We compute the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) of industries in 14 developed countries for 1995–2005 using data envelopment analysis. We use four inputs: labor, capital stock, energy, and non-energy intermediate inputs. Value added is the only relevant output. Results indicate that Japan can further optimize energy conservation because it experienced only a marginal decrease in the weighted TFEE, from 0.986 in 1995 to 0.927 in 2005. To improve inefficient industries, Japan should adapt energy conservation technologies from benchmark countries such as Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States

  4. Factors influencing concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) and total mercury (TM) in an artificial reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Myung-Chan; Kim, Bomchul; Holsen, Thomas M.; Yi, Seung-Muk; Han, Young-Ji

    2010-01-01

    The effects of various factors including turbidity, pH, DOC, temperature, and solar radiation on the concentrations of total mercury (TM) and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) were investigated in an artificial reservoir in Korea. Episodic total mercury accumulation events occurred during the rainy season as turbidity increased, indicating that the TM concentration was not controlled by direct atmospheric deposition. The DGM concentration in surface water ranged from 3.6 to 160 pg/L, having a maximum in summer and minimum in winter. While in most previous studies DGM was controlled primarily by a photo-reduction process, DGM concentrations tracked the amount of solar radiation only in winter when the water temperature was fairly low in this study. During the other seasons microbial transformation seemed to play an important role in reducing Hg(II) to Hg(0). DGM increased as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration increased (p-value < 0.01) while it increased with a decrease of pH (p-value < 0.01). - Long-term in-situ monitoring of TM and DGM concentrations with various factors was executed in a large artificial reservoir in this study.

  5. Differential effects of total and partial sleep deprivation on salivary factors in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasisi, Dr T J; Shittu, S T; Meludu, C C; Salami, A A

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on salivary factors in rats. Animals were randomly assigned into three groups of 6 animals each as control, total sleep deprivation (TSD) and partial sleep deprivation (PSD) groups. The multiple platform method was used to induce partial and total sleep deprivation for 7days. On the 8th day, stimulated saliva samples were collected for the analysis of salivary lag time, flow rate, salivary amylase activity, immunoglobulin A secretion rate and corticosterone levels using ELISA and standard kinetic enzyme assay. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with Dunnett T3 post hoc tests. Salivary flow rate reduced significantly in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as the control group (p=0.01). The secretion rate of salivary IgA was significantly reduced in the TSD group compared with the control group (p=0.04). Salivary amylase activity was significantly elevated in the TSD group compared with the PSD group as well as control group (psalivary lag time and levels of corticosterone among the groups. These findings suggest that total sleep deprivation is associated with reduced salivary flow rate and secretion rate of IgA as well as elevated levels of salivary amylase activity in rats. However, sleep recovery of four hours in the PSD group produced ameliorative effects on the impaired functions of salivary glands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. DATA ISSUES IN TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY BENCHMARKING: A CENTRAL EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machek Ondrej

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Total factor productivity is a method of measuring overall productivity of businesses, industries or economies. It is an approach which is recently becoming popular among government regulatory agencies when applying the so-called performance-based regulation. This principle induces regulated companies (for instance, electricity or natural gas distributors to behave efficiently even if their industries are not exposed to competitive pressures, since they are rewarded for being more productive than other firms in the industry, and penalized in the opposite case. The aim of this article is to deal with the question what are the main data issues when comparing total factor productivity among firms or industries with focus on the Central European region, which is very heterogeneous in terms of geographic, social, economic and historic conditions. In the first part, we introduce total factor productivity and the most common methods of its measurement � Malmquist and T�rnqvist indexes. Consequently, we divide the data issues into separate categories and discuss them more in detail. The first category of issues is related to defining the set of comparable firms. Many factors, such as the degree of competition in the market, the extent of government regulation, economies of scale, firm size, geographical conditions and historic development have to be taken into consideration. The second category is associated with specifying the time period. TFP estimates should be based on long time series and the period should include the whole business cycle and be representative and exclude extraordinary events. The third group of issues is related to defining and measuring the inputs and outputs. Since a number of difficulties are associated with labor input measurement, it is often included into operating expenditures along with materials and services. The measurement of capital is even more contentious. The outputs should reflect performance

  7. Risk factors for deep infection after total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Cui, Yunying; Li, Xin; Miao, Xiangwan; Wen, Zhanpeng; Xue, Yan; Tian, Jing

    2013-05-01

    Estimated the risk factors for postoperative infection after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to prevent its occurrence. The meta-analysis collected twelve cohorts or case-control studies which included 548 infected persons in 57,223 general cases. Review Manager 5.0 was operated to assess the heterogeneity and to give an overall estimate of the association of factors with postoperative infection after TKA. The main factors distinctly associated with infection after TKA were BMI (BMI >30: OR = 2.53, 95 % CI 1.25, 5.13; BMI >40: OR = 4.00, 95 % CI 1.23, 12.98), diabetes mellitus (OR = 3.72, 95 % CI 2.30, 6.01), hypertension (OR = 2.53, 95 % CI 1.07, 5.99), steroid therapy (OR = 2.04, 95 % CI 1.11, 3.74), and rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 1.83; 95 % CI 1.42, 2.36). It had no sufficient evidences to reveal that gender could lead to infection after TKA. Osteoarthritis appeared to have a moderately protective effect. Statistical analysis revealed no correlation between urinary tract infection, fixation method, ASA, bilateral operation, age, transfusion, antibiotics, bone graft, and infection. There were positive evidences for some certain factors which could be targeted for prevention of the onset of infection, but more studies are needed to define the association of some other controversial factors in infection, like osteoarthritis, gender and so on. The quality of studies also needs to be improved.

  8. Experimental device for obtaining calibration factor for the total count technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Eduardo R.; Braz, Delson; Brandão, Luís Eduardo B.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear technologies have widely used on industry plants in order to help to solve troubles processes/design or just obtain information of them. The Total Count technique for flow measurement has as main advantages: being an absolute technique, because it is independent of additional devices readings unless the directly used for recording the radioactive cloud, requiring only a single detector to provide the final result; the independence of the internal volume of the transport duct, can be applied in the presence or absence of obstructions; no restriction as to the nature of the product or material to be conveyed; it is a noninvasive technique which allows real-time diagnostics. To use Total Count Technique, knowledge of a geometric calibration factor is required. Called Factor F, it is obtained in the laboratory using an experimental apparatus to faithfully reproduce the geometry of the detection system and the pipeline that being analyzed and using the same radiotracer, therefore, its value is constant for each specific measuring system under survey. This experimental apparatus for obtaining the factor F consisting by a pipe of 2 ″PVC, which simulates a transmission line, where they were deposited 500 ml oil and the use of a specific pipette for use viscous fluids were added sequentially aliquots (50.00 ± 0.01) μl radiotracer (radionuclide photopeak energy of 198 Au 411.8 keV) and analyzing data obtained by three distinct detection systems composed of detectors NaI scintillators 1″ x 1 ″ and a data acquisition system. (author)

  9. Incidence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Implications of Pneumonia Following Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Daniel D; Saltzman, Bryan M; Sershon, Robert A; Darrith, Brian; Okroj, Kamil T; Della Valle, Craig J

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the incidence, risk factors, and clinical implications of pneumonia following total joint arthroplasty (TJA). The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program was used to conduct a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing TJA. Independent risk factors for the development of pneumonia within 30 days of TJA were identified using multivariate regression. Mortality and readmission rates were compared between patients who did and did not develop pneumonia. Multivariate regression was used to adjust for all demographic, comorbidity, and procedural characteristics. In total, 171,200 patients met inclusion criteria, of whom 66,493 (38.8%) underwent THA and 104,707 (61.2%) underwent TKA. Of the 171,200 patients, 590 developed pneumonia, yielding a rate of 0.34% (95% confidence interval = 0.32%-0.37%). Independent risk factors for pneumonia were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, greater age (most notably ≥80 years), dyspnea on exertion, dependent functional status, lower body mass index, hypertension, current smoker status, and male sex. The subset of patients who developed pneumonia following discharge had a higher readmission rate (82.1% vs 3.4%, adjusted relative risk [RR] = 16.6, P pneumonia. Pneumonia is a serious complication following TJA that occurs in approximately 1 in 300 patients. Approximately 4 in 5 patients who develop pneumonia are subsequently readmitted, and approximately 1 in 25 die. Given the serious implications of this complication, evidence-based pneumonia prevention programs including oral hygiene with chlorhexidine, sitting upright for meals, elevation of the head of the bed to at least 30°, aggressive incentive spirometry, and early ambulation should be considered for patients at greatest risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental device for obtaining calibration factor for the total count technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonçalves, Eduardo R.; Braz, Delson [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Brandão, Luís Eduardo B. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Reatores

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear technologies have widely used on industry plants in order to help to solve troubles processes/design or just obtain information of them. The Total Count technique for flow measurement has as main advantages: being an absolute technique, because it is independent of additional devices readings unless the directly used for recording the radioactive cloud, requiring only a single detector to provide the final result; the independence of the internal volume of the transport duct, can be applied in the presence or absence of obstructions; no restriction as to the nature of the product or material to be conveyed; it is a noninvasive technique which allows real-time diagnostics. To use Total Count Technique, knowledge of a geometric calibration factor is required. Called Factor F, it is obtained in the laboratory using an experimental apparatus to faithfully reproduce the geometry of the detection system and the pipeline that being analyzed and using the same radiotracer, therefore, its value is constant for each specific measuring system under survey. This experimental apparatus for obtaining the factor F consisting by a pipe of 2 ″PVC, which simulates a transmission line, where they were deposited 500 ml oil and the use of a specific pipette for use viscous fluids were added sequentially aliquots (50.00 ± 0.01) μl radiotracer (radionuclide photopeak energy of 198 Au 411.8 keV) and analyzing data obtained by three distinct detection systems composed of detectors NaI scintillators 1″ x 1 ″ and a data acquisition system. (author)

  11. Regional total factor energy efficiency: An empirical analysis of industrial sector in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhao-Hua; Zeng, Hua-Lin; Wei, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We evaluate energy efficiency under framework of total factor energy efficiency. ► We focus on industry sector of China. ► We use statistical data of industrial enterprises above designated size. ► Energy efficiencies among regions in China are obvious because of technological differences. ► Large scale of investment should be stopped especially in central and western regions. -- Abstract: The rapid growth of the Chinese economy has resulted in great pressure on energy consumption, especially the energy intensive sector – the industrial sector. To achieve sustainable development, China has to consider how to promote energy efficiency to meet the demand of Chinese rapid economic growth, as the energy efficiency of China is relatively low. Meanwhile, the appeal of energy saving and emission reduction has been made by the Chinese central government. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the energy efficiency of industrial sector in China and to assess efficiency development probabilities. The framework of total factor energy efficiency index is adopted to determine the discrepancy of energy efficiency in Chinese industrial sector based on the provincial statistical data of industrial enterprises above designated size in 30 provinces from 2005 to 2009, with gross industrial output as the output value and energy consumption, average remaining balance of capital assets and average amount of working force as the input values. Besides, in considerate of the regional divide of China, namely eastern, central, and western, and economic development differences in each region, energy efficiency of each region is also analysed in this paper. The results show that there is room for China to improve its energy efficiency, especially western provinces which have large amount of energy input excess. Generally speaking, insufficient technological investment and fail of reaching best scale of manufacture are two factors preventing China from energy

  12. Quantification of variability and uncertainty in lawn and garden equipment NOx and total hydrocarbon emission factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H Christopher; Bammi, Sachin

    2002-04-01

    Variability refers to real differences in emissions among multiple emission sources at any given time or over time for any individual emission source. Variability in emissions can be attributed to variation in fuel or feedstock composition, ambient temperature, design, maintenance, or operation. Uncertainty refers to lack of knowledge regarding the true value of emissions. Sources of uncertainty include small sample sizes, bias or imprecision in measurements, nonrepresentativeness, or lack of data. Quantitative methods for characterizing both variability and uncertainty are demonstrated and applied to case studies of emission factors for lawn and garden (L&G) equipment engines. Variability was quantified using empirical and parametric distributions. Bootstrap simulation was used to characterize confidence intervals for the fitted distributions. The 95% confidence intervals for the mean grams per brake horsepower/hour (g/hp-hr) emission factors for two-stroke engine total hydrocarbon (THC) and NOx emissions were from -30 to +41% and from -45 to +75%, respectively. The confidence intervals for four-stroke engines were from -33 to +46% for THCs and from -27 to +35% for NOx. These quantitative measures of uncertainty convey information regarding the quality of the emission factors and serve as a basis for calculation of uncertainty in emission inventories (EIs).

  13. Study on the green total factor productivity in main cities of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiansheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate China’s urban green total factor productivity (TFP under the background of progressing urbanization and intensifying environmental pollution, and found out its main influencing factors. In this paper, green TFP of 285 prefecture-level cities in China from 2005 to 2012 was estimated through Malmquist productivity index. Results showed that the annual growth of green TFP in main cities in China is 3.5% and the overall growth declines gradually. Viewed from decomposition of green TFP, technical progress is the main contributor of green TFP growth. Furthermore, the northern coastal region has achieved the highest annual growth of green TFP (4.5% and the northwest region achieved the lowest growth of green TFP (1.24%, indicating the great regional differences of green TFP and economic growth quality in China. According to analysis on influencing factors of green TFP in main cities, it has been concluded that per-capita urban road area, number of Internet users, proportion of fiscal expenditures, environmental regulation level and technical input are significantly positively correlated with green TFP, while industrial structure and foreign direct investment (FDI are significantly negatively correlated. Finally, policy suggestions to improve urban green TFP in China were proposed.

  14. Pain catastrophizing as a risk factor for chronic pain after total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns LC

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lindsay C Burns,1–3 Sarah E Ritvo,1 Meaghan K Ferguson,1 Hance Clarke,3–5 Ze’ev Seltzer,3,5 Joel Katz1,3–5 1Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Arthritis Research Centre of Canada, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada; 4Department of Anesthesia, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Centre for the Study of Pain, Faculties of Dentistry and Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a common and costly surgical procedure. Despite high success rates, many TKA patients develop chronic pain in the months and years following surgery, constituting a public health burden. Pain catastrophizing is a construct that reflects anxious preoccupation with pain, inability to inhibit pain-related fears, amplification of the significance of pain vis-à-vis health implications, and a sense of helplessness regarding pain. Recent research suggests that it may be an important risk factor for untoward TKA outcomes. To clarify this impact, we systematically reviewed the literature to date on pain catastrophizing as a prospective predictor of chronic pain following TKA. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases to identify articles related to pain catastrophizing, TKA, risk models, and chronic pain. We reviewed titles and abstracts to identify original research articles that met our specified inclusion criteria. Included articles were then rated for methodological quality. including methodological quality. Due to heterogeneity in follow-up, analyses, and outcomes reported across studies, a quantitative meta-analysis could not be performed. Results: We identified six prospective longitudinal studies with small-to-mid-sized samples that met the inclusion criteria. Despite considerable variability in reported pain outcomes, pain catastrophizing was identified as a significant

  15. Estimating total solar radiation in different climatological of region in Iran using cloud factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarpour, Kh.; Karshenas, M.

    2002-01-01

    Iran is among the countries located on the belt pertaining to lands with a high rate of solar insolation. Statistics shows that, for instance, the solar energy which hi ted the Iranian contention al land just in the year of 1990, was more than 1600 times that of the energy exported by Iran in the same year. This high rate of solar insolation, on the one hand and the limitation of fossil-fuel reservoirs (specially, utilizing energy from such sources is polluting the environment) on the other hand, show that harnessing the solar energy is not anymore a choice of decision but rather on obligation. To fulfill this obligation one needs solar insolation data to be able to design and evaluate solar energy utilizing systems and other uses under different climatological conditions of Iran. As a first step, this article provides total solar radiation data for various cities in Iran under different climatological conditions using cloud factor as a parameter

  16. Total Factor Productivity and Energy Intensity in Indian Manufacturing: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Sahu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to estimate the transcendental logarithmic production function and further study the determinants of total factor productivity (TFP of Indian manufacturing industries. The estimation of TFP is based on four inputs model, where apart from labour and capital, material and energy are the other two inputs. The findings of the paper suggest that labour and material inputs play major role as compared to the capital and energy input. Age of the firm, ownership, energy intensity, embodied and disembodied technology imports, research and development and exports were considered as the possible determinants of the TFP in the second stage regression. The finding of the estimates suggest that age of the firm, export intensity and disembodied technology import are positively related to the TFP, where ownership, energy intensity, embodied technology import and R&D intensity are negatively related to the TFP of the firms for Indian manufacturing.

  17. Measurement with total scatter calibrate factor at different depths in the calculation of prescription dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lijun; Zhu Haijun; Zhang Xinzhong; Li Feizhou; Song Hongyu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the method of measurement of total scatter calibrate factor (Sc, p). Methods: To measure the Sc, p at different depths on central axis of 6MV, 15MV photon beams through different ways. Results: It was found that the measured data of Sc, p changed with the different depths to a range of 1% - 7%. Using the direct method, the Sc, p measured depth should be the same as the depth in dose normalization point of the prescription dose. If the Sc, p (fsz, d) was measured at the other depths, it could be obtained indirectly by the calculation formula. Conclusions: The Sc, p in the prescription dose can be obtained either by the direct measure method or the indirect calculation formula. But emphasis should be laid on the proper measure depth. (authors)

  18. Evaluating the Total Factor Productivity Growth in Manufacturing Industries of Iran (Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the total factor productivity changes for 23 main manufacturing industries (2-digit ISIC group and country's provinces using data envelopment analysis during 2005 to 2007. The results show 2.3% increase in the productivity of the whole sector (average over the studied period, while the productivity of the country's provinces decreases by 7.3%, in the same period. We find Food and Beverage products and Khuzestan province having the highest productivity growth. Non-optimal allocation of resources and using of old equipments are the most important drawbacks of productivity growth for 23 main ISIC groups and provinces. Finally estimation of the regression models by panel data method reveals the privatization and increasing of labor’s available capital having a significant effect on productivity growth.

  19. Environment-adjusted total-factor energy efficiency of Taiwan's service sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Chin-Yi; Hu, Jin-Li; Lou, Tze-Kai

    2013-01-01

    This study computes the pure technical efficiency (PTE) and energy-saving target of Taiwan's service sectors during 2001–2008 by using the input-oriented data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach with the assumption of a variable returns-to-scale (VRS) situation. This paper further investigates the effects of industry characteristics on the energy-saving target by applying the four-stage DEA proposed by Fried et al. (1999). We also calculate the pre-adjusted and environment-adjusted total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) scores in these service sectors. There are three inputs (labor, capital stock, and energy consumption) and a single output (real GDP) in the DEA model. The most energy efficient service sector is finance, insurance and real estate, which has an average TFEE of 0.994 and an environment-adjusted TFEE (EATFEE) of 0.807. The study utilizes the panel-data, random-effects Tobit regression model with the energy-saving target (EST) as the dependent variable. Those service industries with a larger GDP output have greater excess use of energy. The capital–labor ratio has a significantly positive effect while the time trend variable has a significantly negative impact on the EST, suggesting that future new capital investment should also be accompanied with energy-saving technology in the service sectors. - Highlights: • The technical efficiency and energy-saving target of service sectors are assessed. • The pre-adjusted and environment-adjusted total-factor energy efficiency scores in services are assessed. • The industrial characteristic differences are examined by the panel-data, random-effects Tobit regression model. • Labor, capital, and energy and an output (GDP) are included in the DEA model. • Future new capital investment should also be accompanied with energy-saving technology in the service sectors

  20. Factors Effecting the Total Volatile Organic Compound (TVOC Concentrations in Slovak Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Mečiarová

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Thirty five Slovak households were selected for an investigation of indoor environmental quality. Measuring of indoor air physical and chemical factors and a questionnaire survey was performed during May 2017. The range of permissible operative temperature was not met in 11% of objects. Relative humidity met the legislative requirements in all monitored homes. Concentrations of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs were significantly higher in the apartments than in the family houses. The average TVOC levels in the apartments and family houses were 519.7 µg/m3 and 330.2 µg/m3, respectively. Statistical analysis confirmed the effect of indoor air temperature, relative humidity and particulate matter (PM0.5 and PM1 on the levels of TVOCs. Higher TVOC levels were observed also in homes where it is not a common practice to open windows during cleaning activities. Other factors that had a statistically significant effect on concentrations of volatile organic compounds were heating type, attached garage, location of the apartment within residential building (the floor, as well as number of occupants. Higher TVOC concentrations were observed in indoor than outdoor environment, while further analysis showed the significant impact of indoor emission sources on the level of these compounds in buildings. The questionnaire study showed a discrepancy between objective measurement and subjective assessment in the household environment, and pointed to insufficient public awareness about volatile organic compounds (VOCs.

  1. [Risk factors for elevated serum total bile acid in preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan-Ting; Wang, Yong-Qin; Zhao, Yue-Hua; Zhu, Hai-Ling; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Xiao; Gao, Yi-Wen; Zhang, Wei-Ye; Sang, Yu-Tong

    2018-03-01

    To study the risk factors for elevated serum total bile acid (TBA) in preterm infants. A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 216 preterm infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. According to the presence or absence of elevated TBA (TBA >24.8 μmol/L), the preterm infants were divided into elevated TBA group with 53 infants and non-elevated TBA group with 163 infants. A univariate analysis and an unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the risk factors for elevated TBA. The univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences between the elevated TBA group and the non-elevated TBA group in gestational age at birth, birth weight, proportion of small-for-gestational-age infants, proportion of infants undergoing ventilator-assisted ventilation, fasting time, parenteral nutrition time, and incidence of neonatal respiratory failure and sepsis (PTBA in preterm infants. Low birth weight and neonatal sepsis may lead to elevated TBA in preterm infants.

  2. Factors associated with pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using fractionated total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Hwa Kyung; Yoon, Hong In; Cho, Jae Ho [Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-09-15

    Pulmonary toxicities, including infectious pneumonia (IP) and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS), are serious side effects of total body irradiation (TBI) used for myeloablative conditioning. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors associated with IP and IPS following TBI. Fifty-eight patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent TBI before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. Most patients (91%) received 12 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions twice a day. Pulmonary toxicities were diagnosed based on either radiographic evidence or reduced pulmonary function, and were subdivided into IP and IPS based on the presence or absence of concurrent infection. Pulmonary toxicities developed in 36 patients (62%); 16 (28%) had IP and 20 (34%) had IPS. IP was significantly associated with increased treatment-related mortality (p = 0.028) and decreased survival (p = 0.039). Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk of developing IPS was significantly higher in patients who received stem cells from a matched unrelated donor than from a matched sibling donor (p = 0.021; hazard ratio [HR] = 12.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–110.30). Combining other conditioning agents with cyclophosphamide produced a higher tendency to develop IP (p = 0.064; HR = 6.19; 95% CI, 0.90–42.56). IP and IPS involve different risk factors and distinct pathogeneses that should be considered when planning treatments before and after TBI.

  3. Factors associated with pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using fractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Hwa Kyung; Yoon, Hong In; Cho, Jae Ho

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary toxicities, including infectious pneumonia (IP) and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS), are serious side effects of total body irradiation (TBI) used for myeloablative conditioning. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors associated with IP and IPS following TBI. Fifty-eight patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent TBI before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. Most patients (91%) received 12 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions twice a day. Pulmonary toxicities were diagnosed based on either radiographic evidence or reduced pulmonary function, and were subdivided into IP and IPS based on the presence or absence of concurrent infection. Pulmonary toxicities developed in 36 patients (62%); 16 (28%) had IP and 20 (34%) had IPS. IP was significantly associated with increased treatment-related mortality (p = 0.028) and decreased survival (p = 0.039). Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk of developing IPS was significantly higher in patients who received stem cells from a matched unrelated donor than from a matched sibling donor (p = 0.021; hazard ratio [HR] = 12.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–110.30). Combining other conditioning agents with cyclophosphamide produced a higher tendency to develop IP (p = 0.064; HR = 6.19; 95% CI, 0.90–42.56). IP and IPS involve different risk factors and distinct pathogeneses that should be considered when planning treatments before and after TBI

  4. Factors Influencing the Total Inpatient Pharmacy Cost at a Tertiary Hospital in Malaysia: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Jadoo, Saad Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    The steady growth of pharmaceutical expenditures is a major concern for health policy makers and health care managers in Malaysia. Our study examined the factors affecting the total inpatient pharmacy cost (TINPC) at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). In this retrospective study, we used 2011 administration electronic prescriptions records and casemix databases at UKMMC to examine the impact of sociodemographic, diagnostic, and drug variables on the TINPC. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of the factors associated with TINPC were conducted. The mean inpatient pharmacy cost per patient was USD 102.07 (SD = 24.76). In the multivariate analysis, length of stay (LOS; B = 0.349, P < .0005) and severity level III (B = 0.253, P < .0005) were the primary factors affecting the TINPC. For each day increase in the LOS and each increase of a case of severity level III, there was an increase of approximately USD 11.97 and USD 171.53 in the TINPC per year, respectively. Moreover, the number of prescribed items of drugs and supplies was positively associated with the TINPC (B = 0.081, P < .0005). Gender appears to have affected the TINPC; male patients seem to be associated with a higher TINPC than females (mean = 139.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 112.97-166.13, P < .001). Surgical procedures were associated with higher cost than medical cases (mean = 87.93, 95% CI: 61.00-114.85, P < .001). Malay (MYR 242.02, SD = 65.37) and Chinese (MYR 214.66, SD = 27.99) ethnicities contributed to a lower TINPC compared with Indian (MYR 613.93, SD = 98.41) and other ethnicities (MYR 578.47, SD = 144.51). A longer hospitalization period accompanied by major complications and comorbidities had the greatest influence on the TINPC. PMID:29436248

  5. Analysis the Impact of Technology Spillovers on Total Factor Productivity of Agricultural Sector in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Baniasadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The growth of agricultural production and natural resources are from primary objectives of any political system, because this section has a vital role in providing food security. According to the production theories, production growth will come from two sources; more use of production factors within the framework of existing technologies and second, with using more advanced and more efficient production methods and effective use of production factors. In fact, the second one is tied to the concept of productivity. New and efficient technologies are the most important factor for productivity growth. Technology was enhanced through internal and external sources. External sources include spillover technology from developed countries into another country. Empirical evidence on the impact of spillover technology on productivity growth of indigenous producer is vague. One perspective proposes that FDI, technology transferred from developed countries has positive effects on developing countries and another perspective is against it. This paper explores the role of technological spillover on total factor productivity (TFP growth in agricultural sectors of Iran uses time series data during 1971-2011. Materials and Methods: In this study, Kendrick model was used to calculate total factor productivity. After calculating productivity, affective factors on it, were examined through ARDL model. The aim of this study is examination of technology spillover on the productivity of agricultural sectors. The degree of technology diffusion grows with increase in technology distance between the hosts and the foreign countries. The greater the technology distance, the more difficult it becomes for developing countries to boost independent innovation. To calculate the index of technology spillover, commercial partners should be considered that are more advanced in science and technology than Iran. For this purpose, commercial partners in this study are

  6. Elevated serum urate is a potential factor in reduction of total bilirubin: a Mendelian randomization study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Jing; Dong, Zheng; Ding, Yue; Qian, Qiaoxia; Zhou, Jingru; Ma, Yanyun; Mei, Zhendong; Chen, Xiangxiang; Li, Yuan; Yuan, Ziyu; Zhang, Juan; Yang, Yajun; Chen, Xingdong; Jin, Li; Zou, Hejian; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jiucun

    2017-01-01

    Aim A Mendelian randomization study (MRS) can be linked to a “natural” randomized controlled trial in order to avoid potential bias of observational epidemiology. We aimed to study the possible association between serum urate (SU) and total bilirubin (TBIL) using MRS. Materials and Methods An observational epidemiological study using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and MRS using two-stage least square (TLS) regression was conducted to assess the effect of SU on TBIL. The comparison between the OLS regression and the TLS regression was analyzed by the Durbin-Hausman test. If the p value is significant, it suggests that the OLS regression cannot evaluate the relationship between exposure and outcome, and the TLS regression is precise; while if the p value is not significant, there would be no significant difference between the two regressions. Results A total of 3,753 subjects were analyzed. In OLS regression, there was no significant association between SU and TBIL in all subjects and subgroup analysis (all p > 0.05). However, MRS revealed a negative correlation between SU and TBIL after adjustment for confounders (beta = –0.021, p = 0.010). Further analysis was conducted in different SU subgroups, and results show that elevated SU was associated with a significant reduction in TBIL after adjustment for hyperuricemic subjects (beta = –0.053, p = 0.027). In addition, the results using the Durbin-Hausman test further confirmed a negative effect of SU on TBIL (p = 0.002 and 0.010, respectively). Conclusions This research shows for the first time that elevated SU was a potential causal factor in the reduction of TBIL and it provides strong evidence to resolve the controversial association between SU and TBIL. PMID:29262606

  7. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Mitigates Hematopoietic Toxicity After Lethal Total Body Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Dunhua; Deoliveira, Divino; Kang, Yubin; Choi, Seung S. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Li, Zhiguo [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chao, Nelson J. [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chen, Benny J., E-mail: chen0032@mc.duke.edu [Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether and how insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mitigates hematopoietic toxicity after total body irradiation. Methods and Materials: BALB/c mice were irradiated with a lethal dose of radiation (7.5 Gy) and treated with IGF-1 at a dose of 100 μg/dose intravenously once a day for 5 consecutive days starting within 1 hour after exposure. Survival and hematopoietic recovery were monitored. The mechanisms by which IGF-1 promotes hematopoietic recovery were also studied by use of an in vitro culture system. Results: IGF-1 protected 8 of 20 mice (40%) from lethal irradiation, whereas only 2 of 20 mice (10%) in the saline control group survived for more than 100 days after irradiation. A single dose of IGF-1 (500 μg) was as effective as daily dosing for 5 days. Positive effects were noted even when the initiation of treatment was delayed as long as 6 hours after irradiation. In comparison with the saline control group, treatment with IGF-1 significantly accelerated the recovery of both platelets and red blood cells in peripheral blood, total cell numbers, hematopoietic stem cells, and progenitor cells in the bone marrow when measured at day 14 after irradiation. IGF-1 protected both hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from radiation-induced apoptosis and cell death. In addition, IGF-1 was able to facilitate the proliferation and differentiation of nonirradiated and irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells. Conclusions: IGF-1 mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity through protecting hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from apoptosis and enhancing proliferation and differentiation of the surviving hematopoietic progenitor cells.

  8. Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Mitigates Hematopoietic Toxicity After Lethal Total Body Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dunhua; Deoliveira, Divino; Kang, Yubin; Choi, Seung S.; Li, Zhiguo; Chao, Nelson J.; Chen, Benny J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether and how insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mitigates hematopoietic toxicity after total body irradiation. Methods and Materials: BALB/c mice were irradiated with a lethal dose of radiation (7.5 Gy) and treated with IGF-1 at a dose of 100 μg/dose intravenously once a day for 5 consecutive days starting within 1 hour after exposure. Survival and hematopoietic recovery were monitored. The mechanisms by which IGF-1 promotes hematopoietic recovery were also studied by use of an in vitro culture system. Results: IGF-1 protected 8 of 20 mice (40%) from lethal irradiation, whereas only 2 of 20 mice (10%) in the saline control group survived for more than 100 days after irradiation. A single dose of IGF-1 (500 μg) was as effective as daily dosing for 5 days. Positive effects were noted even when the initiation of treatment was delayed as long as 6 hours after irradiation. In comparison with the saline control group, treatment with IGF-1 significantly accelerated the recovery of both platelets and red blood cells in peripheral blood, total cell numbers, hematopoietic stem cells, and progenitor cells in the bone marrow when measured at day 14 after irradiation. IGF-1 protected both hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from radiation-induced apoptosis and cell death. In addition, IGF-1 was able to facilitate the proliferation and differentiation of nonirradiated and irradiated hematopoietic progenitor cells. Conclusions: IGF-1 mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic toxicity through protecting hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells from apoptosis and enhancing proliferation and differentiation of the surviving hematopoietic progenitor cells

  9. Analysis of factors influencing return to work after total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszczyńska, Aleksandra; Rąpała, Kazimierz; Tarnowski, Adam; Kucharczyk, Wojciech

    2013-10-31

    BACKGROUND. Patients who undergo total hip arthroplasty (THA) find it difficult to return to work. OBJECTIVES. Analysis of factors influencing return to work after THA. Assessment of patients' quality of life and its impact on their attitude to work. MATERIAL AND METHODS. We studied patients operated on for degenerative hip disease at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery of Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education in Otwock between 2007 and 2012. The total number of the patients was 400; however, we chose only those patients who were younger than 65 and still in employment. The study population consisted of 54 of these patients. The mean patient age was 55.89 (±7.424). There were 29 men (57.3%) and 25 women (46.3%). RESULTS. 32 patients (59.3%) returned to work. There was a statistically significant difference regarding the attitude to work and return to work. An overwhelming majority of the patients who returned to work--31 out of 32 (96.6%)--liked their jobs. The 12 patients (22.22%) who did not return to work declared their intention to apply for a disability pension. The patients who returned to work assessed their physical health as better than the patients who did not return to work. CONCLUSIONS. 1. 40.7% of patients after THA did not return to preoperative employment. The reasons for not returning were not medical, because elimination of pain and an increased range of motion made return to work possible. 2. The perception of the quality of physical and psychological health among patients with THA who returned to work was significantly better than among those who did not return.

  10. Waiting for total knee replacement surgery: factors associated with pain, stiffness, function and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionne Clermont E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidences show that education and rehabilitation while waiting for knee replacement have positive effects on the patients' health status. Identification of factors associated with worse pain, function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL while waiting for surgery could help develop pre-surgery rehabilitation interventions that target specifically these factors and prioritize patients that may benefit the most from them. The objectives of this study were to measure pain, stiffness, function and HRQoL in patients at enrolment on waiting lists for knee replacement and to identify demographic, clinical, socioeconomic and psychosocial characteristics associated with these outcomes. Methods This study is part of a broader study measuring the effects of pre-surgery wait in patients scheduled for knee replacement. From 02/2006 to 09/2007, 197 patients newly scheduled for total knee replacement were recruited from the waiting lists of three university hospitals in Quebec City, Canada. Pain, stiffness and function were measured with the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC and HRQoL was measured with the SF-36 Health Survey. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the associations between the independent variables and the WOMAC and SF-36 scores. Results The scores of all eight HRQoL physical and mental domains of the SF-36 were significantly lower than aged matched Canadian normative data (p Conclusion Patients waiting for knee replacement have poor function and HRQoL. Characteristics that were found to be associated with these outcomes could help develop pre-surgery rehabilitation program and prioritize patients that may benefit the most from them. Such programs could include interventions to reduce psychological distress, therapeutic exercises targeting both knees and weight loss management.

  11. Incidence and Risk Factors for Blood Transfusion in Total Joint Arthroplasty: Analysis of a Statewide Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slover, James; Lavery, Jessica A; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Iorio, Richard; Bosco, Joseph; Gold, Heather T

    2017-09-01

    Significant attempts have been made to adopt practices to minimize blood transfusion after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) because of transfusion cost and potential negative clinical consequences including allergic reactions, transfusion-related lung injuries, and immunomodulatory effects. We aimed to evaluate risk factors for blood transfusion in a large cohort of TJA patients. We used the all-payer California Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project data from 2006 to 2011 to examine the trends in utilization of blood transfusion among arthroplasty patients (n = 320,746). We performed descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression clustered by hospital, controlling for Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index, age, insurance type (Medicaid vs others), gender, procedure year, and race/ethnicity. Eighteen percent (n = 59,038) of TJA patients underwent blood transfusion during their surgery, from 15% with single knee to 45% for bilateral hip arthroplasty. Multivariate analysis indicated that compared with the referent category of single knee arthroplasty, single hip had a significantly higher odds of blood transfusion (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.68-1.83), as did bilateral knee (OR, 3.57; 95% CI, 3.20-3.98) and bilateral hip arthroplasty (OR, 6.17; 95% CI, 4.85-7.85). Increasing age (eg, age ≥80 years; OR, 2.99; 95% CI, 2.82-3.17), Medicaid insurance (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.27-1.45), higher comorbidity index (eg, score of ≥3; OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 2.22-2.45), and females (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.70-1.80) all had significantly higher odds of blood transfusion after TJA. Primary hip arthroplasties have significantly greater risk of transfusion than knee arthroplasties, and bilateral procedures have even greater risk, especially for hips. These factors should be considered when evaluating the risk for blood transfusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Research on the industry environmental total factor productivity in Jiangsu Province based on the SBM-SML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingfang, Sun; Han, Wang; Jian, Gong

    2017-03-01

    This paper uses the SBM-SML to measure the industry environmental total factor productivity in Jiangsu province of its 13 cities during 2005-2014 with SO2 emissions as the undesirable output, and discomposes the total factor productivity into the pure technical efficiency, the scale efficiency change, the pure technical change and the scale technical change. The research shows that the overall trend of the industry environmental total factor productivity is increasing in Jiangsu province during 2005-2014, the technical change is a main reason pushing up growth rates of economy, and the pure technical change is the intrinsic motivation of the technical change.Introduction.

  13. Blood management in total hip replacement: an analysis of factors associated with allogenic blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Samuel; Tang, Howard; de Steiger, Richard

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to audit the blood transfusion practice throughout the Epworth Healthcare Hospitals for patients undergoing primary total hip replacement (THR). We determined if blood-saving techniques were having an impact on the risk of allogenic blood transfusion and which patients were at risk of receiving allogenic blood transfusion. This study uses a retrospective audit of 787 patients who had undergone primary THR surgery at three Melbourne hospitals: Epworth Richmond, Epworth Eastern and Epworth Freemasons in 2010. Patient demographics, transfusion requirements and blood-conserving techniques were recorded. One hundred and eighty (23%) patients received allogenic blood transfusion and 18 (2.3%) patients received autologous blood transfusion. On multivariate analysis, preoperative anaemia (odds ratio (OR) 4.7, P blood transfusion. Use of spinal anaesthetic was found to be associated with lower risk of transfusion (OR 0.6, P = 0.0180) compared with general anaesthetic alone. Cell saver, acute normovolaemic haemodilution and re-infusion drain tube usage did not have a significant impact on reducing the risk of allogenic blood transfusion. Identification of patients at risk of blood transfusion, correction of preoperative anaemia and a restrictive transfusion policy are important factors to consider in effective perioperative blood management. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  14. Risk factors for early complications after laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for locally advanced rectal cancer: A single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liye Liu

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Aged patients, large tumor, lower tumor location and conversion were risk factors in performing laparoscopic TME for locally advanced rectal cancer. Patients with these characteristics should be carefully considered before undergoing laparoscopic total mesorectal excision.

  15. Potential impact of single-risk-factor versus total risk management for the prevention of cardiovascular events in Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndindjock, Roger; Gedeon, Jude; Mendis, Shanthi; Paccaud, Fred; Bovet, Pascal

    2011-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in Seychelles, a middle-income African country, and compare the cost-effectiveness of single-risk-factor management (treating individuals with arterial blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg and/or total serum cholesterol ≥ 6.2 mmol/l) with that of management based on total CV risk (treating individuals with a total CV risk ≥ 10% or ≥ 20%). CV risk factor prevalence and a CV risk prediction chart for Africa were used to estimate the 10-year risk of suffering a fatal or non-fatal CV event among individuals aged 40-64 years. These figures were used to compare single-risk-factor management with total risk management in terms of the number of people requiring treatment to avert one CV event and the number of events potentially averted over 10 years. Treatment for patients with high total CV risk (≥ 20%) was assumed to consist of a fixed-dose combination of several drugs (polypill). Cost analyses were limited to medication. A total CV risk of ≥ 10% and ≥ 20% was found among 10.8% and 5.1% of individuals, respectively. With single-risk-factor management, 60% of adults would need to be treated and 157 cardiovascular events per 100000 population would be averted per year, as opposed to 5% of adults and 92 events with total CV risk management. Management based on high total CV risk optimizes the balance between the number requiring treatment and the number of CV events averted. Total CV risk management is much more cost-effective than single-risk-factor management. These findings are relevant for all countries, but especially for those economically and demographically similar to Seychelles.

  16. Use of novel fibre-coupled radioluminescence and RADPOS dosimetry systems for total scatter factor measurements in small fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploquin, N.; Kertzscher, Gustavo; Vandervoort, E.

    2015-01-01

    A dosimetry system based on Al2O3:C radioluminescence (RL), and RADPOS, a novel 4D dosimetry system using microMOSFETs, were used to measure total scatter factors, (Sc,p)fclindet, for the CyberKnife robotic radiosugery system. New Monte Carlo calculated correction factors are presented and applied...

  17. Factors affecting the quality of life after total knee arthroplasties: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papakostidou Ippolyti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study is to evaluate the self-reported outcomes in the first year after primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA, and to determine factors influencing the quality of life (QoL 6 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months after TKA. Methods A cohort of patients with knee osteoarthritis undergoing primary TKA at two hospitals (a regional university hospital and a capital’s metropolitan hospital was prospectively followed for 12 months. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at 4 postoperative time-points, with the use of self-reported measurements for pain, physical function and depression with the following evaluation tools: Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC], Knee Society Scoring system [KSS], Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, [CES-D10] and visual analog scale [VAS] for pain. General linear modelling for repeated measures was used to evaluate the effect of each independent variable including clinical and sociodemographic data. Differences between groups at different time points were tested by the independent samples t-test. Results Of the 224 eligible patients, 204 (162 females, mean age 69.2 were included in the analysis. Response rate at one year was 90%. At 6 weeks after surgery, despite improvement in pain and alleviation of the depressive mood, the physical function remained less satisfactory. Females presented lower scores in terms of quality of life, both preoperatively and 6 weeks after TKA. Significant improvement was already experienced at 3 months postoperatively. According to WOMAC, KSS, CES-D10 and pain VAS scores the Qol was significantly improved 12 months after TKA (P  Conclusions Patients experienced great improvement in their QoL after TKA in spite of a less satisfactory physical function in the first 6 weeks after surgery, with noticeable differences in the QoL among genders in the same time period. After that period all patients experienced

  18. Experimental comparison between total calibration factors and components calibration factors of reference dosemeters used in secondary standard laboratory dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.A. da.

    1981-06-01

    A quantitative comparison of component calibration factors with the corresponding overall calibration factor was used to evaluate the adopted component calibration procedure in regard to parasitic elements. Judgement of significance is based upon the experimental uncertainty of a well established procedure for determination of the overall calibration factor. The experimental results obtained for different ionization chambers and different electrometers demonstrate that for one type of electrometer the parasitic elements have no influence on its sensitivity considering the experimental uncertainty of the calibration procedures. In this case the adopted procedure for determination of component calibration factors is considered to be equivalent to the procedure of determination of the overall calibration factor and thus might be used as a strong quality control measure in routine calibration. (Author) [pt

  19. Technical change and total factor productivity growth: the case of Chinese provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmati, Almas; Kumbhakar, Subal C.

    2010-01-01

    In the literature technical change is mostly assumed to be exogenous and specified as a function of time. However, some exogenous external factors other than time can also affect technical change. In this paper we model technical change via time trend (purely external non-economic) as well as other exogenous (external economic) factors (technology shifters). We define technology index based on the external economic factors which are indicators of ‘technology’. Thus our definition of productio...

  20. Applying total interpretive structural modeling to study factors affecting construction labour productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Sayali Shrikrishna Sandbhor; Rohan P. Botre

    2014-01-01

    Construction sector has always been dependent on manpower. Most of the activities carried out on any construction site are labour intensive. Since productivity of any project depends directly on productivity of labour, it is a prime responsibility of the employer to enhance labour productivity. Measures to improve the same depend on analysis of positive and negative factors affecting productivity. Major attention should be given to factors that decrease the productivity of labour. Factor anal...

  1. A feasibility study of the implementation of total quality management based on soft factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Shahin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:  The aim of this paper is to examine the feasibility of implementing TQM based on soft factors, which can influence the successful implementation of TQM.Design/methodology/approach: A framework has been developed for the TQM soft factors based on literature review and respectively, questionnaires which are directly related to the addressed factors have been designed and distributed to the employees of an engineering service company as the main enablers of improving the effectiveness of TQM.Findings: The findings imply that committed leadership, closer customer relationship, benchmarking and process improvement have the most correlations amongst the TQM soft factors. Training is the only factor which is not correlated to other soft factors. Leadership has also the highest value among the soft factors.Research limitations/implications: The proposed framework is costly and time consuming due to the large number of questions it holds. In this study, it is assumed that sub factors have the same importance. But there is a possibility in which these subdivisions do not have the same relative importance weight. The study is also limited to one company and therefore, the findings should not be generalized.Practical implications: The proposed TQM soft factors framework can be useful for those organizations which consider TQM as an integrated quality management system as the major foundation for achievement of competitive advantage.Originality/value: A comprehensive framework for TQM soft factors has been presented since it involves almost all of the soft factors addressed in the literature.

