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Sample records for total daily dose

  1. Evaluation of Total Daily Dose and Glycemic Control for Patients on U-500 Insulin Admitted to the Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    regular insulin has significantly increased in recent years. These patients are severely insulin resistant requiring high doses of insulin to achieve...on U-500 Insulin Admitted to the Hospital presented at SURF Conference, San Antonio, TX 20 May 201 6 with MDWI 41-108, and has been assigned local...59th CSPG/SGVU) C.201 4 . I 52d PROTOCOL TITLE Evaluation of Total Dai ly Dose and Glycemic Control for Patients on U-500 Insulin Admitted to the

  2. Effect of treatment with single total-dose intravenous iron versus daily oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose on moderate puerperal iron-deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyoke CA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,1 Fausta Chioma Emegoakor,1 Euzebus Chinonye Ezugwu,1 Lucky Osaheni Lawani,2 Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1 Jude Anazoeze Madu,3 Hyginus Uzo Ezegwui,1 Frank Okechukwu Ezugwu4 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, 3Department of Haematology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medicine, Enugu State University, Enugu, Nigeria Background: Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional cause of anemia in pregnancy and is often responsible for puerperal anemia. Puerperal anemia can impair postpartum maternal and neonatal well-being. Objective: To determine the effect of treatment of moderate puerperal iron-deficiency anemia using a single intravenous total-dose iron dextran versus daily single dose oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose. Methodology: A randomized controlled study in which postpartum women with moderate iron-deficiency anemia were randomized into treatment with either a single total-dose intravenous iron dextran or with daily single doses of oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose tablets for 6 weeks. Effects on hemoglobin concentration using either method were compared at 6 weeks postpartum. Analysis was per protocol using SPSS version 17 for windows. P-values ≤0.05 were considered significant. Results: Two hundred eighty-four women were recruited for the study: 142 women received single total dose intravenous infusion of iron dextran while 142 received daily oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose tablets. Approximately 84.0% (237/282 completed the study and were analyzed including 81% (115/142 of those randomized to injectable iron therapy compared to 85.9% (122/142 of those randomized to oral treatment. The proportions of women who had attained hemoglobin concentration of at least 10 g/dL by the 6 weeks postpartum visit did not differ

  3. Carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio is estimated from 300-400 divided by total daily insulin dose in type 1 diabetes patients who use the insulin pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Akio; Yasuda, Tetsuyuki; Takahara, Mitsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Fumie; Kasami, Ryuichi; Miyashita, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Sumiko; Kondo, Eri; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Endo, Itsuro; Matsuoka, Taka-aki; Kaneto, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Toshio; Shimomura, Iichiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide

    2012-11-01

    To optimize insulin dose using insulin pump, basal and bolus insulin doses are widely calculated from total daily insulin dose (TDD). It is recommended that total daily basal insulin dose (TBD) is 50% of TDD and that the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio (CIR) equals 500 divided by TDD. We recently reported that basal insulin requirement is approximately 30% of TDD. We therefore investigated CIR after adjustment of the proper basal insulin rate. Forty-five Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes were investigated during several weeks of hospitalization. The patients were served standard diabetes meals (25-30 kcal/kg of ideal body weight). Each meal omission was done to confirm basal insulin rate. Target blood glucose level was set at 100 and 150 mg/dL before and 2 h after each meal, respectively. After the basal insulin rate was fixed and target blood glucose levels were achieved, TBD, CIR, TDD, and their products were determined. Mean (±SD) blood glucose levels before and 2 h after meals were 121±47 and 150±61 mg/dL, respectively. TDD was 31.5±9.0 U, and TBD was 27.0±6.5% of TDD. CIR×TDD of breakfast was significantly lower than those of lunch and supper (288±73 vs. 408±92 and 387±83, respectively; Plunch and supper in type 1 diabetes patients. These results indicate that the insulin dose has been underestimated by using previously established calculations.

  4. Evaluation of Total Daily Dose and Glycemic Control for Patients Taking U-500 Insulin Admitted to the Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-27

    mail:jack.e.lewi.mil@mail.mil Key Words: U-500 regular insulin , inpatient diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance Conflict of Interest Statements...500 regular insulin are severely insulin resistant requiring high doses of insulin . It has been observed that a patient’s insulin requirements may...concentrated than U-100 regular insulin and is generally used in patients with severe insulin resistance requiring greater than 200 units of insulin

  5. Pocket total dose meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1984-10-01

    Laboratory measurements have demonstrated that it is possible to simultaneously measure absorbed dose and dose equivalent using a single tissue equivalent proportional counter. Small, pocket sized instruments are being developed to determine dose equivalent as the worker is exposed to mixed field radiation. This paper describes the electronic circuitry and computer algorithms used to determine dose equivalent in these devices

  6. Total dose meter development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.

    1986-09-01

    This report describes an alarming ''pocket'' monitor/dosimeter, based on a tissue-equivalent proportional counter, that measure both neutron and gamma dose and determines dose equivalent for the mixed radiation field. This report details the operation of the device and provides information on: the necessity for a device to measure dose equivalent in mixed radiation fields; the mathematical theory required to determine dose equivalent from tissue equivalent proportional; the detailed electronic circuits required; the algorithms required in the microprocessor used to calculate dose equivalent; the features of the instrument; program accomplishments and future plans

  7. Pathological consequences of chronic low daily dose gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.; Miller, A.C.; Ramakrishnan, N. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States); Fritz, T.E.

    2000-07-01

    The quantitative relationships between the chronic radiation exposure parameters of dose-rate and total dose in relation to associated health risks was examined in dogs. At a dose-rate of 75, 128, and 263 mGy/d the incidence of acute lymphohematopoietic suppression (aplastic anemia) and associated septic complications was 73%, 87%, and 100%, respectively, and it increased in dose-dependent manner. By contrast, at dose-rates below 75 mGy/d, late cancers contributed significantly to the death of relatively long-lived animals, whose mean survival time was 1800 days. Myeloproliferative disease (MPD), mainly myeloid leukemia, was the dominant pathology seen at the higher daily dose-rates (18.8-75 mGy/d). When daily exposure was carried out continuously, the incidence of MPD was quite high. It should be noted that the induction radiation-induced MPD in this study was highly significant, because spontaneous MPD is exceedingly rare in the dog. However, when the daily dose-rate was reduced further or exposure was discontinued, the incidence of MPD declined significantly. At these lower dose-rates, solid tumors contributed heavily to the life-shortening effects of chronic irradiation. The induction and progression of these survival-compromising, late forms of pathology appeared to be driven by the degree of hematopoietic suppression that occurred early during the exposure phase, and in turn by the capacity of hematopoietic system to repair itself, recover, and to accommodate under chronic radiation stress. (K.H.)

  8. TCTE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Means V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) Calibration Transfer Experiment (TCTE) data set TCTE3TSID contains daily averaged total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data...

  9. The impact of extended release exenatide as adjuvant therapy on hemoglobin A1C, weight, and total daily dose of insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using U-500 insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farwig, Phillip A; Zielinski, Angela J; Accursi, Mallory L; Burant, Christopher J

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjuvant exenatide extended release (ER) therapy in patients treated with regular U-500 insulin. In this retrospective chart review at an ambulatory care center in the Midwest, 18 patients with type 2 diabetes being treated with regular U-500 insulin and adjuvant exenatide ER were identified. These patients were evaluated for outcomes following the addition of exenatide ER. The primary outcome was change in HbA 1C from baseline to 3, 6, and 12months. Secondary outcomes included change in weight, total daily dose (TDD) of insulin, and hypoglycemia. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed to assess the differences in mean scores over four time periods. A total of 18 of 50 patients met inclusion criteria with sufficient data to be included in analysis. HbA 1C showed non-significant findings from baseline to 12months (8.08% vs. 8.23%; p=0.75). A non-significant, modest weight loss occurred (146.4kgvs. 144.2kg; -2.2kg; p=0.31). A significant decrease in TDD of insulin was observed (378 units vs. 326 units; p1). There was a trend towards hypoglycemia from baseline to month 3 post addition of exenatide ER (0.33 events vs. 1.33 events; p=0.055). In patients treated with regular U-500 insulin, adjuvant exenatide ER therapy showed no significant improvement in HbA 1C , but did show modest weight loss as well as decreased insulin requirements to achieve a HbA 1C that was comparable to baseline. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The Clean Water Act Section 303(d) establishes the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The purpose of the TMDL program is to identify sources of pollution and...

  11. Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Assessment TMDL Tracking And Implementation System (ATTAINS) stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads...

  12. A Semiempirical Approach to the Determination of Daily Erythemal Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Abel A; Yamamoto, Ana L C; Corrêa, Marcelo P

    2018-02-15

    The maintenance of ground-based instruments to measure the incidence of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from the Sun demands strict and well-developed procedures. A piece of equipment can be out of service for a couple of weeks or months for calibration, repair or even the improvement of the facilities where it has been set up. However, the replacement of an instrument in such circumstances can be logistically and financially prohibitive. On the other hand, the lack of data can jeopardize a long-term experiment. In this study, we introduce a semiempirical approach to the determination of the theoretical daily erythemal dose (DED t ) for periods of instrumental absence in a tropical site. The approach is based on 5 years of ground-based measurements of daily erythemal dose (DED) linearly correlated with parameters of total ozone column (TOC) and reflectivity (R PC ) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the cosine of solar zenith angle at noon (SZA n ). Seventeen months of missing ground-based data were replaced with DED t , leading to a complete 5-year series of data. The lowest and the highest values of typical DED were 2411 ± 322 J m -2 (1σ) (winter) and 5263 ± 997 J m -2 (summer). The monthly integrated erythemal dose (mED) varied from 59 kJ m -2 (winter) to 162 kJ m -2 (summer). Both of them depended mainly on cos(SZA n ) and R PC . The 12-month integrated erythemal dose (12-ED) ranged from 1350 kJ m -2 to 1546 kJ m -2 , but it can depend significantly on other atmospheric parameter (maybe aerosols) not explicitly considered here. © 2018 The American Society of Photobiology.

  13. Control of hypertension with single daily doses of sotalol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, R

    A study was carried out in 12 previously untreated hypertensive patients to assess the efficacy of sotalol given in a once-daily dosage regimen. After an initial dosage titration period (mean 3 weeks) during which diastolic pressure was stabilized at less than 100 mmHg, all patients were satisfactorily maintained on a constant once-daily dose of sotalol for 3 months. Eight of the 12 patients required 320 mg or less daily (mean dose 190 mg). Whilst blood pressure remained controlled for at least 26 hours after daily doses the pulse rate, counted at the same time, showed escape from beta-blockade. Side-effects (vivid dreams) were reported in only 1 patient.

  14. Once versus twice daily gentamicin dosing for infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Kristine; Larsen, Carsten Toftager; Schaadt, Bente

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this randomized study was to investigate the effects of once versus twice daily gentamicin dosing on renal function and measures of infectious disease in a population with infective endocarditis (IE). Methods: Seventy-one IE patients needing gentamicin treatment according...

  15. Once-daily dose regimen of ribavirin is interchangeable with a twice-daily dose regimen: randomized open clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balk JM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jiska M Balk,1 Guido RMM Haenen,1 Özgür M Koc,2 Ron Peters,3 Aalt Bast,1 Wim JF van der Vijgh,1 Ger H Koek,4 1Department of Toxicology, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, 2Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, 3DSM Resolve, Geleen, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: The combination of ribavirin (RBV and pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN is effective in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection. Reducing the frequency of RBV intake from twice to once a day will improve compliance and opens up the opportunity to combine RBV with new and more specific direct-acting agents in one pill. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of RBV in a once-daily to twice-daily regimen. The secondary aim was to determine tolerability as well as the severity and differences in side effects of both treatment regimens. Methods: In this randomized open-label crossover study, twelve patients with chronic type 1 hepatitis C infection and weighing more than 75 kg were treated with 180 µg of PEG-IFN weekly and 1,200 mg RBV daily for 24 weeks. The patients received RBV dosed as 1,200 mg once-daily for 12 weeks followed by RBV dosed as 600 mg twice-daily for 12 weeks, or vice versa. In addition to the pharmacokinetic profile, the hematological profile and side effects were recorded. The RBV concentrations in plasma were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Eight of twelve patients completed the study. Neither the time taken for RBV to reach peak plasma concentration nor the AUC0-last (adjusted for difference in dose was significantly different between the two groups (P>0.05. Furthermore, the once-daily regimen did not give more side effects than the twice-daily regimen (P>0

  16. Dose Estimation from Daily and Weekly Dosimetry Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrouchov, G.

    2001-11-16

    Statistical analyses of data from epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to radiation have been based on recorded annual radiation doses (yearly dose of record). It is usually assumed that the dose values are known exactly, although it is generally recognized that the data contain uncertainty due to measurement error and bias. In our previous work with weekly data, a probability distribution was used to describe an individual's dose during a specific period of time and statistical methods were developed for estimating it from weekly film dosimetry data. This study showed that the yearly dose of record systematically underestimates doses for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) workers. This could result in biased estimates of dose-response coefficients and their standard errors. The results of this evaluation raise serious questions about the suitability of the yearly dose of record for direct use in low-dose studies of nuclear industry workers. Here, we extend our previous work to use full information in Pocket meter data and develop the Data Synthesis for Individual Dose Estimation (DSIDE) methodology. Although the DSIDE methodology in this study is developed in the context of daily and weekly data to produce a cumulative yearly dose estimate, in principle it is completely general and can be extended to other time period and measurement combinations. The new methodology takes into account the ''measurement error'' that is produced by the film and pocket-meter dosimetry systems, the biases introduced by policies that lead to recording left-censored doses as zeros, and other measurement and recording practices. The DSIDE method is applied to a sample of dose histories obtained from hard copy dosimetry records at ORNL for the years 1945 to 1955. First, the rigorous addition of daily pocket-meter information shows that the negative bias is generally more severe than was reported in our work based on weekly film data only, however, the

  17. Dose Estimation from Daily and Weekly Dosimetry Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrouchov, G.

    2001-01-01

    Statistical analyses of data from epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to radiation have been based on recorded annual radiation doses (yearly dose of record). It is usually assumed that the dose values are known exactly, although it is generally recognized that the data contain uncertainty due to measurement error and bias. In our previous work with weekly data, a probability distribution was used to describe an individual's dose during a specific period of time and statistical methods were developed for estimating it from weekly film dosimetry data. This study showed that the yearly dose of record systematically underestimates doses for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) workers. This could result in biased estimates of dose-response coefficients and their standard errors. The results of this evaluation raise serious questions about the suitability of the yearly dose of record for direct use in low-dose studies of nuclear industry workers. Here, we extend our previous work to use full information in Pocket meter data and develop the Data Synthesis for Individual Dose Estimation (DSIDE) methodology. Although the DSIDE methodology in this study is developed in the context of daily and weekly data to produce a cumulative yearly dose estimate, in principle it is completely general and can be extended to other time period and measurement combinations. The new methodology takes into account the ''measurement error'' that is produced by the film and pocket-meter dosimetry systems, the biases introduced by policies that lead to recording left-censored doses as zeros, and other measurement and recording practices. The DSIDE method is applied to a sample of dose histories obtained from hard copy dosimetry records at ORNL for the years 1945 to 1955. First, the rigorous addition of daily pocket-meter information shows that the negative bias is generally more severe than was reported in our work based on weekly film data only, however, the amount of bias also varies

  18. Assessment of postoperative changes in antihypertensive drug consumption in patients with primary aldosteronism using the defined daily dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanobu Utsumi

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: The defined daily dose is a useful tool for assessing total changes in the consumption of antihypertensive drugs in patients with primary aldosteronism. Using the defined daily dose, clinicians could explain in detail to patients with primary aldosteronism the predicted postoperative change in antihypertensive drug consumption.

  19. p-MOSFET total dose dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Martin G. (Inventor); Blaes, Brent R. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A p-MOSFET total dose dosimeter where the gate voltage is proportional to the incident radiation dose. It is configured in an n-WELL of a p-BODY substrate. It is operated in the saturation region which is ensured by connecting the gate to the drain. The n-well is connected to zero bias. Current flow from source to drain, rather than from peripheral leakage, is ensured by configuring the device as an edgeless MOSFET where the source completely surrounds the drain. The drain junction is the only junction not connected to zero bias. The MOSFET is connected as part of the feedback loop of an operational amplifier. The operational amplifier holds the drain current fixed at a level which minimizes temperature dependence and also fixes the drain voltage. The sensitivity to radiation is made maximum by operating the MOSFET in the OFF state during radiation soak.

  20. [Evaluation of methods to calculate dialysis dose in daily hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduell, F; Gutiérrez, E; Navarro, V; Torregrosa, E; Martínez, A; Rius, A

    2003-01-01

    Daily dialysis has shown excellent clinical results because a higher frequency of dialysis is more physiological. Different methods have been described to calculate dialysis dose which take into consideration change in frequency. The aim of this study was to calculate all dialysis dose possibilities and evaluate the better and practical options. Eight patients, 6 males and 2 females, on standard 4 to 5 hours thrice weekly on-line hemodiafiltration (S-OL-HDF) were switched to daily on-line hemodiafiltration (D-OL-HDF) 2 to 2.5 hours six times per week. Dialysis parameters were identical during both periods and only frequency and dialysis time of each session were changed. Time average concentration (TAC), time average deviation (TAD), normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), Kt/V, equilibrated Kt/V (eKt/V), equivalent renal urea clearance (EKR), standard Kt/V (stdKt/V), urea reduction ratio (URR), hemodialysis product and time off dialysis were measured. Daily on-line hemodiafiltration was well accepted and tolerated. Patients maintained the same TAC although TAD decreased from 9.7 +/- 2 in baseline to a 6.2 +/- 2 mg/dl after six months, p time off dialysis was reduced to half. Dialysis frequency is an important urea kinetic parameter which there are to take in consideration. It's necessary to use EKR, stdKt/V or weekly URR to calculate dialysis dose for an adequate comparison between different frequency dialysis schedules.

  1. Radiation therapy in cancer patients with psoriasis. The fractionated daily dose and the Koebner phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Yosef, Rami; Soyfer, Vyacheslav; Vexler, Akiva

    2005-01-01

    Skin side effects following XRT take place more often in patients with skin disorders. In this study six patients with psoriatic lesions were evaluated. The total/daily XRT dose to the tumor site was 50-70/1.8-2.0 Gy. No debilitating effect of XRT was observed in both the psoriatic lesions and in the surrounding normal skin

  2. Daily variations in delivered doses in patients treated with radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupelian, Patrick A.; Langen, Katja M.; Zeidan, Omar A.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Wagner, Thomas H.; Jeswani, Sam; Ruchala, Kenneth J.; Haimerl, Jason; Olivera, Gustavo H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to study the variations in delivered doses to the prostate, rectum, and bladder during a full course of image-guided external beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with helical tomotherapy to 78 Gy at 2 Gy per fraction in 39 fractions. Daily target localization was performed using intraprostatic fiducials and daily megavoltage pelvic computed tomography (CT) scans, resulting in a total of 390 CT scans. The prostate, rectum, and bladder were manually contoured on each CT by a single physician. Daily dosimetric analysis was performed with dose recalculation. The study endpoints were D95 (dose to 95% of the prostate), rV2 (absolute rectal volume receiving 2 Gy), and bV2 (absolute bladder volume receiving 2 Gy). Results: For the entire cohort, the average D95 (±SD) was 2.02 ± 0.04 Gy (range, 1.79-2.20 Gy). The average rV2 (±SD) was 7.0 ± 8.1 cc (range, 0.1-67.3 cc). The average bV2 (±SD) was 8.7 ± 6.8 cc (range, 0.3-36.8 cc). Unlike doses for the prostate, there was significant daily variation in rectal and bladder doses, mostly because of variations in volume and shape of these organs. Conclusion: Large variations in delivered doses to the rectum and bladder can be documented with daily megavoltage CT scans. Image guidance for the targeting of the prostate, even with intraprostatic fiducials, does not take into account the variation in actual rectal and bladder doses. The clinical impact of techniques that take into account such dosimetric parameters in daily patient set-ups should be investigated

  3. Reparative processes in spleen of rats irradiated with higher daily dose rates of continuous irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackova, N.; Praslicka, M.; Misurova, E.

    1975-01-01

    Histological and DNA content values were used in evaluating repair processes in the spleen of rats at various intervals following continuous irradiation with daily doses of 50 R, 100 R, 200 R and 500 R (a total dose of 1000 R), and following a single exposure to 1000 R. Histological changes found immediately after irradiation indicated the induction of significant injuries, this mainly as a result of daily doses of 200 R and 500 R. The complete repair of the DNA content and of a number of erythroid elements and also a 70 to 80% regeneration of the white pulp took place within 25 days. The same period was found to be insufficient for the complete repair of megakaryocytes. No signs of repair were observed in spleen in the histological picture or DNA content after a single irradiation with a dose of 1000 R. (author)

  4. Reparative processes in spleen of rats irradiated with higher daily dose rates of continuous irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackova, N; Praslicka, M; Misurova, E [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta

    1975-01-01

    Histological and DNA content values were used in evaluating repair processes in the spleen of rats at various intervals following continuous irradiation with daily doses of 50 R, 100 R, 200 R and 500 R (a total dose of 1000 R), and following a single exposure to 1000 R. Histological changes found immediately after irradiation indicated the induction of significant injuries, this mainly as a result of daily doses of 200 R and 500 R. The complete repair of the DNA content and of a number of erythroid elements and also a 70 to 80% regeneration of the white pulp took place within 25 days. The same period was found to be insufficient for the complete repair of megakaryocytes. No signs of repair were observed in spleen in the histological picture or DNA content after a single irradiation with a dose of 1000 R.

  5. Dynamic interactions between hydrogeological and exposure parameters in daily dose prediction under uncertainty and temporal variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Vikas, E-mail: vikas.kumar@urv.cat [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rovira i Virgili University, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Barros, Felipe P.J. de [Sonny Astani Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles 90089, CA (United States); Schuhmacher, Marta [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rovira i Virgili University, Tarragona 43007 (Spain); Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier [Hydrogeology Group, Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences, University Politècnica de Catalunya-BarcelonaTech, Barcelona 08034 (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Dynamic parametric interaction in daily dose prediction under uncertainty. • Importance of temporal dynamics associated with the dose. • Different dose experienced by different population cohorts as a function of time. • Relevance of uncertainty reduction in the input parameters shows temporal dynamism. -- Abstract: We study the time dependent interaction between hydrogeological and exposure parameters in daily dose predictions due to exposure of humans to groundwater contamination. Dose predictions are treated stochastically to account for an incomplete hydrogeological and geochemical field characterization, and an incomplete knowledge of the physiological response. We used a nested Monte Carlo framework to account for uncertainty and variability arising from both hydrogeological and exposure variables. Our interest is in the temporal dynamics of the total dose and their effects on parametric uncertainty reduction. We illustrate the approach to a HCH (lindane) pollution problem at the Ebro River, Spain. The temporal distribution of lindane in the river water can have a strong impact in the evaluation of risk. The total dose displays a non-linear effect on different population cohorts, indicating the need to account for population variability. We then expand the concept of Comparative Information Yield Curves developed earlier (see de Barros et al. [29]) to evaluate parametric uncertainty reduction under temporally variable exposure dose. Results show that the importance of parametric uncertainty reduction varies according to the temporal dynamics of the lindane plume. The approach could be used for any chemical to aid decision makers to better allocate resources towards reducing uncertainty.

  6. Patterns of prednisone use during pregnancy in women with rheumatoid arthritis: Daily and cumulative dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmsten, Kristin; Rolland, Matthieu; Hebert, Mary F; Clowse, Megan E B; Schatz, Michael; Xu, Ronghui; Chambers, Christina D

    2018-04-01

    To characterize prednisone use in pregnant women with rheumatoid arthritis using individual-level heat-maps and clustering individual trajectories of prednisone dose, and to evaluate the association between prednisone dose trajectory groups and gestational length. This study included pregnant women with rheumatoid arthritis who enrolled in the MotherToBaby Autoimmune Diseases in Pregnancy Study (2003-2014) before gestational week 20 and reported prednisone use without another oral glucocorticoid during pregnancy (n = 254). Information on medication use and pregnancy outcomes was collected by telephone interview plus by medical record review. Prednisone daily dose and cumulative dose were plotted by gestational day using a heat map for each individual. K-means clustering was used to cluster individual trajectories of prednisone dose into groups. The associations between trajectory group and demographics, disease severity measured by the Health Assessment Questionnaire at enrollment, and gestational length were evaluated. Women used prednisone 3 to 292 days during pregnancy, with daily doses ranging from <1 to 60 mg. Total cumulative dose ranged from 8 to 6225 mg. Disease severity, non-biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug use, and gestational length varied significantly by trajectory group. After adjusting for disease severity, non-biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug use, and other covariates, the highest vs lowest daily dose trajectory group was associated with reduced gestational age at delivery (β: -2.3 weeks (95%: -3.4, -1.3)), as was the highest vs lowest cumulative dose trajectory group (β: -2.6 weeks (95%: -3.6, -1.5)). In pregnant women with rheumatoid arthritis, patterns of higher prednisone dose were associated with shorter gestational length compared with lower dose. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Theoretic simulation for CMOS device on total dose radiation response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Baoping; Zhou Heqin; Guo Hongxia; He Chaohui; Zhou Hui; Luo Yinhong; Zhang Fengqi

    2006-01-01

    Total dose effect is simulated for C4007B, CC4007RH and CC4011 devices at different absorbed dose rate by using linear system theory. When irradiation response and dose are linear, total dose radiation and post-irradiation annealing at room temperature are determined for one random by choosing absorbed dose rate, and total dose effect at other absorbed dose rate can be predicted by using linear system theory. The simulating results agree with the experimental results at different absorbed dose rate. (authors)

  8. SORCE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Average V016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) data set SOR3TSID contains the total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data collected by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM)...

  9. Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). We have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3-26.3 cGy d -1 ). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup (1), the failure to augment basic m-pair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments particularly marked within erythroid compartments. that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccomodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 ampersand 3 appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high- tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity

  10. The steady-state pharmacokinetics of nevirapine during once daily and twice daily dosing in HIV-1-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heeswijk, R. P.; Veldkamp, A. I.; Mulder, J. W.; Meenhorst, P. L.; Wit, F. W.; Lange, J. M.; Danner, S. A.; Foudraine, N. A.; Kwakkelstein, M. O.; Reiss, P.; Beijnen, J. H.; Hoetelmans, R. M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate and to compare the steady-state plasma pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in a dosing regimen of 400 mg once daily versus 200 mg twice daily in HIV-1-infected individuals. DESIGN: Open-label, randomized, cross-over study. METHODS: Twenty HIV-1-infected individuals who already

  11. Airborne and total gamma absorbed dose rates at Patiala - India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesfaye, Tilahun; Sahota, H.S.; Singh, K.

    1999-01-01

    The external gamma absorbed dose rate due to gamma rays originating from gamma emitting aerosols in air, is compared with the total external gamma absorbed dose rate at the Physics Department of Punjabi University, Patiala. It has been found out that the contribution, to the total external gamma absorbed dose rate, of radionuclides on particulate matter suspended in air is about 20% of the overall gamma absorbed dose rate. (author)

  12. HALF-DOSE DEPOT TRIPTORELIN COMPARABLE TO REDUCED DAILY BUSERELIN: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Safdarian

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary suppression by depot GnRH agonist may be excessive for ovarian stimulation. This study compares the efficacy of a single half-dose depot triptorelin and reduced-dose daily buserelin in a long protocol ICSI/ET. METHODS: A total of 182 patients were randomized into two groups using sealed envelopes. Pituitary desensitization was obtained in group 1 (91 patients with half-dose (1.87 mg depot triptorelin in the mid-luteal phase of their menstrual cycle, and in group 2 (91 patients with standard daily dose (0.5 mg buserelin, which was then reduced to 0.25 mg at the start of human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG stimulation. RESULTS: No significant differences were found among those who received HCG in terms of clinical pregnancy rate (34.4% in both groups, implantation rate (14.8% in group 1 versus 11.1% in group 2, fertilization rate (93.3 versus 95.6%, poor response rate (11.1 versus 6.7%, and miscarriage rate (11.1 versus 7.8%. No significant differences were seen in number of HMG ampoules used, follicles at HCG administration, and oocytes retrieved. The number of days of stimulation was significantly reduced in group 2 (11.2 +/- 1.8 in group 1 versus 10.6 +/- 1.9, p = 0.030. CONCLUSION: A half-dose of depot triptorelin can be successfully used in ovarian stimulation instead of reduced-dose daily buserelin, with more patient comfort and reduced stress and cost of injections.

  13. Dose equivalent distributions in the AAEC total body nitrogen facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.; Bailey, G.M.; McGregor, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    The incident neutron dose equivalent in the AAEC total body nitrogen facility is measured by a calibrated remmeter. Dose equivalent rates and distributions are calculated by Monte Carlo techniques which take account of the secondary neutron flux from the collimator. Experiment and calculation are found to be in satisfactory agreement. The effective dose equivalent per exposure is determined by weighting organ doses, and the potential detriment per exposure is calculated from ICRP risk factors

  14. Correct statistical evaluation for total dose in rural settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasova, N.G.; Skryabin, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Statistical evaluation of dose reduced to the determination of an average value and its error. If an average value of a total dose in general can be determined by simple summarizing of the averages of its external and internal components, the evaluation of an error can be received only from its distribution. Herewith, considering that both components of the dose are interdependent, to summarize their distributions, as a last ones of a random independent variables, is incorrect. It follows that an evaluation of the parameters of the total dose distribution, including an error, in general, cannot be received empirically, particularly, at the lack or absence of the data on one of the components of the last one, that constantly is happens in practice. If the evaluation of an average for total dose was defined somehow, as the best, as an average of a distribution of the values of individual total doses, as summarizing the individual external and internal doses by the random type, that an error of evaluation had not been produced. The methodical approach to evaluation of the total dose distribution at the lack of dosimetric information was designed. The essence of it is original way of an interpolation of an external dose distribution, using data on an internal dose

  15. Once-daily dosing of saquinavir and low-dose ritonavir in HIV-1-infected individuals: a pharmacokinetic pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heeswijk, R. P.; Veldkamp, A. I.; Mulder, J. W.; Meenhorst, P. L.; Lange, J. M.; Beijnen, J. H.; Hoetelmans, R. M.

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the steady-state pharmacokinetics of a once-daily dosing regimen of saquinavir soft gelatin capsules in combination with a low dose of ritonavir in HIV-1-infected individuals. Open-label, multi-dose, pharmacokinetic pilot study. Seven HIV-1-infected individuals who were treated with

  16. Estimation of rectal dose using daily megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography and deformable image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akino, Yuichi; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Fukuda, Shoichi; Maruoka, Shintaroh; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-11-01

    The actual dose delivered to critical organs will differ from the simulated dose because of interfractional organ motion and deformation. Here, we developed a method to estimate the rectal dose in prostate intensity modulated radiation therapy with consideration to interfractional organ motion using daily megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MVCBCT). Under exemption status from our institutional review board, we retrospectively reviewed 231 series of MVCBCT of 8 patients with prostate cancer. On both planning CT (pCT) and MVCBCT images, the rectal contours were delineated and the CT value within the contours was replaced by the mean CT value within the pelvis, with the addition of 100 Hounsfield units. MVCBCT images were rigidly registered to pCT and then nonrigidly registered using B-Spline deformable image registration (DIR) with Velocity AI software. The concordance between the rectal contours on MVCBCT and pCT was evaluated using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). The dose distributions normalized for 1 fraction were also deformed and summed to estimate the actual total dose. The DSC of all treatment fractions of 8 patients was improved from 0.75±0.04 (mean ±SD) to 0.90 ±0.02 by DIR. Six patients showed a decrease of the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) from total dose compared with treatment plans. Although the rectal volume of each treatment fraction did not show any correlation with the change in gEUD (R(2)=0.18±0.13), the displacement of the center of gravity of rectal contours in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction showed an intermediate relationship (R(2)=0.61±0.16). We developed a method for evaluation of rectal dose using DIR and MVCBCT images and showed the necessity of DIR for the evaluation of total dose. Displacement of the rectum in the AP direction showed a greater effect on the change in rectal dose compared with the rectal volume. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimation of Rectal Dose Using Daily Megavoltage Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Deformable Image Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akino, Yuichi, E-mail: akino@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Fukuda, Shoichi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka General Medical Center, Osaka (Japan); Maruoka, Shintaroh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Takahashi, Yutaka [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Yagi, Masashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Mizuno, Hirokazu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Isohashi, Fumiaki [Oncology Center, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: The actual dose delivered to critical organs will differ from the simulated dose because of interfractional organ motion and deformation. Here, we developed a method to estimate the rectal dose in prostate intensity modulated radiation therapy with consideration to interfractional organ motion using daily megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MVCBCT). Methods and Materials: Under exemption status from our institutional review board, we retrospectively reviewed 231 series of MVCBCT of 8 patients with prostate cancer. On both planning CT (pCT) and MVCBCT images, the rectal contours were delineated and the CT value within the contours was replaced by the mean CT value within the pelvis, with the addition of 100 Hounsfield units. MVCBCT images were rigidly registered to pCT and then nonrigidly registered using B-Spline deformable image registration (DIR) with Velocity AI software. The concordance between the rectal contours on MVCBCT and pCT was evaluated using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). The dose distributions normalized for 1 fraction were also deformed and summed to estimate the actual total dose. Results: The DSC of all treatment fractions of 8 patients was improved from 0.75±0.04 (mean ±SD) to 0.90 ±0.02 by DIR. Six patients showed a decrease of the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) from total dose compared with treatment plans. Although the rectal volume of each treatment fraction did not show any correlation with the change in gEUD (R{sup 2}=0.18±0.13), the displacement of the center of gravity of rectal contours in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction showed an intermediate relationship (R{sup 2}=0.61±0.16). Conclusion: We developed a method for evaluation of rectal dose using DIR and MVCBCT images and showed the necessity of DIR for the evaluation of total dose. Displacement of the rectum in the AP direction showed a greater effect on the change in rectal dose compared with the rectal volume.

  18. Estimation of the effectivity of gamma teletherapy with fractionated daily doses in inoperable malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardynskij, Yu.S.; Leskov, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    131 patients with lung, esophagus, rectum and mandibulofacial tumors, most of them being inoperable, were treated with fractionated gamma teletherapy. The daily focus dose of 2-2.2 Gy was applied in 2 fractions with an interval of 4-6 h. The total focus dose of one course of treatment was 40-70 Gy. In 56 patients (42.7%) a complete regression of the tumors and of the increased regional lymph nodes was obtained. The irradiation by the mentioned technique showed the highest effectivity for tumors of the lung and the esophagus. The diminished frequency and an easier progress of the radiation reactions are important because they often prevent to carry out a radical therapy. (author)

  19. Radiotherapy combined with daily administration of low dose cisplatin for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Masahiro; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Matayoshi, Yoshinobu; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Inoue, Toshihiko; Kozuka, Takahiro; Masaki, Norie.

    1990-01-01

    Serum concentrations of cisplatin (CDDP) and acute complications were studied in patients treated for head and neck cancer by radiotherapy combined with daily administration of low doses of CDDP (5 mg/m 2 or 6 mg/body) at Osaka University Hospital between March 1988 and December 1989. Serum concentrations of total-CDDP (6 patients) and free-CDDP (2 patients) were studied in cases injected intravenously with 5 mg/m 2 daily. Total-CDDP determined just before daily administration of CDDP was increased gradually (0.35 to 0.64 μg/ml by the 7th day, 0.42 to 0.91 μg/ml by the 14th day and 0.60 to 0.82 μg/ml by the 20th or 21st day) and still observed in the serum for more than two weeks after cessation of the chemotherapy. Serum concentrations of free-CDDP were about 0.35 μg/ml at 5 minutes and 0.15 μg/ml at 30 minutes after the intravenous injection of CDDP. Incidence of the acute complications more severe than grade 2 were nausea and vomiting: 4/52 (8%), leukopenia: 11/52 (21%) and thrombocytopenia: 4/52 (8%). Incidence of myelosuppression (leukopenia and/or thrombocytopenia) was 11/26(42%) when the total dose of CDDP exceeded 120 mg, and 3/26 (12%) when it was less than 120 mg. Transient renal dysfunction (increase of serum creatinine) of grade 1 was seen in only 3 patients. (author)

  20. SU-E-T-139: Automated Daily EPID Exit Dose Analysis Uncovers Treatment Variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olch, A [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a fully automated EPID exit dose system for its ability to detect daily treatment deviations including patient setup, delivery, and anatomy changes. Methods: PerFRACTION (Sun Nuclear Corporation) software is a system that uses integrated EPID images taken during patient treatment and automatically pulled from the Aria database and analyzed based on user-defined comparisons. This was used to monitor 20 plans consisting of a total of 859 fields for 18 patients, for a total of 251 fractions. Nine VMAT, 5 IMRT, and 6 3D plans were monitored. The Gamma analysis was performed for each field within a plan, comparing the first fraction against each of the other fractions in each treatment course. A 2% dose difference, 1 mm distance-to-agreement, and 10% dose threshold was used. These tight tolerances were chosen to achieve a high sensitivity to treatment variations. The field passed if 93% of the pixels had a Gamma of 1 or less. Results: Twenty-nine percent of the fields failed. The average plan passing rate was 92.5%.The average 3D plan passing rate was less than for VMAT or IMRT, 84%, vs. an average of 96.2%. When fields failed, an investigation revealed changes in patient anatomy or setup variations, often also leading to variations of transmission through immobilization devices. Conclusion: PerFRACTION is a fully automated system for determining daily changes in dose transmission through the patient that requires no effort other than for the imager panel to be deployed during treatment. A surprising number of fields failed the analysis and can be attributed to important treatment variations that would otherwise not be appreciated. Further study of inter-fraction treatment variations is possible and warranted. Sun Nuclear Corporation provided a license to the software described.

  1. Simulation experiment on total ionization dose effects of linear CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Benqi; Zhang Yong; Xiao Zhigang; Wang Zujun; Huang Shaoyan

    2004-01-01

    We carry out the ionization radiation experiment of linear CCDs operated in unbiased, biased, biased and driven mode respectively by Co-60 γ source with our self-designed test system, and offline test the Dark signal and Saturation voltage and SNR varied with total dose for TCD132D, and get some valuable results. On the basis of above work, we set forth a primary experiment approaches to simulate the total dose radiation effects of charge coupled devices. (authors)

  2. Impact of a daily exercise dose on knee joint cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bricca, A; Juhl, C B; Grodzinsky, A J

    2017-01-01

    -analysis of 14 studies investigating cartilage thickness showed no effect in the low dose exercise group (SMD -0.02; 95% CI -0.42 to 0.38; I(2) = 0.0%), large but non-significant cartilage thickening in the moderate dose exercise group (SMD 0.95; 95% CI -0.33 to 2.23; I(2) = 72.1%) and non-significant cartilage...... thinning in the high dose exercise group (SMD -0.19; 95% CI -0.49 to 0.12; I(2) = 0.0%). Results were independent of analyzed covariates. The overall quality of the studies was poor because of inadequate reporting of data and high risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the relationship between...

  3. Maximizing the biological effect of proton dose delivered with scanned beams via inhomogeneous daily dose distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Chuan; Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Grassberger, Clemens; Goldberg, Saveli; Niemierko, Andrzej; Paganetti, Harald; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Trofimov, Alexei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Biological effect of radiation can be enhanced with hypofractionation, localized dose escalation, and, in particle therapy, with optimized distribution of linear energy transfer (LET). The authors describe a method to construct inhomogeneous fractional dose (IFD) distributions, and evaluate the potential gain in the therapeutic effect from their delivery in proton therapy delivered by pencil beam scanning. Methods: For 13 cases of prostate cancer, the authors considered hypofractionated courses of 60 Gy delivered in 20 fractions. (All doses denoted in Gy include the proton's mean relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1.) Two types of plans were optimized using two opposed lateral beams to deliver a uniform dose of 3 Gy per fraction to the target by scanning: (1) in conventional full-target plans (FTP), each beam irradiated the entire gland, (2) in split-target plans (STP), beams irradiated only the respective proximal hemispheres (prostate split sagittally). Inverse planning yielded intensity maps, in which discrete position control points of the scanned beam (spots) were assigned optimized intensity values. FTP plans preferentially required a higher intensity of spots in the distal part of the target, while STP, by design, employed proximal spots. To evaluate the utility of IFD delivery, IFD plans were generated by rearranging the spot intensities from FTP or STP intensity maps, separately as well as combined using a variety of mixing weights. IFD courses were designed so that, in alternating fractions, one of the hemispheres of the prostate would receive a dose boost and the other receive a lower dose, while the total physical dose from the IFD course was roughly uniform across the prostate. IFD plans were normalized so that the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) of rectum and bladder did not increase, compared to the baseline FTP plan, which irradiated the prostate uniformly in every fraction. An EUD-based model was then applied to estimate tumor

  4. Maximizing the biological effect of proton dose delivered with scanned beams via inhomogeneous daily dose distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Chuan; Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Grassberger, Clemens; Goldberg, Saveli; Niemierko, Andrzej; Paganetti, Harald; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Trofimov, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Biological effect of radiation can be enhanced with hypofractionation, localized dose escalation, and, in particle therapy, with optimized distribution of linear energy transfer (LET). The authors describe a method to construct inhomogeneous fractional dose (IFD) distributions, and evaluate the potential gain in the therapeutic effect from their delivery in proton therapy delivered by pencil beam scanning. Methods: For 13 cases of prostate cancer, the authors considered hypofractionated courses of 60 Gy delivered in 20 fractions. (All doses denoted in Gy include the proton's mean relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1.) Two types of plans were optimized using two opposed lateral beams to deliver a uniform dose of 3 Gy per fraction to the target by scanning: (1) in conventional full-target plans (FTP), each beam irradiated the entire gland, (2) in split-target plans (STP), beams irradiated only the respective proximal hemispheres (prostate split sagittally). Inverse planning yielded intensity maps, in which discrete position control points of the scanned beam (spots) were assigned optimized intensity values. FTP plans preferentially required a higher intensity of spots in the distal part of the target, while STP, by design, employed proximal spots. To evaluate the utility of IFD delivery, IFD plans were generated by rearranging the spot intensities from FTP or STP intensity maps, separately as well as combined using a variety of mixing weights. IFD courses were designed so that, in alternating fractions, one of the hemispheres of the prostate would receive a dose boost and the other receive a lower dose, while the total physical dose from the IFD course was roughly uniform across the prostate. IFD plans were normalized so that the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) of rectum and bladder did not increase, compared to the baseline FTP plan, which irradiated the prostate uniformly in every fraction. An EUD-based model was then applied to estimate tumor

  5. Maximizing the biological effect of proton dose delivered with scanned beams via inhomogeneous daily dose distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chuan; Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Grassberger, Clemens; Goldberg, Saveli; Niemierko, Andrzej; Paganetti, Harald; Efstathiou, Jason A; Trofimov, Alexei

    2013-05-01

    Biological effect of radiation can be enhanced with hypofractionation, localized dose escalation, and, in particle therapy, with optimized distribution of linear energy transfer (LET). The authors describe a method to construct inhomogeneous fractional dose (IFD) distributions, and evaluate the potential gain in the therapeutic effect from their delivery in proton therapy delivered by pencil beam scanning. For 13 cases of prostate cancer, the authors considered hypofractionated courses of 60 Gy delivered in 20 fractions. (All doses denoted in Gy include the proton's mean relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 1.1.) Two types of plans were optimized using two opposed lateral beams to deliver a uniform dose of 3 Gy per fraction to the target by scanning: (1) in conventional full-target plans (FTP), each beam irradiated the entire gland, (2) in split-target plans (STP), beams irradiated only the respective proximal hemispheres (prostate split sagittally). Inverse planning yielded intensity maps, in which discrete position control points of the scanned beam (spots) were assigned optimized intensity values. FTP plans preferentially required a higher intensity of spots in the distal part of the target, while STP, by design, employed proximal spots. To evaluate the utility of IFD delivery, IFD plans were generated by rearranging the spot intensities from FTP or STP intensity maps, separately as well as combined using a variety of mixing weights. IFD courses were designed so that, in alternating fractions, one of the hemispheres of the prostate would receive a dose boost and the other receive a lower dose, while the total physical dose from the IFD course was roughly uniform across the prostate. IFD plans were normalized so that the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) of rectum and bladder did not increase, compared to the baseline FTP plan, which irradiated the prostate uniformly in every fraction. An EUD-based model was then applied to estimate tumor control probability

  6. Dependence of total dose response of bipolar linear microcircuits on applied dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, S.; Will, W.; Perry, G.; Pease, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of dose rate on the total dose radiation hardness of three commercial bipolar linear microcircuits is investigated. Total dose tests of linear bipolar microcircuits show larger degradation at 0.167 rad/s than at 90 rad/s even after the high dose rate test is followed by a room temperature plus a 100 C anneal. No systematic correlation could be found for degradation at low dose rate versus high dose rate and anneal. Comparison of the low dose rate with the high dose rate anneal data indicates that MIL-STD-883, method 1019.4 is not a worst-case test method when applied to bipolar microcircuits for low dose rate space applications

  7. Vitamin D supplementation in nursing home patients: randomized controlled trial of standard daily dose versus individualized loading dose regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Hugo; Salemink, Dayenne; Roovers, Lian; Taekema, Diana; de Boer, Hans

    2015-05-01

    Supplementation of cholecalciferol 800 IU daily appears to be insufficient to raise vitamin D levels to >75 nmol/l in nursing home (NH) patients. Our objective was to compare the efficacy of an individualized cholecalciferol loading dose (LD) regimen and a daily dose (DD) regimen of cholecalciferol 800 IU in reaching 25-OH vitamin D (25OHD) levels >75 nmol/l. A total of 30 NH patients with 25OHD levels 50 nmol/l were included. Patients were randomized using the minimization method in the LD or DD group. The cholecalciferol LD, calculated with an algorithm based on serum 25OHD level and body weight, was administered in divided doses of 50,000 IU twice a week, followed by a monthly maintenance dose of either 50,000 or 25,000 IU. The DD regimen consisted of cholecalciferol 800 IU daily for 26 weeks. Serum 25OHD, calcium, creatinine, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone were measured, and 2-minute walking test, handgrip strength, and timed get up and go test were assessed at baseline (T 0), after 5 weeks (T 5), 12 weeks (T 12), and 26 weeks (T 26). The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients with 25OHD levels >75 nmol/l at T 5. Secondary endpoints were the proportion of patients with 25OHD levels >75 nmol/l at T 26, safety of LD regimen, and improvement of performance tests with normalization of vitamin D levels. Median baseline 25OHD levels (interquartile range) were comparable between the 14 DD and 16 LD patients: 20.9 (15.9-29.6) and 21.7 (16.4-32.8) nmol/l, respectively. Levels of 25OHD >75 nmol/l at T 5 were reached in 79 % of the 14 LD patients, but in none of the 13 DD patients (p 75 nmol/l were reached in 83 % of the 12 LD patients and in 30 % of the ten DD patients (p tests was observed. In NH patients with severe 25OHD deficiency, an individualized calculated cholecalciferol LD is likely to be superior to a DD of cholecalciferol 800 IU in terms of the ability to rapidly normalize vitamin D levels.

  8. High daily doses of benzodiazepines among Quebec seniors: prevalence and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moride Yola

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of high daily doses of benzodiazepines is generally contraindicated for seniors. While both patient and physician factors may influence the use of high daily doses, previous research on the effect of patient factors has been extremely limited. The objectives of this study were to determine the one year prevalence of use of high daily doses of benzodiazepines, and examine physician and patient correlates of such use among Quebec community-dwelling seniors. Methods Patient information for 1423 community-dwelling Quebec seniors who participated in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging was linked to provincial health insurance administrative data bases containing detailed information on prescriptions received and prescribers. Results The standardized one year period prevalence of use of high daily doses of benzodiazepines was 7.9%. Use of high daily doses was more frequent among younger seniors and those who had reported anxiety during the previous year. Patients without cognitive impairment were more likely to receive high dose prescriptions from general practitioners, while those with cognitive impairment were more likely to receive high dose prescriptions from specialists. Conclusion High dose prescribing appears to be related to both patient and physician factors.

  9. Prediction of midline dose from entrance ad exit dose using OSLD measurements for total irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Heon; Park, Jong Min; Park, So Yeon; Chun, Min Soo; Han, Ji Hye; Cho, Jin Dong; Kim, Jung In [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    This study aims to predict the midline dose based on the entrance and exit doses from optically stimulated luminescence detector (OSLD) measurements for total body irradiation (TBI). For TBI treatment, beam data sets were measured for 6 MV and 15 MV beams. To evaluate the tissue lateral effect of various thicknesses, the midline dose and peak dose were measured using a solid water phantom (SWP) and ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were measured using OSLDs. OSLDs were attached onto the central beam axis at the entrance and exit surfaces of the phantom. The predicted midline dose was evaluated as the sum of the entrance and exit doses by OSLD measurement. The ratio of the entrance dose to the exit dose was evaluated at various thicknesses. The ratio of the peak dose to the midline dose was 1.12 for a 30 cm thick SWP at both energies. When the patient thickness is greater than 30 cm, the 15 MV should be used to ensure dose homogeneity. The ratio of the entrance dose to the exit dose was less than 1.0 for thicknesses of less than 30 cm and 40 cm at 6 MV and 15 MV, respectively. Therefore, the predicted midline dose can be underestimated for thinner body. At 15 MV, the ratios were approximately 1.06 for a thickness of 50 cm. In cases where adult patients are treated with the 15 MV photon beam, it is possible for the predicted midline dose to be overestimated for parts of the body with a thickness of 50 cm or greater. The predicted midline dose and OSLD-measured midline dose depend on the phantom thickness. For in-vivo dosimetry of TBI, the measurement dose should be corrected in order to accurately predict the midline dose.

  10. Pulsed total dose damage effect experimental study on EPROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yinhong; Yao Zhibin; Zhang Fengqi; Guo Hongxia; Zhang Keying; Wang Yuanming; He Baoping

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, memory radiation effect study mainly focus on functionality measurement. Measurable parameters is few in china. According to the present situation, threshold voltage testing method was presented on floating gate EPROM memory. Experimental study of pulsed total dose effect on EPROM threshold voltage was carried out. Damage mechanism was analysed The experiment results showed that memory cell threshold voltage negative shift was caused by pulsed total dose, memory cell threshold voltage shift is basically coincident under steady bias supply and no bias supply. (authors)

  11. Trends in total and daily precipitation indices in japan from 1901 to 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Nagata, Rena; Zaiki, Masumi

    2008-01-01

    Long-term trends in seasonal precipitation amount and daily precipitation indices were investigated for spring, summer, autumn, and winter with a daily precipitation dataset for Japan from 1901 to 2000. Heavy precipitation in spring and summer has significantly increased along the west coast of Japan. Such changes in precipitation have resulted in the increased heavy precipitation intensity. For autumn and winter, total precipitation significantly decreased in the Kanto district and central J...

  12. Urinary steroid hormone patterns: III. Effect of continuous daily administration of low dose megestrol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, G L; Roy, S; Allag, I S; Ghosal, J

    1975-12-01

    The effect of megestrol acetate, administered in daily doses of .5 mg, on urinary steroid levels was studied before, during, and after therapy in 4 women volunteers. In each case, pregnanediol levels were reduced, though ovulatory biphasic patterns, as reflected in basal body temperature patterns, were apparent in the majority of the cycles, which suggests that corpus luteum function, but not ovulation, was impaired. 17-ketosteroid levels were significantly (p less than .001) increased either during or after treatment, while 17-hydroxycorticoid levels were reduced in 3 of the women. 2 subjects showed a marked reduction in levels of 17-ketogenic steroids and corticoid levels. Total estrogen levels seemed to correlate with the levels of corticoid excretion.

  13. Health effects of daily airborne particle dose in children: Direct association between personal dose and respiratory health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, Giorgio; Marks, Guy B.; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is a widespread health problem associated with respiratory symptoms. Continuous exposure monitoring was performed to estimate alveolar and tracheobronchial dose, measured as deposited surface area, for 103 children and to evaluate the long-term effects of exposure to airborne particles through spirometry, skin prick tests and measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). The mean daily alveolar deposited surface area dose received by children was 1.35 × 10 3 mm 2 . The lowest and highest particle number concentrations were found during sleeping and eating time. A significant negative association was found between changes in pulmonary function tests and individual dose estimates. Significant differences were found for asthmatics, children with allergic rhinitis and sensitive to allergens compared to healthy subjects for eNO. Variation is a child's activity over time appeared to have a strong impact on respiratory outcomes, which indicates that personal monitoring is vital for assessing the expected health effects of exposure to particles. -- Highlights: •Particle dose was estimated through personal monitoring on more than 100 children. •We focused on real-time daily dose of particle alveolar deposited surface area. •Spirometry, skin prick and exhaled Nitric Oxide tests were performed. •Negative link was found between changes in pulmonary functions and individual doses. •A child's lifestyle appeared to have a strong impact on health respiratory outcomes. -- The respiratory health effects of daily airborne particle dose on children through personal monitoring

  14. Influence of Daily Set-Up Errors on Dose Distribution During Pelvis Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasabasic, M.; Ivkovic, A.; Faj, D.; Rajevac, V.; Sobat, H.; Jurkovic, S.

    2011-01-01

    An external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) using megavoltage beam of linear accelerator is usually the treatment of choice for the cancer patients. The goal of EBRT is to deliver the prescribed dose to the target volume, with as low as possible dose to the surrounding healthy tissue. A large number of procedures and different professions involved in radiotherapy process, uncertainty of equipment and daily patient set-up errors can cause a difference between the planned and delivered dose. We investigated a part of this difference caused by daily patient set-up errors. Daily set-up errors for 35 patients were measured. These set-up errors were simulated on 5 patients, using 3D treatment planning software XiO (CMS Inc., St. Louis, MO). The differences in dose distributions between the planned and shifted ''geometry'' were investigated. Additionally, an influence of the error on treatment plan selection was checked by analyzing the change in dose volume histograms, planning target volume conformity index (CI P TV) and homogeneity index (HI). Simulations showed that patient daily set-up errors can cause significant differences between the planned and actual dose distributions. Moreover, for some patients those errors could influence the choice of treatment plan since CI P TV fell under 97 %. Surprisingly, HI was not as sensitive as CI P TV on set-up errors. The results showed the need for minimizing daily set-up errors by quality assurance programme. (author)

  15. Calculation of midplane dose for total body irradiation from entrance and exit dose MOSFET measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satory, P R

    2012-03-01

    This work is the development of a MOSFET based surface in vivo dosimetry system for total body irradiation patients treated with bilateral extended SSD beams using PMMA missing tissue compensators adjacent to the patient. An empirical formula to calculate midplane dose from MOSFET measured entrance and exit doses has been derived. The dependency of surface dose on the air-gap between the spoiler and the surface was investigated by suspending a spoiler above a water phantom, and taking percentage depth dose measurements (PDD). Exit and entrances doses were measured with MOSFETs in conjunction with midplane doses measured with an ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were combined using an exponential attenuation formula to give an estimate of midplane dose and were compared to the midplane ion chamber measurement for a range of phantom thicknesses. Having a maximum PDD at the surface simplifies the prediction of midplane dose, which is achieved by ensuring that the air gap between the compensator and the surface is less than 10 cm. The comparison of estimated midplane dose and measured midplane dose showed no dependence on phantom thickness and an average correction factor of 0.88 was found. If the missing tissue compensators are kept within 10 cm of the patient then MOSFET measurements of entrance and exit dose can predict the midplane dose for the patient.

  16. Methods of assessing total doses integrated across pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzechnik, M.; Camplin, W.; Clyne, F.; Allott, R.; Webbe-Wood, D.

    2006-01-01

    Calculated doses for comparison with limits resulting from discharges into the environment should be summed across all relevant pathways and food groups to ensure adequate protection. Current methodology for assessments used in the radioactivity in Food and the Environment (R.I.F.E.) reports separate doses from pathways related to liquid discharges of radioactivity to the environment from those due to gaseous releases. Surveys of local inhabitant food consumption and occupancy rates are conducted in the vicinity of nuclear sites. Information has been recorded in an integrated way, such that the data for each individual is recorded for all pathways of interest. These can include consumption of foods, such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs, fruit and vegetables, milk and meats. Occupancy times over beach sediments and time spent in close proximity to the site is also recorded for inclusion of external and inhalation radiation dose pathways. The integrated habits survey data may be combined with monitored environmental radionuclide concentrations to calculate total dose. The criteria for successful adoption of a method for this calculation were: Reproducibility can others easily use the approach and reassess doses? Rigour and realism how good is the match with reality?Transparency a measure of the ease with which others can understand how the calculations are performed and what they mean. Homogeneity is the group receiving the dose relatively homogeneous with respect to age, diet and those aspects that affect the dose received? Five methods of total dose calculation were compared and ranked according to their suitability. Each method was labelled (A to E) and given a short, relevant name for identification. The methods are described below; A) Individual doses to individuals are calculated and critical group selection is dependent on dose received. B) Individual Plus As in A, but consumption and occupancy rates for high dose is used to derive rates for application in

  17. Study of total ionization dose effects in electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nidhin, T.S.; Bhattacharyya, Anindya; Gour, Aditya; Behera, R.P.; Jayanthi, T.

    2018-01-01

    Radiation effects in electronic devices are a major challenge in the dependable application developments of nuclear power plant instrumentation and control systems. The main radiation effects are total ionization dose (TID) effects, displacement damage dose (DDD) effects and single event effects (SEE). In this study, we are concentrating on TID effects in electronic devices. The focus of the study is mainly on SRAM based field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) along with that the devices of our interest are voltage regulators, flash memory and optocoupler. The experiments are conducted by exposing the devices to gamma radiation in power off condition and the degradation in the performances are analysed

  18. The effectiveness of reducing the daily dose of finasteride in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geller Jack

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Finasteride, a 5 alpha reductase inhibitor, is an established treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The recommended dosage is 5 mg a day, however case reports have show effectiveness with lower doses. The objective of the current study was to determine in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia, previously treated for at least one year with finasteride 5 mg daily, if they will maintain subjective and objective improvements in urinary obstruction when treated with 2.5 mg of finasteride daily for one year. Methods In an open label, prospective study, 40 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia, previously treated for at least one year with 5 mg of finasteride, took 2.5 mg of finasteride daily for one year. Measurements included AUA symptom score, maximum flow rate, voided volume and PSA. Results There were no significant changes in maximum flow rate, voided volume, or AUA symptom score after one year of finasteride 2.5 mg daily therapy. PSA increased significantly, p Conclusions The daily dose of finasteride can be reduced to 2.5 mg daily without significant effect on subjective and objective measures of urinary obstruction. Although statistically significant increases in PSA are noted when reducing the daily finasteride dose from 5 mg to 2.5 mg, the clinical significance of a mean .6 ng/ml increase in PSA is questionable.

  19. Springs-neaps cycles in daily total seabed light: Daylength-induced changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E. M.; Bowers, D. G.; Davies, A. J.

    2014-04-01

    In shallow, tidal seas, daily total seabed light is determined largely by the interaction of the solar elevation cycle, the tidal cycle in water depth, and any temporal variability in turbidity. Since tidal range, times of low water, and often turbidity vary in regular ways over the springs-neaps cycle, daily total seabed light exhibits cycles of the same periodicity. Corresponding cycles are likely to be induced in the daily total primary production of benthic algae and plants, particularly those light-limited specimens occupying the lower reaches of a sub-tidal population. Consequently, this effect is an important control on the growth patterns, depth distribution and survival of, for example, macroalgal forests and seagrass meadows. Seasonal changes in daylength exert an important additional control on these cycles, as they alter the fraction of the tidal and turbidity cycles occurring within daylight hours. Bowers et al. (1997) modelled this phenomenon numerically and predicted that for a site with low water at about midday and midnight at neaps tides, 6 am and 6 pm at springs, daily total seabed light peaks at neaps in winter, but the ‘sense' of the cycle ‘switches' so that it peaks at springs in summer - the longer daylength permits the morning and evening low water springs to contribute substantially to the daily total. Observations for such a site in North Wales (UK), presented in this paper, show that no such ‘switch' occurs, and neaps tides host the largest daily totals throughout the year. The predicted ‘switch' is not observed because turbidity increases generally at spring tides, and specifically at low water springs, both of which were not accounted for in the model. Observations at a second site in Brittany (France), diametrically opposite in terms of the times of low water at neaps and at springs, indicate a peak at springs throughout the year. Analytical tools are developed to calculate the percentage of daily total sea surface irradiance

  20. Comparison of once-daily versus twice-daily dosing of valsartan in patients with chronic stable heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inder S Anand

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Inder S Anand1, Anita Deswal2, Dean J Kereiakes3, Das Purkayastha4, Dion H Zappe41Veterans Administration Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 2Michael E DeBakey VA Medical Center, Houston, TX, USA; 3The Christ Hospital Heart and Vascular Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 4Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; Clinical trial registration information: www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NC T00294086 Unique identification number: NC T00294086Background: The safety of once-daily (qd dosing of valsartan in heart failure (HF patients is not known. Hypothesis: This 10-week, double-blind trial examined the relative safety and efficacy of valsartan administered qd versus twice-daily (bid.Methods: HF patients (NYHA class II–III receiving diuretics (87%, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (98%, beta-blockers (92%, aldosterone antagonists (25%, or digoxin (32% were randomized to valsartan 40 mg bid (n = 60 or 80 mg qd (n = 55 and titrated to a maximum dose of 320 mg/day; doubling the dose every 2 weeks. Clinical and biochemical parameters were measured at Weeks 2, 4, 6, and 10.Results: The average dose of valsartan at the end of study was 245 mg in the bid group vs 256 mg in the qd group (P = NS. Similar proportions of patients tolerated qd vs bid dosing (bid 67% vs qd 68%. Outcome measures including reduction in blood pressure, incidence of hypotension, renal impairment, orthostatic dizziness or fatigue, changes in serum K+, creatinine, cystatin-C, and estimated glomerular filtration rate were similar between the 2 groups at all time-points. Brain natriuretic peptide levels decreased and plasma renin activity increased from baseline by the same amount in both groups at all time-points.Conclusion: Valsartan administered qd has a similar safety and tolerability profile with comparable 24-hour RAAS blockade, as assessed by increases in PRA, as bid dosing in patients with moderate to severe (NYHA class II–III heart failure

  1. Daily fraction dose recalculation based on rigid registration using Cone Beam CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Bosse

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To calculate the daily fraction dose for CBCT recalculations based on rigid registration and compare it to the planned CT doses.Methods: For this study, 30 patients that were previously treated (10 SBRT lung, 10 prostate and 10 abdomen were considered. The daily CBCT images were imported into the Pinnacle treatment planning system from Mosaic. Pinnacle was used to re-contour the regions of interest (ROI for the specific CBCT by copying the contours from the original CT plan, planned by the prescribing physician, onto each daily CBCT and then manually reshaping contours to match the ROIs. A new plan is then created with the re-contoured CBCT as primary image in order to calculate the daily dose delivered to each ROI. The DVH values are then exported into Excel and overlaid onto the original CT DVH to produce a graph.Results: For the SBRT lung patients, we found that there were small daily volume changes in the lungs, trachea and esophagus. For almost all regions of interest we found that the dose received each day was less than the predicted dose of the planned CT while the PTV dose was relatively the same each day. The results for the prostate patients were similar, showing slight differences in the DVH values for different days in the rectum and bladder but similar PTV.Conclusion: By comparing daily fraction dose between the re-contoured CBCT images and the original planned CT show that PTV coverage for both prostate and SBRT, it has been shown that for PTV coverage, a planned CT is adequate. However, there are differences between the dose for the organs surrounding the PTV. The dose difference is less than the planned in most instances.-----------------------Cite this article as: Bosse C, Tuohy R, Mavroidis P, Shi Z, Crownover R, Gutierrez A, Papanikolaou N, Stathakis S. Daily fraction dose recalculation based on rigid registration using Cone Beam CT. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(2:020217. DOI: 10.14319/ijcto.0202.17

  2. Dose rate and dose fractionation studies in total body irradiation of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, H.J.; Netzel, B.; Schaffer, E.; Kolb, H.

    1979-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) with 800-900 rads and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation according to the regimen designated by the Seattle group has induced remissions in patients with otherwise refractory acute leukemias. Relapse of leukemia after bone marrow transplantation remains the major problem, when the Seattle set up of two opposing 60 Co-sources and a low dose rate is used in TBI. Studies in dogs with TBI at various dose rates confirmed observations in mice that gastrointestinal toxicity is unlike toxicity against hemopoietic stem cells and possibly also leukemic stem cells depending on the dose rate. However, following very high single doses (2400 R) and marrow infusion acute gastrointestinal toxicity was not prevented by the lowest dose rate studied (0.5 R/min). Fractionated TBI with fractions of 600 R in addition to 1200 R (1000 rads) permitted the application of total doses up to 300 R followed by marrow infusion without irreversible toxicity. 26 dogs given 2400-3000 R have been observed for presently up to 2 years with regard to delayed radiation toxicity. This toxicity was mild in dogs given single doses at a low dose rate or fractionated TBI. Fractionated TBI is presently evaluated with allogeneic transplants in the dog before being applied to leukemic patients

  3. Composite depth dose measurement for total skin electron (TSE) treatments using radiochromic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, Lisa M; Farrell, Thomas J; Jones, Glenn W; Hayward, Joseph E

    2003-01-01

    Total skin electron (TSE) radiotherapy is routinely used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and can be implemented using a modified Stanford technique. In our centre, the composite depth dose for this technique is achieved by a combination of two patient positions per day over a three-day cycle, and two gantry angles per patient position. Due to patient morphology, underdosed regions typically occur and have historically been measured using multiple thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). We show that radiochromic film can be used as a two-dimensional relative dosimeter to measure the percent depth dose in TSE radiotherapy. Composite depth dose curves were measured in a cylindrical, polystyrene phantom and compared with TLD data. Both multiple films (1 film per day) and a single film were used in order to reproduce a realistic clinical scenario. First, three individual films were used to measure the depth dose, one per treatment day, and then compared with TLD data; this comparison showed a reasonable agreement. Secondly, a single film was used to measure the dose delivered over three daily treatments and then compared with TLD data; this comparison showed good agreement throughout the depth dose, which includes doses well below 1 Gy. It will be shown that one piece of radiochromic film is sufficient to measure the composite percent depth dose for a TSE beam, hence making radiochromic film a suitable candidate for monitoring underdosed patient regions

  4. Low-dose cyclophosphamide administered as daily or single dose enhances the antitumor effects of a therapeutic HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shiwen; Lyford-Pike, Sofia; Akpeng, Belinda; Wu, Annie; Hung, Chien-Fu; Hannaman, Drew; Saunders, John R.; Wu, T.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Although therapeutic HPV vaccines are able to elicit systemic HPV-specific immunity, clinical responses have not always correlated with levels of vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells in human clinical trials. This observed discrepancy may be attributable to an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in which the CD8+ T cells are recruited. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are cells that can dampen cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell function. Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is a systemic chemotherapeutic agent, which can eradicate immune cells, including inhibitory Tregs. The optimal dose and schedule of CTX administration in combination with immunotherapy to eliminate the Treg population without adversely affecting vaccine-induced T-cell responses is unknown. Therefore, we investigated various dosing and administration schedules of CTX in combination with a therapeutic HPV vaccine in a preclinical tumor model. HPV tumor-bearing mice received either a single preconditioning dose or a daily dose of CTX in combination with the pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) DNA vaccine. Both single and daily dosing of CTX in combination with vaccine had a synergistic anti-tumor effect as compared to monotherapy alone. The potent antitumor responses were attributed to the reduction in Treg frequency and increased infiltration of HPV16 E7-specific CD8+ T cells, which led to higher ratios of CD8+/Treg and CD8+/CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). There was an observed trend toward decreased vaccine-induced CD8+ T-cell frequency with daily dosing of CTX. We recommend a single, preconditioning dose of CTX prior to vaccination due to its efficacy, ease of administration, and reduced cumulative adverse effect on vaccine-induced T cells. PMID:23011589

  5. An improved standard total dose test for CMOS space electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.; Riewe, L.C.; Pease, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The postirradiation response of hardened and commercial CMOS devices is investigated as a function of total dose, dose rate, and annealing time and temperature. Cobalt-60 irradiation at ≅ 200 rad(SiO 2 )/s followed by a 1-week 100 degrees C biased anneal and testing is shown to be an effective screen of hardened devices for space use. However, a similar screen and single-point test performed after Co-60 irradiation and elevated temperature anneal cannot be generally defined for commercial devices. In the absence of detailed knowledge about device and circuit radiation response, a two-point standard test is proposed to ensure space surviability of CMOS circuits: a Co-60 irradiation and test to screen against oxide-trapped charge related failures, and an additional rebound test to screen against interface-trap related failures. Testing implications for bipolar technologies are also discussed

  6. Total dose and dose rate models for bipolar transistors in circuit simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Phillip Montgomery; Wix, Steven D.

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a model for total dose effects in bipolar junction transistors for use in circuit simulation. The components of the model are an electrical model of device performance that includes the effects of trapped charge on device behavior, and a model that calculates the trapped charge densities in a specific device structure as a function of radiation dose and dose rate. Simulations based on this model are found to agree well with measurements on a number of devices for which data are available.

  7. In adolescence a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Perrar, Ines; Roßbach, Sarah; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2018-05-26

    The present manuscript addressed two hypotheses: (i) As children age, energy intake is shifted from morning (energy intake energy intake >6pm) (ii) A higher 'eveningness in energy intake' (i.e. evening minus morning energy intake) is associated with a higher total daily energy intake. Data were analyzed from 262 DONALD cohort study participants, who had completed at least one 3-day weighed dietary record in the age groups 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/12, 13/14, 15/16 and 17/18 years (y). 'Eveningness in energy intake' was compared across age groups and related to total daily energy intake for each age group (multiple cross-sectional analyses). 'Eveningness' increased progressively from age group 3/4y to age group 17/18y. A median surplus of evening energy intake (i.e. when evening intake exceeded morning intake) was firstly observed for age group 11/12y. From age group 11/12y onwards, a higher 'eveningness' was associated with a higher total daily energy intake (all p energy intake between the highest and the lowest tertile of 'eveningness' was largest for age group 17/18y, amounting to an 11% higher intake among adolescents in the highest as compared to those in the lowest tertile. In conclusion, energy intake progressively shifts from morning to evening hours as children age. Once evening energy intake exceeds morning energy intake, a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Medium doses of daily vitamin D decrease falls and higher doses of daily vitamin D3 increase falls: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lynette M; Gallagher, J Christopher; Suiter, Corinna

    2017-10-01

    Falls are a serious health problem in the aging population. Because low levels of vitamin D have been associated with increased fall rates, many trials have been performed with vitamin D; two meta-analyses showed either a small effect or no effect of vitamin D on falls. We conducted a study of the effect of vitamin D on serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and data on falls was collected as a secondary outcome. In a 12-month double blind randomized placebo trial, elderly women, mean age 66 years, were randomized to one of seven daily oral doses of vitamin D or placebo. The main inclusion criterion for study was a baseline serum 25OHDvitamin D on falls followed a U-shaped curve whether analyzed by dose or serum 25OHD levels. There was no decrease in falls on low vitamin D doses 400, 800 IU, a significant decrease on medium doses 1600, 2400,3200 IU (p=0.020) and no decrease on high doses 4000, 4800 IU compared to placebo (p=0.55). When compared to 12-month serum 25OHD quintiles, the faller rate was 60% in the lowest quintile <25ng/ml (<50nmol/L), 21% in the low middle quintile 32-38ng/ml (80-95nmo/L), 72% in the high middle quintile 38-46ng/ml (95-115nmo/L) and 45% in the highest quintile 46-66ng/ml (115-165nmol/L). In the subgroup with a fall history, fall rates were 68% on low dose, 27% on medium doses and 100% on higher doses. Fall rates on high doses were increased compared to medium doses (Odds Ratio 5.6.95% CI: 2.1-14.8). In summary, the maximum decrease in falls corresponds to a 12- month serum 25OHD of 32-38ng/ml (80-95nmol/L) and faller rates increase as serum 25OHD exceed 40-45ng/ml (100-112.5nmol/L). The Tolerable upper limit (TUL) recently increased in 2010 from 2000 to 4000 IU/day may need to be reduced in elderly women especially in those with a fall history. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of 210Po concentration in commercially available infant formulae and assessment of daily ingestion dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi K. Prabhath

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A study has been conducted to estimate the concentration of natural radioactive polonium in commercially available packaged infant food formulae available in Mumbai, India and the corresponding daily dose normalized based on its shelf life. Eleven most popular international brands of infant formulae were sourced from market and three aliquots from each sample were analysed for concordant results. Autodeposition method onto a silver planchet from hot dilute acid solution followed by alpha spectrometry was performed for estimation of polonium. Radiochemical recovery was ascertained by the addition of 209Po tracer. Radiochemical recovery of 209Po tracer was ranged from 14.7 to 98.1 %. The 210Po concentration in the samples was in the range of 0.08–0.23 Bq kg−1 on measured date and the corresponding daily dose, calculated on normalized date which is at mid-point of the shelf life of the sample, was ranged from 0.04 to 0.89 μSv d−1 as per the recommended daily consumption. The annual committed effective dose estimated based on the average of daily dose was found to be 150 μSv.

  10. Daily dose and shielding optimization in work performance at 'Ukrytie' object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batij, V.G.; Derengovskij, V.V.; Egorov, V.V.; Kuz'menko, V.A.; Rud'ko, V.M.; Sizov, A.A.; Stoyanov, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    The procedure of daily dose and shielding optimization in work performance at 'Ukryttia' object is offered. The recommendations allowing reducing collective effective doze according to the optimization principle are submitted. The technique of shielding optimization is given at stabilization works realization. The optimum shielding calculation example for the strengthening support is given

  11. Theoretical considerations for SRAM total-dose hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.; Flandre, D.; Colinge, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The theoretical hardness against total dose of the six-transistor SRAM cell is investigated in detail. An explicit analytical expression of the maximum tolerable threshold voltage shift is derived for two cross-coupled inverters. A numerical method is used to explore the hardness of the read and write operations. Both N- and P-channel access transistors designs are considered and their respective advantages are compared. The study points out that the radiation hardness mainly relies on the technology. Results obtained with the very robust Gate-All-Around process are finally presented

  12. Assessment of Parotid Gland Dose Changes During Head and Neck Cancer Radiotherapy Using Daily Megavoltage Computed Tomography and Deformable Image Registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonik; Langen, Katja M.; Lu Weiguo; Haimerl, Jason; Schnarr, Eric; Ruchala, Kenneth J.; Olivera, Gustavo H.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Shellenberger, Thomas D.; Manon, Rafael R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze changes in parotid gland dose resulting from anatomic changes throughout a course of radiotherapy in a cohort of head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 10 head-and-neck cancer patients treated definitively with intensity-modulated radiotherapy on a helical tomotherapy unit. A total of 330 daily megavoltage computed tomography images were retrospectively processed through a deformable image registration algorithm to be registered to the planning kilovoltage computed tomography images. The process resulted in deformed parotid contours and voxel mappings for both daily and accumulated dose-volume histogram calculations. The daily and cumulative dose deviations from the original treatment plan were analyzed. Correlations between dosimetric variations and anatomic changes were investigated. Results: The daily parotid mean dose of the 10 patients differed from the plan dose by an average of 15%. At the end of the treatment, 3 of the 10 patients were estimated to have received a greater than 10% higher mean parotid dose than in the original plan (range, 13-42%), whereas the remaining 7 patients received doses that differed by less than 10% (range, -6-8%). The dose difference was correlated with a migration of the parotids toward the high-dose region. Conclusions: The use of deformable image registration techniques and daily megavoltage computed tomography imaging makes it possible to calculate daily and accumulated dose-volume histograms. Significant dose variations were observed as result of interfractional anatomic changes. These techniques enable the implementation of dose-adaptive radiotherapy

  13. Responses of rat R-1 cells to low dose rate gamma radiation and multiple daily dose fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal, H.B.; Bijman, J.Th.

    1981-01-01

    Multifraction irradiation may offer the same therapeutic gain as continuous irradiation. Therefore, a comparison of the efficacy of low dose rate irradiation and multifraction irradiation was the main objective of the experiments to be described. Both regimens were tested on rat rhabdomyosarcoma (R-1) cells in vitro and in vivo. Exponentially growing R-1 cells were treated in vitro by a multifraction irradiation procedure with dose fractions of 2 Gy gamma radiation and time intervals of 1 to 3 h. The dose rate was 1.3 Gy.min -1 . The results indicate that multifractionation of the total dose is more effective with respect to cell inactivation than continuous irradiation. (Auth.)

  14. Safety and efficacy of fixed-dose 10 mg daily isotretinoin treatment for acne vulgaris in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Felix Boon-Bin

    2017-09-01

    Low-dose isotretinoin is used to reduce side effects albeit higher relapse. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose 10 mg daily isotretinoin for the treatment of acne. This prospective study was performed between 2011 and 2015. All 150 patients were given 10 mg daily isotretinoin until a cumulative dose of 90-110 mg/kg. The mean age was 26.6 years with 64.7% moderate acne, 29.3% severe, and 6% very severe. The mean cumulative dose was 98.8 ± 6.05 mg/kg. All 150 patients had total clearance with a mean time to clearance of 24.0 weeks. Patients with severe/very severe acne had higher cumulative dosage (102.1 vs. 97.0, P < 0.001) and longer duration to clearance (32.9 weeks vs. 19.1 weeks, P < 0.001). Mild relapse was seen in 4%. The mean time to relapse was 32.3 weeks. Lip dryness was the commonest side effects (100%). Mild transient elevation of liver enzymes was detected in 3.3% and a slight increase of serum lipid in 2.7% with no treatment discontinuation. Fixed-dose 10 mg daily treatment with isotretinoin until a cumulative dose of 90-110 mg/kg is safe with low relapse rate. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. An adaptive wavelet-network model for forecasting daily total solar-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellit, A.; Benghanem, M.; Kalogirou, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    The combination of wavelet theory and neural networks has lead to the development of wavelet networks. Wavelet-networks are feed-forward networks using wavelets as activation functions. Wavelet-networks have been used successfully in various engineering applications such as classification, identification and control problems. In this paper, the use of adaptive wavelet-network architecture in finding a suitable forecasting model for predicting the daily total solar-radiation is investigated. Total solar-radiation is considered as the most important parameter in the performance prediction of renewable energy systems, particularly in sizing photovoltaic (PV) power systems. For this purpose, daily total solar-radiation data have been recorded during the period extending from 1981 to 2001, by a meteorological station in Algeria. The wavelet-network model has been trained by using either the 19 years of data or one year of the data. In both cases the total solar radiation data corresponding to year 2001 was used for testing the model. The network was trained to accept and handle a number of unusual cases. Results indicate that the model predicts daily total solar-radiation values with a good accuracy of approximately 97% and the mean absolute percentage error is not more than 6%. In addition, the performance of the model was compared with different neural network structures and classical models. Training algorithms for wavelet-networks require smaller numbers of iterations when compared with other neural networks. The model can be used to fill missing data in weather databases. Additionally, the proposed model can be generalized and used in different locations and for other weather data, such as sunshine duration and ambient temperature. Finally, an application using the model for sizing a PV-power system is presented in order to confirm the validity of this model

  16. Total effective dose equivalent associated with fixed uranium surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogard, J.S.; Hamm, R.N.; Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; England, C.A.; Swenson, D.E.; Brown, K.S.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides the technical basis for establishing a uranium fixed-contamination action level, a fixed uranium surface contamination level exceeding the total radioactivity values of Appendix D of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, part 835 (10CFR835), but below which the monitoring, posting, and control requirements for Radiological Areas are not required for the area of the contamination. An area of fixed uranium contamination between 1,000 dpm/100 cm 2 and that level corresponding to an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 100 mrem requires only routine monitoring, posting to alert personnel of the contamination, and administrative control. The more extensive requirements for monitoring, posting, and control designated by 10CFR835 for Radiological Areas do not have to be applied for these intermediate fixed-contamination levels

  17. Ion therapy of prostate cancer: daily rectal dose reduction by application of spacer gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, Antoni; Brons, Stephan; Richter, Daniel; Habl, Gregor; Debus, Jürgen; Bert, Christoph; Haberer, Thomas; Jäkel, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Ion beam therapy represents a promising approach to treat prostate cancer, mainly due to its high conformity and radiobiological effectiveness. However, the presence of prostate motion, patient positioning and range uncertainties may deteriorate target dose and increase exposure of organs at risk. Spacer gel injected between prostate and rectum may increase the safety of prostate cancer (PC) radiation therapy by separating the rectum from the target dose field. The dosimetric impact of the application of spacer gel for scanned carbon ion therapy of PC has been analyzed at Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT). The robustness of ion therapy treatment plans was investigated by comparison of two data sets of patients treated with and without spacer gel. A research treatment planning system for ion therapy was used for treatment plan optimization and calculation of daily dose distributions on 2 to 9 Computed Tomography (CT) studies available for each of the 19 patients. Planning and daily dose distributions were analyzed with respect to target coverage, maximal dose to the rectum (excluding 1 ml of the greatest dose; Dmax-1 ml) and the rectal volume receiving dose greater than 90% of prescribed target dose (V90 Rectum ), respectively. The application of spacer gel did substantially diminish rectum dose. Dmax-1 ml on the treatment planning CT was on average reduced from 100.0 ± 1.0% to 90.2 ± 4.8%, when spacer gel was applied. The robustness analysis performed with daily CT studies demonstrated for all analyzed patient cases that application of spacer gel results in a decrease of the daily V90 Rectum index, which calculated over all patient cases and CT studies was 10.2 ± 10.4 [ml] and 1.1 ± 2.1 [ml] for patients without and with spacer gel, respectively. The dosimetric benefit of increasing the distance between prostate and rectum using spacer gel for PC treatment with carbon ion beams has been quantified. Application of spacer gel substantially reduced rectal

  18. Single dose (400 mg) versus 7 day (200 mg) daily dose itraconazole in the treatment of tinea versicolor: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, M A; Ali, M E; Rahman, M H; Chowdhury, S A; Monamie, N S; Sultana, N; Khondoker, L

    2010-01-01

    Tinea (pityriasis) versicolor is a superficial fungal infection and one of the most commonly found pigmentary disorders of skin caused by the yeast Malassezia. Multiple topical as well as systemic therapies are available for treatment. Systemic therapies are used for extensive disease, frequent relapse or where topical agents have failed. The aim that translates the rationale of the study was to compare the efficacy, safety, tolerability and cost effectiveness of single dose 400mg versus 7 day 200 mg daily dose of itraconazole in the treatment of tinea versicolor. A clinical study was done to compare the efficacy of single dose (400 mg) of itraconazole and 7 day 200 mg daily dose of itraconazole in the treatment of extensive tinea versicolor. Total 60 patients (aged 18-50 years) were selected for the study during the period of June 2007 to May 2008 in the department of Dermatology of three different hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases having with extensive involvement, diagnosed clinically and confirmed by wood's lamp and KOH microscopy were taken. Patients were randomly allocated into equal groups. Group A was given single dose 400 mg itraconazole and Group B was given 7 day 200 mg daily itraconazole. Fifty three (88%) male and 7(12%) female were included in the study. The mean age of group A was 32.37+/-9 years and in group B 33.23+/-8 years. The mean duration of the disease in group A was 2.63+/-2 months and 2.76+/-2 months in group B. In group A clinical responders was found cure 22(73.33%) and improvement 5(16.33%) and in group B it was found cure 24(79.99%) and improvement 4(13.33%). The measure at the End point (EP1) equals to 90% response and in-group B it was found cure 24 (79.99%) and improvement 4(13.33%). (Here the End point EP2) equals to 93.33%. The EP clinical analysis however shows 91.66% response. Both single dose and 7 day daily dose of itraconazole can be effective in the treatment of tinea versicolor with extensive involvement but single dose appears

  19. Secondary radiation dose during high-energy total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janiszewska, M.; Raczkowski, M. [Lower Silesian Oncology Center, Medical Physics Department, Wroclaw (Poland); Polaczek-Grelik, K. [University of Silesia, Medical Physics Department, Katowice (Poland); Szafron, B.; Konefal, A.; Zipper, W. [University of Silesia, Department of Nuclear Physics and Its Applications, Katowice (Poland)

    2014-05-15

    The goal of this work was to assess the additional dose from secondary neutrons and γ-rays generated during total body irradiation (TBI) using a medical linac X-ray beam. Nuclear reactions that occur in the accelerator construction during emission of high-energy beams in teleradiotherapy are the source of secondary radiation. Induced activity is dependent on the half-lives of the generated radionuclides, whereas neutron flux accompanies the treatment process only. The TBI procedure using a 18 MV beam (Clinac 2100) was considered. Lateral and anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior fractions were investigated during delivery of 2 Gy of therapeutic dose. Neutron and photon flux densities were measured using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and semiconductor spectrometry. The secondary dose was estimated applying the fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. The main contribution to the secondary dose is associated with fast neutrons. The main sources of γ-radiation are the following: {sup 56}Mn in the stainless steel and {sup 187}W of the collimation system as well as positron emitters, activated via (n,γ) and (γ,n) processes, respectively. In addition to 12 Gy of therapeutic dose, the patient could receive 57.43 mSv in the studied conditions, including 4.63 μSv from activated radionuclides. Neutron dose is mainly influenced by the time of beam emission. However, it is moderated by long source-surface distances (SSD) and application of plexiglass plates covering the patient body during treatment. Secondary radiation gives the whole body a dose, which should be taken into consideration especially when one fraction of irradiation does not cover the whole body at once. (orig.) [German] Die zusaetzliche Dosis durch sekundaere Neutronen- und γ-Strahlung waehrend der Ganzkoerperbestrahlung mit Roentgenstrahlung aus medizinischen Linearbeschleunigern wurde abgeschaetzt. Bei der Emission hochenergetischer Strahlen zur Teletherapie finden hauptsaechlich im Beschleuniger

  20. Total Risk Management for Low Dose Radiation Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simic, Z.; Mikulicic, V.; Sterc, D.

    2012-01-01

    health. This view is supported with numerous evidences, and explained with beneficial effects from the increased activity of immune system activated with small radiation exposures. Finally, theory in between is that small doses are less than linearly proportionally harmful and that they are presenting a much smaller risks than according to the LNT. This view is derived from the use of different evidences. Difficulties to find one single theory about effects of small radiation doses are related to existence of huge variability and uncertainty in the evidence data. This is very hard experimental and theoretical problem. It will require lots of additional research to reduce these uncertainties and find final theory. This might be too late for the number of people affected in different ways with current single most conservative LNT approach. The problem with the conservative LNT regulatory approach is resulting in enormous additional costs of nuclear energy and medical applications. Which is reasonable and acceptable during the regular operation when source is high and concentrated. But, this becomes unreasonable huge economic burden after accidents and for cleanups with nuclear facilities. Similar problem arises with restriction of medical examinations and treatments based on over conservative risk estimate. Special circumstances are with evacuated people from contaminated areas where they are on the one side saved from small radiation exposures, and on the other side exposed to years of life away from their home and with numerous direct and indirect additional risks (i.e., stress, social problems, etc.). It seems reasonable that some alternative (total) risk management approach might be much more suitable for this situation. Evacuation of people from contaminated area with small doses sources should not be done when that induces larger risks from even what is expected from radiation based on LNT. Similar total risk management could be also applied for with medical

  1. Analytical models for total dose ionization effects in MOS devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Phillip Montgomery; Bogdan, Carolyn W.

    2008-08-01

    MOS devices are susceptible to damage by ionizing radiation due to charge buildup in gate, field and SOI buried oxides. Under positive bias holes created in the gate oxide will transport to the Si / SiO{sub 2} interface creating oxide-trapped charge. As a result of hole transport and trapping, hydrogen is liberated in the oxide which can create interface-trapped charge. The trapped charge will affect the threshold voltage and degrade the channel mobility. Neutralization of oxidetrapped charge by electron tunneling from the silicon and by thermal emission can take place over long periods of time. Neutralization of interface-trapped charge is not observed at room temperature. Analytical models are developed that account for the principal effects of total dose in MOS devices under different gate bias. The intent is to obtain closed-form solutions that can be used in circuit simulation. Expressions are derived for the aging effects of very low dose rate radiation over long time periods.

  2. Total Dose Effects on Bipolar Integrated Circuits at Low Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. H.; Swimm, R. T.; Thorbourn, D. O.

    2012-01-01

    Total dose damage in bipolar integrated circuits is investigated at low temperature, along with the temperature dependence of the electrical parameters of internal transistors. Bandgap narrowing causes the gain of npn transistors to decrease far more at low temperature compared to pnp transistors, due to the large difference in emitter doping concentration. When irradiations are done at temperatures of -140 deg C, no damage occurs until devices are warmed to temperatures above -50 deg C. After warm-up, subsequent cooling shows that damage is then present at low temperature. This can be explained by the very strong temperature dependence of dispersive transport in the continuous-time-random-walk model for hole transport. For linear integrated circuits, low temperature operation is affected by the strong temperature dependence of npn transistors along with the higher sensitivity of lateral and substrate pnp transistors to radiation damage.

  3. Prediction equation for estimating total daily energy requirements of special operations personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, N D; Pasiakos, S M; McClung, H L; Crombie, A P; Margolis, L M

    2018-01-01

    Special Operations Forces (SOF) engage in a variety of military tasks with many producing high energy expenditures, leading to undesired energy deficits and loss of body mass. Therefore, the ability to accurately estimate daily energy requirements would be useful for accurate logistical planning. Generate a predictive equation estimating energy requirements of SOF. Retrospective analysis of data collected from SOF personnel engaged in 12 different SOF training scenarios. Energy expenditure and total body water were determined using the doubly-labeled water technique. Physical activity level was determined as daily energy expenditure divided by resting metabolic rate. Physical activity level was broken into quartiles (0 = mission prep, 1 = common warrior tasks, 2 = battle drills, 3 = specialized intense activity) to generate a physical activity factor (PAF). Regression analysis was used to construct two predictive equations (Model A; body mass and PAF, Model B; fat-free mass and PAF) estimating daily energy expenditures. Average measured energy expenditure during SOF training was 4468 (range: 3700 to 6300) Kcal·d- 1 . Regression analysis revealed that physical activity level ( r  = 0.91; P  plan appropriate feeding regimens to meet SOF nutritional requirements across their mission profile.

  4. Marijuana’s Dose-Dependent Effects in Daily Marijuana Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh, Divya; Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D.

    2013-01-01

    Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose–response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The numbe...

  5. Determination of 210Po concentration in commercially available infant formulae and assessment of daily ingestion dose

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhath, Ravi K.; Sreejith, Sathyapriya R.; Nair, Madhu G.; Rao, D.D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    A study has been conducted to estimate the concentration of natural radioactive polonium in commercially available packaged infant food formulae available in Mumbai, India and the corresponding daily dose normalized based on its shelf life. Eleven most popular international brands of infant formulae were sourced from market and three aliquots from each sample were analysed for concordant results. Autodeposition method onto a silver planchet from hot dilute acid solution followed by alpha spec...

  6. Concurrent chemoradiation with daily low dose cisplatin for advanced stage head and neck carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoebers, Frank J.P.; Heemsbergen, Wilma; Balm, Alfons J.M.; Zanten, Mathilde van; Schornagel, Jan H.; Rasch, Coen R.N.