  2. Total and regional fat distribution is strongly influenced by genetic factors in young and elderly twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malis, Charlotte; Rasmussen, Eva L; Poulsen, Pernille

    2005-01-01

    was to estimate the heritability (h(2)) of total and regional fat distribution in young and elderly Danish twins. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Monozygotic (108) and dizygotic (88) twins in two age groups (25 to 32 and 58 to 66 years) underwent anthropometric measurements and DXA scans. Intraclass correlations...... and etiologic components of variance were estimated for total and regional fat percentages using biometric modeling. RESULTS: The intraclass correlations demonstrated higher correlations for all fat percentages among monozygotic twins as compared with dizygotic twins. The biometric modeling revealed a major...

  3. Extrinsic Factors as Component Positions to Bone and Intrinsic Factors Affecting Postoperative Rotational Limb Alignment in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Tomoharu; Sato, Takashi; Tanifuji, Osamu; Watanabe, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Koichi; Endo, Naoto

    2018-02-13

    This study aimed to identify the factors affecting postoperative rotational limb alignment of the tibia relative to the femur. We hypothesized that not only component positions but also several intrinsic factors were associated with postoperative rotational limb alignment. This study included 99 knees (90 women and 9 men) with a mean age of 77 ± 6 years. A three-dimensional (3D) assessment system was applied under weight-bearing conditions to biplanar long-leg radiographs using 3D-to-2D image registration technique. The evaluation parameters were (1) component position; (2) preoperative and postoperative coronal, sagittal, and rotational limb alignment; (3) preoperative bony deformity, including femoral torsion, condylar twist angle, and tibial torsion; and (4) preoperative and postoperative range of motion (ROM). In multiple linear regression analysis using a stepwise procedure, postoperative rotational limb alignment was associated with the following: (1) rotation of the component position (tibia: β = 0.371, P intrinsic factors, such as preoperative rotational limb alignment, ROM, and tibial torsion, affected postoperative rotational limb alignment. On a premise of correct component positions, the intrinsic factors that can be controlled by surgeons should be taken care. In particular, ROM is necessary to be improved within the possible range to acquire better postoperative rotational limb alignment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethical and psychological factors in 5S and total productive maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Ahmed Hama Kareem

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of ethical and psychological factors in the implementation of 5S and TPM at cement plants in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Design/methodology/approach: The mixed methods represented in a questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews for data collection in the framework of the case study were chosen. The questionnaire survey already has been tested. Findings: The findings of this paper revealed that ethical factors had a larger role than psychological factors in the implementation. Thus, based on the findings, organisations are recommended to provide financial and moral support to employees to enable a comprehensive implementation of 5S and TPM aimed at obtaining the desired results.  Originality/value: The current paper tried to introduce a new theoretical contribution by filling the gap in the literature regarding the important role that can be played by ethical and psychological factors of employees in the successful implementation of contemporary techniques, such as 5S and TPM in industrial organizations. This is contrary to what was done most of previous studies such as Ahuja & Khamba, (2008b Panneerselvam (2012 Singh et al. (2013 and Poduval & Pramod (2015 in the area of 5S and TPM. Where, these studies have focused on studying the other factors such as (organizational, technological, operational and others in implementing 5S and TPM. This without realizing the fact that it is also necessary to examine factors such as (ethical and psychological that would affect the capabilities and employee morale before and during the implementation of those techniques (5S and TPM that are used to bring out the best productivity.

  5. Ethical and psychological factors in 5S and total productive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal Ahmed Hama Kareem; Othman Abdul-Qader Hama Amin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of ethical and psychological factors in the implementation of 5S and TPM at cement plants in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Design/methodology/approach: The mixed methods represented in a questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews for data collection in the framework of the case study were chosen. The questionnaire survey already has been tested. Findings: The findings of this paper revealed that ethical factors had a larger role than psychological factors in the implementation. Thus, based on the findings, organisations are recommended to provide financial and moral support to employees to enable a comprehensive implementation of 5S and TPM aimed at obtaining the desired results. Originality/value: The current paper tried to introduce a new theoretical contribution by filling the gap in the literature regarding the important role that can be played by ethical and psychological factors of employees in the successful implementation of contemporary techniques, such as 5S and TPM in industrial organizations. This is contrary to what was done most of previous studies such as Ahuja & Khamba, (2008b) Panneerselvam (2012) Singh et al. (2013) and Poduval & Pramod (2015) in the area of 5S and TPM. Where, these studies have focused on studying the other factors such as (organizational, technological, operational and others) in implementing 5S and TPM. This without realizing the fact that it is also necessary to examine factors such as (ethical and psychological) that would affect the capabilities and employee morale before and during the implementation of those techniques (5S and TPM) that are used to bring out the best productivity.

  6. Ethical and psychological factors in 5S and total productive maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamal Ahmed Hama Kareem; Othman Abdul-Qader Hama Amin

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of ethical and psychological factors in the implementation of 5S and TPM at cement plants in Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Design/methodology/approach: The mixed methods represented in a questionnaire survey and semi-structured interviews for data collection in the framework of the case study were chosen. The questionnaire survey already has been tested. Findings: The findings of this paper revealed that ethical factors had a larger role than psychological factors in the implementation. Thus, based on the findings, organisations are recommended to provide financial and moral support to employees to enable a comprehensive implementation of 5S and TPM aimed at obtaining the desired results. Originality/value: The current paper tried to introduce a new theoretical contribution by filling the gap in the literature regarding the important role that can be played by ethical and psychological factors of employees in the successful implementation of contemporary techniques, such as 5S and TPM in industrial organizations. This is contrary to what was done most of previous studies such as Ahuja & Khamba, (2008b) Panneerselvam (2012) Singh et al. (2013) and Poduval & Pramod (2015) in the area of 5S and TPM. Where, these studies have focused on studying the other factors such as (organizational, technological, operational and others) in implementing 5S and TPM. This without realizing the fact that it is also necessary to examine factors such as (ethical and psychological) that would affect the capabilities and employee morale before and during the implementation of those techniques (5S and TPM) that are used to bring out the best productivity.

  7. [Total homocysteine levels in children with diabetes type 1. Conditional factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Laborda, S; Salazar García-Blanco, M I; Rodríguez Rigual, M; Baldellou Vázquez, A

    2008-03-01

    To measure the plasma levels of total homocysteine (tHcy) in children with type I diabetes mellitus and their relationship with the control of the disease. We studied a total of 46 patients with ages between 4 and 19 years. The analyzed variables were: sex, age, puberty stage by Tanner, BMI, years of evolution of the illness, self-monitoring, associated diseases, tHcy, folic acid, vitamin B12, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile and renal function. The mean tHcy was of 5.48 +/- 1,64 microm/l, similar to that in our control population. There was a positive correlation with tHcy when analyzing the puberty stage by the Tanner scale. The years of evolution of diabetes varied between 0.4 and 15, with a mean of 5.77 +/- 3.69, with no correlation with tHcy. The glycosylated haemoglobin mean was 7.35 %, with no correlation with tHcy. The levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 were similar to the control population. The lipid profile of our patients was normal, with no association with tHcy levels. There was no correlation between GFR and tHcy. A clinically correct control of children with diabetes mellitus type 1, appears to ensure a normal total homocysteinemia, with no significant differences with the healthy individuals of the same age and social environment.

  8. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) shell length, total weight and condition factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, F S; Peso-Aguiar, M C; Assunção-Albuquerque, M J T; Gálvez, L

    2009-08-01

    The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm). The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  9. Do climate variables and human density affect Achatina fulica (Bowditch (Gastropoda: Pulmonata shell length, total weight and condition factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FS. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available The length-weight relationship and condition factor have been broadly investigated in snails to obtain the index of physical condition of populations and evaluate habitat quality. Herein, our goal was to describe the best predictors that explain Achatina fulica biometrical parameters and well being in a recently introduced population. From November 2001 to November 2002, monthly snail samples were collected in Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia, Brazil. Shell length and total weight were measured in the laboratory and the potential curve and condition factor were calculated. Five environmental variables were considered: temperature range, mean temperature, humidity, precipitation and human density. Multiple regressions were used to generate models including multiple predictors, via model selection approach, and then ranked with AIC criteria. Partial regressions were used to obtain the separated coefficients of determination of climate and human density models. A total of 1.460 individuals were collected, presenting a shell length range between 4.8 to 102.5 mm (mean: 42.18 mm. The relationship between total length and total weight revealed that Achatina fulica presented a negative allometric growth. Simple regression indicated that humidity has a significant influence on A. fulica total length and weight. Temperature range was the main variable that influenced the condition factor. Multiple regressions showed that climatic and human variables explain a small proportion of the variance in shell length and total weight, but may explain up to 55.7% of the condition factor variance. Consequently, we believe that the well being and biometric parameters of A. fulica can be influenced by climatic and human density factors.

  10. The comparison analysis of total factor productivity and eco-efficiency in China's cement manufactures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Xingle; Zhao, Xicang; Cheng, Faxin

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly compares total factor productivity and eco-efficiency in China's cement manufactures from 2005 to 2010. First, we evaluate total factor productivity and eco-efficiency of China's cement manufactures through distance function and directional slack-based measure (DSBM) respectively. Furthermore, we also explore the difference of total factor productivity and eco-efficiency. Last, we investigate the determinants of Malmquist, Mamlquist–Luenberger of China's cement manufactures through random-effect Tobit and bootstrap truncated econometric methods. We find that there are some gaps between Malmquist and Mamlquist–Luenberger of China's cement manufactures. Per labor cement industry value has U-shape relationship with both Malmquist and Malmquist–Luenberger. It is necessary to adopt advanced technology to reduce pollutant emissions. -- Highlights: •Eco-efficiency of cement manufactures is evaluated through slack-based measure. •Eco-efficiency of China's cement manufactures has biases with total factor productivity. •Environmental Kuznets curve is existed for China's cement manufactures

  11. Predictors of clinical outcome in total hip and knee replacement : a methodological appraisal of implants and patient factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keurentjes, Johan Christiaan

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we studied both implants and patient and surgeon factors as predictors of clinical outcome after total hip and knee replacement. Additionally, we studied a number of methodological aspects of orthopaedic research, such as competing risks in estimating the probability of revision

  12. Evaluation of total and partial structure factors, self-diffusion coefficients, and compressibilities of the cadmium-gallium melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopala Rao, R.V.; Das, R.

    1988-01-01

    The three partial structure factors S/sub 11/(K), S/sub 22/(K), and S/sub 12/(K) defined by Ashcroft and Langreth are computed with a square-well potential as a perturbation over a hard-sphere potential for different atomic fractions or concentrations of cadmium for Cd-Ga melt at 296 0 C. Also, the number-number, concentration-concentration, and the cross-term number-concentration structure factors due to Bhatia-Thornton have been calculated for the seven concentrations of Cd-Ga melt at that temperature. From these partial structure factors total structure factors are computed and are compared with the experimental results. The total structure factors so computed are found to be in excellent agreement with the measured values except in the long-wavelength limit of S(0). Using the partial structure factors in the long-wavelength limit the isothermal compressibilities have been calculated. From these partial structure factors and by using the linear-trajectory approximation of Helfand, the self-diffusion coefficients D/sub i/'s have also been calculated for various atomic fractions of Cd for Cd-Ga alloy at 296 0 C. From these D/sub i/'s, an estimate of the mutual diffusion coefficients has been made to a good approximation

  13. The justification for the use of table of equivalent squares with respect to reference depth total scatter factor, and phantom scatter factor, for cobalt-60 teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afari, F.

    2011-01-01

    The use of equivalent squares is of great value and importance when determining output and depth dose data for rectangular fields. The variation with field shape of collimator scatter factors (S c ), phantom scatter factors (S c,p ) were studied using measurements on GWGP 80 cobalt - 60 teletherapy machine at the National Centre of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine in the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Measurements of the collimator scatter factors (S c ), phantom scatter factors (S p ) and total scatter factors (S c, p) were made at the depth of 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm in full scatter water phantom for square field side and rectangular fields of varying dimensions. The measurements were done using the source - axis distance (Sad) technique. The values of total scatter factor (S c,p ), phantom scatter factor and collimator scatter factor (S c ) obtained were used to estimate equivalent squares for the rectangular fields at the various depths. The equivalent squares were computed using the method of interpolation which is based on the scatter analysis of these scatter factors and these estimated equivalent squares were then compared with equivalent squares were then compared with equivalent square fields from BJR (supplement 21) tables of equivalent squares. The research revealed that there were average deviation of 1.5% for smaller rectangular field sizes and 8.8% for elongated rectangular field sizes between the estimated square field sizes and the equivalent square field from BJR (supplement 21) Table of equivalent square fields. The 8.8% for the elongated rectangular fields is not accepted, though such fields are rarely used in our Hospitals. It was found that the values of the equivalent square at the various depth were very consistent and do not vary with reference depth. These findings confirm that the clinical use of the BJR (supplement 21) Table of equivalent squares for total scatter factors and phantom scatter related quantities of rectangular fields is

  14. Total quality management as a profitability factor in the hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on assessing the impact of TQM implementation on the financial performance of hotels. According to the previous studies from Spain, Singapore, Malaysia, and the USA, an empirical investigation was conducted in Serbia during the first quarter of 2013. The findings revealed that the hotels practiced TQM at a relatively high level, especially customer orientation and teamwork. However, the analysis did not yield clear evidence that a higher level of TQM implementation impacted positively on the financial performances of hotels. The present research complements the existing literature on total quality management, and is the first attempt in Serbia to measure the financial consequences of TQM implementation. It aimed to raise the awareness among hoteliers regarding the importance of quality, and to support further analysis on the effects of TQM, especially in developing countries, which generally lack research of this kind, particularly in the hotel industry.

  15. Total Factor Productivity and Efficiency Analysis on Islamic Banks in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisyah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to measure productivity and efficiency, to analyze factors which affect the level of efficiency and to analyze correlation between productivity and efficiency of Islamic Banking in Indonesia. The objects of this study are 11 (eleven Islamic Banks (BUS in Indonesia which are analyzed from the second quarter of 2010 to the third quarter of 2015. The result shows only six of the eleven banks that have a good productivity levels, otherwise for efficiency there are only three banks that efficient enough. Furthermore, the relationship between productivity and efficiency levels that are categorized into 4 (four quadrants. In quadrant I, three banks have high productivity and efficiency namely Syariah Mandiri, Panin Syariah and Victoria Syariah; quadrant IV two banks in low level of productivity and efficiency namely Mega Syariah and Bukopin Syariah. While the quadrant II namely BCA Syariah, BRI syariah and Muamalat and quadrant III namely BJB Syariah, BNI Syariah and Maybank Syariah required further research to determine the factors that affect the productivity and efficiency relationships that occur. 

  16. Neutron scattering by anharmonic crystals and the effect of sublattice displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, K.S.; Phillip, Jacob

    1979-01-01

    A theory has been described for the scattering of neutrons by anharmonic crystals, for which terms of the type Vsup(3) (k 1 j 1 ;-k 1 j 1 ;aj) which contribute to the sublattice displacements are not neglected. It is shown that the sublattice displacements will modify the phase factor arising from the scattering by any atom in the unit cell, and the Debye-Waller factor also gets altered both by the sublattice displacements as well as by higher order terms arising from anharmonicity. (author)

  17. Convergence of the multiple scattering expansion in XAFS and XANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehr, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    The convergence of the multiple-scattering expansion of XAFS and XANES by explicit path-bypath calculations. The approach is based on the fast scattering matrix formalism of Rehr and Albers, together with an automated path finder and filters that exclude negligible paths. High-order scattering terms are found to be essential, especially at low energies. Several factors including the magnitude of curved wave scattering amplitudes, inelastic losses and multiple-scattering Debye-Waller factors control convergence of the expansion. The convergence is illustrated explicitly for the case of diatomic molecules

  18. Water turnover rate and total body water affected by different physiological factors under Egyptian environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    The tritiated water dilution technique was used to determine the total body water (TBW) and water turnover rate (WTR), which is assumed to be similar to water intake, in water buffalo, Red Danish cattle, fat-tailed Osemi sheep and crossed Nubian-Bedouin goats and camels (Camelus dromedarius). There was a significant (P < 0.05) effect of species on TBW and WTR. The combined data of buffalo, cattle and sheep revealed a significant (P < 0.05) effect of pregnancy on TBW, but not on WTR. The combined data of buffalo and cattle showed a significantly lower TBW (P < 0.01) and a higher WTR (P < 0.05) in lactating animals than in heifers. In buffalo WTR was on average 81% higher in summer grazing (SG) than in spring. It was also 118 and 20% higher in summer non-grazing (SNG), than in either spring or SG, respectively. The differences between treatments in heifers, pregnant and lactating, were significant (P<0.01), except between spring and SG in heifers. The TBW was on average 12% higher in SG than in spring. It was also 18 and 5% higher in SNG than in either spring or SG, respectively. The differences between treatments in heifers, pregnant and lactating, were significant, except between SG and SNG in heifers and lactating cows and between spring and SG in lactating cows. (author)

  19. Total glucosides of Paeonia lactiflora Pall inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hui; Yan, Chunlin; Xiao, Tian; Yuan, Dingfen; Xu, Jinhua

    2010-02-17

    To evaluate the anti-angiogenesis effect of total glucosides of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. In this study, we determined the effect of TGP on the proliferation of human vascular endothelial cells through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. A migration assay and a tube formation assay were used to investigate the migration properties and tube formation abilities of human vascular endothelial cells after being treated with TGP. Furthermore, the in vivo anti-angiogenic ability of TGP was determined through a chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. TGP (12.5, 62.5, and 312.5 microg/ml) resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the proliferation of endothelial cells. This inhibition effect began 6h after treatment and lasted at least 24h. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis data showed an accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, which exhibited apoptotic features indicative of cell death. The migration properties and tube forming abilities of endothelial cells were dramatically inhibited by the TGP extract. Our results show that TGP can inhibit angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fatores de Risco para Infecção Pós-histerectomia Total Abdominal Risk Factors for Infection after Total Abdominal Hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Maria Ramos de Amorim

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: determinar os principais fatores associados à ocorrência de infecção do sítio cirúrgico em pacientes submetidas a histerectomia total abdominal (HTA no Instituto Materno ¾ Infantil de Pernambuco (IMIP. Métodos: realizou-se um estudo de corte transversal incluindo todas as pacientes submetidas a histerectomia total abdominal no IMIP no período de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 1998, desde que tivessem retornado no 7º e no 30º dia pós-operatório para controle de infecção (n = 414. A freqüência de infecção do sítio cirúrgico (definida pelos critérios do CDC, 1998 foi de 10% (42 casos. Calculou-se o risco de prevalência (RP de infecção do sítio cirúrgico e seu intervalo de confiança (IC a 95% para as seguintes variáveis: idade, obesidade, hipertensão, diabetes, doença maligna, tipo de incisão, tempo cirúrgico e antibioticoprofilaxia. Realizou-se análise de regressão logística múltipla para determinação do risco ajustado de infecção. Resultados: encontrou-se aumento significativo do risco de infecção do sítio cirúrgico para as seguintes variáveis: idade >60 anos (RP = 2,39; IC-95% = 1,15-4,94, obesidade (RP = 3,2; IC-95% = 1,83-5,59, duração da cirurgia >2 horas (RP = 2,36; IC-95% = 1,32-4,21 e associação com diabetes (RP = 6,0; IC-95% = 3,41-10,57. Por outro lado, o risco de infecção esteve significativamente diminuído quando utilizou-se antibiótico profilático (RP = 0,38; IC-95% = 0,21-0,68. Não se encontrou associação estatisticamente significativa de infecção com o tipo de incisão, a indicação da cirurgia por patologia maligna e a presença de hipertensão. Conclusões: os fatores associados a risco aumentado de infecção do sítio cirúrgico pós-HTA no IMIP foram: idade >60 anos, obesidade, diabetes e duração da cirurgia >2 horas. A antibioticoprofilaxia apresentou efeito protetor, com diminuição do risco de infecção.Purpose: to determine the main factors associated

  1. Assessment of total hip arthroplasty as a predisposing factor for ischiofemoral impingement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Adriana L.; Azevedo, Debora C.; Eajazi, Alireza; Palmer, William E.; Bredella, Miriam A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Boston, MA (United States); Kwon, Young-Min [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Orthopedics, Boston, MA (United States); Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    To examine the effect of total hip arthroplasty (THA) on ischiofemoral (IF) and quadratus femoris (QF) spaces with the hypothesis that THA does not affect ischiofemoral relationships. The study was IRB approved and complied with HIPAA guidelines. We identified consecutive MR examinations (pelvis and/or hip) obtained at our institution in adults (≥18 years old) screened for THA-related complications. Native hips from the same individuals served as controls. We collected medical record data including age, gender, surgical history, and THA designs. Two radiologists independently measured the IF-RAD and IF-MRI (IF space on radiographs and MR imaging, respectively) and QF space (on MR imaging). Groups were compared using ANCOVA controlled for gender. The study group comprised 250 hips (132 subjects; 162 post-THA and 88 native hips). Subjects were aged 59 ± 10 years, with 66 males and 66 females. Comparison of IF-MRI and QF spaces between native and post-THA hips showed no differences (P > 0.12) and IF-RAD was higher in post-THA subjects (P = 0.01). No differences in the IF-MRI and QF spaces were present between native hips and different THA designs (P > 0.4). IF-RAD of metal-on-metal THA was higher than that of native hips (P = 0.01) and trended higher than ceramic-on-polyethylene THA (P = 0.08), with the remaining comparisons showing no significant differences (P > 0.4). Radiographic- and MRI-based measures in patients with standard THA do not show narrowing of IF and QF spaces. (orig.)

  2. Risk factors for periprosthetic joint infection following primary total hip or knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingde; Cao, Junming; Zhang, Yingze; Ding, Wenyuan; Shen, Yong

    2017-06-01

    To identify risk factors for periprosthetic joint infection following primary total joint arthroplasty, a systematic search was performed in Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane library databases. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) or standardised mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Patient characteristics, surgical-related factors and comorbidities, as potential risk factors, were investigated. The main factors associated with infection after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) were male gender (OR, 1·48; 95% CI, 1.19-1.85), age (SMD, -0·10; 95% CI, -0.17--0.03), obesity (OR, 1·54; 95% CI, 1·25-1·90), alcohol abuse (OR, 1·88; 95% CI, 1·32-2·68), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scale > 2 (OR, 2·06; 95% CI, 1·77-2·39), operative time (SMD, 0·49; 95% CI, 0·19-0·78), drain usage (OR, 0·36; 95% CI, 0·18-0·74), diabetes mellitus (OR, 1·58; 95% CI, 1·37-1·81), urinary tract infection (OR, 1·53; 95% CI, 1.09-2.16) and rheumatoid arthritis (OR, 1·57; 95% CI, 1·30-1·88). Among these risk factors, ASA score > 2 was a high risk factor, and drain usage was a protective factor. There was positive evidence for some factors that could be used to prevent the onset of infection after TJA. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Total management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Katsuya

    2017-08-01

    Patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) often have multiple comorbid conditions that may interact with each other, confound the choice of treatments, and reduce mortality. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most important comorbidities of CVD, which causes serious consequences in patients with ischemic heart disease, stroke, arrhythmia, and heart failure. COPD shares common risk factors such as tobacco smoking and aging with CVD, is associated with less physical activity, and produces systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Overall, patients with COPD have a 2-3-fold increased risk of CVD as compared to age-matched controls when adjusted for tobacco smoking. Chronic heart failure (HF) is a frequent and important comorbidity which has a significant impact on prognosis in COPD, and vice versa. HF overlaps in symptoms and signs and has a common comorbidity with COPD, so that diagnosis of COPD is difficult in patients with HF. The combination of HF and COPD presents many therapeutic challenges including beta-blockers (BBs) and beta-agonists. Inhaled long-acting bronchodilators including beta2-agonists and anticholinergics for COPD would not worsen HF. Diuretics are relatively safe, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are preferred to treat HF accompanied with COPD. BBs are only relatively contraindicated in asthma, but not in COPD. Low doses of cardioselective BBs should be aggressively initiated in clinically stable patients with HF accompanied with COPD combined with close monitoring for signs of airway obstruction and gradually up-titrated to the maximum tolerated dose. Encouraging appropriate and aggressive treatment for both HF and COPD should be recommended to improve quality of life and mortality in HF patients with COPD. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. For which option is credit risk more representative on China banks' total factor productivity Efficiency change or technological progress?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadzlan Sufian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to provide new empirical evidence on the impact of credit risk on China banks' total factor productivity.Design/methodology/approach-The paper employs the Malmquist Productivity Index (MP1) which allows for the examination of five different indices:total factor productivity change (TFPCH);technological change (TECHCH);efficiency change (EFFCH);pure technical efficiency change (PEFFCH);and scale efficiency change (SECH) indices.Findings-The empirical findings indicate that the State Owned Commercial Banks (SOCB),Joint Stock Commercial Banks (JSCB),and City Commercial Banks (CCB) have exhibited lower TFPCH levels with the inclusion of risk factor.It was found that the JSCB and CCB have exhibited lower TFPCH due to TECHCH,while the SOCB have exhibited lower TFPCH due to EFFCH.The empirical findings suggest that the inclusion of credit risk factor has resulted in a higher JSCB EFFCH levels.On the other hand,the SOCB and CCB have exhibited a lower EFFCH levels due to SECH and PEFFCH,respectively.Research limitations/implications-The results clearly highlight the importance of credit risk and lending quality in determining the total factor productivity change of banks operating in the China banking sector.The author demonstrates that the inclusion of credit risk factor has resulted in a lower TFPCH level of all banks operating in the China banking sector.Thus,excluding the credit risk factor from the analysis on the China banking sector may potentially bias the result upwards.Practical impIications-In an environment of heavy government influence over the lending process,a large proportion of loans extended by Chinese banks over the years have gone bad.Policymakers should prevent the flow of new non-performing loans by separating bad clients from banks that are being restructured and recapitalized in the reform of the banking sector.Originality/value-By employing the Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI),the present paper contributes to

  5. Total Protein Content Determination of Microalgal Biomass by Elemental Nitrogen Analysis and a Dedicated Nitrogen-to-Protein Conversion Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurens, Lieve M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olstad-Thompson, Jessica L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Templeton, David W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-02

    Accurately determining protein content is important in the valorization of algal biomass in food, feed, and fuel markets, where these values are used for component balance calculations. Conversion of elemental nitrogen to protein is a well-accepted and widely practiced method, but depends on developing an applicable nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor. The methodology reported here covers the quantitative assessment of the total nitrogen content of algal biomass and a description of the methodology that underpins the accurate de novo calculation of a dedicated nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor.

  6. A panel data parametric frontier technique for measuring total-factor energy efficiency: An application to Japanese regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Satoshi; Hu, Jin-Li

    2014-01-01

    Using the stochastic frontier analysis model, we estimate TFEE (total-factor energy efficiency) scores for 47 regions across Japan during the years 1996–2008. We extend the cross-sectional stochastic frontier model proposed by Zhou et al. (2012) to panel data models and add environmental variables. The results provide not only the TFEE scores, in which statistical noise is taken into account, but also the determinants of inefficiency. The three stochastic TFEE scores are compared with a TFEE score derived using data envelopment analysis. The four TFEE scores are highly correlated with one another. For the inefficiency estimates, higher manufacturing industry shares and wholesale and retail trade shares correspond to lower TFEE scores. - Highlights: • This study estimates total-factor energy efficiency of Japanese regions using the stochastic frontier analysis model. • Determinants of inefficiency are also estimated. • The higher the manufacturing share and wholesale and retail trade share, the lower the energy efficiency

  7. Do Work-Life Balance Policies Increase a Firm's Total Factor Productivity?: Evidence from panel data of Japanese firms (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMOTO Isamu; MATSUURA Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how firms' policies for workers' work-life balance (WLB) affect total factor productivity (TFP) in the long run, by using panel data of Japanese firms from the 1990s. Although we observed a positive correlation between firms' WLB policies and their TFP, once controlling for unobserved firm heterogeneity, we found no causal relationship where WLB policies increase a firm's TFP in the long run. Under the following conditions, however, WLB policies would likely improve a firm...

  8. Objectively measured physical environmental neighbourhood factors are not associated with accelerometer-determined total sedentary time in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Compernolle, Sofie; De Cocker, Katrien; Mackenbach, Joreintje D.; Van Nassau, Femke; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2017-01-01

    Background: The physical neighbourhood environment may influence adults' sedentary behaviour. Yet, most studies examining the association between the physical neighbourhood environment and sedentary behaviour rely on self-reported data of either the physical neighbourhood environment and/or sedentary behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between objectively measured physical environmental neighbourhood factors and accelerometer-determined total sedentary time in...

  9. A contribution to the investigation of the properties of the Au-Fe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, M.; Sitek, J.; Cirak, J.

    1976-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy, an electronic microanalyzer and X-ray diffractometry were used to study the properties of an Au-Fe solid solution during its preparation by installing Fe atoms into the Au matrix by diffusion heating at a temperature from 550 to 850 degC. On the basis of such measurements, the suitable heating temperature was determined at 850 degC; the Debye-Waller factor for Au-Fe is f=0.604+-0.040 and two configurations of Fe atoms in the Au crystal lattice were found. (author)

  10. Diffusion of Hydrogen in the beta-Phase of Pd-H Studied by Small Energy Transfer Neutron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelin, G; Skoeld, K

    1974-07-01

    The diffusion of hydrogen in beta-PdH has been studied by quasielastic neutron scattering. It is shown that the diffusion occurs through jumps between adjacent octahedral interstitial sites. The observed integrated quasielastic intensities cannot be described by a simple Debye-Waller factor. The phase transition from the beta-phase to the alpha-phase has also been studied. No dramatic changes in the scattering patterns were observed. It is concluded that the diffusion mechanism is remarkably similar between the low concentration alpha-phase and the high concentration beta-phase

  11. Mosaic crystal algorithm for Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Seeger, P A

    2002-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for calculating reflectivity, absorption, and scattering of mosaic crystals in Monte Carlo simulations of neutron instruments. The algorithm uses multi-step transport through the crystal with an exact solution of the Darwin equations at each step. It relies on the kinematical model for Bragg reflection (with parameters adjusted to reproduce experimental data). For computation of thermal effects (the Debye-Waller factor and coherent inelastic scattering), an expansion of the Debye integral as a rapidly converging series of exponential terms is also presented. Any crystal geometry and plane orientation may be treated. The algorithm has been incorporated into the neutron instrument simulation package NISP. (orig.)

  12. Defects and disorder in the fast-ion electrode lithium-aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susman, S; Brun, T O

    1981-01-01

    Neutron and X-ray diffraction measurements indicate no phase change in ..beta..-phase LiAl from 300 to 940 K. The thermal expansion of the lattice constant and the temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor Li are linear and not unusually large. The data are analyzed in the Bragg-Williams approximation with T/sub c/ = 1100 K. At elevated temperatures, LiAl approaches an order-disorder transformation. At battery operating temperatures (700 K) there are appreciable concentrations of both types of antisite defects Li/sub Al/ and Al/sub Li/, and there is appreciable Al diffusion.

  13. Co-Au core-shell nanocrystals formed by sequential ion implantation into SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluth, P.; Hoy, B.; Johannessen, B.; Dunn, S. G.; Foran, G. J.; Ridgway, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    Co-Au core-shell nanocrystals (NCs) were formed by sequential ion implantation of Au and Co into thin SiO 2 . The NCs were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. The latter reveals a bond length expansion in the Co core compared to monatomic Co NCs. Concomitantly, a significant contraction of the bond length and a significant reduction of the effective Au-Au coordination number were observed in the Au shells. Increased Debye-Waller factors indicate significant strain in the NCs. These experimental results verify recent theoretical predictions

  14. Low temperature anomalies in the lattice parameters of rare earth compounds and UPd3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluemacher, D.

    1980-01-01

    Using a low temperature diffractometer, intermediate valence effects and crystal defects can be identified from the temperature dependence of the lattice parameters and the Debye-Waller factor. For polycrystalline powder samples the measuring error are too large. For intermediate valence systems the relative change in the 4f-level population probability can be calculated together with the anisotropic effects on the lattice parameters and on the unit cell colume. Pronounced effects on the lattice parameters can be observed in the case of RE Cu 2 Si 2 compounds with crystal fields. (DG) [de

  15. Deriving Scaling Factors Using a Global Hydrological Model to Restore GRACE Total Water Storage Changes for China's Yangtze River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Di; Yang, Yuting; Yoshihide, Wada; Hong, Yang; Liang, Wei; Chen, Yaning; Yong, Bin; Hou, Aizhong; Wei, Jiangfeng; Chen, Lu

    2015-01-01

    This study used a global hydrological model (GHM), PCR-GLOBWB, which simulates surface water storage changes, natural and human induced groundwater storage changes, and the interactions between surface water and subsurface water, to generate scaling factors by mimicking low-pass filtering of GRACE signals. Signal losses in GRACE data were subsequently restored by the scaling factors from PCR-GLOBWB. Results indicate greater spatial heterogeneity in scaling factor from PCR-GLOBWB and CLM4.0 than that from GLDAS-1 Noah due to comprehensive simulation of surface and subsurface water storage changes for PCR-GLOBWB and CLM4.0. Filtered GRACE total water storage (TWS) changes applied with PCR-GLOBWB scaling factors show closer agreement with water budget estimates of TWS changes than those with scaling factors from other land surface models (LSMs) in China's Yangtze River basin. Results of this study develop a further understanding of the behavior of scaling factors from different LSMs or GHMs over hydrologically complex basins, and could be valuable in providing more accurate TWS changes for hydrological applications (e.g., monitoring drought and groundwater storage depletion) over regions where human-induced interactions between surface water and subsurface water are intensive.

  16. Combined impact of lifestyle-related factors on total and cause-specific mortality among Chinese women: prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Nechuta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol drinking, obesity, and several other well-studied unhealthy lifestyle-related factors each have been linked to the risk of multiple chronic diseases and premature death, little is known about the combined impact on mortality outcomes, in particular among Chinese and other non-Western populations. The objective of this study was to quantify the overall impact of lifestyle-related factors beyond that of active cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Chinese women.We used data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study, an ongoing population-based prospective cohort study in China. Participants included 71,243 women aged 40 to 70 years enrolled during 1996-2000 who never smoked or drank alcohol regularly. A healthy lifestyle score was created on the basis of five lifestyle-related factors shown to be independently associated with mortality outcomes (normal weight, lower waist-hip ratio, daily exercise, never exposed to spouse's smoking, higher daily fruit and vegetable intake. The score ranged from zero (least healthy to five (most healthy points. During an average follow-up of 9 years, 2,860 deaths occurred, including 775 from cardiovascular disease (CVD and 1,351 from cancer. Adjusted hazard ratios for mortality decreased progressively with an increasing number of healthy lifestyle factors. Compared to women with a score of zero, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals for women with four to five factors were 0.57 (0.44-0.74 for total mortality, 0.29 (0.16-0.54 for CVD mortality, and 0.76 (0.54-1.06 for cancer mortality. The inverse association between the healthy lifestyle score and mortality was seen consistently regardless of chronic disease status at baseline. The population attributable risks for not having 4-5 healthy lifestyle factors were 33% for total deaths, 59% for CVD deaths, and 19% for cancer deaths.In this first study, to our knowledge, to

  17. Risk factors and clinical course of hungry bone syndrome after total parathyroidectomy in dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lo-Yi; Wong, Ping-Nam; Sin, Ho-Kwan; Wong, Yuk-Yi; Lo, Kwok-Chi; Chan, Shuk-Fan; Lo, Man-Wai; Lo, Kin-Yee; Mak, Siu-Ka; Wong, Andrew Kui-Man

    2017-01-10

    Hungry bone syndrome (HBS) is an important postoperative complication after parathyroidectomy for severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). There is, however, little data in the literature on its detailed clinical course, and the associated risk factors remain controversial. We did a single-center retrospective study on 62 consecutive dialysis patients who underwent total parathyroidectomy for SHPT to examine the risk factors, clinical course and outcome. Data on demographic characteristics, perioperative laboratory parameters including serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and parathyroid hormone (PTH), drug treatment for SHPT and operative details of parathyroidectomy were collected. Seventeen (27.4%) patients developed severe postoperative hypocalcemia with HBS. The serum calcium dropped progressively while serum ALP rose after operation until 2 weeks later when serum calcium reached the trough and serum ALP peaked. Serum phosphate also fell but stabilized between 4 and 14 days. The total postoperative calcium and vitamin D supplementation was significantly larger, and hospital stay was significantly longer in the group with HBS as compared with those without HBS. Young age, high body weight, high preoperative ALP level, and low preoperative calcium level independently predicted the development of HBS while preoperative PTH and use of cinacalcet or paricalcitol did not. HBS was common after total parathyroidectomy in patients with SHPT, and it is important to closely monitor the postoperative serum calcium, phosphate and ALP levels in the following 2 weeks, especially for those at risk. The implications of our findings on perioperative management are discussed.

  18. El éxito del mantenimiento productivo total y su relación con los factores administrativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis García Alcaraz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El mantenimiento productivo total es una herramienta ampliamente usada en las áreas productivas, la cual está encaminada a incrementar la disponibilidad de la maquinaria y equipo de producción, así como los beneficios económicos de las empresas. Sin embargo, no se conocen los factores administrativos que aseguren su éxito de implantación. En este artículo se presentan los resultados de una encuesta -que fue aplicada a 203 gerentes y supervisores de mantenimiento de empresas localizadas en Ciudad Juárez- que constó de veinte actividades y tres beneficios, y que debía ser respondida en una escala Likert. El cuestionario se validó mediante el índice alfa de Cronbach y se aplicó un análisis factorial exploratorio mediante el método de componentes principales y se determinó que solamente tres factores podían explicar el 66.06% de la varianza total, mientras que la relación entre los factores, las actividades y beneficios se obtuvieron mediante modelos de ecuaciones estructurales.

  19. Outpatient rehabilitation care process factors and clinical outcomes among patients discharged home following unilateral total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Gerard P; Fritz, Julie M; Houck, L T C Kevin M; Hunter, Stephen J

    2015-05-01

    Research examining care process variables and their relationship to clinical outcomes after total knee arthroplasty has focused primarily on inpatient variables. Care process factors related to outpatient rehabilitation have not been adequately examined. We conducted a retrospective review of 321 patients evaluating outpatient care process variables including use of continuous passive motion, home health physical therapy, number of days from inpatient discharge to beginning outpatient physical therapy, and aspects of outpatient physical therapy (number of visits, length of stay) as possible predictors of pain and disability outcomes of outpatient physical therapy. Only the number of days between inpatient discharge and outpatient physical therapy predicted better outcomes, suggesting that this may be a target for improving outcomes after total knee arthroplasty for patients discharged directly home. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A case-control study to identify risk factors for totally implantable central venous port-related bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guk Jin; Hong, Sook Hee; Roh, Sang Young; Park, Sa Rah; Lee, Myung Ah; Chun, Hoo Geun; Hong, Young Seon; Kang, Jin Hyoung; Kim, Sang Il; Kim, Youn Jeong; Chun, Ho Jong; Oh, Jung Suk

    2014-07-01

    To date, the risk factors for central venous port-related bloodstream infection (CVPBSI) in solid cancer patients have not been fully elucidated. We conducted this study in order to determine the risk factors for CVP-BSI in patients with solid cancer. A total of 1,642 patients with solid cancer received an implantable central venous port for delivery of chemotherapy between October 2008 and December 2011 in a single center. CVP-BSI was diagnosed in 66 patients (4%). We selected a control group of 130 patients, who were individually matched with respect to age, sex, and catheter insertion time. CVP-BSI occurred most frequently between September and November (37.9%). The most common pathogen was gram-positive cocci (n=35, 53.0%), followed by fungus (n=14, 21.2%). Multivariate analysis identified monthly catheter-stay as a risk factor for CVP-BSI (p=0.000), however, its risk was lower in primary gastrointestinal cancer than in other cancer (p=0.002). Initial metastatic disease and long catheter-stay were statistically significant factors affecting catheter life span (p=0.005 and p=0.000). Results of multivariate analysis showed that recent transfusion was a risk factor for mortality in patients with CVP-BSI (p=0.047). In analysis of the results with respect to risk factors, prolonged catheter-stay should be avoided as much as possible. It is necessary to be cautious of CVP-BSI in metastatic solid cancer, especially non-gastrointestinal cancer. In addition, avoidance of unnecessary transfusion is essential in order to reduce the mortality of CVP-BSI. Finally, considering the fact that confounding factors may have affected the results, conduct of a well-designed prospective controlled study is warranted.

  1. The use of autologous concentrated growth factors to promote syndesmosis fusion in the Agility total ankle replacement. A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, J Chris; Pomeroy, Gregory C; Watts, J David; Barrow, Craig

    2005-10-01

    The Agility (DePuy, Warsaw, Indiana) total ankle replacement has been in use since 1984. One of the most common complications continues to be delayed union or nonunions of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. In the reported studies on the Agility ankle the delayed union and nonunion rate can be as high as 38%. Since 1999, 114 Agility total ankle replacements were done at two centers in the United States without the use of autologous concentrated growth factors. Since July of 2001, 66 Agility ankles were implanted with Symphony (DePuy, Warsaw, Indiana) augmented bone grafting. The standard operative technique was followed in all the patients. Prospective data was collected on all patients. The standard ankle radiographs were taken preoperatively and postoperative at 8 weeks, 12 weeks, 16 weeks, 6 months, and yearly. CT scans were obtained at 6 months if fusion at the syndesmosis was questionable. The Graphpad Instat software (Graphpad Software Inc., San Diego, CA) was used for statistical analysis. The two-tailed unpaired t-test was used, and the value ankle replacements without autologous concentrated growth factors 70 fused at 8 weeks (61%), 14 fused at 12 weeks (12%), 13 fused at 6 months (12%). There were 17 nonunions (15%); delayed unions (3 to 6 months) and nonunions, therefore, equaled 27%. The syndesmosis fused in 50 of the 66 ankle replacements (76%) that had autologous concentrated growth fractures at 8 weeks (76%); 12 fused at 3 months (18%), 2 fused at 6 months (3%), 2 had nonunions (3%). Delayed unions (3 to 6 months) and nonunions equaled 6%. There was a statistically significant improvement in the 8- and 12-week fusion rates, and a statistically significant reduction in delayed unions and nonunions. Autologous concentrated growth factors appear to make a significant positive difference in the syndesmosis union rate in total ankle replacements.

  2. A totally automated data acquisition/reduction system for routine treatment of mass spectroscopic data by factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tway, P.C.; Love, L.J.C.; Woodruff, H.B.

    1980-01-01

    Target transformation factor analysis is applied to typical data from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and solid-probe mass spectrometry to determine rapidly the number of components in unresolved or partially resolved peaks. This technique allows the detection of hidden impurities which often make interpretation or quantification impossible. The error theory of Malinowski is used to assess the reliability of the results. The totally automated system uses a commercially available g.c.-m.s. data system interfaced to the large computer, and the number of components under a peak can be determined routinely and rapidly. (Auth.)

  3. Incidence of and risk factors for postoperative urinary retention in fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lars; Bogø, Stina; Raaschou, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is a clinical challenge, but there is no scientific evidence for treatment principles. We describe the incidence of and predictive factors for POUR in fast-track total hip (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA). PATIENTS AND METHODS......, and preoperative international prostate symptom score (IPSS) were compared between catheterized and non-catheterized patients. RESULTS: The incidence of POUR was 40% (range between departments: 30-55%). Median bladder volume evacuated by catheterization was 0.6 (0.1-1.9) L. Spinal anesthesia increased the risk...... was 40%, with spinal anesthesia and increased IPSS in males as predictive factors. The large variation in perioperative bladder management and in bladder volumes evacuated by catheterization calls for randomized studies to define evidence-based principles for treatment of POUR in the future....