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: To evaluate treatment results of concurrent chemoradiation with daily low dose cisplatin. Materials and methods: 121 patients with advanced stage HNSCC were treated with RT (35 x 2 Gy) and cisplatin (6 mg/m 2 i.v. x20, daily before RT). After 47 patients, the treatment protocol (Standard Group) was changed: Daily i.v. prehydration and accelerated RT were given to the subsequent 74 patients (Hydr-Ac-RT Group). Results: Mean follow-up was 29 months (range 7-62). More chemotherapy could be administered in the Hydr-Ac-RT Group (maximum no. of 20 cisplatin-infusions increased from 59% to 91% of patients, p = 0.008), with less renal toxicity (p < 0.001) and less hospital admissions (p < 0.02). However, mucositis was more pronounced and tubefeeding more frequent in the Hydr-Ac-RT Group. The CR rate of the primary tumor increased from 74% (Standard Group) to 90% (Hydr-Ac-RT Group) (p = 0.06), although this did not lead to an improvement in loco-regional control. Conclusions: Concurrent chemoradiation with daily low dose cisplatin is feasible and effective for selected patients with advanced HNSCC. Although the addition of accelerated RT resulted in more mucositis and tubefeeding, the introduction of prehydration led to better compliance to therapy with more chemotherapy administered and less hospital admissions

  7. Evaluation of delivered dose for a clinical daily adaptive plan selection strategy for bladder cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutkenhaus, Lotte J.; Visser, Jorrit; Jong, Rianne de; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Bel, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To account for variable bladder size during bladder cancer radiotherapy, a daily plan selection strategy was implemented. The aim of this study was to calculate the actually delivered dose using an adaptive strategy, compared to a non-adaptive approach. Material and methods: Ten patients were treated to the bladder and lymph nodes with an adaptive full bladder strategy. Interpolated delineations of bladder and tumor on a full and empty bladder CT scan resulted in five PTVs for which VMAT plans were created. Daily cone beam CT (CBCT) scans were used for plan selection. Bowel, rectum and target volumes were delineated on these CBCTs, and delivered dose for these was calculated using both the adaptive plan, and a non-adaptive plan. Results: Target coverage for lymph nodes improved using an adaptive strategy. The full bladder strategy spared the healthy part of the bladder from a high dose. Average bowel cavity V30Gy and V40Gy significantly reduced with 60 and 69 ml, respectively (p < 0.01). Other parameters for bowel and rectum remained unchanged. Conclusions: Daily plan selection compared to a non-adaptive strategy yielded similar bladder coverage and improved coverage for lymph nodes, with a significant reduction in bowel cavity V30Gy and V40Gy only, while other sparing was limited

  8. The dose effects of short-term dronabinol (oral THC) maintenance in daily cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandrey, Ryan; Stitzer, Maxine L; Mintzer, Miriam Z; Huestis, Marilyn A; Murray, Jeannie A; Lee, Dayong

    2013-02-01

    Prior studies have separately examined the effects of dronabinol (oral THC) on cannabis withdrawal, cognitive performance, and the acute effects of smoked cannabis. A single study examining these clinically relevant domains would benefit the continued evaluation of dronabinol as a potential medication for the treatment of cannabis use disorders. Thirteen daily cannabis smokers completed a within-subject crossover study and received 0, 30, 60 and 120mg dronabinol per day for 5 consecutive days. Vital signs and subjective ratings of cannabis withdrawal, craving and sleep were obtained daily; outcomes under active dose conditions were compared to those obtained under placebo dosing. On the 5th day of medication maintenance, participants completed a comprehensive cognitive performance battery and then smoked five puffs of cannabis for subjective effects evaluation. Each dronabinol maintenance period occurred in a counterbalanced order and was separated by 9 days of ad libitum cannabis use. Dronabinol dose-dependently attenuated cannabis withdrawal and resulted in few adverse side effects or decrements in cognitive performance. Surprisingly, dronabinol did not alter the subjective effects of smoked cannabis, but cannabis-induced increases in heart rate were attenuated by the 60 and 120mg doses. Dronabinol's ability to dose-dependently suppress cannabis withdrawal may be therapeutically beneficial to individuals trying to stop cannabis use. The absence of gross cognitive impairment or side effects in this study supports safety of doses up to 120mg/day. Continued evaluation of dronabinol in targeted clinical studies of cannabis treatment, using an expanded range of doses, is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A once-daily dose of tadalafil for erectile dysfunction: compliance and efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel L Washington III

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Samuel L Washington III1, Alan W Shindel21School of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA; 2Department of Urology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USAAbstract: Selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is have revolutionized the ­treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED in men. As an on-demand treatment, PDE5Is have excellent efficacy and safety in the treatment of ED due to a broad spectrum of etiologies. Nevertheless, these drugs do have side-effect profiles that are troublesome to some patients, eg, headache, dyspepsia, myalgia, etc. Furthermore, many patients and their partners dislike the necessity of on-demand treatment for ED, citing a desire for greater spontaneity with sexual interactions. In 2008, approximately 10 years after the release of the first commercially available PDE5I, a paradigm shift in the management of ED occurred with the approval of once-daily dose of tadalafil by the US Food and Drug Administration for the management of ED. The prolonged half-life of tadalafil lends itself well to this dosing regimen and conveys the advantage of separating medication from sexual interactions; lower dose therapy also carries the theoretical benefit of lower incidence of side effects. In this study, we review the current state of the art with respect to this new management strategy for ED, highlighting published reports of the efficacy and tolerability of the daily dose tadalafil regimen.Keywords: PDE5 inhibitor, on-demand therapy, side effects, daily dosing

  10. Effect of daily low dose gamma irradiation on growth and differentiation of human myeloid leukaemic bone marrow in diffusion chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberger, J S [Joint Center for Radiation Therapy, Department of Radiation and Sidney Farber Cancer Institute; Chang, J M; King, V; Fulmer, S; Balzuno, S; Moloney, W C [Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA

    1981-01-01

    Bone marrow from each of 8 untreated patients with myeloproliferative disorders was grown in diffusion chambers in 760 rad total body irradiated rats. Rats were exposed to 11.5, 57.5, or 108.5 rad daily for 14-21 and cell growth compared to that detected in unirradiated chambers. Cells from acute myelogenous leukaemia patients exposed to 11.5 rad per d grew for 11-21 d and there was no consistent stimulation of differentiation of immature granulocytic cells to mature granulocytes that was attributable to irradiation. Cells from a chronic myeloid leukaemia patient in chronic phase or blast crisis, and a polycythaemia vera patient with myeloid metaplasia showed signigicant morphologic differentiation from immature to mature granulocytes in control chambers with no additional effect of daily irradiation. Marrow specimens from 2 AML patients exposed to each of 3 daily dose fractions over 14 d revealed a dose-dependent decrease in immature granulocytes with no persistent increase in mature granulocytes. In both irradiated and control chambers, macrophages increased over 21 d. Thus, cells from patients with myeloprofilerative disorders may not necessarily differentiate to mature granulocytes following in vivo exposure to ionizing irradiation.

  11. Total-dose hardness assurance for low earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, R.H.; Suter, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Low Earth Orbit radiation environment has two significant characteristics that make laboratory simulation exposures difficult: (1) a low dose rate and (2) many cycles of low dose accumulation followed by dose-free annealing. Hardness assurance considerations for this environment are discussed and related to data from the testing of Advanced Low Power Schottky and High-speed CMOS devices

  12. Treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy using fixed thyroxine daily doses of 75 μg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penin, Manuel; Trigo, Cristina; López, Yolanda; Barragáns, María

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of hypothyroid pregnant women is usually calculated based on weight (1 μg/kg/day) and TSH levels. This study assessed the usefulness of treating these women with a fixed dose of 75 μg/day. All women with pregnancy diagnosed from January to August 2012 in the Vigo Health Area (Spain) without previous diagnosis of thyroid disease or thyroxine treatment and with TSH levels over 4,5 mUI/ml were enrolled by consecutive sampling. All 116 women in the sample were treated with a fixed daily dose of thyroxine 75 μg-thyroxine levels were measured at two, four, and six months, and thyroxine dose was modified if TSH level was lower than 0.3 or higher than 4.5 mUI/ml. A woman had a TSH level less than 0.3 mUI/ml in a test; reduction of thyroxine dose to 50 μg/day allowed for maintaining TSH level within the desired range until delivery. Six women had TSH levels over 4.5 mUI/ml in one test; in all of them, increase in thyroxine dose to 100 μg/day allowed for maintaining the level within the desired range until delivery. Fixed daily doses of thyroxine 75 μg allowed for achieving goal TSH levels in most of our pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism, irrespective of their weight and baseline TSH level. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Open-Label Single-Sequence Crossover Study Evaluating Pharmacokinetics, Efficacy, and Safety of Once-Daily Dosing of Nitisinone in Patients with Hereditary Tyrosinemia Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffon, Nathalie; Bröijersén, Anders; Palmgren, Ingrid; Rudebeck, Mattias; Olsson, Birgitta

    2018-01-01

    Although nitisinone is successfully used to treat hereditary tyrosinemia type 1 (HT-1) with the recommended twice-daily dosing, data describing a long half-life motivate less frequent dosing. Therefore, in agreement with the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee at the European Medicines Agency, this study was performed to investigate the switch to once-daily dosing. This open-label, non-randomized, single-sequence crossover study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of once-daily compared to twice-daily dosing of nitisinone in patients with HT-1 (NCT02323529). Well-controlled patients of dry blood spots by tandem mass spectrometry. The primary endpoint was C min of nitisinone after ≥4 weeks of treatment on each dosing regimen. Secondary objectives were evaluation of efficacy and safety during each dosing regimen. In total, 19 patients were enrolled and 17 included in the per-protocol analysis set. The mean (SD) nitisinone C min decreased by 23%, from 26.4 (10.2) to 21.2 (9.9) μmol/L in dry blood spot samples (not equivalent to plasma concentrations), when patients switched from twice- to once-daily dosing. There was no apparent age- or bodyweight-related trend in the degree of C min decrease. No patient had quantifiable succinylacetone levels during the once-daily treatment period, indicating efficacious treatment. All adverse events were mild or moderate and judged unrelated to nitisinone. The switch to once-daily treatment with nitisinone appeared efficacious and safe in the treatment of patients with HT-1.

  14. Using Six Sigma to improve once daily gentamicin dosing and therapeutic drug monitoring performance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Egan, Sean

    2012-08-07

    BACKGROUND: Safe, effective therapy with the antimicrobial gentamicin requires good practice in dose selection and monitoring of serum levels. Suboptimal therapy occurs with breakdown in the process of drug dosing, serum blood sampling, laboratory processing and level interpretation. Unintentional underdosing may result. This improvement effort aimed to optimise this process in an academic teaching hospital using Six Sigma process improvement methodology. METHODS: A multidisciplinary project team was formed. Process measures considered critical to quality were defined, and baseline practice was examined through process mapping and audit. Root cause analysis informed improvement measures. These included a new dosing and monitoring schedule, and standardised assay sampling and drug administration timing which maximised local capabilities. Three iterations of the improvement cycle were conducted over a 24-month period. RESULTS: The attainment of serum level sampling in the required time window improved by 85% (p≤0.0001). A 66% improvement in accuracy of dosing was observed (p≤0.0001). Unnecessary dose omission while awaiting level results and inadvertent disruption to therapy due to dosing and monitoring process breakdown were eliminated. Average daily dose administered increased from 3.39 mg\\/kg to 4.78 mg\\/kg\\/day. CONCLUSIONS: Using Six Sigma methodology enhanced gentamicin usage process performance. Local process related factors may adversely affect adherence to practice guidelines for gentamicin, a drug which is complex to use. It is vital to adapt dosing guidance and monitoring requirements so that they are capable of being implemented in the clinical environment as a matter of routine. Improvement may be achieved through a structured localised approach with multidisciplinary stakeholder involvement.

  15. Estimating total maximum daily loads with the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory; Jones, Susan Cheung

    2017-01-01

    The Massachusetts Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Rhode Island DOT are assessing and addressing roadway contributions to total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Example analyses for total nitrogen, total phosphorus, suspended sediment, and total zinc in highway runoff were done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with FHWA to simulate long-term annual loads for TMDL analyses with the stochastic empirical loading and dilution model known as SELDM. Concentration statistics from 19 highway runoff monitoring sites in Massachusetts were used with precipitation statistics from 11 long-term monitoring sites to simulate long-term pavement yields (loads per unit area). Highway sites were stratified by traffic volume or surrounding land use to calculate concentration statistics for rural roads, low-volume highways, high-volume highways, and ultraurban highways. The median of the event mean concentration statistics in each traffic volume category was used to simulate annual yields from pavement for a 29- or 30-year period. Long-term average yields for total nitrogen, phosphorus, and zinc from rural roads are lower than yields from the other categories, but yields of sediment are higher than for the low-volume highways. The average yields of the selected water quality constituents from high-volume highways are 1.35 to 2.52 times the associated yields from low-volume highways. The average yields of the selected constituents from ultraurban highways are 1.52 to 3.46 times the associated yields from high-volume highways. Example simulations indicate that both concentration reduction and flow reduction by structural best management practices are crucial for reducing runoff yields.

  16. Effects of total dose of ionizing radiation on integrated circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Marcilei A.G.; Cirne, K.H.; Gimenez, S.; Santos, R.B.B. [Centro Universitario da FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil); Added, N.; Barbosa, M.D.L.; Medina, N.H.; Tabacniks, M.H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Lima, J.A. de; Seixas Junior, L.E.; Melo, W. [Centro de Tecnologia da Informacao Paulo Archer, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The study of ionizing radiation effects on materials used in electronic devices is of great relevance for the progress of global technological development and, particularly, it is a necessity in some strategic areas in Brazil. Electronic circuits are strongly influenced by radiation and the need for IC's featuring radiation hardness is largely growing to meet the stringent environment in space electronics. On the other hand, aerospace agencies are encouraging both scientific community and semiconductors industry to develop hardened-by-design components using standard manufacturing processes to achieve maximum performance, while significantly reducing costs. To understand the physical phenomena responsible for changes in devices exposed to ionizing radiation several kinds of radiation should then be considered, among them alpha particles, protons, gamma and X-rays. Radiation effects on the integrated circuits are usually divided into two categories: total ionizing dose (TID), a cumulative dose that shifts the threshold voltage and increases transistor's off-state current; single events effects (SEE), a transient effect which can deposit charge directly into the device and disturb the properties of electronic circuits. TID is one of the most common effects and may generate degradation in some parameters of the CMOS electronic devices, such as the threshold voltage oscillation, increase of the sub-threshold slope and increase of the off-state current. The effects of ionizing radiation are the creation of electron-hole pairs in the oxide layer changing operation mode parameters of the electronic device. Indirectly, there will be also changes in the device due to the formation of secondary electrons from the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with the material, since the charge carriers can be trapped both in the oxide layer and in the interface with the oxide. In this work we have investigated the behavior of MOSFET devices fabricated with

  17. Estimation of the total daily oral intake of NDMA attributable to drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristachi, Anthony; Rice, Glenn

    2007-09-01

    Disinfection with chlorine and chloramine leads to the formation of many disinfection by-products including N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Because NDMA is a probable human carcinogen, public health officials are concerned with its occurrence in drinking water. The goal of this study was to estimate NDMA concentrations from exogenous (i.e., drinking water and food) and endogenous (i.e., formed in the human body) sources, calculate average daily doses for ingestion route exposures and estimate the proportional oral intake (POI) of NDMA attributable to the consumption of drinking water relative to other ingestion sources of NDMA. The POI is predicted to be 0.02% relative to exogenous and endogenous NDMA sources combined. When only exogenous sources are considered, the POI was predicted to be 2.7%. The exclusion of endogenously formed NDMA causes the POI to increase dramatically, reflecting its importance as a potentially major source of exposure and uncertainty in the model. Although concentrations of NDMA in foods are small and human exposure to NDMA from foods is quite low, the contribution from food is predicted to be high relative to that of drinking water. The mean concentration of NDMA in drinking water would need to increase from 2.1 x 10(-3) microg/L to 0.10 microg/L, a 47-fold increase, for the POI to reach 1%, relative to all sources of NDMA considered in our model, suggesting that drinking water consumption is most likely a minor source of NDMA exposure.

  18. Dose-escalated total body irradiation and autologous stem cell transplantation for refractory hematologic malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, Steven L.; Powell, Simon N.; Colby, Christine; Spitzer, Thomas R.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of dose escalation of total body irradiation (TBI) above the previously reported maximally tolerated dose, we have undertaken a Phase I-II trial of dose-escalated TBI with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) for chemotherapy-refractory lymphoma. Methods and Materials: Nine lymphoma patients with primary refractory disease (PRD) or in resistant relapse (RR) received dose-escalated TBI and PBSCT. The three dose levels of fractionated TBI (200 cGy twice daily) were 1,600 cGy, 1,800 cGy, and 2,000 cGy. Lung blocks were used to reduce the TBI transmission dose by 50%, and the chest wall dose was supplemented to the prescribed dose using electrons. Shielding of the kidneys was performed to keep the maximal renal dose at 1,600 cGy. Three patients, two with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in RR and one with PRD Hodgkin's disease, received 1,600 cGy + PBSCT, three patients (two NHL in RR, one PRD) received 1,800 cGy + PBSCT, and three patients with NHL (two in RR, one PRD) received 2,000 cGy + PBSCT. Results: Toxicities associated with this high-dose TBI regimen included reversible hepatic veno-occlusive disease in 1 patient, Grade 2 mucositis requiring narcotic analgesics in 8 patients, and neurologic toxicities consisting of a symmetrical sensory neuropathy (n=4) and Lhermitte's syndrome (n=1). Interstitial pneumonitis developed in 1 patient who received 1,800 cGy after receiving recombinant α-interferon (with exacerbation after rechallenge with interferon). Six (66%) patients achieved a response. Four (44%) patients achieved complete responses, three of which were of a duration greater than 1 year, and 2 (22%) patients achieved a partial response. One patient remains disease-free more than 5 years posttransplant. Corticosteroid-induced gastritis and postoperative infection resulted in the death of 1 patient in complete response, 429 days posttransplant. Conclusion: TBI in a dose range 1,600-2,000 cGy as

  19. Relationship of dose rate and total dose to responses of continuously irradiated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Norris, W.P.; Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Poole, C.M.; Lombard, L.S.; Doyle, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Young-adult beagles were exposed continuously (22 hours/day) to 60 Co γ rays in a specially constructed facility. The exposure rates were either 5, 10, 17, or 35 R/day, and the exposures were terminated at either 600, 1400, 2000, or 4000 R. A total of 354 dogs were irradiated; 221 are still alive as long-term survivors, some after more than 2000 days. The data on survival of these dogs, coupled with data from similar preliminary experiments, allow an estimate of the LD 50 for γ-ray exposures given at a number of exposure rates. They also allow comparison of the relative importance of dose rate and total dose, and the interaction of these two variables, in the early and late effects after protracted irradiation. The LD 50 for the beagle increases from 258 rad delivered at 15 R/minute to approximately 3000 rad at 10 R/day. Over this entire range, the LD 50 is dependent upon hematopoietic damage. At 5 R/day and less, no meaningful LD 50 can be determined; there is nearly normal continued hematopoietic function, survival is prolonged, and the dogs manifest varied individual responses in other organ systems. Although the experiment is not complete, interim data allow several important conclusions. Terminated exposures, while not as effective as radiation continued until death, can produce myelogenous leukemia at the same exposure rate, 10 R/day. More importantly, at the same total accumulated dose, lower exposure rates are more damaging than higher rates on the basis of the rate and degree of hematological recovery that occurs after termination of irradiation. Thus, the rate of hematologic depression, the nadir of the depression, and the rate of recovery are dependent upon exposure rate; the latter is inversely related and the former two are directly related to exposure rate

  20. Relationship of dose rate and total dose to responses of continuously irradiated beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Norris, W.P.; Tolle, D.V.; Seed, T.M.; Poole, C.M.; Lombard, L.S.; Doyle, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Young-adult beagles were exposed continuously (22 hours/day) to 60 Co gamma rays in a specially constructed facility. The exposure rates were 5, 19, 17 or 35 R/day, and the exposures were terminated at 600, 1400, 2000 or 4000 R. A total of 354 dogs were irradiated; 221 are still alive as long-term survivors, some after more than 2000 days. The data on survival of these dogs, coupled with data from similar preliminary experiments, allow an estimate of the LD 50 for gamma-ray exposures given at a number of exposure rates. They also allow comparison of the relativeimportance of dose rate and total dose, and the interaction of these two variables, in the early and late effects after protracted irradiation. The LD 50 for the beagle increases from 344 R (258 rads) delivered at 15 R/minute to approximately 4000 R (approximately 3000 rads) at 10 R/day. Over this entire range, the LD 50 is dependent upon haematopoietic damage. At 5 R/day and less, no definitive LD 50 can be determined; there is nearly normal continued haematopoietic function, survival is prolonged, and the dogs manifest varied individual responses in the organ systems. Although the experiment is not complete, interim data allow serveral important conclusions. Terminated exposures, while not as effective as irradiation continued until death, can produce myelogenous leukaemia at the same exposure rate, 10 R/day. More importantly, at the same total accumulated dose, lower exposure rates appear more damaging than higher rates on the basis of the rate and degree of haematological recovery that occurs after termination of irradiation. Thus, the rate of haematologic depression, the nadir of the depression and the rate of recovery are dependent upon exposure rate; the latter is inversely related and the first two are directly related to exposure rate. ( author)

  1. Doses from pediatric CT examinations in Norway: are pediatric scan protocols developed and in daily use?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friberg, Eva G.

    2008-01-01

    Doses to pediatric patients from CT examinations are known to be unnecessarily high if scan protocols developed for adult patients are adopted. This overexposure is most often not recognized by the operating radiographer, due to the digital behavior of the imaging system. Use of optimized size-specific pediatric scan protocols is therefore essential to keep the doses at an appropriate level. The aim of this study was to investigate the doses to pediatric patients from CT examinations and to evaluate the level of optimization of the scan protocols. Patient data, applied scan parameters together with the dose parameters volume computed tomography dose index (CTD vol ) and dose length product (DLP) for examinations of the head, chest and abdomen were collected by means of a questionnaire from five university hospitals. The effective dose was estimated from the total DLP by use of region-specific conversion coefficients (E DLP ). Totally 136, 108 and 82 questionnaires were received for examinations of the head, chest and abdomen, respectively. Large variations in patient doses between the hospitals were observed, addressing the need for optimization of the scan protocols in general. Most of the hospitals applied successive lower mAs with decreasing patient age for all scan areas, while the use of lower tube voltage for small patients and a higher tube voltage for large patients were more rarely. This indicates the presence, to a certain level, of size specific scan protocols at some Norwegian hospitals. Focus on developing size-specific scan protocols for pediatric patients are important to reduce the doses and risks associated with pediatric CT examinations. (author)

  2. New Insights into Fully-Depleted SOI Transistor Response During Total Dose Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.A.; Dodd, P.E.; Keast, C.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Wyatt, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    Worst-case bias configuration for total-dose testing fully-depleted SOI transistors was found to be process dependent. No evidence was found for total-dose induced snap back. These results have implications for hardness assurance testing

  3. Modification of the biologic dose to normal tissue by daily fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollin, M; Kagan, A R [Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Los Angeles Calif. (USA). Dep. of Radiation Therapy

    1976-12-01

    A method to predict normal tissue injury is proposed that includes high daily doses and unusual times successfully by calculating a new value called BIR (Biologic Index of Reaction). BIR and NSD were calculated for various normal tissue reactions. With the aid of statistical correlation techniques it is found that the BIR model is better than the NSD model in predicting radiation myelopathy and vocal edema and as good as NSD IN PREDICTING RIB FRACTURE/ Neither model predicts pericardial effusion. In no case were the results of BIR inferior to those of NSD.

  4. Dose compensation of the total body irradiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.-P.; Chu, T.-C.; Liu, M.-T.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study is to improve dose uniformity in the body by the compensator-rice and to decrease the dose to the lung by the partial lung block. Rando phantom supine was set up to treat bilateral fields with a 15 MV linear accelerator at 415 cm treatment distance. The experimental procedure included three parts. The first part was the bilateral irradiation without rice compensator, and the second part was with rice compensator. In the third part, rice compensator and partial lung block were both used. The results of thermoluminescent dosimeters measurements indicated that without rice compensator the dose was non-uniform. Contrarily, the average dose homogeneity with rice compensator was measured within ±5%, except for the thorax region. Partial lung block can reduce the dose which the lung received. This is a simple method to improve the dose homogeneity and to reduce the lung dose received. The compensator-rice is cheap, and acrylic boxes are easy to obtain. Therefore, this technique is suitable for more studies

  5. Hearing loss due to concurrent daily low-dose cisplatin chemoradiation for locally advanced head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuur, Charlotte L.; Simis, Yvonne J.W.; Verkaik, Roxanna S.; Schornagel, Jan H.; Balm, Alfons J.M.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Rasch, Coen R.N.

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Cisplatin-based chemo-irradiation (CRT) is increasingly used for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We aimed to assess hearing deterioration due to low-dose cisplatin chemoradiation and to compare the observed hearing loss with hearing loss in our previously described high-dose cisplatin CRT cohort. Materials and methods: A prospective analysis of hearing thresholds at low and (ultra)-high frequencies obtained before and after treatment in 60 patients. Patients received low-dose cisplatin (6 mg/m 2 , daily infusions, 20-25 days) with concomitant accelerated radiotherapy (70 Gy). Results: Audiometry up to 16 kHz was performed before therapy and 31 days (median) post-treatment. The total incidence of ototoxicity in CTCAEv3.0 was 31% in audiograms up to 8 kHz, and 5% of ears tested qualified for HAs due to treatment. The mean hearing loss at speech frequencies was 2.6 dB (SD 5.7) and 2.3 dB (SD 9.2) at PTA 1-2-4 kHz air-conduction and bone-conduction, respectively. The mean hearing loss at ultra-high frequencies (PTA AC 8-10-12.5 kHz) was 9.0 dB (SD 8.1). Low-dose cisplatin CRT caused less acute hearing loss (CTCAE 31%), compared to high-dose cisplatin CRT (CTCAE 78%). Conclusions: Low-dose cisplatin chemo-irradiation for HNSCC is a relatively safe treatment protocol with respect to ototoxicity

  6. Economic total maximum daily load for watershed-based pollutant trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, A Z; deMonsabert, S M

    2015-04-01

    Water quality trading (WQT) is supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) under the framework of its total maximum daily load (TMDL) program. An innovative approach is presented in this paper that proposes post-TMDL trade by calculating pollutant rights for each pollutant source within a watershed. Several water quality trading programs are currently operating in the USA with an objective to achieve overall pollutant reduction impacts that are equivalent or better than TMDL scenarios. These programs use trading ratios for establishing water quality equivalence among pollutant reductions. The inbuilt uncertainty in modeling the effects of pollutants in a watershed from both the point and nonpoint sources on receiving waterbodies makes WQT very difficult. A higher trading ratio carries with it increased mitigation costs, but cannot ensure the attainment of the required water quality with certainty. The selection of an applicable trading ratio, therefore, is not a simple process. The proposed approach uses an Economic TMDL optimization model that determines an economic pollutant reduction scenario that can be compared with actual TMDL allocations to calculate selling/purchasing rights for each contributing source. The methodology is presented using the established TMDLs for the bacteria (fecal coliform) impaired Muddy Creek subwatershed WAR1 in Rockingham County, Virginia, USA. Case study results show that an environmentally and economically superior trading scenario can be realized by using Economic TMDL model or any similar model that considers the cost of TMDL allocations.

  7. Bayesian modeling of the assimilative capacity component of nutrient total maximum daily loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, B. R.

    2008-08-01

    Implementing stream restoration techniques and best management practices to reduce nonpoint source nutrients implies enhancement of the assimilative capacity for the stream system. In this paper, a Bayesian method for evaluating this component of a total maximum daily load (TMDL) load capacity is developed and applied. The joint distribution of nutrient retention metrics from a literature review of 495 measurements was used for Monte Carlo sampling with a process transfer function for nutrient attenuation. Using the resulting histograms of nutrient retention, reference prior distributions were developed for sites in which some of the metrics contributing to the transfer function were measured. Contributing metrics for the prior include stream discharge, cross-sectional area, fraction of storage volume to free stream volume, denitrification rate constant, storage zone mass transfer rate, dispersion coefficient, and others. Confidence of compliance (CC) that any given level of nutrient retention has been achieved is also determined using this approach. The shape of the CC curve is dependent on the metrics measured and serves in part as a measure of the information provided by the metrics to predict nutrient retention. It is also a direct measurement, with a margin of safety, of the fraction of export load that can be reduced through changing retention metrics. For an impaired stream in western Oklahoma, a combination of prior information and measurement of nutrient attenuation was used to illustrate the proposed approach. This method may be considered for TMDL implementation.

  8. Intraspecies variation in BMR does not affect estimates of early hominin total daily energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehle, Andrew W; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2006-12-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 45 studies reporting basal metabolic rate (BMR) data for Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes to determine the effects of sex, age, and latitude (a proxy for climate, in humans only). BMR was normalized for body size using fat-free mass in humans and body mass in chimpanzees. We found no effect of sex in either species and no age effect in chimpanzees. In humans, juveniles differed significantly from adults (ANCOVA: P BMR and body size, and used them to predict total daily energy expenditure (TEE) in four early hominin species. Our predictions concur with previous TEE estimates (i.e. Leonard and Robertson: Am J Phys Anthropol 102 (1997) 265-281), and support the conclusion that TEE increased greatly with H. erectus. Our results show that intraspecific variation in BMR does not affect TEE estimates for interspecific comparisons. Comparisons of more closely related groups such as humans and Neandertals, however, may benefit from consideration of this variation. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Improved metabolic control in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), responsive phenylketonuria with sapropterin administered in two divided doses vs. a single daily dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kör, Deniz; Yılmaz, Berna Şeker; Bulut, Fatma Derya; Ceylaner, Serdar; Mungan, Neslihan Önenli

    2017-07-26

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) often requires a lifelong phenylalanine (Phe)-restricted diet. Introduction of 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) has made a huge difference in the diets of patients with PKU. BH4 is the co-factor of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) and improves PAH activity and, thus, Phe tolerance in the diet. A limited number of published studies suggest a pharmacodynamic profile of BH4 more suitable to be administered in divided daily doses. After a 72-h BH4 loading test, sapropterin was initiated in 50 responsive patients. This case-control study was conducted by administering the same daily dose of sapropterin in group 1 (n=24) as a customary single dose or in two divided doses in group 2 (n=26) over 1 year. Mean daily consumption of Phe increased significantly after the first year of BH4 treatment in group 2 compared to group 1 (p<0.05). At the end of the first year of treatment with BH4, another dramatic difference observed between the two groups was the ability to transition to a Phe-free diet. Eight patients from group 2 and two from group 1 could quit dietary restriction. When given in two divided daily doses, BH4 was more efficacious than a single daily dose in increasing daily Phe consumption, Phe tolerance and the ability to transition to a Phe-unrestricted diet at the end of the first year of treatment.

  10. Total dose and dose rate radiation characterization of EPI-CMOS radiation hardened memory and microprocessor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingerich, B.L.; Hermsen, J.M.; Lee, J.C.; Schroeder, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The process, circuit discription, and total dose radiation characteristics are presented for two second generation hardened 4K EPI-CMOS RAMs and a first generation 80C85 microprocessor. Total dose radiation performance is presented to 10M rad-Si and effects of biasing and operating conditions are discussed. The dose rate sensitivity of the 4K RAMs is also presented along with single event upset (SEU) test data

  11. Association of total daily physical activity with disability in community-dwelling older persons: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Raj C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on findings primarily using self-report measures, physical activity has been recommended to reduce disability in old age. Collecting objective measures of total daily physical activity in community-dwelling older adults is uncommon, but might enhance the understanding of the relationship of physical activity and disability. We examined whether greater total daily physical activity was associated with less report of disability in the elderly. Methods Data were from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a longitudinal prospective cohort study of common, age-related, chronic conditions. Total daily physical activity was measured in community-dwelling participants with an average age of 82 using actigraphy for approximately 9 days. Disability was measured via self-reported basic activities of daily living (ADL. The odds ratio and 95% Confidence Interval (CI were determined for the baseline association of total daily physical activity and ADL disability using a logistic regression model adjusted for age, education level, gender and self-report physical activity. In participants without initial report of ADL disability, the hazard ratio and 95% CI were determined for the relationship of baseline total daily physical activity and the development of ADL disability using a discrete time Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for demographics and self-report physical activity. Results In 870 participants, the mean total daily physical activity was 2. 9 × 105 counts/day (range in 105 counts/day = 0.16, 13. 6 and the mean hours/week of self-reported physical activity was 3.2 (SD = 3.6. At baseline, 718 (82.5% participants reported being independent in all ADLs. At baseline, total daily physical activity was protective against disability (OR per 105 counts/day difference = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.47, 0.65. Of the participants without baseline disability, 584 were followed for 3.4 years on average. Each 105 counts/day additional total

  12. Is Daily Low-Dose Aspirin Safe to Take Following Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass for Obesity Surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xian; Hong, Dennis; Anvari, Mehran; Tiboni, Maria; Amin, Nalin; Gmora, Scott

    2017-05-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery is a safe and effective procedure for patients with severe obesity. One potential complication of LRYGB is the development of marginal ulcers (MUs). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to significantly increase the likelihood of developing marginal ulcers after surgery. However, the risk associated with low-dose aspirin consumption is not well defined. We examined the impact of daily low-dose aspirin (81 mg) on the development of marginal ulcers following LRYGB. A retrospective cohort design studied patients undergoing LRYGB surgery, between January 2009 and January 2013, at a single, high-volume bariatric center in Ontario, Canada. The marginal ulcer rate of patients taking low-dose aspirin after surgery was compared to that of the control patients who did not take any NSAID. Diagnosis of MU was confirmed by upper endoscopy in patients presenting with symptoms and a history indicative of marginal ulceration. A chi-square test of independence was performed to examine the difference in marginal ulcer rates. A total of 1016 patients underwent LRYGB. Patients taking aspirin were more likely to be male, older, and have diabetes than patients not taking NSAIDs. Of the 1016 patients, 145 (14.3%) took low-dose aspirin following LRYGB and the rest did not (n = 871, 85.7%). The incidence of marginal ulceration was not significantly different between the two treatment groups (12/145, 8.3% versus 90/871, 10.3%; p = 0.45). Patients treated with LRYGB at our institution were not at increased risk of marginal ulcer formation when taking low-dose aspirin after surgery.

  13. Evaluation of accelerated test parameters for CMOS IC total dose hardness prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogoyan, A.V.; Nikiforov, A.Y.; Chumakov, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    The approach to accelerated test parameters evaluation is presented in order to predict CMOS IC total dose behavior in variable dose-rate environment. The technique is based on the analytical model of MOSFET parameters total dose degradation. The simple way to estimate model parameter is proposed using IC's input-output MOSFET radiation test results. (authors)

  14. An ecological function and services approach to total maximum daily load (TMDL) prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert K; Guiliano, David; Swanson, Sherman; Philbin, Michael J; Lin, John; Aron, Joan L; Schafer, Robin J; Heggem, Daniel T

    2014-04-01

    Prioritizing total maximum daily load (TMDL) development starts by considering the scope and severity of water pollution and risks to public health and aquatic life. Methodology using quantitative assessments of in-stream water quality is appropriate and effective for point source (PS) dominated discharge, but less so in watersheds with mostly nonpoint source (NPS) related impairments. For NPSs, prioritization in TMDL development and implementation of associated best management practices should focus on restoration of ecosystem physical functions, including how restoration effectiveness depends on design, maintenance and placement within the watershed. To refine the approach to TMDL development, regulators and stakeholders must first ask if the watershed, or ecosystem, is at risk of losing riparian or other ecologically based physical attributes and processes. If so, the next step is an assessment of the spatial arrangement of functionality with a focus on the at-risk areas that could be lost, or could, with some help, regain functions. Evaluating stream and wetland riparian function has advantages over the traditional means of water quality and biological assessments for NPS TMDL development. Understanding how an ecosystem functions enables stakeholders and regulators to determine the severity of problem(s), identify source(s) of impairment, and predict and avoid a decline in water quality. The Upper Reese River, Nevada, provides an example of water quality impairment caused by NPS pollution. In this river basin, stream and wetland riparian proper functioning condition (PFC) protocol, water quality data, and remote sensing imagery were used to identify sediment sources, transport, distribution, and its impact on water quality and aquatic resources. This study found that assessments of ecological function could be used to generate leading (early) indicators of water quality degradation for targeting pollution control measures, while traditional in-stream water

  15. 40 CFR 130.7 - Total maximum daily loads (TMDL) and individual water quality-based effluent limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Total maximum daily loads (TMDL) and individual water quality-based effluent limitations. 130.7 Section 130.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.7 Total...

  16. Whole-body dose meters. Measurements of total activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, P.; Klinikum Steglitz, Berlin

    1990-01-01

    By means of measurements using a whole-body dose meter, the course of the incorporation of radionuclides was established between April 1986 and May 1989 for unchanged conditions of alimentation, activity-conscious alimentation, and uniquely increased incorporation. Monitoring covered persons from the most different spheres of life. The incorporation is compared with the one resulting from nuclear weapons explosions in the atmosphere. (DG) [de

  17. Pharmacokinetics of and short-term virologic response to low-dose 400-milligram once-daily raltegravir maintenance therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ananworanich, J.; Gorowara, M.; Avihingsanon, A.; Kerr, S.J.; Heesch, N. van; Khongpetch, C.; Uanithirat, A.; Hill, A.; Ruxrungtham, K.; Burger, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Because studies showed similar viral suppression with lower raltegravir doses and because Asians usually have high antiretroviral concentrations, we explored low-dose raltegravir therapy in Thais. Nineteen adults on raltegravir at 400 mg twice daily (BID) with HIV RNA loads of <50 copies/ml were

  18. The economics of 4 grams once daily mesalazine dosing compared with 4 grams twice daily in active ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, M.; Kuyvenhoven, J.; Postma, M.; Nielsen, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dosing frequency is an important treatment consideration that has been shown to influence adherence and outcomes when treating ulcerative colitis (UC). In this analysis we evaluate the economic consequences of outcome differences observed in the study comparing mesalazine 4g per day once

  19. The daily radon dose in body organs caused by drinking milk and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoureh Mansour Bahmani; Mohammad Reza Rezaie; Elham Rezvan Nejad; Hassan Reza Dehghan

    2014-01-01

    Milk is considered as the richest nutrition, being used by people. When drinking milk or water the radon gas will transfer from air to them rapidly. Since milk is majorly composed of water, probably radon existence in livestock consumable water could be the main cause of its presence in milk. Different portion of milk changed by radon gamma ray and consumption of radon included water or milk has its effects on the human body. For investigation the effect of radon in water or milk on human organs, this study has been done in two phases with MCNPX software. In the first phase, the dose rate of absorbed gamma ray by different portion of milk which is indoctrinated by 1 Bq/m 3 of radon during a day is calculated. Moreover, the effects shown by milk and its components in radon gamma spectrum, which is demonstrator of milk absorption spectrum, are also surveyed. In the second phase as well, according to the human body phantom, the absorbed gamma dose caused by daily consumption of indoctrinated water or milk with 1 Bq/m 3 radon is calculated. The production rate of free radicals in milk and its different components are derived according to escape data of MCNPX code. (author)

  20. Twice-daily dosing of esomeprazole effectively inhibits acid secretion in CYP2C19 rapid metabolisers compared with twice-daily omeprazole, rabeprazole or lansoprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahara, S; Sugimoto, M; Uotani, T; Ichikawa, H; Yamade, M; Iwaizumi, M; Yamada, T; Osawa, S; Sugimoto, K; Umemura, K; Miyajima, H; Furuta, T

    2013-11-01

    Twice-daily dosing of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is used to treat Helicobacter pylori or acid-related diseases, such as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) refractory to standard dose of a PPI. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19 are involved to different extents in the metabolism of four kinds of PPIs (omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole and esomeprazole) available in Japan. To compare acid-inhibitory effects of the four PPIs dosed twice daily in relation to CYP2C19 genotype. We performed 24-h pH monitoring studies on Day 7 of PPI treatment for 40 Japanese H. pylori-negative volunteers [15 CYP2C19 rapid metabolisers (RMs), 15 intermediate metabolisers (IMs) and 10 poor metabolisers (PMs)] using a randomised four-way crossover design: omeprazole 20 mg, esomeprazole 20 mg, lansoprazole 30 mg and rabeprazole 10 mg twice daily. Although median pH values with esomeprazole, omeprazole, lansoprazole and rabeprazole were 5.7 (3.5-7.2), 5.5 (2.4-7.2), 5.5 (3.7-7.3) and 5.2 (2.5-7.3), respectively (no statistically significant differences), CYP2C19 genotype-dependent differences were smaller for esomeprazole and rabeprazole compared with values for omeprazole and lansoprazole. In CYP2C19 RMs, the median pH with esomeprazole [5.4 (3.5-6.8)] was significantly higher than those with omeprazole [5.0 (2.4-5.9), P = 0.018], lansoprazole [4.7 (3.7-5.5), P = 0.017] or rabeprazole [4.8 (2.5-6.4), P = 0.002]. In IMs and PMs, the median pH was >5.0 independent of the PPI. In intermediate and rapid metabolisers of CYP2C19, PPIs dosed twice daily could attain sufficient acid suppression, while in CYP2C19 RMs, esomeprazole 20 mg twice daily caused the strongest inhibition of the four PPIs. Therefore, esomeprazole may be effective in Japanese population when dosed twice daily. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Aerosol Index UV-Reflectivity UV-B Erythemal Irradiances Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 8 Daily Gridded Data consist of daily, global coverage of total column ozone, aerosol index, Lambertian effective...

  2. Marrow toxicity of fractionated vs. single dose total body irradiation is identical in a canine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storb, R.; Raff, R.F.; Graham, T.; Appelbaum, F.R.; Deeg, H.J.; Schuening, F.G.; Shulman, H.; Pepe, M.

    1993-01-01

    The authors explored in dogs the marrow toxicity of single dose total body irradiation delivered from two opposing 60 Co sources at a rate of 10 cGy/min and compared results to those seen with total body irradiation administered in 100 cGy fractions with minimum interfraction intervals of 6 hr. Dogs were not given marrow transplants. They found that 200 cGy single dose total body irradiation was sublethal, with 12 of 13 dogs showing hematopoietic recovery and survival. Seven of 21 dogs given 300 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to 6 of 10 dogs given 300 cGy fractionated total body irradiation. One of 28 dogs given 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation survived compared to none of six given fractionated radiation. With granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) administered from day 0-21 after 400 cGy total body irradiation, most dogs survived with hematological recovery. Because of the almost uniform success with GCSF after 400 cGy single dose total body irradiation, a study of GCSF after 400 cGy fractionated total body irradiation was deemed not to be informative and, thus, not carried out. Additional comparisons between single dose and fractionated total body irradiation were carried out with GCSF administered after 500 and 600 cGy of total body irradiation. As with lower doses of total body irradiation, no significant survival differences were seen between the two modes of total body irradiation, and only 3 of 26 dogs studied survived with complete hematological recovery. Overall, therefore, survival among dogs given single dose total body irradiation was not different from that of dogs given fractionated total body irradiation (p = .67). Similarly, the slopes of the postirradiation declines of granulocyte and platelet counts and the rates of their recovery in surviving dogs given equal total doses of single versus fractionated total body irradiation were indistinguishable. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Compendium of Total Ionizing Dose and Displacement Damage for Candidate Spacecraft Electronics for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Donna J.; Boutte, Alvin J.; Chen, Dakai; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; Casey, Megan C.; Campola, Michael J.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Obryan, Martha V.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerability of a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to total ionizing dose and displacement damage is studied. Devices tested include optoelectronics, digital, analog, linear, and hybrid devices.

  4. Contribution of complementary foods to the total daily water needs of urban Guatemalan infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enneman, A.; Campos, R.; Hernandez, L.; Palma, A.V.; Vossenaar, M.; Solomons, N.W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Estimates of adequate intake (AI) for water only became available in 2005. The daily water AI for 6-12-month-old infants of both sexes is 800 mL. The present study aimed to estimate the water intake of urban infants receiving both breast milk and complementary feeding (CF) and to compare

  5. TOMS/Earth-Probe Total Ozone Aerosol Index UV-Reflectivity UV-B Erythemal Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 8 daily global gridded data consist of total column ozone, aerosol index, Lambertian effective surface...

  6. Northern Marshall Islands radiological survey: terrestrial food chain and total doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Mount, M.E.; Phillips, W.A.; Conrado, C.A.; Stuart, M.L.; Stoker, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to assess the concentrations of persistent manmade radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands in the Northern Marshall Islands. The survey consisted mainly of an aerial radiological reconnaissance to map the external gamma-ray exposure rates over the islands of each atoll. The logistical support for the entire survey was designed to accommodate this operation. As a secondary phase of the survey, shore parties collected appropriate terrestrial and marine samples to assess the radiological dose from pertinent food chains to those individuals residing on the atolls, who may in the future reside on some of the presently uninhabited atolls, or who collect food from these atolls. Over 5000 terrestrial and marine samples were collected for radionuclide analysis from 76 different islands. Soils, vegetation, indigenous animals, and cistern water and groundwater were collected from the islands. Reef and pelagic fish, clams, lagoon water, and sediments were obtained from the lagoons. The concentration data for 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 240 Pu, and 241 Am in terrestrial food crops, fowl, and animals collected at the atolls or islands are summarized. An assessment of the total dose from the major exposure pathways including external gamma, terrestrial food chain including food products and drinking water, marine food chain, and inhalation is provided. Radiological doses at each atoll or island are calculated from the average radionuclide concentrations in the terrestrial foods, marine foods, etc. assuming the average daily intake for each food item

  7. Influence of daily setup measurements and corrections on the estimated delivered dose during IMRT treatment of prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaren, Paul M.A. van; Bel, Arjan; Hofman, Pieter; Vulpen, Marco van; Kotte, Alexis N.T.J.; Heide, Uulke A. van der

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of marker-based position verification, using daily imaging and an off-line correction protocol, by calculating the delivered dose to prostate, rectum and bladder. Methods: Prostate cancer patients (n = 217) were treated with IMRT, receiving 35 daily fractions. Plans with five beams were optimized taking target coverage (CTV, boost) and organs-at-risk (rectum and bladder) into account. PTV margins were 8 mm. Prostate position was verified daily using implanted fiducial gold markers by imaging the first segment of all the five beams on an EPID. Setup deviations were corrected off-line using an adapted shrinking-action-level protocol. The estimated delivered dose, including daily organ movements, was calculated using a version of PLATO's dose engine, enabling batch processing of large numbers of patients. The dose was calculated ± inclusion of setup corrections, and was evaluated relative to the original static plan. The marker-based measurements were considered representative for all organs. Results: Daily organ movements would result in an underdosage of 2-3 Gy to CTV and boost volume relative to the original plan, which was prevented by daily setup corrections. The dose to rectum and bladder was on average unchanged, but a large spread was introduced by organ movements, which was reduced by including setup corrections. Conclusions: Without position verification and setup corrections, margins of 8mm would be insufficient to account for position uncertainties during IMRT of prostate cancer. With the daily off-line correction protocol, the remaining variations are accommodated adequately

  8. 76 FR 549 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Notice for the Establishment of the Total Maximum Daily Load...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Establishment of the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for the Chesapeake Bay AGENCY: Environmental Protection... that when met will assure the attainment and maintenance of all applicable water quality standards for... productive estuaries in the world. Despite significant efforts by federal, state, and local governments and...

  9. Use of normalized total dose to represent the biological effect of fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickinger, J.C.; Kalend, A.

    1990-01-01

    There are currently a number of radiobiological models to account for the effects of dose fractionation and time. Normalized total dose (NTD) is not another new model but is a previously reported, clinically useful form in which to represent the biological effect, determined by any specific radiobiological dose-fractionation model, of a course of radiation using a single set of standardized, easily understood terminology. The generalized form of NTD reviewed in this paper describes the effect of a course of radiotherapy administered with nonstandard fractionation as the total dose of radiation in Gy that could be administered with a given reference fractionation such as 2 Gy per fraction, 5 fractions per week that would produce an equivalent biological effect (probability of complications or tumor control) as predicted by a given dose-fractionation formula. The use of normalized total dose with several different exponential and linear-quadratic dose-fraction formulas is presented. (author). 51 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  10. Use of normalized total dose to represent the biological effect of fractionated radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flickinger, J C; Kalend, A [Pittsburgh University School of Medicine (USA). Department of Radiation Oncology Pittsburg Cancer Institute (USA)

    1990-03-01

    There are currently a number of radiobiological models to account for the effects of dose fractionation and time. Normalized total dose (NTD) is not another new model but is a previously reported, clinically useful form in which to represent the biological effect, determined by any specific radiobiological dose-fractionation model, of a course of radiation using a single set of standardized, easily understood terminology. The generalized form of NTD reviewed in this paper describes the effect of a course of radiotherapy administered with nonstandard fractionation as the total dose of radiation in Gy that could be administered with a given reference fractionation such as 2 Gy per fraction, 5 fractions per week that would produce an equivalent biological effect (probability of complications or tumor control) as predicted by a given dose-fractionation formula. The use of normalized total dose with several different exponential and linear-quadratic dose-fraction formulas is presented. (author). 51 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab.

  11. Total error shift patterns for daily CT on rails image-guided radiotherapy to the prostate bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Helvecio C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the daily total error shift patterns on post-prostatectomy patients undergoing image guided radiotherapy (IGRT with a diagnostic quality computer tomography (CT on rails system. Methods A total of 17 consecutive post-prostatectomy patients receiving adjuvant or salvage IMRT using CT-on-rails IGRT were analyzed. The prostate bed's daily total error shifts were evaluated for a total of 661 CT scans. Results In the right-left, cranial-caudal, and posterior-anterior directions, 11.5%, 9.2%, and 6.5% of the 661 scans required no position adjustments; 75.3%, 66.1%, and 56.8% required a shift of 1 - 5 mm; 11.5%, 20.9%, and 31.2% required a shift of 6 - 10 mm; and 1.7%, 3.8%, and 5.5% required a shift of more than 10 mm, respectively. There was evidence of correlation between the x and y, x and z, and y and z axes in 3, 3, and 3 of 17 patients, respectively. Univariate (ANOVA analysis showed that the total error pattern was random in the x, y, and z axis for 10, 5, and 2 of 17 patients, respectively, and systematic for the rest. Multivariate (MANOVA analysis showed that the (x,y, (x,z, (y,z, and (x, y, z total error pattern was random in 5, 1, 1, and 1 of 17 patients, respectively, and systematic for the rest. Conclusions The overall daily total error shift pattern for these 17 patients simulated with an empty bladder, and treated with CT on rails IGRT was predominantly systematic. Despite this, the temporal vector trends showed complex behaviors and unpredictable changes in magnitude and direction. These findings highlight the importance of using daily IGRT in post-prostatectomy patients.

  12. Blood responses under chronic low daily dose gamma irradiation: Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, T.M.; Carnes, B.A.; Tolle, D.V.; Fritz, T.E.

    1989-01-01

    Male beagles chronically exposed to low daily doses of 60 Co γ rays show one of three hematopoietic patterns, which reflect three different distinctly responding subgroups: (1) low radioresistance with progressing aplastic anemia and shortened survival ( -S -AA subgroup); (2) high radioresistance with a complex of progressing myeloproliferative disorders ( + R-MPD group); or (3) high radioresistance with other nonMPD syndromes ( + R-nonMPD group). Blood cell levels (granulocytes, monocytes, erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and platelets) were assessed and fitted to a flexible polynomial spline model. Results showed that relative to the overall magnitude of blood cell loss as well as to the maximum rate of suppression during the initial phase, the subgroups were generally ranked - S-AA >> + R-MPD > + R-nonMPD. Relative to the overall strength of the recovery response, the subgroups were generally ranked + R-MPD > + R-nonMPD >>> - S-AA. In terms of overall maintenance levels of circulating blood cells during the recovery phase, however, the + R-nonMPD subgroup consistently exhibited stronger responses than the + R-MPD subgroup. These results support our contention that selected subgroups of dogs have strong propensities to specific hematopathologies (i.e. aplastic anemia and myeloid leukemia) under chronic irradiation and that these pathology-prone animals exhibit a series of marked differential hematopoietic responses during early preclinical phases, which serve effectively to prognosticate subsequent pathological progression. (author)

  13. A randomized controlled trial of vitamin D dosing strategies after acute hip fracture: No advantage of loading doses over daily supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrauto Leonardo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There remains uncertainty regarding the appropriate therapeutic management of hip fracture patients. The primary aim of our study was to examine whether large loading doses in addition to daily vitamin D offered any advantage over a simple daily low-dose vitamin D regimen for increasing vitamin D levels. Methods In this randomized controlled study, patients over age 50 with an acute fragility hip fracture were enrolled from two hospital sites in Ontario, Canada. Participants were randomized to one of three loading dose groups: placebo; 50,000 IU vitamin D2; or 100,000 IU D2. Following a placebo/loading dose, all patients received a daily tablet of 1,000 IU vitamin D3 for 90 days. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD was measured at baseline, discharge from acute care (approximately 4-weeks, and 3-months. Results Sixty-five patients were enrolled in the study (44% male. An immediate rise in 25-OHD occurred in the 100,000 group, however there were no significant differences in 25-OHD between the placebo, 50,000 and 100,000 loading dose groups after 4-weeks (69.3, 84.5, 75.6 nmol/L, p = 0.15 and 3-months (86.7, 84.2, 73.3 nmol/L, p = 0.09, respectively. At the end of the study, approximately 75% of the placebo and 50,000 groups had reached the target therapeutic range (75 nmol/L, and 44% of the 100,000 group. Conclusions In correcting vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in elderly patients with hip fracture, our findings suggest that starting with a lower daily dose of Vitamin D3 achieved similar results as providing an additional large loading dose of Vitamin D2. At the end of the study, all three groups were equally effective in attaining improvement in 25-OHD levels. Given that a daily dose of 1,000 IU vitamin D3 (with or without a loading dose resulted in at least 25% of patients having suboptimal vitamin D status, patients with acute hip fracture may benefit from a higher daily dose of vitamin D. Trial registration Clinical

  14. Application of combined TLD and CR-39 PNTD method for measurement of total dose and dose equivalent on ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, E.R.; Deme, S.; Apathy, I.

    2006-01-01

    To date, no single passive detector has been found that measures dose equivalent from ionizing radiation exposure in low-Earth orbit. We have developed the I.S.S. Passive Dosimetry System (P.D.S.), utilizing a combination of TLD in the form of the self-contained Pille TLD system and stacks of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (P.N.T.D.) oriented in three mutually orthogonal directions, to measure total dose and dose equivalent aboard the International Space Station (I.S.S.). The Pille TLD system, consisting on an on board reader and a large number of Ca 2 SO 4 :Dy TLD cells, is used to measure absorbed dose. The Pille TLD cells are read out and annealed by the I.S.S. crew on orbit, such that dose information for any time period or condition, e.g. for E.V.A. or following a solar particle event, is immediately available. Near-tissue equivalent CR-39 P.N.T.D. provides Let spectrum, dose, and dose equivalent from charged particles of LET ∞ H 2 O ≥ 10 keV/μm, including the secondaries produced in interactions with high-energy neutrons. Dose information from CR-39 P.N.T.D. is used to correct the absorbed dose component ≥ 10 keV/μm measured in TLD to obtain total dose. Dose equivalent from CR-39 P.N.T.D. is combined with the dose component <10 keV/μm measured in TLD to obtain total dose equivalent. Dose rates ranging from 165 to 250 μGy/day and dose equivalent rates ranging from 340 to 450 μSv/day were measured aboard I.S.S. during the Expedition 2 mission in 2001. Results from the P.D.S. are consistent with those from other passive detectors tested as part of the ground-based I.C.C.H.I.B.A.N. intercomparison of space radiation dosimeters. (authors)

  15. Warfarin Dosing Algorithms Underpredict Dose Requirements in Patients Requiring ≥7 mg Daily: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffian, S M; Duffull, S B; Wright, Dfb

    2017-08-01

    There is preliminary evidence to suggest that some published warfarin dosing algorithms produce biased maintenance dose predictions in patients who require higher than average doses. We conducted a meta-analysis of warfarin dosing algorithms to determine if there exists a systematic under- or overprediction of dose requirements for patients requiring ≥7 mg/day across published algorithms. Medline and Embase databases were searched up to September 2015. We quantified the proportion of over- and underpredicted doses in patients whose observed maintenance dose was ≥7 mg/day. The meta-analysis included 47 evaluations of 22 different warfarin dosing algorithms from 16 studies. The meta-analysis included data from 1,492 patients who required warfarin doses of ≥7 mg/day. All 22 algorithms were found to underpredict warfarin dosing requirements in patients who required ≥7 mg/day by an average of 2.3 mg/day with a pooled estimate of underpredicted doses of 92.3% (95% confidence interval 90.3-94.1, I 2 = 24%). © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  16. A single daily dose enhances the adherence to immunosuppressive treatment in kidney transplant recipients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Yoshitsugu; Ichimaru, Naotsugu; Kato, Taigo; Kaimori, Jun-Ya; Okumi, Masayoshi; Yazawa, Koji; Rakugi, Hiromi; Nonomura, Norio; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Takahara, Shiro

    2013-04-01

    Nonadherence to treatment regimens for immunosuppressive agents is one of the major risk factors for allograft failure in kidney transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to estimate the relative effect of daily dosing on treatment adherence, not to identify how patients are non-adherent, in long-term kidney transplant recipients. In January 2009, a cross-sectional, anonymous, and voluntary questionnaire survey was given to kidney transplant recipients who regularly visited Inoue Hospital. A self-reporting questionnaire underestimates nonadherence, but we reasoned that the effect of the dosing regimen should be estimated with relative accuracy by using the generalized ordered logit/partial proportional hazard odds model given that the distribution patterns in the degree of nonadherence have been shown to be similar with other measures. Of 336 eligible patients, 312 (92.9 %) participated in this study. Two hundred seventy-four patients (87.8 %) were more than 3 years post-transplant. Univariate analysis revealed that a single daily dose was significantly associated with better adherence. After controlling for age, sex, time since transplantation, and the number of prescribed drugs, the effect of a single daily dose still remained significant [odds ratio, 0.40 (95 % confidence interval, 0.19-0.81); p = 0.011]. Several sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. To our knowledge, this is the first report that, in long-term kidney transplant recipients, a single daily regimen-one of few modifiable factors-might improve treatment adherence and allograft survival.

  17. Ocular pharmacokinetics and tolerability of bimatoprost ophthalmic solutions administered once or twice daily in rabbits, and clinical dosing implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen J

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Jie Shen,1 Margot L Goodkin,2 Warren Tong,2 Mayssa Attar3 1Clinical Pharmacology, 2Clinical Development, 3Clinical Pharmacology, Metabolism and Immunology, Allergan plc, Irvine, CA, USA Purpose: Fixed-combination medications can benefit patients requiring multiple agents to lower their intraocular pressure (IOP, but combining agents with complementary mechanisms of action is challenging if their dosing frequency differs. This study compares in vivo pharmacokinetic and ocular tolerability of bimatoprost 0.01% ophthalmic solutions dosed once or twice daily. Reports of twice-daily dosing in glaucoma patients are also reviewed.Methods: New Zealand White rabbits were administered bimatoprost 0.01% monotherapy or fixed-combination bimatoprost 0.01%/brimonidine 0.1%, once or twice daily in both eyes for 4 days. Ocular tissues were harvested and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated included maximum observed concentration, time to maximum concentration, and area under the concentration-time curve.Results: Due to extensive metabolism, bimatoprost concentration was below the quantitation limit by 1 hour post-dose in all samples. Bimatoprost acid exposure, however, could be measured up to 6–8 hours post-dose and was similar in the aqueous humor and iris-ciliary body (pharmacological site of action of animals treated once or twice daily with either bimatoprost 0.01% or fixed-combination bimatoprost 0.01%/brimonidine 0.1%. Increasing dosage frequency in rabbits did not raise the incidence of drug-related conjunctival hyperemia (most common adverse event associated with bimatoprost use in humans, suggesting comparable ocular tolerability of the once- and twice-daily regimens for each formulation.Conclusion: Bimatoprost 0.01% administered once or twice daily as monotherapy and in fixed-combination with brimonidine 0.1% in rabbits show similar pharmacokinetic profiles of bimatoprost acid

  18. Ocular pharmacokinetics and tolerability of bimatoprost ophthalmic solutions administered once or twice daily in rabbits, and clinical dosing implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Goodkin, Margot L; Tong, Warren; Attar, Mayssa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Fixed-combination medications can benefit patients requiring multiple agents to lower their intraocular pressure (IOP), but combining agents with complementary mechanisms of action is challenging if their dosing frequency differs. This study compares in vivo pharmacokinetic and ocular tolerability of bimatoprost 0.01% ophthalmic solutions dosed once or twice daily. Reports of twice-daily dosing in glaucoma patients are also reviewed. Methods New Zealand White rabbits were administered bimatoprost 0.01% monotherapy or fixed-combination bimatoprost 0.01%/brimonidine 0.1%, once or twice daily in both eyes for 4 days. Ocular tissues were harvested and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated included maximum observed concentration, time to maximum concentration, and area under the concentration-time curve. Results Due to extensive metabolism, bimatoprost concentration was below the quantitation limit by 1 hour post-dose in all samples. Bimatoprost acid exposure, however, could be measured up to 6–8 hours post-dose and was similar in the aqueous humor and iris-ciliary body (pharmacological site of action) of animals treated once or twice daily with either bimatoprost 0.01% or fixed-combination bimatoprost 0.01%/brimonidine 0.1%. Increasing dosage frequency in rabbits did not raise the incidence of drug-related conjunctival hyperemia (most common adverse event associated with bimatoprost use in humans), suggesting comparable ocular tolerability of the once- and twice-daily regimens for each formulation. Conclusion Bimatoprost 0.01% administered once or twice daily as monotherapy and in fixed-combination with brimonidine 0.1% in rabbits show similar pharmacokinetic profiles of bimatoprost acid, especially in the iris-ciliary body. Key findings from previous clinical studies suggest that by varying the concentration of benzalkonium chloride (a preservative with corneal penetration-enhancing properties

  19. Impact of total ionizing dose on the electromagnetic susceptibility of a single bipolar transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doridant, A.; Jarrix, S.; Raoult, J.; Blain, A.; Dusseau, L.; Chatry, N.; Calvel, P.; Hoffmann, P.

    2012-01-01

    Space or military electronic components are subject to both electromagnetic fields and total ionizing dose. This paper deals with the electromagnetic susceptibility of a discrete low frequency transistor subject to total ionizing dose deposition. The electromagnetic susceptibility is investigated on both non-irradiated and irradiated transistors mounted in common emitter configuration. The change in susceptibility to 100 MHz-1.5 GHz interferences lights up a synergy effect between near field electromagnetic waves and total ionizing dose. Physical mechanisms leading to changes in signal output are detailed. (authors)

  20. Daily total physical activity level and total cancer risk in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Manami; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Kurahashi, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-08-15

    The impact of total physical activity level on cancer risk has not been fully clarified, particularly in non-Western, relatively lean populations. The authors prospectively examined the association between daily total physical activity (using a metabolic equivalents/day score) and subsequent cancer risk in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. A total of 79,771 general-population Japanese men and women aged 45-74 years who responded to a questionnaire in 1995-1999 were followed for total cancer incidence (4,334 cases) through 2004. Compared with subjects in the lowest quartile, increased daily physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased risk of cancer in both sexes. In men, hazard ratios for the second, third, and highest quartiles were 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90, 1.11), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.07), and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.96), respectively (p for trend = 0.005); in women, hazard ratios were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.05), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.96), and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.97), respectively (p for trend = 0.007). The decreased risk was more clearly observed in women than in men, especially among the elderly and those who regularly engaged in leisure-time sports or physical exercise. By site, decreased risks were observed for cancers of the colon, liver, and pancreas in men and for cancer of the stomach in women. Increased daily physical activity may be beneficial in preventing cancer in a relatively lean population.

  1. Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy for cutaneous lymphoma : Minimal risk of acute toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Kai; Elsayad, Khaled; Moustakis, Christos; Haverkamp, Uwe; Eich, Hans Theodor

    2017-12-01

    Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is attracting increased interest for the effective palliative treatment of primary cutaneous T‑cell lymphoma (pCTCL). In this study, we compared toxicity profiles following various radiation doses. We reviewed the records of 60 patients who underwent TSEBT for pCTCL between 2000 and 2016 at the University Hospital of Munster. The treatment characteristics of the radiotherapy (RT) regimens and adverse events (AEs) were then analyzed and compared. In total, 67 courses of TSEBT were administered to 60 patients. Of these patients, 34 (51%) received a standard dose with a median surface dose of 30 Gy and 33 patients (49%) received a low dose with the median surface dose of 12 Gy (7 salvage low-dose TSEBT courses were administered to 5 patients). After a median follow-up of 15 months, the overall AE rate was 100%, including 38 patients (57%) with grade 2 and 7 (10%) with grade 3 AEs. Patients treated with low-dose TSEBT had significantly fewer grade 2 AEs than those with conventional dose regimens (33 vs. 79%, P dose regimen compared to those with the conventional dose regimens (6 vs. 15%, P = 0.78). Multiple/salvage low-dose TSEBT courses were not associated with an increased risk of acute AEs. Low-dose TSEBT regimens are associated with significantly fewer grade 2 acute toxicities compared with conventional doses of TSEBT. Repeated/Salvage low-dose TSEBT, however, appears to be tolerable and can even be applied safely in patients with cutaneous relapses.

  2. Determination of the total indicative dose in drinking and mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flesch, K.; Schulz, H.; Knappik, R.; Koehler, M.

    2006-01-01

    In Europe and Germany administrative regulations exist for the surveillance of the total indicative dose of water supplied for human consumption. This parameter, which cannot be analyzed directly, has to be calculated using nuclide specific activity concentration and age specific dose conversion factors and consumption rates. Available calculation methods differ regarding the used radionuclides, consumption rates and whether they use age specific dose conversion factors or not. In Germany administrative guidelines for the determination of the total indicative dose are still not available. As they have analyzed a large number of waters in the past, the authors derive a praxis orientated concept for the determination of the total indicative dose which respects radiological, analytical and hydrochemical aspects as well. Finally it is suggested to handle sparkling waters in the same manner as drinking waters. (orig.)

  3. Simulation of Shielding Effects on the Total Dose Observed in TDE of KISAT-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Joon Kim

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The threshold voltage shift observed in TDE (Total Dose Experiment on board the KITSAT-1 is converted into dose (rad(SiO2 usinsg the result of laboratory calibration with Co-60 gamma ray source in KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. Simulation using the NASA radiation model of geomagnetosphere verifies that the dose difference between RADFET1 and RADFET3 observed on KITSAT-1 comes from the difference in shielding thickness at the position of these RADFETs.

  4. Development of evaluation method of collective dose of general public considering the daily life activity and time use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaoka, Toshi; Saito, Kimiaki; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1994-11-01

    A code for evaluation of collective dose of general public to natural radiation has been developed, in which the variation of dose rate due to place of stay is taken into consideration. Only external exposure to natural radiation is subject to discussion in this report. Strict manner of dose evaluation requires the dose rate and the time period of stay for each place and for each person. It is possible to know (measure) them all, but not practicable. In this code, dose rate information was obtained from actually measured data by the authors and estimation based on the environmental conditions. Information on the time period of stay was obtained from a Survey Data on Time Use and Leisure Activities by Management and Coordination Agency, and from Statistical Yearbook of Tokyo with some realistic assumptions. By using them, collective dose was evaluated taking both the daily life style and dose rate varying place by place into consideration. In this report, the dose evaluation code and the results about doses for Tokyo citizens are mentioned. (author)

  5. Effect of γ-dose rate and total dose interrelation on the polymeric hydrogel: A novel injectable male contraceptive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Pradeep K.; Jha, Rakhi; Gupta, B.L.; Guha, Sujoy K.

    2010-01-01

    Functional necessity to use a particular range of dose rate and total dose of γ-initiated polymerization to manufacture a novel polymeric hydrogel RISUG (reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance) made of styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) dissolved in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), for its broad biomedical application explores new dimension of research. The present work involves 16 irradiated samples. They were tested by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-TOF, field emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, etc. to see the interrelation effect of gamma dose rates (8.25, 17.29, 20.01 and 25.00 Gy/min) and four sets of doses (1.8, 2.0, 2.2 and 2.4 kGy) on the molecular weight, molecular weight distribution and porosity analysis of the biopolymeric drug RISUG. The results of randomized experiment indicated that a range of 18-24 Gy/min γ-dose rate and 2.0-2.4 kGy γ-total doses is suitable for the desirable in vivo performance of the contraceptive copolymer.

  6. The contact mechanics and occurrence of edge loading in modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement during daily activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of edge loading in hip joint replacement has been associated with many factors such as prosthetic design, component malposition and activities of daily living. The present study aimed to quantify the occurrence of edge loading/contact at the articulating surface and to evaluate the effect of cup angles and edge loading on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR) during different daily activities. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing system. Different cup inclination and anteversion angles were modelled and six daily activities were considered. The results showed that edge loading was predicted during normal walking, ascending and descending stairs activities under steep cup inclination conditions (≥55°) while no edge loading was observed during standing up, sitting down and knee bending activities. The duration of edge loading increased with increased cup inclination angles and was affected by the cup anteversion angles. Edge loading caused elevated contact pressure at the articulating surface and substantially increased equivalent plastic strain of the polyethylene liner. The present study suggested that correct positioning the component to avoid edge loading that may occur during daily activities is important for MoP THR in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Characterization of Radiation Hardened Bipolar Linear Devices for High Total Dose Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Steven S.; Harris, Richard D.; Rax, Bernard G.; Thorbourn, Dennis O.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation hardened linear devices are characterized for performance in combined total dose and displacement damage environments for a mission scenario with a high radiation level. Performance at low and high dose rate for both biased and unbiased conditions is compared and the impact to hardness assurance methodology is discussed.

  8. Compendium of Current Total Ionizing Dose and Displacement Damage Results from NASA GSFC and NEPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, Alyson D.; Campola, Michael J.; Chen, Dakai; Casey, Megan C.; Yau, Ka-Yen; Label, Kenneth A.; Cochran, Donna J.; O'Bryan, Martha V.

    2017-01-01

    Total ionizing dose and displacement damage testing was performed to characterize and determine the suitability of candidate electronics for NASA space utilization. Devices tested include opto-electronics, digital, analog, linear bipolar devices, and hybrid devices.

  9. Recent Total Ionizing Dose and Displacement Damage Compendium of Candidate Electronics for NASA Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Donna J.; Boutte, Alvin J.; Campola, Michael J.; Carts, Martin A.; Casey, Megan C.; Chen, Dakai; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Marshall, Cheryl J.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Vulnerability of a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to total ionizing dose and displacement damage is studied. Devices tested include optoelectronics, digital, analog, linear bipolar devices, and hybrid devices.

  10. The Role of Electron Transport and Trapping in MOS Total-Dose Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, O.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Leray, J.L.; Paillet, P.; Riewe, L.C.; Winokur, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    Deep and shallow electron traps form in irradiated thermal SiO 2 as a natural response to hole transport and trapping. The density and stability of these defects are discussed, as are their implications for total-dose modeling

  11. Total dose effects on the matching properties of deep submicron MOS transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuxin; Hu Rongbin; Li Ruzhang; Chen Guangbing; Fu Dongbing; Lu Wu

    2014-01-01

    Based on 0.18 μm MOS transistors, for the first time, the total dose effects on the matching properties of deep submicron MOS transistors are studied. The experimental results show that the total dose radiation magnifies the mismatch among identically designed MOS transistors. In our experiments, as the radiation total dose rises to 200 krad, the threshold voltage and drain current mismatch percentages of NMOS transistors increase from 0.55% and 1.4% before radiation to 17.4% and 13.5% after radiation, respectively. PMOS transistors seem to be resistant to radiation damage. For all the range of radiation total dose, the threshold voltage and drain current mismatch percentages of PMOS transistors keep under 0.5% and 2.72%, respectively. (semiconductor devices)

  12. Analysis of Surface Dose Refer to Distance between Beam Spoiler and Patient in Total Body Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jong Sik; Choi, Ji Min; Shin, Eun Hyuk; Song, Ki Won; Park, Young Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Total body irradiation is used to kill the total malignant cell and for immunosuppression component of preparatory regimens for bone-marrow restitution of patients. Beam spoiler is used to increase the dose to the superficial tissues. This paper finds the property of the distance between beam spoiler and patient. Set-up conditions are 6 MV-Xray, 300 MU, SAD = 400 cm, field size = 40 x 40 cm 2 . The parallel plate chamber located in surface, midpoint and exit of solid water phantom. The surface dose is measured while the distance between beam spoiler and patient is altered. Because it should be found proper distance. The solid water phantom is fixer and beam spoiler is moving. Central dose of phantom is 10.7 cGy and exit dose is 6.7 cGy. In case of distance of 50 cm to 60 cm between beam spoiler and solid water phantom, incidence dose is 14.58-14.92 cGy. Therefore, The surface dose was measured 99.4-101% with got near most to the prescription dose. In clinical case, distance between beam spoiler and patient affect surface dose. If once 50-60 cm of distance between beam spoiler and patient, surface dose of patient got near prescription dose. It would be taken distance between beam spoiler and patient into account in clinical therapy.

  13. Estimation of the dose distribution within, and total dose to, the body of an acutely overexposed person

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.P. de; Feather, J.I.; Oude, A. de; Language, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    In a case of accidental overexposure of a person, it is important to obtain a reliable value of the whole body dose as well as of the dose distribution within the body. Any follow-up treatment based only on the clinical effects as and when they appear, may result in insufficient or even erroneous therapy. In this respect knowledge of total dose and its distribution within the body may be a valuable aid in deciding on the follow-up treatment, taking into account the latent nature of the clinical effects. The calculated whole body dose and its distribution within the body of a person overexposed to a 192 Ir radiography source, are compared to experimentally determined values. In both cases the calculated values prove to be of sufficient accuracy to serve as an aid in decisions on the follow-up treatment. (author)

  14. Phase I randomized safety study of twice daily dosing of acidform vaginal gel: candidate antimicrobial contraceptive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla J Keller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acidform gel, an acid-buffering product that inactivates spermatozoa, may be an effective topical non-hormonal contraceptive. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of vaginal dosing and effects of Acidform on mucosal immune mediators, antimicrobial properties of genital secretions, and vaginal microbiota. METHODS: Thirty-six sexually abstinent U.S. women were randomized to apply Acidform or hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC placebo gel twice daily for 14 consecutive days. Safety was assessed by symptoms and pelvic examination. The impact of gel on mucosal immunity was assessed by quantifying cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial proteins and antimicrobial activity of genital secretions collected by cervicovaginal lavage (CVL at screening, 2 hours after gel application, and on days 7, 14 and 21. Vaginal microbiota was characterized at enrollment and day 14 using species-specific quantitative PCR assays. RESULTS: The median vaginal and cervical pH was significantly lower 2 hours after application of Acidform and was associated with an increase in the bactericidal activity of CVL against E. coli. However, 65% of women who received Acidform had at least one local adverse event compared with 11% who received placebo (p = 0.002. While there was no increase in inflammatory cytokines or chemokines, CVL concentrations of lactoferrin and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra, an anti-inflammatory protein, were significantly lower following Acidform compared to HEC placebo gel application. There were no significant changes in Lactobacillus crispatus or Lactobacillus jensenii in either group but there was a decrease in Gardnerella vaginalis in the Acidform group (p = 0.08. CONCLUSIONS: Acidform gel may augment mucosal defense as evidenced by an increase in bactericidal activity of genital secretions against E. coli and a decrease in Gardnerella vaginalis colonization. However, Acidform was associated with more irritation than

  15. Phase I Randomized Safety Study of Twice Daily Dosing of Acidform Vaginal Gel: Candidate Antimicrobial Contraceptive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Marla J.; Carpenter, Colleen A.; Lo, Yungtai; Einstein, Mark H.; Liu, Congzhou; Fredricks, David N.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Acidform gel, an acid-buffering product that inactivates spermatozoa, may be an effective topical non-hormonal contraceptive. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of vaginal dosing and effects of Acidform on mucosal immune mediators, antimicrobial properties of genital secretions, and vaginal microbiota. Methods Thirty-six sexually abstinent U.S. women were randomized to apply Acidform or hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) placebo gel twice daily for 14 consecutive days. Safety was assessed by symptoms and pelvic examination. The impact of gel on mucosal immunity was assessed by quantifying cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial proteins and antimicrobial activity of genital secretions collected by cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) at screening, 2 hours after gel application, and on days 7, 14 and 21. Vaginal microbiota was characterized at enrollment and day 14 using species-specific quantitative PCR assays. Results The median vaginal and cervical pH was significantly lower 2 hours after application of Acidform and was associated with an increase in the bactericidal activity of CVL against E. coli. However, 65% of women who received Acidform had at least one local adverse event compared with 11% who received placebo (p = 0.002). While there was no increase in inflammatory cytokines or chemokines, CVL concentrations of lactoferrin and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), an anti-inflammatory protein, were significantly lower following Acidform compared to HEC placebo gel application. There were no significant changes in Lactobacillus crispatus or Lactobacillus jensenii in either group but there was a decrease in Gardnerella vaginalis in the Acidform group (p = 0.08). Conclusions Acidform gel may augment mucosal defense as evidenced by an increase in bactericidal activity of genital secretions against E. coli and a decrease in Gardnerella vaginalis colonization. However, Acidform was associated with more irritation than placebo and lower levels

  16. Low-dose-rate total lymphoid irradiation: a new method of rapid immunosuppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, J.E.; de Silva, S.M.; Rachman, D.B.; Order, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    Total Lymphoid Irradiation (TLI) has been successful in inducing immunosuppression in experimental and clinical applications. However, both the experimental and clinical utility of TLI are hampered by the prolonged treatment courses required (23 days in rats and 30-60 days in humans). Low-dose-rate TLI has the potential of reducing overall treatment time while achieving comparable immunosuppression. This study examines the immunosuppressive activity and treatment toxicity of conventional-dose-rate (23 days) vs low-dose-rate (2-7 days) TLI. Seven groups of Lewis rats were given TLI with 60Co. One group was treated at conventional-dose-rates (80-110 cGy/min) and received 3400 cGy in 17 fractions over 23 days. Six groups were treated at low-dose-rate (7 cGy/min) and received total doses of 800, 1200, 1800, 2400, 3000, and 3400 cGy over 2-7 days. Rats treated at conventional-dose-rates over 23 days and at low-dose-rate over 2-7 days tolerated radiation with minimal toxicity. The level of immunosuppression was tested using allogeneic (Brown-Norway) skin graft survival. Control animals retained allogeneic skin grafts for a mean of 14 days (range 8-21 days). Conventional-dose-rate treated animals (3400 cGy in 23 days) kept their grafts 60 days (range 50-66 days) (p less than .001). Low-dose-rate treated rats (800 to 3400 cGy total dose over 2-7 days) also had prolongation of allogeneic graft survival times following TLI with a dose-response curve established. The graft survival time for the 3400 cGy low-dose-rate group (66 days, range 52-78 days) was not significantly different from the 3400 cGy conventional-dose-rate group (p less than 0.10). When the total dose given was equivalent, low-dose-rate TLI demonstrated an advantage of reduced overall treatment time compared to conventional-dose-rate TLI (7 days vs. 23 days) with no increase in toxicity

  17. Daily dose monitoring with atlas-based auto-segmentation on diagnostic quality CT for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wen; Vassil, Andrew; Xia, Ping; Zhong, Yahua

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of daily dose monitoring using a patient specific atlas-based autosegmentation method on diagnostic quality verification images.Methods: Seven patients, who were treated for prostate cancer with intensity modulated radiotherapy under daily imaging guidance of a CT-on-rails system, were selected for this study. The prostate, rectum, and bladder were manually contoured on the first six and last seven sets of daily verification images. For each patient, three patient specific atlases were constructed using manual contours from planning CT alone (1-image atlas), planning CT plus first three verification CTs (4-image atlas), and planning CT plus first six verification CTs (7-image atlas). These atlases were subsequently applied to the last seven verification image sets of the same patient to generate the auto-contours. Daily dose was calculated by applying the original treatment plans to the daily beam isocenters. The autocontours and manual contours were compared geometrically using the dice similarity coefficient (DSC), and dosimetrically using the dose to 99% of the prostate CTV (D99) and the D5 of rectum and bladder.Results: The DSC of the autocontours obtained with the 4-image atlases were 87.0%± 3.3%, 84.7%± 8.6%, and 93.6%± 4.3% for the prostate, rectum, and bladder, respectively. These indices were higher than those from the 1-image atlases (p 0.05). Daily prostate D99 of the autocontours was comparable to those of the manual contours (p= 0.55). For the bladder and rectum, the daily D5 were 95.5%± 5.9% and 99.1%± 2.6% of the planned D5 for the autocontours compared to 95.3%± 6.7% (p= 0.58) and 99.8%± 2.3% (p < 0.01) for the manual contours.Conclusions: With patient specific 4-image atlases, atlas-based autosegmentation can adequately facilitate daily dose monitoring for prostate cancer

  18. Daily dose monitoring with atlas-based auto-segmentation on diagnostic quality CT for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wen; Vassil, Andrew; Xia, Ping [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Zhong, Yahua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of daily dose monitoring using a patient specific atlas-based autosegmentation method on diagnostic quality verification images.Methods: Seven patients, who were treated for prostate cancer with intensity modulated radiotherapy under daily imaging guidance of a CT-on-rails system, were selected for this study. The prostate, rectum, and bladder were manually contoured on the first six and last seven sets of daily verification images. For each patient, three patient specific atlases were constructed using manual contours from planning CT alone (1-image atlas), planning CT plus first three verification CTs (4-image atlas), and planning CT plus first six verification CTs (7-image atlas). These atlases were subsequently applied to the last seven verification image sets of the same patient to generate the auto-contours. Daily dose was calculated by applying the original treatment plans to the daily beam isocenters. The autocontours and manual contours were compared geometrically using the dice similarity coefficient (DSC), and dosimetrically using the dose to 99% of the prostate CTV (D99) and the D5 of rectum and bladder.Results: The DSC of the autocontours obtained with the 4-image atlases were 87.0%± 3.3%, 84.7%± 8.6%, and 93.6%± 4.3% for the prostate, rectum, and bladder, respectively. These indices were higher than those from the 1-image atlases (p < 0.01) and comparable to those from the 7-image atlases (p > 0.05). Daily prostate D99 of the autocontours was comparable to those of the manual contours (p= 0.55). For the bladder and rectum, the daily D5 were 95.5%± 5.9% and 99.1%± 2.6% of the planned D5 for the autocontours compared to 95.3%± 6.7% (p= 0.58) and 99.8%± 2.3% (p < 0.01) for the manual contours.Conclusions: With patient specific 4-image atlases, atlas-based autosegmentation can adequately facilitate daily dose monitoring for prostate cancer.

  19. Impact of radiation technique, radiation fraction dose, and total cisplatin dose on hearing. Retrospective analysis of 29 medulloblastoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scobioala, Sergiu; Kittel, Christopher; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Wolters, Heidi; Eich, Hans Theodor; Parfitt, Ross; Matulat, Peter; Am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the incidence and degree of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) resulting from different radiation techniques, fractionation dose, mean cochlear radiation dose (D mean ), and total cisplatin dose. In all, 29 children with medulloblastoma (58 ears) with subclinical pretreatment hearing thresholds participated. Radiotherapy (RT) and cisplatin had been applied sequentially according to the HIT MED Guidance. Audiological outcomes up to the latest follow-up (median 2.6 years) were compared. Bilateral high-frequency SNHL was observed in 26 patients (90%). No significant differences were found in mean hearing threshold between left and right ears at any frequency. A significantly better audiological outcome (p < 0.05) was found after tomotherapy at the 6 kHz bone-conduction threshold (BCT) and left-sided 8 kHz air-conduction threshold (ACT) than after a combined radiotherapy technique (CT). Fraction dose was not found to have any impact on the incidence, degree, and time-to-onset of SNHL. Patients treated with CT had a greater risk of SNHL at high frequencies than tomotherapy patients even though D mean was similar. Increase in severity of SNHL was seen when the total cisplatin dose reached above 210 mg/m 2 , with the highest abnormal level found 8-12 months after RT regardless of radiation technique or fraction dose. The cochlear radiation dose should be kept as low as possible in patients who receive simultaneous cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The risk of clinically relevant HL was shown when D mean exceeds 45 Gy independent of radiation technique or radiation regime. Cisplatin ototoxicity was shown to have a dose-dependent effect on bilateral SNHL, which was more pronounced in higher frequencies. (orig.) [de

  20. Xerostomia after radiotherapy. What matters - mean total dose or dose to each parotid gland?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribius, S.; Sommer, J.; Prosch, C.; Bajrovic, A.; Kruell, A.; Petersen, C.; Muenscher, A.; Blessmann, M.; Todorovic, M.; Tennstedt, P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a debilitating side effect of radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer. We undertook a prospective study of the effect on xerostomia and outcomes of sparing one or both parotid glands during radiotherapy for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and materials: Patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck received definitive (70 Gy in 2 Gy fractions) or adjuvant (60-66 Gy in 2 Gy fractions) curative-intent radiotherapy using helical tomotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy if appropriate. Group A received < 26 Gy to the left and right parotids and group B received < 26 Gy to either parotid. Results: The study included 126 patients; 114 (55 in group A and 59 in group B) had follow-up data. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in disease stage. Xerostomia was significantly reduced in group A vs. group B (p = 0.0381). Patients in group A also had significantly less dysphagia. Relapse-free and overall survival were not compromised in group A: 2-year relapse-free survival was 86% vs. 72% in group B (p = 0.361); 2-year overall survival was 88% and 76%, respectively (p = 0.251). Conclusion: This analysis suggests that reducing radiotherapy doses to both parotid glands to < 26 Gy can reduce xerostomia and dysphagia significantly without compromising survival. Sparing both parotids while maintaining target volume coverage and clinical outcome should be the treatment goal and reporting radiotherapy doses delivered to the individual parotids should be standard practice. (orig.)

  1. Xerostomia after radiotherapy. What matters - mean total dose or dose to each parotid gland?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribius, S.; Sommer, J.; Prosch, C.; Bajrovic, A.; Kruell, A.; Petersen, C. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Muenscher, A. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery; Blessmann, M. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Todorovic, M. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics; Tennstedt, P. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Martini-Clinic, Prostate Cancer Center

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a debilitating side effect of radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer. We undertook a prospective study of the effect on xerostomia and outcomes of sparing one or both parotid glands during radiotherapy for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and materials: Patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck received definitive (70 Gy in 2 Gy fractions) or adjuvant (60-66 Gy in 2 Gy fractions) curative-intent radiotherapy using helical tomotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy if appropriate. Group A received < 26 Gy to the left and right parotids and group B received < 26 Gy to either parotid. Results: The study included 126 patients; 114 (55 in group A and 59 in group B) had follow-up data. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in disease stage. Xerostomia was significantly reduced in group A vs. group B (p = 0.0381). Patients in group A also had significantly less dysphagia. Relapse-free and overall survival were not compromised in group A: 2-year relapse-free survival was 86% vs. 72% in group B (p = 0.361); 2-year overall survival was 88% and 76%, respectively (p = 0.251). Conclusion: This analysis suggests that reducing radiotherapy doses to both parotid glands to < 26 Gy can reduce xerostomia and dysphagia significantly without compromising survival. Sparing both parotids while maintaining target volume coverage and clinical outcome should be the treatment goal and reporting radiotherapy doses delivered to the individual parotids should be standard practice. (orig.)

  2. Estimation of the total absorbed dose by quartz in retrospective conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correcher, V.; Delgado, A.

    2003-01-01

    The estimation of the total absorbed dose is of great interest in areas affected by a radiological accident when no conventional dosimetric systems are available. This paper reports about the usual methodology employed in dose reconstruction from the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of natural quartz, extracted from selected ceramic materials (12 bricks) picked up in the Chernobyl area. It has been possible to evaluate doses under 50mGy after more than 11 years later since the radiological accident happened. The main advance of this fact is the reduction of the commonly accepted limit dose estimation more than 20 times employing luminescence methods. (Author) 11 refs

  3. Dose calculation method with 60-cobalt gamma rays in total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaff, Luiz Alberto Malaguti

    2001-01-01

    Physical factors associated to total body irradiation using 60 Co gamma rays beams, were studied in order to develop a calculation method of the dose distribution that could be reproduced in any radiotherapy center with good precision. The method is based on considering total body irradiation as a large and irregular field with heterogeneities. To calculate doses, or doses rates, of each area of interest (head, thorax, thigh, etc.), scattered radiation is determined. It was observed that if dismagnified fields were considered to calculate the scattered radiation, the resulting values could be applied on a projection to the real size to obtain the values for dose rate calculations. In a parallel work it was determined the variation of the dose rate in the air, for the distance of treatment, and for points out of the central axis. This confirm that the use of the inverse square law is not valid. An attenuation curve for a broad beam was also determined in order to allow the use of absorbers. In this work all the adapted formulas for dose rate calculations in several areas of the body are described, as well time/dose templates sheets for total body irradiation. The in vivo dosimetry, proved that either experimental or calculated dose rate values (achieved by the proposed method), did not have significant discrepancies. (author)

  4. Adaptive Liver Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Automated Daily Plan Reoptimization Prevents Dose Delivery Degradation Caused by Anatomy Deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinders, Suzanne M. [Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Méndez Romero, Alejandra [Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Schaart, Dennis [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Seppenwoolde, Yvette, E-mail: y.seppenwoolde@erasmusmc.nl [Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Heijmen, Ben J.M. [Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate how dose distributions for liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) can be improved by using automated, daily plan reoptimization to account for anatomy deformations, compared with setup corrections only. Methods and Materials: For 12 tumors, 3 strategies for dose delivery were simulated. In the first strategy, computed tomography scans made before each treatment fraction were used only for patient repositioning before dose delivery for correction of detected tumor setup errors. In adaptive second and third strategies, in addition to the isocenter shift, intensity modulated radiation therapy beam profiles were reoptimized or both intensity profiles and beam orientations were reoptimized, respectively. All optimizations were performed with a recently published algorithm for automated, multicriteria optimization of both beam profiles and beam angles. Results: In 6 of 12 cases, violations of organs at risk (ie, heart, stomach, kidney) constraints of 1 to 6 Gy in single fractions occurred in cases of tumor repositioning only. By using the adaptive strategies, these could be avoided (<1 Gy). For 1 case, this needed adaptation by slightly underdosing the planning target volume. For 2 cases with restricted tumor dose in the planning phase to avoid organ-at-risk constraint violations, fraction doses could be increased by 1 and 2 Gy because of more favorable anatomy. Daily reoptimization of both beam profiles and beam angles (third strategy) performed slightly better than reoptimization of profiles only, but the latter required only a few minutes of computation time, whereas full reoptimization took several hours. Conclusions: This simulation study demonstrated that replanning based on daily acquired computed tomography scans can improve liver stereotactic body radiation therapy dose delivery.

  5. Single event effects and total ionizing dose effects of typical VDMOSFET devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Jianshe; Cai Nan; Liu Jiaxin; Wu Qinzhi; Wang Jia

    2012-01-01

    In this work, single event effects and total ionizing dose effects of typical VDMOSFET irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays and 252 Cf source were studied. The single event burnout and single event gate rupture (SEB/SEGR) effects were investigated, and the relationship between drain-source breakdown voltage and ionizing dose was obtained. The results showed that the VDMOSFET devices were sensitive to SEB and SEGR, and measures to improve their resistance to SEB and SEGR should be considered seriously for their space applications. The drain-source breakdown voltage was sensitive to total ionizing dose effects as the threshold voltage. In assessing the devices' resistance to the total ionizing dose effects, both the threshold voltage and the drain-source breakdown voltage should be taken into account. (authors)

  6. Daily radionuclide ingestion and internal radiation doses in Aomori prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Akata, Naofumi; Takaku, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2013-10-01

    To assess internal annual dose in the general public in Aomori Prefecture, Japan, 80 duplicate cooked diet samples, equivalent to the food consumed over a 400-d period by one person, were collected from 100 volunteers in Aomori City and the village of Rokkasho during 2006–2010 and were analyzed for 11 radionuclides. To obtain average rates of ingestion of radionuclides, the volunteers were selected from among office, fisheries, agricultural, and livestock farm workers. Committed effective doses from ingestion of the diet over a 1-y period were calculated from the analytical results and from International Commission on Radiological Protection dose coefficients; for 40K, an internal effective dose rate from the literature was used. Fisheries workers had significantly higher combined internal annual dose than the other workers, possibly because of high rates of ingestion of marine products known to have high 210Po concentrations. The average internal dose rate, weighted by the numbers of households in each worker group in Aomori Prefecture, was estimated at 0.47 mSv y-1. Polonium-210 contributed 49% of this value. The sum of committed effective dose rates for 210Po, 210Pb, 228Ra, and 14C and the effective dose rate of 40K accounted for approximately 99% of the average internal dose rate.