  4. What Factors are Associated With 90-day Episode-of-care Payments for Younger Patients With Total Joint Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Shweta; Ganduglia, Cecilia M; Awad, Samir S; Chan, Wenyaw; Swint, John M; Morgan, Robert O

    2017-11-01

    Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) has been identified as a procedure with substantial variations in inpatient and postacute care payments. Most studies in this area have focused primarily on the Medicare population and rarely have characterized the younger commercially insured populations. Understanding the inpatient and postdischarge care service-component differences across 90-day episodes of care and factors associated with payments for younger patients is crucial for successful implementation of bundled payments in TJA in non-Medicare populations. (1) To assess the mean total payment for a 90-day primary TJA episode, including the proportion attributable to postdischarge care, and (2) to evaluate the role of procedure, patient, and hospital-level factors associated with 90-day episode-of-care payments in a non-Medicare patient population younger than 65 years. Claims data for 2008 to 2013 from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Texas were obtained for primary TJAs. A total of 11,131 procedures were examined by aggregating payments for the index hospital stay and any postacute care including rehabilitation services and unplanned readmissions during the 90-day postdischarge followup period. A three-level hierarchical model was developed to determine procedure-, patient-, and hospital-level factors associated with 90-day episode-of-care payments. The mean total payment for a 90-day episode for TJA was USD 47,700 adjusted to 2013 USD. Only 14% of 90-day episode payments in our population was attributable to postdischarge-care services, which is substantially lower than the percentage estimated in the Medicare population. A prolonged length of stay (rate ratio [RR], 1.19; 95% CI, 1.15-1.23; p ≤ 0.001), any 90-day unplanned readmission (RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.57-1.71; p ≤ 0.001), computer-assisted surgery (RR, 1.031; 95% CI, 1.004-1.059; p ≤ 0.05), initial home discharge with home health component (RR, 1.029; 95% CI, 1.013-1.046; p ≤ 0.001), and very high patient morbidity

  5. Factors predicting weight-bearing asymmetry 1month after unilateral total knee arthroplasty: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Cory L; Bade, Michael J; Weitzenkamp, David A; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E

    2013-03-01

    Factors predicting weight-bearing asymmetry (WBA) after unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are not known. However, identifying modifiable and non-modifiable predictors of WBA is needed to optimize rehabilitation, especially since WBA is negatively correlated to poor functional performance. The purpose of this study was to identify factors predictive of WBA during sit-stand transitions for people 1month following unilateral TKA. Fifty-nine people were tested preoperatively and 1month following unilateral TKA for WBA using average vertical ground reaction force under each foot during the Five Times Sit-to-Stand Test. Candidate variables tested in the regression analysis represented physical impairments (strength, muscle activation, pain, and motion), demographics, anthropometrics, and movement compensations. WBA, measured as the ratio of surgical/non-surgical limb vertical ground reaction force, was 0.69 (0.18) (mean (SD)) 1month after TKA. Regression analysis identified preoperative WBA (β=0.40), quadriceps strength ratio (β=0.31), and hamstrings strength ratio (β=0.19) as factors predictive of WBA 1month after TKA (R(2)=0.30). Greater amounts of WBA 1month after TKA are predicted by modifiable factors including habitual movement pattern and asymmetry in quadriceps and hamstrings strength. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. MACROECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF TOTAL FACTOR PRODUCTIVITY: NEW GENERATION PANEL DATA ANALYSIS ON OECD COUNTRIES (1996-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖMER YALÇINKAYA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining the factors which are effective on total factor productivity (TFP increments include the productivity of all factors in the production process and making improvements for these factors via policies have importance concerning speed the potential growth rate up in the long term and making this sustainable. The mediumlong term determinants of TFP are examined in this research for the 1994-2015 period as econometric within the scope of new generation panel data analysis on the OECD countries who are classified as OECD-1 and OECD-2 by their income levels. From this aspect, purposed in this research that to reveal the primary determinants which cause the differentiations between OECD-1 and OECD-2 countries in terms of their long-term economic growth performances and/or income levels. Determined as a result of the research that the effect of the variables which are used to determine the medium-long term determinants of the TFP on OECD-1 and OECD-2 groups parallelly increased and decreased as long as enhancing the representation degree of the knowledge, innovation and technological development level of the variables. These results show that the differentiation of countries in OECD-1 and OECD-2 groups in terms of long-term economic growth and/or income levels is majorly rooted in indicators which are used on behalf of knowledge, innovation, and technological development.

  7. Acyl/free carnitine ratio is a risk factor for hepatic steatosis after pancreatoduodenectomy and total pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masafumi; Nakata, Kohei; Matsumoto, Hideo; Ohtsuka, Takao; Yoshida, Koji; Tokunaga, Shoji; Hino, Keisuke

    Hepatic steatosis, one of the most frequent long-term complications of pancreatectomy, influences not only hepatic function but also survival rate. However, its risk factors and pathogenesis have not been established. The purpose of this study was to clarify the risk factors for hepatic steatosis after pancreatectomy. In this retrospective study of 21 patients who had undergone pancreatectomy (19 cases of pancreatoduodenectomy and 2 cases of total pancreatectomy), serum carnitine concentrations, fractions of carnitine, and hepatic attenuation on computed tomography images were analyzed with the aim of identifying risk factors for hepatic steatosis. Thirteen (61.9%) of the 21 patients were diagnosed as having hypocarnitinemia after pancreatectomy. Average hepatic attenuation was as low as 42.2HU (±21.3 SD). A high ratio of acyl/free carnitine was associated with less pronounced hepatic attenuation according to both univariate (P pancreatectomy in some patients. The statistical analyses suggest that a high ratio of acyl/free carnitine is an independent risk factor for hepatic steatosis after pancreatectomy. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Impact of Environmental Regulation on Total Factor Energy Efficiency: A Cross-Region Analysis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianting Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental regulations are the key measure by which governments achieve sustainable environmental and economic development. This study aimed to determine the direct and indirect impacts of environmental regulations on total factor energy efficiency of regions in China. Since regions have different levels of economic development and resource endowment, we used the slacks-based measure (SBM-undesirable model to calculate total factor energy efficiency considering regional technology heterogeneity and examined the regional impacts of environmental regulation on this efficiency using the Tobit regression model. A positive direct impact was generated in the eastern region of China by the forced mechanism, which forced enterprises to reduce fossil fuel energy demand and increase clean energy consumption; whereas a negative direct impact was generated in the middle and western regions owing to the green paradox, which is the observation that expected stringent environmental regulation prompts energy owners to accelerate resource extraction. Moreover, indirect impacts through technological progress and foreign direct investment were taken into account in the model, and the results show that the indirect impacts vary across regions. A logical response to these findings would be to develop different policies for different regions.

  9. Incidence, risk factors and the healthcare cost of falls postdischarge after elective total hip and total knee replacement surgery: protocol for a prospective observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Anne-Marie; Ross-Adjie, Gail; McPhail, Steven M; Monterosso, Leanne; Bulsara, Max; Etherton-Beer, Christopher; Powell, Sarah-Jayne; Hardisty, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The number of major joint replacement procedures continues to increase in Australia. The primary aim of this study is to determine the incidence of falls in the first 12 months after discharge from hospital in a cohort of older patients who undergo elective total hip or total knee replacement. Methods and analyses A prospective longitudinal observational cohort study starting in July 2015, enrolling patients aged ≥60 years who are admitted for elective major joint replacement (n=267 total hip replacement, n=267 total knee replacement) and are to be discharged to the community. Participants are followed up for 12 months after hospital discharge. The primary outcome measure is the rate of falls per thousand patient-days. Falls data will be collected by 2 methods: issuing a falls diary to each participant and telephoning participants monthly after discharge. Secondary outcomes include the rate of injurious falls and health-related quality of life. Patient-rated outcomes will be measured using the Oxford Hip or Oxford Knee score. Generalised linear mixed modelling will be used to examine the falls outcomes in the 12 months after discharge and to examine patient and clinical characteristics predictive of falls. An economic evaluation will be conducted to describe the nature of healthcare costs in the first 12 months after elective joint replacement and estimate costs directly attributable to fall events. Ethics and dissemination The results will be disseminated through local site networks and will inform future services to support older people undergoing hip or knee joint replacement and also through peer-reviewed publications and medical conferences. This study has been approved by The University of Notre Dame Australia and local hospital human research ethics committees. Trial registration number ACTRN12615000653561; Pre-results. PMID:27412102

  10. Total joint replacement: A multiple risk factor analysis of physical activity level 1-2 years postoperatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Elizabeth W; Torres, Andy; Love, Rebecca M; Barber, Thomas C; Sheth, Dhiren S; Inacio, Maria C S

    2016-07-01

    Background and purpose - The effect of total joint arthroplasty (TJA) on physical activity is not fully understood. We investigated the change in physical activity after TJA and patient factors associated with change. Patients and methods - Using a total joint replacement registry, primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients (n = 5,678) and knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients (n = 11,084) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012 were identified. Median age at THA was 68 and median age at TKA was 67. Change in self-reported physical activity (minutes per week) from before TJA (within 1 year of surgery) to after TJA (1-2 years) was the outcome of interest. Patient demographics and comorbidities were evaluated as risk factors. Multiple linear regression was used. Results - Median physical activity before surgery was 50 min/week (IQR: 0-140) for THA patients and 58 (IQR: 3-143) for TKA patients. Median physical activity after surgery was 150 min/week (IQR: 60-280) for both THA patients and TKA patients. Following TJA, 50% of patients met CDC/WHO physical activity guideline criteria. Higher body mass index was associated with lower change in physical activity (THA: -7.1 min/week; TKA: -5.9 min/week). Females had lower change than males (THA: -11 min/week; TKA: -9.1 min/week). In TKA patients, renal failure was associated with lower change (-17 min/week), as were neurological disorders (-30 min/week). Interpretation - Self-reported minutes of physical activity increased from before to after TJA, but 50% of TJA patients did not meet recommended physical activity guideline criteria. Higher body mass index, female sex, and specific comorbidities were found to be associated with low change in physical activity. Patient education on the benefits of physical activity should concentrate on these subgroups of patients.

  11. Factors associated with health related quality of life after a hip or knee total replacement, according to a gender approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio R. López Alonso

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the factors associated with Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL, and Symptoms and Physical Functional Disability (S&PFD after a Hip or Knee Total Replacement, according to a gender approach. A longitudinal cohort study design is performed at “La Merced” (Osuna. Sevilla and “Torrecárdenas” (Almería Hospitals, via telephone interview since October 2004 to November 2006. The study included all people who underwent a hip or knee total replacement. The dependent variables were HRQL and S&PFD, both measured via short versions of the COOP/WONCA and WOMAC questionnaires.Results: 311 people were included, who were mostly women (82,63% and 70 years old (average. The hip and knee replacement obtained an statistically significant improvement on HRQL (20,5% and S&PFD (28,2%, with no gender difference. Five variables were associated to HRQL for Women: HRQL previous to surgery, hospital, local infection as a complication, autonomy for daily living, and marital status. All of them were associated to men, except the last two ones. About S&PFD, six variables were associated for women: HRQL and S&PFD previous to surgery, hospital, local infection as a complication, body mass index and marital status. All of them were associated to men, except the last two ones.Factors associated to improve on HRQL and S&PFD in male population are few, though they find a great explanation of the improvement. Different situation arise on female population because more factors obtained a substantially inferior explanation.

  12. Total and free insulin-like growth factor I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 and acid-labile subunit reflect clinical activity in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Lange, Merete Wolder; Pedersen, L M

    2001-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate, markers of disease activity in acromegaly in relation to perceived disease activity. Thirty-seven consecutively treated, acromegalic patients, classified by clinical symptoms as inactive (n=16), slightly active (n=10) and active (n=11), entered the study. When evaluating......-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) with PV(pos) of 0.69 and 0.71 and PV(neg) of 0.91 and 0.92 respectively. We conclude that free IGF-I is more closely related than total IGF-I to perceived disease activity and is as such useful when evaluating previously treated acromegaly for disease activity...

  13. Social life factors affecting the mortality, longevity, and birth rate of total Japanese population: effects of rapid industrialization and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, S; Uchida, E; Murata, K

    1990-12-01

    To expand upon the findings that lower mortality was found in Japanese urban areas in contrast to the Western model where in the US and Britain the risk of death was higher in metropolitan areas and conurbations, 22 social life indicators are examined among 46 prefectures in Japan in terms of their effect on age specific mortality, life expectancy, and age adjusted marriage, divorce, and birth rates. The effects of these factors on age adjusted mortality for 8 major working and nonworking male populations, where also analyzed. The 22 social life factors were selected from among 227 indicators in the system of Statistical Indicators on Life. Factor analysis was used to classify the indicators into 8 groups of factors for 1970 and 7 for 1975. Factors 1-3 for both years were rural or urban residence, low income and unemployment, and prefectural age distribution. The 4th for 1970 was home help for the elderly and for 1975, social mobility. The social life indicators were classified form 1 to 8 as rural residence in 1970 and 1975, urban residence, low income, high employment, old age, young age, social mobility, and home help for the elderly which moved from 8th place in 1970 to 1st in 1975. Between 1960-75, rapid urbanization took place with the proportion of farmers, fishermen, and workers declining from 43% in 1960 to 19% in 1975. The results of stepwise regression analysis indicate a positive relationship of urban residence with mortality of men and women except school-aged and middle-aged women, and the working populations, as well as life expectancy at birth for males and females and ages 20 and 40 years for males. Rural residence was positively associated with the male marriage rate, whereas the marriage rate for females was affected by industrialization and urbanization. High employment and social mobility were positively related to the female marriage rate. Low income was positively related to the divorce rate for males and females. Rural residence and high

  14. Modifiable Factors Associated with Cognitive Impairment in 1,143 Japanese Outpatients: The Project in Sado for Total Health (PROST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Kitamura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Evidence on modifiable factors associated with cognitive impairment in Japanese patients is scarce. This study aimed to determine modifiable factors for cognitive impairment in a Japanese hospital-based population. Methods: Subjects of this cross-sectional study were 1,143 patients of Sado General Hospital (Niigata, Japan registered in the Project in Sado for Total Health (PROST between June 2008 and September 2014. We assessed disease history, body mass index (BMI, leisure time physical activity, walking time, smoking and drinking habits, and consumption of vegetables, fruits, and green tea as predictors, with cognitive impairment defined by the Mini-Mental State Examination (score Results: The mean subject age was 68.9 years, and the prevalence of cognitive impairment was 21.5%. Multivariate analysis revealed that age (p Conclusions: Modifiable factors, such as low BMI, low fruit consumption, and low green tea consumption, are associated with cognitive impairment. Longitudinal studies will be needed to confirm these findings.

  15. Total-Factor Energy Efficiency (TFEE Evaluation on Thermal Power Industry with DEA, Malmquist and Multiple Regression Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Peng Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Under the background of a new round of power market reform, realizing the goals of energy saving and emission reduction, reducing the coal consumption and ensuring the sustainable development are the key issues for thermal power industry. With the biggest economy and energy consumption scales in the world, China should promote the energy efficiency of thermal power industry to solve these problems. Therefore, from multiple perspectives, the factors influential to the energy efficiency of thermal power industry were identified. Based on the economic, social and environmental factors, a combination model with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and Malmquist index was constructed to evaluate the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE in thermal power industry. With the empirical studies from national and provincial levels, the TFEE index can be factorized into the technical efficiency index (TECH, the technical progress index (TPCH, the pure efficiency index (PECH and the scale efficiency index (SECH. The analysis showed that the TFEE was mainly determined by TECH and PECH. Meanwhile, by panel data regression model, unit coal consumption, talents and government supervision were selected as important indexes to have positive effects on TFEE in thermal power industry. In addition, the negative indexes, such as energy price and installed capacity, were also analyzed to control their undesired effects. Finally, considering the analysis results, measures for improving energy efficiency of thermal power industry were discussed widely, such as strengthening technology research and design (R&D, enforcing pollutant and emission reduction, distributing capital and labor rationally and improving the government supervision. Relative study results and suggestions can provide references for Chinese government and enterprises to enhance the energy efficiency level.

  16. The Impact of the Subsidy Policy on Total Factor Productivity: An Empirical Analysis of China's Cotton Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwen Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops one model to explore the relationship between the subsidy policy and the agricultural total factor productivity (TFP. It indicates that the agricultural TFP will be lower after the subsidy policy is implemented and there exists a negative relation between the subsidy and TFP, if subsidies are associated with the acreage. Using Malmquist index, this paper measures the changes of TFP in China's cotton production before and after the subsidy policy is implemented. The results verify that the subsidy policy could not increase but decrease the TFP of China's cotton production, not only in the whole country but also in major provinces of China. Based on the positive study, some policy implications are provided in the end of this paper.

  17. Cuantificación del factor de crecimiento similar a la insulina (IGF-1) total en tejidos de rata

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Rico; Myriam Sánchez de Gómez

    1998-01-01

    Se establecieron los contenidos totales de IGF-I en algunos tejidos de rata adulta normal (hígado, riñón, corazón, pulmón, timo, bazo y músculo esquelético) por medio de radioinmunoanálisis (RIA) específico. La efectividad de la extracción ácido-etanólica (AE), corrientemente empleada para eliminar la interferencia de las proteínas de unión del IGF-I (IGFBPs) en el análisis del factor en suero, se evaluó para las muestras de tejidos y se comparó con la extracción AE seguida de crioprecipitaci...

  18. Productividad total de factores y reducción de costos en la industria manufacturera mexicana, 1994–-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Nevárez Sida

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza la productividad total de factores en la industria manufacturera mexicana en el periodo de 1994 a 1999. El cambio experimentado por esta variable es interpretado como reducción o incremento real de costos de acuerdo con la metodología propuesta por Harberger (1998. Se logró la identificación de aquellos subsectores y clases industriales que redujeron o aumentaron costos, así como la magnitud de estos cambios en términos monetarios. Las clases industriales que presentan una reducción de costos significativa al interior de un subsector son generalmente pocas, mientras que el resto presenta pequeñas reducciones de costos o incrementos.

  19. Stochastic Frontier Approach and Data Envelopment Analysis to Total Factor Productivity and Efficiency Measurement of Bangladeshi Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md. Kamrul; Kamil, Anton Abdulbasah; Baten, Md. Azizul; Mustafa, Adli

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to apply the Translog Stochastic Frontier production model (SFA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to estimate efficiencies over time and the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth rate for Bangladeshi rice crops (Aus, Aman and Boro) throughout the most recent data available comprising the period 1989–2008. Results indicate that technical efficiency was observed as higher for Boro among the three types of rice, but the overall technical efficiency of rice production was found around 50%. Although positive changes exist in TFP for the sample analyzed, the average growth rate of TFP for rice production was estimated at almost the same levels for both Translog SFA with half normal distribution and DEA. Estimated TFP from SFA is forecasted with ARIMA (2, 0, 0) model. ARIMA (1, 0, 0) model is used to forecast TFP of Aman from DEA estimation. PMID:23077500

  20. Does IQ predict total and cardiovascular disease mortality as strongly as other risk factors? Comparison of effect estimates using the Vietnam Experience Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G D; Shipley, M J; Gale, C R

    2008-01-01

    To compare the strength of the relation of two measurements of IQ and 11 established risk factors with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality.......To compare the strength of the relation of two measurements of IQ and 11 established risk factors with total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality....

  1. Comparative analysis of von Willebrand factor profiles after implantation of left ventricular assist device and total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, H J; Morgan, J; Arabia, F; Czer, L; Moriguchi, J; Ramzy, D; Esmailian, F; Lam, L; Dunhill, J; Volod, O

    2017-08-01

    Essentials Bleeding is a major source of morbidity during mechanical circulatory support. von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimer loss may contribute to bleeding. Different patterns of VWF multimer loss were seen with the two device types. This is the first report of total artificial heart associated VWF multimer loss. Background Bleeding remains a challenge during mechanical circulatory support and underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Functional von Willebrand factor (VWF) impairment because of loss of high-molecular-weight multimers (MWMs) produces acquired von Willebrand disease (VWD) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Little is known about VWF multimers with total artificial hearts (TAHs). Here, VWF profiles with LVADs and TAHs are compared using a VWD panel. Methods VWD evaluations for patients with LVAD or TAH (2013-14) were retrospectively analyzed and included: VWF activity (ristocetin cofactor, VWF:RCo), VWF antigen (VWF:Ag), ratio of VWF:RCo to VWF:Ag, and quantitative VWF multimeric analysis. Results Twelve patients with LVADs and 12 with TAHs underwent VWD evaluation. All had either normal (47.8%) or elevated (52.2%) VWF:RCo, normal (26.1%) or elevated (73.9%) VWF:Ag and 50.0% were disproportional (ratio ≤ 0.7). Multimeric analysis showed abnormal patterns in all patients with LVADs: seven with high MWM loss; five with highest MWM loss. With TAH, 10/12 patients had abnormal patterns: all with highest MWM loss. High MWM loss correlated with presence of LVAD and highest MWM loss with TAH. Increased low MWMs were detected in 22/24. Conclusion Using VWF multimeric analysis, abnormalities after LVAD or TAH were detected that would be missed with measurements of VWF level alone: loss of high MWM predominantly in LVAD, loss of highest MWM in TAH, and elevated levels of low MWM in both. This is the first study to describe TAH-associated highest MWM loss, which may contribute to bleeding. © 2017 International Society on Thrombosis and

  2. Blood transfusion in primary total shoulder arthroplasty: incidence, trends, and risk factors in the United States from 2000 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Devon J; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Zuckerman, Joseph D

    2015-05-01

    Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) may be associated with substantial blood loss, and some patients require perioperative blood transfusion. Possible blood transfusion methods include predonated autologous blood transfusion, perioperative autologous blood transfusion, and allogeneic blood transfusion (ALBT). The purposes of the present study were to assess the incidence and recent trends over time of blood transfusion in TSA and analyze patient and hospital characteristics that affect the risk of ALBT. This study used national hospital discharge data from the National Inpatient Sample between 2000 and 2009. The data were used to generate the overall blood transfusion rate, and linear regression was used to assess trends in transfusion patterns over time. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze which patient and hospital characteristics independently influence the likelihood that a given patient undergoes ALBT. The overall blood transfusion rate (ie, the proportion of patients who received at least 1 transfusion of any kind) was 6.7%. This rate increased over time, from 4.9% in 2000 to 7.1% in 2009 (P blood transfusion rate in TSA found in the present study may be related to factors specific to TSA, such as the introduction of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty during the study period. A variety of patient and hospital characteristics contribute to the risk of undergoing ALBT. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Quality of Outcome after Primary Total Hip Replacement at a Maximum Care Hospital in Relation to Preoperative Influencing Factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanski-Zenk, K; Steinig, N S; Glass, Ä; Mittelmeier, W; Bader, R

    2015-12-01

    As the need for joint replacements will continue to rise, the outcome of primary total hip replacement (THR) must be improved and stabilised at a high level. In this study, we investigated whether pre-operative risk factors, such as gender, age and body weight at the time of the surgery or a restricted physical status (ASA-Status > 2 or Kellgren and Lawrence grade > 2) have a negative influence on the post-operative results or on patient satisfaction. Retrospective data collection and a prospective interview were performed with 486 patients who underwent primary total hip replacement between January 2007 and December 2010 in our hospital. The patients' satisfaction and quality of life were surveyed with the WOMAC-Score, SF-36 and EuroQol-5. Differences between more than two independent spot tests were tested with the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Differences between two independent spot tests were tested with the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. The frequencies were reported and odds ratios calculated. The confidence interval was set at 95 %. The level of significance was p total score of the SF-36 was 66.9 points. The patients declared an average EuroQol Index of 0.81. Our data show that the patients' gender did not influence the duration of surgery or the scores. However, female patients tended to exhibit more postoperative complications. However, increased patient age at the time of surgery was associated with an increased OR for duration of surgery, length of stay and risk of complications. Patients who had a normal body weight at time of the surgery showed better peri- and post-operative results. We showed that the preoperative estimated Kellgren and Lawrence grade had a significant influence on the duration of surgery. The ASA classification influenced the duration of surgery as well the length of stay and the rate of complications. The quality of results after primary THR depends on preoperative factors. Existing comorbidities have a

  4. Cuantificación del factor de crecimiento similar a la insulina (IGF-1 total en tejidos de rata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rico

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Se establecieron los contenidos totales de IGF-I en algunos tejidos de rata adulta normal (hígado, riñón, corazón, pulmón, timo, bazo y músculo esquelético por medio de radioinmunoanálisis (RIA específico. La efectividad de la extracción ácido-etanólica (AE, corrientemente empleada para eliminar la interferencia de las proteínas de unión del IGF-I (IGFBPs en el análisis del factor en suero, se evaluó para las muestras de tejidos y se comparó con la extracción AE seguida de crioprecipitación (AEC. Los resultados mostraron que la extracción AE no permite remover completamente las IGFBPs y que con el paso adicional de crioprecipitación se libera aproximadamente 20% más de IGF-I de los tejidos. Finalmente, por medio de RIA se estableció la distribución tisular de este factor de crecimiento en rata. El método aquí descrito puede aplicarse en estudios de regulación metabólica o nutricional del IGF-l.

  5. Factors Predicting Difficulty of Laparoscopic Low Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer with Total Mesorectal Excision and Double Stapling Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Chen

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic sphincter-preserving low anterior resection for rectal cancer is a surgery demanding great skill. Immense efforts have been devoted to identifying factors that can predict operative difficulty, but the results are inconsistent.Our study was conducted to screen patients' factors to build models for predicting the operative difficulty using well controlled data.We retrospectively reviewed records of 199 consecutive patients who had rectal cancers 5-8 cm from the anal verge. All underwent laparoscopic sphincter-preserving low anterior resections with total mesorectal excision (TME and double stapling technique (DST. Data of 155 patients from one surgeon were utilized to build models to predict standardized endpoints (operative time, blood loss and postoperative morbidity. Data of 44 patients from other surgeons were used to test the predictability of the built models.Our results showed prior abdominal surgery, preoperative chemoradiotherapy, tumor distance to anal verge, interspinous distance, and BMI were predictors for the standardized operative times. Gender and tumor maximum diameter were related to the standardized blood loss. Temporary diversion and tumor diameter were predictors for postoperative morbidity. The model constructed for the operative time demonstrated excellent predictability for patients from different surgeons.With a well-controlled patient population, we have built a predictable model to estimate operative difficulty. The standardized operative time will make it possible to significantly increase sample size and build more reliable models to predict operative difficulty for clinical use.

  6. Case-related factors affecting cutting errors of the proximal tibia in total knee arthroplasty assessed by computer navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukeoka, Tadashi; Tsuneizumi, Yoshikazu; Yoshino, Kensuke; Suzuki, Mashiko

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine factors that contribute to bone cutting errors of conventional instrumentation for tibial resection in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) as assessed by an image-free navigation system. The hypothesis is that preoperative varus alignment is a significant contributory factor to tibial bone cutting errors. This was a prospective study of a consecutive series of 72 TKAs. The amount of the tibial first-cut errors with reference to the planned cutting plane in both coronal and sagittal planes was measured by an image-free computer navigation system. Multiple regression models were developed with the amount of tibial cutting error in the coronal and sagittal planes as dependent variables and sex, age, disease, height, body mass index, preoperative alignment, patellar height (Insall-Salvati ratio) and preoperative flexion angle as independent variables. Multiple regression analysis showed that sex (male gender) (R = 0.25 p = 0.047) and preoperative varus alignment (R = 0.42, p = 0.001) were positively associated with varus tibial cutting errors in the coronal plane. In the sagittal plane, none of the independent variables was significant. When performing TKA in varus deformity, careful confirmation of the bone cutting surface should be performed to avoid varus alignment. The results of this study suggest technical considerations that can help a surgeon achieve more accurate component placement. IV.

  7. Multiscale weighted colored graphs for protein flexibility and rigidity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramer, David; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2018-02-01

    Protein structural fluctuation, measured by Debye-Waller factors or B-factors, is known to correlate to protein flexibility and function. A variety of methods has been developed for protein Debye-Waller factor prediction and related applications to domain separation, docking pose ranking, entropy calculation, hinge detection, stability analysis, etc. Nevertheless, none of the current methodologies are able to deliver an accuracy of 0.7 in terms of the Pearson correlation coefficients averaged over a large set of proteins. In this work, we introduce a paradigm-shifting geometric graph model, multiscale weighted colored graph (MWCG), to provide a new generation of computational algorithms to significantly change the current status of protein structural fluctuation analysis. Our MWCG model divides a protein graph into multiple subgraphs based on interaction types between graph nodes and represents the protein rigidity by generalized centralities of subgraphs. MWCGs not only predict the B-factors of protein residues but also accurately analyze the flexibility of all atoms in a protein. The MWCG model is validated over a number of protein test sets and compared with many standard methods. An extensive numerical study indicates that the proposed MWCG offers an accuracy of over 0.8 and thus provides perhaps the first reliable method for estimating protein flexibility and B-factors. It also simultaneously predicts all-atom flexibility in a molecule.

  8. Segmental translation after lumbar total disc replacement using Prodisc-L®: associated factors and relation to facet arthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myung H; Ryu, Kyeong S; Rathi, Nitesh K; Park, Chun K

    2017-02-01

    Segmental translation after lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) with ProDisc-L® prosthesis frequently observed radiographic findings during follow-up period. However its precise pathomechanism and relation with facet arthrosis have not been investigated yet. This study was performed to evaluate possible factors that affect postoperative segmental translation and to identify its relation with facet joint degeneration after lumbar TDR using ProDisc-L® prosthesis. Thirty-five consecutive patients, who underwent lumbar TDR using ProDisc-L®, completed minimum 24 months follow-up. Segmental translation was assessed postoperatively at 1 month and at least at 24 months by using dynamic plain radiograph. Segmental translation was assessed in relation to patient age, sex, change of functional spinal unit (FSU) height, segmental range of motion (ROM), global lumbar ROM, implanted level, relative prosthesis size and prosthesis position. The comparison of segmental translation between progressive facet arthrosis (PFA) group and non-PFA group was also made. The mean segmental translation was 0.49±0.49 mm at 1 month after surgery and showed significant increase to 0.83±0.78 mm at last follow-up (P=0.014). Change of FSU height, segmental ROM, global lumbar ROM, implanted level and relative size of prosthesis were the significant factors among the variables related to segmental translation that authors assessed (P=0.032, P=0.000, P=0.001, P=0.046 and P=0.042, respectively). There was no significant intergroup difference of mean segmental translation between PFA group and non-PFA group (P=0.586). This study demonstrates that segmental translation after TDR using ProDisc-L® has significant relations with change of FSU height, segmental ROM, global lumbar ROM, implanted level and relative size of prosthesis. With the intergroup comparison, PFA group did not show significant higher segmental translation than non-PFA group.

  9. [Distributions and influencing factors of total dissolved inorganic antimony in the coastal area of Zhejiang and Fujian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Zhou; Ren, Jing-Ling; Liu, Zong-Guang; Fan, Xiao-Peng; Liu, Cheng-Gang; Wu, Ying

    2014-02-01

    Antimony has been ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment as a toxic and rare metalloid element. The contamination of antimony and its compounds in the environment is increasingly severe, so it has been received extensive attention by the international scientific community. The cruise was carried out in the coastal area of Zhejiang and Fujian provinces in the East China Sea (ECS) in May 2008. The concentrations of total dissolved inorganic antimony (TDISb) were measured by Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence (HG-AFS). The concentration ranges of TDISb in the surface and bottom layer were 0.68-5.64 nmol x L(-1) and 0.71-5.25 nmol x L(-1) with averages of 2.25 and 1.79 nmol x L(-1), respectively. The concentration of TDISb in the study area was lower than the environmental quality standards for surface water of China and drinking water standards of World Health Organization (about 41.08 nmol x L(-1)), indicating that it remained at the pristine level. The concentration of TDISb decreased gradually from the coastal area to the central ECS shelf with higher concentration in the surface layer than the bottom. Water mass mixing, adsorption/desorption behavior on the surface of the suspended particulate matters (SPM) and biological activities were the main influence factors of TDISb biogeochemistry in the study area.

  10. Total-Factor Energy Efficiency in BRI Countries: An Estimation Based on Three-Stage DEA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhong Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI is showing its great influence and leadership on the international energy cooperation. Based on the three-stage DEA model, total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE in 35 BRI countries in 2015 was measured in this article. It shows that the three-stage DEA model could eliminate errors of environment variable and random, which made the result better than traditional DEA model. When environment variable errors and random errors were eliminated, the mean value of TFEE was declined. It demonstrated that TFEE of the whole sample group was overestimated because of external environment impacts and random errors. The TFEE indicators of high-income countries like South Korea, Singapore, Israel and Turkey are 1, which is in the efficiency frontier. The TFEE indicators of Russia, Saudi Arabia, Poland and China are over 0.8. And the indicators of Uzbekistan, Ukraine, South Africa and Bulgaria are in a low level. The potential of energy-saving and emissions reduction is great in countries with low TFEE indicators. Because of the gap in energy efficiency, it is necessary to distinguish different countries in the energy technology options, development planning and regulation in BRI countries.

  11. Which Clinical and Patient Factors Influence the National Economic Burden of Hospital Readmissions After Total Joint Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Steven M; Lau, Edmund C; Ong, Kevin L; Adler, Edward M; Kolisek, Frank R; Manley, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    The Affordable Care Act of 2010 advanced the economic model of bundled payments for total joint arthroplasty (TJA), in which hospitals will be financially responsible for readmissions, typically at 90 days after surgery. However, little is known about the financial burden of readmissions and what patient, clinical, and hospital factors drive readmission costs. (1) What is the incidence, payer mix, and demographics of THA and TKA readmissions in the United States? (2) What patient, clinical, and hospital factors are associated with the cost of 30- and 90-day readmissions after primary THA and TKA? (3) Are there any differences in the economic burden of THA and TKA readmissions between payers? (4) What types of THA and TKA readmissions are most costly to the US hospital system? The recently developed Nationwide Readmissions Database from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (2006 hospitals from 21 states) was used to identify 719,394 primary TJAs and 62,493 90-day readmissions in the first 9 months of 2013 based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes. We classified the reasons for readmissions as either procedure- or medical-related. Cost-to-charge ratios supplied with the Nationwide Readmissions Database were used to compute the individual per-patient cost of 90-day readmissions as a continuous variable in separate general linear models for THA and TKA. Payer, patient, clinical, and hospital factors were treated as covariates. We estimated the national burden of readmissions by payer and by the reason for readmission. The national rates of 30- and 90-day readmissions after THA were 4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.2%-4.5%) and 8% (95% CI, 7.5%-8.1%), respectively. The national rates of 30- and 90-day readmissions after primary TKA were 4% (95% CI, 3.8%-4.0%) and 7% (95% CI, 6.8%-7.2%), respectively. The five most important variables responsible for the cost of 90-day THA readmissions (in rank order, based

  12. Biological and life-history factors affecting total mercury concentrations in Arctic charr from Heintzelman Lake, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velden, Shannon van der; Reist, James D.; Babaluk, John A.; Power, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A snapshot sample of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from Heintzelman Lake (81°42′N, 66°56′W), Ellesmere Island, Canada was used to elucidate the biological and life-history factors potentially influencing individual total mercury (THg) concentrations. Migratory history was significant, with anadromous fish having a lower mean THg concentration (64 μg/kg ww) than the non-anadromous Arctic charr (117 μg/kg ww). The increase in individual THg concentration with age was shown to be independent of length-at-age when large and small individuals within the same age groups were compared. Similarly, the diets of individual Arctic charr were comparable regardless of size, and there was no apparent ontogenetic shift in diet that could explain differences in length-at-age or THg concentration among fast- and slow-growing groups of fish (i.e., fish of the same age but differing sizes). Maturity state was also not related to THg concentration, but appears to be related to differences in length-at-age, with slow-growing fish allocating more energy to reproduction than fast-growing conspecifics. The differences in THg concentration among individual Arctic charr were best explained by fish age. We suggest that the increase in mercury concentration with age can be altered by a shift in diet (e.g., to piscivory) or habitat (e.g., anadromy), but is otherwise unaffected by changes in size or length-at-age. -- Highlights: ► Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) were measured in Arctic charr from a single lake in the Canadian high Arctic. ► Anadromous Arctic charr had a significantly lower mean [THg] (64 μg/kg ww) than the non-anadromous fish (117 μg/kg ww). ► Length-at-age (i.e., average somatic growth rate) was not related to mean [THg] when same-age groups were compared. ► Prey resource use, determined by δ 13 C and δ 15 N isotopes and gut contents, was similar among fast- and slow-growing fish. ► Maturity state was not related to [THg], but the slow

  13. Methodology to quantify the role of the factors controlling the variation of rivers' total dissolved solids in Jiu Catchment (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adina Morosanu, Gabriela; Zaharia, Liliana; Ioana-Toroimac, Gabriela; Belleudy, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The total dissolved solids (TDS) is a river water quality parameter reflecting its concentration in solute ions. It is sensitive to many physical and anthropogenic features of the watershed. In this context, the objective of this work is to analyze the spatial variation of the TDS and to identify the role of the main controlling factors (e.g. geology, soils, land use) in Jiu River and some of its main tributaries, by using a methodology based on GIS and multivariate analysis. The Jiu watershed (10,000 kmp) is located in south-western Romania and it has a high diversity of physical and anthropogenic features influencing the water flow and its quality. The study is based on TDS measurements performed in August, 2016, during low flow conditions in the Jiu River and its tributaries. To measure in situ the TDS (ppm), an EC/TDS/Temperature Hand-held Tester was used in the 12 measuring points on Jiu River and in another 7 points on some of its tributaries. Across the hydrographic basin, the recorded TDS values ranged from 31 ppm to 607 ppm, while in the case of Jiu River, the TDS varied between 38 ppm at Lonea station (upper Jiu River) and 314 ppm at Išalniča (in the lower course). For each catchment corresponding to the sampling points, the influence of some contiguous features was defined on the basis of the lithology (marls, limestones, erodible bedrocks) and soils (clay textures), as well as the land cover/use influencing the solubility and solid content. This assessment was carried out in GIS through a set of spatial statistics analysis by calculating the percentages of the catchment coverage area for each determinant. In order to identify the contributions of different catchment features on the TDS variability, principal components analysis (PCA) was then applied. The results revealed the major role of the marls and clayey soils in the increase of TDS (on the Amaradia and Gilort rivers and some sections in the middle course of the Jiu River). In contrast

  14. Total working period and other risk factors related to eating protein foods habits among civil pilots in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Imelda Hutabarat

    2017-07-01

    pilots in Indonesia. Methods: A cross-sectional study using secondary data from the survey of eating, drinking and physical exercise habits among civilian pilots in Indonesia 2016. Data collected were demographic characteristics, physical exercise habits, smoking habits, knowledge, body mass index and flight characteristics. Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the dominant factors associated with protein eating habits. Results: Among 528 pilots aged 19-64 years, 194 (36.74% pilots had excessive protein eating habits . Long working period and body mass index were the dominant risk factors associated with protein eating habit in pilots. Compared to pilots with 1-9 years working period, pilots with 10-40 years working period had 35% lower risk of excessive protein eating habits (RRA = 0.65; 95% CI 0:49 - 0.87. Compared to pilots with normal body mass index, overweight pilots had 34% lower risk of excessive protein eating habits (RRA = 0.66; 95% CI 0:47 - 0.93. Conclusion: Long working period and overweight were protective factors from the risk of excessive protein eating habits Keywords: protein eating habits, total working periode, body mass index, civilian pilots Indonesia

  15. Assessment of the implementation of community-led total sanitation, hygiene, and associated factors in Diretiyara district, Eastern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roba Argaw Tessema

    Full Text Available Based on the sustainable development goals, the United Nations plans to achieve equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and to end open defecation by 2030. In Ethiopia, 60% to 80% of health problems are due to communicable diseases attributable to unsafe water supply, unhygienic and unsanitary waste management, which are directly linked to the practice of open defecation. This study has aimed at assessing the implementation of community-led total sanitation and hygiene (CLTSH and associated factors. A community-based cross-sectional study design involving 420 of the 7,225 households found in Diretiyara district was conducted in June 2014. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. Using Logistic Regressions, bivariate and multivariate analyses were computed. This study showed that 66% of the respondents have knowledge of CLTSH. Eighty-nine percent of the respondents have latrine, of which 78% were constructed after the introduction of CLTSH. Eleven percent of the respondents reported to have defected in the open field and 15% of them reported that they had been recently exposed to diarrhea diseases. The occurrence of diarrheal disease was significantly associated with the extent of latrine ownership [AOR = 2.48; 95% CI 1.00, 6.12]. Attitude and perception parameters were significantly associated with consistent latrine utilization. Respondents who agreed that "Open defecation is preferred due to the unpleasant smell and heat from the Latrine'' [COR = 0.58; 95% CI 0.34, 0.99] were 58% less likely to use the latrine consistently. In conclusion, CLTSH has increased the extent of latrine ownership and decreased practice of open defecation, and yet, intermittent latrine use and poor hygienic practice were reported. Although some fundamental misconceptions were reported, the majority of the respondents have accepted CLTSH approach as a means to ending open defecation in their village. Health extension workers and local authorities should

  16. [Clinical factors and findings in knee arthroscopy of patients with knee arthrosis candidates for conversion to total replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, D; Calvo, R; Villalón, I; Tuca, M J; Vaisman, A; Valdés, M

    2013-01-01

    To identify those clinical characteristic and arthroscopic findings in patients with knee arthrosis that are associated with worsening of the disease and subsequent total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A retrospective, descriptive study was conducted on 78 consecutive patients (88 knees) who underwent knee arthroscopy for arthrosis. The study included 44 women and 34 men, with a mean age of 58.9 years (range: 37-78 years). After a mean follow-up of 50.4 months (range: 12-96 months), those patients who progressed towards TKA were identified. A logistic regression model was applied to recognise the factors associated with deterioration of the arthrosis, with consequent progression towards a TKA. Twenty-four out of the 88 knees progressed towards a TKA (27.3%) within a mean time of 13.5 months after arthroscopy (range: 13-29 months). The clinical characteristics that showed a significant association with poor progression of the arthrosis were: female gender (0.02) and Ahlbäck 2 (P=.04). Arthroscopic finding that proved significant correlation with worsening of the arthrosis towards TKA were: meniscal tears of the posterior horn (P=.02), meniscectomies above 60% (P=.03), and 2nd degree chondral lesions in loading areas of the medial femoral condyle (P=.02). The variables associated with a greater chance of progressing towards a TKA after a knee arthroscopy due to arthrosis in this study were, female gender, grade 2 radiographic arthrosis, posterior horn meniscal lesions, meniscectomies over 60%, and chondral lesions in loading area of the medial femoral condyle. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Total motile sperm count: a better indicator for the severity of male factor infertility than the WHO sperm classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J A M; Cissen, M; Brandes, M; Smeenk, J M J; de Bruin, J P; Kremer, J A M; Nelen, W L D M; Hamilton, C J C M

    2015-05-01

    Does the prewash total motile sperm count (TMSC) have a better predictive value for spontaneous ongoing pregnancy (SOP) than the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system? The prewash TMSC shows a better correlation with the spontaneous ongoing pregnancy rate (SOPR) than the WHO 2010 classification system. According to the WHO classification system, an abnormal semen analysis can be diagnosed as oligozoospermia, astenozoospermia, teratozoospermia or combinations of these and azoospermia. This classification is based on the fifth percentile cut-off values of a cohort of 1953 men with proven fertility. Although this classification suggests accuracy, the relevance for the prognosis of an infertile couple and the choice of treatment is questionable. The TMSC is obtained by multiplying the sample volume by the density and the percentage of A and B motility spermatozoa. We analyzed data from a longitudinal cohort study among unselected infertile couples who were referred to three Dutch hospitals between January 2002 and December 2006. Of the total cohort of 2476 infertile couples, only the couples with either male infertility as a single diagnosis or unexplained infertility were included (n = 1177) with a follow-up period of 3 years. In all couples a semen analysis was performed. Based on the best semen analysis if more tests were performed, couples were grouped according to the WHO classification system and the TMSC range, as described in the Dutch national guidelines for male infertility. The primary outcome measure was the SOPR, which occurred before, during or after treatments, including expectant management, intrauterine insemination, in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. After adjustment for the confounding factors (female and male age, duration and type of infertility and result of the postcoital test) the odd ratios (ORs) for risk of SOP for each WHO and TMSC group were calculated. The couples with unexplained infertility were

  18. Biological variation and reference intervals for circulating osteopontin, osteoprotegerin, total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennels, H P; Jacobsen, Søren; Jensen, T

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Monitoring inflammatory diseases and osteoclastogenesis with osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), total soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (total sRANKL) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) has recently attracted increased interest. The purpose...

  19. Influence of risk factors on stomal recurrence after total laryngectomy for laryngeal carcinomas: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In this study, we proved that subglottic location, advanced tumor stage, especially T4 stage, and preoperative tracheostomy were risk factors for SRAL for larynx cancer. However, many other potential risk factors, such as surgical margins, could not be determined for inadequate records. Hence, more prospective trials should be designed to determine the risk factors for SRAL for larynx cancer.

  20. Combined impact of lifestyle-related factors on total and cause-specific mortality among Chinese women: prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah J Nechuta; Xiao-Ou Shu; Hong-Lan Li; Gong Yang; Yong-Bing Xiang; Hui Cai; Wong-Ho Chow; Butian Ji; Xianglan Zhang; Wanqing Wen; Yu-Tang Gao; Wei Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background It is well established that lifestyle-related factors, such as limited physical activity, unhealthy diets, excessive alcohol consumption, and exposure to tobacco smoke are linked to an increased risk of many chronic diseases and premature death. However, few studies have investigated the combined impact of lifestyle-related factors and mortality outcomes, and most of such studies of combinations of established lifestyle factors and mortality have been conducted in ...