  7. Estimating the contribution of strong daily export events to total pollutant export from the United States in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuanyuan; Fiore, Arlene M.; Horowitz, Larry W.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Levy, Hiram; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead G.

    2009-12-01

    While the export of pollutants from the United States exhibits notable variability from day to day and is often considered to be "episodic," the contribution of strong daily export events to total export has not been quantified. We use carbon monoxide (CO) as a tracer of anthropogenic pollutants in the Model of OZone And Related Tracers (MOZART) to estimate this contribution. We first identify the major export pathway from the United States to be through the northeast boundary (24-48°N along 67.5°W and 80-67.5°W along 48°N), and then analyze 15 summers of daily CO export fluxes through this boundary. These daily CO export fluxes have a nearly Gaussian distribution with a mean of 1100 Gg CO day-1 and a standard deviation of 490 Gg CO day-1. To focus on the synoptic variability, we define a "synoptic background" export flux equal to the 15 day moving average export flux and classify strong export days according to their fluxes relative to this background. As expected from Gaussian statistics, 16% of summer days are "strong export days," classified as those days when the CO export flux exceeds the synoptic background by one standard deviation or more. Strong export days contributes 25% to the total export, a value determined by the relative standard deviation of the CO flux distribution. Regressing the anomalies of the CO export flux through the northeast U.S. boundary relative to the synoptic background on the daily anomalies in the surface pressure field (also relative to a 15 day running mean) suggests that strong daily export fluxes are correlated with passages of midlatitude cyclones over the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The associated cyclonic circulation and Warm Conveyor Belts (WCBs) that lift surface pollutants over the northeastern United States have been shown previously to be associated with long-range transport events. Comparison with observations from the 2004 INTEX-NA field campaign confirms that our model captures the observed enhancements in CO outflow

  8. A dose-finding, placebo-controlled study on extended-release felodipine once daily in treatment of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambell, L M; Ross, J R; Goves, J R; Lees, C T; McCullagh, A; Barnes, P; Timerick, S J; Richardson, P D

    1989-12-01

    Hypertensive patients received a beta-blocker plus placebo once daily for 4 weeks. If their diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was then 95-115 mm Hg, they were randomized to receive, in addition to the beta-blocker, placebo (n = 36), felodipine-extended release (ER) 10 mg (n = 36), or felodipine-ER 20 mg (n = 37) in a 4-week double-blind parallel-group trial. All medication was administered once daily and, when BP was measured 24 h after the last dose, felodipine-ER 10 mg reduced DBP by 14 +/- 9 mm Hg (mean +/- SD) from a mean of 103 mm Hg and felodipine-ER 20 mg reduced DBP by 18 +/- 9 mm Gg from 101 mm Hg. The reductions in DBP with both doses of felodipine were greater than reductions with placebo (5 +/- 8 mm Hg, from 102 mm Hg--both p less than 0.001). At the end of the study, 21% of patients receiving placebo had a DBP less than or equal to 90 mm Hg. In contrast, 69% of patients receiving felodipine-ER 10 mg and 82% receiving 20 mg attained this level. More than 90% of patients receiving 10 mg felodipine-ER once daily had a reduction in DBP greater than 5 mm Hg 24 h postdose. Felodipine-ER was well tolerated. Felodipine-ER once daily is an effective antihypertensive drug for patients who require therapy in addition to a beta-blocker; the tolerability in this study was good, and a starting dose greater than 10 mg once daily is not indicated.

  9. Serum protein concentration in low-dose total body irradiation of normal and malnourished rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, W.C.M.; Lambertz, D.; Borges, E.S.; Neto, A.M.O.; Lambertz, K.M.F.T.; Amaral, A.

    2016-01-01

    Among the radiotherapeutics' modalities, total body irradiation (TBI) is used as treatment for certain hematological, oncological and immunological diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of low-dose TBI on plasma concentration of total protein and albumin using prematurely and undernourished rats as animal model. For this, four groups with 9 animals each were formed: Normal nourished (N); Malnourished (M); Irradiated Normal nourished (IN); Irradiated Malnourished (IM). At the age of 28 days, rats of the IN and IM groups underwent total body gamma irradiation with a source of cobalt-60. Total protein and Albumin in the blood serum was quantified by colorimetry. This research indicates that procedures involving low-dose total body irradiation in children have repercussions in the reduction in body-mass as well as in the plasma levels of total protein and albumin. Our findings reinforce the periodic monitoring of total serum protein and albumin levels as an important tool in long-term follow-up of pediatric patients in treatments associated to total body irradiation. - Highlights: • Low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) in children have repercussions in their body-mass. • Long-term total protein and albumin levels are affected by TBI. • The monitoring of total protein and albumin levels are useful in the follow-up of TBI pediatric patients.

  10. Dose characteristics of total-skin electron-beam irradiation with six-dual electron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Tae Jin; Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Ok Bae

    1998-01-01

    To obtain the uniform dose at limited depth to entire surface of the body, the dose characteristics of degraded electron beam of the large target-skin distance and the dose distribution of the six-dual electron fields were investigated. The experimental dose distributions included the depth dose curve, spatial dose and attenuated electron beam were determined with 300 cm of Target-Skin Distance (TSD) and full collimator size (35x35 cm 2 on TSD 100 cm) in 4 MeV electron beam energy. Actual collimated field size of 105 cmx105 cm at the distance of 300 cm could include entire hemibody. A patient was standing on step board with hands up and holding the pole to stabilize his/her positions for the six-dual fields technique. As a scatter-degrader, 0.5 cm of acrylic plate was inserted at 20 cm from the body surface on the electron beam path to induce ray scattering and to increase the skin dose. The Full Width at Half Maximum(FWHM) of dose profile was 130 cm in large field of 105x105 cm 2 . The width of 100±10% of the resultant dose from two adjacent fields which were separated at 25 cm from field edge for obtaining the dose uniformity was extended to 186 cm. The depth of maximum dose lies at 5 mm and the 80% depth dose lies between 7 and 8 mm for the degraded electron beam by using the 0.5 cm thickness of acrylic absorber. Total skin electron beam irradiation (TSEBI) was carried out using the six dual fields has been developed at Stanford University. The dose distribution in TSEBI showed relatively uniform around the flat region of skin except the protruding and deeply curvatured portion of the body, which showed excess of dose at the former and less dose at the latter. The percent depth dose, profile curves and superimposed dose distribution were investigated using the degraded using the degraded electron beam through the beam absorber. The dose distribution obtained by experiments of TSEBI showed within±10% difference excepts the protruding area of skin which needs a

  11. Influence of the number of daily pills and doses on adherence to antiretroviral treatment: a 7-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Arroyo, M J; Cabrera Figueroa, S E; Sepúlveda Correa, R; Valverde Merino, M P; Luna Rodrigo, G; Domínguez-Gil Hurlé, A

    2016-02-01

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) is hampered by complicated regimens, high pill burden, drug-drug interactions, and frequent short- and long-term adverse effects, leading to decreased adherence. Over recent years, considerable effort has been directed at developing regimens that are less burdening. We undertook a 7-year retrospective study of the records of 264 HIV-infected subjects enrolled in a pharmaceutical care programme to document the progress made and to study the influence of the number of ART pills and doses on the level of treatment adherence. Antiretroviral dispensing records were analysed for the number of pills and doses administered and the ART adherence rate estimated. In 2005, the patients took a mean of 6·2 pills daily (CI 95%: 5·9-6·6), and 92·9% of them were on a twice-a-day (BID) dosage regimen. By 2012, the mean number of pills was reduced to 4·1 (CI 95%: 3·8-4·4), and only 50·9% were on a BID regimen. No statistically significant relation was observed between number of daily pills and doses and ART adherence reached by the patients in any of the analyses performed. There has been a continuous reduction in the number of pills and doses of antiretrovirals taken by individual patients over the last 7 years due largely to the introduction of improved treatments and regimens. More daily pills or doses was not associated with worse ART adherence in our pharmaceutical care programme. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Population dose-response analysis of daily seizure count following vigabatrin therapy in adult and pediatric patients with refractory complex partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jace C; Hutmacher, Matthew M; Wesche, David L; Tolbert, Dwain; Patel, Mahlaqa; Kowalski, Kenneth G

    2015-01-01

    Vigabatrin is an irreversible inhibitor of γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) and is used as an adjunctive therapy for adult patients with refractory complex partial seizures (rCPS). The purpose of this investigation was to describe the relationship between vigabatrin dosage and daily seizure rate for adults and children with rCPS and identify relevant covariates that might impact seizure frequency. This population dose-response analysis used seizure-count data from three pediatric and two adult randomized controlled studies of rCPS patients. A negative binomial distribution model adequately described daily seizure data. Mean seizure rate decreased with time after first dose and was described using an asymptotic model. Vigabatrin drug effects were best characterized by a quadratic model using normalized dosage as the exposure metric. Normalized dosage was an estimated parameter that allowed for individualized changes in vigabatrin exposure based on body weight. Baseline seizure rate increased with decreasing age, but age had no impact on vigabatrin drug effects after dosage was normalized for body weight differences. Posterior predictive checks indicated the final model was capable of simulating data consistent with observed daily seizure counts. Total normalized vigabatrin dosages of 1, 3, and 6 g/day were predicted to reduce seizure rates 23.2%, 45.6%, and 48.5%, respectively. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  13. Dose Escalation of Total Marrow Irradiation With Concurrent Chemotherapy in Patients With Advanced Acute Leukemia Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Jeffrey Y.C., E-mail: jwong@coh.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Forman, Stephen; Somlo, George [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Rosenthal, Joseph [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Department of Pediatrics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Liu An; Schultheiss, Timothy; Radany, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Palmer, Joycelynne [Department of Biostatistics, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States); Stein, Anthony [Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We have demonstrated that toxicities are acceptable with total marrow irradiation (TMI) at 16 Gy without chemotherapy or TMI at 12 Gy and the reduced intensity regimen of fludarabine/melphalan in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). This article reports results of a study of TMI combined with higher intensity chemotherapy regimens in 2 phase I trials in patients with advanced acute myelogenous leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (AML/ALL) who would do poorly on standard intent-to-cure HCT regimens. Methods and Materials: Trial 1 consisted of TMI on Days -10 to -6, etoposide (VP16) on Day -5 (60 mg/kg), and cyclophosphamide (CY) on Day -3 (100 mg/kg). TMI dose was 12 (n=3 patients), 13.5 (n=3 patients), and 15 (n=6 patients) Gy at 1.5 Gy twice daily. Trial 2 consisted of busulfan (BU) on Days -12 to -8 (800 {mu}M min), TMI on Days -8 to -4, and VP16 on Day -3 (30 mg/kg). TMI dose was 12 (n=18) and 13.5 (n=2) Gy at 1.5 Gy twice daily. Results: Trial 1 had 12 patients with a median age of 33 years. Six patients had induction failures (IF), and 6 had first relapses (1RL), 9 with leukemia blast involvement of bone marrow ranging from 10%-98%, 5 with circulating blasts (24%-85%), and 2 with chloromas. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Eleven patients achieved complete remission at Day 30. With a median follow-up of 14.75 months, 5 patients remained in complete remission from 13.5-37.7 months. Trial 2 had 20 patients with a median age of 41 years. Thirteen patients had IF, and 5 had 1RL, 2 in second relapse, 19 with marrow blasts (3%-100%) and 13 with peripheral blasts (6%-63%). Grade 4 dose-limiting toxicities were seen at 13.5 Gy (stomatitis and hepatotoxicity). Stomatitis was the most frequent toxicity in both trials. Conclusions: TMI dose escalation to 15 Gy is possible when combined with CY/VP16 and is associated with acceptable toxicities and encouraging outcomes. TMI dose escalation is not possible with BU/VP16 due to

  14. Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Atiya Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. Objective: To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. Design: A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an ‘ideal diet’ (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO] list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. Results: The adolescents’ mean daily polyamine intake was 316±170 µmol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 µmol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. Conclusions: The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an ‘ideal’ diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe.

  15. Development and daily use of an electronic oncological patient record for the total management of cancer patients: 7 years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galligioni, E; Berloffa, F; Caffo, O; Tonazzolli, G; Ambrosini, G; Valduga, F; Eccher, C; Ferro, A; Forti, S

    2009-02-01

    We describe our experience with an electronic oncological patient record (EOPR) for the total management of cancer patients. The web-based EOPR was developed on the basis of a user-centred design including user education and training, followed by continuous assistance; user acceptance was monitored by means of three questionnaires administered after 2 weeks, 6 months and 6 years. The EOPR has been used daily for all in-ward, day hospital and ambulatory clinical activities since July 2000. The most widely appreciated functions are its rapid multipoint access, the self-updated summary of the patients' clinical course, the management of the entire therapeutic programme synchronised with working agendas and oncological teleconsultation. Security and privacy are assured by means of the separate storage of clinical and demographic data, with access protected by login and a password. The questionnaires highlighted appreciation of rapid data retrieval and exchange and the perception of improved quality of care, but also revealed a sense of additional work and a negative impact on doctor-patient relationships. Our EOPR has proved to be effective in the total management of cancer patients. Its user-centred design and flexible web technology have been key factors in its successful implementation and daily use.

  16. Enhancement of Transistor-to-Transistor Variability Due to Total Dose Effects in 65-nm MOSFETs

    CERN Document Server

    Gerardin, S; Cornale, D; Ding, L; Mattiazzo, S; Paccagnella, A; Faccio, F; Michelis, S

    2015-01-01

    We studied device-to-device variations as a function of total dose in MOSFETs, using specially designed test structures and procedures aimed at maximizing matching between transistors. Degradation in nMOSFETs is less severe than in pMOSFETs and does not show any clear increase in sample-to-sample variability due to the exposure. At doses smaller than 1 Mrad( SiO2) variability in pMOSFETs is also practically unaffected, whereas at very high doses-in excess of tens of Mrad( SiO2)-variability in the on-current is enhanced in a way not correlated to pre-rad variability. The phenomenon is likely due to the impact of random dopant fluctuations on total ionizing dose effects.

  17. Reducing dosing frequency of carbidopa/levodopa: double-blind crossover study comparing twice-daily bilayer formulation of carbidopa/levodopa (IPX054) versus 4 daily doses of standard carbidopa/levodopa in stable Parkinson disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Vanessa K; Goetz, Christopher G; Leurgans, Sue; Fan, Wenqing; Nguyen, Tiffany; Hsu, Ann

    2009-01-01

    We compared IPX054, a bilayer tablet of immediate- and extended-release carbidopa/levodopa (CD/LD) given twice daily to standard CD/LD given 4 times daily in patients with stable Parkinson disease (PD). Twelve PD patients with no or mild fluctuations on CD/LD 25/100 mg 4 times daily were randomized to a double-blind crossover comparison with IPX054 (50/200 mg) twice daily. At the end of each 2-week treatment, patients were video recorded while performing a modified Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor examination and Rush Dyskinesia Rating Scale at 30-minute intervals over 8.5 hours. The primary outcome measure was the number of videotape epochs rated as "ON" without troublesome dyskinesia by a blinded observer (Wilcoxon signed rank tests). The 9 men and 3 women had a mean age of 69 years and mean PD duration of 6 years. IPX054 and CD/LD showed no significant differences in the primary outcome measure (mean number of video epochs rated as ON without troublesome dyskinesia; P = 0.14). The mean time to ON was improved with IPX054 (P = 0.014), and the mean modified Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores slightly favored IPX054 (14.4 vs 16.9; P = 0.052). Mean Rush Dyskinesia Rating Scale scores were not significantly different between IPX054 and CD/LD (0.45 vs 0.69; P = 0.25). No patient developed troublesome dyskinesias. In stable PD patients, no difference was detected between twice-daily treatment with IPX054 and CD/LD given 4 times daily. In this group, substitution with IPX054 reduced dosing frequency while maintaining CD/LD efficacy. In clinical practice, this ease of administration may offer improved treatment compliance.

  18. Relative effect of radiation dose rate on hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic lethality of total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, L.J.; McNeill, J.; Karolis, C.; Thames, H.D. Jr.; Travis, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine the influence of dose rate on the toxicity of total-body irrdiation (TBI) with and without syngeneic bone-marrow rescue in mice. The results showed a much greater dose-rate dependence for death from nonhemopoietic toxicity than from bone-marrow ablation, with the ratio of LD 50 's increasing from 1.73 at 25 cGy/min to 2.80 at 1 cGy/min. At the higher dose rates, dose-limiting nonhemopoietic toxicity resulted from late organ injury, affecting the lungs, kidneys, and liver. At 1 cGy/min the major dose-limiting nonhemopoietic toxicity was acute gastrointestinal injury. The implications of these results in the context of TBI in preparation for bone-marrow transplantation are discussed. 15 refs., 4 figs

  19. Safety aspects of preoperative high-dose glucocorticoid in primary total knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, C C; Pitter, F T; Kehlet, H

    2017-01-01

    Background: Preoperative single high-dose glucocorticoid may have early outcome benefits in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and knee arthroplasty (TKA), but long-term safety aspects have not been evaluated. Methods: From October 2013, the departments reporting to the prospective Lundbeck Foundation....... Conclusions: In this detailed prospective cohort study, preoperative high-dose glucocorticoid administration was not associated with LOS >4 days, readmissions or infectious complications in TKA patients without contraindications....

  20. Total dose effects on ATLAS-SCT front-end electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ullán, M; Dubbs, T; Grillo, A A; Spencer, E; Seiden, A; Spieler, H; Gilchriese, M G D; Lozano, M

    2002-01-01

    Low dose rate effects (LDRE) in bipolar technologies complicate the hardness assurance testing for high energy physics applications. The damage produced in the ICs in the real experiment can be underestimated if fast irradiations are carried out, while experiments done at the real dose rate are usually unpractical due to the still high total doses involved. In this work the sensitivity to LDRE of two bipolar technologies proposed for the ATLAS-SCT experiment at CERN is evaluated, finding one of them free of those effects. (12 refs).

  1. The total dose effects on the 1/f noise of deep submicron CMOS transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Rongbin; Wang Yuxin; Lu Wu

    2014-01-01

    Using 0.18 μm CMOS transistors, the total dose effects on the 1/f noise of deep-submicron CMOS transistors are studied for the first time in mainland China. From the experimental results and the theoretic analysis, we realize that total dose radiation causes a lot of trapped positive charges in STI (shallow trench isolation) SiO 2 layers, which induces a current leakage passage, increasing the 1/f noise power of CMOS transistors. In addition, we design some radiation-hardness structures on the CMOS transistors and the experimental results show that, until the total dose achieves 750 krad, the 1/f noise power of the radiation-hardness CMOS transistors remains unchanged, which proves our conclusion. (semiconductor devices)

  2. An observational study evaluating tacrolimus dose, exposure, and medication adherence after conversion from twice- to once-daily tacrolimus in liver and kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckman, Lars; Persson, Carl-Axel

    2014-03-17

    Immunosuppression regimens in transplantation medicine are complex. Drugs with extended release action have simplified medication dosing without affecting efficacy. This prospective, observational, multicenter study, conducted in a routine medical practice setting, evaluated changes in tacrolimus daily dose and trough levels and patient-reported medication adherence at day 90 after 1:1 (mg: mg) conversion to once-daily tacrolimus in adult liver and kidney transplant recipients. Data from 224 recipients of a liver (n=19) or kidney (n=205) transplant, average age 51±14.5 years, were evaluated. The mean change in tacrolimus daily dose was +0.04 mg/day. Dose remained stable after conversion in 62.5%, was lower in 15.6%, and higher in 22% of patients. Trough level after conversion was lower in 62.6% and higher in 36.5%; generally, levels were 12.8% lower than pre-conversion levels. No acute rejection, graft loss, or serious safety events were observed. Two deaths occurred due to myocardial infarction. Conversion helped 19% to less frequently forget medications and 55% reported no difference in remembering to take the once-daily dose after conversion. The change in dosing frequency was identified as "better" for 55%. Tacrolimus daily dose remained stable while trough levels were significantly lower after conversion to once-daily dosing. Safety and efficacy were maintained; reduced dosing frequency had no apparent influence on patient-reported medication adherence.

  3. An experimental study on total dose effects in SRAM-based FPGAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhibin; He Baoping; Zhang Fengqi; Guo Hongxia; Luo Yinhong; Wang Yuanming; Zhang Keying

    2009-01-01

    In order to study testing methods and find sensitive parameters in total dose effects on SRAM-based FPGA, XC2S100 chips were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays and tested with two test circuit designs. By analyzing the experimental results, the test flow of configuration RAM and bock RAM was given, and the most sensitive parameter was obtained. The results will be a solid foundation for establishing test specification and evaluation methods of total dose effects on SRAM-based FPGAs. (authors)

  4. Comparison of the result of radiation alone and radiation with daily low dose cisplatin in management of locally advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hun Jung; Kim, Woo Chul; Lee, Mee Jo; Kim, Chul Su; Song, Eun Seop; Loh, John J. K.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis was to compare the results of radiation alone with those of radiation with daily low dose cisplatin as a radiation sensitizer in locally advanced cervical cancer. A retrospective analysis of 59 patients diagnosed with locally advanced uterine cervix cancer between December 1996 and March 2001 was performed. Thirty one patients received radiation alone and 28 patients received daily low dose cisplatin, as a radiation sensitizer, and radiation therapy. The median follow-up period was 34 months, ranging from 2.5 to 73 months. The radiation therapy consisted of 4500 cGy external beam irradiation to the whole pelvis (midline block after 3060 cGy), a 900 ∼ 1,000 cGy boost to the involved parametrium and high dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (a total dose of 3,000 ∼ 3,500 cGy/500 cGy per fraction to point A, twice per week). In the chemoradiation group, 10 mg of daily intravenous cisplatin was given daily from the 1st day of radiation therapy to the 20th day of radiation therapy. According to the FIGO classification, the patients were subdivided into 51 (86.4%) and 8 (13.6%) stages IIB and stage IIIB, respectively. The overall 5 year survival rate was 65.65% and according to treatment modality were 56.75% and 73.42% in the radiation alone and chemoradiation groups, respectively (ρ = 0.180). The 5 year disease-free survival rates were 49.39% and 63.34% in the radiation alone and chemoradiation groups, respectively (ρ = 0.053). The 5 year locoregional control rates were 52.34% and 73.58% in the radiation alone and chemoradiation groups, respectively (ρ = 0.013). The 5 year distant disease-free survival rates were 59.29% and 81.46% in the radiation alone and chemoradiation groups, respectively (ρ = 0.477). Treatment related hematologic toxicity were prominent in the chemoradiation group. Leukopenia (≥ 3 grade) occurred in 3.2% and 28.5% of the radiation alone and chemoradiation groups, respectively (ρ = 0.02). There were no statistical differences

  5. Comparison of the result of radiation alone and radiation with daily low dose cisplatin in management of locally advanced cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hun Jung; Kim, Woo Chul; Lee, Mee Jo; Kim, Chul Su; Song, Eun Seop; Loh, John J. K. [Inha University Medical College, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-09-15

    An analysis was to compare the results of radiation alone with those of radiation with daily low dose cisplatin as a radiation sensitizer in locally advanced cervical cancer. A retrospective analysis of 59 patients diagnosed with locally advanced uterine cervix cancer between December 1996 and March 2001 was performed. Thirty one patients received radiation alone and 28 patients received daily low dose cisplatin, as a radiation sensitizer, and radiation therapy. The median follow-up period was 34 months, ranging from 2.5 to 73 months. The radiation therapy consisted of 4500 cGy external beam irradiation to the whole pelvis (midline block after 3060 cGy), a 900 {approx} 1,000 cGy boost to the involved parametrium and high dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (a total dose of 3,000 {approx} 3,500 cGy/500 cGy per fraction to point A, twice per week). In the chemoradiation group, 10 mg of daily intravenous cisplatin was given daily from the 1st day of radiation therapy to the 20th day of radiation therapy. According to the FIGO classification, the patients were subdivided into 51 (86.4%) and 8 (13.6%) stages IIB and stage IIIB, respectively. The overall 5 year survival rate was 65.65% and according to treatment modality were 56.75% and 73.42% in the radiation alone and chemoradiation groups, respectively ({rho} = 0.180). The 5 year disease-free survival rates were 49.39% and 63.34% in the radiation alone and chemoradiation groups, respectively ({rho} = 0.053). The 5 year locoregional control rates were 52.34% and 73.58% in the radiation alone and chemoradiation groups, respectively ({rho} = 0.013). The 5 year distant disease-free survival rates were 59.29% and 81.46% in the radiation alone and chemoradiation groups, respectively ({rho} = 0.477). Treatment related hematologic toxicity were prominent in the chemoradiation group. Leukopenia ({>=} 3 grade) occurred in 3.2% and 28.5% of the radiation alone and chemoradiation groups, respectively ({rho} = 0.02). There were

  6. Correlations between patient satisfaction and ability to perform daily activities after total knee arthroplasty: why aren't patients satisfied?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hiroyuki; Okazaki, Ken; Mizu-Uchi, Hideki; Hamai, Satoshi; Tashiro, Yasutaka; Matsuda, Shuichi; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2015-01-01

    Patient satisfaction has become an important parameter for assessing overall outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The level of difficulty in performing activities of daily life that affects overall patient satisfaction is unknown. We therefore evaluated the influence of difficulty in performing activities of daily life on patient satisfaction and expectations. The 2011 Knee Society Knee Scoring System Questionnaire was mailed to patients who had undergone TKA with 375 patients completing and returning it. We evaluated the relationship between the ability to perform daily activities, as assessed via the questionnaire, and patient satisfaction and expectations of the same score in each patient using linear regression analysis. We also determined which activities affected patient satisfaction and expectations using multivariate linear regression analyses. All patient-derived functional activities correlated significantly with the patient satisfaction score. In particular, "climbing up or down a flight of stairs" followed by "getting into or out of a car," "moving laterally (stepping to the side)" and "walking and standing" correlated strongly with patient satisfaction by linear regression analysis and were revealed to have significant contributions to patient satisfaction by multivariate linear regression analysis. Regarding expectations, all patient-derived functional activities correlated significantly with the patient expectation score, although none of the correlation coefficients was very high. "Squatting," followed by "walking and standing," contributed to the patient expectation score by multivariate linear regression analysis. Activities related to walking and standing are some of the most basic movements and basic demands for patients. In addition, "climbing up or down a flight of stairs," "getting into and out of a car" and "squatting" are very important and distressing activities that significantly correlate with patient satisfaction after TKA.

  7. Single-dose radiation therapy for prevention of heterotopic ossification after total hip arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, W.L.; Lo, T.C.; Covall, D.J.; Pfeifer, B.A.; Wasilewski, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Single-dose radiation therapy was prospectively evaluated for its efficacy in prevention of heterotopic ossification in patients at high risk after total hip arthroplasty. Thirty-one patients (34 hips) were treated between 1981 and 1988. Risk factors for inclusion in the protocol included prior evidence of heterotopic ossification, ankylosing spondylitis, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. Patients with hypertrophic osteoarthritis or traumatic arthritis with osteophytes were not included. Operations on 34 hips included 19 primary total and 11 revision total hip arthroplasties and 4 excisions of heterotopic ossification. All patients received radiotherapy to the hip after operation with a single dose of 700 centigray. Radiotherapy is recommended on the first postoperative day. After this single-dose radiation treatment, no patient had clinically significant heterotopic ossification. Recurrent disease developed in two hips (6%), as seen on radiography (grades 2 and 3). This series documents a 100% clinical success rate and a 94% radiographic success rate in preventing heterotopic ossification in patients at high risk after total hip arthroplasty. Single-dose radiotherapy is as effective as other radiation protocols in preventing heterotopic ossification after total hip arthroplasty. It is less expensive and easier to administer than multidose radiotherapy

  8. Phase I dose escalation clinical trial of phenylbutyrate sodium administered twice daily to patients with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Luis H; Olson, Jon; Tong, William P; Young, Charles W; Spriggs, David R; Malkin, Mark G

    2007-04-01

    Phenylbutyrate (PBA), and its metabolite phenylacetate (PAA), induce growth inhibition and cellular differentiation in multiple tumor models. However, despite their potential anti-cancer properties, several pharmacodynamic aspects remain unknown. We conducted a dose escalating trial to evaluate twice-daily intravenous PBA infusions for two consecutive weeks (Monday through Friday) every month at five dose levels (60-360 mg/kg/day). Twenty-one patients with the following malignancies were treated: colon carcinoma 4, non-small cell lung carcinoma 4; anaplastic astrocytoma 3, glioblastoma multiforme 3, bladder carcinoma 2, sarcoma 2, and ovarian carcinoma, rectal hemangiopericytoma, and pancreatic carcinoma 1 each. Conversion of PBA to PAA and phenylacetylglutamine (PAG) was documented without catabolic saturation. Plasma content of PBA > or =1 mM was documented for only 3 h following each dose at the top two dosages. The therapy was well tolerated overall. Common adverse effects included grade 1 nausea/vomiting, fatigue, and lightheadedness. Dose limiting toxicities were short-term memory loss, sedation, confusion, nausea, and vomiting. Two patients with anaplastic astrocytoma and a patient with glioblastoma remained stable without tumor progression for 5, 7, and 4 months respectively. Administration of PBA in a twice-daily infusion schedule is safe. The maximum tolerated dose is 300 mg/kg/day. Study designs with more convenient treatment schedules and specific molecular correlates may help to further delineate the mechanism of action of this compound. Future studies evaluating PBA's ability to induce histone acetylation and cell differentiation alone or in combination with other anti-neoplastics are recommended.

  9. Knee Flexion and Daily Activities in Patients following Total Knee Replacement: A Comparison with ISO Standard 14243

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus A. Wimmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking is only one of many daily activities performed by patients following total knee replacement (TKR. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypotheses (a that subject activity characteristics are correlated with knee flexion range of motion (ROM and (b that there is a significant difference between the subject’s flexion/extension excursion throughout the day and the ISO specified input for knee wear testing. In order to characterize activity, the number of walking and stair stepping cycles, the time spent with dynamic and stationary activities, the number of activity sequences, and the knee flexion/extension excursion of 32 TKR subjects were collected during daily activity. Flexion/extension profiles were compared with the ISO 14243 simulator input profile using a level crossing classification algorithm. Subjects took an average of 3102 (range: 343–5857 walking cycles including 65 (range: 0–319 stair stepping cycles. Active and passive ROMs were positively correlated with stair walking time, stair step counts, and stair walking sequences. Simulated knee motion according to ISO showed significantly fewer level crossings at the flexion angles 20–40° and beyond 50° than those measured with the monitor. This suggests that implant wear testing protocols should contain more cycles and a variety of activities requiring higher knee flexion angles with incorporated resting/transition periods to account for the many activity sequences.

  10. Daily high doses of fluoxetine for weight loss and improvement in lifestyle before bariatric surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfing, JG; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; Oei, HI; ten Hoor-Aukerna, NM; Schweitzer, DH

    Background: The number of gastric restrictive bariatric operations is increasing each year, but about one-fifth of patients will become disappointed due to unsatisfactory weight reduction or annoying complications. We questioned whether weight reduction by taking high doses of fluoxetine improves

  11. Waste Load Allocation Based on Total Maximum Daily Load Approach Using the Charged System Search (CSS Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Faraji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the capability of a charged system search algorithm (CSS in handling water management optimization problems is investigated. First, two complex mathematical problems are solved by CSS and the results are compared with those obtained from other metaheuristic algorithms. In the last step, the optimization model developed by the CSS algorithm is applied to the waste load allocation in rivers based on the total maximum daily load (TMDL concept. The results are presented in Tables and Figures for easy comparison. The study indicates the superiority of the CSS algorithm in terms of its speed and performance over the other metaheuristic algorithms while its precision in water management optimization problems is verified.

  12. A free sugars daily value (DV) identifies more "less healthy" prepackaged foods and beverages than a total sugars DV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jodi T; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Franco-Arellano, Beatriz; Schermel, Alyssa; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2018-04-01

    Regulatory changes in Canada will require food labels to have a benchmark [% Daily Value, %DV] for total sugars, based on 100 g/day, while US labels will require a %DV for added sugars, based on 50 g/day. The objective of this study was to compare two labelling policies, a total sugars DV (100 g/day) and a free sugars DV (50 g/day) on food labels. This cross-sectional analysis of the Food Label Information Program database focussed on top sources of total sugars intake in Canada (n = 6924 foods). Products were categorized as "less healthy" using two sets of criteria: a) free sugars levels exceeding the WHO guidelines (≥10% energy from free sugars); and b) exceeding healthfulness cut-offs of the Food Standards Australia New Zealand Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (FSANZ-NPSC). The proportion of "less healthy" products with ≥15%DV (defined as "a lot" of sugars i.e. high in sugars, based on Health Canada's %DV labelling footnote and educational message for dietary guidance) were compared for each sugar labelling scenario. The free sugars DV showed better alignment with both methods for assessing "healthfulness" than the total sugars DV. The free sugars DV identified a greater proportion of "less healthy" foods with ≥15%DV, based on both the FSANZ-NPSC (70% vs. 45%, p chocolate bars, confectionery, and frozen desserts categories. Compared to total sugars DV labelling, using a free sugars DV identified more "less healthy" foods. Findings support the adoption of free sugars labelling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Enchanced total dose damage in junction field effect transistors and related linear integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, O.; Autran, J.L.; Roche, P.; Leray, J.L.; Musseau, O.

    1996-01-01

    Enhanced total dose damage of Junction Field-effect Transistors (JFETs) due to low dose rate and/or elevated temperature has been investigated for elementary p-channel structures fabricated on bulk and SOI substrates as well as for related linear integrated circuits. All these devices were fabricated with conventional junction isolation (field oxide). Large increases in damage have been revealed by performing high temperature and/or low dose rate irradiations. These results are consistent with previous studies concerning bipolar field oxides under low-field conditions. They suggest that the transport of radiation-induced holes through the oxide is the underlying mechanism. Such an enhanced degradation must be taken into account for low dose rate effects on linear integrated circuits

  14. Total dose hardness of a commercial SiGe BiCMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Vonno, N.; Lucas, R.; Thornberry, D.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past decade SiGe HBT technology has progress from the laboratory to actual commercial applications. When integrated into a BiMOS process, this technology has applications in low-cost space systems. In this paper, we report results of total dose testing of a SiGe/CMOS process accessible through a commercial foundry. (authors)

  15. Worst-Case Bias During Total Dose Irradiation of SOI Transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlet-Cavrois, V.; Colladant, T.; Paillet, P.; Leray, J.-L; Musseau, O.; Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Pelloie, J.L.; Du Port de Poncharra, J.

    2000-01-01

    The worst case bias during total dose irradiation of partially depleted SOI transistors (from SNL and from CEA/LETI) is correlated to the device architecture. Experiments and simulations are used to analyze SOI back transistor threshold voltage shift and charge trapping in the buried oxide

  16. Recent Total Ionizing Dose Results and Displacement Damage Results for Candidate Spacecraft Electronics for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Donna J.; Buchner, Stephen P.; Irwin, Tim L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Marshall, Cheryl J.; Reed, Robert A.; Sanders, Anthony B.; Hawkins, Donald K.; Flanigan, Ryan J.; Cox, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    We present data on the vulnerability of a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to total ionizing dose and displacement damage. Devices tested include optoelectronics, digital, analog, linear bipolar devices, hybrid devices, Analog-to- Digital Converters (ADCs), and Digital-to-Analog Converters (DACs), among others. T

  17. Inclusion of Radiation Environment Variability in Total Dose Hardness Assurance Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, M. A.; Stauffer, C.; Phan, A.; McClure, S. S.; Ladbury, R. L.; Pellish, J. A.; Campola, M. J.; LaBel, K. A.

    2016-01-01

    Variability of the space radiation environment is investigated with regard to parts categorization for total dose hardness assurance methods. It is shown that it can have a significant impact. A modified approach is developed that uses current environment models more consistently and replaces the radiation design margin concept with one of failure probability during a mission.

  18. The influence of x-ray energy on lung dose uniformity in total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstrand, Kenneth; Greven, Kathryn; Wu Qingrong

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we examine the influence of x-ray energy on the uniformity of the dose within the lung in total-body irradiation treatments in which partial transmission blocks are used to control the lung dose. Methods and Materials: A solid water phantom with a cork insert to simulate a lung was irradiated by x-rays with energies of either 6, 10, or 18 MV. The source to phantom distance was 3.9 meters. The cork insert was either 10 cm wide or 6 cm wide. Partial transmission blocks with transmission factors of 50% were placed anterior to the cork insert. The blocks were either 8 or 4 cm in width. Kodak XV-2 film was placed in the midline of the phantom to record the dose. Midplane dose profiles were measured with a densitometer. Results: For the 10 cm wide cork insert the uniformity of the dose over 80% of the block width varied from 6.6% for the 6 MV x-rays to 12.2% for the 18 MV x-rays. For the 6 cm wide cork insert the uniformity was comparable for all three x-ray energies, but for 18 MV the central dose increased by 9.4% compared to the 10 cm wide insert. Conclusion: Many factors must be considered in optimizing the dose for total-body irradiation. This study suggests that for AP/PA techniques lung dose uniformity is superior with 6 MV irradiation. The blanket recommendation that the highest x-ray energy be used in TBI is not valid for all situations

  19. SU-E-T-357: Electronic Compensation Technique to Deliver Total Body Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakeman, T [State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States); Wang, I; Podgorsak, M [State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States); Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient’s immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has conventionally been used to compensate for the varying thickness through the entire body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern electronic compensation technique to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Methods: Treatment plans utilizing electronic compensation to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Each treatment plan includes two, specifically weighted, pair of opposed fields. One pair of open, large fields (collimator=45°), to encompass the patient’s entire anatomy, and one pair of smaller fields (collimator=0°) focused only on the thicker midsection of the patient. The optimal fluence for each one of the smaller fields was calculated at a patient specific penetration depth. Irregular surface compensators provide a more uniform dose distribution within the smaller opposed fields. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for the evaluating the electronic compensation technique. In one case, the maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the non-compensated 195.8% to 165.3% in the electronically compensated plans, indicating a more uniform dose with the region of electronic compensation. The mean body doses calculated from the DVH were also reduced from the non-compensated 120.6% to 112.7% in the electronically compensated plans, indicating a more accurate delivery of the prescription dose. All calculated monitor units were well within clinically acceptable limits. Conclusion: Electronic compensation technique for TBI will not substantially increase the beam on time while it can significantly reduce the compensator

  20. Changes of some serum proteins in rats continuously irradiated with daily dose rate of 0. 0258 C/kg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlebovska, K; Chlebovsky, O; Praslicka, M [Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie

    1976-01-01

    Changes of serum albumin, haptoglobin, hemopexin and IgG in rats during chronic /sup 60/Co gamma irradiation with a daily dose rate of 0.0258 C/kg within 44 days were investigated by the method of two-dimensional quantitative immunoelectrophoresis. In comparison with normal levels, the values of albumin and IgG in rats during irradiation decreased until the death of animals to 50%, the values of haptoglobin increased till the 39th day of irradiation to 250% and hemopexin values increased to 150%.

  1. Effects of Tadalafil 5 mg Dosed Once Daily in Men with Premature Ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Levent; Polat, Emre Can; Onen, Efe; Kocaaslan, Ramazan; Otunctemur, Alper; Cekmen, Mustafa; Eraldemir, Ceyla; Ozbek, Emin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of 5 mg tadalafil once daily in men with premature ejaculation (PE). Thirty married men with lifelong PE and 30 healthy men as control group were included in this study. All the patients received 5 mg tadalafil once a day for a month. The international index of erectile function questionnaire and intravaginal ejaculatory latency times (IELTs) and PE profile were recorded before and after treatment. Plasma samples were collected before and after treatment. The mean baseline IELTs was 40.8 ± 8.1 s in the PE group and 196.5 ± 26.2 s in the control group. After treatment in the PE group, the mean IELTs values showed a statistically significant improvement from the baseline values. At the end of 4 weeks, in the PE group, the mean IELT values showed a statistically significant improvement from the baseline values. Baseline serum nitric oxide (NO) levels were 27.3 ± 1.7 in the PE group and in the 31.1 ± 1.4 healthy control groups. After treatment, NO levels were increased from baseline. We consider that 5 mg tadalafil once daily is safety and effective for the treatment of PE. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Rationale and design of the worldwide prospective multicenter registry on radiation dose estimates of cardiac CT angiography in daily practice in 2017 (PROTECTION VI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocker, Thomas J; Deseive, Simon; Chen, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    -randomized and randomized studies have been performed to reduce the associated radiation exposure. Currently, it is unclear if the advances in technology and knowledge about radiation reduction translated into reduced levels of cardiac CTA radiation dose in daily clinical practice as well as a wide utilization of dose......-saving strategies. METHODS: The PROTECTION VI study is a multicenter, prospective, worldwide registry designed to evaluate radiation dose exposure, utilization of dose-saving strategies and diagnostic image quality during cardiac CTA in current daily practice. Assessment of image quality will be addressed...... median radiation dose levels, image quality, frequency of use and efficacy of algorithms for dose reduction, and patient and study-related predictors associated with radiation dose. CONCLUSIONS: The PROTECTION VI study is designed to provide a reliable estimate of current radiation dose for cardiac CTA...

  3. Experimental application of the "total maximum daily load" approach as a tool for WFD implementation in temporary rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Porto, A.; De Girolamo, A. M.; Santese, G.

    2012-04-01

    In this presentation, the experience gained in the first experimental use in the UE (as far as we know) of the concept and methodology of the "Total Maximum Daily Load" (TMDL) is reported. The TMDL is an instrument required in the Clean Water Act in U.S.A for the management of water bodies classified impaired. The TMDL calculates the maximum amount of a pollutant that a waterbody can receive and still safely meet water quality standards. It permits to establish a scientifically-based strategy on the regulation of the emission loads control according to the characteristic of the watershed/basin. The implementation of the TMDL is a process analogous to the Programmes of Measures required by the WFD, the main difference being the analysis of the linkage between loads of different sources and the water quality of water bodies. The TMDL calculation was used in this study for the Candelaro River, a temporary Italian river, classified impaired in the first steps of the implementation of the WFD. A specific approach based on the "Load Duration Curves" was adopted for the calculation of nutrient TMDLs due to the more robust approach specific for rivers featuring large changes in river flow compared to the classic approach based on average long term flow conditions. This methodology permits to establish the maximum allowable loads across to the different flow conditions of a river. This methodology enabled: to evaluate the allowable loading of a water body; to identify the sources and estimate their loads; to estimate the total loading that the water bodies can receives meeting the water quality standards established; to link the effects of point and diffuse sources on the water quality status and finally to individuate the reduction necessary for each type of sources. The loads reductions were calculated for nitrate, total phosphorus and ammonia. The simulated measures showed a remarkable ability to reduce the pollutants for the Candelaro River. The use of the Soil and

  4. Using spatially detailed water-quality data and solute-transport modeling to improve support total maximum daily load development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton-Day, Katherine; Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.

    2012-01-01

    Spatially detailed mass-loading studies and solute-transport modeling using OTIS (One-dimensional Transport with Inflow and Storage) demonstrate how natural attenuation and loading from distinct and diffuse sources control stream water quality and affect load reductions predicted in total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Mass-loading data collected during low-flow from Cement Creek (a low-pH, metal-rich stream because of natural and mining sources, and subject to TMDL requirements) were used to calibrate OTIS and showed spatially variable effects of natural attenuation (instream reactions) and loading from diffuse (groundwater) and distinct sources. OTIS simulations of the possible effects of TMDL-recommended remediation of mine sites showed less improvement to dissolved zinc load and concentration (14% decrease) than did the TMDL (53-63% decrease). The TMDL (1) assumed conservative transport, (2) accounted for loads removed by remediation by subtracting them from total load at the stream mouth, and (3) did not include diffuse-source loads. In OTIS, loads were reduced near their source; the resulting concentration was decreased by natural attenuation and increased by diffuse-source loads during downstream transport. Thus, by not including natural attenuation and loading from diffuse sources, the TMDL overestimated remediation effects at low flow. Use of the techniques presented herein could improve TMDLs by incorporating these processes during TMDL development.

  5. Emesis as a Screening Diagnostic for Low Dose Rate (LDR) Total Body Radiation Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarata, Andrew S; Switchenko, Jeffrey M; Demidenko, Eugene; Flood, Ann B; Swartz, Harold M; Ali, Arif N

    2016-04-01

    Current radiation disaster manuals list the time-to-emesis (TE) as the key triage indicator of radiation dose. The data used to support TE recommendations were derived primarily from nearly instantaneous, high dose-rate exposures as part of variable condition accident databases. To date, there has not been a systematic differentiation between triage dose estimates associated with high and low dose rate (LDR) exposures, even though it is likely that after a nuclear detonation or radiologic disaster, many surviving casualties would have received a significant portion of their total exposure from fallout (LDR exposure) rather than from the initial nuclear detonation or criticality event (high dose rate exposure). This commentary discusses the issues surrounding the use of emesis as a screening diagnostic for radiation dose after LDR exposure. As part of this discussion, previously published clinical data on emesis after LDR total body irradiation (TBI) is statistically re-analyzed as an illustration of the complexity of the issue and confounding factors. This previously published data includes 107 patients who underwent TBI up to 10.5 Gy in a single fraction delivered over several hours at 0.02 to 0.04 Gy min. Estimates based on these data for the sensitivity of emesis as a screening diagnostic for the low dose rate radiation exposure range from 57.1% to 76.6%, and the estimates for specificity range from 87.5% to 99.4%. Though the original data contain multiple confounding factors, the evidence regarding sensitivity suggests that emesis appears to be quite poor as a medical screening diagnostic for LDR exposures.