  1. Total motile sperm count: a better indicator for the severity of male factor infertility than the WHO sperm classification system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamilton, J.A.; Cissen, M.; Brandes, M.; Smeenk, J.M.; Bruin, J.P. de; Kremer, J.A.M.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Hamilton, C.J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does the prewash total motile sperm count (TMSC) have a better predictive value for spontaneous ongoing pregnancy (SOP) than the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system? SUMMARY ANSWER: The prewash TMSC shows a better correlation with the spontaneous ongoing pregnancy

  2. Endocrine factors related to changes in total peripheral vascular resistance after treatment of thyrotoxic and hypothyroid patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, M. J.; Harms, M. P.; Endert, E.; Wieling, W.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR) decreases in thyrotoxicosis and increases in hypothyroidism. Several mechanisms may be involved, including adaptation to changes in heat production and direct non-genomic effects of tri-iodothyronine (T3) on vascular smooth muscle cells. The aim of this

  3. Occupational and behavioural factors in the explanation of social inequalities in premature and total mortality: a 12.5-year follow-up in the Lorhandicap study

    OpenAIRE

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; Bourgkard, Eve; Chau, Nearkasen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The respective contribution of occupational and behavioural factors to social disparities in all-cause mortality has been studied very seldom. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of occupational and behavioural factors in explaining social inequalities in premature and total mortality in the French working population. The study population consisted of a sample of 2,189 and 1,929 French working men and women, who responded to a self-administered questionnai...

  4. THE FACTORS AFFECTING ON THE SUCCESS OF IMPLEMENTING TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE IN THE MANUFACTURING COMPANY (NS BLUESCOPE VIETNAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Pham Van Tai (PhD)*, Dean of International Trade, College of Foreign Economic Relations Phan Cao Huy (MBA), Technical Manager, Bosch Vietnam

    2017-01-01

    The competition in business environment becomes more strictly, manufacturers must introduce lots of new products on the high quality level with suitable price. Thus, new technologies have been applied, manufacturing systems become more complex. Therefore, a new strategy for maintenance such as Total productive maintenance (TPM) becomes really necessary. Many organizations have implemented TPM to increase the effectiveness of manufacturing system. However, implementation of TPM still meets a l...

  5. Gene copy number reduction in the azoospermia factor c (AZFc) region and its effect on total motile sperm count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordam, Michiel J.; Westerveld, G. Henrike; Hovingh, Suzanne E.; van Daalen, Saskia K. M.; Korver, Cindy M.; van der Veen, Fulco; van Pelt, Ans M. M.; Repping, Sjoerd

    2011-01-01

    The azoospermia factor c (AZFc) region harbors multi-copy genes that are expressed in the testis. Deletions of the AZFc region lead to reduced copy numbers of these genes. Four (partial) AZFc deletions have been described of which the b2/b4 and gr/gr deletions affect semen quality. In most studies,

  6. Differential changes in free and total insulin-like growth factor I after major, elective abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjærbæk, Christian; Frystyk, Jan; Ørskov, Hans

    1998-01-01

    Major surgery is accompanied by extensive proteolysis of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3). Proteolysis of IGFBP-3 is generally believed to increase IGF bioavailability due to a diminished affinity of the IGFBP-3 fragments for IGFs. We have investigated 18 patients...... undergoing elective ileo-anal J-pouch surgery. Patients were randomized to treatment with GH (12 IU/day; n = 9) or placebo (n = 9) from 2 days before to 7 days after operation. Free IGF-I and IGF-II were measured by ultrafiltration of serum, and IGFBP-3 proteolytic activity was determined by a [125I...

  7. Assessment and Decomposition of Total Factor Energy Efficiency: An Evidence Based on Energy Shadow Price in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peihao Lai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available By adopting an energy-input based directional distance function, we calculated the shadow price of four types of energy (i.e., coal, oil, gas and electricity among 30 areas in China from 1998 to 2012. Moreover, a macro-energy efficiency index in China was estimated and divided into intra-provincial technical efficiency, allocation efficiency of energy input structure and inter-provincial energy allocation efficiency. It shows that total energy efficiency has decreased in recent years, where intra-provincial energy technical efficiency drops markedly and extensive mode of energy consumption rises. However, energy structure and allocation improves slowly. Meanwhile, lacking an integrated energy market leads to the loss of energy efficiency. Further improvement of market allocation and structure adjustment play a pivotal role in the increase of energy efficiency.

  8. Psychiatric Disorders and Psychopharmacologic Treatment as Risk Factors in Elective Fast-track Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Knop, Joachim; Nordentoft, Merete

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorder (PsD) is rarely considered when evaluating perioperative risk factors. Studies on PsD are often limited by use of administrative coding, incomplete follow-up, and lack of preoperative data on psychopharmacological treatment. METHODS: A multicenter study with prosp......BACKGROUND: Psychiatric disorder (PsD) is rarely considered when evaluating perioperative risk factors. Studies on PsD are often limited by use of administrative coding, incomplete follow-up, and lack of preoperative data on psychopharmacological treatment. METHODS: A multicenter study...... inhibitors (SSRIs), 31.6% used other antidepressants, 8.5% used a combination, and 16.5% used antipsychotics. PsD was associated with increased risk of LOS more than 4 days (16.5 vs. 7.3%; odds ratio, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.52 to 2.37), regardless of treatment with SSRIs (2.19; 1.62 to 2.97), other antidepressants...... (2.24; 1.51 to 3.32 and 1.82; 1.27 to 2.61), and antipsychotics (1.85; 1.03 to 3.31, 30 days only). In PsD patients, pain (1.4%), postoperative anemia (1.1%), and pulmonary complications (1.1%) were the most frequent causes of LOS more than 4 days. Hip displacements (2.8%) and falls (1.9%) were...

  9. The Scale, Structure and Influencing Factors of Total Carbon Emissions from Households in 30 Provinces of China—Based on the Extended STIRPAT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Household carbon emissions are important components of total carbon emissions. The consumer side of energy-saving emissions reduction is an essential factor in reducing carbon emissions. In this paper, the carbon emissions coefficient method and Consumer Lifestyle Approach (CLA were used to calculate the total carbon emissions of households in 30 provinces of China from 2006 to 2015, and based on the extended Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT model, the factors influencing the total carbon emissions of households were analyzed. The results indicated that, first, over the past ten years, the energy and products carbon emissions from China’s households have demonstrated a rapid growth trend and that regional distributions present obvious differences. Second, China’s energy carbon emissions due to household consumption primarily derived from the residents’ consumption of electricity and coal; China’s products household carbon emissions primarily derived from residents’ consumption of the high carbon emission categories: residences, food, transportation and communications. Third, in terms of influencing factors, the number of households in China plays a significant role in the total carbon emissions of China’s households. The ratio of children 0–14 years old and gender ratio (female = 100 are two factors that reflect the demographic structure, have significant effects on the total carbon emissions of China’s households, and are all positive. Gross Domestic Product (GDP per capita plays a role in boosting the total carbon emissions of China’s households. The effect of the carbon emission intensity on total household carbon emissions is positive. The industrial structure (the proportion of secondary industries’ added value to the regional GDP has curbed the growth of total carbon emissions from China’s household consumption. The results of this study provide data to support the

  10. Serum Levels Of Free And Total Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-1 And IGF Binding Protein-3 In Normal And Growth Hormone Deficient Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shousha, M.A.; Soliman, S.E.T.; Hafez, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect the endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 pre-pubertal GH deficient (GHD) children to study the correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97-1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the pre-pubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD were decreased significantly with increasing the degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

  11. Serum levels of free and total insulin-link growth factor (IGF)-1 and (IGF) binding protein-3 in normal and growth hormone deficient children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shousha, M.A.; Soliman, S.E.T.; Hafez, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor- 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening GH deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 prepubertal GH. deficient (GHD) children to study correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97. 1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the prepubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD decreased significantly with increasing degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

  12. On the total absorption cross-section of galaxies - II: The case of λ cosmologies and covering factor variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we expand the previous discussion of the plausibility of hypothesis of origin of the Lyα forest absorption systems in haloes of normal galaxies in connection with the HubbleDeepField (HDF data. It is shown that simplistic approach to absorption cross-sections of galaxies with no luminosity scaling is in strong violation of empirical statistics up to redshift of z ∼ 3.5. Realistic variation of the covering factor in order to account for its increase in the inner parts of observed haloes leads to even bigger discrepancy. Cosmologies with finite cosmological constant are briefly discussed and compared to Λ = 0 case. Ways to improve agreement with observational data are indicated. This problem is highly illustrative of the basic tenets of modern observational cosmology.

  13. Cardboard proportions and total solids contents as driving factors in dry co-fermentation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Bernet, Nicolas; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the co-substrate proportions (0-60% of cardboard in dry basis) and the initial total solid contents (20-40%) on the batch fermentation performance. Maximum hydrogen yields were obtained when mono-fermenting food waste at high solids contents (89mlH 2 ·gVS -1 ). The hydrogen yields were lower when increasing the proportions of cardboard. The lower hydrogen yields at higher proportions of cardboard were translated into higher yields of caproic acid (up to 70.1gCOD·kgCOD bio -1 ), produced by consumption of acetic acid and hydrogen. The highest substrate conversions were achieved at low proportions of cardboard, indicating a stabilization effect due to higher buffering capacities in co-fermentation. Clostridiales were predominant in all operational conditions. This study opens up new possibilities for using the cardboard proportions for controlling the production of high added-value products in dry co-fermentation of food waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute Toxicity of Captan on Blood Factors Total Immunoglobulin, Liver, and Gill Tissues of Fingerling Grass Carps: Ctenopharyngodon idella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mohammadalikhani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of fungicides, including captan, used in gardens and farms are washed into the aquatic environments. These compounds can lead to extensive side effects on the inhabitants living in that exposed area. In this research, toxicity of captan on fingerling grass carps (3-5 g was studied. Based on the results, captan was categorized as an acute toxin with LC5096h and MAC values of 0.9 and 0.09 mg/ml, respectively. This toxin damaged severely the gills and liver of fishes and the toxic severity increased in higher doses of the toxin. Furthermore, hematochemical studies showed significant drops in all red blood cell criteria, except for MCH (mean corpuscular haemoglobin and MCV (mean corpuscular volume. Besides, captan decreased significantly the total immunoglobulin and white blood cell counts, except for monocytes and neutrophils. As a conclusion, captan causes detrimental effects on several tissues of Ctenopharyngodon idella, and therefore limited utilisation of this fungicide is recommended strongly.

  15. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  16. Empirical Study on Total Factor Productive Energy Efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region-Analysis based on Malmquist Index and Window Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Ding, Shuai; An, Jingwen

    2017-12-01

    This paper studies the energy efficiency of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and to finds out the trend of energy efficiency in order to improve the economic development quality of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Based on Malmquist index and window analysis model, this paper estimates the total factor energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region empirically by using panel data in this region from 1991 to 2014, and provides the corresponding political recommendations. The empirical result shows that, the total factor energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region increased from 1991 to 2014, mainly relies on advances in energy technology or innovation, and obvious regional differences in energy efficiency to exist. Throughout the window period of 24 years, the regional differences of energy efficiency in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region shrank. There has been significant convergent trend in energy efficiency after 2000, mainly depends on the diffusion and spillover of energy technologies.

  17. Analysis of regional total factor energy efficiency in China under environmental constraints: based on undesirable-minds and DEA window model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuying; Li, Deshan; Li, Shuangqiang; Jiang, Hanyu; Shen, Yuqing

    2017-06-01

    With China’s entrance into the new economy, the improvement of energy efficiency has become an important indicator to measure the quality of ecological civilization construction and economic development. According to the panel data of Chinese regions in 1996-2014, the nearest distance to the efficient frontier of Undesirable-MinDS Xeon model and DEA window model have been used to calculate the total factor energy efficiency of China’s regions. Study found that: Under environmental constraints, China’s total factor energy efficiency has increased after the first drop in the overall 1996-2014, and then increases again. And the difference between the regions is very large, showing a characteristic of “the east is the highest, the west is lower, and lowest is in the central” finally, this paper puts forward relevant policy suggestions.

  18. Risk factors for post-operative periprosthetic fractures following primary total hip arthroplasty with a proximally coated double-tapered cementless femoral component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, K; Bersang, A; Nielsen, C S

    2017-01-01

    ratio were recorded post-operatively. Periprosthetic fractures were identified and classified according to the Vancouver classification. Regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for early periprosthetic fracture. RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 713 days (1 to 2058). A total of 48......AIMS: The aim of this study was to identify patient- and surgery-related risk factors for sustaining an early periprosthetic fracture following primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) performed using a double-tapered cementless femoral component (Bi-Metric femoral stem; Biomet Inc., Warsaw, Indiana...... periprosthetic fractures (3.0%) were identified during the follow-up and median time until fracture was 16 days, (interquartile range 10 to 31.5). Patients with femoral Dorr type C had a 5.2 times increased risk of post-operative periprosthetic fracture compared with type B, while female patients had a near...

  19. Changes in lifestyle, biological risk factors and total homocysteine in relation to MTHFR C677T genotype: a 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, L L N; Linneberg, A; Fenger, M

    2009-01-01

    to increased tHcy in cross-sectional studies. In addition, the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene variant is an important determinant of elevated tHcy. The main objective of the study was to examine the effect of changes in biological risk factors and lifestyle on tHcy in relation to MTHFR......, physical activity, smoking status, coffee, tea, total alcohol or wine consumption. An inverse relationship was observed between changes in tHcy and changes in the intake of beer in TT individuals but not in CC/CT individuals (P (interaction)=0.01). In addition, changes in tHcy were positively associated......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Total homocysteine (tHcy) has been associated with increased risk of several diseases in the general population. It is not clear whether these associations are causal. A less healthy lifestyle as well as a less favorable biological risk factor profile have been related...

  20. Assessing the Total cost of ownership of ERP systems : Case study analysis on the factors behind customer costs in recent minor implementations

    OpenAIRE

    Rydgård, Göran; Palmberg, Nils

    2010-01-01

    This master’s thesis presents a model for calculating the total cost of ownership (TCO) of relatively small ERP implementations, including two years of running the system. The main factors affecting the cost items in the model are also analyzed, based in part on four case projects that the consultancy company Acando has carried out recently and in part on literature. The case projects were investigated through interviews with key actors in the projects from Acando and the customer, and throug...

  1. Assessing the relationship between total factor productivity and foreign direct investment in an economy with a skills shortage: the case of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bonga-Bonga, Lumengo; Phume, Maphelane

    2017-01-01

    This paper assesses the relationship between total factor productivity (TFP) and foreign direct investment (FDI) in a country with skills shortage. South Africa is used as a case study. Literature is inconclusive on how FDI should affect TFP. This paper shows that it is important to account for the interactivity between FDI and human capital when assessing the effects of FDI on TFP. Moreover, the empirical results show that, contrary to countries with abundance of skills, in countries with sk...

  2. Mosses as an integrating tool for monitoring PAH atmospheric deposition: comparison with total deposition and evaluation of bioconcentration factors. A year-long case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foan, Louise; Domercq, Maria; Bermejo, Raúl; Santamaría, Jesús Miguel; Simon, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) atmospheric deposition was evaluated at a remote site in Northern Spain using moss biomonitoring with Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Schimp., and by measuring the total deposition fluxes of PAHs. The year-long study allowed seasonal variations of PAH content in mosses to be observed, and these followed a similar trend to those of PAH fluxes in total deposition. Generally, atmospheric deposition of PAHs is greater in winter than in summer, due to more PAH emissions from domestic heating, less photoreactivity of the compounds, and intense leaching of the atmosphere by wet deposition. However, fractionation of these molecules between the environmental compartments occurs: PAH fluxes in total deposition and PAH concentrations in mosses are correlated with their solubility (r=0.852, pPAH fluxes can be estimated with moss biomonitoring data if the bioconcentration or 'enriching' factors are known. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Examination of the relation between periodontal health status and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T; Trevisan, M; Genco, R J; Falkner, K L; Dorn, J P; Sempos, C T

    2000-02-01

    Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994), the authors examined the relation between periodontal health and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen. A total of 10,146 participants were included in the analyses of cholesterol and C-reactive protein and 4,461 in the analyses of fibrinogen. Periodontal health indicators included the gingival bleeding index, calculus index, and periodontal disease status (defined by pocket depth and attachment loss). While cholesterol and fibrinogen were analyzed as continuous variables, C-reactive protein was dichotomized into two levels. The results show a significant relation between indicators of poor periodontal status and increased C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. The association between periodontal status and total cholesterol level is much weaker. No consistent association between periodontal status and high density lipoprotein cholesterol was detectable. Similar patterns of association were observed for participants aged 17-54 years and those 55 years and older. In conclusion, this study suggests that total cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen are possible intermediate factors that may link periodontal disease to elevated cardiovascular risk.

  4. Non-relativistic Free–Free Emission due to the n -distribution of Electrons—Radiative Cooling and Thermally Averaged and Total Gaunt Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Avillez, Miguel A. [Department of Mathematics, University of Évora, R. Romão Ramalho 59, 7000 Évora (Portugal); Breitschwerdt, Dieter, E-mail: mavillez@galaxy.lca.uevora.pt [Zentrum für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2017-09-01

    Tracking the thermal evolution of plasmas, characterized by an n -distribution, using numerical simulations, requires the determination of the emission spectra and of the radiative losses due to free–free emission from the corresponding temperature-averaged and total Gaunt factors. Detailed calculations of the latter are presented and associated with n -distributed electrons with the parameter n ranging from 1 (corresponding to the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution) to 100. The temperature-averaged and total Gaunt factors with decreasing n tend toward those obtained with the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution. Radiative losses due to free–free emission in a plasma evolving under collisional ionization equilibrium conditions and composed by H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe ions, are presented. These losses decrease with a decrease in the parameter n , reaching a minimum when n  = 1, and thus converge with the loss of thermal plasma. Tables of the thermal-averaged and total Gaunt factors calculated for n -distributions, and a wide range of electron and photon energies, are presented.

  5. Non-relativistic Free–Free Emission due to the n -distribution of Electrons—Radiative Cooling and Thermally Averaged and Total Gaunt Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Avillez, Miguel A.; Breitschwerdt, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Tracking the thermal evolution of plasmas, characterized by an n -distribution, using numerical simulations, requires the determination of the emission spectra and of the radiative losses due to free–free emission from the corresponding temperature-averaged and total Gaunt factors. Detailed calculations of the latter are presented and associated with n -distributed electrons with the parameter n ranging from 1 (corresponding to the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution) to 100. The temperature-averaged and total Gaunt factors with decreasing n tend toward those obtained with the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution. Radiative losses due to free–free emission in a plasma evolving under collisional ionization equilibrium conditions and composed by H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe ions, are presented. These losses decrease with a decrease in the parameter n , reaching a minimum when n  = 1, and thus converge with the loss of thermal plasma. Tables of the thermal-averaged and total Gaunt factors calculated for n -distributions, and a wide range of electron and photon energies, are presented.

  6. Electron-beam induced amorphization of stishovite: Silicon-coordination change observed using Si K-edge extended electron energy-loss fine structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aken, P. A.; Sharp, T. G.; Seifert, F.

    The analysis of the extended energy-loss fine structure (EXELFS) of the Si K-edge for sixfold-coordinated Si in synthetic stishovite and fourfold-coordinated Si in natural α-quartz is reported by using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The stishovite Si K-edge EXELFS spectra were measured as a time-dependent series to document irradiation-induced amorphization. The amorphization was also investigated through the change in Si K- and O K-edge energy-loss near edge structure (ELNES). For α-quartz, in contrast to stishovite, electron irradiation-induced vitrification, verified by selected area electron diffraction (SAED), produced no detectable changes of the EXELFS. The Si K-edge EXELFS were analysed with the classical extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) treatment and compared to ab initio curve-waved multiple-scattering (MS) calculations of EXAFS spectra for stishovite and α-quartz. Highly accurate information on the local atomic environment of the silicon atoms during the irradiation-induced amorphization of stishovite is obtained from the EXELFS structure parameters (Si-O bond distances, coordination numbers and Debye-Waller factors). The mean Si-O bond distance R and mean Si coordination number N changes from R=0.1775 nm and N=6 for stishovite through a disordered intermediate state (R 0.172 nm and N 5) to R 0.167 nm and N 4.5 for a nearly amorphous state similar to α-quartz (R=0.1609 nm and N=4). During the amorphization process, the Debye-Waller factor (DWF) passes through a maximum value of as it changes from for sixfold to for fourfold coordination of Si. This increase in Debye-Waller factor indicates an increase in mean-square relative displacement (MSRD) between the central silicon atom and its oxygen neighbours that is consistent with the presence of an intermediate structural state with fivefold coordination of Si. The distribution of coordination states can be estimated by

  7. A meta-analysis of feed digestion in dairy cows. 1. The effects of forage and concentrate factors on total diet digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nousiainen, J; Rinne, M; Huhtanen, P

    2009-10-01

    A meta-analysis based on published experiments with lactating dairy cows was conducted to study the effects of dietary forage and concentrate factors on apparent total diet digestibility. A data set was collected that included a total of 497 dietary treatment means from 92 studies. The diets were based on grass silage or on legume or whole-crop cereal silages partly or completely substituted for grass silage. The silages were supplemented with concentrates given at a flat rate within a dietary comparison. For the statistical evaluation, the data were divided into 5 subsets to quantify silage (digestibility, 42 diets in 17 studies; fermentation characteristics, 108 diets in 39 studies) and concentrate (amount of supplementation, 142 diets in 59 studies; concentration of crude protein, 215 diets in 82 studies; carbohydrate composition, 66 diets in 23 studies) factors on total diet digestibility. The diet digestibility of dairy cows was determined by total fecal collection or by using acid-insoluble ash as an internal marker. Diet organic matter digestibility (OMD) at a maintenance level of feeding (OMD(m)) was estimated using sheep in vivo or corresponding in vitro digestibility values for the forage and reported ingredient and chemical composition values, with tabulated digestibility coefficients for the concentrate components of the diet. A mixed model regression analysis was used to detect the responses of different dietary factors on apparent total diet digestibility. Improved silage OMD(m) resulting from earlier harvest was translated into improved production-level OMD in cows (OMD(p)). The effects of silage fermentation characteristics on OMD(p) were quantitatively small, although sometimes significant. Concentrate supplementation improved total diet OMD(m), but this was not realized in lactating dairy cows because of linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility as concentrate intake increased. Increasing the concentrate crude protein amount

  8. Predicting Factors for Allogeneic Blood Transfusion and Excessive Postoperative Blood Loss after Single Low-Dosage Intra-Articular Tranexamic Acid Application in Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paphon Sa-ngasoongsong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, intra-articular tranexamic acid (IA-TXA application has become a popular method for perioperative blood loss (PBL reduction in total knee replacement (TKR. Nevertheless, through our knowledge, no previous studies had shown the correlation perioperative factors and the risk of excessive PBL or need of blood transfusion (BT after IA-TXA. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study was conducted in patients underwent 299 primary TKRs, using IA-TXA, during 2-year period (2013-2014. Patient’s characteristic and perioperative data were reviewed and collected. PBL was measured as total hemoglobin loss (THL, estimated total blood loss (ETBL, and drainage volume per kg (DV/kg. Excessive PBL was defined as PBL that exceeded 90th percentile. Results. From multivariate analysis, low preoperative hemoglobin (Hb level and body mass index (BMI were the significant predictors of postoperative BT (p<0.0001 and 0.003, resp.. Excessive THL significant associated with preoperative Hb (p<0.0001. Excessive ETBL significantly associated with preoperative Hb, height, preoperative range-of-motion, and creatinine clearance (p<0.05 all. Low BMI and large prosthesis size were the significant predictors of excessive DV/kg (p=0.0001 and 0.002, resp.. Conclusions. Low preoperative Hb and BMI were the significant risks of postoperative transfusion after TKR with IA-TXA. Moreover, multiple perioperative factors could result in higher PBL.

  9. Clinicopathological Risk Factors and Biochemical Predictors of Safe Discharge after Total Thyroidectomy and Central Compartment Node Dissection for Thyroid Cancer: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-mi Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the clinicopathological risk factors and reliable biochemical predictors of the development of hypocalcemic symptoms after total thyroidectomy on the basis of serum calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH levels measured 1 hour after surgery, a prospective study was performed on 817 patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy with central compartment node dissection (CCND due to well-differentiated thyroid cancer. We evaluated the correlations between hypocalcemic symptom development and clinicopathological factors. And the predictability for hypocalcemic symptom development of intact PTH cut-offs (<10 pg/mL and <20 pg/mL, resp. according to serum calcium level subgroup was analyzed. Female gender (P<0.001 was the only independent risk factor for hypocalcemic symptom development in multivariate regression analysis. The negative predictive value (NPV of intact PTH, signifying nondevelopment of hypocalcemic symptoms, was higher than the positive predictive value (PPV which signified development of hypocalcemic symptoms. In addition, when we applied the different adoption of the intact PTH cut-off according to serum calcium level, we could obtain more increased NPVs. A female gender and the application of more specific cut-offs for intact PTH according to the serum calcium levels measured 1 hour after surgery may help the patients to be more safely discharged.

  10. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  11. The Effects of Total Motile Sperm Count on Spontaneous Pregnancy Rate and Pregnancy After IUI Treatment in Couples with Male Factor and Unexplained Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajder, Mithad; Hajder, Elmira; Husic, Amela

    2016-02-01

    Male infertility factor is defined if the total number of motile spermatozoa (TMSC) 3,10(6) / ejaculate and a spontaneous pregnancy, group (B) with TMSCl 3 x 10(6) / ejaculate and couples who have not achieved pregnancy. From a total of 98 pairs of men's and unexplained infertility, 42 of them (42.8%) achieved spontaneous pregnancy, while 56 (57.2%) pairs did not achieve spontaneous pregnancy. TMSC was significantly higher (42.4 ± 28.4 vs. 26.2 ± 24, p 20 x 10(6) / ejaculate (RR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.56-1.82, 5 x 10(6) / ejaculate are indicated for treatment with IUI. TMSC can be used as the method of choice for diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.

  12. Immunohistochemically determined total epidermal growth factor receptor levels not of prognostic value in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme: Report from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, Arnab; Seiferheld, Wendy; Tu Xiaoyu; Wang Huijun; Zhang Huazhong; Ang, K. Kian; Hammond, Elizabeth; Curran, Walter; Mehta, Minesh

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) performed an analysis of patterns of immunohistochemically detected total epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein expression levels and their prognostic significance on archival tissue in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients from prior prospective RTOG clinical trials. Methods and materials: Patients in this study had been treated on previous RTOG GBM trials (RTOG 7401, 7918, 8302, 8409, 9006, 9305, 9602, and 9806). Tissue microarrays were prepared from 155 patients enrolled in these trials. These specimens were stained using a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for the extracellular binding domain of EGFR to detect total EGFR (including both wild-type phosphorylated and wild-type unphosphorylated isoforms with some cross-reactivity with EGFRvIII). The intensity of total EGFR protein expression was measured by computerized quantitative image analysis using the SAMBA 4000 Cell Image Analysis System. The parameters measured were the mean optical densities over the labeled areas and the staining index, which represents the proportion of stained area relative to the mean stain concentration. Both parameters were correlated with the clinical outcome. Results: No differences in either overall or progression-free survival could be demonstrated by the mean optical density class or mean optical density quartile or the staining index of total EGFR immunostaining among the representative RTOG GBM cases. Conclusion: Total EGFR protein expression levels, as measured immunohistochemically, do not appear to be of prognostic value in newly diagnosed GBM patients. Given the accumulating clinical evidence of the activity of anti-EGFR agents in GBM and the preclinical data suggesting the important role of downstream mediators as effectors of EGFR signaling, the RTOG is conducting additional investigations into the prognostic value of activation patterns of EGFR signaling, both at the level of the receptor

  13. Ten-Year Trends and Independent Risk Factors for Unplanned Readmission Following Elective Total Joint Arthroplasty at a Large Urban Academic Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varacallo, Matthew A; Herzog, Leah; Toossi, Nader; Johanson, Norman A

    2017-06-01

    Total joint arthroplasty procedures continue to provide consistent, long-term success and high patient satisfaction scores. However, early unplanned readmission to the hospital imparts significant financial risks to individual institutions as we shift away from the traditional fee-for-service payment model. Using a combination of our hospital's administrative database and retrospective chart reviews, we report the 30-day and 90-day readmission rates and all causes of readmission following all unilateral, primary elective total hip and knee arthroplasty procedures at a large, urban, academic hospital from 2004 to 2013. In total, 1165 primary total hip (511) and knee (654) arthroplasty procedures were identified, and the 30-day and 90-day unplanned readmission rates were 4.6% and 7.3%, respectively. A multivariate regression model controlled for a variety of potential clinical and surgical confounders. Increasing body mass index levels, an American Society of Anesthesiologists score of ≥3, and discharge to an inpatient rehab facility each independently correlated with risk of both 30-day and 90-day unplanned readmission to our institution. Additionally, use of general anesthesia during the procedure independently correlated with risk of readmission at 30 days only, while congestive heart failure independently correlated with risk of 90-day unplanned readmission. Readmissions related directly to the surgical site accounted for 47% of the cases, and collectively totaled more than any single medical or clinical complication leading to unplanned readmission within the 90-day period. Increasing body mass index values, general anesthesia, an American Society of Anesthesiologists score of ≥3, and discharge to an inpatient rehab facility each were independent risk factors for early unplanned readmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of operating factors on the removal of total ammonia nitrogen and florfenicol antibiotic from synthetic trout fish farm wastewater through nanofiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheshmberah, F.; Solaimany Nazar, A.R.; Farhadian, M.

    2016-01-01

    An aquaculture system can be a potentially significant source of antibacterial compounds and ammonia in an aquatic environment. In this study, the removal of total ammonia nitrogen and florfenicol antibiotic from synthetic aqueous wastewater was assessed by applying a commercial thin film composite polyamide nanofilter. The effects of p H (6.5-8.5), pressure (4-10 bar), concentration of total ammonia nitrogen (1-9 mg/L), and florfenicol (0.2-5 mg/L) on the removal efficiency of the nanofilter were studied at a constant 70% recovery rate. It was found that by increasing the p H within the range of 6.5 to 8.5, it enhanced the removal efficiency by up to 98% and 100% for total ammonia nitrogen and florfenicol, respectively. With an increase in pressure from 4 to 7 bar, the removal percentage increased and then, it decreased from 7 to 10 bar. The interactions factors did not have significant effects on the both pollutants removal efficiencies. To obtain optimal removal efficiencies, an experimental design and statistical analysis via the response surface method were adopted.

  15. The effects of operating factors on the removal of total ammonia nitrogen and florfenicol antibiotic from synthetic trout fish farm wastewater through nanofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Solaimany Nazar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An aquaculture system can be a potentially significant source of antibacterial compounds and ammonia in an aquatic environment. In this study, the removal of total ammonia nitrogen and florfenicol antibiotic from synthetic aqueous wastewater was assessed by applying a commercial TFC (thin film composite polyamide nanofilter. The effects of pH (6.5-8.5, pressure (4-10 bar, concentration of total ammonia nitrogen (1-9 mg/L, and florfenicol (0.2-5 mg/L on the removal efficiency of the nanofilter were studied at a constant 70% recovery rate. It was found that by increasing the pH within the range of 6.5 to 8.5, it enhanced the removal efficiency by up to 98% and 100% for total ammonia nitrogen and florfenicol, respectively. With an increase in pressure from 4 to 7 bar, the removal percentage increased and then, it decreased from 7 to 10 bar. The interactions factors did not have significant effects on the both pollutants removal efficiencies. To obtain optimal removal efficiencies, an experimental design and statistical analysis via the response surface method were adopted.

  16. Simvastatin mitigates increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease following 10 Gy total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarczyk, Marek; Su, Jidong; Haworth, Steven T; Komorowski, Richard; Fish, Brian L; Migrino, Raymond Q; Harmann, Leanne; Hopewell, John W; Kronenberg, Amy; Patel, Shailendra; Moulder, John E; Baker, John E

    2015-06-01

    The ability of simvastatin to mitigate the increases in risk factors for and the occurrence of cardiac disease after 10 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) was determined. This radiation dose is relevant to conditioning for stem cell transplantation and threats from radiological terrorism. Male rats received single dose TBI of 10 Gy. Age-matched, sham-irradiated rats served as controls. Lipid profile, heart and liver morphology and cardiac mechanical function were determined for up to 120 days after irradiation. TBI resulted in a sustained increase in total- and LDL-cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol), and triglycerides. Simvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight/day) administered continuously from 9 days after irradiation mitigated TBI-induced increases in total- and LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as liver injury. TBI resulted in cellular peri-arterial fibrosis, whereas control hearts had less collagen and fibrosis. Simvastatin mitigated these morphological injuries. TBI resulted in cardiac mechanical dysfunction. Simvastatin mitigated cardiac mechanical dysfunction 20-120 days following TBI. To determine whether simvastatin affects the ability of the heart to withstand stress after TBI, injury from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion was determined in vitro. TBI increased the severity of an induced myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days after irradiation. Simvastatin mitigated the severity of this myocardial infarction at 20 and 80 days following TBI. It is concluded simvastatin mitigated the increases in risk factors for cardiac disease and the extent of cardiac disease following TBI. This statin may be developed as a medical countermeasure for the mitigation of radiation-induced cardiac disease.

  17. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  18. The relationship of the factor V Leiden mutation or the deletion-deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme to postoperative thromboembolic events following total joint arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Carrie

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although all patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty are subjected to similar risk factors that predispose to thromboembolism, only a subset of patients develop this complication. The objective of this study was to determine whether a specific genetic profile is associated with a higher risk of developing a postoperative thromboembolic complication. Specifically, we examined if the Factor V Leiden (FVL mutation or the deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE gene increased a patient's risk for postoperative thromboembolic events. The FVL mutation has been associated with an increased risk of idiopathic thromboembolism and the deletion polymorphism of the ACE gene has been associated with increased vascular tone, attenuated fibrinolysis and increased platelet aggregation. Methods The presence of these genetic profiles was determined for 38 patients who had a postoperative symptomatic pulmonary embolus or proximal deep venous thrombosis and 241 control patients without thrombosis using molecular biological techniques. Results The Factor V Leiden mutation was present in none of the 38 experimental patients and in 3% or 8 of the 241 controls (p = 0.26. Similarly there was no difference detected in the distribution of polymorphisms for the ACE gene with the deletion-deletion genotype present in 36% or 13 of the 38 experimental patients and in 31% or 74 of the 241 controls (p = 0.32. Conclusions Our results suggest that neither of these potentially hypercoaguable states are associated with an increased risk of symptomatic thromboembolic events following total hip or knee arthroplasty in patients receiving pharmacological thromboprophylaxis.

  19. Quality of life as an outcome variable and a risk factor for total mortality and cardiovascular disease: a study of men born in 1913.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibblin, G; Svärdsudd, K; Welin, L; Erikson, H; Larsson, B

    1993-06-01

    To construct a simple assessment of the quality of life that can be used to evaluate medical treatment in light of the need to conserve resources and limit costs. The Göteborg Quality of Life Assessment was constructed in 1973 from the responses of men who were 50 years old at the time of the initial survey (1963) and were re-evaluated 10 years later. The assessment covers 15 factors in the World Health Organization definition of health or well-being, and includes a symptom questionnaire of 30 items relating to the most common elements of physical, mental and social well-being. The assessment was validated by determining the variation in these three principle components of well-being as a function of age. The use of this assessment as an outcome variable for subjects with cardiovascular disease indicated significantly lower quality of life scores, especially with regard to the general well-being, fitness and energy of subjects with hypertension and congestive heart failure compared to subjects without these diseases. When the assessment was evaluated as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality, the results of univariate analysis showed that health, fitness and appetite were significantly correlated with total mortality, while multivariate analysis indicated that only health was a significant factor.

  20. Risk factors for central line-associated bloodstream infection in pediatric oncology patients with a totally implantable venous access port: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana Taveira, Michelle Ribeiro; Lima, Luciana Santana; de Araújo, Cláudia Corrêa; de Mello, Maria Júlia Gonçalves

    2017-02-01

    Totally implantable venous access ports (TIVAPs) are used for prolonged central venous access, allowing the infusion of chemotherapy and other fluids and improving the quality of life of children with cancer. TIVAPs were developed to reduce the infection rates associated with central venous catheters; however, infectious events remain common and have not been fully investigated in pediatric oncology patients. A retrospective cohort was formed to investigate risk factors for central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) in pediatric cancer patients. Sociodemographic, clinical, and TIVAP insertion-related variables were evaluated, with the endpoint being the first CLABSI. A Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to determine CLABSI-free catheter survival. Overall, 188 children were evaluated over 77,541 catheter days, with 94 being diagnosed with CLABSI (50%). Although coagulase-negative staphylococci were the pathogens most commonly isolated, Gram-negative microorganisms (46.8%) were also prevalent. In the multivariate analysis, factors that increased the risk for CLABSI were TIVAP insertion prior to chemotherapy (risk ratio [RR] = 1.56; P Risk factors for CLABSI in pediatric cancer patients with a TIVAP may be related to the severity of the child's condition at catheter insertion. Insertion of the catheter before chemotherapy and unfavorable conditions such as malnutrition and bone marrow aplasia can increase the risk of CLABSI. Protocols must be revised and surveillance increased over the first 10 weeks of treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Heat capacity of ThO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Shian

    1996-01-01

    The heat capacity C p of ThO 2 can be calculated as the phonon part of C p for other actinide dioxides used as fuel in nuclear reactors. Precise determination of the phonon part of C p of actinide dioxides is helpful to find out the contributions of other factors to C p . In this paper we have, through studying the heat capacity of ThO 2 , developed a general method applicable to the study of C p of other solids. In the developed method the three type -- different experimental measurements made on a solid-heat capacity, thermal expansion and Debye Waller factor -- can be brought together for comparison. The application of this method to the study of C p of ThO 2 has enabled us to propose a better description of C p of ThO 2 than the generally accepted expression

  2. Factors influencing health-related quality of life after total hip replacement - a comparison of data from the Swedish and Danish hip arthroplasty registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Max; Paulsen, Aksel; Overgaard, Søren

    2013-01-01

    of PROs may present difficulties due to cultural differences and differences in the provision of health care. However, in order to understand how these differences affect PROs, common predictors for poor and good outcomes need to be investigated. This cross-sectional study investigates factors influencing......There is an increasing focus on measuring patient-reported outcomes (PROs) as part of routine medical practice, particularly in fields such as joint replacement surgery where pain relief and improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are primary outcomes. Between-country comparisons...... health-related quality of life (HRQoL) one year after total hip replacement (THR) surgery in Sweden and in Denmark....

  3. Improvements in glucose metabolism early after gastric bypass surgery are not explained by increases in total bile acids and fibroblast growth factor 19 concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nils B; Dirksen, Carsten; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N

    2015-01-01

    Context: Bile acids and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) have been suggested as key mediators of the improvements in glucose metabolism after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Objective: To describe fasting and postprandial state total bile acid (TBA) and FGF19 concentrations before and after...... (T2D) patients and 12 normal glucose tolerant (NGT) subjects participated in the study. Intervention: A 4-hour liquid meal test was performed before and 1 week, 3 months, and 1 year after RYGB. Main Outcome Measures: We measured fasting and postprandial TBA and FGF19 concentrations. Results: Fasting...... TBA concentrations decreased in NGT subjects (P TBA was decreased in NGT subjects 1 week after RYGB (before surgery, 567...

  4. Accelerating an Ordered-Subset Low-Dose X-Ray Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Reconstruction with a Power Factor and Total Variation Minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsuan-Ming; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in low-dose X-ray cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in many fields, including dentistry, guided radiotherapy and small animal imaging. Despite reducing the radiation dose, low-dose CBCT has not gained widespread acceptance in routine clinical practice. In addition to performing more evaluation studies, developing a fast and high-quality reconstruction algorithm is required. In this work, we propose an iterative reconstruction method that accelerates ordered-subsets (OS) reconstruction using a power factor. Furthermore, we combine it with the total-variation (TV) minimization method. Both simulation and phantom studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method can accelerate conventional OS methods, greatly increase the convergence speed in early iterations. Moreover, applying the TV minimization to the power acceleration scheme can further improve the image quality while preserving the fast convergence rate.

  5. An application of a double bootstrap to investigate the effects of technological progress on total-factor energy consumption performance in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ke; Lin, Boqiang

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a total-factor energy consumption performance index (TEPI) for measuring China's energy efficiency across 30 provinces during the period 1997 to 2012. The TEPI is derived by solving an improved non-radial data envelopment analysis (DEA) model, which is based on an energy distance function. The production possibility set is constructed by combining the super-efficiency and sequential DEA models to avoid “discriminating power problem” and “technical regress”. In order to explore the impacts of technological progress on TEPI and perform statistical inferences on the results, a two-stage double bootstrap approach is adopted. The important findings are that China's energy technology innovation produces a negative effect on TEPI, while technology import and imitative innovation produce positive effects on TEPI. Thus, the main contribution of TEPI improvement is technology import. These conclusions imply that technology import especially foreign direct investment (FDI) is important for imitative innovation and can improve China's energy efficiency. In the long run, as the technical level of China approaches to the frontier, energy technology innovation and its wide adoption become a sustained way to improve energy efficiency. Therefore, it is urgent for China to introduce measures such as technology translation and spillover policies as well as energy pricing reforms to support energy technology innovation. - Highlights: • A total-factor energy consumption performance index (TEPI) is introduced. • Three types of technological progress have various effects on TEPI. • FDI is the main contributor of TEPI improvement. • An improved DEA calculation method is introduced. • A two-stage double-bootstrap non-radial DEA model is used.

  6. Factores que influyen en el contenido de escualeno, fitoesteroles totales y esterificados en el subproducto ácidos grasos destilados de soya para su potencial aprovechamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Una necesidad actual de la industria de extracción y refinación de aceite vegetal es la reducción y/o explotación de sus subproductos. Uno de estos, conocido como Ácidos Grasos Destilados de Aceite de Soya (AGDAS, resulta potencialmente valioso para las industrias alimentaria, farmacéutica y cosmética por la presencia de compuestos con actividad biológica favorable, como los fitoesteroles y el escualeno, los primeros como agentes hipocolesterolemiantes y el escualeno como emoliente y humectante. En este trabajo, mediante cromatografía de gases se determinó el contenido de escualeno y fitoesteroles libres y esterificados para evaluar la viabilidad de aprovechamiento de AGDAS como fuente de dichos compuestos y establecer si la procedencia del grano de soya (americano o nacional, la condición de cultivo (Sequía o Normal, años 2011 y 2012 respectivamente y el grado de calidad del aceite (Genérico o Premium son factores determinantes en el contenido de dichos compuestos en el subproducto. En conclusión AGDAS representa una fuente viable de fitoesteroles totales con 14.92% p/p, no así de escualeno con 1.75% p/p. La concentración de escualeno está influenciada por la procedencia del grano y la condición de cultivo, mientras que la de fitoesteroles esterificados por el grado de calidad y condición de cultivo. Ninguno de los factores influyó en el contenido de fitoesteroles totales. Esto permite establecer que la composición del subproducto AGDAS no es constante y se justifican protocolos como el de este estudio para su caracterización con fines de aprovechamiento.

  7. Enhancement of distribution of dermal multipotent stem cells to bone marrow in rats of total body irradiation by platelet-derived growth factor-AA treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zong Zhaowen; Ren Yongchuan; Shen Yue; Chen Yonghua; Ran Xinze; Shi Chunmeng; Cheng Tianmin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe whether dermal multipotent stem cells (dMSCs) treated with platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA) could distribute more frequently to the bone marrow in rats of total body irradiation (TBI). Methods: Male dMSCs were isolated and 10 μg/L PDGF-AA was added to the culture medium and further cultured for 2 h. Then the expression of tenascin-C were examined by Western blot, and the migration ability of dMSCs was assessed in transwell chamber. The pre-treated dMSCs were transplanted by tail vein injection into female rats administered with total body irradiation, and 2 weeks after transplantation, real-time PCR was employed to measure the amount of dMSCs in bone marrow. Non-treated dMSCs served as control.Results PDGF-AA treatment increased the expression of tenascin-C in dMSCs, made (1.79 ± 0.13) × 10 5 cells migrate to the lower chamber under the effect of bone marrow extract, and distributed to bone marrow in TBI rats, significantly more than (1.24 ± 0.09) ×10 5 in non-treated dMSCs (t=8.833, P<0.01). Conclusions: PDGF-AA treatment could enhance the migration ability of dMSCs and increase the amount of dMSCs in bone marrow of TBI rats after transplantation. (authors)

  8. Comparisons of American, Israeli, Italian and Mexican physicians and nurses on the total and factor scores of the Jefferson scale of attitudes toward physician-nurse collaborative relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Gonnella, Joseph S; Nasca, Thomas J; Fields, Sylvia K; Cicchetti, Americo; Lo Scalzo, Alessandra; Taroni, Francesco; Amicosante, Anna Maria Vincenza; Macinati, Manuela; Tangucci, Massimo; Liva, Carlo; Ricciardi, Gualtiero; Eidelman, Shmuel; Admi, Hanna; Geva, Hana; Mashiach, Tanya; Alroy, Gideon; Alcorta-Gonzalez, Adelina; Ibarra, David; Torres-Ruiz, Antonio

    2003-05-01

    This cross-cultural study was designed to compare the attitudes of physicians and nurses toward physician-nurse collaboration in the United States, Israel, Italy and Mexico. Total participants were 2522 physicians and nurses who completed the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Nurse Collaboration (15 Likert-type items, (Hojat et al., Evaluation and the Health Professions 22 (1999a) 208; Nursing Research 50 (2001) 123). They were compared on the total scores and four factors of the Jefferson Scale (shared education and team work, caring as opposed to curing, nurses, autonomy, physicians' dominance). Results showed inter- and intra-cultural similarities and differences among the study groups providing support for the social role theory (Hardy and Conway, Role Theory: Perspectives for Health Professionals, Appelton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1978) and the principle of least interest (Waller and Hill, The Family: A Dynamic Interpretation, Dryden, New York, 1951) in inter-professional relationships. Implications for promoting physician-nurse education and inter-professional collaboration are discussed.

  9. Association between total serum cholesterol and suicide attempts in subjects with major depressive disorder: Exploring the role of clinical and biochemical confounding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Francesco; Crocamo, Cristina; Dakanalis, Antonios; Riboldi, Ilaria; Miotto, Alessio; Brosio, Enrico; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    We tested whether serum total cholesterol levels might be associated with recent suicide attempts in subjects with major depressive disorder, after controlling for relevant individual characteristics. We conducted a comparative cross-sectional study including consecutive inpatients with major depressive disorder. We differentiated subjects admitted for a recent serious (violent or non-violent) suicide attempt and those without such recent history. Total cholesterol was measured from fasting blood tests. At univariate analyses, suicide attempters had levels of total cholesterol (174.0±45.7mg/dL) lower than non-attempters (193.9±42.6mg/dL) (p=0.004). This was confirmed among both violent (174.1±46.2mg/dL) and non-violent (173.8±46.1mg/dL) suicide attempters (p=0.035 and 0.016, respectively). However, logistic regression analyses, sequentially including demographic, clinical (comorbid alcohol and personality disorders), and biochemical factors, did not show any association between serum cholesterol and recent suicide attempts (p=0.172). Similar findings were observed in multinomial logistic regression analyses, for both violent (p=0.512) and non-violent (p=0.157) suicide attempts. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that serum cholesterol and suicide attempts are associated among subjects with major depressive disorder. The identification of valid and accessible biological markers of suicidal behaviors still represents a challenge for future research. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. What are the risk factors for dislocation in primary total hip arthroplasty? A multicenter case-control study of 128 unstable and 438 stable hips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessy, M H; Putman, S; Viste, A; Isida, R; Ramdane, N; Ferreira, A; Leglise, A; Rubens-Duval, B; Bonin, N; Bonnomet, F; Combes, A; Boisgard, S; Mainard, D; Leclercq, S; Migaud, H

    2017-09-01

    Dislocation after total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a leading reason for surgical revision. The risk factors for dislocation are controversial, particularly those related to the patient and to the surgical procedure itself. The differences in opinion on the impact of these factors stem from the fact they are often evaluated using retrospective studies or in limited patient populations. This led us to carry out a prospective case-control study on a large population to determine: 1) the risk factors for dislocation after THA, 2) the features of these dislocations, and 3) the contribution of patient-related factors and surgery-related factors. Risk factors for dislocation related to the patient and procedure can be identified using a large case-control study. A multicenter, prospective case-control study was performed between January 1 and December 31, 2013. Four patients with stable THAs were matched to each patient with a dislocated THA. This led to 566 primary THA cases being included: 128 unstable, 438 stable. The primary matching factors were sex, age, initial diagnosis, surgical approach, implantation date and type of implants (bearing size, standard or dual-mobility cup). The patients with unstable THAs were 67±12 [37-73]years old on average; there were 61 women (48%) and 67 men (52%). Hip osteoarthritis (OA) was the main reason for the THA procedure in 71% (91/128) of the unstable group. The dislocation was posterior in 84 cases and anterior in 44 cases. The dislocation occurred within 3 months of the primary surgery in 48 cases (38%), 3 to 12 months after in 23 cases (18%), 1 to 5years after in 20 cases (16%), 5 to 10years after in 17 cases (13%) and more than 10years later in 20 cases. The dislocation recurred within 6 months of the initial dislocation in 23 of the 128 cases (18%). The risk factors for instability were a high ASA score with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.93 (95% CI: 1.4-2.6), neurological disability (cognitive, motor or psychiatric disorders) with

  11. Two-argument total scatter factor for small fields simultaneously collimated by MLC and jaws: application to stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaohui; Friesen, Scott; Hacker, Fred; Zygmanski, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Direct use of the total scatter factor (S tot) for independent monitor unit (MU) calculations can be a good alternative approach to the traditional separate treatment of head/collimator scatter (S c) and phantom scatter (S p), especially for stereotactic small fields under the simultaneous collimation of secondary jaws and tertiary multileaf collimators (MLC). We have carried out the measurement of S tot in water for field sizes down to 0.5  ×  0.5 cm2 on a Varian TrueBeam STx medical linear accelerator (linac) equipped with high definition MLCs. Both the jaw field size (c) and MLC field size (s) significantly impact the linac output factors, especially when c \\gg s and s is small (e.g. s  effectively transforms the measured trapezoidal domain in (c,s) plane to a rectangular domain to facilitate easier two-dimensional interpolation to determine S tot for arbitrary (c,s) combinations. Both the empirical fit and interpolation showed good agreement with experimental validation data.

  12. Measuring the Total-Factor Carbon Emission Performance of Industrial Land Use in China Based on the Global Directional Distance Function and Non-Radial Luenberger Productivity Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Industry is a major contributor to carbon emissions in China, and industrial land is an important input to industrial production. Therefore, a detailed analysis of the carbon emission performance of industrial land use is necessary for making reasonable carbon reduction policies that promote the sustainable use of industrial land. This paper aims to analyze the dynamic changes in the total-factor carbon emission performance of industrial land use (TCPIL in China by applying a global directional distance function (DDF and non-radial Luenberger productivity index. The empirical results show that the eastern region enjoys better TCPIL than the central and western regions, but the regional gaps in TCPIL are narrowing. The growth in NLCPILs (non-radial Luenberger carbon emission performance of industrial land use in the eastern and central regions is mainly driven by technological progress, whereas efficiency improvements contribute more to the growth of NLCPIL in the western region. The provinces in the eastern region have the most innovative and environmentally-friendly production technologies. The results of the analysis of the influencing factors show implications for improving the NLCPIL, including more investment in industrial research and development (R&D, the implementation of carbon emission reduction policies, reduction in the use of fossil energy, especially coal, in the process of industrial production, actively learning about foreign advanced technology, properly solving the problem of surplus labor in industry and the expansion of industrial development.

  13. Disorder in Ag{sub 7}GeSe{sub 5}I, a superionic conductor: temperature-dependent anharmonic structural study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, S.; Pradel, A.; Ribes, M. [CNRS Montpellier Univ., 34 (France). Inst. Charles Gerhardt Montpellier; Pillet, S.; Lecomte, C. [CNRS Nancy Univ., 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France). Lab. de Cristallographie et de Modelisation des Materiaux Mineraux et Biologiques

    2008-02-15

    A temperature-dependent structural investigation of the substituted argyrodite Ag{sub 7}GeSe{sub 5}I has been carried out on a single crystal from 15 to 475 K, in steps of 50 K, and correlated to its conductivity properties. The argyrodite crystallizes in a cubic cell with the F anti 43m space group. The crystal structure exhibits high static and dynamic disorder which has been efficiently accounted for using a combination of (i) Gram- Charlier development of the Debye-Waller factors for iodine and silver, and (ii) a split-atom model for Ag{sup +} ions. An increased delocalization of the mobile d{sup 10} Ag{sup +} cations with temperature has been clearly shown by the inspection of the joint probability-density functions; the corresponding diffusion pathways have been determined. (orig.)

  14. Size-dependent penetrant diffusion in polymer glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Dong; Zhang, Kai; Kumar, Sanat K

    2018-05-18

    Molecular Dynamics simulations are used to understand the underpinning basis of the transport of gas-like solutes in deeply quenched polymeric glasses. As found in previous work, small solutes, with sizes smaller than 0.15 times the chain monomer size, move as might be expected in a medium with large pores. In contrast, the motion of larger solutes is activated and is strongly facilitated by matrix motion. In particular, solute motion is coupled to the local elastic fluctuations of the matrix as characterized by the Debye-Waller factor. While similar ideas have been previously proposed for the viscosity of supercooled liquids above their glass transition, to our knowledge, this is the first illustration of this concept in the context of solute mass transport in deeply quenched polymer glasses.

  15. Phonons in Solid Hydrogen and Deuterium Studied by Inelastic Coherent Neutron Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits

    1973-01-01

    Phonon dispersion relations have been measured by coherent neutron scattering in solid para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium. The phonon energies are found to be nearly equal in the two solids, the highest energy in each case lying close to 10 meV. The pressure and temperature dependence of the phonon...... energies have been measured in ortho-deuterium and the lattice change determined by neutron diffraction. When a pressure of 275 bar is applied, the phonon energies are increased by about 10%, and heating the crystal to near the melting point decreases them by about 7%. The densities of states, the specific...... heats, and the Debye temperatures have been deduced and found to be in agreement with the published experimental results. The Debye temperatures are 118 K for hydrogen and 114 K for deuterium. For hydrogen the Debye-Waller factor has been measured by incoherent neutron scattering and it corresponds...

  16. Experimental signatures of a nonequilibrium phase transition governing the yielding of a soft glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hima Nagamanasa, K; Gokhale, Shreyas; Sood, A K; Ganapathy, Rajesh

    2014-06-01

    We present direct experimental signatures of a nonequilibrium phase transition associated with the yield point of a prototypical soft solid-a binary colloidal glass. By simultaneously quantifying single-particle dynamics and bulk mechanical response, we identified the threshold for the onset of irreversibility with the yield strain. We extracted the relaxation time from the transient behavior of the loss modulus and found that it diverges in the vicinity of the yield strain. This critical slowing down is accompanied by a growing correlation length associated with the size of regions of high Debye-Waller factor, which are precursors to yield events in glasses. Our results affirm that the paradigm of nonequilibrium critical phenomena is instrumental in achieving a holistic understanding of yielding in soft solids.

  17. Higher-order glass-transition singularities in systems with short-ranged attractive potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetze, W; Sperl, M

    2003-01-01

    Within the mode-coupling theory for the evolution of structural relaxation, the A 4 -glass-transition singularities are identified for systems of particles interacting with a hard-sphere repulsion complemented by different short-ranged potentials: Baxter's singular potential regularized by a large-wavevector cut-off, a model for the Asakura-Oosawa depletion attraction, a triangular potential, a Yukawa attraction, and a square-well potential. The regular potentials yield critical packing fractions, critical Debye-Waller factors, and critical amplitudes very close to each other. The elastic moduli and the particle localization lengths for corresponding states of the Yukawa system and the square-well system may differ by up to 20 and 10%, respectively

  18. First-principles study of crystalline and amorphous Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} and the effects of stoichiometric defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravati, S; Bernasconi, M [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Via R Cozzi 53, I-20125, Milano (Italy); Kuehne, T D; Parrinello, M [Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zurich, USI Campus, Via Giuseppe Buffi 13, CH-6900 Lugano (Switzerland); Krack, M [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)], E-mail: marco.bernasconi@mater.unimib.it

    2009-06-24

    Based on ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the structural, electronic and vibrational properties of cubic and amorphous Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST) phase change material, focusing in particular on the effects of defects in stoichiometry on the electronic properties. It turned out Ge/Sb deficiencies (excess) in the cubic phase induce a shift of the Fermi level inside the valence (conduction) bands. In contrast, the amorphous network is flexible enough to accommodate defects in stoichiometry, keeping the Fermi level pinned at the center of the bandgap (at zero temperature). Changes in the structural and electronic properties induced by the use of hybrid functionals (HSE03, PBE0) instead of gradient corrected functionals (PBE) are addressed as well. Analysis of vibrational spectra and Debye-Waller factors of cubic and amorphous GST is also presented.

  19. Structure analysis of NiAl martensite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Y.; Shapiro, S.M.; Shirane, G.; Yamada, Y.; Fuchizaki, K.; Tanner, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Neutron elastic scattering experiments were performed in order to investigate the structure of the low temperature martensitic phase of Ni 62.5 Al 37.5 alloy. The average structure analyzed from the integrated intensity was approximately described by the (5,-2) structure proposed by Martynov et al. Small deviation from the exact (5,-2) model in the positional parameters and the anomalously large Debye-Waller factor were obtained. The observed satellite profiles show asymmetrical broadening, and the peak positions shift from the regular reciprocal lattice points. These anomalous features of scattering profiles were tentatively interpreted by introducing spatial modulation of the strain and order parameters. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  20. Pressure-induced positive electrical resistivity coefficient in Ni-Nb-Zr-H glassy alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, M.; Gangli, C.; Matsubayashi, K.; Uwatoko, Y.

    2012-06-01

    Measurements under hydrostatic pressure of the electrical resistivity of (Ni0.36Nb0.24Zr0.40)100-xHx (x = 9.8, 11.5, and 14) glassy alloys have been made in the range of 0-8 GPa and 0.5-300 K. The resistivity of the (Ni0.36Nb0.24Zr0.40)86H14 alloy changed its sign from negative to positive under application of 2-8 GPa in the temperature range of 300-22 K, coming from electron-phonon interaction in the cluster structure under pressure, accompanied by deformation of the clusters. In temperature region below 22 K, the resistivity showed negative thermal coefficient resistance by Debye-Waller factor contribution, and superconductivity was observed at 1.5 K.

  1. Low temperature features of the local structure of Sm1-xYxS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menushenkov, A. P.; Chernikov, R. V.; Sidorov, V. V.; Klementiev, K. V.; Alekseev, P. A.; Rybina, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    The particular features of the local electronic and local crystal structures of the mixed-valence compound Sm 1-x Y x S are studied by the XAFS spectroscopy methods in the temperature range 20-300 K for the yttrium concentration x = 0.17, 0.25, 0.33, and 0.45. The temperature behavior of the valence of Sm, as well as of the lengths and the Debye-Waller factors of the bonds Sm-S, Sm-Sm(Y), Y-S, and Y-Sm(Y), has been determined. The violation of the Vegard law has been observed. A model for the estimation of the energy width of the 4f level and of its position with respect to the Fermi level is proposed

  2. Theory of the particle matrix elements for Helium atom scattering in surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.; Toennies, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Full text.A brief review is presented for the recent development of the theory of the particle transition matrix elements, basic to the cross section for Helium and inert particle scattering at thermal energies in solid surfaces. the Jackson and Mott matrix elements are presented and discussed for surface scattering processes, habitually classified as elastic and inelastic. Modified transition matrix elements, introduced originally to account for the cut-off effects, are presented in a direct and simple manner. the Debye-Waller factor is introduced and discussed. A recent calculation for the particle transition matrix elements is presented for the specular and inelastic transition matrix elements and the corresponding inelastic scattering cross section is compared in detail to experimental data. the specular and inelastic transition matrix elements are found to be intrinsically similar owing to the intermediate role of a proposed virtual particle squeezed state near the surface

  3. Neutron powder investigations of Zr0.85Ca0.15O1.85 sinter material at temperatures up to 1100 K and with a simultaneously applied electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlert, H.; Boysen, H.; Frey, F.

    1998-01-01

    In situ neutron powder investigations of cubic stabilized zirconia [Zr 0.85 Ca 0.15 O 1.85 (CSZ15)] sinter material were performed at room temperature without an applied direct-current electric field and at 1100 K with and without an applied field, i.e. lasting ionic current. Experimental conditions (temperature, oxidizing atmosphere etc.) were chosen as close as possible to 'working conditions' of zirconia oxygen sensoric devices. To learn about field-induced structural changes and most probable ionic pathways, atomic displacement parameters were derived in the frame of a non-Gaussian Debye-Waller factor formalism for the oxygens. Probability-density-function maps and pseudo-potential (V eff ) maps indicate curved diffusion pathways of the oxygens close to the left angle 100 right angle directions. The action of the applied field is to lower the effective potential barriers. (orig.)

  4. Electron-lattice energy relaxation in laser-excited thin-film Au-insulator heterostructures studied by ultrafast MeV electron diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolowski-Tinten, K; Shen, X; Zheng, Q; Chase, T; Coffee, R; Jerman, M; Li, R K; Ligges, M; Makasyuk, I; Mo, M; Reid, A H; Rethfeld, B; Vecchione, T; Weathersby, S P; Dürr, H A; Wang, X J

    2017-09-01

    We apply time-resolved MeV electron diffraction to study the electron-lattice energy relaxation in thin film Au-insulator heterostructures. Through precise measurements of the transient Debye-Waller-factor, the mean-square atomic displacement is directly determined, which allows to quantitatively follow the temporal evolution of the lattice temperature after short pulse laser excitation. Data obtained over an extended range of laser fluences reveal an increased relaxation rate when the film thickness is reduced or the Au-film is capped with an additional insulator top-layer. This behavior is attributed to a cross-interfacial coupling of excited electrons in the Au film to phonons in the adjacent insulator layer(s). Analysis of the data using the two-temperature-model taking explicitly into account the additional energy loss at the interface(s) allows to deduce the relative strength of the two relaxation channels.

  5. Communication: Fast dynamics perspective on the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein law in fragile glassformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puosi, F; Pasturel, A; Jakse, N; Leporini, D

    2018-04-07

    The breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein (SE) law in fragile glassformers is examined by Molecular-Dynamics simulations of atomic liquids and polymers and consideration of the experimental data concerning the archetypical ortho-terphenyl glassformer. All the four systems comply with the universal scaling between the viscosity (or the structural relaxation) and the Debye-Waller factor ⟨u 2 ⟩, the mean square amplitude of the particle rattling in the cage formed by the surrounding neighbors. It is found that the SE breakdown is scaled in a master curve by a reduced ⟨u 2 ⟩. Two approximated expressions of the latter, with no and one adjustable parameter, respectively, are derived.

  6. Vibron Solitons and Soliton-Induced Infrared Spectra of Crystalline Acetanilide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeno, S.

    1986-01-01

    Red-shifted infrared spectra at low temperatures of amide I (C=O stretching) vibrations of crystalline acetanilide measured by Careri et al. are shown to be due to vibron solitons, which are nonlinearity-induced localized modes of vibrons arising from their nonlinear interactions with optic-type phonons. A nonlinear eigenvalue equation giving the eigenfrequency of stationary solitons is solved approximately by introducing lattice Green's functions, and the obtained result is in good agreement with the experimental result. Inclusion of interactions with acoustic phonons yields the Debye-Waller factor in the zero-phonon line spectrum of vibron solitons, in a manner analogous to the case of impurity-induced localized harmonic phonon modes in alkali halides.

  7. Moessbauer Studies of Implanted Impurities in Solids

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Moessbauer studies were performed on implanted radioactive impurities in semiconductors and metals. Radioactive isotopes (from the ISOLDE facility) decaying to a Moessbauer isotope were utilized to investigate electronic and vibrational properties of impurities and impurity-defect structures. This information is inferred from the measured impurity hyperfine interactions and Debye-Waller factor. In semiconductors isoelectronic, shallow and deep level impurities have been implanted. Complex impurity defects have been produced by the implantation process (correlated damage) or by recoil effects from the nuclear decay in both semiconductors and metals. Annealing mechanisms of the defects have been studied. \\\\ \\\\ In silicon amorphised implanted layers have been recrystallized epitaxially by rapid-thermal-annealing techniques yielding highly supersaturated, electrically-active donor concentrations. Their dissolution and migration mechanisms have been investigated in detail. The electronic configuration of Sb donors...

  8. He/Ar-atom scattering from molecular monolayers: C{sub 60}/Pt(111) and graphene/Pt(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Y; Sugawara, C; Satake, Y; Yokoyama, Y; Okada, R; Nakayama, T; Sasaki, M [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Kondo, T; Oh, J; Nakamura, J [Institute of Material Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Hayes, W W [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States)

    2010-08-04

    Supersonic He and Ar atomic beam scattering from C{sub 60} and graphene monolayers adsorbed on a Pt(111) surface are demonstrated in order to obtain detailed insight into a gas-molecule collision that has not been studied in detail so far. The effective masses and phonon spectral densities of the monolayers seen by different projectiles are discussed based on classical models such as the hard cube model and the recently developed smooth surface model. Large effective masses are deduced for both the monolayers, suggesting collective effects of surface atoms in the single collision event. The effective Debye temperature of graphene was found to be similar to that reported in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), indicating that the graphene is decoupled well from the Pt substrate. A much smaller Debye-Waller factor was found for the C{sub 60} layer, probably reflecting the strong C{sub 60}-Pt(111) interaction.

  9. Moessbauer spectroscopy of isotope separator implanted sup(119m)Sn in FCC metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, A.N.; Weyer, G.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive sup(119m)Sn has been implanted in FCC metals by means of an isotope separator. Moessbauer spectra have been measured for the 24 keV transition of 119 Sn. Large substitutional fractions are found in all cases. A correlation for substitutional lattice sites between the measured isomer shifts of the impurity atoms and the force constants of the host lattices is discussed. Debye-Waller factors determined for substitutional Sn in the host lattices are found to be smaller than values calculated by a simple mass-defect model. For some host metals indications of an influence of radiation damage on the spectra are observed. Defect sites are assigned to Sn in aluminium and lead. Qualitative conclusions on the structures of these defects are drawn from the determined Moessbauer parameters. (author)

  10. Structural anisotropy in amorphous SnO2 film probed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q.; Ma, Q.; Buchholz, D. B.; Chang, R. P. H.; Bedzyk, M. J.; Mason, T. O.

    2013-07-01

    Polarization-dependent X-ray absorption measurements reveal the existence of structural anisotropy in amorphous (a-) SnO2 film. The anisotropy is readily seen for the second neighbor interaction whose magnitude differs along three measured directions. The differences can be well accounted for by 10%-20% variation in the Debye-Waller factor. Instead of a single Gaussian distribution found in crystalline SnO2, the Sn-O bond distribution is bimodal in a-SnO2 whose separation shows a weak angular dependence. The oxygen vacancies, existing in the a-SnO2 film in the order of 1021 cm-3, distribute preferentially along the film surface direction.

  11. High pressure and high temperature EXAFS and diffraction study of AgI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiasa, Akira; Arima, Hiroshi; Fukui, Hiroshi; Okube, Maki; Katayama, Yoshinori; Ohtaka, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    We have determined the precise P-T phase diagram of AgI by in-situ high-pressure high-temperature synchrotron experiments. X-ray diffraction and XAFS measurements were performed up to 6.0 GPa and 1100 K using a multi-anvil high-pressure device and synchrotron radiation from SPring-8. In the disordered rock-salt phase, Ag ions occupy both octahedral and tetrahedral sites and twenty percent of Ag ions occupy the tetrahedral site as a maximum value at 2 GPa. From the viewpoint of the local structure analyses, some sudden changes are recognized near broad phase transition point. Analysis of EXAFS Debye-Waller factor is useful because the force constant can be decided directly even at high pressure and high temperature. Pressure influences greatly the effective potential and anharmonicity decreases with increasing pressure. (author)

  12. Neutral Silicon-Vacancy Center in Diamond: Spin Polarization and Lifetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B. L.; Mottishaw, S.; Breeze, B. G.; Edmonds, A. M.; D'Haenens-Johansson, U. F. S.; Doherty, M. W.; Williams, S. D.; Twitchen, D. J.; Newton, M. E.

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate optical spin polarization of the neutrally charged silicon-vacancy defect in diamond (SiV0 ), an S =1 defect which emits with a zero-phonon line at 946 nm. The spin polarization is found to be most efficient under resonant excitation, but nonzero at below-resonant energies. We measure an ensemble spin coherence time T2>100 μ s at low-temperature, and a spin relaxation limit of T1>25 s . Optical spin-state initialization around 946 nm allows independent initialization of SiV0 and NV- within the same optically addressed volume, and SiV0 emits within the telecoms down-conversion band to 1550 nm: when combined with its high Debye-Waller factor, our initial results suggest that SiV0 is a promising candidate for a long-range quantum communication technology.

  13. Radiation damage in A-15 materials: EXAFS studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, G.S.; Kampwirth, R.T.; Georgopoulos, P.; Brown, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    EXAFS measurements are useful in determining the local atomic environment of a particular element in a solid. Since there has been some controversy about the nature of the defects produced in A-15 materials by radiation damage, such studies were carried out on some A-15 compounds, V 3 Ga which was damaged by neutrons, as well as Nb 3 Ge damaged by 2.5 MeV a particles. In the V 3 Ga sample, site exchange disorder seems to be the most important result of the neutron damage with less than 20% of the vanadium atoms on wrong sites. However, in the Nb 3 Ge samples in addition to site exchange disorder, an unusual splitting of the first near-neighbor distance between the Ge and Nb is found. This splitting, approximately 0.2 A, may explain the large Debye Waller factors observed by Burbank et al

  14. Factors affecting femoral rotational angle based on the posterior condylar axis in gap-based navigation-assisted total knee arthroplasty for valgus knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Sahn; Lee, Yong-In; Kim, Dong-Uk; Lee, Dae-Hee; Moon, Young-Wan

    2018-01-01

    Achieving proper rotational alignment of the femoral component in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for valgus knee is challenging because of lateral condylar hypoplasia and lateral cartilage erosion. Gap-based navigation-assisted TKA enables surgeons to determine the angle of femoral component rotation (FCR) based on the posterior condylar axis. This study evaluated the possible factors that affect the rotational alignment of the femoral component based on the posterior condylar axis. Between 2008 and 2016, 28 knees were enrolled. The dependent variable for this study was FCR based on the posterior condylar axis, which was obtained from the navigation system archives. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify factors that might predict FCR, including body mass index (BMI), Kellgren-Lawrence grade (K-L grade), lateral distal femoral angles obtained from the navigation system and radiographs (NaviLDFA, XrayLDFA), hip-knee-ankle (HKA) axis, lateral gap under varus stress (LGVS), medial gap under valgus stress (MGVS), and side-to-side difference (STSD, MGVS - LGVS). The mean FCR was 6.1° ± 2.0°. Of all the potentially predictive factors evaluated in this study, only NaviLDFA (β = -0.668) and XrayLDFA (β = -0.714) predicted significantly FCR. The LDFAs, as determined using radiographs and the navigation system, were both predictive of the rotational alignment of the femoral component based on the posterior condylar axis in gap-based TKA for valgus knee. A 1° increment with NaviLDFA led to a 0.668° decrement in FCR, and a 1° increment with XrayLDFA led to a 0.714° decrement. This suggests that symmetrical lateral condylar hypoplasia of the posterior and distal side occurs in lateral compartment end-stage osteoarthritis with valgus deformity.

  15. Mildly elevated serum total bilirubin is negatively associated with hemoglobin A1c independently of confounding factors among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Kawamoto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally high glycated hemoglobin (Hb (HbA1c is significantly associated with oxidative stress and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Serum total bilirubin (T-B may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes and be a negative risk factor of CVD. Limited information is available on whether serum T-B is an independent confounding factor of HbA1c. The study subjects were 633 men aged 70 ± 9 (mean ± standard deviation (SD years and 878 women aged 70 ± 8 years who were enrolled consecutively from among patients aged ≥40 years through a community-based annual check-up process. We evaluated the relationship between various confounding factors including serum T-B and HbA1c in each gender. Multiple linear regression analysis pertaining to HbA1c showed that in men, serum T-B ( β = −0.139 as well as waist circumference ( β = 0.099, exercise habit ( β = 0.137, systolic blood pressure (SBP ( β = 0.076, triglycerides ( β = 0.087, and uric acid ( β = −0.123 were significantly and independently associated with HbA1c, and in women, serum T-B ( β = −0.084 as well as body mass index ( β = 0.090, smoking status ( β = −0.077, SBP ( β = 0.117, diastolic blood pressure (DBP ( β = −0.155, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( β = 0.074, prevalence of antidyslipidemic medication ( β = 0.174, and uric acid ( β = 0.090 were also significantly and independently associated with HbA1c. Multivariate-adjusted serum HbA1c levels were significantly high in subjects with the lowest serum T-B levels in both genders. Serum T-B is an independent confounding factor for HbA1c among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly persons.

  16. Peripheral blood corticotropin-releasing factor, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cytokine (Interleukin Beta, Interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha) levels after high- and low-dose total-body irradiation in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girinsky, T.A.; Pallardy, M.; Comoy, E.; Benassi, T.; Roger, R.; Ganem, G.; Socie, G.; Cossett, J.M.; Magdelenat, H.

    1994-01-01

    Total-body irradiation (TBI) induces an increase in levels of granulocytes and cortisol in blood. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we studied 26 patients who had TBI prior to bone marrow transplantation. Our findings suggest that only a high dose of TBI (10 Gy) was capable of activating the hypothalamopituitary area since corticotropin-releasing factor and blood adrenocorticotropic hormone levels increased at the end of the TBI. There was a concomitant increase in the levels of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor in blood, suggesting that these cytokines might activate the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis. Interleukin 1 was not detected. Since vascular injury is a common after radiation treatment, it is possible that interleukin 6 was secreted by endothelial cells. The exact mechanisms of the production of cyctokines induced by ionizing radiation remain to be determined. 25 refs., 1 fig

  17. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for total hip or knee replacement due to primary osteoarthritis: a prospective cohort study (the HUNT study and the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellevik AI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alf Inge Hellevik,1,2 Marianne Bakke Johnsen,3,4 Arnulf Langhammer,1 Valborg Baste,5 Ove Furnes,6,7 Kjersti Storheim,3,4 John Anker Zwart,3,4 Gunnar Birkeland Flugsrud,2 Lars Nordsletten2,4 1The HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Levanger, 2Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, 3Research and Communication Unit for Musculoskeletal Health, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, 4Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, 5Uni Research Health, Bergen, 6The Norwegian Arthroplasty Register, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, 7Department of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway Objective: Biochemical changes associated with obesity may accelerate osteoarthritis beyond the effect of mechanical factors. This study investigated whether metabolic syndrome and its components (visceral obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance were risk factors for subsequent total hip replacement (THR or total knee replacement (TKR due to primary osteoarthritis.Design: In this prospective cohort study, data from the second survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2 (HUNT2 were linked to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register for identification of the outcome of THR or TKR. The analyses were stratified by age (<50, 50–69.9 and ≥70 years and adjusted for gender, body mass index, smoking, physical activity and education.Results: Of the 62,661 participants, 12,593 (20.1% were identified as having metabolic syndrome, and we recorded 1,840 (2.9% THRs and 1,111 (1.8% TKRs during a mean follow-up time of 15.4 years. Cox regression analyses did not show any association between full metabolic syndrome and THR or TKR, except in persons <50 years with metabolic syndrome who had a decreased risk

  18. Which patients need critical care intervention after total joint arthroplasty? : a prospective study of factors associated with the need for intensive care following surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, P M; Melnic, C M; Gutsche, J; Hume, E L; Lee, G-C

    2015-11-01

    Older patients with multiple medical co-morbidities are increasingly being offered and undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA). These patients are more likely to require intensive care support, following surgery. We prospectively evaluated the need for intensive care admission and intervention in a consecutive series of 738 patients undergoing elective hip and knee arthroplasty procedures. The mean age was 60.6 years (18 to 91; 440 women, 298 men. Risk factors, correlating with the need for critical care intervention, according to published guidelines, were analysed to identify high-risk patients who would benefit from post-operative critical care monitoring. A total of 50 patients (6.7%) in our series required critical care level interventions during their hospital stay. Six independent multivariate clinical predictors were identified (p 1000 mL (OR 17.36, 95% CI 5.36 to 56.19), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (13.90, 95% CI 4.78 to 40.36), intra-operative use of vasopressors (OR 8.10, 95% CI 3.23 to 20.27), revision hip arthroplasty (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.04 to 7.04) and body mass index > 35 kg/m(2) (OR 2.70, 95% CI 123 to 5.94). The model was then validated against an independent, previously published data set of 1594 consecutive patients. The use of this risk stratification model can be helpful in predicting which high-risk patients would benefit from a higher level of monitoring and care after elective TJA and aid hospitals in allocating precious critical care resources. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  19. Design of an electrochemical cell for in situ XAS studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, N. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Box 6154, CEP 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Morais, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Avenida Bento Goncalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CP 15051, CEP 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Alves, M.C.M. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Avenida Bento Goncalves, 9500, Bairro Agronomia, CP 15003, CEP 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: maria@iq.ufrgs.br

    2007-05-15

    In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies have been carried out on the electrochemical insertion of Co metal particles in polypyrrole. This has become possible due to the development of an electrochemical cell to allow XAS studies in fluorescence geometry under steady-state conditions. The experimental set-up allows the in situ monitoring of the structural and electronic changes of the selected atom in a matrix. The project of the electrochemical cell is presented with the results obtained at different stages of the electrochemical process. XANES and EXAFS results showed that the initial stage of the cobalt insertion in polypyrrole took place in an ionic form, like [-[(C{sub 4}H{sub 2}N){sub 3}CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}OSO{sub 3}{sup -}]{sub 6}Co{sup 2+}] with posterior reduction to a metallic form. The quantitative analysis of the first shell shows that, at -0.60 V, the cobalt atoms are surrounded by 6 ({+-}0.5) atoms located at 2.12 ({+-}0.05) A with a large Debye-Waller factor ({sigma}{sup 2}) value of 0.0368 ({+-}0.0074). At -0.80 V, two distances of R = 1.99 ({+-}0.01) and R = 2.50 ({+-}0.01) A show the coexistence of cobalt in the oxidized and reduced (Co{sup 0}) forms. The Co-Co distance corresponds to that of bulk cobalt. At -1.20 V, the obtained values of N = 12 ({+-}0.5) and R = 2.56 ({+-}0.01) A and a Debye-Waller factor of 0.0176 ({+-}0.0004) suggest the formation of metallic cobalt in a quite disordered form.

  20. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for total hip or knee replacement due to primary osteoarthritis: a prospective cohort study (the HUNT study and the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellevik, Alf Inge; Johnsen, Marianne Bakke; Langhammer, Arnulf; Baste, Valborg; Furnes, Ove; Storheim, Kjersti; Zwart, John Anker; Flugsrud, Gunnar Birkeland; Nordsletten, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Biochemical changes associated with obesity may accelerate osteoarthritis beyond the effect of mechanical factors. This study investigated whether metabolic syndrome and its components (visceral obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance) were risk factors for subsequent total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR) due to primary osteoarthritis. In this prospective cohort study, data from the second survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2 (HUNT2) were linked to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register for identification of the outcome of THR or TKR. The analyses were stratified by age (<50, 50-69.9 and ≥70 years) and adjusted for gender, body mass index, smoking, physical activity and education. Of the 62,661 participants, 12,593 (20.1%) were identified as having metabolic syndrome, and we recorded 1,840 (2.9%) THRs and 1,111 (1.8%) TKRs during a mean follow-up time of 15.4 years. Cox regression analyses did not show any association between full metabolic syndrome and THR or TKR, except in persons <50 years with metabolic syndrome who had a decreased risk of THR (hazard ratio [HR] 0.58, 95% CI 0.40-0.83). However, when including only participants whose exposure status did not change during follow-up, this protective association was no longer significant. Increased waist circumference was associated with increased risk of TKR in participants <50 years (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.10-2.39) and 50-69.9 years (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.14-1.80). Hypertension significantly increased the risk of TKR in participants <50 years (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.05-1.81), and this risk was greater for men. This study found an increased risk of TKR in men <50 years with hypertension and persons <70 years with increased waist circumference. Apart from this, neither metabolic syndrome nor its components were associated with increased risk of THR or TKR due to primary osteoarthritis.

  1. Risk factors for radiation pneumonitis after stereotactic radiation therapy for lung tumours: clinical usefulness of the planning target volume to total lung volume ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, Tomoko; Arimura, Takeshi; Takumi, Koji; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Higashi, Ryutaro; Ito, Soichiro; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Umanodan, Tomokazu; Nakajo, Masanori; Koriyama, Chihaya; Yoshiura, Takashi

    2018-06-01

    To identify risk factors for symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) after stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) for lung tumours. We retrospectively evaluated 68 lung tumours in 63 patients treated with SRT between 2011 and 2015. RP was graded according to the National Cancer Institute-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. SRT was delivered at 7.0-12.0 Gy per each fraction, once daily, to a total of 48-64 Gy (median, 50 Gy). Univariate analysis was performed to assess patient- and treatment-related factors, including age, sex, smoking index (SI), pulmonary function, tumour location, serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 value (KL-6), dose-volume metrics (V5, V10, V20, V30, V40 and VS5), homogeneity index of the planning target volume (PTV), PTV dose, mean lung dose (MLD), contralateral MLD and V2, PTV volume, lung volume and the PTV/lung volume ratio (PTV/Lung). Performance of PTV/Lung in predicting symptomatic RP was also analysed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The median follow-up period was 21 months. 10 of 63 patients (15.9%) developed symptomatic RP after SRT. On univariate analysis, V10, V20, PTV volume and PTV/Lung were significantly associated with occurrence of RP  ≥Grade 2. ROC curves indicated that symptomatic RP could be predicted using PTV/Lung [area under curve (AUC): 0.88, confidence interval (CI: 0.78-0.95), cut-off value: 1.09, sensitivity: 90.0% and specificity: 72.4%]. PTV/Lung is a good predictor of symptomatic RP after SRT. Advances in knowledge: The cases with high PTV/Lung should be carefully monitored with caution for the occurrence of RP after SRT.

  2. N-Acetylcysteine Supplementation Controls Total Antioxidant Capacity, Creatine Kinase, Lactate, and Tumor Necrotic Factor-Alpha against Oxidative Stress Induced by Graded Exercise in Sedentary Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donrawee Leelarungrayub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term (7 days N-acetylcysteine (NAC at 1,200 mg daily supplementation on muscle fatigue, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, lactate, creatine kinase (CK, and tumor necrotic factor-alpha (TNF-α. Twenty-nine sedentary men (13 controls; 16 in the supplement group from a randomized control were included. At before and after supplementation, fatigue index (FI was evaluated in the quadriceps muscle, and performed a graded exercise treadmill test to induce oxidative stress, and as a measure of VO2max. Blood samples were taken before exercise and 20 minutes after it at before and after supplementation, to determine TAC, CK, lactate, and TNF-α levels. Results showed that FI and VO2max increased significantly in the supplement group. After exercise decreased the levels of TAC and increased lactate, CK, and TNF-α of both groups at before supplementation. After supplementation, lactate, CK, and TNF-α levels significantly increased and TAC decreased after exercise in the control group. Whereas the TAC and lactate levels did not change significantly, but CK and TNF-α increased significantly in the supplement group. Therefore, this results showed that NAC improved the muscle fatigue, VO2max, maintained TAC, controlled lactate production, but had no influence on CK and TNF-α.

  3. [Value of evaluating the coronary collateral circulation by transluminal attenuation gradient in patients with chronic total occlusion and related influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y L; Wang, R; He, Y; Li, J N; Yuan, F; Tian, R; Ge, C J; Zhou, Y; Huang, R C; Cui, S; Song, X T

    2017-10-24

    Objective: To observe the value of evaluating the coronary collateral circulation of chronic total occlusion (CTO) by transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG) and Rentrop grading, and analyze the influencing factors for coronary collateral circulation. Methods: A total of 179 CTO patients admitted to Beijing Anzhen hospital during June 2013 to August 2016 were included in this study.All patients received coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) examination before coronary angiography.Finally, 75 patients (79 vessels) were enrolled.Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of Rentrop classification.The Rentrop 3 was defined as a well-developed coronary collateral circulation group, including 50 CTO vessels, Rentrop 2 or below was defined as poorly-developed collateral circulation group, including 29 vessels.TAG values in patients with various Rentrop grades were analyzed.Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to determine the predictors of collateral circulation. Results: TAG increased consistently in proportion to the angiographic extent of collateral flow (TAG was (-33.6±24.4), (-16.5±15.7) and (-12.8±15.8) HU/10 mm in patients with Rentrop grade 0 or 1, 2 and 3, respectively, P =0.007). Number of good collateral circulation vessels predicted by TAG≥15.6 HU/10 mm was 45(57.0%, 45/79), and 50 (63.3%, 50/79) by Rentrop grade ( P =0.383). Prevalence of diabetes was significantly lower (20.8%(10/48) vs. 48.1%(13/27), P =0.01), while history of previous myocardial infarction (MI) was significantly higher (35.4%(17/48) vs. 11.1%(3/27), P =0.02) in patients with good collateral circulation than in patients with poor collateral circulation.The TAG of the good collateral circulation group was significantly higher than in poorly collateral circulation group ((-12.8±15.8) HU/10 mm vs. (-21.2±19.6) HU/10mm, P =0.041). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that history of MI ( OR =0.196, 95% CI 0.041-0.936, P =0.041) and diabetes( OR =6

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in people with severe mental illness: a total population study of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer-Staeb, Clarissa; Jörgensen, Lena; Lewis, Glyn; Dalman, Christina; Osborn, David P J; Hayes, Joseph F

    2017-09-01

    Severe mental illness is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The elevated risk of blood-borne viruses (BBVs) in people with severe mental illness is of concern, but the full extent of this problem is unclear. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for BBVs in people with severe mental illness. In this nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional study, we estimated the point prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B (HBV), and hepatitis C (HCV) in people with severe mental illness, including the total adult (≥18 years) Swedish population. We defined severe mental illness as a clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, or other psychotic illness according to the Swedish version of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases version 8, 9, or 10. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of BBVs in individuals with severe mental illness, relative to the general population, and to identify independent risk factors (age, sex, immigration status, socioeconomic status, education, and substance misuse) for BBV infection. We also did a sensitivity analysis excluding BBV diagnoses made before the introduction of the Register for Infection Disease Control (1997). Of 6 815 931 adults in Sweden, 97 797 (1·43%) individuals had a diagnosis of severe mental illness. Prevalence of BBVs was elevated in people with severe mental illness, of which 230 (0·24%) had HIV, 518 (0·53%) had HBV, and 4476 (4·58%) had HCV. After accounting for sociodemographic characteristics, the odds of HIV were 2·57 (95% CI 2·25-2·94, pmental illness than in the general population, whereas the odds of HBV were 2·29 (2·09-2·51, pmental illness and identify interventions preventing infection. Targeting of comorbid substance misuse would have particular effect on reduction of BBV prevalence in this population. Medical Research Council and Swedish Research Council. Copyright © 2017 The Author

  5. Perubahan Struktur Ekonomi, Dekomposisi Sumber Pertumbuhan Output, dan Pertumbuhan Total Factor Productivity (TFP: Analisis Lanjutan Tabel Input-Output Provinsi Kalimantan Selatan, 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Fajri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High economic growth is the target of economic development in each area. Economic development should be prioritized in sectors that can be a major driver of the economy so that the economy can grow faster. Economic growth can be seen from the aggregate demand side, namely consumption, investment, government spending, exports and imports, and the aggregate supply side namely labor growth, capital growth and the growth of TFP (Total Factor Productivity. This study uses South Kalimantan’s Input-Output Tables of 2000, 2005 and 2010. The results showed that although the structure of the value-added of the mining sector remains the main economic pillar, but this sector has low linkages with other sectors. The prime mover and driving economic growth sector are manufacturing sector i.e chemical industry, food, beverages and tobacco industry, rubber and plastics industry, paper, printing and publishing industry and industry of metal, machinery, transport equipment and other manufacturing industries. Based Multiplier Product Matrix, manufacturing industry suggest a leading role in the economy so that it can be said that the province of South Kalimantan are heading toward a change in the economic structure. Decomposition of sources of growth based on the Chenery’s model (1960 showed that the main source of economic growth in South Kalimantan is exports by 67 percent in the period 2000-2005 and 73.72 percent in the period 2005-2010, especially the export of coal. Decomposition of productivity growth made by Namura and Kuroda’s model (2004 and suggests that TFP growth and capital have a strong linear relationship and significant Output growth, while labor productivity have no significant correlation with Output growth. Finally, the wealth of the abundant natural resources, industry-oriented economic growth and sustainable development in South Kalimantan Province is agriculture-based industries and mining-based industries with the main strategy is to

  6. Risk factors for fear of falling in elderly patients with severe knee osteoarthritis before and one year after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsonga, Theano; Michalopoulou, Maria; Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Giovannopoulou, Eirini; Malliou, Paraskevi; Godolias, George; Soucacos, Panagiotis

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the regression of fear of falling (FOF) and identify its risk factors in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis before and one year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). 11 men and 57 women with a mean age of 73 years and a mean body mass index of 30.36 kg/m2 who had severe (grade 3 or 4) knee osteoarthritis and knee pain of ≥1 year were included. Two weeks before and one year after TKA, patients were asked about their FOF status and falls history. Patients were asked to complete the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, Short Form 36 (SF-36), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaires. Clinical performance was assessed using the Berg Balance Scale and Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. Of the 68 patients, 56 (82.4%) had FOF preoperatively and 30 (44.1%) had FOF one year after TKA (p<0.001). The strongest predictors for FOF preoperatively were fallers (odds ratio [OR]=9.83, p=0.028), mental component summary (MCS) score of SF-36 (OR=0.88, p=0.024), and TUG (OR=3.4, p=0.013). The strongest predictors for FOF one year postoperatively were fallers (OR=16.51, p=0.041), patients with ≥2 chronic diseases (OR=17.33, p=0.011), physical function score of WOMAC (OR=1.015, p=0.005), and MCS score of SF-36 (OR=0.86, p=0.015). TKA positively affected FOF and gradually reduced the FOF rate over a year period after TKA in an elderly population.