  6. A randomised clinical trial on the efficacy of oxytetracycline dose through water medication of nursery pigs on diarrhoea, faecal shedding of Lawsonia intracellularis and average daily weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Inge; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Holm, Anders; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Nielsen, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    Oral treatment with antimicrobials is widely used in pig production for the control of gastrointestinal infections. Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) causes enteritis in pigs older than six weeks of age and is commonly treated with antimicrobials. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three oral dosage regimens (5, 10 and 20mg/kg body weight) of oxytetracycline (OTC) in drinking water over a five-day period on diarrhoea, faecal shedding of LI and average daily weight gain (ADG). A randomised clinical trial was carried out in four Danish pig herds. In total, 539 animals from 37 batches of nursery pigs were included in the study. The dosage regimens were randomly allocated to each batch and initiated at presence of assumed LI-related diarrhoea. In general, all OTC doses used for the treatment of LI infection resulted in reduced diarrhoea and LI shedding after treatment. Treatment with a low dose of 5mg/kg OTC per kg body weight, however, tended to cause more watery faeces and resulted in higher odds of pigs shedding LI above detection level when compared to medium and high doses (with odds ratios of 5.5 and 8.4, respectively). No association was found between the dose of OTC and the ADG. In conclusion, a dose of 5mg OTC per kg body weight was adequate for reducing the high-level LI shedding associated with enteropathy, but a dose of 10mg OTC per kg body weight was necessary to obtain a maximum reduction in LI shedding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Time- and dose-dependent effects of total-body ionizing radiation on muscle stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shinya; Hisamatsu, Tsubasa; Seko, Daiki; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Li, Tao-Sheng; Ono, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of genotoxic stress, such as high-dose ionizing radiation, increases both cancer and noncancer risks. However, it remains debatable whether low-dose ionizing radiation reduces cellular function, or rather induces hormetic health benefits. Here, we investigated the effects of total-body γ-ray radiation on muscle stem cells, called satellite cells. Adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to γ-radiation at low- to high-dose rates (low, 2 or 10 mGy/day; moderate, 50 mGy/day; high, 250 mGy/day) for 30 days. No hormetic responses in proliferation, differentiation, or self-renewal of satellite cells were observed in low-dose radiation-exposed mice at the acute phase. However, at the chronic phase, population expansion of satellite cell-derived progeny was slightly decreased in mice exposed to low-dose radiation. Taken together, low-dose ionizing irradiation may suppress satellite cell function, rather than induce hormetic health benefits, in skeletal muscle in adult mice. PMID:25869487

  8. Impact of radiation technique, radiation fraction dose, and total cisplatin dose on hearing. Retrospective analysis of 29 medulloblastoma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scobioala, Sergiu; Kittel, Christopher; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Wolters, Heidi; Eich, Hans Theodor [University Hospital of Muenster, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Muenster (Germany); Parfitt, Ross; Matulat, Peter; Am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette [University Hospital of Muenster, Department of Phoniatrics and Pediatric Audiology, Muenster (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    To analyze the incidence and degree of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) resulting from different radiation techniques, fractionation dose, mean cochlear radiation dose (D{sub mean}), and total cisplatin dose. In all, 29 children with medulloblastoma (58 ears) with subclinical pretreatment hearing thresholds participated. Radiotherapy (RT) and cisplatin had been applied sequentially according to the HIT MED Guidance. Audiological outcomes up to the latest follow-up (median 2.6 years) were compared. Bilateral high-frequency SNHL was observed in 26 patients (90%). No significant differences were found in mean hearing threshold between left and right ears at any frequency. A significantly better audiological outcome (p < 0.05) was found after tomotherapy at the 6 kHz bone-conduction threshold (BCT) and left-sided 8 kHz air-conduction threshold (ACT) than after a combined radiotherapy technique (CT). Fraction dose was not found to have any impact on the incidence, degree, and time-to-onset of SNHL. Patients treated with CT had a greater risk of SNHL at high frequencies than tomotherapy patients even though D{sub mean} was similar. Increase in severity of SNHL was seen when the total cisplatin dose reached above 210 mg/m{sup 2}, with the highest abnormal level found 8-12 months after RT regardless of radiation technique or fraction dose. The cochlear radiation dose should be kept as low as possible in patients who receive simultaneous cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The risk of clinically relevant HL was shown when D{sub mean} exceeds 45 Gy independent of radiation technique or radiation regime. Cisplatin ototoxicity was shown to have a dose-dependent effect on bilateral SNHL, which was more pronounced in higher frequencies. (orig.) [German] Analyse von Inzidenz und Schweregrad einer sensorineuralen Schwerhoerigkeit (''sensorineural hearing loss'', SNHL) infolge der Wirkung unterschiedlicher Bestrahlungstechniken, Fraktionierungen, mittlerer

  9. Total skin high-dose-rate electron therapy dosimetry using TG-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossman, Michael S.; Sharma, Subhash C.

    2004-01-01

    An approach to dosimetry for total skin electron therapy (TSET) is discussed using the currently accepted TG-51 high-energy calibration protocol. The methodology incorporates water phantom data for absolute calibration and plastic phantom data for efficient reference dosimetry. The scheme is simplified to include the high-dose-rate mode conversion and provides support for its use, as it becomes more available on newer linear accelerators. Using a 6-field, modified Stanford technique, one may follow the process for accurate determination of absorbed dose

  10. Total dose hardening of buried insulator in implanted silicon-on-insulator structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, B.Y.; Chen, C.E.; Pollack, G.; Hughes, H.L.; Davis, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Total dose characteristics of the buried insulator in implanted silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates have been studied using MOS transistors. The threshold voltage shift of the parasitic back channel transistor, which is controlled by charge trapping in the buried insulator, is reduced by lowering the oxygen dose as well as by an additional nitrogen implant, without degrading the front channel transistor characteristics. The improvements in the radiation characteristics of the buried insulator are attributed to the decrease in the buried oxide thickness or to the presence of the interfacial oxynitride layer formed by the oxygen and nitrogen implants

  11. Near real-time automated dose restoration in IMPT to compensate for daily tissue density variations in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagt, Thyrza; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; van de Water, Steven; Heijmen, Ben; Hoogeman, Mischa

    2017-06-01

    Proton therapy is very sensitive to daily density changes along the pencil beam paths. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate an automated method for adaptation of IMPT plans to compensate for these daily tissue density variations. A two-step restoration method for ‘densities-of-the-day’ was created: (1) restoration of spot positions (Bragg peaks) by adapting the energy of each pencil beam to the new water equivalent path length; and (2) re-optimization of pencil beam weights by minimizing the dosimetric difference with the planned dose distribution, using a fast and exact quadratic solver. The method was developed and evaluated using 8-10 repeat CT scans of 10 prostate cancer patients. Experiments demonstrated that giving a high weight to the PTV in the re-optimization resulted in clinically acceptable restorations. For all scans we obtained V 95%  ⩾  98% and V 107%  ⩽  2%. For the bladder, the differences between the restored and the intended treatment plan were below  +2 Gy and  +2%-point. The rectum differences were below  +2 Gy and  +2%-point for 90% of the scans. In the remaining scans the rectum was filled with air, which partly overlapped with the PTV. The air cavity distorted the Bragg peak resulting in less favorable rectum doses.

  12. Once-daily omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate heals severe refractory reflux esophagitis with morning or nighttime dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbelo, Diana M; Enders, Felicity T; Romero, Yvonne; Francis, Dawn L; Achem, Sami R; Dabade, Tushar S; Crowell, Michael D; Geno, Debra M; DeJesus, Ramona S; Namasivayam, Vikneswaran; Adamson, Steven C; Arora, Amindra S; Majka, Andrew J; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Murray, Joseph A; Lohse, Matthew; Diehl, Nancy N; Fredericksen, Mary; Jung, Kee Wook; Houston, Margaret S; O'Neil, Angela E; Katzka, David A

    2015-01-01

    Morning dose or twice-daily proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use is often prescribed to heal severe reflux esophagitis. Compare the effect of single dose morning (control arm) versus nighttime (experimental arm) omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate (Zegerid(®)) (IR-OME) on esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. Adult outpatients with Los Angeles grade C or D esophagitis were allocated to open-label 40 mg IR-OME once a day for 8 weeks in a prospective, randomized, parallel design, single center study. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and validated self-report symptom questionnaires were completed at baseline and follow-up. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were performed. Ninety-two of 128 (72 %) eligible subjects participated [64 (70 %) male, mean age 58 (range 19-86), median BMI 29 (range 21-51), 58 C:34 D]. Overall, 81 (88 %) subjects healed [n = 70 (76 %)] or improved [n = 11 (12 %)] erosions. There was no significant difference (morning vs. night) in mucosal healing [81 vs. 71 %, (p = 0.44)] or symptom resolution [heartburn (77 vs. 65 %, p = 0.12), acid regurgitation (82 vs. 73 %, p = 0.28)]. Prevalence of newly identified Barrett's esophagus was 14 % with half diagnosed only after treatment. Once-daily IR-OME (taken morning or night) effectively heals severe reflux esophagitis and improves GERD symptoms. Results support the clinical practice recommendation to repeat EGD after 8 weeks PPI therapy in severe esophagitis patients to assure healing and exclude Barrett's esophagus.

  13. OMI/Aura Surface UVB Irradiance and Erythemal Dose Daily L2 Global 0.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Version 003 of Aura-OMI Spectral Surface UVB Irradiance and Erythemal Dose Level-2G data product (Daily level-2 data binned into global 0.25 deg Lat/Lon grids)...

  14. Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy for cutaneous lymphoma. Minimal risk of acute toxicities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, Kai; Elsayad, Khaled; Moustakis, Christos; Haverkamp, Uwe; Eich, Hans Theodor [University Hospital of Muenster, Department of Radiation Oncology, Muenster (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is attracting increased interest for the effective palliative treatment of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (pCTCL). In this study, we compared toxicity profiles following various radiation doses. We reviewed the records of 60 patients who underwent TSEBT for pCTCL between 2000 and 2016 at the University Hospital of Munster. The treatment characteristics of the radiotherapy (RT) regimens and adverse events (AEs) were then analyzed and compared. In total, 67 courses of TSEBT were administered to 60 patients. Of these patients, 34 (51%) received a standard dose with a median surface dose of 30 Gy and 33 patients (49%) received a low dose with the median surface dose of 12 Gy (7 salvage low-dose TSEBT courses were administered to 5 patients). After a median follow-up of 15 months, the overall AE rate was 100%, including 38 patients (57%) with grade 2 and 7 (10%) with grade 3 AEs. Patients treated with low-dose TSEBT had significantly fewer grade 2 AEs than those with conventional dose regimens (33 vs. 79%, P < 0.001). A lower grade 3 AE rate was also observed in patients who had received the low-dose regimen compared to those with the conventional dose regimens (6 vs. 15%, P = 0.78). Multiple/salvage low-dose TSEBT courses were not associated with an increased risk of acute AEs. Low-dose TSEBT regimens are associated with significantly fewer grade 2 acute toxicities compared with conventional doses of TSEBT. Repeated/Salvage low-dose TSEBT, however, appears to be tolerable and can even be applied safely in patients with cutaneous relapses. (orig.) [German] Eine niedrigdosierte Ganzhautelektronenbestrahlung (TSEBT) wird vermehrt zur effektiven palliativen Behandlung von Patienten mit primaer kutanen T-Zell-Lymphomen (pCTCL) eingesetzt. In dieser Studie vergleichen wir die Toxizitaetsprofile verschiedener Dosiskonzepte. Untersucht wurden 60 zwischen 2000 und 2016 am Universitaetsklinikum Muenster mittels TSEBT

  15. Measurement with total scatter calibrate factor at different depths in the calculation of prescription dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lijun; Zhu Haijun; Zhang Xinzhong; Li Feizhou; Song Hongyu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the method of measurement of total scatter calibrate factor (Sc, p). Methods: To measure the Sc, p at different depths on central axis of 6MV, 15MV photon beams through different ways. Results: It was found that the measured data of Sc, p changed with the different depths to a range of 1% - 7%. Using the direct method, the Sc, p measured depth should be the same as the depth in dose normalization point of the prescription dose. If the Sc, p (fsz, d) was measured at the other depths, it could be obtained indirectly by the calculation formula. Conclusions: The Sc, p in the prescription dose can be obtained either by the direct measure method or the indirect calculation formula. But emphasis should be laid on the proper measure depth. (authors)

  16. Determination of total vanadium and vanadium(V) in groundwater from Mt. Etna and estimate of daily intake of vanadium(V) through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Giovanni; Copat, Chiara; Dimartino, Angela; Grasso, Alfina; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-06-01

    Vanadium(V) can be found in natural waters in the form of V(IV) and V(V) species, which have different biological properties and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of total V and V(V) in groundwater from the area of Mt. Etna and to assess the estimated daily intake (EDI) of V(V) of adults and children through drinking water. Water was sampled monthly at 21 sites in 2011. Total vanadium was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and speciation by ion chromatography-ICP-MS (IC-ICP-MS). The concentration of V(V) species ranged from 62.8 to 98.9% of total V, with significantly higher concentrations in samples from the S/SW slope of Mt. Etna. The annual mean concentrations of total V exceeded the Italian legal limit of 140 μg/L at four sites on the S/SW slope. In the absence of thresholds for V(V) intake, only the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has calculated a reference dose. Children's EDI of V(V) at the sites with the higher V concentrations exceeded EPA thresholds (9 μg/kg/day). In particular, we found in Camporotondo, Mascalucia, Ragalna and San Pietro Clarenza sites children's EDIs of 11, 9.3, 11 and 9.9, respectively. The EDI of V(V) was significantly higher than the literature range (0.09-0.34 μg/kg/day).

  17. Statistical analysis of dose heterogeneity in circulating blood: Implications for sequential methods of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Janelle A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Improvements in delivery techniques for total body irradiation (TBI) using Tomotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy have been proven feasible. Despite the promise of improved dose conformality, the application of these ''sequential'' techniques has been hampered by concerns over dose heterogeneity to circulating blood. The present study was conducted to provide quantitative evidence regarding the potential clinical impact of this heterogeneity. Methods: Blood perfusion was modeled analytically as possessing linear, sinusoidal motion in the craniocaudal dimension. The average perfusion period for human circulation was estimated to be approximately 78 s. Sequential treatment delivery was modeled as a Gaussian-shaped dose cloud with a 10 cm length that traversed a 183 cm patient length at a uniform speed. Total dose to circulating blood voxels was calculated via numerical integration and normalized to 2 Gy per fraction. Dose statistics and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) were calculated for relevant treatment times, radiobiological parameters, blood perfusion rates, and fractionation schemes. The model was then refined to account for random dispersion superimposed onto the underlying periodic blood flow. Finally, a fully stochastic model was developed using binomial and trinomial probability distributions. These models allowed for the analysis of nonlinear sequential treatment modalities and treatment designs that incorporate deliberate organ sparing. Results: The dose received by individual blood voxels exhibited asymmetric behavior that depended on the coherence among the blood velocity, circulation phase, and the spatiotemporal characteristics of the irradiation beam. Heterogeneity increased with the perfusion period and decreased with the treatment time. Notwithstanding, heterogeneity was less than ±10% for perfusion periods less than 150 s. The EUD was compromised for radiosensitive cells, long perfusion periods, and short treatment times

  18. Statistical analysis of dose heterogeneity in circulating blood: implications for sequential methods of total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Janelle A

    2010-11-01

    Improvements in delivery techniques for total body irradiation (TBI) using Tomotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy have been proven feasible. Despite the promise of improved dose conformality, the application of these "sequential" techniques has been hampered by concerns over dose heterogeneity to circulating blood. The present study was conducted to provide quantitative evidence regarding the potential clinical impact of this heterogeneity. Blood perfusion was modeled analytically as possessing linear, sinusoidal motion in the craniocaudal dimension. The average perfusion period for human circulation was estimated to be approximately 78 s. Sequential treatment delivery was modeled as a Gaussian-shaped dose cloud with a 10 cm length that traversed a 183 cm patient length at a uniform speed. Total dose to circulating blood voxels was calculated via numerical integration and normalized to 2 Gy per fraction. Dose statistics and equivalent uniform dose (EUD) were calculated for relevant treatment times, radiobiological parameters, blood perfusion rates, and fractionation schemes. The model was then refined to account for random dispersion superimposed onto the underlying periodic blood flow. Finally, a fully stochastic model was developed using binomial and trinomial probability distributions. These models allowed for the analysis of nonlinear sequential treatment modalities and treatment designs that incorporate deliberate organ sparing. The dose received by individual blood voxels exhibited asymmetric behavior that depended on the coherence among the blood velocity, circulation phase, and the spatiotemporal characteristics of the irradiation beam. Heterogeneity increased with the perfusion period and decreased with the treatment time. Notwithstanding, heterogeneity was less than +/- 10% for perfusion periods less than 150 s. The EUD was compromised for radiosensitive cells, long perfusion periods, and short treatment times. However, the EUD was

  19. SU-E-T-86: Comparison of Two Commercially Available Programs for the Evaluation of Delivered Daily Dose Using Cone Beam CT (CBCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuohy, R; Bosse, C; Mavroidis, P; Shi, Z; Crownover, R; Papanikolaou, N; Stathakis, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, two commercially available programs were compared for the evaluation of delivered daily dose using cone beam CT (CBCT). Methods: Thirty (n=30) patients previously treated in our clinic (10 prostate, 10 SBRT lung and 10 abdomen) were used in this study. The patients' plans were optimized and calculated using the Pinnacle treatment planning system. The daily CBCT scans were imported into Velocity and RayStation along with the corresponding planning CTs, structure sets and 3D dose distributions for each patient. The organs at risk (OAR) were contoured on each CBCT by the prescribing physician and were included in the evaluation of the daily delivered dose. Each CBCT was registered to the planning CT, once with rigid registration and then again, separately, with deformable registration. After registering each CBCT, the dose distribution from the planning CT was overlaid and the dose volume histograms (DVH) for the OAR and the planning target volumes (PTV) were calculated. Results: For prostate patients, we observed daily volume changes for the OARs. The DVH analysis for those patients showed variation in the sparing of the OARs while PTV coverage remained virtually unchanged using both Velocity and RayStation systems. Similar results were observed for abdominal patients. In contrast, for SBRT lung patients, the DVH for the OARs and target were comparable to those from the initial treatment plan. Differences in organ volume and organ doses were also observed when comparing the daily fractions using deformable and rigid registrations. Conclusion: By using daily CBCT dose reconstruction, we proved PTV coverage for prostate and abdominal targets is adequate. However, there is significant dosimetric change for the OARs. For lung SBRT patients, the delivered daily dose for both PTV and OAR is comparable to the planned dose with no significant differences

  20. Ethnic variation in the correlation between waist to height ratio and total daily insulin requirement in children with type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uday, Suma; Gorman, Shaun; Feltbower, Richard G; Mathai, Mathew

    2017-03-01

    Total daily insulin required to achieve glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depends on numerous factors. Correlation of insulin requirement to body mass index and waist circumference has been variably reported in the literature and that of waist-to-height ratio has not been studied. To study the correlation between daily insulin requirement [total daily dose (TDD)] and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in a multiethnic population. A cross-sectional study of children (5-18 years) with T1D attending a diabetes clinic in a multiethnic population in Bradford, UK was conducted. Physical measurements were undertaken in the clinic setting and data collected from case notes and patients/carers. Sixty nine patients with mean age 12.7(±3.1) yr, duration of diabetes 5.4(±3.5) yr and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 80(±18)mmol/mol(9.5 ± 1.6%) were recruited. Nearly 54% (n = 37) were white and 46% were non-white (29 Asian Pakistani; 1 Indian; 2 mixed White Afro-Caribbean). The two groups had similar demographics and disease profiles. Non-whites compared with whites had a higher prevalence of obesity (15 vs 5%, p 1), family history of type 2 diabetes (T2D) (49% vs. 33%), microalbuminuria (22% vs. 11%, p 1). WHtR and TDD were poorly correlated in the whole group. There was however a significant positive correlation in Caucasians (r = 0.583, N = 37, p 1) and a negative correlation in Asian Pakistanis (r = -0.472, N = 32, p 1); with a significant negative correlation seen in subjects with relatives with T2D (r = -0.86, N = 6, p = 0.02). The variation in correlations highlights that the two ethnic groups behave differently and should therefore be studied separately with regards to factors influencing insulin requirements with careful consideration to the presence of parental IR. Further prospective studies are required to explore the reasons for these differences. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The Role of Electron Transport and Trapping in MOS Total-Dose Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.; Riewe, L.C.; Flament, O.; Paillet, P.; Leray, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation-induced hole and electron transport and trapping are fundamental to MOS total-dose models. Here we separate the effects of electron-hole annihilation and electron trapping on the neutralization of radiation-induced charge during switched-bias irradiation for hard and soft oxides, via combined thermally stimulated current (TSC) and capacitance-voltage measurements. We also show that present total-dose models cannot account for the thermal stability of deeply trapped electrons near the Si/SiO 2 interface, or the inability of electrons in deep or shallow traps to contribute to TSC at positive bias following (1) room-temperature, (2) high-temperature, or (3) switched-bias irradiation. These results require revisions of modeling parameters and boundary conditions for hole and electron transport in SiO 2 . The nature of deep and shallow electron traps in the near-interfacial SiO 2 is discussed

  2. Revisiting Low-Dose Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy in Mycosis Fungoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Cameron, E-mail: cameronh@stanford.edu [Department of Dermatology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, California (United States); Young, James; Navi, Daniel [Department of Dermatology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, California (United States); Riaz, Nadeem [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, California (United States); Lingala, Bharathi; Kim, Youn [Department of Dermatology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, California (United States); Hoppe, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford, California (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is a highly effective treatment for mycosis fungoides (MF). The standard course consists of 30 to 36 Gy delivered over an 8- to 10-week period. This regimen is time intensive and associated with significant treatment-related toxicities including erythema, desquamation, anhydrosis, alopecia, and xerosis. The aim of this study was to identify a lower dose alternative while retaining a favorable efficacy profile. Methods and Materials: One hundred two MF patients were identified who had been treated with an initial course of low-dose TSEBT (5-<30 Gy) between 1958 and 1995. Patients had a T stage classification of T2 (generalized patch/plaque, n = 51), T3 (tumor, n = 29), and T4 (erythrodermic, n = 22). Those with extracutaneous disease were excluded. Results: Overall response (OR) rates (>50% improvement) were 90% among patients with T2 to T4 disease receiving 5 to <10 Gy (n = 19). In comparison, OR rates between the 10 to <20 Gy and 20 to <30 Gy subgroups were 98% and 97%, respectively. There was no significant difference in median progression free survival (PFS) in T2 and T3 patients when stratified by dose group, and PFS in each was comparable to that of the standard dose. Conclusions: OR rates associated with low-dose TSEBT in the ranges of 10 to <20 Gy and 20 to <30 Gy are comparable to that of the standard dose ({>=} 30 Gy). Efficacy measures including OS, PFS, and RFS are also favorable. Given that the efficacy profile is similar between 10 and <20 Gy and 20 and <30 Gy, the utility of TSEBT within the lower dose range of 10 to <20 Gy merits further investigation, especially in the context of combined modality treatment.

  3. Total dose induced latch in short channel NMOS/SOI transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlet-Cavrois, V.; Quoizola, S.; Musseau, O.; Flament, O.; Leray, J.L.; Pelloie, J.L.; Raynaud, C.; Faynot, O.

    1998-01-01

    A latch effect induced by total dose irradiation is observed in short channel SOI transistors. This effect appears on NMOS transistors with either a fully or a partially depleted structure. It is characterized by a hysteresis behavior of the Id-Vg characteristics at high drain bias for a given critical dose. Above this dose, the authors still observe a limited leakage current at low drain bias (0.1 V), but a high conduction current at high drain bias (2 V) as the transistor should be in the off-state. The critical dose above which the latch appears strongly depends on gate length, transistor structure (fully or partially depleted), buried oxide thickness and supply voltage. Two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulations indicate that the parasitic condition is due to the latch of the back gate transistor triggered by charge trapping in the buried oxide. To avoid the latch induced by the floating body effect, different techniques can be used: doping engineering, body contacts, etc. The study of the main parameters influencing the latch (gate length, supply voltage) shows that the scaling of technologies does not necessarily imply an increased latch sensitivity. Some technological parameters like the buried oxide hardness and thickness can be used to avoid latch, even at high cumulated dose, on highly integrated SOI technologies

  4. Test methods of total dose effects in very large scale integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chaohui; Geng Bin; He Baoping; Yao Yujuan; Li Yonghong; Peng Honglun; Lin Dongsheng; Zhou Hui; Chen Yusheng

    2004-01-01

    A kind of test method of total dose effects (TDE) is presented for very large scale integrated circuits (VLSI). The consumption current of devices is measured while function parameters of devices (or circuits) are measured. Then the relation between data errors and consumption current can be analyzed and mechanism of TDE in VLSI can be proposed. Experimental results of 60 Co γ TDEs are given for SRAMs, EEPROMs, FLASH ROMs and a kind of CPU

  5. Total skin electron irradiation: evaluation of dose uniformity throughout the skin surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anacak, Yavuz; Arican, Zumre; Bar-Deroma, Raquel; Tamir, Ada; Kuten, Abraham

    2003-01-01

    In this study, in vivo dosimetic data of 67 total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) treatments were analyzed. Thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) measurements were made at 10 different body points for every patient. The results demonstrated that the dose inhomogeneity throughout the skin surface is around 15%. The homogeneity was better at the trunk than at the extratrunk points, and was worse when a degrader was used. There was minimal improvement of homogeneity in subsequent days of treatment

  6. Development of total maximum daily loads for bacteria impaired watershed using the comprehensive hydrology and water quality simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang M; Brannan, Kevin M; Zeckoski, Rebecca W; Benham, Brian L

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop bacteria total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) for the Hardware River watershed in the Commonwealth of Virginia, USA. The TMDL program is an integrated watershed management approach required by the Clean Water Act. The TMDLs were developed to meet Virginia's water quality standard for bacteria at the time, which stated that the calendar-month geometric mean concentration of Escherichia coli should not exceed 126 cfu/100 mL, and that no single sample should exceed a concentration of 235 cfu/100 mL. The bacteria impairment TMDLs were developed using the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF). The hydrology and water quality components of HSPF were calibrated and validated using data from the Hardware River watershed to ensure that the model adequately simulated runoff and bacteria concentrations. The calibrated and validated HSPF model was used to estimate the contributions from the various bacteria sources in the Hardware River watershed to the in-stream concentration. Bacteria loads were estimated through an extensive source characterization process. Simulation results for existing conditions indicated that the majority of the bacteria came from livestock and wildlife direct deposits and pervious lands. Different source reduction scenarios were evaluated to identify scenarios that meet both the geometric mean and single sample maximum E. coli criteria with zero violations. The resulting scenarios required extreme and impractical reductions from livestock and wildlife sources. Results from studies similar to this across Virginia partially contributed to a reconsideration of the standard's applicability to TMDL development.

  7. Prospective Trial of High-Dose Reirradiation Using Daily Image Guidance With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Recurrent and Second Primary Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Cheng, Suzan; Donald, Paul J.; Purdy, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report a single-institutional experience using intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily image-guided radiotherapy for the reirradiation of recurrent and second cancers of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one consecutive patients were prospectively treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy from February 2006 to March 2009 to a median dose of 66 Gy (range, 60-70 Gy). None of these patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Daily helical megavoltage CT scans were obtained before each fraction as part of an image-guided radiotherapy registration protocol for patient alignment. Results: The 1- and 2-year estimates of in-field control were 72% and 65%, respectively. A total of 651 daily megavoltage CT scans were obtained. The mean systematic shift to account for interfraction motion was 1.38 ± 1.25 mm, 1.79 ± 1.45 mm, and 1.98 ± 1.75 mm for the medial-lateral, superior-inferior, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. Pretreatment shifts of >3 mm occurred in 19% of setups in the medial-lateral, 27% in the superior-inferior, and 33% in the anterior-posterior directions, respectively. There were no treatment-related fatalities or hospitalizations. Complications included skin desquamation, odynophagia, otitis externa, keratitis, naso-lacrimal duct stenosis, and brachial plexopathy. Conclusions: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy with daily image guidance results in effective disease control with relatively low morbidity and should be considered for selected patients with recurrent and second primary cancers of the head and neck.

  8. Evaluating organ delineation, dose calculation and daily localization in an open-MRI simulation workflow for prostate cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doemer, Anthony; Chetty, Indrin J; Glide-Hurst, Carri; Nurushev, Teamour; Hearshen, David; Pantelic, Milan; Traughber, Melanie; Kim, Joshua; Levin, Kenneth; Elshaikh, Mohamed A; Walker, Eleanor; Movsas, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This study describes initial testing and evaluation of a vertical-field open Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner for the purpose of simulation in radiation therapy for prostate cancer. We have evaluated the clinical workflow of using open MRI as a sole modality for simulation and planning. Relevant results related to MRI alignment (vs. CT) reference dataset with Cone-Beam CT (CBCT) for daily localization are presented. Ten patients participated in an IRB approved study utilizing MRI along with CT simulation with the intent of evaluating the MRI-simulation process. Differences in prostate gland volume, seminal vesicles, and penile bulb were assessed with MRI and compared to CT. To evaluate dose calculation accuracy, bulk-density-assignments were mapped onto respective MRI datasets and treated IMRT plans were re-calculated. For image localization purposes, 400 CBCTs were re-evaluated with MRI as the reference dataset and daily shifts compared against CBCT-to-CT registration. Planning margins based on MRI/CBCT shifts were computed using the van Herk formalism. Significant organ contour differences were noted between MRI and CT. Prostate volumes were on average 39.7% (p = 0.002) larger on CT than MRI. No significant difference was found in seminal vesicle volumes (p = 0.454). Penile bulb volumes were 61.1% higher on CT, without statistical significance (p = 0.074). MRI-based dose calculations with assigned bulk densities produced agreement within 1% with heterogeneity corrected CT calculations. The differences in shift positions for the cohort between CBCT-to-CT registration and CBCT-to-MRI registration are −0.15 ± 0.25 cm (anterior-posterior), 0.05 ± 0.19 cm (superior-inferior), and −0.01 ± 0.14 cm (left-right). This study confirms the potential of using an open-field MRI scanner as primary imaging modality for prostate cancer treatment planning simulation, dose calculations and daily image localization

  9. SU-E-J-181: Effect of Prostate Motion On Combined Brachytherapy and External Beam Dose Based On Daily Motion of the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayana, V; McLaughlin, P [Providence Cancer Center, Southfield, MI (United States); University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ealbaj, J [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In this study, the adequacy of target expansions on the combined external beam and implant dose was examined based on the measured daily motion of the prostate. Methods: Thirty patients received an I–125 prostate implant prescribed to dose of 90Gy. This was followed by external beam to deliver a dose of 90Gyeq (external beam equivalent) to the prostate over 25 to 30 fractions. An ideal IMRT plan was developed by optimizing the external beam dose based on the delivered implant dose. The implant dose was converted to an equivalent external beam dose using the linear quadratic model. Patients were set up on the treatment table by daily orthogonal imaging and aligning the marker seeds in the prostate. Orthogonal images were obtained at the end of treatment to assess prostate intrafraction motion. Based on the observed motion of the markers between the initial and final images, 5 individual plans showing the actual dose delivered to the patient were calculated. A final true dose distribution was established based on summing the implant dose and the 5 external beam plans. Dose to the prostate, seminal vesicles, lymphnodes and normal tissues, rectal wall, urethra and lower sphincter were calculated and compared to ideal. On 18 patients who were sexually active, dose to the corpus cavernosum and internal pudendal artery was also calculated. Results: The average prostate motion in 3 orthogonal directions was less than 1 mm with a standard deviation of less than +2 mm. Dose and volume parameters showed that there was no decrease in dose to the targets and a marginal decrease in dose to in normal tissues. Conclusion: Dose delivered by seed implant moves with the prostate, decreasing the impact of intrafractions dose movement on actual dose delivered. Combined brachytherapy and external beam dose delivered to the prostate was not sensitive to prostate motion.

  10. Bioequivalence and Safety of Twice-Daily Sustained-Release Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) Compared With 3- and 4-Times-Daily Paracetamol: A Repeat-Dose, Crossover Pharmacokinetic Study in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongzhou J; Collaku, Agron

    2018-01-01

    Twice-daily sustained-release (SR) paracetamol (acetaminophen) offers convenient administration to chronic users. This study investigated at steady state (during the last 24 hours of a 3-day dosing period) the pharmacokinetics, bioequivalence, and safety of twice-daily SR paracetamol compared with extended-release (ER) and immediate-release (IR) paracetamol. In this open-label, randomized, multidose, 3-way crossover study, 28 healthy subjects received paracetamol SR (2 × 1000 mg twice daily), ER (2 × 665 mg 3 times daily), and IR (2 × 500 mg 4 times daily). At steady state, twice-daily SR paracetamol was bioequivalent to ER and IR paracetamol. The 90% confidence intervals for the ratios of geometric means were within the acceptance interval for SR/ER paracetamol (AUC 0-t , 0.973-1.033; AUC 0-24 , 0.974-1.034; AUC 0-∞ , 0.948-1.011; C max , 1.082-1.212; C av , 1.011-1.106) and SR/IR paracetamol (AUC 0-t , 0.969-1.029; AUC 0-24 , 0.968-1.027; AUC 0-∞ , 0.963-1.026; C max , 0.902-1.010; C av , 1.004-1.098). Given twice daily, the SR formulation demonstrated SR properties as expected. Mean time at or above a 4 μg/mL plasma concentration of paracetamol from 2 daily doses of the SR formulation was significantly longer than that from 4 daily doses of IR paracetamol. SR formulation also had a greater T max , a longer half-life, and lower C min compared with ER and IR paracetamol. All formulations were well tolerated. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  11. Effect of low-dose ritonavir (100 mg twice daily) on the activity of cytochrome P450 2D6 in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnoutse, Rob E; Kleinnijenhuis, Johanneke; Koopmans, Peter P; Touw, Daan J; Wieling, Jaap; Hekster, Yechiel A; Burger, David M

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection, the protease inhibitor ritonavir is used in a low dose (100 mg twice daily) to inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and thereby increase plasma concentrations of coadministered protease inhibitors. When applied in a therapeutic dose

  12. Effect of low-dose ritonavir (100 mg twice daily) on the activity of cytochrome P450 2D6 in healthy volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnoutse, R.E.; Kleinnijenhuis, J.; Koopmans †, P.P.; Touw, D.J.; Wieling, J.; Hekster, Y.A.; Burger, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection, the protease inhibitor ritonavir is used in a low dose (100 mg twice daily) to inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and thereby increase plasma concentrations of coadministered protease inhibitors. When applied in a therapeutic dose

  13. Single daily dosing of antibiotics: importance of in vitro killing rate, serum half-life, and protein binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potel, G; Chau, N P; Pangon, B; Fantin, B; Vallois, J M; Faurisson, F; Carbon, C

    1991-10-01

    The relative importance of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters for the feasibility of a single daily dose (SDD) of antibiotics remains to be established. Therefore, we studied the relationship between in vitro bacteriological parameters (MIC, MBC, and killing rate [KR], defined as the reduction in the inoculum within 3 h), pharmacokinetic parameters (t1/2 and protein binding [PB], and in vivo antibacterial effect of a single antibiotic dose in an experimental rabbit model of Escherichia coli endocarditis. Nine antibiotics were investigated: two aminoglycosides, two quinolones, and five beta-lactams. For each drug, the minimal effective dose (MED) (in milligrams per kilogram) was defined as the lowest dose able to achieve a significant difference (P less than 0.05) of CFU in the vegetations in comparison with controls 24 h after a single intravenous injection. Aminoglycosides and quinolones had the lowest MEDs, followed by beta-lactams. Univariate regression analysis showed that KR was the major determinant of MED. A stepwise regression analysis showed that t1/2 significantly improved the predictive value of KR, while PB, MIC, and MBC did not. The final equation was MED = 1,586-238 KR-297 t1/2 (r = 0.90, P = 0.01). We concluded that the pharmacodynamic parameters (especially the high KR) of aminoglycosides and quinolones explained their low MEDs and might allow SDD. In contrast, the low KR of beta-lactams emphasized the critical importance of a long t1/2, as for ceftriaxone, allowing the use of this beta-lactam alone in SDD.

  14. Pharmacological doses of daily ascorbate protect tumours from radiation damage after a single dose of radiation in an intracranial mouse glioma model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole eGrasso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological ascorbate is currently used as an anti-cancer treatment, potentially in combination with radiation therapy, by integrative medicine practitioners. In the acidic, metal-rich tumour environment, ascorbate acts as a pro-oxidant, with a mode of action similar to that of ionising radiation; both treatments kill cells predominantly by free radical-mediated DNA damage. The brain tumour, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, is very resistant to radiation; radiosensitising GBM cells will improve survival of GBM patients. Here we demonstrate that a single fraction (6 Gy of radiation combined with a one hour exposure to ascorbate (5 mM sensitised murine glioma GL261cells to radiation in survival and colony-forming assays in vitro. In addition, we report the effect of a single fraction (4.5 Gy of whole brain radiation combined with daily intra-peritoneal injections of ascorbate (1 mg/kg in an intra-cranial GL261 glioma mouse model. Tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: one group received a single dose of 4.5 Gy to the brain eight days after tumour implantation, a second group received daily intra-peritoneal injections of ascorbate (day 8-45 after implantation, a third group received both treatments and a fourth control group received no treatment. While radiation delayed tumour progression, intra-peritoneal ascorbate alone had no effect on tumour progression. Tumour progression was faster in tumour-bearing mice treated with radiation and daily ascorbate than those treated with radiation alone. Histological analysis showed less necrosis in tumours treated with both radiation and ascorbate, consistent with a radio-protective effect of ascorbate in vivo. Discrepancies between our in vitro and in vivo results may be explained by differences in the tumour micro-environment which determines whether ascorbate remains outside the cell, acting as a pro-oxidant or whether it enters the cells and acts as an anti-oxidant.

  15. Pharmacological doses of daily ascorbate protect tumors from radiation damage after a single dose of radiation in an intracranial mouse glioma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Carole; Fabre, Marie-Sophie; Collis, Sarah V; Castro, M Leticia; Field, Cameron S; Schleich, Nanette; McConnell, Melanie J; Herst, Patries M

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological ascorbate is currently used as an anti-cancer treatment, potentially in combination with radiation therapy, by integrative medicine practitioners. In the acidic, metal-rich tumor environment, ascorbate acts as a pro-oxidant, with a mode of action similar to that of ionizing radiation; both treatments kill cells predominantly by free radical-mediated DNA damage. The brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is very resistant to radiation; radiosensitizing GBM cells will improve survival of GBM patients. Here, we demonstrate that a single fraction (6 Gy) of radiation combined with a 1 h exposure to ascorbate (5 mM) sensitized murine glioma GL261 cells to radiation in survival and colony-forming assays in vitro. In addition, we report the effect of a single fraction (4.5 Gy) of whole brain radiation combined with daily intraperitoneal injections of ascorbate (1 mg/kg) in an intracranial GL261 glioma mouse model. Tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: one group received a single dose of 4.5 Gy to the brain 8 days after tumor implantation, a second group received daily intraperitoneal injections of ascorbate (day 8-45) after implantation, a third group received both treatments and a fourth control group received no treatment. While radiation delayed tumor progression, intraperitoneal ascorbate alone had no effect on tumor progression. Tumor progression was faster in tumor-bearing mice treated with radiation and daily ascorbate than in those treated with radiation alone. Histological analysis showed less necrosis in tumors treated with both radiation and ascorbate, consistent with a radio-protective effect of ascorbate in vivo. Discrepancies between our in vitro and in vivo results may be explained by differences in the tumor microenvironment, which determines whether ascorbate remains outside the cell, acting as a pro-oxidant, or whether it enters the cells and acts as an anti-oxidant.

  16. Daily total physical activity level and premature death in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan (JPHC study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Manami; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Kurahashi, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-07-01

    The impact of daily total physical activity level on premature deaths has not been fully clarified in non-Western, relatively lean populations. We prospectively examined the association between daily total physical activity level (METs/day) and subsequent risk of all-cause mortality and mortalities from cancer, heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease. A total of 83,034 general Japanese citizens ages 45-74 years who responded to the questionnaire in 1995-1999 were followed for any cause of death through December 2005. Mutlivariate-adjusted hazard ratios were calculated with a Cox proportional hazards model controlling for potential confounding factors. During follow-up, a total of 4564 deaths were recorded. Compared with subjects in the lowest quartile, increased daily total physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased risk of all-cause mortality in both sexes (hazard ratios for the second, third, and highest quartiles were: men, 0.79, 0.82, 0.73 and women, 0.75, 0.64, 0.61, respectively). The decreased risk was observed regardless of age, frequency of leisure-time sports or physical exercise, or obesity status, albeit with a degree of risk attenuation among those with a high body mass index. A significantly decreased risk was similarly observed for death from cancer and heart disease in both sexes, and from cerebrovascular disease in women. Greater daily total physical activity level, either from occupation, daily life, or leisure time, may be of benefit in preventing premature death.

  17. SU-E-T-92: Achieving Desirable Lung Doses in Total Body Irradiation Based On in Vivo Dosimetry and Custom Tissue Compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, G; Shiu, A; Zhou, S; Cui, J; Ballas, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To achieve desirable lung doses in total body irradiation (TBI) based on in vivo dosimetry and custom tissue compensation. Methods: The 15 MV photon beam of a Varian TrueBeam STx linac was used for TBI. Patients were positioned in the lateral decubitus position for AP/PA treatment delivery. Dose was calculated using the midpoint of the separation distance across the patient’s umbilicus. Patients received 200 cGy twice daily for 3 days. The dose rate at the patient’s midplane was approximately 10 cGy/min. Cerrobend blocks with a 5-HVL thickness were used for the primary lung shielding. A custom styrofoam holder for rice-flour filled bags was created based on the lung block cutouts. This was used to provide further lung shielding based on in vivo dose measurements. Lucite plates and rice-flour bags were placed in the head, neck, chest, and lower extremity regions during the treatment to compensate for the beam off-axis output variations. Two patients were included in the study. Patients 1 and 2 received a craniospinal treatment (1080 cGy) and a mediastinum treatment (2520 cGy), respectively, before the TBI. During the TBI nanoDot dosimeters were placed on the patient skin in the forehead, neck, umbilicus, and lung regions for dose monitoring. The doses were readout immediately after the treatment. Based on the readings, fine tuning of the thickness of the rice-flour filled bags was exploited to achieve the desirable lung doses. Results: For both patients the mean lung doses, which took into consideration all treatments, were controlled within 900 +/−10% cGy, as desired. Doses to the forehead, neck, and umbilicus were achieved within +/−10% of the prescribed dose (1200 cGy). Conclusion: A reliable and robust method was developed to achieve desirable lung doses and uniform body dose in TBI based on in vivo dosimetry and custom tissue compensator

  18. SU-E-T-92: Achieving Desirable Lung Doses in Total Body Irradiation Based On in Vivo Dosimetry and Custom Tissue Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, G; Shiu, A; Zhou, S; Cui, J; Ballas, L [Univ Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To achieve desirable lung doses in total body irradiation (TBI) based on in vivo dosimetry and custom tissue compensation. Methods: The 15 MV photon beam of a Varian TrueBeam STx linac was used for TBI. Patients were positioned in the lateral decubitus position for AP/PA treatment delivery. Dose was calculated using the midpoint of the separation distance across the patient’s umbilicus. Patients received 200 cGy twice daily for 3 days. The dose rate at the patient’s midplane was approximately 10 cGy/min. Cerrobend blocks with a 5-HVL thickness were used for the primary lung shielding. A custom styrofoam holder for rice-flour filled bags was created based on the lung block cutouts. This was used to provide further lung shielding based on in vivo dose measurements. Lucite plates and rice-flour bags were placed in the head, neck, chest, and lower extremity regions during the treatment to compensate for the beam off-axis output variations. Two patients were included in the study. Patients 1 and 2 received a craniospinal treatment (1080 cGy) and a mediastinum treatment (2520 cGy), respectively, before the TBI. During the TBI nanoDot dosimeters were placed on the patient skin in the forehead, neck, umbilicus, and lung regions for dose monitoring. The doses were readout immediately after the treatment. Based on the readings, fine tuning of the thickness of the rice-flour filled bags was exploited to achieve the desirable lung doses. Results: For both patients the mean lung doses, which took into consideration all treatments, were controlled within 900 +/−10% cGy, as desired. Doses to the forehead, neck, and umbilicus were achieved within +/−10% of the prescribed dose (1200 cGy). Conclusion: A reliable and robust method was developed to achieve desirable lung doses and uniform body dose in TBI based on in vivo dosimetry and custom tissue compensator.

  19. The Sandia total-dose estimator: SANDOSE description and user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, C.D.

    1995-02-01

    The SANdia total-DOSe Estimator (SANDOSE) is used to estimate total radiation dose to a (BRL-CAT) solid model, SANDOSE uses the mass-sectoring technique to sample the model using ray-tracing techniques. The code is integrated directly into the BRL-CAD solid model editor and is operated using a simple graphical user interface. Several diagnostic tools are available to allow the user to analyze the results. Based on limited validation using several benchmark problems, results can be expected to fall between a 10% underestimate and a factor of 2 overestimate of the actual dose predicted by rigorous radiation transport techniques. However, other situations may be encountered where the results might fall outside of this range. The code is written in C and uses X-windows graphics. It presently runs on SUN SPARCstations, but in theory could be ported to any workstation with a C compiler and X-windows. SANDOSE is available via license by contacting either the Sandia National Laboratories Technology Transfer Center or the author

  20. TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping...

  1. Pattern imprinting in deep sub-micron static random access memories induced by total dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qi-Wen; Yu Xue-Feng; Cui Jiang-Wei; Guo Qi; Ren Di-Yuan; Cong Zhong-Chao; Zhou Hang

    2014-01-01

    Pattern imprinting in deep sub-micron static random access memories (SRAMs) during total dose irradiation is investigated in detail. As the dose accumulates, the data pattern of memory cells loading during irradiation is gradually imprinted on their background data pattern. We build a relationship between the memory cell's static noise margin (SNM) and the background data, and study the influence of irradiation on the probability density function of ΔSNM, which is the difference between two data sides' SNMs, to discuss the reason for pattern imprinting. Finally, we demonstrate that, for micron and deep sub-micron devices, the mechanism of pattern imprinting is the bias-dependent threshold shift of the transistor, but for a deep sub-micron device the shift results from charge trapping in the shallow trench isolation (STI) oxide rather than from the gate oxide of the micron-device. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  2. Total-dose radiation effects data for semiconductor devices. 1985 supplement. Volume 2, part A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, K.E.; Gauthier, M.K.; Coss, J.R.; Dantas, A.R.V.; Price, W.E.