  7. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  8. Factores asociados al estado funcional en personas de 75 o más años de edad no dependientes Factors associated with functional status in a population aged >75 years without total dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Arnau

    2012-10-01

    physical performance tests: the Guralnik chair stand test of lower limb function, Lawton-Brody's index of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL, and the Barthel index of basic activities of daily living (BADL. A backward multiple linear regression model was used to analyze the association of sociodemographic and clinical variables with functional status. Results: The mean age was 81.9 years and 60.6% were female. Around 50% of elderly patients without total dependence showed disability for IADL and a third showed lower limb functional limitation. The variables associated with lower limb functional status were marital status, body mass index, number of drugs, and vision and hearing impairment (R² = 0.208. The variables associated with IADL were age, cognitive impairment, vision and hearing impairment, and lower limb functional limitation (R² = 0.434. The variables associated with the Barthel index were age, sex, poor self-perceived health, and lower limb functional limitation (R² = 0.389. Conclusions The risk factors associated with functional status in our population > 75 years of age without severe dependence were the number of drugs and sensory impairment.

  9. The effect of intesification factors to total antioxidant activity of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Medvecký

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Public attention is increasingly drawn to the protective effects of natural antioxidants against civilization diseases. An important source of antioxidants are berries, which until recently has received little attention, but the latest research towards the right to it. The phenolic profile and quantitative composition of blueberries as well as the corresponding antioxidant activity of blueberries is well documented. The aim of this paper was the determination of the relationship between different methods of fertilization and total antioxidant activity of six selected varieties of blueberries and five varieties of lingonberries. Each sample of blueberry varieties (Bluejay, Nelson, Bluecrop, Patriot, Berkeley and Brigitta and lingonberry varieties (Koralle, Ida, Sanna, Linnea and Sussi were collected from the research station Krivá in Orava. The values of total antioxidant activity of the extracts of studied varieties of blueberry after organic fertilization ranged from 27.15 to 52.25 μg.mg-1 eq. Trolox. After mineral fertilization, the values of total antioxidant activity of the extracts of studied varieties of blueberry ranged from 21.27 to 51.00 μg.mg-1 eq. Trolox. In the control treatment, the values of total antioxidant activity of the extracts of studied varieties of blueberry ranged from 26.99 to 54.15 μg.mg-1 eq. Trolox. The values of values ​​of total antioxidant activity of the extracts of studied varieties of lingonberry after organic fertilization ranged from 42.49 to 60.27 μg.mg-1 eq. Trolox. After mineral fertilization, the values of total antioxidant activity of the extracts of studied varieties of lingonberry were in the interval from 38.85 to 55.15 μg.mg-1 eq. Trolox. In the variant without fertilization, the values of total antioxidant activity of the extracts of studied varieties of lingonberry ranged from 37.16 to 65.11 μg.mg-1 eq. Trolox. The application of organic fertilizer has a positive effect to increasing

  10. Application of particle size distributions to total particulate stack samples to estimate PM2.5 and PM10 emission factors for agricultural sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particle size distributions (PSD) have long been used to more accurately estimate the PM10 fraction of total particulate matter (PM) stack samples taken from agricultural sources. These PSD analyses were typically conducted using a Coulter Counter with 50 micrometer aperture tube. With recent increa...

  11. Reaction path of the oxidative coupling of methane over a lithium-doped magnesium oxide catalyst : Factors affecting the Rate of Total Oxidation of Ethane and Ethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, J.A.; Korf, S.J.; Veehof, R.H.J.; van Ommen, J.G.; Ross, J.R.H.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments using gas mixtures of O2, C2H6 or C2H4 and CH4 or He have been carried out with a Li/MgO catalyst using a well-mixed reaction system which show that the total oxidation products, CO and CO2, are formed predominantly from ethylene, formed in the oxidative coupling of methane. It is

  12. Does IQ explain socio-economic differentials in total and cardiovascular disease mortality? Comparison with the explanatory power of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Vietnam Experience Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G David; Shipley, Martin J; Dundas, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the explanatory power of intelligence (IQ) compared with traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the relationship of socio-economic disadvantage with total and CVD mortality, that is the extent to which IQ may account for the variance in this ......The aim of this study was to examine the explanatory power of intelligence (IQ) compared with traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the relationship of socio-economic disadvantage with total and CVD mortality, that is the extent to which IQ may account for the variance...

  13. The role of total body fat mass and trunk fat mass, combined with other endocrine factors, in menstrual recovery and psychopathology of adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karountzos, Vasileios; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Tsitsika, Artemis; Deligeoroglou, Efthimios

    2017-10-01

    To determine the threshold of total body and trunk fat mass required for menstrual recovery and to assess the impact of body composition in psychopathology of adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Prospective study of 60 adolescents presented with secondary amenorrhea and diagnosed with AN. Anthropometrics, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, hormonal studies and responses to mental health screens (EAT-26), were obtained at the beginning and at complete weight restoration, in all adolescents, independently of menstrual recovery (Group A) or not (Group B). At weight restoration, Group A total body fat mass, trunk fat mass, and trunk/extremities fat ratio were significantly higher (p psychopathology of adolescents with AN.

  14. Thirty-day Postoperative Complications following Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Retrospective Study of Incidence and Risk Factors at a Single Center in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Feng

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: This study highlighted complications with cardiac and respiratory origins as the most common complications within 30 postoperative days following primary TKA. The BMI of ≥30.0 kg/m2 and age ≥80 years were significant risk factors for 30-day postoperative complications.

  15. Risk factors for adverse outcome in patients with rectal cancer treated with an abdominoperineal resection in the total mesorectal excision trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dulk, Marcel; Marijnen, Corrie A. M.; Putter, Hein; Rutten, Harm J. T.; Beets, Geerard L.; Wiggers, Theo; Nagtegaal, Iris D.; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.

    Objective: This study was performed to identify tumor- and patient-related risk factors for distal rectal cancer in patients treated with an abdominoperineal resection (APR) associated with positive circumferential resection margin (CRM), local recurrence (LR), and overall survival (OS). Background:

  16. Low serum levels of free and total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in patients with anorexia nervosa are not associated with increased IGF-binding protein-3 proteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Flyvbjerg, A; Frystyk, J

    1999-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are GH resistant, with elevated GH levels and low serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). IGF-I action is modulated by IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), and a variety of catabolic states has been characterized by the presence of increased IGFBP-3...

  17. Free and total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), and IGFBP-3 and their relationships to the presence of diabetic retinopathy and glomerular hyperfiltration in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); M.L. Jacobs (Marloes); F.H.M. Derkx (Frans); R.F.A. Weber (Rob); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe existing literature on serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is conflicting. Free IGF-I may have greater physiological and clinical relevance than total IGF- I. Recently, a validated method has been developed to measure free

  18. Free and total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), and IGFBP-3 and their relationships to the presence of diabetic retinopathy and glomerular hyperfiltration in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); M.L. Jacobs (Marloes); F.H.M. Derkx (Frans); R.F.A. Weber (Robert); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe existing literature on serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is conflicting. Free IGF-I may have greater physiological and clinical relevance than total IGF-I. Recently, a validated method has

  19. El uso de dientes artificiales de acrílico y porcelana como factor de reabsorción de procesos residuales en pacientes desdentados totales. Estudio transversal

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Rubio Carrillo, Raúl Armando; Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexicali, México; Verdugo Díaz, Roberto de Jesús; Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexicali, México; Sánchez Rubio Carrillo, Ricardo Manuel; Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexicali, México; Barreras Serrano, Alberto; Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexicali, México; Vélez Gutiérrez, Jesús Alfonso; Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Mexicali, México

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo: valorar el efecto de dientes de porcelana y acrílico en los procesos residuales en pacientes desdentados totales. Métodos: se realizó un estudio transversal en 193 pacientes desdentados, quienes usaban dentaduras desde hacía más de cinco años y en quienes se analizó la altura de los procesos residuales. Los pacientes se clasificaron por medio de los criterios de Atwood. La significancia estadística de las hallazgos con los diferentes materiales fueron analizadas con la prueba χ2. Re...

  20. Circadian variation in serum free and total insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II in untreated and treated acromegaly and growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjaerbaek, Christian; Frystyk, Jan; Kaal, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    to the nocturnal increase in IGF binding protein-1. In this study we have investigated the circadian variation in circulating free IGF-I and IGF-II in patients with acromegaly and patients with adult onset growth hormone deficiency. PATIENTS: Seven acromegalic patients were studied with and without treatment...... no significant circadian variations in free IGF-I or free IGF-II in either of the two occasions. In contrast, there was a significant circadian variation of total IGF-I after adjustment for changes in plasma volume in both treated and untreated acromegaly and GH deficiency in all cases with a peak between 0300 h...

  1. Effect of lifestyle factors on plasma total homocysteine concentrations in relation to MTHFR(C677T) genotype. Inter99 (7)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, L L N; Thomsen, T F; Fenger, M

    2004-01-01

    a Fluorescent Polarization Immuno Assay. MTHFR-genotype was determined by PCR and RFLP analysis. Information about lifestyle factors was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Daily smoking, less healthy dietary habits, and coffee drinking were associated with elevated tHcy concentrations......OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between various lifestyle factors--smoking habits, physical activity, dietary habits, coffee, tea, and alcohol consumption--and homocysteine (tHcy) in relation to MTHFR(C677T) genotype. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based study. SETTING: Residents....... The effect of smoking was more pronounced in persons with the TT genotype and in women. The effect of beer consumption was more pronounced at younger than at older ages. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking status, dietary habits, coffee intake, wine, and beer consumption were major lifestyle determinants of tHcy. Changes...

  2. Malnutrition Increases With Obesity and Is a Stronger Independent Risk Factor for Postoperative Complications: A Propensity-Adjusted Analysis of Total Hip Arthroplasty Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Michael C; D'Ambrosia, Christopher; McLawhorn, Alexander S; Schairer, William W; Padgett, Douglas E; Cross, Michael B

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is frequently associated with complications after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and is often concomitant with malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the independent morbidity risk of malnutrition relative to obesity. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program from 2005 to 2013 was queried for elective primary THA cases. Malnutrition was defined as albumin malnutrition with 30-day outcomes. A total of 40,653 THA cases were identified, of which 20,210 (49.7%) had preoperative albumin measurements. Propensity score adjustment successfully reduced potential selection bias, with P > .05 for differences between those with and without albumin data. Malnutrition incidence increased from 2.8% in obese I to 5.7% in obese III patients. With multivariable propensity-adjusted logistic regression, malnutrition was a more robust predictor than any obesity class for any postoperative complication(s) (odds ratio [OR] 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-2.08), major complications (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.21-2.19), respiratory complications (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.27-4.37), blood transfusions (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.44-2.03), and extended length of stay (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.14-1.59). Malnutrition incidence increased significantly from obese I to obese III patients and was a stronger and more consistent predictor than obesity of complications after THA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors Associated With Smoking, Quit Attempts and Attitudes towards Total Smoking Bans at University: A Survey of Seven Universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, W.; Stock, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study assessed the associations between socio-demographic, health and wellbeing variables (independent variables) and daily smoking, attempts to quit smoking, and agreement with smoking ban (dependent variables). Methods: Data from 3,706 undergraduate students were collected from...... degree; and, students who reported binge drinking. Conversely, daily smoking was less likely among students who rated their health as very good/excellent, those who ate >= 5 portions of fruit or vegetables, and those who had never taken illicit drugs. Previous attempt/s to quit smoking were more likely...... of occasional smokers. About every second smoker (55%) had attempted to quit smoking. Almost 45% of the whole sample agreed or strongly agreed with implementing a total smoking ban on campus. Daily smoking was more likely among students with not sufficient income, students whose fathers had at least a bachelor...

  4. Soil pH, total phosphorus, climate and distance are the major factors influencing microbial activity at a regional spatial scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Haichuan; Chen, Ruirui; Wang, Libing

    2016-01-01

    Considering the extensive functional redundancy in microbial communities and great difficulty in elucidating it based on taxonomic structure, studies on the biogeography of soil microbial activity at large spatial scale are as important as microbial community structure. Eighty-four soil samples...... scaling clearly revealed that soil microbial activities showed distinct differentiation at different sites over a regional spatial scale, which were strongly affected by soil pH, total P, rainfall, temperature, soil type and location. In addition, microbial community structure was greatly influenced...... scales. There are common (distance, climate, pH and soil type) but differentiated aspects (TP, SOC and N) in the biogeography of soil microbial community structure and activity....

  5. Spatial pattern of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, and analysis of related factors in an agro-pastoral zone in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuyang; Chen, Yinping; Lian, Jie; Luo, Yongqing; Niu, Yayi; Gong, Xiangwen

    2018-01-01

    The spatial pattern of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) densities plays a profound important role in estimating carbon and nitrogen budgets. Naiman Banner located in northern China was chosen as research site, a total of 332 soil samples were taken in a depth of 100 cm from the low hilly land in the southern part, sandy land in the middle part and an alluvial plain in the northern part of the county. The results showed that SOC and TN density initially decreased and then increased from the north to the south, The highest densities, were generally in the south, with the lowest generally in the middle part. The SOC and TN densities in cropland were significantly greater than those in woodland and grassland in the alluvial plains and for Naiman as a whole. The woodland SOC and TN density were higher than those of grassland in the low hilly land, and higher densities of SOC and TN in grassland than woodland in the sandy land and low hilly land. There were significant differences in SOC and TN densities among the five soil types of Cambisols, Arenosols, Gleysols, Argosols, and Kastanozems. In addition, SOC and TN contents generally decreased with increasing soil depth, but increased below a depth of 40 cm in the Cambisols and became roughly constant at this depth in the Kastanozems. There is considerable potential to sequester carbon and nitrogen in the soil via the conversion of degraded sandy land into woodland and grassland in alluvial plain, and more grassland should be established in sandy land and low hilly land. PMID:29771979

  6. Total space in resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonacina, I.; Galesi, N.; Thapen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2016), s. 1894-1909 ISSN 0097-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : total space * resolution random CNFs * proof complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/15M1023269

  7. Total - annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities and results of TOTAL S.A., french society on oil and gas. It deals with statistics, the managers, key information on financial data and risk factors, information on the Company, unresolved Staff Comments, employees, major Shareholders, consolidated statements, markets, security, financial risks, defaults dividend arrearages and delinquencies, controls and procedures, code of ethics and financial statements. (A.L.B.)

  8. Insights from the design and implementation of a single-entry model of referral for total joint replacement surgery: Critical success factors and unanticipated consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damani, Zaheed; MacKean, Gail; Bohm, Eric; Noseworthy, Tom; Wang, Jenney Meng Han; DeMone, Brie; Wright, Brock; Marshall, Deborah A

    2018-02-01

    Single-entry models (SEMs) in healthcare allow patients to see the next-available provider and have been shown to improve waiting times, access and patient flow for preference-sensitive, scheduled services. The Winnipeg Central Intake Service (WCIS) for hip and knee replacement surgery was implemented to improve access in the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority. This paper describes the system's design/implementation; successes, challenges, and unanticipated consequences. On two occasions, during and following implementation, we interviewed all members of the WCIS project team, including processing engineers, waiting list coordinators, administrators and policy-makers regarding their experiences. We used semi-structured telephone interviews to collect data and qualitative thematic analysis to analyze and interpret the findings. Respondents indicated that the overarching objectives of the WCIS were being met. Benefits included streamlined processes, greater patient access, improved measurement and monitoring of outcomes. Challenges included low awareness, change readiness, and initial participation among stakeholders. Unanticipated consequences included workload increases, confusion around stakeholder expectations and under-reporting of data by surgeons' offices. Critical success factors for implementation included a requirement for clear communication, robust data collection, physician leadership and patience by all, especially implementation teams. Although successfully implemented, key lessons and critical success factors were learned related to change management, which if considered and applied, can reduce unanticipated consequences, improve uptake and benefit new models of care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Main factors of thermal fatigue failure induced by thermal striping and total simulation of thermal hydraulic and structural behaviors (research report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Naoto; Muramatsu, Toshiharu

    1999-01-01

    At incomplete mixing area of high temperature and low temperature fluids near the surface of structures, temperature fluctuation of fluid gives thermal fatigue damage to wall structures. This phenomenon is called thermal striping, which becomes sometimes a critical problem in LMFR plants. Since thermal striping phenomenon is characterized by the complex thermohydraulic and thermomechanical coupled problem, conventional evaluation procedures require mock-up experiments. In order to replace them by simulation-base methods, the authors have developed numerical simulation codes and applied them to analyze a tee junction of the PHENIX secondary circuit due to thermal striping phenomenon, in the framework of the IAEA coordinated research program (CRP). Through this analysis, thermohydraulic and thermomechanical mechanism of thermal striping phenomenon was clarified, and main factors on structural integrity was extracted in each stage of thermal striping phenomenon. Furthermore, simulation base evaluation methods were proposed taking above factors of structural integrity into account. Finally, R and D problems were investigated for future development of design evaluation methods. (author)

  10. Effect of lifestyle factors on plasma total homocysteine concentrations in relation to MTHFR(C677T) genotype. Inter99 (7)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, L L N; Thomsen, T F; Fenger, M

    2004-01-01

    a Fluorescent Polarization Immuno Assay. MTHFR-genotype was determined by PCR and RFLP analysis. Information about lifestyle factors was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Daily smoking, less healthy dietary habits, and coffee drinking were associated with elevated tHcy concentrations...... independent of other determinants. Wine consumption was related to tHcy in a J-shaped manner, whereas beer consumption was negatively associated with tHcy after multiple adjustments. Interaction was observed between smoking status and MTHFR-genotype, smoking status and sex, and beer consumption and age....... The effect of smoking was more pronounced in persons with the TT genotype and in women. The effect of beer consumption was more pronounced at younger than at older ages. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking status, dietary habits, coffee intake, wine, and beer consumption were major lifestyle determinants of tHcy. Changes...

  11. Development of women's human capital and its impact on economic growth and total factor productivity: A case study of selected OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Mostafaee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiences of developed countries and various studies in the context of economic growth of developing countries have shown that economic growth is not only explained by physical capital and labor force but also, and more importantly, by human capital. The later variable should be entered, as a major determinant, in the endogenous growth model. With the concern of important role of human capital in this research, the primary objective of this paper is to explore the effect of gender discrimination of human capital on economic growth and factor productivity in Iran and the selected OECD countries. More specifically, to indicate the economic capability of educated females, we use data of the considered countries over the period 1974-2008, to estimate the relevant models of growth and productivity. The implication is to compare the empirical results obtained for Iran and the selected developed countries.

  12. Using drug sales data to evaluate the epidemiology of cardiometabolic risk factors and their inequality: an ecological study on atorvastatin and total cholesterol in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadvand, Alireza; Farzadfar, Farshad; Jamshidi, Hamid Reza; Mohammadi, Naser; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2015-01-01

    Statins have been effective medications in lowering serum total cholesterol (TC) concentrations across populations over time. The aim of this study was to estimate national and provincial trends in atorvastatin sales in Iran, to systematically quantify its relationship with socioeconomic indicators, and changes in TC level. In this retrospective ecological study, conducted in Iran, we examined trends in atorvastatin sales, the wealth index (WI) as a validly-available socio-economic indicator, and TC level between 2004 and 2011. The main outcome variable was mean atorvastatin sold in defined daily dose per 100,000 people per day (DPD). We analyzed the relationship between WI and DPD and between DPD and mean TC across time and space. At national level, both mean WI and mean DPD showed increasing trend over time, while we observed decreasing trend for TC. Mean WI and DPD in 2011 was nearly 5 and 50 time that of their respective figures in 2004, while the mean TC decreased for nearly 10%. Increases in both WI and DPD had happened in every province, but with different patterns. The maximum and minimum changes in DPD versus WI were seen in Gilan and North Khorasan respectively. A striking increase occurred in the sales for atorvastatin in Iran from 2004-2012 in most provinces examined. The wealthier a province became, the more sales were seen for atorvastatin. TC optimistically decreased from 2005 to 2011 and its decrease was positively correlated with increasing sales for atorvastatin.

  13. Present experimental constraints on the total S-factor of 12C(α,γ)16O and proposals for future experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmann, L.; Azuma, R.E.; Barnes, C.A.; Humblet, J.; Langanke, K.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the critical importance of the 12 C/ 16 O ratio resulting from helium burning to the later evolution of massive stars, R-matrix fits have been made to the available angular distribution data from radiative α-capture and elastic α-scattering on 12 C to estimate the total 12 C(α,γ) 16 O rate at stellar energies. Largely primary data, i.e. energy-dependent differential cross sections, are used in the analysis with all relevant partial waves being fitted simultaneously (surface fits). It is shown that while the E1 part of the reaction is well constrained by a recent experiment on the β-delayed α-particle decay of 16 N only upper limits can be placed on the E2 ground state transition which we take conservatively as S E2 (300)<140 keV b. Monte-Carlo simulations were subsequently carried out to explore what kind of future data could lead to better restrictions on SE2(300). We find that improved elastic scattering data may be the best candidate for such restrictions while improving S(300) with new radiative capture data seems to be much more difficult. (orig.)

  14. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING TOTAL NUMBER OF LIVING CHILDREN AMONG MARRIED WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE GROUP IN A SLUM AREA IN MUMBAI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K G Makade

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Marriages and having children is a universal phenomenon in India and in slum areas of cities there is a tendency to have more number of children in married women due to many interrelated causes. In the current study we have tried to explore some of the reasons for having more number of children in urban slum area. Objective: To study the effect of education,age at marriage of women and socioeconomic status of the family onnumber of children among married women of reproductive age group in a slum area of Mumbai. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional observational study was carried out in the field practice area of an Urban Health Training Centre of a teaching hospital in Mumbai. Results:A sample of 342 women was taken by random sampling. Questionnaire was administered in the local language.It was found that illiteracy, marriage before 18 years of age and low socioeconomic status,are significantly associated with more than 3living children.Out of these, socioeconomic status of the family had the greatest influence on bearing of the total number of children, followed by the age of women at marriage and then educational status of the women. Conclusion:Improvement in education, socioeconomic status and increasing the age at marriage can prove to be very effective for the control of population.

  15. Total-body irradiation before bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia in first or second complete remission. Results and prognostic factors in 326 consecutive patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkacemi, Y.; Pene, F.; Touboul, E.; Laugier, A.; Gemici, C.; Housset, M.; Ozsahin, M. [Hopital Tenon, Paris (France). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Rio, B. [Dept. of Hematology, Hotel-Dieu, Paris (France); Leblond, V. [Groupe Hospitalier Petie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Gorin, N.C. [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Paris (France)

    1998-02-01

    Between 1980 and 1993, 326 patients with acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL, n=182) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, n=144) in complete remission underwent TBI either in single dose (190 patients: 10 Gy administered to the midplane, and 8 Gy to the lungs [STBI]) or in 6 fractions (136 patients: 12 Gy on 3 consecutive days, and 9 Gy to the lungs [FTBI]) before BMT. The patients were analyzed according to 3 instantaneous dose rate groups: 118 patients in the LOW group ({<=}0.048 Gy/min), 188 in the MEDIUM group (>0.048 and {<=}0.09 Gy/min), and 20 in the HIGH group (>0.09 cGy/min). Conditioning chemotherapy consisted of cyclophosphamide (CY) alone in 250 patients, CY and other drugs in 54, and 22 patients were conditioned using combinations without CY. Following TBI, allogeneic and autologous BMT were realized respectively in 118 and 208 patients. Multivariate analyses revealed that the best factors influencing the survival were 1st CR, age {<=}40 years, and BMT after 1985. The RI was influenced independently only by the remission status. On the other hand, the TRM rate was lower in patients who did not experience graft-vs.-host disease (GvHD), and in those treated after 1985 (p=0.0005). GvHD was the only independent factor involved in the development of IP. When considering the cataract incidence, the only independent factor was the instantaneous dose rate. The outcome of BMT patients conditioned with TBI for acute leukemia was not significantly influenced by the TBI technique, and TRM seemed to be lower in patients treated after 1985. On the other hand, cataract incidence was significantly influenced by the instantaneous dose rate. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Um den Einfluss der Ganzkoerperbestrahlung (TBI) auf die Prognose und die Inzidenz von Komplikationen bei Knochenmarktransplantationen (BMT) zu evaluieren, haben wir retrospektiv unser Patientengut, das bei akuter Leukaemie vor der BMT mit der TBI behandelt wurde, analysiert. Von 1980 bis 1993 wurden 326

  16. [Export of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) from Karst Watershed and Its Influencing Factors: An Example from Xueyudong Underground River System, Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao-lian; Jiang, Yong-jun; Chen, Yu

    2016-05-15

    High time-resolution auto-monitoring techniques were used to obtain the data for TOC and hydrogeochemistry of groundwater, and air temperature and precipitation from August 2014 to September 2015 in Xueyu Cave karst watershed, Southwest China, and then the principal component regression model was used to reveal the variation of TOC in groundwater and its influencing factors. The results indicated that there were significant variations of the TOC and hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in seasonal timescale. The temperature and specific conductance (SpC) of groundwater showed higher values in summer and lower values in winter; while an opposite variation pattern for pH in groundwater was observed, and the TOC and turbidity of groundwater showed higher values in winter and summer seasons and lower values in spring and autumn seasons. Meanwhile, high time-resolution data revealed that the TOC of groundwater responded quickly to rainfall events with different intensities. Generally, an increasing trend for TOC in groundwater was observed during raining and a decreasing trend for TOC in groundwater was shown after rainfall events, especially after storm events due to the dilution effect of rainfall. The export and variations of the TOC in groundwater were mainly controlled by the precipitation and discharge of underground river in the study area, as revealed by the principal component regression model. The TOC increased with the increase of the precipitation, discharge and turbidity of groundwater, and declined with the increase of air temperature and pH of groundwater.

  17. Correction factor to determine total hydrogen+deuterium concentration obtained by inert gas fusion-thermal conductivity detection (IGF- TCD) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, K.L.; Sesha Sayi, Y.; Shankaran, P.S.; Chhapru, G.C; Yadav, C.S.; Venugopal, V.

    2004-01-01

    The limitation of commercially available dedicated equipment based on Inert Gas Fusion- Thermal Conductivity Detection (IGF - TCD) for the determination of hydrogen+deuterium is described. For a given molar concentration, deuterium is underestimated vis a vis hydrogen because of lower thermal conductivity and not considering its molecular weight in calculations. An empirical correction factor based on the differences between the thermal conductivities of hydrogen, deuterium and the carrier gas argon, and the mole fraction of deuterium in the sample has been derived to correct the observed hydrogen+deuterium concentration. The corrected results obtained by IGF - TCD technique have been validated by determining hydrogen and deuterium contents in a few samples using an independent method based on hot vacuum extraction-quadrupole mass spectrometry (HVE-QMS). Knowledge of mole fraction of deuterium (XD) is necessary to effect the correction. The correction becomes insignificant at low X D values (XD < 0.2) as the precision in the IGF measurements is comparable with the extent of correction. (author)

  18. Use of an improved radiation amplification factor to estimate the effect of total ozone changes on action spectrum weighted irradiances and an instrument response function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jay R.

    2010-12-01

    Multiple scattering radiative transfer results are used to calculate action spectrum weighted irradiances and fractional irradiance changes in terms of a power law in ozone Ω, U(Ω/200)-RAF, where the new radiation amplification factor (RAF) is just a function of solar zenith angle. Including Rayleigh scattering caused small differences in the estimated 30 year changes in action spectrum-weighted irradiances compared to estimates that neglect multiple scattering. The radiative transfer results are applied to several action spectra and to an instrument response function corresponding to the Solar Light 501 meter. The effect of changing ozone on two plant damage action spectra are shown for plants with high sensitivity to UVB (280-315 nm) and those with lower sensitivity, showing that the probability for plant damage for the latter has increased since 1979, especially at middle to high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. Similarly, there has been an increase in rates of erythemal skin damage and pre-vitamin D3 production corresponding to measured ozone decreases. An example conversion function is derived to obtain erythemal irradiances and the UV index from measurements with the Solar Light 501 instrument response function. An analytic expressions is given to convert changes in erythemal irradiances to changes in CIE vitamin-D action spectrum weighted irradiances.

  19. Circulating levels of interleukin-6, vascular endothelial growth factor, YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase-3, and total aggrecan in spondyloarthritis patients during 3 years of treatment with TNFα inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Juhl; Hetland, Merete Lund; Sørensen, Inge Juul

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate short and long-term changes and relations to treatment response of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), YKL-40, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and total aggrecan in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA) treated...... with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) inhibitors and to compare with levels in healthy subjects. Biomarkers were measured in an observational cohort of 49 SpA patients (ankylosing spondylitis, n=32, and psoriatic arthritis, n=17) initiating TNFα inhibitor therapy (infliximab, n=38; etanercept, n=8...

  20. Avoidance of Total Knee Arthroplasty in Early Osteoarthritis of the Knee with Intra-Articular Implantation of Autologous Activated Peripheral Blood Stem Cells versus Hyaluronic Acid: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Differential Effects of Growth Factor Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thana Turajane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this randomized controlled trial, in early osteoarthritis (OA that failed conservative intervention, the need for total knee arthroplasty (TKA and WOMAC scores were evaluated, following a combination of arthroscopic microdrilling mesenchymal cell stimulation (MCS and repeated intra-articular (IA autologous activated peripheral blood stem cells (AAPBSCs with growth factor addition (GFA and hyaluronic acid (HA versus IA-HA alone. Leukapheresis-harvested AAPBSCs were administered as three weekly IA injections combined with HA and GFA (platelet-rich plasma [PRP] and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [hG-CSF] and MCS in group 1 and in group 2 but without hG-CSF while group 3 received IA-HA alone. Each group of 20 patients was evaluated at baseline and at 1, 6, and, 12 months. At 12 months, all patients in the AAPBSC groups were surgical intervention free compared to three patients needing TKA in group 3 (p<0.033. Total WOMAC scores showed statistically significant improvements at 6 and 12 months for the AAPBSC groups versus controls. There were no notable adverse events. We have shown avoidance of TKA in the AAPBSC groups at 12 months and potent, early, and sustained symptom alleviation through GFA versus HA alone. Differential effects of hG-CSF were noted with an earlier onset of symptom alleviation throughout.

  1. Avoidance of Total Knee Arthroplasty in Early Osteoarthritis of the Knee with Intra-Articular Implantation of Autologous Activated Peripheral Blood Stem Cells versus Hyaluronic Acid: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Differential Effects of Growth Factor Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turajane, Thana; Chaveewanakorn, Ukrit; Fongsarun, Warachaya; Aojanepong, Jongjate

    2017-01-01

    In this randomized controlled trial, in early osteoarthritis (OA) that failed conservative intervention, the need for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and WOMAC scores were evaluated, following a combination of arthroscopic microdrilling mesenchymal cell stimulation (MCS) and repeated intra-articular (IA) autologous activated peripheral blood stem cells (AAPBSCs) with growth factor addition (GFA) and hyaluronic acid (HA) versus IA-HA alone. Leukapheresis-harvested AAPBSCs were administered as three weekly IA injections combined with HA and GFA (platelet-rich plasma [PRP] and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [hG-CSF]) and MCS in group 1 and in group 2 but without hG-CSF while group 3 received IA-HA alone. Each group of 20 patients was evaluated at baseline and at 1, 6, and, 12 months. At 12 months, all patients in the AAPBSC groups were surgical intervention free compared to three patients needing TKA in group 3 (p < 0.033). Total WOMAC scores showed statistically significant improvements at 6 and 12 months for the AAPBSC groups versus controls. There were no notable adverse events. We have shown avoidance of TKA in the AAPBSC groups at 12 months and potent, early, and sustained symptom alleviation through GFA versus HA alone. Differential effects of hG-CSF were noted with an earlier onset of symptom alleviation throughout. PMID:29056974

  2. Factors Influencing Pulmonary Toxicity in Children Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in the Setting of Total Body Irradiation-Based Myeloablative Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abugideiri, Mustafa, E-mail: Mabugid@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Nanda, Ronica H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Butker, Charlotte [Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Zhang, Chao [Department of Biostatistics, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Kim, Sungjin [Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Research Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Chiang, Kuang-Yueh [Aflac Cancer Center and Blood Disorders Center, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, and Pediatric Hematology, Oncology, Bone Marrow Transplant, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Butker, Elizabeth; Khan, Mohammad K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Haight, Ann E. [Aflac Cancer Center and Blood Disorders Center, Children' s Healthcare of Atlanta, and Pediatric Hematology, Oncology, Bone Marrow Transplant, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Chen, Zhengjia [Department of Biostatistics, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Esiashvili, Natia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated factors associated with increased risk of pulmonary toxicity (PT) from any cause in pediatric patients after myeloablative conditioning, using total body irradiation (TBI), followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods and Materials: The records of 129 consecutive pediatric patients (range: 1-21 years of age) who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at our institution between January 2003 and May 2014 were reviewed. Although total TBI doses ranged from 10.5 to 14 Gy, lung doses were limited to 10 Gy with partial transmission blocks. TBI dose rates ranged from 5.6 cGy/min to 20.9 cGy/min. PT was classified using clinical symptoms, radiographic evidence, and ventilatory defects on pulmonary function tests. Noninfectious (idiopathic) pneumonia syndrome (IPS) was characterized by patients exhibiting PT while demonstrating no signs of infection throughout the follow-up period. Results: PT from any cause developed in 70.5% of patients and was significantly associated with increased transplantation-related mortality (TRM) (P=.03) and decreased overall survival (OS) (P=.02). IPS developed in 23.3% of patients but was not associated with increased TRM (P=.6) or decreased OS (P=.5). Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) significantly affected PT (P=.001) but did not significantly influence the development of IPS (P=.4). Infection was a leading cause of PT (75.8%). TBI dose rate significantly affected development of overall PT (P=.02) and was the sole factor to significantly influence the incidence of IPS (P=.002). TBI total dose, dose per fraction, disease type, transplantation chemotherapy, age of patient, sex, and donor type did not significantly impact overall PT or IPS. Conclusions: A high incidence of PT was noted in this large series of homogeneously treated pediatric patients undergoing TBI for allogeneic HSCT. TBI dose rates affected overall PT and strongly

  3. Distribution of Serum Total Homocysteine and Its Association with Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Mexican American Men: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillum Richard

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data have been published on the association of variables of the insulin resistance syndrome and serum total homocysteine (tHcy, a putative risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity, in representative samples of total populations or in Hispanic Americans. Methods To describe the distributions of serum tHcy concentration and variables associated with insulin resistance in Mexican American men and to assess their association, data from a cross-sectional survey of a large national sample, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Analyses were restricted to Mexican American men aged 40–74 years with data on glycated hemoglobin (%, body mass index (BMI, body fat distribution, HDL cholesterol, fasting serum insulin, serum triglycerides and serum tHcy concentrations. Results Cumulative distributions of serum tHcy shifted to the right with increasing age. Log serum tHcy was not associated with prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus or glycated hemoglobin percent or other risk factors other than age. Log serum tHcy concentration showed borderline significant (p = 0.049 positive association with fasting serum insulin concentration independent of age and BMI, only in men aged 60–74. Conclusion No consistent association of tHcy with diabetes prevalence or variables of the insulin resistance syndrome were found in Mexican American men aged 40–74 years. Further research is needed on the associations of serum tHcy concentration with insulin resistance and other components of the insulin resistance syndrome in persons of varying ethnicity.

  4. The Gottingen minipig is a model of the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome: G-colony stimulating factor stimulates hematopoiesis and enhances survival from lethal total-body γ-irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Maria; Ngudiankama, Barbara F; Christensen, Christine; Olsen, Cara H; Owens, Rossitsa; Lombardini, Eric D; Holt, Rebecca K; Whitnall, Mark H

    2013-08-01

    We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body γ-Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroni, Maria, E-mail: maria.moroni@usuhs.edu [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Ngudiankama, Barbara F. [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Christensen, Christine [Division of Comparative Pathology, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Olsen, Cara H. [Biostatistics Consulting Center, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Owens, Rossitsa [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Lombardini, Eric D. [Veterinary Medicine Department, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok (Thailand); Holt, Rebecca K. [Veterinary Science Department, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Whitnall, Mark H. [Radiation Countermeasures Program, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes.

  6. The Gottingen Minipig Is a Model of the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome: G-Colony Stimulating Factor Stimulates Hematopoiesis and Enhances Survival From Lethal Total-Body γ-Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroni, Maria; Ngudiankama, Barbara F.; Christensen, Christine; Olsen, Cara H.; Owens, Rossitsa; Lombardini, Eric D.; Holt, Rebecca K.; Whitnall, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We are characterizing the Gottingen minipig as an additional large animal model for advanced drug testing for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) to enhance the discovery and development of novel radiation countermeasures. Among the advantages provided by this model, the similarities to human hematologic parameters and dynamics of cell loss/recovery after irradiation provide a convenient means to compare the efficacy of drugs known to affect bone marrow cellularity and hematopoiesis. Methods and Materials: Male Gottingen minipigs, 4 to 5 months old and weighing 9 to 11 kg, were used for this study. We tested the standard off-label treatment for ARS, rhG-CSF (Neupogen, 10 μg/kg/day for 17 days), at the estimated LD70/30 total-body γ-irradiation (TBI) radiation dose for the hematopoietic syndrome, starting 24 hours after irradiation. Results: The results indicated that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced survival, stimulated recovery from neutropenia, and induced mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells. In addition, the administration of G-CSF resulted in maturation of monocytes/macrophages. Conclusions: These results support continuing efforts toward validation of the minipig as a large animal model for advanced testing of radiation countermeasures and characterization of the pathophysiology of ARS, and they suggest that the efficacy of G-CSF in improving survival after total body irradiation may involve mechanisms other than increasing the numbers of circulating granulocytes

  7. Electron-beam induced amorphization of stishovite: Silicon-coordination change observed using Si K-edge extended electron energy-loss fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aken, P.A. van; Sharp, T.G.; Seifert, F.

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of the extended energy-loss fine structure (EXELFS) of the Si K-edge for sixfold-coordinated Si in synthetic stishovite and fourfold-coordinated Si in natural α-quartz is reported by using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The stishovite Si K-edge EXELFS spectra were measured as a time-dependent series to document irradiation-induced amorphization. The amorphization was also investigated through the change in Si K- and O K-edge energy-loss near edge structure (ELNES). For α-quartz, in contrast to stishovite, electron irradiation-induced vitrification, produced no detectable changes of the EXELFS. The Si K-edge EXELFS were analysed with the classical extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) treatment and compared to ab initio curve-waved multiple-scattering (MS) calculations of EXAFS spectra for stishovite and α-quartz. Highly accurate information on the local atomic environment of the silicon atoms during the irradiation-induced amorphization of stishovite is obtained from the EXELFS structure parameters The mean Si-O bond distance R and mean Si coordination number N changes from R=0.1775 nm and N=6 for stishovite through a disordered intermediate state (R∼0.172 nm and N∼5) to R∼0.167 nm and N∼4.5 for a nearly amorphous state similar to α-quartz (R=0.1609 nm and N=4). During the amorphization process, the Debye-Waller factor (DWF) passes through a maximum value of σ N 2 ∼83.8pm 2 as it changes from σ st 2 =51.8pm 2 for sixfold to σ qu 2 =18.4pm 2 for fourfold coordination of Si. This increase in Debye-Waller factor indicates an increase in mean-square relative displacement (MSRD) between the central silicon atom and its oxygen neighbours. Using the EXELFS data for amorphization, a new method is developed to derive the relative amounts of Si coordinations in high-pressure minerals with mixed coordination. For the radiation-induced amorphization process of

  8. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  9. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  10. Technique of total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy

  11. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  12. NIF total neutron yield diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Gary W.; Ruiz, Carlos L.

    2001-01-01

    We have designed a total neutron yield diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which is based on the activation of In and Cu samples. The particular approach that we have chosen is one in which we calibrate the entire counting system and which we call the ''F factor'' method. In this method, In and/or Cu samples are exposed to known sources of DD and DT neutrons. The activated samples are then counted with an appropriate system: a high purity Ge detector for In and a NaI coincidence system for Cu. We can then calculate a calibration factor, which relates measured activity to total neutron yield. The advantage of this approach is that specific knowledge of such quantities as cross sections and detector efficiencies is not needed. Unless the actual scattering environment of the NIF can be mocked up in the calibration experiment, the F factor will have to be modified using the results of a numerical simulation of the NIF scattering environment. In this article, the calibration factor methodology will be discussed and experimental results for the calibration factors will be presented. Total NIF neutron yields of 10 9 --10 19 can be measured with this method assuming a 50 cm stand-off distance can be employed for the lower yields

  13. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  14. Relationships between socio-clinico-demographic factors and global cognitive function in the oldest old living in the Tokyo Metropolitan area: Reanalysis of the Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health (TOOTH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Yoko; Tasato, Kumiko; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Noda, Yoshihiro; Tsugawa, Sakiko; Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Niimura, Hidehito; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Arai, Yasumichi; Mimura, Masaru

    2018-03-07

    Despite a steady increase in life expectancy, a few studies have investigated cross-sectional correlates and longitudinal predictors of cognitive function, a core domain of the successful aging, among socio-clinico-demographic factors in the oldest-old exclusively. The aims of this study were to examine socio-clinico-demographic characteristics associated with global cognition and its changes in the oldest-old. We reanalyzed a dataset of cognitively preserved community-dwelling subjects aged 85 years and older in the Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health, a 6-year longitudinal observational study. This study consisted of (1) baseline cross-sectional analyses examining correlates of global cognition (n = 248) among socio-clinico-demographic factors and (2) longitudinal analyses examining baseline predictors for changes of global cognition in 3-year follow-up (n = 195). The Mini-Mental State Examination was used as a screening test to assess global cognition. At baseline, higher weights were related to higher cognitive function in the oldest-old. The baseline predictors of global cognitive decline in 3-year follow-up were higher global cognition, shorter education period, and lower sociocultural activities and lower instrumental activity of daily living, in this order. The present study suggests that it is crucial to attain higher education during early life and avoid leanness or obesity, participate in sociocultural cognitive activities during late life, and maintain instrumental activity of daily living to preserve optimal cognitive function in the oldest-old, which will facilitate developing prevention strategies for cognitive decline and promoting successful aging in this increasing population. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Total Quality Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  16. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...

  17. Institutional total energy case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulfinghoff, D.

    1979-07-01

    Profiles of three total energy systems in institutional settings are provided in this report. The plants are those of Franciscan Hospital, a 384-bed facility in Rock Island, Illinois; Franklin Foundation Hospital, a 100-bed hospital in Franklin, Louisiana; and the North American Air Defense Command Cheyenne Mountain Complex, a military installation near Colorado Springs, Colorado. The case studies include descriptions of plant components and configurations, operation and maintenance procedures, reliability, relationships to public utilities, staffing, economic efficiency, and factors contributing to success.

  18. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  19. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  20. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  1. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  2. Evaluation of the roughness of a crystal surface by X-ray scattering. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Jimpei

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between the intensity distributions of the crystal truncation rod (CTR) scattering and the surface roughness of a crystal is discussed by developing a kinematic theory for the CTR scattering so as to reflect the two-dimensional aspect of the surface. The intensity of the CTR scattering elongated from a Bragg point is shown to be reduced by a factor vertical strokeΓ(q)vertical stroke 2 for a surface possessing some roughness, where Γ(q) is defined by a simple Fourier summation of γ p , the relative area with the same step height p on a surface, i.e. Γ(q) = Σ ∞ p=o γ p exp (2πipq), with Σ p γ p = 1, q being the distance in reciprocal space from the Bragg point along the CTR scattering. A pair-correlation function between the steps can, therefore, be obtained by a simple Fourier integral of the roughness damping factor vertical strokeΓ(q)vertical stroke 2 . For the case where γ p has a Gaussian distribution around the average step height, vertical strokeΓ(q)vertical stroke 2 is approximated by the well known Debye-Waller-like factor, exp (K- 4π 2 (Δp 2 )q 2 ), where (Δp 2 ) is the mean square deviation of step height in units of the lattice spacing. The intensity formulae proposed so far by several authors are also discussed on the basis of the above factor. (orig.)

  3. Total 2004 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  4. Total synthesis of ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Akinari; Isobe, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Something fishy: Ciguatoxin (see structure) is one of the principal toxins involved in ciguatera poisoning and the target of a total synthesis involving the coupling of three segments. The key transformations in this synthesis feature acetylene-dicobalthexacarbonyl complexation.

  5. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  6. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty....

  7. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Feb-23...

  8. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    There has been a decline in the rate of hysterectomies in Denmark in general over the last thirteen years, together with a rise in the number of supravaginal operations over the last two years. The literature concerning the relative merits of the supravaginal and the total abdominal operation is ...... indicate a reduced frequency of orgasm after the total hysterectomy compared with the supravaginal operation. When there are technical problems peroperatively with an increased urologic risk the supravaginal operation is recommended....

  9. Análise dos fatores de risco na correção cirúrgica do defeito septal atrioventricular de forma total Risk factors analysis in the surgical repair of complete atrioventricular septal defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Keller Saadi

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes com defeito septal atrioventricular de forma total (DSAVT freqüentemente apresentam insuficiência cardíaca intratável e hipertensão arterial pulmonar nos primeiros meses de vida, e apenas uma minoria sobrevive sem tratamento cirúrgico precoce. Por essa razão, indica-se a correção definitiva para alterar favoravelmente a história natural da doença. Entretanto, vários fatores são responsáveis pela alta mortalidade cirúrgica. O presente trabalho estuda a experiência na correção cirúrgica do DSAVT com o objetivo de identificar alguns fatores de risco estatisticamente significativos para a ocorrência de morte operatória. Analisaram-se, retrospectivamente, 52 pacientes submetidos, entre janeiro de 1974 e dezembro de 1990, a cirurgia definitiva para correção de DSAVT no Royal Brompton and National Heart and Lung Institute, sendo estudadas as seguintes variáveis: idade, peso, sexo, ano da operação, presença de síndrome de Down, grau de regurgitação da valva AV, bandagem prévia do tronco pulmonar, presença de anomalias associadas, pressão sistólica pulmonar, duplo orifício mitral, classificação do defeito segundo Rastelli, emprego de parada circulatória e técnica de correção (1 x 2 retalhos. Todos os fatores foram avaliados isoladamente, mediante a análise univariada. Para determinar quais os fatores que, independentemente da ação de outros, contribuíram significativamente para maior mortalidade cirúrgica, foi utilizada a análise multivariada com regressão logística. A análise multivariada demonstrou que o baixo peso na época da operação e a técnica de correção com um retalho aumentam significativamente a mortalidade cirúrgica.Patients with complete atrioventricular septal defects (CAVSD frequently present with severe heart failure which cannot be controllable medically and pulmonary hypertension in infancy. Just a small number survives without early surgical treatment. For this reason

  10. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  11. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  12. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  13. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  14. Total versus subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Anna Birthe

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications, with regard to urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, quality of life (SF-36), constipation, prolapse, satisfaction with sexual life, and pelvic pain at 1-year postoperative. Eighty...... women chose total and 105 women chose subtotal abdominal hysterectomy. No significant differences were found between the 2 operation methods in any of the outcome measures at 12 months. Fourteen women (15%) from the subtotal abdominal hysterectomy group experienced vaginal bleeding and three women had...

  15. Qualità totale e mobilità totale Total Quality and Total Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission’s White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on

  16. Suppressed beta relaxations and reduced heat capacity in ultrastable organic glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Mark

    Glasses play an important role in technology as a result of their macroscopic homogeneity (e.g., the clarity of window glass) and our ability to tune properties through composition changes. A problem with liquid-cooled glasses is that they exhibit marginal kinetic stability and slowly evolve towards lower energy glasses and crystalline states. In contrast, we have shown that physical vapor deposition can prepare glasses with very high kinetic stability. These materials have properties expected for ``million-year-old'' glasses, including high density, low enthalpy, and high mechanical moduli. We have used nanocalorimetry to show that these high stability glasses have lower heat capacities than liquid-cooled glasses for a number of molecular systems. Dielectric relaxation has been used to show that the beta relaxation can be suppressed by nearly a factor of four in vapor-deposited toluene glasses, indicating a very tight packing environment. Consistent with this view, computer simulations of high stability glasses indicate reduced Debye-Waller factors. These high stability materials raise interesting questions about the limiting properties of amorphous packing arrangements.

  17. Atomic vibration amplitudes in fcc and hcp 4He through x-ray diffraction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataraman, C.T.; Simmons, R.O.

    2003-01-01

    Atomic vibration amplitudes in dense fcc and hcp 4 He crystals have been measured using synchrotron x rays from the dependence of integrated Bragg intensities up to wave vectors of 91 nm -1 . Observed raw Bragg x-ray integrated intensities cover an extraordinary range, greater than 10 5 , due to the combined effect of the Debye-Waller factor and electronic form factor. From analysis of these intensities mean-square atomic vibration amplitudes Q 2 > and Lindemann ratios are determined. Path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) computations of Draeger and Ceperley, extrapolated to the thermodynamic limit, provide excellent agreement with these experimental results. For both present measurements and the PIMC results, one finds both a predominantly Gaussian distribution in Q 2 > and an extraordinarily large Lindemann ratio. In contrast, these directly measured x-ray values are significantly larger than published values inferred from Born-von Karman fitting to phonon dispersion measured by neutron scattering. Mildly anharmonic neon, which is fairly well described by self-consistent phonon theories, is contrasted with present results on fcc 4 He at corresponding densities

  18. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  19. Total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novack, D.H.; Kiley, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The multitude of papers and conferences in recent years on the use of very large megavoltage radiation fields indicates an increased interest in total body, hemibody, and total nodal radiotherapy for various clinical situations. These include high dose total body irradiation (TBI) to destroy the bone marrow and leukemic cells and provide immunosuppression prior to a bone marrow transplant, high dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) prior to bone marrow transplantation in severe aplastic anemia, low dose TBI in the treatment of lymphocytic leukemias or lymphomas, and hemibody irradiation (HBI) in the treatment of advanced multiple myeloma. Although accurate provision of a specific dose and the desired degree of dose homogeneity are two of the physicist's major considerations for all radiotherapy techniques, these tasks are even more demanding for large field radiotherapy. Because most large field radiotherapy is done at an extended distance for complex patient geometries, basic dosimetry data measured at the standard distance (isocenter) must be verified or supplemented. This paper discusses some of the special dosimetric problems of large field radiotherapy, with specific examples given of the dosimetry of the TBI program for bone marrow transplant at the authors' hospital

  20. Total design of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of design as an art made not only for the people, but also by the people is an old dream going back at least to William Morris. It is, however, reappearing vigoriously in many kinds of design activism and grows out of the visions of a Total Design of society. The ideas of participation b...

  1. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  2. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  3. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental methods using real photon beams for measurements of total photonuclear absorption cross section σ(Tot : E/sub γ/) are recalled. Most recent σ(Tot : E/sub γ/)results for complex nuclei and in the nucleon resonance region are presented

  4. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  5. Total Water Management - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  6. Lumbar spine and total-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability: a pilot study of artefacts and disrupting factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergler, S.; Rieken, R.; Evenhuis, H.M.; Penning, C. [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Intellectual Disability Medicine, Department of General Practice, PO Box 2040, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Tibboel, D. [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rijn, R.R. van [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-05-15

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability (ID) are susceptible for developing low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. BMD is generally measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). To describe the occurrence of factors that may influence the feasibility of DXA and the accuracy of DXA outcome in children with severe neurological impairment and ID. Based on literature and expert opinion, a list of disrupting factors was developed. Occurrence of these factors was assessed in 27 children who underwent DXA measurement. Disrupting factors that occurred most frequently were movement during measurement (82%), aberrant body composition (67%), small length for age (56%) and scoliosis (37%). The number of disrupting factors per child was mean 5.3 (range 1-8). No correlation was found between DXA outcomes and the number of disrupting factors. Factors that may negatively influence the accuracy of DXA outcome are frequently present in children with severe neurological impairment and ID. No systematic deviation of DXA outcome in coherence with the amount of disrupting factors was found, but physicians should be aware of the possible influence of disrupting factors on the accuracy of DXA. (orig.)

  7. Lumbar spine and total-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability: a pilot study of artefacts and disrupting factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mergler, S.; Rieken, R.; Evenhuis, H.M.; Penning, C.; Tibboel, D.; Rijn, R.R. van

    2012-01-01

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability (ID) are susceptible for developing low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. BMD is generally measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). To describe the occurrence of factors that may influence the feasibility of DXA and the accuracy of DXA outcome in children with severe neurological impairment and ID. Based on literature and expert opinion, a list of disrupting factors was developed. Occurrence of these factors was assessed in 27 children who underwent DXA measurement. Disrupting factors that occurred most frequently were movement during measurement (82%), aberrant body composition (67%), small length for age (56%) and scoliosis (37%). The number of disrupting factors per child was mean 5.3 (range 1-8). No correlation was found between DXA outcomes and the number of disrupting factors. Factors that may negatively influence the accuracy of DXA outcome are frequently present in children with severe neurological impairment and ID. No systematic deviation of DXA outcome in coherence with the amount of disrupting factors was found, but physicians should be aware of the possible influence of disrupting factors on the accuracy of DXA. (orig.)

  8. Total 2003 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the 2003 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, 4. quarter 2003 results, full year 2003 results, upstream (key figures, proved reserves), downstream key figures, chemicals key figures, parent company accounts and proposed dividends, 2004 sensitivities, summary and outlook, operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2003: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refinery throughput by region, refined product sales by region, chemicals), impact of allocating contribution of Cepsa to net operating income by business segment: equity in income (loss) and affiliates and other items, Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  9. TOTAL PERFORMANCE SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca ȘERBAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of the Balanced Scorecard from a measurement instrument to a strategic performance management tool and to highlight the advantages of implementing the Total Performance Scorecard, especially for Human Resource Management. The study has been accomplished using the methodology of bibliographic study and various secondary sources. Implementing the classical Balanced Scorecard indicated over the years, repeatedly failure. It can be indicated that the crucial level is determined by the learning and growth perspective. It has been developed from a human perspective, which focused on staff satisfaction, innovation perspective with focus on future developments. Integrating the Total Performance Scorecard in an overall framework assures the company’s success, by keeping track of the individual goals, the company’s objectives and strategic directions. Like this, individual identity can be linked to corporate brand, individual aspirations to business goals and individual learning objectives to needed organizational capabilities.

  10. Totally parallel multilevel algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1988-01-01

    Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.

  11. MFTF TOTAL benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, J.H.

    1979-06-01

    A benchmark of the TOTAL data base management system as applied to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) data base was implemented and run in February and March of 1979. The benchmark was run on an Interdata 8/32 and involved the following tasks: (1) data base design, (2) data base generation, (3) data base load, and (4) develop and implement programs to simulate MFTF usage of the data base

  12. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  13. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  14. X-ray absorption edges and E.X.A.F.S.: application to the study of electronic and atomic structures of titanium and vanadium carbides TiC(1-x) and VC(1-x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisy-Maurice, Virginie.

    1980-09-01

    This text presents a systematic study of the X-ray absorption fine structures evolution, at the K edge of titanium, with vacancy concentration in TiC(1-x). The absorption edges are situated in the 50 eV following the coefficient discontinuity: from the evaluation of their general aspect, it is deduced that the positive charge of titanium atoms decreases when vacancy concentration increases in TiC(1-x). This allowed us to determine the best band structure calculation model. The interpretation of EXAFS spectra (modulation of the absorption coefficient until 1500 eV above the edge) gives indications about the local atomic structure. Here, the contraction of the average titanium-carbon interatomic distances compared to the distances between crystallographic sites is of the order of the experimental resolution 0.02 A for Ti C(0.8). The study of the damping of the spectra in terms of Debye-Waller factors gave an evaluation of the relative static atomic mean square displacements between first neighbours. Last, it has been established that the disordering of vacancies in the order-disorder transition of V 8 C 7 is an atomic scale phenomenon [fr

  15. Paracrystalline structure of activated carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczygielska, A.; Burian, A.; Dore, J. C.

    2001-06-01

    Structural studies by means of neutron diffraction of activated carbons, prepared from a polymer of phenol formaldehyde resin by carbonization and activation processes, with variable porosity, are presented. The neutron scattering data were recorded over the range of the scattering vector Q from 2.5 to 500 nm-1. The structure of activated carbons has been described in terms of disordered graphite-like layers with very weak interlayer correlations. The model has been generated by computer simulations and its validity has been tested by comparison of the experimental and calculated intensity functions. Modelling studies have shown that the model containing 3-4 layers each about 2 nm in diameter accounts for the experimental data and that graphite layers are randomly translated and rotated, according to the turbostratic structure. Near-neighbour carbon-carbon distances of about 0.139 nm and 0.154 nm have been determined. The Debye-Waller factor exp (-Q2σ2/2) with σ = σ0(r)1/2 suggests a paracrystalline structure within a single layer. The value of the interlayer spacing of 0.36 nm has been found from paracrystalline simulations of the layer arrangement in the c-axis direction. The high quality of the experimental data has enabled determination of the coordination numbers, the interatomic distances and their standard deviations using a curve-fitting procedure over the Q-range from 250 nm to 500 nm, providing structural information about short- and intermediate-range ordering.

  16. Local Structure of Mn in (La1-xHox)2/3Ca1/3MnO3 Studied by X-ray Absorption Fine Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietnoczka, A.; Bacewicz, R.; Antonowicz, J.; Zalewski, W.; Pekala, M.; Drozd, V.; Fagnard, J.F.; Vanderbemden, P.

    2010-01-01

    Results of X-ray absorption fine structure measurements in manganites (La 1-x Ho x ) 2/3 Ca 1/3 MnO 3 with 0.15 3 is doped with a divalent element such as Ca 2+ , substituting for La 3+ , holes are induced in the filled Mn d orbitals. This leads to a strong ferromagnetic coupling between Mn sites. Ca ions in La 1-x Ca x MnO 3 introduce a distortion of the crystal lattice and mixed valence Mn ions (Mn 3+ and Mn 4+ ). On the other hand, in manganites (La 1-x Ho x ) 2/3 Ca 1/3 MnO 3 the substitution of La for Ho causes a lattice distortion and induces a disorder, which reduces a magnetic interaction. The ferromagnetic transition temperature and conductivity decrease very quickly with increasing x. The magnetic and transport properties of compounds depend on the local atomic structure around Mn ions. The information on the bond lengths and Debye-Waller factor are obtained from the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data analysis. The charge state of Mn is determined from the position of the absorption edge in X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) data. XAFS results are in good agreement with magnetic characteristics of the studied materials. (authors)

  17. EXAFS and EPR study of La0.6Sr0.2Ca0.2MnO3 and La0.6Sr0.2Ba0.2MnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, D.-K.Dong-Seok; Ulyanov, A.N.; Phan, Manh-Huong; Kim, Ikgyun; Ahn, Byong-Keun; Rhee, Jang Roh; Kim, Jung Sun; Nguyen, Chau; Yu, Seong-Cho

    2003-01-01

    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis and electron-paramagnetic resonance (EPR) have been used to examine the local structure and the internal dynamics of La 0.6 Sr 0.2 Ca 0.2 MnO 3 and La 0.6 Sr 0.2 Ba 0.2 MnO 3 lanthanum manganites. The Mn-O bond distance (∼1.94 Angst for both samples) and the Debye-Waller factors (0.36x10 -2 and 0.41x10 -2 Angst 2 for La 0.6 Sr 0.2 Ca 0.2 MnO 3 and for La 0.6 Sr 0.2 Ba 0.2 MnO 3 , respectively) were obtained from the EXAFS analysis. The dependence of the EPR line width on dopant kind (Ca or Ba) showed a decrease of the spin-lattice interaction with an increase of the Curie temperature. For both compositions, the EPR line intensity followed the exponential law I(T)=I 0 exp(E a /k B T), deduced on the basis of the adiabatic polaron hopping model

  18. Ab initio theory and calculations of X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehr, J.J.; Kas, J.J.; Prange, M.P.; Sorini, A.P.; Takimoto, Y.; Vila, F.

    2009-01-01

    There has been dramatic progress in recent years both in the calculation and interpretation of various x-ray spectroscopies. However, current theoretical calculations often use a number of simplified models to account for many-body effects, in lieu of first principles calculations. In an effort to overcome these limitations we describe in this article a number of recent advances in theory and in theoretical codes which offer the prospect of parameter free calculations that include the dominant many-body effects. These advances are based on ab initio calculations of the dielectric and vibrational response of a system. Calculations of the dielectric function over a broad spectrum yield system dependent self-energies and mean-free paths, as well as intrinsic losses due to multielectron excitations. Calculations of the dynamical matrix yield vibrational damping in terms of multiple-scattering Debye-Waller factors. Our ab initio methods for determining these many-body effects have led to new, improved, and broadly applicable x-ray and electron spectroscopy codes. (authors)

  19. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure in Ga1-xMnxN/SiC films with high Mn content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-Juan, O.; Martínez-Criado, O.; Cantarero, A.; Garro, N.; Salomé, M.; Susini, J.; Olguín, D.; Dhar, S.; Ploog, K.

    2011-05-01

    In this study, the local atomic structure of highly homogeneous Ga1-xMnxN alloy films (0.03Debye-Waller factor does not show a significant trend as Mn content increases, which suggests the presence of short-range disorder in the GaN lattice. Ab initio calculations of the structural parameter for two different Mn concentrations are consistent with the experimental results.

  20. Phonon activity and intermediate glassy phase of YVO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, Nestor E.; Piamonteze, Cinthia; Tolentino, Helio C.N.; Alonso, Jose Antonio; Martinez-Lope, Maria Jesus; Casais, Maria Teresa

    2004-01-01

    We show that in YVO 3 additional hard phonons gradually become zone center infrared active below ∼210 K, verifying that a lattice phase transition takes place at about that temperature. Their gradual increment in intensity between ∼210 and ∼77 K is associated with a 'glassy' behavior found in the temperature-dependent V K edge pseudoradial distribution. This translates into an increase in the Debye-Waller factors ascribed to the appearance of V local structural disorder below ∼150 K. Conflicts between various ordering mechanisms in YVO 3 bring up similarities of the intermediate phase to known results in dielectric incommensurate systems, suggesting the formation of commensurate domains below 116 K, the onset temperature of G-type antiferromagnetism. We propose that ∼210 and ∼77 K be understood as the temperatures where the commensurate-incommensurate and incommensurate-commensurate 'lock-in' phase transitions take place. We found support for this interpretation in the inverted λ shapes of the measured heat capacity and in the overall temperature dependence of the hard phonons

  1. Bond length variation in Zn substituted NiO studied from extended X-ray absorption fine structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. D.; Poswal, A. K.; Kamal, C.; Rajput, Parasmani; Chakrabarti, Aparna; Jha, S. N.; Ganguli, Tapas

    2017-06-01

    Bond length behavior for Zn substituted NiO is determined through extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements performed at ambient conditions. We report bond length value of 2.11±0.01 Å for Zn-O of rock salt (RS) symmetry, when Zn is doped in RS NiO. Bond length for Zn substituted NiO RS ternary solid solutions shows relaxed behavior for Zn-O bond, while it shows un-relaxed behavior for Ni-O bond. These observations are further supported by first-principles calculations. It is also inferred that Zn sublattice remains nearly unchanged with increase in lattice parameter. On the other hand, Ni sublattice dilates for Zn compositions up to 20% to accommodate increase in the lattice parameter. However, for Zn compositions more than 20%, it does not further dilate. It has been attributed to the large disorder that is incorporated in the system at and beyond 20% of Zn incorporation in the cubic RS lattice of ternary solid solutions. For these large percentages of Zn incorporation, the Ni and the Zn atoms re-arrange themselves microscopically about the same nominal bond length rather than systematically increase in magnitude to minimize the energy of the system. This results in an increase in the Debye-Waller factor with increase in the Zn concentration rather than a systematic increase in the bond lengths.

  2. New determination of the vapour pressures of the isotopes of neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.

    1960-03-01

    We have undertaken an experimental reinvestigation of the vapor pressures of the neon isotopes over the temperature range 16.30-30.1 deg. K. Measurements were made by differential manometry in a Giauque-Johnston type cryostat modified for temperature stability. The New sample contained 99.9 % Ne 20 and the Ne 22 sample contained 72,2 % Ne 22 . Extrapolation to pure Ne 20 and Ne 22 can be made with sufficient accuracy by the use of Raoult's law. Our results are in substantial agreement with those of Keesom and Haantjes. At 20 deg. K, where the scatter in our data is an order of magnitude smaller than in the data of Keesom and Haantjes, we find In P Ne 20 /P Ne 22 is 6 % larger than the smoothed line given by them. For solid neon, our data can be represented to a high accuracy by a Debye harmonic lattice with θ D (Ne 20 ) = 74.6 deg. K. The result may be compared with the value obtained by Henshaw from the Debye-Waller temperature factor, θ D = 73 deg. K, and with the recent calculation of the zero point energy of Ne by Bernardes, from which he obtains θ D 8E θ /9R = 73 deg.. K. (author) [fr

  3. Complete Quantum Control of a Single Silicon-Vacancy Center in a Diamond Nanopillar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyuan Linda; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G.; Tzeng, Yan-Kai; Dory, Constantin; Radulaski, Marina; Kelaita, Yousif; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Melosh, Nicholas A.; Chu, Steven; Vuckovic, Jelena

    Coherent quantum control of a quantum bit (qubit) is an important step towards its use in a quantum network. SiV- center in diamond offers excellent physical qualities such as low inhomogeneous broadening, fast photon emission, and a large Debye-Waller factor, while the fast spin manipulation and techniques to extend the spin coherence time are under active investigation. Here, we demonstrate full coherent control over the state of a single SiV- center in a diamond nanopillar using ultrafast optical pulses. The high quality of the chemical vapor deposition grown SiV- centers allows us to coherently manipulate and quasi-resonantly read out the state of the single SiV- center. Moreover, the SiV- centers being coherently controlled are integrated into diamond nanopillar arrays in a site-controlled, individually addressable manner with high yield, low strain, and high spectral stability, which paves the way for scalable on chip optically accessible quantum system in a quantum photonic network. Financial support is provided by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences through Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences (SIMES) under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  4. A low temperature neutron diffraction study of manganese ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirak, Z.; Zajicek, J.

    1978-01-01

    Two specimens of the Mnsub(0.98)Fesub(2.02)Osub(4+0.002) monocrystal differing in the degree of inversion and heat treatment were studied at room temperature and at the liquid helium temperature, respectively. The specimen with the lower inversion degree was heated to 600 degC and subsequently slowly cooled to 340 degC and annealed for 50 hrs; the specimen with the higher inversion degree was quenched from a temperature of 600 degC. In the study, the magnetic moments on sites A and B of the spinel lattice, the degree of inversion, the oxygen parameter and the Debye-Waller factor were investigated. The oxygen parameter was found to be higher at both temperatures for the annealed specimen (with the lower inversion degree), which can be attributed to the inversion degree dependence of the Madelung energy and the mean ion radius on sites A and B. The oxygen parameter did not show significant differences at room and liquid helium temperature. This agrees with the assumption that it is temperature-independent. (J.P.)

  5. Structural and lattice dynamics studies of microcrystals by means of the Moessbauer effect spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, M.

    1978-05-01

    Moessbauer studies on 129 I, 57 Fe and 119 Sn were conducted in several disordered and microscopic systems in order to investigate properties of lattice dynamics, chemical bonding and phase transitions. The project included the following studies: (1) Granular crystals of Sn embedded in tin-oxide matrix; the nature of the superconductivity transition of very small grains of tin was investigated. (2) Lattice dynamics and characterization of amorphous tin oxide obtained by condensing atoms of Sn and O 2 gas on a 77 K substrate. The hyperfine interaction and the temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor were essential to determine the structure of the amorphous tin oxide. (3) The nature of the chemical bond of the alkaly halides ionic crystals and molecules; molecules of Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs iodides were trapped in agron matrices, and the isomer-shift values were obtained from absorption spectra. (4) Binding of single iron and tin atoms to CH 4 , NH 3 , H 2 and C 6 H 6 molecules, with samples at low temperatures between 2 and 77 K; conclusions were derived regarding the cryochemistry of these systems, as related to fundamental problems of catalysis, chemisorption and ''cracking'' of organic molecules

  6. Possible effect of static surface disorder on diffractive scattering of H2 from Ru(0001): Comparison between theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, G J; Wijzenbroek, Mark; Manson, J R

    2017-12-28

    Specific features of diffractive scattering of H 2 from metal surfaces can serve as fingerprints of the reactivity of the metal towards H 2 , and in principle theory-experiment comparisons for molecular diffraction can help with the validation of semi-empirical functionals fitted to experiments of sticking of H 2 on metals. However, a recent comparison of calculated and Debye-Waller (DW) extrapolated experimental diffraction probabilities, in which the theory was done on the basis of a potential energy surface (PES) accurately describing sticking to Ru(0001), showed substantial discrepancies, with theoretical and experimental probabilities differing by factors of 2 and 3. We demonstrate that assuming a particular amount of random static disorder to be present in the positions of the surface atoms, which can be characterized through a single parameter, removes most of the discrepancies between experiment and theory. Further improvement might be achievable by improving the accuracy of the DW extrapolation, the model of the H 2 rotational state distribution in the experimental beams, and by fine-tuning the PES. However, the question of whether the DW model is applicable to attenuation of diffractive scattering in the presence of a sizable van der Waals well (depth ≈ 50 meV) should also receive attention, in addition to the question of whether the amount of static surface disorder effectively assumed in the modeling by us could have been present in the experiments.

  7. Study of the diffusion movements of water by quasi-elastic scattering of slow neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Ione Makiko

    1980-01-01

    The diffusion movements of water at three different temperatures in the liquid state have been studied by slow neutron quasi-elastic scattering. The measurements have been performed using the IPEN Triple Axis Spectrometer. Broadening and integrated intensity of the quasi-elastic line have been determined for several momentum transfer (K) in the range 0,7627 ≤ K ≤ 2,993 A -1 . The broadening of the quasi-elastic peaks as function of momentum transfer (K) observed at various temperatures has been interpreted in terms of globular diffusion models. The results obtained at 30 deg C have been explained in a consistent way considering the translational and rotational globular diffusion movements. To describe the results obtained at 55 deg and 70 deg C only the translational globular diffusion model was sufficient. This analysis indicates the existence in water of globules with distance of the farest proton position to the center of gravity of the globule 4,5 A, corroborating the idea of quasi-crystalline structure for water. The Debye-Waller factor has been obtained through the analysis of the integrated intensity of quasi-elastic scattering peaks over the K 2 measured range. From this analysis an estimative of the mean square displacement was obtained. (author)

  8. Structure of a Rh/TiO2 catalyst in the strong metal-support interaction state as determined by EXAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Martens, J.H.A.; Prins, R.; Short, D.R.; Sayers, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Reduction of a highly dispersed 2.85 wt% Rh/TiO 2 catalyst at 473 K after previous calcination at 623 K resulted in EXAFS whose primary contributions are due to nearest rhodium (average coordination number of 3.1 and distance of 2.67 A) and oxygen neighbors (coordination 2.5 and distance 2.71 A). These oxygen neighbors originated at the metal-support interface. The average rhodium-rhodium coordination number did not change in the SMSI state produced by reducing the catalyst at 673 K. However, the average coordination distance contracted by 0.04 A with an accompanying decrease of the Debye-Waller factor of the Rh-Rh bond of 0.0012 A 2 . This is due to the fact that in the SMSI state the surface of the metal particles is not covered with chemisorbed hydrogen. The SMSI state leads to a structural reorganization of the support in the vicinity of the rhodium metal particles. This can be concluded from the appearance of a Rh-Ti bond at 3.42 A in the SMSI state coupled with the fact that the average coordination number of the rhodium-support oxygen bonds does not increase. Other types of rhodium-oxygen bonds could not be detected with EXAFS in this state. Thus, these results provide no evidence for coverage of the metal particle by a suboxide of TiO 2 in the SMSI state

  9. Diffractive scattering of H atoms from the (001) surface of LiF at 78 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caracciolo, G.; Iannotta, S.; Scoles, G.; Valbusa, U.

    1980-01-01

    We have built an apparatus for the measurement of high resolution diffractive scattering of hydrogen atoms from crystal surfaces. The apparatus comprises a hydrogen atom beam source, a hexapolar magnetic field velocity selector, a variable temperature UHV crystal manipulator, and a rotatable bolometer detector. The diffraction pattern of a beam of hydrogen atoms scattered by a (001) LiF surface at 78 K has been obtained for different angles of incidence and different orientations of the crystal. The Debye--Waller factor has been measured leading to a surface Debye temperature theta/sub S/=550 +- 38 K. The corrugated-hard-wall-with-a-well model of Garibaldi et al. [Surf. Sci. 48, 649 (1975)] has been used for the interpretation of the intensities of the diffracted peaks. By means of a best fit procedure we obtain a main ''corrugation'' parameter xi 0 =0.095 A. By comparison of the data with the theory of Cabrera et al. [Surf. Sci. 19, 70 (1967] at the first order, the strength parameters of a periodic Morse potential have been determined

  10. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Mossbauer radiation: Progress report, March 1, 1985-October 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1987-10-01

    A facility for high intensity Moessbauer scattering has been commissioned at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue University using special isotopes produced at MURR. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out, including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 which indicates phason rather than phonon behavior. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have also been carried out using scattering to filter unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape. This method allows complete correction for source resonance self-absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. This analysis is important to both the funadmental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct elastic fractions and lineshape parameters. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron (MICE) spectroscopy, lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support

  11. Plasticization effect of C60 on the fast dynamics of polystyrene and related polymers: an incoherent neutron scattering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz, Alejandro; Ruppel, Markus; Cabral, Joao T; Douglas, Jack F

    2008-01-01

    We utilize inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (INS) to quantify how fullerenes affect the 'fast' molecular dynamics of a family of polystyrene related macromolecules. In particular, we prepared bulk nanocomposites of (hydrogenous and ring-deuterated) polystyrene and poly(4-methyl styrene) using a rapid precipitation method where the C 60 relative mass fraction ranged from 0% to 4%. Elastic window scan measurements, using a high resolution (0.9 μeV) backscattering spectrometer, are reported over a wide temperature range (2-450 K). Apparent Debye-Waller (DW) factors 2 >, characterizing the mean-square amplitude of proton displacements, are determined as a function of temperature, T. We find that the addition of C 60 to these polymers leads to a progressive increase in 2 > relative to the pure polymer value over the entire temperature range investigated, where the effect is larger for larger nanoparticle concentration. This general trend seems to indicate that the C 60 nanoparticles plasticize the fast (∼10 -15 s) local (∼1 A) dynamics of these polymer glasses. Generally, we expect nanoparticle additives to affect polymer dynamics in a similar fashion to thin films in the sense that the high interfacial area may cause both a speeding up and slowing down of the glass state dynamics depending on the polymer-surface interaction

  12. Evidence of a splitting of the Mn-O distance and of a large lattice disorder in the charge-ordered phase of LiMn2O4 obtained by EXAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paolone, A.; Castellano, C.; Cantelli, R.; Rousse, G.; Masquelier, C.

    2003-01-01

    We measured the extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectrum of LiMn 2 O 4 below room temperature in the charge-ordered phase and for comparison at room temperature in the cubic phase. By means of a standard fit procedure we verified that, as reported by neutron-scattering experiments, also at the local level there are two different Mn-O distances below room temperature, which correspond to the surroundings of well-defined Mn 3+ and Mn 4+ ions. This result is different from the ones obtained from previous EXAFS measurements and confirms the physical picture of the phase transition caused by the ordering of charges in contrast to a cooperative Jahn-Teller phenomenon. Moreover a large lattice disorder in the charge-ordered state, which determines a significant static contribution to the EXAFS Debye-Waller factor, has been found. This last result can be considered as the EXAFS spectral mark of charge-order transitions, even in those materials in which there is no clear evidence of the splitting of bond lengths

  13. Total cardiovascular disease risk assessment: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2011-09-01

    The high risk strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) requires an assessment of an individual\\'s total CVD risk so that the most intensive risk factor management can be directed towards those at highest risk. Here we review developments in the assessment and estimation of total CVD risk.

  14. Total Synthesis of Hyperforin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chi P; Maimone, Thomas J

    2015-08-26

    A 10-step total synthesis of the polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol (PPAP) natural product hyperforin from 2-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is reported. This route was enabled by a diketene annulation reaction and an oxidative ring expansion strategy designed to complement the presumed biosynthesis of this complex meroterpene. The described work enables the preparation of a highly substituted bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-1,3,5-trione motif in only six steps and thus serves as a platform for the construction of easily synthesized, highly diverse PPAPs modifiable at every position.

  15. Total quality is people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Confronted by changing market conditions and increased global competition, in 1983 the Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division (CNFD) of Westinghouse Electric embarked on an ambitious plan to make total quality the centerpiece of its long-term business strategy. Five years later, the division's efforts in making continuous quality improvement a way of life among its more than 2,000 employees gained national recognition when it was named a charter recipient of the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award. What CNFD achieved during the 1980s was a cultural transformation, characterized by an empowered work force committed to a common vision. The company's quality program development strategy is described

  16. Total quality accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijašević Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of competitive "battle" shifted from the price towards non-price instruments, above all, towards quality that became the key variable for profitability increase and achievement of better comparative position of a company. Under such conditions, management of a company, which, according to the established and certified system of total quality, strives towards achieving of a better market position, faces the problem of quality cost measurement and determination. Management, above all, cost accounting can help in solving of this problem, but the question is how much of its potential is being used for that purpose.

  17. Total_Aktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2008-01-01

    digitale medier er registreringen og muligheden for at opbevare og håndtere digital data uden begrænsninger. Oplevelse, registrering og bevaring knyttes sammen i en ny museal virkelighed, hvor samlingens særlige dokumentariske karakter og fokus, som er unikt for Museet for Samtidskunst, er i centrum...... at mikse deres personlige drinks. TOTAL_AKTION viser Hørbar#3, som er en videreudvikling af den første version. METASYN af Carl Emil Carlsen: Metadata er centralt for Carl Emil Carlsens projekt, der betragter museets samling som et ”univers” af værker (analoge og digitale), beskrivelser og relationer. I...

  18. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  19. Total Factbook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2003. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  20. Total 2004 fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2004. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  1. TOTAL annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2003 annual report of the Group Total provides economical results and information of the society on the following topics: keys data, the corporate governance (Directors charter, board of directors, audit committee, nomination and remuneration committee, internal control procedures, compensation of directors and executive officers), the corporate social responsibility (environmental stewardship, the future of energy management, the safety enhancement, the human resources, ethics and local development), the investor relations, the management report, the upstream exploration and production, the downstream refining, marketing, trading and shipping, the chemicals and financial and legal information. (A.L.B.)

  2. Total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik M.; Petersen, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful treatment of the osteoarthritic knee, which has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. The indication is a painful osteoarthritic knee with relevant radiographic findings and failure of conservative measures like painkillers and exercise...... surgeon seems to positively influence the rate of surgical complications and implant survival. The painful TKA knee should be thoroughly evaluated, but not revised except if a relevant indication can be established. The most frequent indications for revision are: aseptic loosening, instability, infection...

  3. TOTAL user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  4. Low serum levels of free and total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in patients with anorexia nervosa are not associated with increased IGF-binding protein-3 proteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Flyvbjerg, A; Frystyk, J

    1999-01-01

    by centrifugation. In addition, GH, GH-binding protein, total IGFs, IGFBP-1 to -4, and IGFBP-3 proteolytic activity were measured. The IGFBPs were measured by both immunoassays and Western ligand blotting. Twelve of the patients were restudied 3 months after a minor increase in body mass index. In AN, the levels...

  5. Total process surveillance: (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical reduncancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. (orig.)

  6. Total and EDF invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, St.

    2008-01-01

    So as to prepare the future of their industrial sector,the Total company plans to invest (14 billion Euros in 2008) to increase its production capacities and strengthen in of other activities as the liquefied natural gas and the renewable energies; EDF plans to inject 35 billion Euros over three years to multiply the new projects of power plants (wind turbines, coal in Germany, gas in Great Britain and nuclear power in Flamanville). EDF wants to exploit its knowledge of leader to run more than ten E.P.R.(European pressurized water reactor) in the world before 2020, projects are in examination with China, Great Britain, South Africa and United States. (N.C.)

  7. Total quality at source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiandone, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Total Quality at Source philosophy is based on optimizing the effectiveness of people in achieving ZERO-DEFECT results. In this paper a philosophy of what, I have come to perceive, it takes to get people to perform to the very best of their abilities and thereby achieve the best results they can, is presented. In the examples I shall describe I have played an instrumental role since it has become my belief that any job can always be done better provided that the people doing it can themselves become convinced that they can do better. Clearly there are many ideas on how to do this. The philosophy that I am presenting in this paper is based on my own experience, where I have both participated and observed it being applied; its effectiveness may be judged by the results. (author)

  8. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Lumbar spine and total-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability: a pilot study of artefacts and disrupting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mergler, S.; Rieken, R.; Tibboel, D.; Evenhuis, H. M.; van Rijn, R. R.; Penning, C.

    2012-01-01

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability (ID) are susceptible for developing low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. BMD is generally measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). To describe the occurrence of factors that may influence the feasibility

  10. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    An outline review notes recent work on total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as a means of preparing patients for grafts and particularly for bone-marrow transplantation. T.L.I. has proved immunosuppressive in rats, mice, dogs, monkeys and baboons; when given before bone-marrow transplantation, engraftment took place without, or with delayed rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Work with mice has indicated that the thymus needs to be included within the irradiation field, since screening of the thymus reduced skin-graft survival from 50 to 18 days, though irradiation of the thymus alone has proved ineffective. A more lasting tolerance has been observed when T.L.I. is followed by an injection of donor bone marrow. 50% of mice treated in this way accepted allogenic skin grafts for more than 100 days, the animals proving to be stable chimeras with 50% of their peripheral blood lymphocytes being of donor origin. Experiments of a similar nature with dogs and baboons were not so successful. (U.K.)

  11. The total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  12. Total quality management program planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, P.T.; Spence, K.

    1994-05-01

    As government funding grows scarce, competition between the national laboratories is increasing dramatically. In this era of tougher competition, there is no for resistance to change. There must instead be a uniform commitment to improving the overall quality of our products (research and technology) and an increased focus on our customers` needs. There has been an ongoing effort to bring the principles of total quality management (TQM) to all Energy Systems employees to help them better prepare for future changes while responding to the pressures on federal budgets. The need exists for instituting a vigorous program of education and training to an understanding of the techniques needed to improve and initiate a change in organizational culture. The TQM facilitator is responsible for educating the work force on the benefits of self-managed work teams, designing a program of instruction for implementation, and thus getting TQM off the ground at the worker and first-line supervisory levels so that the benefits can flow back up. This program plan presents a conceptual model for TQM in the form of a hot air balloon. In this model, there are numerous factors which can individually and collectively impede the progress of TQM within the division and the Laboratory. When these factors are addressed and corrected, the benefits of TQM become more visible. As this occurs, it is hoped that workers and management alike will grasp the ``total quality`` concept as an acceptable agent for change and continual improvement. TQM can then rise to the occasion and take its rightful place as an integral and valid step in the Laboratory`s formula for survival.

  13. Instability following total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Merchan, E Carlos

    2011-10-01

    Background Knee prosthesis instability (KPI) is a frequent cause of failure of total knee arthroplasty. Moreover, the degree of constraint required to achieve immediate and long-term stability in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is frequently debated. Questions This review aims to define the problem, analyze risk factors, and review strategies for prevention and treatment of KPI. Methods A PubMed (MEDLINE) search of the years 2000 to 2010 was performed using two key words: TKA and instability. One hundred and sixty-five initial articles were identified. The most important (17) articles as judged by the author were selected for this review. The main criteria for selection were that the articles addressed and provided solutions to the diagnosis and treatment of KPI. Results Patient-related risk factors predisposing to post-operative instability include deformity requiring a large surgical correction and aggressive ligament release, general or regional neuromuscular pathology, and hip or foot deformities. KPI can be prevented in most cases with appropriate selection of implants and good surgical technique. When ligament instability is anticipated post-operatively, the need for implants with a greater degree of constraint should be anticipated. In patients without significant varus or valgus malalignment and without significant flexion contracture, the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) can be retained. However, the PCL should be sacrificed when deformity exists particularly in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, previous patellectomy, previous high tibial osteotomy or distal femoral osteotomy, and posttraumatic osteoarthritis with disruption of the PCL. In most cases, KPI requires revision surgery. Successful outcomes can only be obtained if the cause of KPI is identified and addressed. Conclusions Instability following TKA is a common cause of the need for revision. Typically, knees with deformity, rheumatoid arthritis, previous patellectomy or high tibial osteotomy, and

  14. Incapacidad laboral total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz Tabares

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo y retrospectivo con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la incapacidad permanente para el trabajo en el municipio "San Cristóbal" durante el decenio 1982-1991, y se aplicó el método de encuesta por el que se recogieron datos que fueron extraídos del modelo oficial de peritaje médico laboral y de la entrevista con el peritado. Los resultados fueron plasmados en tablas de contingencias donde se relacionan las variables por cada año estudiado, y se aplicó la prueba estadística de chi cuadrado. El número de individuos dictaminados con incapacidad laboral total fue de 693; predominó en reportes el año 1988 con 114 casos y muy discretamente el sexo femenino sobre el masculino, el grupo etáreo de 45 a 54 años con 360 casos y la artrosis como entidad valorada por ortopedia, con análisis estadísticos significativos. No resultó estadísticamente significativo, el predominio de la hipertensión arterial sistémica entre las entidades valoradas por la especialidad de medicina interna como causas de incapacidad laboral. Fue muy significativa la variación del número de dictaminados por la comisión en cada uno de los años estudiados y que el porcentaje de ellos que se encontraban realizando trabajos que demandan esfuerzo físico de moderado a intenso al momento de aplicar la encuesta, ascendió al 64,9.A longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in order to know the behavior of permanent labor disability at the municipality of San Cristóbal during 1982-1991. A survey was done to collect data taken from the official model of medical inspections and from the interview with the disabled worker. The results were shown in contingency tables where the variables are related by every year studied. The chi square statistical test was applied. The number of individuals with labor disability was 693. As for reports, the year 1988 predominated with 114. There was a discreet

  15. Incidence, predicting factors, and clinical outcomes of periprocedural myocardial infarction after percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion in the era of new-generation drug-eluting stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Ho; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Kim, Seunghwan; Ahn, Chul-Min; Kim, Jung-Sun; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Hong, Myeong-Ki; Jang, Yangsoo

    2017-12-20

    This study aimed to examine predictors and clinical outcomes of periprocedural myocardial infarction (PMI) after chronic total occlusion (CTO) intervention. There are limited data on the clinical implications of PMI after CTO intervention in the new-generation drug-eluting stent (DES) era. We enrolled 337 patients who underwent CTO intervention and met the study criteria. We evaluated the incidence and predictors of PMI, defined as an increase in creatine kinase-MB ≥3× the upper limit of normal (ULN) after intervention and compared the occurrence rates of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE, defined as the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, target-vessel revascularization, or cerebrovascular accidents) between the PMI and non-PMI groups. PMI occurred in 23 (6.8%) patients after CTO intervention. Significant independent predictors were previous bypass surgery [odds ratio (OR) = 5.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-25.92; P = 0.03], Japan-CTO score ≥3 (OR = 7.06, 95%CI = 2.57-19.39; P PMI group had a significantly higher MACCE rate than the non-PMI group (23.7 vs. 5.6%, P = 0.008 by log-rank test). PMI was an independent predictor of MACCE (HR = 4.26, 95%CI = 1.35-13.43; P = 0.01). The MACCE rate gradually increased in a CK-MB-dependent fashion and was highest in patients with ≥10× ULN (P = 0.005). Previous bypass surgery, high Japan-CTO score, side branch occlusion, and longer procedure time were strongly related to PMI occurrence after CTO intervention. PMI was significantly associated with worse clinical outcomes in the new-generation DES era. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Conversion total hip arthroplasty: Primary or revision total hip arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, Ran; Baghoolizadeh, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is an increasingly common procedure among elderly individuals. Although conversion THA is currently bundled in a diagnosis related group (DRG) with primary THA, there is a lack of literature supporting this classification and it has yet to be identified whether conversion THA better resembles primary or revision THA. This editorial analyzed the intraoperative and postoperative factors and functional outcomes following conversion THA, primary THA, and revision THA to understand whether the characteristics of conversion THA resemble one procedure or the other, or are possibly somewhere in between. The analysis revealed that conversion THA requires more resources both intraoperatively and postoperatively than primary THA. Furthermore, patients undergoing conversion THA present with poorer functional outcomes in the long run. Patients undergoing conversion THA better resemble revision THA patients than primary THA patients. As such, patients undergoing conversion THA should not be likened to patients undergoing primary THA when determining risk stratification and reimbursement rates. Conversion THA procedures should be planned accordingly with proper anticipation of the greater needs both in the operating room, and for in-patient and follow-up care. We suggest that conversion THA be reclassified in the same DRG with revision THA as opposed to primary THA as a step towards better allocation of healthcare resources for conversion hip arthroplasties. PMID:26601055

  17. Total quality management in hotel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mitreva, Elizabeta; Saneva, Dusica; Miteva, Natasa

    2017-01-01

    Total quality management (TQM) is a systematic management approach aiming at continuous increase of the value offered to consumers through improvement of service quality. In hotel industry, success is achieved through service quality, which stands as a key factor for sustainability in the twenty-first century. Nowadays, quality is the basic factor for survival on the market, better competition, and greater profitability. TQM is a process that starts and ends with the consumer. The aim of this...