    1986-05-01

    Steady-state, total-dose radiation test data, are provided in graphic format for use by electronic designers and other personnel using semiconductor devices in a radiation environment. The data were generated by JPL for various NASA space programs. This volume provides data on integrated circuits. The data are presented in graphic, tabular, and/or narrative format, depending on the complexity of the integrated circuit. Most tests were done using the JPL or Boeing electron accelerator (Dynamitron) which provides a steady-state 2.5 MeV electron beam. However, some radiation exposures were made with a cobalt-60 gamma ray source, the results of which should be regarded as only an approximate measure of the radiation damage that would be incurred by an equivalent electron dose

  3. Pattern imprinting in deep sub-micron static random access memories induced by total dose irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qi-Wen; Yu, Xue-Feng; Cui, Jiang-Wei; Guo, Qi; Ren, Di-Yuan; Cong, Zhong-Chao; Zhou, Hang

    2014-10-01

    Pattern imprinting in deep sub-micron static random access memories (SRAMs) during total dose irradiation is investigated in detail. As the dose accumulates, the data pattern of memory cells loading during irradiation is gradually imprinted on their background data pattern. We build a relationship between the memory cell's static noise margin (SNM) and the background data, and study the influence of irradiation on the probability density function of ΔSNM, which is the difference between two data sides' SNMs, to discuss the reason for pattern imprinting. Finally, we demonstrate that, for micron and deep sub-micron devices, the mechanism of pattern imprinting is the bias-dependent threshold shift of the transistor, but for a deep sub-micron device the shift results from charge trapping in the shallow trench isolation (STI) oxide rather than from the gate oxide of the micron-device.

  4. The review of radiation effects of γ total dose in CMOS circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Panxun; Gao Wenming; Xie Zeyuan; Mi Bang

    1992-01-01

    Radiation performances of commercial and rad-hard CMOS circuits are reviewed. Threshold voltage, static power current, V in -V out characteristic and propagation delay time related with total dose are presented for CMOS circuits from several manufacturing processes. The performance of radiation-annealing of experimental circuits had been observed for two years. The comparison has been made between the CMOS circuits made in China and the commercial RCA products. 60 Co γ source can serve as γ simulator of the nuclear explosion

  5. Unscheduled DNA synthesis in spleen cells of mice exposed to low doses of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.; Hruby, E.

    1983-07-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis was induced by UV irradiation of spleen cells obtained from C 57 Bl mice after repeated total body irradiation of 0.05 Gy 60 Co (0.00125 Gy/mice) and determined autoradiographically. An enhancement in the ability for repair of UV induced DNA lesions was observed in cells of gamma irradiated animals. While the amount of 3 H-thymidine incorporated per cell was increased, the percentage of labeled cells remained unchanged. The present results are compared with previous data on low dose radiation exposure in men. (Author) [de

  6. The biological effects of high dose total body irradiation in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Qingliang; Liu Xiaolan; Hao Jing; Xiong Guolin; Dong Bo; Zhao Zhenhu; Xia Zhengbiao; Qiu Liling; Mao Bingzhi

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the biological effects of Beagle dogs irradiated by γ-rays at different doses. Methods: All Beagle dogs were divided into six groups and were subjected respectively to total-body irradiation (TBI) with a single dose of 6.5, 5.5, 5.0, 4.5, 3, 5 and 2.5 Gy γ-rays delivered by 60 Co sources at 7.224 x 10 -2 C/kg per minute. The general condition, blood cell counts and bone marrow cell CFC assays were observed. Results: Vomiting occurred at 0.5 to 2 hours after TBI in all groups. In 6.5 Gy group 3/5 dogs had blood-watery stool and 1/5 in 5.5 Gy group had watery stool. Diarrhea occurred in all other animals. Only one dog in 2.5 Gy group survived, all of others died. in order of decreasing irradiation dosage, the average survival time was 5.0, 8.0, 9.3, 9.5, 10.5 and 14.1 days, respectively. Conclusions: According to the clinical symptoms, leukocyte count and survival time of the dogs, the irradiation dose which will induce very severe hematopoietic radiation syndrome in Beagle dogs is 4.5 to 5.0 Gy

  7. The effect of low-dose total body irradiation on tumor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Kiyohiko; Miyamoto, Miyako; Watabe, Nobuyuki.

    1987-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) is considered to bring about an immunosuppressive effect on an organism, on the basis of data obtained from sublethal doses of TBI. However, there are no data on how low-dose TBI affects an organism. Over the last five years, we have been studying the effects of low-dose TBI on normal or tumor-bearing mice and the immunological background of these effects. In experimental studies, an increase in the TD50 value (the number of cells required for a tumor incidence of 50 %) in mice exposed to 10 rad was recognized and showed a remarkable increase at 6 hours to 15 hours after irradiation. TBI of 10 rad also showed an enhancement effect on tumor cell killing when given 12 hours before local tumor irradiation. In order to clarify the mechanism of this kind of effect, some immunological studies were performed using several immunological procedures, and the results suggested that 10 rad of TBI caused increasing tumor immunity in irradiated mice. Clinical trials in some patients with advanced tumors are now being undertaken on the basis of these experimental data, and the effect of TBI on tumor control appears promising, although it is too early to draw conclusions. (author)

  8. Biologically effective dose in total-body irradiation and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal, H.B.; Kempen-Harteveld, M.L. van; Heijenbrok-Kal, M.H.; Struikmans, H.

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Total-body irradiation (TBI) is an important part of the conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with hematologic malignancies. The results after treatment with various TBI regimes were compared, and dose-effect relationships for the endpoints relapse incidence, disease-free survival, treatment-related mortality, and overall survival were derived. The aim was to define requirements for an optimal treatment schedule with respect to leukemic cell kill and late normal-tissue morbidity. Material and Methods: A literature search was performed. Three randomized studies, four studies comparing results of two or three TBI regimens, and nine reports with results of one specific TBI regimen were identified. Biologically effective doses (BEDs) were calculated. The results of the randomized studies and the studies comparing results of two or three TBI regimens were pooled, and the pooled relative risk (RR) was calculated for the treatments with high BED values versus treatments with a low BED. BED-effect relationships were obtained. Results: RRs for the high BED treatments were significantly lower for relapse incidence, not significantly different for disease-free survival and treatment-related mortality, and significantly higher for overall survival. BED-effect relationships indicate a decrease in relapse incidence and treatment-related mortality and an increase in disease-free and overall survival with higher BED values. Conclusion: 'More dose is better', provided that a TBI setting is used limiting the BEDs of lungs, kidneys, and eye lenses. (orig.)

  9. In pediatric leukemia, dose evaluation according to the type of compensators in total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Yeon [Dongnam Inst. of Radiological and Medical science, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Catholic University of Busan, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Total body irradiation (TBI) and chemotherapy are the pre-treatment method of a stem cell transplantations of the childhood leukemia. in this study, we evaluate the Quantitative human body dose prior to the treatment. The MCNPX simulation program evaluated by changing the material of the tissue compensators with imitation material of pediatric exposure in a virtual space. As a result, first, the average skin dose with the material of the tissue compensators of Plexiglass tissue compensators is 74.60 mGy/min, Al is 73.96 mGy/min, Cu is 72.26 mGy/min and Pb 67.90 mGy/min respectively. Second, regardless of the tissue compensators material that organ dose were thyroid, gentile, digestive system, brain, lungs, kidneys higher in order. Finally, the ideal distance between body compensator and the patient were 50 cm aparting each other. In conclusion, tissue compensators Al, Cu, Pb are able to replace of the currently used in Plexiglass materials.

  10. Low-dose (10-Gy) total skin electron beam therapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Maria R; Gniadecki, Robert; Iversen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    a total dose of 10 Gy in 10 fractions. Data from 10 of these patients were published previously but were included in the current pooled data analysis. Outcome measures were response rate, duration of response, and toxicity. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 95% with a complete cutaneous response......PURPOSE: Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are dominated by mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS), and durable disease control is a therapeutic challenge. Standard total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is an effective skin-directed therapy, but the possibility of retreatments...... or a very good partial response rate (response was 174 days (5.8 months; range: 60-675 days). TSEBT-related acute adverse events (grade 1 or 2) were observed in 60% of patients. CONCLUSIONS...

  11. Comparison between a single dose of goserelin (depot) and multiple daily doses of leuprolide acetate for pituitary suppression in IVF treatment: a clinical endocrinological study of the ovarian response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Sales, Liana; Sampaio, Marcos A C

    2002-07-01

    Compare the efficacy and safety of two different GnRHa, used for pituitary suppression in IVF cycles. A total of 292 patients using depot goserelin (Group 1) and 167 using daily leuprolide acetate (Group 2) were compared. Days required to achieve pituitary function suppression, duration of ovarian stimulation, total dose of HMG, number of aspirated follicles, number of oocytes retrieved, and presence of functional ovarian cyst were analyzed. The time taken to achieve downregulation was similar. The mean number of ampoules used for superovulation was higher in Group 1; however, this difference was observed only for patients >40 years old that started GnRHa in the follicular phase. There was no difference between the two groups in the duration of superovulation, in the number of follicles aspirated, and the number of oocytes retrieved. In the group of patients with >40 years the incidence of ovarian cysts was higher in Group 2. Both routes of GnRHa have similar effects for pituitary suppression and ovulation induction in assisted reproductive technology. Therefore the long-acting GnRHa is an excellent option, as only a single subcutaneous dose is necessary, decreasing the risk of the patient to forget its use and, most important, it does not interfere in the patient's quality of life.

  12. Investigating CT to CBCT image registration for head and neck proton therapy as a tool for daily dose recalculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landry, Guillaume, E-mail: g.landry@lmu.de [Department of Medical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich D85748, Germany and Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich D81377 (Germany); Nijhuis, Reinoud; Thieke, Christian; Reiner, Michael; Ganswindt, Ute; Belka, Claus [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich D81377 (Germany); Dedes, George; Handrack, Josefine; Parodi, Katia [Department of Medical Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich D85748 (Germany); Janssens, Guillaume; Orban de Xivry, Jonathan [ICTEAM, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-La-Neuve B1348 (Belgium); Kamp, Florian; Wilkens, Jan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Technische Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich D81675, Germany and Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, Garching D85748 (Germany); Paganelli, Chiara; Riboldi, Marco; Baroni, Guido [Dipartimento di Elettronica Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Milan 20133 (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) of head and neck (H and N) cancer patients may be improved by plan adaptation. The decision to adapt the treatment plan based on a dose recalculation on the current anatomy requires a diagnostic quality computed tomography (CT) scan of the patient. As gantry-mounted cone beam CT (CBCT) scanners are currently being offered by vendors, they may offer daily or weekly updates of patient anatomy. CBCT image quality may not be sufficient for accurate proton dose calculation and it is likely necessary to perform CBCT CT number correction. In this work, the authors investigated deformable image registration (DIR) of the planning CT (pCT) to the CBCT to generate a virtual CT (vCT) to be used for proton dose recalculation. Methods: Datasets of six H and N cancer patients undergoing photon intensity modulated radiation therapy were used in this study to validate the vCT approach. Each dataset contained a CBCT acquired within 3 days of a replanning CT (rpCT), in addition to a pCT. The pCT and rpCT were delineated by a physician. A Morphons algorithm was employed in this work to perform DIR of the pCT to CBCT following a rigid registration of the two images. The contours from the pCT were deformed using the vector field resulting from DIR to yield a contoured vCT. The DIR accuracy was evaluated with a scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorithm comparing automatically identified matching features between vCT and CBCT. The rpCT was used as reference for evaluation of the vCT. The vCT and rpCT CT numbers were converted to stopping power ratio and the water equivalent thickness (WET) was calculated. IMPT dose distributions from treatment plans optimized on the pCT were recalculated with a Monte Carlo algorithm on the rpCT and vCT for comparison in terms of gamma index, dose volume histogram (DVH) statistics as well as proton range. The DIR generated contours on the vCT were compared to physician-drawn contours on the rp

  13. A first-principles approach to total-dose hardness assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleetwood, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    A first-principles approach to radiation hardness assurance was described that provides the technical background to the present US and European total-dose radiation hardness assurance test methods for MOS technologies, TM 1019.4 and BS 22900. These test methods could not have been developed otherwise, as their existence depends not on a wealth of empirical comparisons of IC data from ground and space testing, but on a fundamental understanding of MOS defect growth and annealing processes. Rebound testing should become less of a problem for advanced MOS small-signal electronics technologies for systems with total dose requirements below 50--100 krad(SiO 2 ) because of trends toward much thinner gate oxides. For older technologies with thicker gate oxides and for power devices, rebound testing is unavoidable without detailed characterization studies to assess the impact of interface traps on devices response in space. The QML approach is promising for future hardened technologies. A sufficient understanding of process effects on radiation hardness has been developed that should be able to reduce testing costs in the future for hardened parts. Finally, it is hoped that the above discussions have demonstrated that the foundation for cost-effective hardness assurance tests is laid with studies of the basic mechanisms of radiation effects. Without a diligent assessment of new radiation effects mechanisms in future technologies, one cannot be assured that the present generation of radiation test standards will continue to apply

  14. A rapid infusion protocol is safe for total dose iron polymaltose: time for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M; Morrison, G; Friedman, A; Lau, A; Lau, D; Gibson, P R

    2011-07-01

    Intravenous correction of iron deficiency by total dose iron polymaltose is inexpensive and safe, but current protocols entail prolonged administration over more than 4 h. This results in reduced patient acceptance, and hospital resource strain. We aimed to assess prospectively the safety of a rapid intravenous protocol and compare this with historical controls. Consecutive patients in whom intravenous iron replacement was indicated were invited to have up to 1.5 g iron polymaltose by a 58-min infusion protocol after an initial 15-min test dose without pre-medication. Infusion-related adverse events (AE) and delayed AE over the ensuing 5 days were also prospectively documented and graded as mild, moderate or severe. One hundred patients, 63 female, mean age 54 (range 18-85) years were studied. Thirty-four infusion-related AE to iron polymaltose occurred in a total of 24 patients--25 mild, 8 moderate and 1 severe; higher than previously reported for a slow protocol iron infusion. Thirty-one delayed AE occurred in 26 patients--26 mild, 3 moderate and 2 severe; similar to previously reported. All but five patients reported they would prefer iron replacement through the rapid protocol again. The presence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predicted infusion-related reactions (54% vs 14% without IBD, P cost, resource utilization and time benefits for the patient and hospital system. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  15. Influence of burn-in on total-ionizing-dose effect of SRAM device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Minbo; Yao Zhibin; Huang Shaoyan; He Baoping; Sheng Jiangkun

    2014-01-01

    The influence of Burn-in on the total-ionizing-dose (TID) effect of SRAM device was investigated. SRAM devices of three different feature sizes were selected and irradiated by "6"0Co source with or without pre-irradiation Burn-in. Some parameters for radiation effect of SRAM device such as upset data, were measured, and the influence on the TID effect of different feature size SRAM devices with or without pre-irradiation Burn-in was obtained. The influence of different temperature Burn-in on radiation resistant capability of SRAM device was studied for 0.25 μm SRAM device. The results show that the smaller the device feature size is, the better the radiation-resistant capability of SRAM device is and the weaker the influence of Burn-in is. And the higher Burn-in temperature is, the more serious the influence of Burn-in on the total-dose radiation effect is. (authors)

  16. Examining Margin Reduction and Its Impact on Dose Distribution for Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Daily Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammoud, Rabih; Patel, Samir H.; Pradhan, Deepak; Kim, Jinkoo; Guan, Harrison; Li Shidong; Movsas, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the dosimetric impact of margin reduction and quantify residual error after three-dimensional (3D) image registration using daily cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: One hundred forty CBCTs from 5 prostate cancer patients were examined. Two intensity-modulated radiotherapy plans were generated on CT simulation on the basis of two planning target volume (PTV) margins: 10 mm all around the prostate and seminal vesicles except 6 mm posteriorly (10/6) and 5 mm all around except 3 mm posteriorly (5/3). Daily CBCT using the Varian On-Board Imaging System was acquired. The 10/6 and 5/3 simulation plans were overlaid onto each CBCT, and each CBCT plan was calculated. To examine residual error, PlanCT/CBCT intensity-based 3D image registration was performed for prostate localization using center of mass and maximal border displacement. Results: Prostate coverage was within 2% between the 10/6 and 5/3 plans. Seminal vesicle coverage was reduced with the 5/3 plan compared with the 10/6 plan, with coverage difference within 7%. The 5/3 plan allowed 30-50% sparing of bladder and rectal high-dose regions. For residual error quantification, center of mass data show that 99%, 93%, and 96% of observations fall within 3 mm in the left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions, respectively. Maximal border displacement observations range from 79% to 99%, within 5 mm for all directions. Conclusion: Cone-beam CT dosimetrically validated a 10/6 margin when soft-tissue localization is not used. Intensity-based 3D image registration has the potential to improve target localization and to provide guidelines for margin definition

  17. Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics Following Once-Daily and Twice-Daily Dosing of Tiotropium Respimat(®) in Asthma Using Standardized Sample-Contamination Avoidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beeh, Kai-Michael; Kirsten, Anne-Marie; Dusser, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to confirm the 24-hour bronchodilator efficacy and pharmacokinetic profile of once-daily tiotropium Respimat(®) 5 μg add-on to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in adults with symptomatic asthma. It used a trial protocol designed to minimize the risk of pharmacoki...

  18. Nonrandomized study comparing the effects of preoperative radiotherapy and daily administration of low-dose cisplatin with those radiotherapy alone for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Hiroshi; Azegami, Takuya; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Kurashina, Kenji; Tanaka, Kouichi; Kotani, Akira; Oguchi, Masahiko; Tamura, Minoru.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of preoperative radiotherapy and daily administration of low-dose cisplatin with those of radiotherapy alone for oral cancer. Ten patients underwent preoperative radiotherapy of 30 to 40 Gy with concomitant daily administration of low-dose cisplatin (5 mg/body or 5 mg/m 2 ). Ten patients received external radiotherapy alone. The locoregional response rates (complete response and partial response) did not differ significantly between the two groups (80% for combined therapy and 60% for radiotherapy alone). On histopathologic evaluation of surgical specimens, however, the combined-therapy group (80%) had a higher response rate than did the radiotherapy-alone group (10%; p<0.01). We conclude that daily administration of low-dose cisplatin enhances the efficacy of radiotherapy against primary tumors. We also suggested that combined therapy may be beneficial as an initial treatment for oral cancer before a planned operation. (author)

  19. Total Ambient Dose Equivalent Buildup Factor Determination for Nbs04 Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckic, Paulina; Hayes, Robert B

    2018-06-01

    Buildup factors are dimensionless multiplicative factors required by the point kernel method to account for scattered radiation through a shielding material. The accuracy of the point kernel method is strongly affected by the correspondence of analyzed parameters to experimental configurations, which is attempted to be simplified here. The point kernel method has not been found to have widespread practical use for neutron shielding calculations due to the complex neutron transport behavior through shielding materials (i.e. the variety of interaction mechanisms that neutrons may undergo while traversing the shield) as well as non-linear neutron total cross section energy dependence. In this work, total ambient dose buildup factors for NBS04 concrete are calculated in terms of neutron and secondary gamma ray transmission factors. The neutron and secondary gamma ray transmission factors are calculated using MCNP6™ code with updated cross sections. Both transmission factors and buildup factors are given in a tabulated form. Practical use of neutron transmission and buildup factors warrants rigorously calculated results with all associated uncertainties. In this work, sensitivity analysis of neutron transmission factors and total buildup factors with varying water content has been conducted. The analysis showed significant impact of varying water content in concrete on both neutron transmission factors and total buildup factors. Finally, support vector regression, a machine learning technique, has been engaged to make a model based on the calculated data for calculation of the buildup factors. The developed model can predict most of the data with 20% relative error.

  20. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer. Comparison between intermittent standard-dose cisplatin with 5-fluorouracil and daily low-dose cisplatin with continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sai, Heitetsu; Mitsumori, Michihide; Yamauchi, Chikako; Araki, Norio; Okumura, Setsuko; Nagata, Yasushi; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2004-01-01

    Although current standard treatment for advanced esophageal cancer is intermittent standard-dose cisplatin with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (ISD-FP), daily low-dose cisplatin with continuous infusion of 5-FU (CLD-FP) is advocated for equivalent effectiveness and lower toxicity. The feasibility of these two concurrent chemoradiotherapeutic protocols was retrospectively reviewed for local control rate, overall survival, toxicity, and compliance in a single institutional situation. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy, using 60 Gy of radiation and ISD-FP or CLD-FP was non-randomly scheduled for 29 patients between June 1994 and March 2001. Complete response in the irradiated volume at the end of primary treatment was shown by 8 of 15 and 9 of 14 patients in the ISD-FP and CLD-FP groups, respectively. The projected overall survival rate at 2 years was 55% for stage III patients and 13% for stage IV. Median survival times were 14 months versus 15 months in the ISD-FP and CLD-FP groups, with no significant difference. Toxicities were similar, including two treatment-related deaths in each group. Chemotherapy was completed for 10 of 15 and 11 of 14 patients in the ISD-FP and CLD-FP groups, respectively. Modification of the planned regimen was more often required for the CLD-FP group. CLD-FP therapy has no apparent advantage over ISD-FP therapy from the perspective of compliance and safety. A randomized phase II clinical trial comparing ISD-FP and CLD-FP, currently being performed, is expected to provide further information. (author)

  1. TOMS/Earth Probe Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this...

  2. High Total Ionizing Dose and Temperature Effects on Micro- and Nano-electronic Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillardin, M.; Martinez, M.; Paillet, P.; Leray, J.L.; Marcandella, C.; Duhamel, O.; Raine, M.; Richard, N.; Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A.; Goiffon, V.; Magnan, P.; Andrieu, F.; Barraud, S.; Faynot, O.

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates the vulnerability of several micro- and nano-electronic technologies to a mixed harsh environment including high total ionizing dose at MGy levels and high temperature. Such operating conditions have been revealed recently for several applications like new security systems in existing or future nuclear power plants, fusion experiments, or deep space missions. In this work, the competing effects already reported in literature of ionizing radiations and temperature are characterized in elementary devices made of MOS transistors from several technologies. First, devices are irradiated using a radiation laboratory X-ray source up to MGy dose levels at room temperature. Devices are grounded during irradiation to simulate a circuit which waits for a wake up signal, representing most of the lifetime of an integrated circuit operating in a harsh environment. Devices are then annealed at several temperatures to discuss the post-irradiation behavior and to determine whether an elevated temperature is an issue or not for circuit function in mixed harsh environments. (authors)

  3. Anti-tumor effect of total body irradiation of low doses on WHT/Ht mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Miyako; Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1987-01-01

    The effect of low dose (0.05 - 1.0 Gy) of total body irradiation (TBI) on non-tumor bearing and tumor bearing mice were investigated. Mice received TBI of 0.1 Gy during 6 - 12 hours before tumor cell inoculation demonstrated to need larger number of tumor cells (approximately 2.5 times) for 50 per cent tumor incidence, compared to recipient mice not to receive TBI. On the other hand, in tumor bearing mice given 0.1 Gy of TBI only tumor cell killing effect was not detected, however enhancement of tumor cell killing effect and prolonged growth delay were observed when tumor bearing mice were treated with 0.1 Gy of TBI in combined with local irradiation on tumors, especially cell killing effect was remarkable in dose range over 6 Gy of local exposure. The mechanism of the effect of 0.1 Gy TBI is considered to be host mediated reactions from the other our experimental results. (author)

  4. Total dose radiation effects of pressure sensors fabricated on uni-bond-SOI materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shiyang; Huang Yiping; Wang Jin; Li Anzhen; Shen Shaoqun; Bao Minhang

    2001-01-01

    Piezoresistive pressure sensors with a twin-island structure were successfully fabricated using high quality Uni-bond-SOI (On Insulator) materials. Since the piezoresistors were structured by the single crystalline silicon overlayer of the SOI wafer and were totally isolated by the buried SiO 2 , the sensors are radiation-hard. The sensitivity and the linearity of the pressure sensors keep their original values after being irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays up to 2.3 x 10 4 Gy(H 2 O). However, the offset voltage of the sensor has a slight drift, increasing with the radiation dose. The absolute value of the offset voltage deviation depends on the pressure sensor itself. For comparison, corresponding polysilicon pressure sensors were fabricated using the similar process and irradiated at the same condition

  5. Characterization of total ionizing dose damage in COTS pinned photodiode CMOS image sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zujun, E-mail: wangzujun@nint.ac.cn; Ma, Wuying; Huang, Shaoyan; Yao, Zhibin; Liu, Minbo; He, Baoping; Sheng, Jiangkun; Xue, Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710024 (China); Liu, Jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan (China)

    2016-03-15

    The characterization of total ionizing dose (TID) damage in COTS pinned photodiode (PPD) CMOS image sensors (CISs) is investigated. The radiation experiments are carried out at a {sup 60}Co γ-ray source. The CISs are produced by 0.18-μm CMOS technology and the pixel architecture is 8T global shutter pixel with correlated double sampling (CDS) based on a 4T PPD front end. The parameters of CISs such as temporal domain, spatial domain, and spectral domain are measured at the CIS test system as the EMVA 1288 standard before and after irradiation. The dark current, random noise, dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU), photo response non-uniformity (PRNU), overall system gain, saturation output, dynamic range (DR), signal to noise ratio (SNR), quantum efficiency (QE), and responsivity versus the TID are reported. The behaviors of the tested CISs show remarkable degradations after radiation. The degradation mechanisms of CISs induced by TID damage are also analyzed.

  6. Total-ionizing-dose effects on isolation oxides in modern CMOS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, Hugh J.; Mclain, Michael; Esqueda, Ivan Sanchez

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents experimental data on the total dose response of deep sub-micron bulk CMOS devices and integrated circuits. Ionizing radiation experiments on shallow trench isolation (STI) field oxide MOS capacitors (FOXCAP) indicate a characteristic build-up of radiation-induced defects in the dielectric. In this paper, capacitors fabricated with STI, thermal, SIMOX and bipolar base oxides of similar thickness are compared and show the STI oxide to be most susceptible to radiation effects. Experimental data on irradiated shift registers and n-channel MOSFETs are also presented. These data indicate that radiation damage to the STI can increase the off-state current of n-channel devices and the standby current of CMOS integrated circuits

  7. New insights into fully-depleted SOI transistor response during total-dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Dodd, P.E.; Burns, J.A.; Keast, C.L.; Wyatt, P.W.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present irradiation results on 2-fully depleted processes (HYSOI6, RKSOI) that show SOI (silicon on insulator) device response can be more complicated than originally suggested by others. The major difference between the 2 process versions is that the RKSOI process incorporates special techniques to minimize pre-irradiation parasitic leakage current from trench sidewalls. Transistors were irradiated at room temperature using 10 keV X-ray source. Worst-case bias configuration for total-dose testing fully-depleted SOI transistors was found to be process dependent. It appears that the worst-case bias for HYPOI6 process is the bias that causes the largest increase in sidewall leakage. The RKSOI process shows a different response during irradiation, the transition response appears to be dominated by charge trapping in the buried oxide. These results have implications for hardness assurance testing. (A.C.)

  8. Origins of Total-Dose Response Variability in Linear Bipolar Microcircuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, H.J.; Cirba, C.R.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Pease, R.L.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Turflinger, T.; Krieg, J.F.; Maher, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    LM1ll voltage comparators exhibit a wide range of total-dose-induced degradation. Simulations show this variability may be a natural consequence of the low base doping of the substrate PNP (SPNP) input transistors. Low base doping increases the SPNP's collector to base breakdown voltage, current gain, and sensitivity to small fluctuations in the radiation-induced oxide defect densities. The build-up of oxide trapped charge (N ot ) and interface traps (N it ) is shown to be a function of pre-irradiation bakes. Experimental data indicate that, despite its structural similarities to the LM111, irradiated input transistors of the LM124 operational amplifier do not exhibit the same sensitivity to variations in pre-irradiation thermal cycles. Further disparities in LM111 and LM124 responses may result from a difference in the oxide defect build-up in the two part types. Variations in processing, packaging, and circuit effects are suggested as potential explanations

  9. SU-D-BRC-03: Development and Validation of an Online 2D Dose Verification System for Daily Patient Plan Delivery Accuracy Check

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J; Hu, W; Xing, Y; Wu, X; Li, Y

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: All plan verification systems for particle therapy are designed to do plan verification before treatment. However, the actual dose distributions during patient treatment are not known. This study develops an online 2D dose verification tool to check the daily dose delivery accuracy. Methods: A Siemens particle treatment system with a modulated scanning spot beam is used in our center. In order to do online dose verification, we made a program to reconstruct the delivered 2D dose distributions based on the daily treatment log files and depth dose distributions. In the log files we can get the focus size, position and particle number for each spot. A gamma analysis is used to compare the reconstructed dose distributions with the dose distributions from the TPS to assess the daily dose delivery accuracy. To verify the dose reconstruction algorithm, we compared the reconstructed dose distributions to dose distributions measured using PTW 729XDR ion chamber matrix for 13 real patient plans. Then we analyzed 100 treatment beams (58 carbon and 42 proton) for prostate, lung, ACC, NPC and chordoma patients. Results: For algorithm verification, the gamma passing rate was 97.95% for the 3%/3mm and 92.36% for the 2%/2mm criteria. For patient treatment analysis,the results were 97.7%±1.1% and 91.7%±2.5% for carbon and 89.9%±4.8% and 79.7%±7.7% for proton using 3%/3mm and 2%/2mm criteria, respectively. The reason for the lower passing rate for the proton beam is that the focus size deviations were larger than for the carbon beam. The average focus size deviations were −14.27% and −6.73% for proton and −5.26% and −0.93% for carbon in the x and y direction respectively. Conclusion: The verification software meets our requirements to check for daily dose delivery discrepancies. Such tools can enhance the current treatment plan and delivery verification processes and improve safety of clinical treatments.

  10. SU-D-BRC-03: Development and Validation of an Online 2D Dose Verification System for Daily Patient Plan Delivery Accuracy Check

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J; Hu, W [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, Shanghai (China); Xing, Y [Fudan univercity shanghai proton and heavy ion center, Shanghai (China); Wu, X [Fudan university shanghai proton and heavy ion center, Shanghai, shagnhai (China); Li, Y [Department of Medical physics at Shanghai Proton and Heavy Ion Center, Shanghai, Shanghai (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: All plan verification systems for particle therapy are designed to do plan verification before treatment. However, the actual dose distributions during patient treatment are not known. This study develops an online 2D dose verification tool to check the daily dose delivery accuracy. Methods: A Siemens particle treatment system with a modulated scanning spot beam is used in our center. In order to do online dose verification, we made a program to reconstruct the delivered 2D dose distributions based on the daily treatment log files and depth dose distributions. In the log files we can get the focus size, position and particle number for each spot. A gamma analysis is used to compare the reconstructed dose distributions with the dose distributions from the TPS to assess the daily dose delivery accuracy. To verify the dose reconstruction algorithm, we compared the reconstructed dose distributions to dose distributions measured using PTW 729XDR ion chamber matrix for 13 real patient plans. Then we analyzed 100 treatment beams (58 carbon and 42 proton) for prostate, lung, ACC, NPC and chordoma patients. Results: For algorithm verification, the gamma passing rate was 97.95% for the 3%/3mm and 92.36% for the 2%/2mm criteria. For patient treatment analysis,the results were 97.7%±1.1% and 91.7%±2.5% for carbon and 89.9%±4.8% and 79.7%±7.7% for proton using 3%/3mm and 2%/2mm criteria, respectively. The reason for the lower passing rate for the proton beam is that the focus size deviations were larger than for the carbon beam. The average focus size deviations were −14.27% and −6.73% for proton and −5.26% and −0.93% for carbon in the x and y direction respectively. Conclusion: The verification software meets our requirements to check for daily dose delivery discrepancies. Such tools can enhance the current treatment plan and delivery verification processes and improve safety of clinical treatments.

  11. Decreased antimicrobial resistance and defined daily doses after implementation of a clinical culture-guided antimicrobial stewardship program in a local hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Teng Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to report the implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP guided by clinically significant cultures in a hospital to assess its pharmaceutical, microbiological, financial, and outcome effects. Methods: A 3-year cohort study of an antimicrobial restriction policy implementation was performed. The ASP with culture-guided de-escalation of antibiotics was instituted in a local hospital since January 1, 2012. The cost of antimicrobials, defined daily dose (DDD, susceptibility to antimicrobials, and outcome of all admitted patients were calculated and evaluated before and after the ASP implementation. Results: Average monthly length of stay of admitted patients decreased from 7.8 ± 0.5 days in 2011 to 6.9 ± 0.3 days in 2013 (p < 0.001. The average monthly cost of antimicrobials decreased 46.9% from US$30,146.8 in 2011 to US$16,021.3 in 2013 (p < 0.001. Total intravenous antimicrobial DDDs per 100 bed-days of the inpatients were 66.9, 54.1 and 48.4 in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. A total of 18.6 DDDs per 100 bed-days of inpatients (27.7% decreased from 2011 to 2013. By comparing data in 2013 to those in 2011, the ASP reduced antimicrobial resistance of Gram-positive bacteria (p = 0.013, Gram-negative bacteria (p < 0.001, and predominant species (all p < 0.05. The yearly mortality also decreased from 1.3% in 2011 to 1.1% in 2012 and 1.0% in 2013. Conclusions: The ASP with a culture-guided de-escalation of antibiotics successfully reduced length of stay, mortality, the cost of antimicrobials, DDDs, and antimicrobial resistance rate, and that is highly recommended for local hospitals. Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, antimicrobial restriction policy, antimicrobial stewardship program, defined daily dose

  12. Clinical study on the adriamycin induced cardiomyopathy using the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Total dose and cardiac dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Kyoko; Teraoka, Kunihiko; Hirano, Masaharu

    2001-01-01

    We studied cardiac functional disorders caused by Adoriamycin using gadolinium (Gd) contrast cine MRI. Forty-eight patients were given ACT (31 men and 17 women; mean age, 52±15 years). First, the relationship between dose and the left ventricular volume, cardiac function, left ventricular cardiac mass and localized wall motion were examined in all patients. Patients given a total dose of 300 mg/m 2 or higher were assigned to the high dose group and those given doses under 300 mg/m 2 to the low dose group. The same parameters were studied in both groups and compared. A 1.5-Tesla superconductive MRI was used for all studies. Cine images of the long and short axes at the papillary muscle level were obtained by ECG R-wave synchronized Gd contrast cine MRI. Left ventricular volume and cardiac function were analyzed using the long-axis cine images and the wall thickness in diastole and systole was measured at each site using the short-axis cine images. The percentage of wall thickness was calculated at each site. The mean ACT dose was 273.3±218.2 mg/m 2 . In all patients the total dose directly correlated with ESVI and inversely correlated with the ejection fraction (EF). In the high dose group, the total dose and EF were inversely correlated, but no significant differences were observed in the low dose group. In the high dose group, the ESVI was significantly greater and the SVI and EF were more significantly reduced than in the low dose group. In the high dose group, the thickness of the anterior, lateral and posterior walls, excluding the septum, was significantly lower than in the low dose group. However, changes in wall thickness were not significantly different between the groups. Gd contrast cine MRI was useful in examining cardiac functional disorders caused by anthracyclines. The total dose of anthracycline correlated directly with the ESVI, and inversely with the EF. A total dose of 300 mg/m 2 appeared to be the borderline dose beyond which there were

  13. Clinical study on the adriamycin induced cardiomyopathy using the cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Total dose and cardiac dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Kyoko; Teraoka, Kunihiko; Hirano, Masaharu [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2001-05-01

    We studied cardiac functional disorders caused by Adoriamycin using gadolinium (Gd) contrast cine MRI. Forty-eight patients were given ACT (31 men and 17 women; mean age, 52{+-}15 years). First, the relationship between dose and the left ventricular volume, cardiac function, left ventricular cardiac mass and localized wall motion were examined in all patients. Patients given a total dose of 300 mg/m{sup 2} or higher were assigned to the high dose group and those given doses under 300 mg/m{sup 2} to the low dose group. The same parameters were studied in both groups and compared. A 1.5-Tesla superconductive MRI was used for all studies. Cine images of the long and short axes at the papillary muscle level were obtained by ECG R-wave synchronized Gd contrast cine MRI. Left ventricular volume and cardiac function were analyzed using the long-axis cine images and the wall thickness in diastole and systole was measured at each site using the short-axis cine images. The percentage of wall thickness was calculated at each site. The mean ACT dose was 273.3{+-}218.2 mg/m{sup 2}. In all patients the total dose directly correlated with ESVI and inversely correlated with the ejection fraction (EF). In the high dose group, the total dose and EF were inversely correlated, but no significant differences were observed in the low dose group. In the high dose group, the ESVI was significantly greater and the SVI and EF were more significantly reduced than in the low dose group. In the high dose group, the thickness of the anterior, lateral and posterior walls, excluding the septum, was significantly lower than in the low dose group. However, changes in wall thickness were not significantly different between the groups. Gd contrast cine MRI was useful in examining cardiac functional disorders caused by anthracyclines. The total dose of anthracycline correlated directly with the ESVI, and inversely with the EF. A total dose of 300 mg/m{sup 2} appeared to be the borderline dose beyond

  14. SU-E-J-66: Significant Anatomical and Dosimetric Changes Observed with the Pharyngeal Constrictor During Head and Neck Radiotherapy Elicited From Daily Deformable Image Registration and Dose Accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumarasiri, A; Siddiqui, F; Liu, C; Kamal, M; Fraser, C; Chetty, I; Kim, J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the anatomical changes and associated dosimetric consequences to the pharyngeal constrictor (PC) that occurs during head and neck radiotherapy (H&N RT). Methods: A cohort of 13 oro-pharyngeal cancer patients, who had daily CBCT’s for localization, was retrospectively studied. On every 5th CBCT, PC was manually delineated by a radiation oncologist. The anterior-posterior PC thickness was measured at the C3 level. Delivered dose to PC was estimated by calculating daily doses on CBCT’s, and accumulating to corresponding planning CT images. For accumulation, a parameter-optimized B- spline-based deformable image registration algorithm (Elastix) was used, in conjunction with an energy-mass mapping dose transfer algorithm. Mean and maximum dose (Dmean, Dmax) to PC was determined and compared with corresponding planned quantities. Results: The mean (±standard deviation) volume increase (ΔV) and thickness increase (Δt) over the course of 35 total fractions were 54±33% (11.9±7.6 cc), and 63±39% (2.9±1.9 mm), respectively. The resultant cumulative mean dose increase from planned dose to PC (ΔDmean) was 1.4±1.3% (0.9±0.8 Gy), while the maximum dose increase (ΔDmax) was 0.0±1.6% (0.0±1.1 Gy). Patients with adaptive replanning (n=6) showed a smaller mean dose increase than those without (n=7); 0.5±0.2% (0.3±0.1 Gy) vs. 2.2±1.4% (1.4±0.9 Gy). There was a statistically significant (p<0.0001) strong correlation between ΔDmean and Δt (Pearson coefficient r=0.78), and a moderate-to-strong correlation (r=0.52) between ΔDmean and ΔV. Correlation between ΔDmean and weight loss ΔW (r=0.1), as well as ΔV and ΔW (r=0.2) were negligible. Conclusion: Patients were found to undergo considerable anatomical changes to pharyngeal constrictor during H&N RT, resulting in non-negligible dose deviations from intended dose. Results are indicative that pharyngeal constrictor thickness, measured at C3 level, is a good predictor for the dose change to

  15. SU-E-J-66: Significant Anatomical and Dosimetric Changes Observed with the Pharyngeal Constrictor During Head and Neck Radiotherapy Elicited From Daily Deformable Image Registration and Dose Accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumarasiri, A; Siddiqui, F; Liu, C; Kamal, M; Fraser, C; Chetty, I; Kim, J [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the anatomical changes and associated dosimetric consequences to the pharyngeal constrictor (PC) that occurs during head and neck radiotherapy (H&N RT). Methods: A cohort of 13 oro-pharyngeal cancer patients, who had daily CBCT’s for localization, was retrospectively studied. On every 5th CBCT, PC was manually delineated by a radiation oncologist. The anterior-posterior PC thickness was measured at the C3 level. Delivered dose to PC was estimated by calculating daily doses on CBCT’s, and accumulating to corresponding planning CT images. For accumulation, a parameter-optimized B- spline-based deformable image registration algorithm (Elastix) was used, in conjunction with an energy-mass mapping dose transfer algorithm. Mean and maximum dose (Dmean, Dmax) to PC was determined and compared with corresponding planned quantities. Results: The mean (±standard deviation) volume increase (ΔV) and thickness increase (Δt) over the course of 35 total fractions were 54±33% (11.9±7.6 cc), and 63±39% (2.9±1.9 mm), respectively. The resultant cumulative mean dose increase from planned dose to PC (ΔDmean) was 1.4±1.3% (0.9±0.8 Gy), while the maximum dose increase (ΔDmax) was 0.0±1.6% (0.0±1.1 Gy). Patients with adaptive replanning (n=6) showed a smaller mean dose increase than those without (n=7); 0.5±0.2% (0.3±0.1 Gy) vs. 2.2±1.4% (1.4±0.9 Gy). There was a statistically significant (p<0.0001) strong correlation between ΔDmean and Δt (Pearson coefficient r=0.78), and a moderate-to-strong correlation (r=0.52) between ΔDmean and ΔV. Correlation between ΔDmean and weight loss ΔW (r=0.1), as well as ΔV and ΔW (r=0.2) were negligible. Conclusion: Patients were found to undergo considerable anatomical changes to pharyngeal constrictor during H&N RT, resulting in non-negligible dose deviations from intended dose. Results are indicative that pharyngeal constrictor thickness, measured at C3 level, is a good predictor for the dose change to

  16. Estimation of the total effective dose from low-dose CT scans and radiopharmaceutical administrations delivered to patients undergoing SPECT/CT explorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, C.; Hernandez, J.; Gomez-Caminero, F.; Garcia, S.; Martin, C.; Rosero, A.; Tamayo, P.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid imaging, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT, is used in routine clinical practice, allowing coregistered images of the functional and structural information provided by the two imaging modalities. However, this multimodality imaging may mean that patients are exposed to a higher radiation dose than those receiving SPECT alone. The study aimed to determine the radiation exposure of patients who had undergone SPECT/CT examinations and to relate this to the Background Equivalent Radiation Time (BERT). 145 SPECT/CT studies were used to estimate the total effective dose to patients due to both radiopharmaceutical administrations and low-dose CT scans. The CT contribution was estimated by the Dose-Length Product method. Specific conversion coefficients were calculated for SPECT explorations. The radiation dose from low-dose CTs ranged between 0.6 mSv for head and neck CT and 2.6 mSv for whole body CT scan, representing a maximum of 1 year of background radiation exposure. These values represent a decrease of 80-85% with respect to the radiation dose from diagnostic CT. The radiation exposure from radiopharmaceutical administration varied from 2.1 mSv for stress myocardial perfusion SPECT to 26 mSv for gallium SPECT in patients with lymphoma. The BERT ranged from 1 to 11 years. The contribution of low-dose CT scans to the total radiation dose to patients undergoing SPECT/CT examinations is relatively low compared with the effective dose from radiopharmaceutical administration. When a CT scan is only acquired for anatomical localization and attenuation correction, low-dose CT scan is justified on the basis of its lower dose. (author)

  17. The carcinogenic risk of high dose total body irradiation in non-human primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Bartstra, R.W.; Bekkum, D.W. van; Hage, M.H. van der; Zurcher, C.; Zwieten, M.J. van; Hollander, C.F.

    2000-01-01

    High dose total body irradiation (TBI) in combination with chemotherapy, followed by rescue with bone marrow transplantation (BMT), is increasingly used for the treatment of haematological malignancies. With the increasing success of this treatment and its current introduction for treating refractory autoimmune diseases the risk of radiation carcinogenesis is of growing concern. Studies on turnout induction in non-human primates are of relevance in this context since the response of this species to radiation does not differ much from that in man. Since the early sixties, studies have been performed on acute effects in Rhesus monkeys and the protective action of bone marrow transplantation after irradiation with X-rays (average total body dose 6.8 Gy) and fission neutrons (average dose 3.4 Gy). Of those monkeys, which were irradiated and reconstituted with autologous bone marrow, 20 animals in the X-irradiated group and nine animals in the neutron group survived more than 3 years. A group of 21 non-irradiated Rhesus monkeys of a comparable age distribution served as controls. All animals were regularly screened for the occurrence of neoplasms. Complete necropsies were performed after natural death or euthanasia. At post-irradiation intervals of 4-21 years an appreciable number of tumours was observed. In the neutron irradiated group eight out of nine animals died with one or more malignant tumours. In the X-irradiated group this fraction was 10 out of 20. The tumours in the control group, in seven out of the 21 animals, appeared at much older a-e compared with those in the irradiated cohorts. The histogenesis of the tumours was diverse with a preponderance of renal carcinoma, sarcomas among which osteosarcormas, and malignant glomus tumours in the irradiated groups. When corrected for competing risks, the carcinogenic risk of TBI in the Rhesus monkeys is similar to that derived from the studies of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The increase of the risk by a

  18. Betel quid chewing as a source of manganese exposure: total daily intake of manganese in a Bangladeshi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W; Jenkins, Richard O; Haris, Parvez I

    2011-02-07

    A relationship between betel quid chewing in Bangladeshi populations and the development of skin lesions and tremor has been previously reported, for people exposed to high levels of arsenic (As) through drinking contaminated groundwater. Exposure to manganese (Mn) is also known to induce neurotoxicity and levels of Mn in Bangladeshi groundwater are also high. The present study evaluates betel quid chewing as an overlooked source of Mn exposure in a Bangladeshi population. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine (1) urinary Mn levels for 15 chewers and 22 non-chewers from the ethnic Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom, and (2) Mn levels in betel quids, its individual components and other Bangladeshi foods. Betel quid chewers displayed a significantly higher (P = 0.009) mean Mn concentration in urine (1.93 μg L(-1)) compared to non-chewers (0.62 μg L(-1)). High levels of Mn were detected in Piper betel leaves with an overall average of 135 mg kg(-1) (range 26 -518 mg kg(-1)). The mean concentration of Mn in betel quid was 41 mg kg(-1) (SD 27) and the daily intake of Mn in the Bangladeshi population was estimated to be 20.3 mg/day. Chewing six betel quids could contribute up to 18% of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn. We have demonstrated that Mn in betel quids is an overlooked source of exposure to Mn in humans. Chewers display a 3.1 fold increased urinary Mn concentration compared to non-chewers. The practice of betel quid chewing contributes a high proportion of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn, which could make chewers in Bangladesh more vulnerable to Mn neurotoxicity.