  18. The Short-run Impact on Total Factor Productivity Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Jacobsen, Joannes; Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus

    This project was prepared for The Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation (DASTI) under The Ministry of Science, Innovation and Higher Education. The scope of the project was to conduct the first comprehensive productivity impact assessment of the Danish system of innovation...

  19. Total Factor Productivity Convergence in Africa: Panel Unit Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... a sample of 23 countries and TFP data covering the period between 1960 and 2003 while deploying the ..... is cross -border migration of skilled labour. They argue that ... The LLC test follows the adjusted t-statistic thus: (3).

  20. Comparison of Serum Concentrations of Total Cholesterol and Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most dangerous tropical diseases that complicates HIV infection in Nigeria to date. Over two million Nigerians are known to be infected with TB and many more are at risk of the infection. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol and total lipid of 117 female TB patients attending chest clinic at ...

  1. Changes in total and differential white cell counts, total lymphocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Published reports on the possible changes in the various immune cell populations, especially the total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts, during the menstrual cycle in Nigerian female subjects are relatively scarce. Aim: To determine possible changes in the total and differential white blood cell [WBC] counts, ...

  2. Total shoulder replacement in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, O; Fruensgaard, S; Johannsen, Hans Viggo

    1996-01-01

    A prospective study of 62 Neer mark II total shoulder arthroplasties performed during the period from 1981 to 1990 on 51 patients with rheumatoid arthritis was undertaken to evaluate factors associated with component loosening and proximal humeral migration. Thirty-two (51%) showed proximal......, range of movement, abduction force, or function. The risk of clinical asymptomatic loosening is a relatively late complication that is eventually followed by pronounced bone destruction related to the loose component. Long-term radiographic control of total shoulders with rheumatoid arthritis...... is recommended. Hemiarthroplasty with a cemented humeral prosthesis may be a better treatment in the end stage of rheumatoid arthritis of the shoulder....

  3. Total hip arthroplasty in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alma Becic; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Overgaard, Søren

    2005-01-01

    The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs.......The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs....

  4. Congruences of totally geodesic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plebanski, J.F.; Rozga, K.

    1989-01-01

    A general theory of congruences of totally geodesic surfaces is presented. In particular their classification, based on the properties of induced affine connections, is provided. In the four-dimensional case canonical forms of the metric tensor admitting congruences of two-dimensional totally geodesic surfaces of rank one are given. Finally, congruences of two-dimensional extremal surfaces are studied. (author)

  5. Total magnetic reconnection during a tokamak major disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, J.A.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.

    1990-07-01

    The safety factor within a tokamak plasma has been measured during a major disruption. During the disruption, the central safety factor jumps from below one to above one, while the total current is unchanged. This implies that total reconnection has occurred. This observation is in contract to the absence of total reconnection observed during a sawtooth oscillation in the same device. 11 refs., 6 figs

  6. Totality eclipses of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Littmann, Mark; Willcox, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. - ;A total eclipse of the Sun is the most awesome sight in the heavens. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun takes you to eclipses of the past, present, and future, and lets you see - and feel - why people travel to the ends of the Earth to observe them. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is the best guide and reference book on solar eclipses ever written. It explains: how to observe them; how to photograph and videotape them; why they occur; their history and mythology; and future eclipses - when and where to see them. Totality also tells the remarkable story of how eclipses shocked scientists, revealed the workings of the Sun, and made Einstein famous. And the book shares the experiences and advice of many veteran eclipse observers. Totality: Eclipses of the Sun is profusely ill...

  7. Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Total Product Life Cycle (TPLC) database integrates premarket and postmarket data about medical devices. It includes information pulled from CDRH databases...

  8. Nutritional management after total laryngectomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    28 September 2010 with a known diagnosis of cancer of the larynx. The patient, who underwent a total laryngectomy on 13 October, had a tracheostomy inserted .... status, leading to improved quality of life and better response to treatment.4.

  9. Transmandibular approach to total maxillectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Total Maxillectomy through transfacial approach has been practiced in the treatment of Cancer for more than a decade. Its role in T3 - T4 tumors extending posteriorly through gthe bony wall is questionable, since an oncological radical procedure is often not possible. Recurrences in the infratemporal fossa are common. Despite the addition of radiotherapy five year survivals have not significantly improved. Transmandibular approach to Total Maxillectomy overcomes this shortcoming by including ...

  10. Leadership and Total Quality Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    leadership and management skills yields increased productivity. This paper will focus on the skills required of senior level leaders (leaders at the...publication until it has been cleared by the appropriate mii..-, service or government agency. Leadership and Total Quality Management An Individual Study...llty Codes fAvti1 and/or DltISpecial Abstract AUTHOR: Harry D. Gatanas, LTC, USA TITLE: Leadership and Total Quality Management FORMAT- Individual

  11. Geographical differences in the relationship between total dissolved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The practical application of these findings is that users of EC meters should not simply apply a blanket conversion factor, but need to select an applicable factor for the river system in which they are measuring. Keywords: conversion factors, electrical conductivity, field instruments, rivers, total dissolved solids, water quality ...

  12. Total Glucosides of Paeonia lactiflora Pall Suppress Nitric Oxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iNOS) expression and ... Keywords: Total glucosides, Paeonia lactiflora, Nitric oxide, iNOs, Nuclear factor-κB. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Nuclear factor (NF)-κB is the key transcriptional factor regulating iNOS gene transcription.

  13. Total body irradiation: current indications; L`irradiation corporelle totale: les indications actuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, P.; Danhier, S.; Dubray, B.; Cosset, J.M. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    1998-05-01

    The choice of dose and fractionation for total body irradiation is made difficult by the large number of considerations to be taken into account. The outcome of bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation can be understood in terms of tumor cell killing, engraftment, and normal tissue damage, each of these endpoints being influenced by irradiation-, disease-, transplant-, and patient- related factors. Interpretation of clinical data is further hampered by the overwhelming influence of logistic constraints, the small numbers of randomized studies, and the concomitant variations in total dose and fraction size or dose rate. So far, three cautious conclusions can be drawn in order to tentatively adapt the total body irradiation schedule to clinically-relevant situations. Firstly, the organs at risk for normal tissue damage (lung, liver, lens, kidney) are protected by delivering small doses per fraction at low dose rate. This suggests that, when toxicity is at stake (e.g. in children), fractionated irradiation should be preferred, provided that inter-fraction intervals are long enough. Secondly, fractionated irradiation should be avoided in case of T-cell depleted transplant, given the high risk of graft rejection in this setting. An alternative would be to increase total (or fractional) dose of fractionated total body irradiation, but this approach is likely to induce more normal tissue toxicity. Thirdly, clinical data have shown higher relapse rates in chronic myeloid leukemia after fractionated or low dose rate total body irradiation, suggesting that fractionated irradiation should not be recommended, unless total (or fractional) dose is increased. Total body irradiation-containing regimens, primarily cyclophosphamide / total body irradiation, are either equivalent to or better than the chemotherapy-only regimens, primarily busulfan / cyclophosphamide. Busulfan / cyclophosphamide certainly represents a reasonable alternative, especially in patients who

  14. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-08-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation.

  15. Total body water and total body potassium in anorexia nervosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, D.T.; Crosby, L.O.; Lusk, E.; Oberlander, J.L.; Pertschuk, M.J.; Mullen, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    In the ill hospitalized patient with clinically relevant malnutrition, there is a measurable decrease in the ratio of the total body potassium to total body water (TBK/TBW) and a detectable increase in the ratio of total exchangeable sodium to total exchangeable potassium (Nae/Ke). To evaluate body composition analyses in anorexia nervosa patients with chronic uncomplicated semistarvation, TBK and TBW were measured by whole body K40 counting and deuterium oxide dilution in 10 females with stable anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched female controls. The ratio of TBK/TBW was significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in anorexia nervosa patients than controls. The close inverse correlation found in published studies between TBK/TBW and Nae/Ke together with our results suggest that in anorexia nervosa, Nae/Ke may be low or normal. A decreased TBK/TBW is not a good indicator of malnutrition in the anorexia nervosa patient. The use of a decreased TBK/TBW ratio or an elevated Nae/Ke ratio as a definition of malnutrition may result in inappropriate nutritional management in the patient with severe nonstressed chronic semistarvation

  16. Total 2004 annual report; TOTAL 2004 rapport annuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  17. Multiscale virtual particle based elastic network model (MVP-ENM) for normal mode analysis of large-sized biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kelin

    2017-12-20

    In this paper, a multiscale virtual particle based elastic network model (MVP-ENM) is proposed for the normal mode analysis of large-sized biomolecules. The multiscale virtual particle (MVP) model is proposed for the discretization of biomolecular density data. With this model, large-sized biomolecular structures can be coarse-grained into virtual particles such that a balance between model accuracy and computational cost can be achieved. An elastic network is constructed by assuming "connections" between virtual particles. The connection is described by a special harmonic potential function, which considers the influence from both the mass distributions and distance relations of the virtual particles. Two independent models, i.e., the multiscale virtual particle based Gaussian network model (MVP-GNM) and the multiscale virtual particle based anisotropic network model (MVP-ANM), are proposed. It has been found that in the Debye-Waller factor (B-factor) prediction, the results from our MVP-GNM with a high resolution are as good as the ones from GNM. Even with low resolutions, our MVP-GNM can still capture the global behavior of the B-factor very well with mismatches predominantly from the regions with large B-factor values. Further, it has been demonstrated that the low-frequency eigenmodes from our MVP-ANM are highly consistent with the ones from ANM even with very low resolutions and a coarse grid. Finally, the great advantage of MVP-ANM model for large-sized biomolecules has been demonstrated by using two poliovirus virus structures. The paper ends with a conclusion.

  18. Calidad total en el ICESI

    OpenAIRE

    González Zamora, José Hipólito

    2010-01-01

    En primer lugar deseo dar la bienvenida esta reunión al ingeniero Francisco Gensini, director ejecutivo de INCOLDA, quien ha sido fuente constante de inspiración para el trabajo relacionado con Control Total de Calidad (C.T.C.) que se ha venido desarrollando en el ICESI. El ingeniero Gensini ha logrado aglutinar alrededor de INCOLDA al grupo de seis empresas de la región, líderes en el estudio y aplicación de los principios del Control Total de Calidad , es decir Rica Rondo S.A., Banco de Oc...

  19. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada Superior total overdenture on implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.This is the case of a total maxilla edentulous patient seen in consultation of the "Pedro Ortíz" Clinic Implant of Habana del Este municipality in 2009 and con rehabilitation by prosthesis over osteointegration implants added to stomatology practice in Cuba as an alternative to conventional treatment in patients totally edentulous. We follow a protocol including a surgery or surgical phase, technique without or with flap creation and early or immediate load. This is a male patient aged 56 came to our multidisciplinary consultation worried because he had three prostheses in last two years and any fulfilled the requirements of retention to feel safe and comfortable with prostheses. The final result was the total satisfaction of rehabilitated patient improving its aesthetic and functional quality.

  20. Failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leta, Tesfaye H; Lygre, Stein Håkon L; Skredderstuen, Arne; Hallan, Geir; Furnes, Ove

    2015-02-01

    In Norway, the proportion of revision knee arthroplasties increased from 6.9% in 1994 to 8.5% in 2011. However, there is limited information on the epidemiology and causes of subsequent failure of revision knee arthroplasty. We therefore studied survival rate and determined the modes of failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties. This study was based on 1,016 aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register between 1994 and 2011. Revisions done for infections were not included. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the survival rate and the relative risk of re-revision with all causes of re-revision as endpoint. 145 knees failed after revision total knee arthroplasty. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of re-revision (28%), followed by instability (26%), loose tibial component (17%), and pain (10%). The cumulative survival rate for revision total knee arthroplasties was 85% at 5 years, 78% at 10 years, and 71% at 15 years. Revision total knee arthroplasties with exchange of the femoral or tibial component exclusively had a higher risk of re-revision (RR = 1.7) than those with exchange of the whole prosthesis. The risk of re-revision was higher for men (RR = 2.0) and for patients aged less than 60 years (RR = 1.6). In terms of implant survival, revision of the whole implant was better than revision of 1 component only. Young age and male sex were risk factors for re-revision. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of failure of revision of aseptic total knee arthroplasties.

  1. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in selected Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, C T; Balachandran, Indira

    2012-05-01

    Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia nilotica: 80.63 mg gallic acid equivalents, Acacia catechu 78.12 mg gallic acid equivalents, Albizia lebbeck 66.23 mg gallic acid equivalents). The highest total flavonoid content was revealed in Senna tora which belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The present study also shows the ratio of flavonoids to the phenolics in each sample for their specificity.

  2. Electron density distribution in ferromagnetic nickel: A γ -ray diffraction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, W.; Reehuis, M.

    2008-12-01

    High-accuracy single-crystal structure factors, complete up to sinθ/λ=1.9Å-1 , have been measured from ferromagnetic nickel at 295 K using 316.5-keV gamma radiation. The experimental uncertainty of the structure factors is of the order of 10 millielectrons per atom for all data. A detailed description of the electron density distribution is presented in terms of a multipolar atomic deformation model. Achievement of a reliable Debye-Waller factor is of vital importance in this context. The charge asphericity is due to an excess eg orbital occupancy of 43.4(2)%. The 3d shell in the metal is contracted by 2.07(5)% relative to the free atom. The results are discussed and compared with earlier experimental and theoretical works. In contrast to bcc Cr and Fe, solid-state effects are less pronounced in fcc Ni. Clear disentanglement between the 3d and 4s valence electrons could be accomplished for the first time. The general expectation that the number of 3d electrons in the metal should be increased as compared to the atom was confirmed in the case of iron by combining spin and charge-density data. In the case of nickel, it is rejected as revealed by the γ -ray data alone. Only with the d8 configuration, consistency is achieved between observed and refined mosaic widths of the sample crystal. A 3d8 configuration implies that the majority-spin d band cannot be full. Strong support is lent to a localized atomic character of the valence electrons.

  3. Total Synthesis of Adunctin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethe, Dattatraya H; Dherange, Balu D

    2018-03-16

    Total synthesis of (±)-adunctin B, a natural product isolated from Piper aduncum (Piperaceae), has been achieved using two different strategies, in seven and three steps. The efficient approach features highly atom economical and diastereoselective Friedel-Crafts acylation, alkylation reaction and palladium catalyzed Wacker type oxidative cyclization.

  4. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...

  5. What is Total Quality Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, William A.

    1996-01-01

    Provides a general overview of Total Quality Management (TQM) and explains why there is pressure for change in higher education institutions. Defines TQM and the various themes, tools, and beliefs that make it different from other management approaches. Presents 14 principles and how they might be applied to student affairs. (RJM)

  6. A totally diverting loop colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, N. D.; Gartell, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    A technique is described where the distal limb of a loop colostomy is tied with nylon or polydioxanone. This ensures total faecal diversion and dispenses with the supporting rod, enabling early application of stoma appliances. The technique does not interfere with the traditional transverse closure of a loop colostomy. PMID:8379632

  7. A generalization of total graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Afkhami

    2018-04-12

    Apr 12, 2018 ... product of any lower triangular matrix with the transpose of any element of U belongs to U. The ... total graph of R, which is denoted by T( (R)), is a simple graph with all elements of R as vertices, and ...... [9] Badawi A, On dot-product graph of a commutative ring, Communications in Algebra 43 (2015). 43–50.

  8. Total synthesis of nepetoidin B

    Science.gov (United States)

    The total synthesis of nepetoidin B (the 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethenyl ester of 3-(3,4-dihydroxy¬phenyl)-2-propenoic acid) has been achieved in two steps from commercially available 1,5-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-1,4-pentadien-3-one. Tetramethylated nepetoidin B was prepared directly by Baeyer-Villig...

  9. The "Total Immersion" Meeting Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Coleman

    1980-01-01

    The designing of intelligently planned meeting facilities can aid management communication and learning. The author examines the psychology of meeting attendance; architectural considerations (lighting, windows, color, etc.); design elements and learning modes (furniture, walls, audiovisuals, materials); and the idea of "total immersion meeting…

  10. First total synthesis of Boehmenan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The first total synthesis of dilignan Boehmenan has been achieved. A biomimetic oxidative coupling of the ferulic acid methyl ester in the presence of silver oxide is the crucial step in the synthesis sequence, generating the dihydrobenzofuran skeleton. Hydroxyl group was protected with DHP and reducted with LiAlH4 to ...

  11. MODIFIED TECHNIQUE OF TOTAL LARYNGECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Spirić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical technique of total laryngectomy is well presented in many surgical textbooks. Essentially, it has remained the same since Gluck an Soerensen in 1922 described all its details. Generally, it stresses the U shape skin incision with releasing laryngeal structures and removing larynx from up to down. Further, pharyngeal reconstruction is performed with different kinds of sutures in two or more layers and is finished with skin suture and suction drainage. One of worst complications following this surgery is pharyngocutaneous fistula (PF. Modifications proposed in this this article suggests vertical skin incision with larynx removal from below upwards. In pharyngeal reconstruction we used the running locked suture in submucosal plan with „tobacco sac“ at the end on the tongue base instead of traditional T shaped suture. Suction drains were not used.The aim of study was to present the modified surgical technique of total laryingectomy and its impact on hospital stay duration and pharyngocutanous fistula formation. In this randomized study we analyzed 49 patients operated with modified surgical technique compared to 49 patient operated with traditional surgical technique of total laryngectomy. The modified technique of total laryngectomy was presented. Using modified technique we managed to decrease the PF percentage from previous 20,41% to acceptable 8,16% (p=0,0334. Also, the average hospital stay was shortened from 14,96 to 10,63 days (t =-2.9850; p=0.0358.The modified technique of total laryngectomy is safe, short and efficient surgical intervention which decreases the number of pharyngocutaneos fistulas and shortens the hospital stay.

  12. EXAFS characterization of supported metal catalysts in chemically dynamic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robota, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    Characterization of catalysts focuses on the identification of an active site responsible for accelerating desirable chemical reactions. The identification, characterization, and selective modification of such sites is fundamental to the development of structure-function relationships. Unfortunately, this goal is far from realized in nearly all catalysts, and particularly in catalysts comprised of small supported metal particles. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has had a dramatic effect on our understanding of supported metal particles in their resting state. However, the performance of a catalyst can not be assessed from such simple resting state measurements. Among the factors which influence catalyst performance are the exact catalyst composition, including the support and any modifiers; particle size; catalyst finishing and pretreatment conditions; pressure, composition, and temperature of the operating environment; time. Gaining an understanding of how the structure of a catalytic site can change with such an array of variables requires that we begin to develop measurement methods which are effective under chemically dynamic conditions. Ideally, it should be possible to obtain a full X-ray absorption spectrum of each element thought to have a causal relationship with observed catalyst properties. From these spectra, we can optimally extract only a relatively limited amount of information which we must then piece together with information derived from other characterization methods and intuition to arrive at a hypothetical structure of the operating catalyst. Information about crystallinity, homogeneity, and general disorder can be obtained from the Debye-Waller factor. Finally, through analogy with known compounds, the electronic structure of the active atoms can be inferred from near edge absorption features

  13. Subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Ottesen, Bent; Alling Møller, Lars Mikael

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare long-term results of subtotal vs total abdominal hysterectomy for benign uterine diseases 14 years after hysterectomy, with urinary incontinence as the primary outcome measure. STUDY DESIGN: This was a long-term follow-up of a multicenter......, randomized clinical trial without blinding. Eleven gynecological departments in Denmark contributed participants to the trial. Women referred for benign uterine diseases who did not have contraindications to subtotal abdominal hysterectomy were randomized to subtotal (n = 161) vs total (n = 158) abdominal...... from discharge summaries from all public hospitals in Denmark. The results were analyzed as intention to treat and per protocol. Possible bias caused by missing data was handled by multiple imputation. The primary outcome was urinary incontinence; the secondary outcomes were pelvic organ prolapse...

  14. Probing electronic phase transitions with phonons via inelastic neutron scattering: superconductivity in borocarbides, charge and magnetic order in manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, F.

    2007-11-02

    the intrinsic phonon linewidth near the order wave vector of the short-range charge and orbital order present above T{sub C}. In an neutron powder diffraction measurement at the Hahn-Meitner Institut in Berlin, we investigated the temperature dependence of the anisotropic Debye-Waller factors of the oxygen atoms in La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}. According to the present point of view, the sudden increase of the Debye-Waller factors at T{sub C} should be proportional to the strength of the colossal magnetoresistance effect. However, we found experimental values for La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}, which are in close vicinity or even bigger than values of compounds with a much stronger magnetoresistance effect. (orig.)

  15. Probing electronic phase transitions with phonons via inelastic neutron scattering: superconductivity in borocarbides, charge and magnetic order in manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, F.

    2007-01-01

    wave vector of the short-range charge and orbital order present above T C . In an neutron powder diffraction measurement at the Hahn-Meitner Institut in Berlin, we investigated the temperature dependence of the anisotropic Debye-Waller factors of the oxygen atoms in La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 . According to the present point of view, the sudden increase of the Debye-Waller factors at T C should be proportional to the strength of the colossal magnetoresistance effect. However, we found experimental values for La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 , which are in close vicinity or even bigger than values of compounds with a much stronger magnetoresistance effect. (orig.)

  16. Total synthesis of (-)- and (+)-tedanalactam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Majik, M.S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Tilve, S.G.

    : The Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol.74(16); 6378-6381 1 Total Synthesis of (-) and (+)-Tedanalactam Mahesh S. Majik, † Peruninakulath S. Parameswaran, ‡ and Santosh G. Tilve* ,† Department of Chemistry, Goa University, Taleigao Plateau, Goa 403..., displaying a wide range of biological activities. 1 Piperidones are key synthetic intermediates 2 for the synthesis of piperidine ring due to the presence of keto function which allows the introduction of other groups. Piperidones are also known...

  17. Geographical differences in the relationship between total dissolved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on the Department of Water Affairs water quality database. ... Keywords: conversion factors, electrical conductivity, field instruments, rivers, total dissolved solids, water quality ... of a number of TDS:EC ratios in samples where both measure-.

  18. Quality of life after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canovas, F; Dagneaux, L

    2018-02-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) results in a high degree of patient satisfaction, as it provides patients with considerable medium- and long-term benefits in terms of quality of life, pain relief and function. Nevertheless, the literature reports that up to 30% of patients are dissatisfied. This dissatisfaction is directly related to the patients' quality of life, which they deem insufficient. Their quality of life depends on many physical, behavioural, social and psychological factors that are not taken into account by functional outcome scores. After describing the principles of quality of life evaluation after TKA, we will assess the effects of patient-related factors, the surgical technique and postoperative program through an exhaustive review of the literature. Patient expectations after TKA will then be outlined, particularly return to work and return to sports. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Intrathoracic Hernia after Total Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Tashiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic hernias after total gastrectomy are rare. We report the case of a 78-year-old man who underwent total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction for residual gastric cancer. He had alcoholic liver cirrhosis and received radical laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy for gastric cancer 3 years ago. Early gastric cancer in the remnant stomach was found by routine upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We initially performed endoscopic submucosal dissection, but the vertical margin was positive in a pathological result. We performed total gastrectomy with antecolic Roux-Y reconstruction by laparotomy. For adhesion of the esophageal hiatus, the left chest was connected with the abdominal cavity. A pleural defect was not repaired. Two days after the operation, the patient was suspected of having intrathoracic hernia by chest X-rays. Computed tomography showed that the transverse colon and Roux limb were incarcerated in the left thoracic cavity. He was diagnosed with intrathoracic hernia, and emergency reduction and repair were performed. Operative findings showed that the Roux limb and transverse colon were incarcerated in the thoracic cavity. After reduction, the orifice of the hernia was closed by suturing the crus of the diaphragm with the ligament of the jejunum and omentum. After the second operation, he experienced anastomotic leakage and left pyothorax. Anastomotic leakage was improved with conservative therapy and he was discharged 76 days after the second operation.

  20. Comparison of several methods of sires evaluation for total milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 956 lactation records of Holstein cows kept at Kaa Albon station, Imuran Governorate, Yemen during the period from 1991 to 2003 were used to investigate the effect of some genetic and non-genetic factors (Sire, parity, season of calving, year of calving and age at first calving as covariate) on the Total Milk Yield ...

  1. Total eclipses of the sun

    CERN Document Server

    Zirker, Jack B

    2014-01-01

    Eclipses have captured attention and sparked curiosity about the cosmos since the first appearance of humankind. Having been blamed for everything from natural disasters to the fall of kings, they are now invaluable tools for understanding many celestial as well as terrestrial phenomena. This clear, easy-to-understand guide explains what causes total eclipses and how they can be used in experiments to examine everything from the dust between the planets to general relativity. A new chapter has been added on the eclipse of July 11, 1991 (the great Hawaiian eclipse). Originally published in 19

  2. Reverse hybrid total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangen, Helge; Havelin, Leif I.; Fenstad, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose - The use of a cemented cup together with an uncemented stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become popular in Norway and Sweden during the last decade. The results of this prosthetic concept, reverse hybrid THA, have been sparsely described. The Nordic Arthroplasty....... Patients and methods - From the NARA, we extracted data on reverse hybrid THAs from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2013. 38,415 such hips were studied and compared with cemented THAs. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the prosthesis survival and the relative risk...

  3. Total knee arthroplasty in ochronosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav G. Patel, MBBS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkaptonuria is disorder of tyrosine metabolism due to deficiency of homogentisic oxidase characterized by excretion of homogentisic acid in urine, deposition of oxidized homogensitate pigments in connective tissues and articular cartilages (ochronosis. The result is dark pigmentation and weakening of the tissues resulting in chronic inflammation and osteoarthritis. Management of alkaptonuric ochronic osteoarthritis is usually symptomatic and replacements have comparable outcomes to osteoarthritis in patients without ochronosis. I report a case of a patient with ochronosis of knee treated with total knee replacement and report operative pearls for surgery in this rare disorder.

  4. Total filmless digital radiology service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, S.K.; Goeringer, F.; Benson, H.; Horii, S.C.

    1989-01-01

    The completion of a comprehensive picture archiving and communication system (PACS) at Georgetown University Hospital has allowed us to identify a number of technical, administrative, personnel, and operational issues that will affect a total digital radiology service. With a hospital-wide digital imaging network system, computer simulation of communications and storage options, and economic modeling, we have developed a feasibility study and implementation strategy for the smooth transition to a nearly filmless radiology service over the next several years. This paper describes the technical and operational requirements for various database operations, workstations (used in diagnosis, review, and education), and communications. Site and installation planning, personnel training, and transition operations are discussed

  5. Universal divergenceless scaling between structural relaxation and caged dynamics in glass-forming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottochian, A; De Michele, C; Leporini, D

    2009-12-14

    On approaching the glass transition, the microscopic kinetic unit spends increasing time rattling in the cage of the first neighbors, whereas its average escape time, the structural relaxation time tau(alpha), increases from a few picoseconds up to thousands of seconds. A thorough study of the correlation between tau(alpha) and the rattling amplitude, expressed by the Debye-Waller factor, was carried out. Molecular-dynamics simulations of both a model polymer system and a binary mixture were performed by varying the temperature, the density rho, the potential and the polymer length to consider the structural relaxation as well as both the rotational and the translation diffusion. The present simulations, together with MD studies on other glassformers, evidence the scaling between the structural relaxation and the caged dynamics. An analytic model of the master curve is developed in terms of two characteristic length scales a(2) (1/2) and sigma(a(2) ) (1/2), pertaining to the distance to be covered by the kinetic unit to reach a transition state. The model does not imply tau(alpha) divergences. The comparison with the experiments supports the numerical evidence over a range of relaxation times as wide as about eighteen orders of magnitude. A comparison with other scaling and correlation procedures is presented. In particular, the density scaling of the length scales a(2) (1/2), sigma(a(2) ) (1/2) proportional to rho(-1/3) is shown to be not supported by the present simulations. The study suggests that the equilibrium and the moderately supercooled states of the glassformers possess key information on the huge slowing-down of their relaxation close to the glass transition. The latter, according to the present simulations, exhibits features consistent with the Lindemann melting criterion and the free-volume model.

  6. Relation between interfacial structure and mechanical properties in AlN/TiN bilayers investigated by EXAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersen, O.; Tuilier, M.-H.; Thobor-Keck, A.; Rousselot, C.; Cortes, R.

    2005-01-01

    The relation between the mechanical properties and the structure of AlN/TiN bilayers prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering in the 600 nm range is investigated. Al and Ti K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure is used in order to determine the local order around Al and Ti by comparison with 300 nm thick AlN and TiN single layers. The use of this powerful local probe allows the evidence of intermixing between AlN and TiN deposited layers, which is suggested by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy experiments. The effect of ionic bombardment applied at various steps of the deposition process is studied. The ionic bombardment applied during the deposit induces substantial changes in the absorption spectra that are assigned to a decrease of intermixing and an improvement of local order. Simulations of (Al, Ti)N ternary alloys Al and Ti K-edge absorption spectra for increasing mean occupation factors C Ti (C Al ) of Ti(Al) substituting Al(Ti) in hexagonal AlN (cubic TiN) lattice are performed in order to determine the initial parameters for the fit of the experimental data. The refinements performed by using FEFFIT software demonstrate that an ionic bombardment applied during the deposition phase results in a significant reduction of the number of Al-Ti pairs within the bilayer and an improvement of the local order around Ti and Al, which is quantified by a decrease of the Debye-Waller parameters. This structural evolution is tentatively correlated with the improvement of mechanical properties of the bilayers

  7. Relation between interfacial structure and mechanical properties in AlN/TiN bilayers investigated by EXAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersen, O. [Equipe de Recherche Mecanique, Materiaux et Procedes de Fabrication, 61, rue Albert Camus, F-68093 Mulhouse (France)]. E-mail: ovidiu.ersen@ipcms.u-strasbg.fr; Tuilier, M.-H. [Equipe de Recherche Mecanique, Materiaux et Procedes de Fabrication, 61, rue Albert Camus, F-68093 Mulhouse (France); Thobor-Keck, A. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecoulements les Surfaces et les Transferts (UMR CNRS 6000), ITSFC, 4, place Tharradin, BP 71427, F-25211 Montbeliard (France); Rousselot, C. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecoulements les Surfaces et les Transferts (UMR CNRS 6000), ITSFC, 4, place Tharradin, BP 71427, F-25211 Montbeliard (France); Cortes, R. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee (UMR CNRS 7643), Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau cedex (France)

    2005-06-01

    The relation between the mechanical properties and the structure of AlN/TiN bilayers prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering in the 600 nm range is investigated. Al and Ti K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure is used in order to determine the local order around Al and Ti by comparison with 300 nm thick AlN and TiN single layers. The use of this powerful local probe allows the evidence of intermixing between AlN and TiN deposited layers, which is suggested by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy experiments. The effect of ionic bombardment applied at various steps of the deposition process is studied. The ionic bombardment applied during the deposit induces substantial changes in the absorption spectra that are assigned to a decrease of intermixing and an improvement of local order. Simulations of (Al, Ti)N ternary alloys Al and Ti K-edge absorption spectra for increasing mean occupation factors C {sub Ti} (C {sub Al}) of Ti(Al) substituting Al(Ti) in hexagonal AlN (cubic TiN) lattice are performed in order to determine the initial parameters for the fit of the experimental data. The refinements performed by using FEFFIT software demonstrate that an ionic bombardment applied during the deposition phase results in a significant reduction of the number of Al-Ti pairs within the bilayer and an improvement of the local order around Ti and Al, which is quantified by a decrease of the Debye-Waller parameters. This structural evolution is tentatively correlated with the improvement of mechanical properties of the bilayers.

  8. Neutron- and light-scattering studies of the liquid-to-glass and glass-to-glass transitions in dense copolymer micellar solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weiren; Chen Sowhsin; Mallamace, Francesco; Glinka, Charles J.; Fratini, Emiliano

    2003-01-01

    Recent mode coupling theory (MCT) calculations show that if a short-range attractive interaction is added to the pure hard sphere system, one may observe a new type of glass originating from the clustering effect (the attractive glass) as a result of the attractive interaction. This is in addition to the known glass-forming mechanism due to the cage effect in the hard sphere system (the repulsive glass). The calculations also indicate that if the range of attraction is sufficiently short compared to the diameter of the particle, within a certain interval of volume fractions where the two glass-forming mechanisms nearly balance each other, varying the external control parameter, the effective temperature, makes the glass-to-liquid-to-glass reentrance and the glass-to-glass transitions possible. Here we present experimental evidence of both transitions, obtained from small-angle neutron-scattering and photon correlation measurements taken from dense L64 copolymer micellar solutions in heavy water. Varying the temperature in certain predicted volume fraction range triggers a sharp transition between these two different types of glass. In particular, according to MCT, there is an end point (called A 3 singularity) of this glass-to-glass transition line, beyond which the long-time dynamics of the two glasses become identical. Our findings confirm this theoretical prediction. Surprisingly, although the Debye-Waller factors, the long-time limit of the coherent intermediate scattering functions, of these two glasses obtained from photon correlation measurements indeed become identical at the predicted volume fraction, they exhibit distinctly different intermediate time relaxation. Furthermore, our experimental results obtained from volume fractions beyond the end point are characterized by the same features as the repulsive glass obtained before the end point. A complete phase diagram giving the boundaries of the structural arrest transitions for L64 micellar system is

  9. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1990-10-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is now fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using scattering to filter the unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to more precisely determine interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both the fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 , which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. We have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron spectroscopy lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support

  10. Gamma scattering in condensed matter with high intensity Moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is now fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using scattering to filter the unwanted radiation. These have led to a new Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption (SRSA) and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to more precisely determine interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both the fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na and the satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 , which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. We have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. These advances, coupled to our improvements in MIcrofoil Conversion Electron spectroscopy lay the foundation for the proposed research outlined in this request for a three-year renewal of DOE support

  11. Inelastic scattering in condensed matter with high intensity moessbauer radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Schupp, G.

    1991-05-01

    We give a progress report for the work which has been carried out in the last three years with DOE support. A facility for high-intensity Moessbauer scattering is not fully operational at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) as well as a facility at Purdue, using special isotopes produced at MURR. High precision, fundamental Moessbauer effect studies have been carried out using Bragg scattering filters to suppress unwanted radiation. These have led to a Fourier transform method for describing Moessbauer effect (ME) lineshape and a direct method of fitting ME data to the convolution integral. These methods allow complete correction for source resonance self absorption and the accurate representation of interference effects that add an asymmetric component to the ME lines. We have begun applying these techniques to attenuated ME sources whose central peak has been attenuated by stationary resonant absorbers, to make a novel independent determination of interference parameters and line-shape behavior in the resonance asymptotic region. This analysis is important to both fundamental ME studies and to scattering studies for which a deconvolution is essential for extracting the correct recoilless fractions and interference parameters. A number of scattering studies have been successfully carried out including a study of the thermal diffuse scattering in Si, which led to an analysis of the resolution function for gamma-ray scattering. Also studied was the anharmonic motion in Na metal and the charge density wave satellite reflection Debye-Waller factor in TaS 2 , which indicate phason rather than phonon behavior. Using a specially constructed sample cell which enables us to vary temperatures from -10 C to 110 C, we have begun quasielastic diffusion studies in viscous liquids and current results are summarized. Included are the temperature and Q dependence of the scattering in pentadecane and diffusion in glycerol

  12. A unified description of crystalline-to-amorphous transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Devanathan, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Meshii, M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1993-07-01

    Amorphous metallic alloys can now be synthesized by a variety of solid-state processes demonstrating the need for a more general approach to crystalline-to-amorphous (c-a) transitions. By focusing on static atomic displacements as a measure of chemical and topological disorder, we show that a unified description of c-a transformations can be based on a generalization of the phenomenological melting criterion proposed by Lindemann. The generalized version assumes that melting of a defective crystal occurs whenever the sum of thermal and static mean-square displacements exceeds a critical value identical to that for melting of the defect-free crystal. This implies that chemical or topological disorder measured by static displacements is thermodynamically equivalent to heating, and therefore that the melting temperature of the defective crystal will decrease with increasing amount of disorder. This in turn implies the existence of a critical state of disorder where the melting temperature becomes equal to a glass-transition temperature below which the metastable crystal melts to a glass. The generalized Lindemann melting criterion leads naturally to an interpretation of c-a transformations as defect-induced, low-temperature melting of critically disordered crystals. Confirmation of this criterion is provided by molecular-dynamics simulations of heat-induced melting and of defect-induced amorphization of intermetallic compounds caused either by the production of Frenkel pairs or anti-site defects. The thermodynamic equivalence between static atomic disorder and heating is reflected in the identical softening effects which they have on elastic properties and also in the diffraction analysis of diffuse scattering from disordered crystals, where the effect of static displacements appears as an artificially-enlarged thermal Debye-Waller factor. Predictions of this new, unified approach to melting and amorphization are compared with available experimental information.

  13. Total Site Heat Integration Considering Pressure Drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kew Hong Chew

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pressure drop is an important consideration in Total Site Heat Integration (TSHI. This is due to the typically large distances between the different plants and the flow across plant elevations and equipment, including heat exchangers. Failure to consider pressure drop during utility targeting and heat exchanger network (HEN synthesis may, at best, lead to optimistic energy targets, and at worst, an inoperable system if the pumps or compressors cannot overcome the actual pressure drop. Most studies have addressed the pressure drop factor in terms of pumping cost, forbidden matches or allowable pressure drop constraints in the optimisation of HEN. This study looks at the implication of pressure drop in the context of a Total Site. The graphical Pinch-based TSHI methodology is extended to consider the pressure drop factor during the minimum energy requirement (MER targeting stage. The improved methodology provides a more realistic estimation of the MER targets and valuable insights for the implementation of the TSHI design. In the case study, when pressure drop in the steam distribution networks is considered, the heating and cooling duties increase by 14.5% and 4.5%.

  14. Total generating costs: coal and nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    The study was confined to single and multi-unit coal- and nuclear-fueled electric-generating stations. The stations are composed of 1200-MWe PWRs; 1200-MWe BWRs; 800-and 1200-MWe High-Sulfur Coal units, and 800- and 1200-MWe Low-Sulfur Coal units. The total generating cost estimates were developed for commercial operation dates of 1985 and 1990; for 5 and 8% escalation rates, for 10 and 12% discount rates; and, for capacity factors of 50, 60, 70, and 80%. The report describes the methodology for obtaining annualized capital costs, levelized coal and nuclear fuel costs, levelized operation and maintenance costs, and the resulting total generating costs for each type of station. The costs are applicable to a hypothetical Middletwon site in the Northeastern United States. Plant descriptions with general design parameters are included. The report also reprints for convenience, summaries of capital cost by account type developed in the previous commercial electric-power cost studies. Appropriate references are given for additional detailed information. Sufficient detail is given to allow the reader to develop total generating costs for other cases or conditions

  15. Qualidade total: Um novo paradigma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana da Rosa Tolfo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, o movimento para a implantação da Gestão da Qualidade Total vem crescendo ao redor do mundo. Em razão disso, há uma diversidade de ações realizadas com o nome de "Qualidade Total'. Uma revisão da teoria é complexa, porque existem muitos autores que tratam da questão. Eles escolhem diferentes perspectivas de análises (teóricas e empíricas e há dificuldades em se identificar um corpo conceitual. Há uma ampla difusão de modelos, ferramentas, técnicas, mercado e consultores. Essa popularidade, muitas vezes, faz com que determinadas organizações adotem essa forma de gestão do trabalho sem o conhecimento necessário das implicações que um modelo dessa ordem representa; especialmente no caso brasileiro, suscetível a proposições importadas. O presente artigo propõe um exame daquilo que os fundadores têm articulado sobre TQM, as principais críticas nesta direção e a avaliação de como vem sendo aplicadono nosso país.

  16. Testing EDM of Total Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirbus Ján

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to testing electrooptical distance measuring devices (EDM built in total stations, than can be used for various tasks in the contemporary geodetic works. A rich market offer and availability of these universal measuring systems with satisfying distance range, excellent accuracy and other parameters, make total stations as dominant terrestrial geodetic instruments.For succesfully applying these instruments, above all for relliable distance measurements, the stability of the modulation frequency is the most important pre-condition. In the article, therefore, there are given some methods to verify the modulation frequency stability. In addition, some ways for determining the EDM distance constant and periodical corrections of the phase measuring unit are introduced for 4 types of EDM : LEICA 1700L, TOPCON GTS6A, TOPCON GTS2, C.ZEISS ELTA50. It were also investigated their possibilities for precise distance survey. Values of the determined constants and periodical corrections are presented in Tab. 2.Based on the investigation results of the 4 EDM types and using the values m obtained for different distances S, equations of the a posteriori standard deviations in form : m = (a+b.S were derived too.

  17. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-05

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  18. Total employment effect of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stridsberg, S.

    1998-08-01

    The study examined the total employment effect of both direct production of biofuel and energy conversion to heat and electricity, as well as the indirect employment effect arising from investments and other activities in conjunction with the production organization. A secondary effect depending on the increased capital flow is also included in the final result. The scenarios are based on two periods, 1993-2005 and 2005-2020. In the present study, the different fuels and the different applications have been analyzed individually with regard to direct and indirect employment within each separate sector. The greatest employment effect in the production chain is shown for logging residues with 290 full-time jobs/TWh, whereas other biofuels range between 80 and 280 full-time jobs/TWh. In the processing chain, the corresponding range is 200-300 full-time jobs per each additional TWh. Additionally and finally, there are secondary effects that give a total of 650 full-time jobs/TWh. Together with the predicted increase, this suggests that unprocessed fuel will provide an additional 16 000 annual full-time jobs, and that fuel processing will contribute with a further 5 000 full-time jobs. The energy production from the fuels will provide an additional 13 000 full-time jobs. The total figure of 34 000 annual full-time jobs must then be reduced by about 4000 on account of lost jobs, mainly in the oil sector and to some extent in imports of biofuel. In addition, the anticipated increase in capital turnover that occurs within the biofuel sector, will increase full-time jobs up to year 2020. Finally, a discussion is given of the accomplishment of the programmes anticipated by the scenario, where it is noted that processing of biofuel to wafers, pellets or powder places major demands on access to raw material of good quality and that agrarian fuels must be given priority if they are to enter the system sufficiently fast. Straw is already a resource but is still not accepted by

  19. Estudio de la dimensionalidad empleando análisis factorial clásico y análisis factorial de información total: análisis de pruebas de matemáticas de primaria (5º y 6º cursos y secundaria obligatoria. [Study of dimensionality using classic factor analysis and full information factor analysis: analysis of primary (5th and 6th degrees and compulsory secondary mathematics tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaristi, Luis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the dimensional structure of a set of mathematical achievement tests used to assess the academic achievement in the Community of Madrid during 2005-06 and 2006-07 years and in three cohorts corresponding to the following academic degrees: 5th-6th of primary education, 1st-2nd and 3-4th of compulsory secondary education (ESO. The results coming from classical factor analysis and full information factor analysis are compared. Therefore a longitudinal study is performed in order to test whether such structure remains constant along time. The results confirm that most of the tests are mostly unidimensional structures. Meanwhile, it was proven that as the complexity of the contents increase, the complexity of the dimensional structure tests increase as well. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la estructura dimensional de las pruebas empleadas para evaluar el rendimiento académico en la asignatura de matemáticas en el contexto de la evaluación realizada en la Comunidad de Madrid en los cursos académicos 2005-06 y 2006-07 en tres cohortes: 5º y 6º de Educación Primaria, 1º-2º y 3º-4º de ESO. Para ello, se triangulan los resultados obtenidos de la aplicación de las técnicas factoriales clásicas con los del Análisis Factorial de Información total. Asimismo, se realiza un estudio longitudinal con objeto de ver si dicha estructura se mantiene constante a lo largo del tiempo. Los resultados confirman estructuras esencialmente unidimensionales. A su vez, se comprueba que el aumento de la complejidad de los contenidos implica un aumento en la complejidad de la estructura dimensional de las pruebas.

  20. Instability after total hip arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Brown, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    Instability following total hip arthroplasty (THA) is an unfortunately frequent and serious problem that requires thorough evaluation and preoperative planning before surgical intervention. Prevention through optimal index surgery is of great importance, as the management of an unstable THA is challenging even for an experienced joints surgeon. However, even after well-planned surgery, a significant incidence of recurrent instability still exists. Non-operative management is often successful if the components are well-fixed and correctly positioned in the absence of neurocognitive disorders. If conservative management fails, surgical options include revision of malpositioned components; exchange of modular components such as the femoral head and acetabular liner; bipolar arthroplasty; tripolar arthroplasty; use of a larger femoral head; use of a constrained liner; soft tissue reinforcement and advancement of the greater trochanter. PMID:22919568