  19. Influence of radioprotectors on total body weight evolution and on oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals. (Preliminary study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatome, M.; Martine, G.; Bargy, E.; Andrieu, L.

    Comparison of total body weight evolution and oxygen consumption in lethal dose irradiated animals, protected by various well known radioprotective substances, isolated or in mixture, with evolution and consumption of non protected animals irradiated at the same dose and with these of check animals [fr

  20. Influence of low-dose daily cisplatin on the distant metastasis-free survival of patients with locally advanced nonmetastatic head and neck cancer treated with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeremic, Branislav; Milicic, Biljana

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the impact of low dose daily cisplatin on distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) in locally advanced head and neck cancer treated with hyperfractionated radiotherapy (77 Gy in 70 fractions in 35 treatment days). In locally controlled tumors cisplatin led to better DMFS (p = 0.0272); Cisplatin may have acted independently of micrometastasis in locally advanced H and N cancer

  1. High daily doses of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole are an independent risk factor for adverse reactions in patients with pneumocystis pneumonia and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Min Chang

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: We found a high incidence of ADRs among patients with PJP and AIDS treated with TMP/SMX, and most involved the skin and liver. A daily dose of ≥ 16 mg/kg of TMP/SMX and age 34 years were independent risk factors for ADRs.

  2. A pilot study on the serum pharmacokinetics of nattokinase in humans following a single, oral, daily dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ero, Michael Penfield; Ng, Connie M; Mihailovski, Tamara; Harvey, Nathaniel R; Lewis, Brad Howard

    2013-01-01

    Nattokinase is a serine protease and is derived from natto, a traditional Japanese, fermented, soybean food meal. Multiple authors have described the significant fibrinolytic, antithrombotic, and antihypertensive effects of natto. Nattokinase has been growing in popularity for use as a dietary supplement for the benefit of cardiovascular health. Little is known regarding the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of this enzyme, and the bioavailability of nattokinase is currently unknown. This study intended to (1) detect nattokinase directly and immunologically, (2) show that nattokinase and/or its metabolites were detectable in human blood following ingestion of a commercial preparation, and (3) chart a pharmacokinetic dosing effect for nattokinase. The research team designed the pilot study as an in vivo, human clinical trial. Healthy human subjects responded to an advertisement and were screened. Subjects who satisfied both inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled into the study. Subjects were then instructed to orally ingest a single capsule containing a known concentration of nattokinase immediately following a baseline blood draw. Subsequent blood draws occurred over a 24-h period. This study was conducted in Oakland, California, at a clinical reference laboratory and was performed with the approval of an institutional review board (IRB) to ensure that appropriate ethical standards were met. Eleven healthy participants (five male, six female, ages 21-65), who met eligibility criteria, were enrolled. Administration of nattokinase occurred orally with the ingestion of a single daily dose (2000 FU) of nattokinase. Capsules, each containing approximately 100 mg of nattokinase, in softgel form (NSK-SD, Japan Bio Science Laboratory, Osaka, Japan), were used in the study. Baseline blood samples were collected, and participants were observed swallowing a single capsule of the nattokinase supplement before returning at 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h post

  3. Clinical benefit of fixed-dose dual bronchodilation with glycopyrronium and indacaterol once daily in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Long-acting bronchodilators are the preferred option for maintenance therapy of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the clinical studies evaluating the clinical efficacy of the once-daily fixed-dose du...... for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] spirometric criteria). Furthermore, a very recent study has shown that fixed-dose indacaterol/glycopyrronium improves exercise endurance time compared with placebo, although no significant difference was observed between fixed-dose indacaterol...

  4. Fractionated total body irradiation and autologous bone marrow transplantation in dogs: Hemopoietic recovery after various marrow cell doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenburger, U.; Kolb, H.J.; Thierfelder, S.; Netzel, B.; Schaeffer, E.; Kolb, H.

    1980-01-01

    Hemopoietic recovery was studied in dogs given 2400 R fractionated total body irradiation within one week and graded doses of cryopreserved autologous bone marrow. Complete hemopoietic recovery including histology was observed after this dose and sufficient doses of marrow cells. Doses of more than 5.5 x 10 7 mononuclear marrow cells/kg body weight were sufficient for complete recovery in all dogs, 1.5 to 5.5 x 10 7 cells/kg were effective in some of the dogs and less than 1.5 x 10 7 cells/kg were insufficient for complete recovery. Similarly, more than 30000 CFUsub(c)/kg body weight were required for hemopoietic recovery. The optimal marrow cell dose which has been defined as the minimal dose required for the earliest possible recovery of leukocyte and platelet counts was 7-8 x 10 7 mononuclear marrow cells/kg body weight. It has been concluded that fractionated total body irradiation with 2400 R dose not require greater doses of marrow cells for hemopoietic reconstitution than lower single doses and that the hemopoietic microenvironment is not persistently disturbed after this dose. (author)

  5. In vivo dosimetry with semiconducting diodes for dose verification in total-body irradiation. A 10-year experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, U.; Licher, J.; Moog, J.; Scherf, C.; Kara, E.; Boettcher, H.D.; Roedel, C.; Mose, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: for total-body irradiation (TBI) using the translation method, dose distribution cannot be computed with computer-assisted three-dimensional planning systems. Therefore, dose distribution has to be primarily estimated based on CT scans (beam-zone method) which is followed by in vivo measurements to ascertain a homogeneous dose delivery. The aim of this study was to clinically establish semiconductor probes as a simple and fast method to obtain an online verification of the dose at relevant points. Patients and methods: in 110 consecutively irradiated TBI patients (12.6 Gy, 2 x 1.8 Gy/day), six semiconductor probes were attached to the body surface at dose-relevant points (eye/head, neck, lung, navel). The mid-body point of the abdomen was defined as dose reference point. The speed of translation was optimized to definitively reach the prescribed dose in this point. Based on the entrance and exit doses, the mid-body doses at the other points were computed. The dose homogeneity in the entire target volume was determined comparing all measured data with the dose at the reference point. Results: after calibration of the semiconductor probes under treatment conditions the dose in selected points and the dose homogeneity in the target volume could be quantitatively specified. In the TBI patients, conformity of calculated and measured doses in the given points was achieved with small deviations of adequate accuracy. The data of 80% of the patients are within an uncertainty of ± 5%. Conclusion: during TBI using the translation method, dose distribution and dose homogeneity can be easily controlled in selected points by means of semiconductor probes. Semiconductor probes are recommended for further use in the physical evaluation of TBI. (orig.)

  6. Review of revised Klamath River Total Maximum Daily Load models from Link River Dam to Keno Dam, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Sullivan, Annett B.

    2013-01-01

    Flow and water-quality models are being used to support the development of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) plans for the Klamath River downstream of Upper Klamath Lake (UKL) in south-central Oregon. For riverine reaches, the RMA-2 and RMA-11 models were used, whereas the CE-QUAL-W2 model was used to simulate pooled reaches. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was asked to review the most upstream of these models, from Link River Dam at the outlet of UKL downstream through the first pooled reach of the Klamath River from Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam. Previous versions of these models were reviewed in 2009 by USGS. Since that time, important revisions were made to correct several problems and address other issues. This review documents an assessment of the revised models, with emphasis on the model revisions and any remaining issues. The primary focus of this review is the 19.7-mile Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam reach of the Klamath River that was simulated with the CE-QUAL-W2 model. Water spends far more time in the Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam reach than in the 1-mile Link River reach that connects UKL to the Klamath River, and most of the critical reactions affecting water quality upstream of Keno Dam occur in that pooled reach. This model review includes assessments of years 2000 and 2002 current conditions scenarios, which were used to calibrate the model, as well as a natural conditions scenario that was used as the reference condition for the TMDL and was based on the 2000 flow conditions. The natural conditions scenario included the removal of Keno Dam, restoration of the Keno reef (a shallow spot that was removed when the dam was built), removal of all point-source inputs, and derivation of upstream boundary water-quality inputs from a previously developed UKL TMDL model. This review examined the details of the models, including model algorithms, parameter values, and boundary conditions; the review did not assess the draft Klamath River TMDL or the TMDL allocations

  7. Low-Dose Daily Intake of Vitamin K(2) (Menaquinone-7) Improves Osteocalcin γ-Carboxylation: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Naoko; Sato, Toshiro; Yamashita, Takatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin K is essential for bone health, but the effects of low-dose vitamin K intake in Japanese subjects remain unclear. We investigated the effective minimum daily menaquinone-7 dose for improving osteocalcin γ-carboxylation. Study 1 was a double-blind, randomized controlled dose-finding trial; 60 postmenopausal women aged 50-69 y were allocated to one of four dosage group and consumed 0, 50, 100, or 200 μg menaquinone-7 daily for 4 wk, respectively, with a controlled diet in accordance with recommended daily intakes for 2010 in Japan. Study 2 was a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial based on the results of Study 1; 120 subjects aged 20-69 y were allocated to the placebo or MK-7 group and consumed 0 or 100 μg menaquinone-7 daily for 12 wk, respectively. In both studies, circulating carboxylated osteocalcin and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured. The carboxylated osteocalcin/undercarboxylated osteocalcin ratio decreased significantly from baseline in the 0 μg menaquinone-7 group, in which subjects consumed the recommended daily intake of vitamin K with vitamin K1 and menaquinone-4 (Study 1). Menaquinone-7 increased the carboxylated osteocalcin/undercarboxylated osteocalcin ratio dose dependently, and significant effects were observed in both the 100 and 200 μg groups compared with the 0 μg group. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin concentrations decreased significantly, and the carboxylated osteocalcin/undercarboxylated osteocalcin ratio increased significantly in the 100 μg menaquinone-7 group compared with the placebo group (Study 2). Daily menaquinone-7 intake ≥100 μg was suggested to improve osteocalcin γ-carboxylation.

  8. Analgesic and sedative effects of perioperative gabapentin in total knee arthroplasty A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, Troels Haxholdt; Husted, Henrik; Laursen, Mogens Berg

    2015-01-01

    (1:1:1) to either gabapentin 1300 mg/d (group A), gabapentin 900 mg/d (group B), or placebo (group C) daily from 2 hours preoperatively to postoperative day 6 in addition to a standardized multimodal analgesic regime. The primary outcome was pain upon ambulation 24 hours after surgery......Gabapentin has shown acute postoperative analgesic effects, but the optimal dose and procedure-specific benefits vs harm have not been clarified. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding study, 300 opioid-naive patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were randomized......, and the secondary outcome was sedation 6 hours after surgery. Other outcomes were overall pain during well-defined mobilizations and at rest and sedation during the first 48 hours and from days 2-6, morphine use, anxiety, depression, sleep quality, and nausea, vomiting, dizziness, concentration difficulty, headache...

  9. Radiation therapy in the management of symptomatic bone metastases: the effect of total dose and histology on pain relief and response duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangeli, Giorgio; Giovinazzo, Giuseppe; Saracino, Biancamaria; D'Angelo, Luciano; Giannarelli, Diana; Arcangeli, Giancarlo; Micheli, Adriana

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: In order to better define variables and factors that may influence the pain response to radiation, and to look for a radiation regimen that can assure the highest percentage and the longest duration of pain relief, we performed a prospective, although not randomized, study on patients with bone metastases from various primary sites. Methods and Materials: From December 1988 to March 1994, 205 patients with a total of 255 solitary or multiple bone metastases from several primary tumors were treated in our radiotherapy center with palliative intent. Irradiation fields were treated with three main fractionation schedules: (1) Conventional fractionation: 40-46 Gy/20-23 fractions in 5-5.5 weeks; (2) Short course: 30-36 Gy/10-12 fractions in 2-2.3 weeks; (3) Fast course: 8-28 Gy/1-4 consecutive fractions. Pain intensity was self-assessed by patients using a visual analogic scale graduated from 0 (no pain) to 10 (the strongest pain one can experience). Analgesic requirement was assessed by using a five-point scale, scoring both analgesic strength and frequency (0 = no drug or occasional nonopioids; 1 = Nonopioids once daily; 2 = Nonopioids more than once daily; 3 = Mild opioids (oral codeine, pentazocine, etc.), once daily; 4 = Mild opioids more than once daily; 5 = Strong opioids (morphine, meperidine, etc.). Complete pain relief meant the achievement of a score ≤ 2 in the pain scale or 0 in the analgesic requirement scale. Partial pain relief indicated a score of 3 to 4 or of 1 to 2 on the former and latter scale, respectively. Results: Total pain relief (complete + partial) was observed in 195 (76%) sites, in 158 of which (62%) a complete response was obtained. Metastases from NSC lung tumors appeared to be the least responsive among all primary tumors, with 46% complete pain relief in comparison to 65% and 83% complete relief in breast (p = 0.04) and in prostate metastases (p 0.002), respectively. A significant difference in pain relief was detected among

  10. 75 FR 43160 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Final Agency Action on One Arkansas Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... taking final agency action on the following TMDL for waters located within the State of Arkansas: Segment-reach Waterbody name Pollutant 11070208-901 Town Branch..... Total Phosphorus. EPA requested the public...

  11. A simple approach to estimate daily loads of total, refractory, and labile organic carbon from their seasonal loads in a watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ying; Grace, Johnny M; Zipperer, Wayne C; Hatten, Jeff; Dewey, Janet

    2018-05-22

    Loads of naturally occurring total organic carbons (TOC), refractory organic carbon (ROC), and labile organic carbon (LOC) in streams control the availability of nutrients and the solubility and toxicity of contaminants and affect biological activities through absorption of light and complex metals with production of carcinogenic compounds. Although computer models have become increasingly popular in understanding and management of TOC, ROC, and LOC loads in streams, the usefulness of these models hinges on the availability of daily data for model calibration and validation. Unfortunately, these daily data are usually insufficient and/or unavailable for most watersheds due to a variety of reasons, such as budget and time constraints. A simple approach was developed here to calculate daily loads of TOC, ROC, and LOC in streams based on their seasonal loads. We concluded that the predictions from our approach adequately match field measurements based on statistical comparisons between model calculations and field measurements. Our approach demonstrates that an increase in stream discharge results in increased stream TOC, ROC, and LOC concentrations and loads, although high peak discharge did not necessarily result in high peaks of TOC, ROC, and LOC concentrations and loads. The approach developed herein is a useful tool to convert seasonal loads of TOC, ROC, and LOC into daily loads in the absence of measured daily load data.

  12. Synergistic effects of total ionizing dose on single event upset sensitivity in static random access memory under proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yao; Guo Hong-Xia; Zhang Feng-Qi; Zhao Wen; Wang Yan-Ping; Zhang Ke-Ying; Ding Li-Li; Luo Yin-Hong; Wang Yuan-Ming; Fan Xue

    2014-01-01

    Synergistic effects of the total ionizing dose (TID) on the single event upset (SEU) sensitivity in static random access memories (SRAMs) were studied by using protons. The total dose was cumulated with high flux protons during the TID exposure, and the SEU cross section was tested with low flux protons at several cumulated dose steps. Because of the radiation-induced off-state leakage current increase of the CMOS transistors, the noise margin became asymmetric and the memory imprint effect was observed. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  13. Total dose and dose-rate effects on start-up current in anti-fuse FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Wong, W.; McCollum, J.; Cronquist, B.; Katz, R.; Kleyner, I.; Kleyner, F.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation enhanced start-up current (RESC) in an anti-fuse FPGA, A1280A, is thoroughly investigated and a comprehensive transistor-level mechanism is proposed. Low dose-rate testing, appropriate for civilian space applications, and annealing at room temperature shows RESC to be negligible for the lot of parts tested with a fixed power supply slew rate. (authors)

  14. Low-dose factor VIII infusion in Chinese adult haemophilia A patients: pharmacokinetics evidence that daily infusion results in higher trough level than with every-other-day infusion with similar factor VIII consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, B; Lee, A; Fan, L; Li, K; Zhang, Y; Poon, M-C; Zhao, Y

    2017-05-01

    Pharmacokinetics (PK) modelling suggests improvement of trough levels are achieved by using more frequent infusion strategy. However, no clinical study data exists to confirm or quantify improvement in trough level, particularly for low-dose prophylaxis in patients with haemophilia A. To provide evidence that low dose daily (ED) prophylaxis can increase trough levels without increasing FVIII consumption compared to every-other-day (EOD) infusion. A cross-over study on 5 IU kg -1 FVIII daily vs. 10 IU kg -1 EOD infusions, each for 14 days was conducted at the PUMCH-HTC. On the ED schedule, trough (immediate prior to infusion), and peak FVIII:C levels (30 min after infusion) were measured on days 1-5; and trough levels alone on days 7, 9, 11 and 13. For the EOD schedule, troughs, peaks and 4-h postinfusion were measured on day 1; troughs and peaks on days 3, 5, and 7; troughs alone on days 9, 11 and 13 and 24-h postinfusion on days 2, 4 and 6. FVIII inhibitors were assessed on days 0 and 14 during both infusion schedules. Six patients were enrolled. PK evidence showed that daily prophylaxis achieved higher (~2 times) steady-state FVIII trough levels compared to EOD with the same total factor consumption. The daily prophylaxis had good acceptability among patients and reduced chronic pain in the joints in some patients. Our PK study shows low-dose factor VIII daily infusion results in higher trough level than with EOD infusion with similar factor VIII consumption in Chinese adult haemophilia A patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Laboratory Bioaccumulation, Depuration And Total Dose Rate Of Waterborne Th-232 In Freshwater Fish Of Anabas Testudineus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal U'yun Wan Mahmood; Norfaizal Mohamed; Nita Salina Abu Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary results on the study of bioaccumulation, depuration and total dose rate of Th-232 in the whole body of Anabas testudineus are presented. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Th-232 concentration activity on the laboratory bioaccumulation, depuration and total dose rate in Anabas testudineus. Anabas testudineus adults were exposed to different waterborne Th-232 levels: 0 BqL -1 (control), 50 BqL -1 and 100 BqL -1 for 30 day (uptake phase), followed by exposure to radionuclide-free water for 30 days (loss phase). Radionuclide concentration ratios between the whole body levels and water levels, percentage of Th-232 remaining in fish were calculated and total dose rates using ERICA Assessment Tool were also estimated. The results showed the increase of waterborne Th-232 concentration corresponded to a progressive increase of Th accumulation and total dose rate (internal and external) in the whole body of Anabas testudineus. Considering the ERICA dose rate screening value of 10 μGyh -1 , the findings can be concluded the estimated of total dose rate (< 5 μGyh -1 ) in Anabas testudineus is in order of small magnitude. Nevertheless, these preliminary results showed that the Anabas testudineus has a potential to accumulate thorium. (author)

  16. [Single intravenous tranexamic acid dose to reduce blood loss in primary total knee replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Reig, J; Parra Ruiz, B; Ferrández Martínez, J; Martínez López, J F

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a single intravenous dose of tranexamic acid in order to reduce blood loss in total knee replacement. Prospective observational study of the administration of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty from November 2013 to February 2015, in which an autologous blood recovery system was used. The study included 98 patients, distributed into two groups of 49 patients according to whether or not they received intravenous tranexamic acid. The primary endpoint was the number of patients requiring autologous transfusion from the recovery system autologous blood recovery system. No drop-outs were recorded during follow-up. There were no significant differences between groups as regards the preoperative and hospital variables. The mean preoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit at 24 and 48 hours postoperatively were similar in both groups. The average volume of bleeding in the autologous blood recovery system and estimated average blood loss was lower in patients who had been administered tranexamic acid, with significant differences. No patients in the group that was administered tranexamic acid required blood autotransfusion. The transfusion rate was zero in the two groups. No adverse events related to the administration of tranexamic acid were recorded. Intravenous administration of tranexamic acid, according to the described protocol, has presented a non-autotransfusion or allo-transfusion rate of 100%, with no increased incidence of thrombotic events. Thus, its use in this group of patients is recommended. The indication should be individualized, its use justified in the patient medical records, and informed consent is mandatory. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of high-dose preoperative methylprednisolone on recovery after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, T H; Andersen, Lasse Østergaard; Kristensen, B B

    2013-01-01

    (IQR) (95% CI), MP vs placebo]: 23.5 (23.3-23.7) (17.8-43.8) vs 23.5 (23.0-23.8) (20.0-46.8) h, the mean difference (95% CI) being -1.3 (-4.7 to 2.2) h, P=0.65. Overall pain for the first 24 h after surgery was significantly reduced in the MP vs the placebo group (PMP 125 mg i.v. before surgery added......BACKGROUND: /st>High-dose glucocorticoid may reduce postsurgical pain and improve recovery. We hypothesized that 125 mg methylprednisolone (MP) would reduce time to meet functional discharge criteria after total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: /st>Forty-eight patients undergoing unilateral THA...... under spinal anaesthesia were consecutively included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial receiving preoperative i.v. MP or saline. All patients received a standardized, multimodal analgesic regime with paracetamol, celecoxib, and gabapentin. The primary outcome was time to meet...

  18. Total Ionizing Dose effects in 130-nm commercial CMOS technologies for HEP experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gonella, L; Silvestri, M; Gerardin, S; Pantano, D; Re, V; Manghisoni, M; Ratti, L; Ranieri, A

    2007-01-01

    The impact of foundry-to-foundry variability and bias conditions during irradiation on the Total Ionizing Dose (TID) response of commercial 130-nm CMOS technologies have been investigated for applications in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. n- and p-channel MOSFETs from three different manufacturers have been irradiated with X-rays up to more than 100 Mrad (SiO2). Even though the effects of TID are qualitatively similar, the amount of degradation is shown to vary considerably from foundry to foundry, probably depending on the processing of the STI oxide and/or doping profile in the substrate. The bias during irradiation showed to have a strong impact as well on the TID response, proving that exposure at worst case bias conditions largely overestimates the degradation a device may experience during its lifetime. Overall, our results increase the confidence that 130-nm CMOS technologies can be used in future HEP experiments even without Hardness-By-Design solutions, provided that constant monitoring of th...

  19. Daily organ tracking in intensity-modulated radiotherapy of prostate cancer using an electronic portal imaging device with a dose saving acquisition mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetterli, Daniel; Thalmann, Sandrine; Behrensmeier, Frank; Kemmerling, Ludger; Born, Ernst J.; Mini, Roberto; Greiner, Richard H.; Aebersold, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Daily use of conventional electronic portal imaging devices (EPID) for organ tracking is limited due to the relatively high dose required for high quality image acquisition. We studied the use of a novel dose saving acquisition mode (RadMode) allowing to take images with one monitor unit per image in prostate cancer patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and tracking of implanted fiducial gold markers. Patients and methods: Twenty five patients underwent implantation of three fiducial gold markers prior to the planning CT. Before each treatment of a course of 37 fractions, orthogonal localization images from the antero-posterior and from the lateral direction were acquired. Portal images of both the setup procedure and the five IMRT treatment beams were analyzed. Results: On average, four localization images were needed for a correct patient setup, resulting in four monitor units extra dose per fraction. The mean extra dose delivered to the patient was thereby increased by 1.2%. The procedure was precise enough to reduce the mean displacements prior to treatment to ≤0.3 mm. Conclusions: The use of a new dose saving acquisition mode enables to perform daily EPID-based prostate tracking with a cumulative extra dose of below 1 Gy. This concept is efficiently used in IMRT-treated patients, where separation of setup beams from treatment beams is mandatory

  20. The effects of feeding time on milk production, total-tract digestibility, and daily rhythms of feeding behavior and plasma metabolites and hormones in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, M; Ying, Y; Bartell, P A; Harvatine, K J

    2014-12-01

    The timing of feed intake entrains circadian rhythms regulated by internal clocks in many mammals. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of feeding entrains daily rhythms in dairy cows. Nine Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. An automated system recorded the timing of feed intake over the last 7 d of each period. Treatments were feeding 1×/d at 0830 h (AM) or 2030 h (PM) and feeding 2×/d in equal amounts at 0830 and 2030 h. All treatments were fed at 110% of daily intake. Cows were milked 2×/d at 0500 and 1700 h. Milk yield and composition were not changed by treatment. Daily intake did not differ, but twice-daily feeding tended to decrease total-tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). A treatment by time of day interaction was observed for feeding behavior. The amount of feed consumed in the first 2h after feeding was 70% greater for PM compared with AM feeding. A low rate of intake overnight (2400 to 0500 h; 2.2 ± 0.74% daily intake/h, mean ± SD) and a moderate rate of intake in the afternoon (1200 to 1700 h; 4.8 ± 1.1% daily intake/h) was noted for all treatments, although PM slightly reduced the rate during the afternoon period compared with AM. A treatment by time of day interaction was seen for fecal NDF and indigestible NDF (iNDF) concentration, blood urea nitrogen, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, body temperature, and lying behavior. Specifically, insulin increased and glucose decreased more after evening feeding than after morning feeding. A cosine function within a 24-h period was used to characterize daily rhythms using a random regression. Rate of feed intake during spontaneous feeding, fecal NDF and iNDF concentration, plasma glucose, insulin, NEFA, body temperature, and lying behavior fit a cosine function within a 24-h period that was modified by treatment. In conclusion, feeding time can reset the daily rhythms of feeding and

  1. 75 FR 26956 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of Los Angeles Area Lakes Total Maximum Daily Loads...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9146-6] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of Los...: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This action announces the availability of EPA proposed total maximum... nutrient, mercury, chlordane, dieldrin, DDT, PCB, and trash impairments pursuant to Clean Water Act Section...

  2. Optimization of total arc degree for stereotactic radiotherapy by using integral biologically effective dose and irradiated volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Do Hoon; Kim, Dae Yong; Lee, Myung Za; Chun, Ha Chung

    2001-01-01

    To find the optimal values of total arc degree to protect the normal brain tissue from high dose radiation in stereotactic radiotherapy planning. With Xknife-3 planning system and 4 MV linear accelerator, the authors planned under various values of parameters. One isocenter, 12, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mm of collimator diameters, 100 deg, 200 deg, 300 deg, 400 deg, 500 deg, 600 deg, of total arc degrees, and 30 deg or 45 deg of arc intervals were used. After the completion of planning, the plans were compared each other using V 50 (the volume of normal brain that is delivered high dose radiation) and integral biologically effective dose. At 30 deg of arc interval, the values of V 50 had the decreased pattern with the increase of total arc degree in any collimator diameter. At 45 deg arc interval, up to 400 deg of total arc degree, the values of V 50 decreased with the increase of total arc degree, but at 500 deg and 600 deg of total arc degrees, the values increased. At 30 deg of arc interval, integral biologically effective dose showed the decreased pattern with the increase of total arc degree in any collimator diameter. At 45 deg arc interval with less than 40 mm collimator diameter, the integral biologically effective dose decreased with the increase of total arc degree, but with 50 and 60 mm of collimator diameters, up to 400 deg of total arc degree, integral biologically effective dose decreased with the increase of total arc degree, but at 500 deg and 600 deg of total arc degrees, the values increased. In the stereotactic radiotherapy planning for brain lesions, planning with 400 deg of total arc degree is optimal. Especially, when the larger collimator more than 50 mm diameter should be used, the uses of 500 deg and 600 deg of total arc degrees make the increase of V 50 and integral biologically effective dose, Therefore stereotactic radiotherapy planning using 400 deg of total arc degree can increase the therapeutic ratio and produce the effective outcome

  3. Modelling normal tissue isoeffect distribution in conformal radiotherapy of glioblastoma provides an alternative dose escalation pattern through hypofractionation without reducing the total dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangel, L.; Skriba, Z.; Major, T.; Polgar, C.; Fodor, J.; Somogyi, A.; Nemeth, G.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prove that by using conformal external beam radiotherapy (RT) normal brain structures can be protected even when applying an alternative approach of biological dose escalation: hypofractionation (HOF) without total dose reduction (TDR). Traditional 2-dimensional (2D) and conformal 3-dimensional (3D) treatment plans were prepared for 10 gliomas representing the subanatomical sites of the supratentorial brain. Isoeffect distributions were generated by the biologically effective dose (BED) formula to analyse the effect of conventionally fractionated (CF) and HOF schedules on both the spatial biological dose distribution and biological dose-volume histograms. A comparison was made between 2D-CF (2.0 Gy/day) and 3D-HOF (2.5 Gy/day) regimens, applying the same 60 Gy total doses. Integral biologically effective dose (IBED) and volumes received biologically equivalent to a dose of 54 Gy or more (V-BED54) were calculated for the lower and upper brain stem as organs of risk. The IBED values were lower with the 3D-HOF than with the 2D-CF schedule in each tumour location, means 22.7±17.1 and 40.4±16.9 in Gy, respectively (p<0.0001). The V-BED54 values were also smaller or equal in 90% of the cases favouring the 3D-HOF scheme. The means were 2.7±4.8 ccm for 3D-HOF and 10.7±12.7 ccm for 2D-CF (p=0.0006). Our results suggest that with conformal RT, fraction size can gradually be increased. HOF radiotherapy regimens without TDR shorten the treatment time and seem to be an alternative way of dose escalation in the treatment of glioblastoma

  4. Modelling normal tissue isoeffect distribution in conformal radiotherapy of glioblastoma provides an alternative dose escalation pattern through hypofractionation without reducing the total dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangel, L.; Skriba, Z.; Major, T.; Polgar, C.; Fodor, J.; Somogyi, A.; Nemeth, G. [National Research Inst. for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Budapest (Hungary)

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to prove that by using conformal external beam radiotherapy (RT) normal brain structures can be protected even when applying an alternative approach of biological dose escalation: hypofractionation (HOF) without total dose reduction (TDR). Traditional 2-dimensional (2D) and conformal 3-dimensional (3D) treatment plans were prepared for 10 gliomas representing the subanatomical sites of the supratentorial brain. Isoeffect distributions were generated by the biologically effective dose (BED) formula to analyse the effect of conventionally fractionated (CF) and HOF schedules on both the spatial biological dose distribution and biological dose-volume histograms. A comparison was made between 2D-CF (2.0 Gy/day) and 3D-HOF (2.5 Gy/day) regimens, applying the same 60 Gy total doses. Integral biologically effective dose (IBED) and volumes received biologically equivalent to a dose of 54 Gy or more (V-BED54) were calculated for the lower and upper brain stem as organs of risk. The IBED values were lower with the 3D-HOF than with the 2D-CF schedule in each tumour location, means 22.7{+-}17.1 and 40.4{+-}16.9 in Gy, respectively (p<0.0001). The V-BED54 values were also smaller or equal in 90% of the cases favouring the 3D-HOF scheme. The means were 2.7{+-}4.8 ccm for 3D-HOF and 10.7{+-}12.7 ccm for 2D-CF (p=0.0006). Our results suggest that with conformal RT, fraction size can gradually be increased. HOF radiotherapy regimens without TDR shorten the treatment time and seem to be an alternative way of dose escalation in the treatment of glioblastoma.

  5. Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy in the Treatment of Mycosis Fungoides: A Review of Conventional and Low-Dose Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Mudit; Chhabra, Arpit M; Kharod, Shivam; Marwaha, Gaurav

    2016-12-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most prevalent subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, which is characterized by the proliferation of CD4 + T cells. While often an indolent disease, most patients eventually develop progression from isolated patches to tumors and finally nodal or visceral involvement. Treatment choice is largely based on disease burden, though prognostic factors such as disease stage, patient age, and extracutaneous involvement must be taken into consideration. Radiotherapy represents one of the most effective therapeutic modalities in the treatment of MF. Lymphocytes are exquisitely radiosensitive, and excellent responses are observed even with low doses of radiation. Total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is a special technique that allows for the homogenous irradiation of the entire skin. There are well-documented radiation dose-response relationships for achieving a complete response. As such, TSEBT doses ≥ 30 Gy comprise the current standard of care. Although highly effective, most patients experience recurrent disease even after conventional-dose (≥ 30 Gy) TSEBT. In addition, toxicity is cumulatively dose dependent, and there is reluctance to administer multiple courses of conventional-dose TSEBT. Consequently, there has been renewed interest in determining the utility of TSEBT at lower total (≤ 30 Gy) doses. Advantages of low-total-dose (with standard dose per fraction) TSEBT include a shortened treatment course, the potential to minimize the risk of adverse events, and the opportunity to allow for retreatment in cases of disease recurrence. This comprehensive review compares the impact of different TSEBT dosing schemes on clinical outcomes of MF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of bias effects on the total ionizing dose response in a 180 nm technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhangli; Hu Zhiyuan; Zhang, Zhengxuan; Shao Hua; Chen Ming; Bi Dawei; Ning Bingxu; Zou Shichang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of gamma ray irradiation on the shallow trench isolation (STI) leakage current in a 180 nm technology are investigated. The radiation response is strongly influenced by the bias modes, gate bias during irradiation, substrate bias during irradiation and operating substrate bias after irradiation. We found that the worst case occurs under the ON bias condition for the ON, OFF and PASS bias mode. A positive gate bias during irradiation significantly enhances the STI leakage current, indicating the electric field influence on the charge buildup process during radiation. Also, a negative substrate bias during irradiation enhances the STI leakage current. However a negative operating substrate bias effectively suppresses the STI leakage current, and can be used to eliminate the leakage current produced by the charge trapped in the deep STI oxide. Appropriate substrate bias should be introduced to alleviate the total ionizing dose (TID) response, and lead to acceptable threshold voltage shift and subthreshold hump effect. Depending on the simulation results, we believe that the electric field distribution in the STI oxide is the key parameter influencing bias effects on the radiation response of transistor. - Highlights: → ON bias is the worst bias condition for the ON, PASS and OFF bias modes. → Larger gate bias during irradiation leads to more pronounced characteristic degradation. → TID induced STI leakage can be suppressed by negative operating substrate bias voltage. → Negative substrate bias during irradiation leads to larger increase of off-state leakage. → Electric field in the STI oxide greatly influences the device's radiation effect.

  7. Clinical implementation of total skin electron irradiation treatment with a 6 MeV electron beam in high-dose total skin electron mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, J. F.; Rojas, J. I.

    2016-01-01

    Total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) is a special treatment technique offered by modern radiation oncology facilities, given for the treatment of mycosis fungoides, a rare skin disease, which is type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma [1]. During treatment the patient’s entire skin is irradiated with a uniform dose. The aim of this work is to present implementation of total skin electron irradiation treatment using IAEA TRS-398 code of practice for absolute dosimetry and taking advantage of the use of radiochromic films.

  8. Clinical implementation of total skin electron irradiation treatment with a 6 MeV electron beam in high-dose total skin electron mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucero, J. F., E-mail: fernando.lucero@hoperadiotherapy.com.gt [Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, Heredia (Costa Rica); Hope International, Guatemala (Guatemala); Rojas, J. I., E-mail: isaac.rojas@siglo21.cr [Centro Médico Radioterapia Siglo XXI, San José (Costa Rica)

    2016-07-07

    Total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) is a special treatment technique offered by modern radiation oncology facilities, given for the treatment of mycosis fungoides, a rare skin disease, which is type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma [1]. During treatment the patient’s entire skin is irradiated with a uniform dose. The aim of this work is to present implementation of total skin electron irradiation treatment using IAEA TRS-398 code of practice for absolute dosimetry and taking advantage of the use of radiochromic films.

  9. Determination of daily intake of elements from Philippine total diet samples using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, G.C. de; Shiraishi, K.; Kawamura, H.; Igaraishi, Y.; Palattao, M.V.; Azanon, E.M.

    1990-10-01

    Total diet samples were analyzed for major elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P) and some minor trace elements (Fe, Zn, Mn, Al, Sr, Cu, Ba, Yt) using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Samples analyzed were classified into sex and age groups. Results for some elements (Na, K, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn) were compared with values from Bataan dietary survey calculated using the Philippine composition table. Exceot for Na, analytical results were similar to calculated values. Analytical results for Ca and Fe were also compared with the values from Food and Nutrition Research Institute. In general, values obtained in the study were lower than the FNRI values. Comparison of the analytical and calculated results with the Japanese and ICRP data showed that Philippine values were lower than foreign values. (Auth.). 22 refs., 9 tabs

  10. Clinical responses after total body irradiation by over permissible dose of γ-rays in one time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Wang Guilin; Liu Huilan; Tang Xingsheng; Ai Huisheng

    1990-01-01

    The clinical responses of patients after total body over permissilbe dose γ-ray irradiation were observed and analysed. The results showed: when the dose was above 5 cGy, there was some immunological depression, but no significant change in hematopoietic functions. 5 cases showed some transient changes of ECG, perhaps due to vagotonia caused by psychological imbalance, One case vomitted 3-4 times after 28 cGy irradiation, this suggested that a few times of vomitting had no significance in the estimation of the irradiated dose and the whole clinical manifestations must be concretely analysed

  11. Fast method for in-flight estimation of total dose from protons and electrons using RADE Minstrument on JUICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdas, Wojtek; Mrigakshi, Alankrita; Xiao, Hualin

    2017-04-01

    The primary concern of the ESA JUICE mission to Jupiter is the harsh particle radiation environment. Ionizing particles introduce radiation damage by total dose effects, displacement damages or single events effects. Therefore, both the total ionizing dose and the displacement damage equivalent fluence must be assessed to alert spacecraft and its payload as well as to quantify radiation levels for the entire mission lifetime. We present a concept and implementations steps for simplified method used to compute in flight a dose rate and total dose caused by protons. We also provide refinement of the method previously developed for electrons. The dose rates values are given for predefined active volumes located behind layers of materials with known thickness. Both methods are based on the electron and proton flux measurements provided by the Electron and Proton Detectors inside the Radiation Hard Electron Monitor (RADEM) located on-board of JUICE. The trade-off between method accuracy and programming limitations for in-flight computations are discussed. More comprehensive and precise dose rate computations based on detailed analysis of all stack detectors will be made during off-line data processing. It will utilize full spectral unfolding from all RADEM detector subsystems.

  12. High-dose total-body irradiation and autologous marrow reconstitution in dogs: dose-rate-related acute toxicity and fractionation-dependent long-term survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.; Schumacher, D.; Shulman, H.; Graham, T.; Thomas, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day. Acute toxicity and early mortality (<1 month) at identical total irradiation doses were comparable for dogs given fractionated or single-dose TBI. With single-dose TBI, 14, 16, and 18 Gy, respectively, given at 0.05 Gy/min, 0/5, 5/5, and 2/2 dogs died from acute toxicity; with 10, 12, and 14 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 5/5 dogs died acutely. With fractionated TBI, 14 and 16 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 2/2 dogs died auctely. Early deaths were due to radiation enteritis with or without associated septicemia (29 dogs; less than or equal to Day 10). Three dogs given 10 Gy of TBI at 0.1 Gy/min died from bacterial pneumonia; one (Day 18) had been given fractionated and two (Days 14, 22) single-dose TBI. Fifteen dogs survived beyond 1 month; eight of these had single-dose TBI (10-14 Gy) and all died within 7 months of irradiation from a syndrome consisting of hepatic damage, pancreatic fibrosis, malnutrition, wasting, and anemia. Seven of the 15 had fractionated TBI, and only one (14 Gy) died on Day 33 from hepatic failure, whereas 6 (10-14 Gy) are alive and well 250 to 500 days after irradiation. In conclusion, fractionated TBI did not offer advantages over single-dose TBI with regard to acute toxicity and early mortality; rather, these were dependent upon the total dose of TBI. The total acutely tolerated dose was dependent upon the exposure rate; however, only dogs given fractionated TBI became healthy long-term survivors

  13. Three-dimensional Finite Elements Method simulation of Total Ionizing Dose in 22 nm bulk nFinFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzikyriakou, Eleni, E-mail: ec3g12@soton.ac.uk; Potter, Kenneth; Redman-White, William; De Groot, C.H.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Simulation of Total Ionizing Dose using the Finite Elements Method. • Carrier generation, transport and trapping in the oxide. • Application in three-dimensional bulk FinFET model of 22 nm node. • Examination of trapped charge in the Shallow Trench Isolation. • Trapped charge dependency of parasitic transistor current. - Abstract: Finite Elements Method simulation of Total Ionizing Dose effects on 22 nm bulk Fin Field Effect Transistor (FinFET) devices using the commercial software Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD is presented. The simulation parameters are extracted by calibrating the charge trapping model to experimental results on 400 nm SiO{sub 2} capacitors irradiated under zero bias. The FinFET device characteristics are calibrated to the Intel 22 nm bulk technology. Irradiation simulations of the transistor performed with all terminals unbiased reveal increased hardness up to a total dose of 1 MRad(SiO{sub 2}).

  14. A comparison of the effects of 2 doses of soy protein or casein on serum lipids, serum lipoproteins, and plasma total homocysteine in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, Serena; Smerud, Knut; Høie, Lars

    2002-07-01

    Studies have shown that soy protein reduces some atherogenic lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, although lipoprotein(a) concentrations may be increased. The dose response of soy protein has not been established; neither has its effect on plasma total homocysteine. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of 2 doses of soy protein on lipid, lipoprotein, and homocysteine concentrations. Four to 24 wk after being instructed to consume a lipid-lowering diet, 130 men and women with LDL-cholesterol concentrations > or = 4 mmol/L were studied during a parallel group trial in which 4 interventions were assigned randomly. Thirty grams isolated soy protein (ISP) and 10 g cotyledon fiber or 50 g ISP and 16.6 g cotyledon fiber or equivalent doses of casein and cellulose were consumed daily as a beverage for 16 wk. When the 2 groups who consumed ISP were compared with the 2 groups who consumed casein, the differences in the net changes from baseline to week 16 in the concentrations of LDL cholesterol and plasma total homocysteine were -0.26 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.43, -0.09 mmol/L; P = 0.01) and -0.8 micromol/L (-1.4, -0.2 micromol/L; P = 0.005), respectively. The effect of the ISP dose was not significant. There were no significant differences between the 2 ISP and the 2 casein groups in changes in lipoprotein(a), HDL-cholesterol, or triacylglycerol concentrations. Adding 30-50 g soy protein/d to a lipid-lowering diet significantly reduced LDL-cholesterol concentrations without increasing lipoprotein(a) concentrations. Plasma total homocysteine concentrations also decreased, suggesting a novel, possibly antiatherosclerotic effect.

  15. Comparison of therapy augmentation and deviation rates from the recommended once-daily dosing regimen between LDX and commonly prescribed long-acting stimulants for the treatment of ADHD in youth and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, Juliana; Hodgkins, Paul; Guérin, Annie; Gauthier, Geneviève; Cloutier, Martin; Wu, Eric; Erder, M Haim

    2013-10-01

    To compare therapy augmentation and deviation rates from the recommended once-daily dosing regimen in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) patients initiated on lisdexamfetamine (LDX) vs other once-daily Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved stimulants. ADHD patients initiated on a long-acting ADHD stimulant medication (index medication) in/after 2007 were selected from a large U.S. administrative claims database. Patients were required to be persistent for ≥90 days and continuously enrolled in their healthcare plan for ≥12 months following treatment initiation date. Based on age and previous treatment status, patients were classified into treatment-naïve children and adolescents (6-17 years old), previously treated children and adolescents, treatment-naïve adults (≥18 years old), and previously treated adults. Furthermore, patients were classified into four mutually exclusive treatment groups, based on index medication: lisdexamfetamine (LDX), osmotic release methylphenidate hydrochloride long-acting (OROS MPH), other methylphenidate/dexmethylphenidate long-acting (MPH LA), and amphetamine/dextroamphetamine long-acting (AMPH LA). The average daily consumption was measured as the quantity of index medication supplied in the 12-month study period divided by the total number of days of supply. Therapy augmentation was defined as the use of another ADHD medication concomitantly with the index medication for ≥28 consecutive days. Therapy augmentation and deviation rates from the recommended once-daily dosing regimen were compared between treatment groups using multivariate logistic regression models. Compared to the other treatment groups, LDX patients were less likely to augment with another ADHD medication (range odds ratios [OR]; 1.28-3.30) and to deviate from the recommended once-daily dosing regimen (range OR; 1.73-4.55), except for previously treated adult patients, where therapy augmentation differences were not statistically

  16. Dose rate and total dose dependence of the 1/f noise performance of a GaAs operational amplifier during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiemstra, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    A pictorial of a sectioned view of the torus of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is shown. Maintenance and inspection of the reactor are required to be performed remotely. This is due to the high gamma radiation environment in vessel during inspection and maintenance activities. The custom GaAs operational amplifier is to be used to readout sensors on the in-vessel manipulator and inspection equipment. The gamma dose rate during maintenance and inspection is anticipated to be 3 Mrad(GaAs)/hour. Here, dose rate and total dose dependence of the 1/f noise performance of a custom GaAs MESFET operational amplifier during irradiation are presented. Dose rate dependent 1/f noise degradation during irradiation is believed to be due to electron trapping in deep levels, enhanced by backgating and shallow traps excited during irradiation. The reduction of this affect with accumulated total dose is believed to be due a reduction of deep level site concentration associated with substitutional oxygen. Post irradiation 1/f noise degradation is also presented.The generation-recombination noise observed post irradiation can be attributed to the production of shallow traps due to ionizing radiation

  17. Central axis dose verification in patients treated with total body irradiation of photons using a Computed Radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio Rivero, A.; Caballero Pinelo, R.; Gonzalez Perez, Y.

    2015-01-01

    To propose and evaluate a method for the central axis dose verification in patients treated with total body irradiation (TBI) of photons using images obtained through a Computed Radiography (CR) system. It was used the Computed Radiography (Fuji) portal imaging cassette readings and correlate with measured of absorbed dose in water using 10 x 10 irradiation fields with ionization chamber in the 60 Co equipment. The analytical and graphic expression is obtained through software 'Origin8', the TBI patient portal verification images were processed using software ImageJ, to obtain the patient dose. To validate the results, the absorbed dose in RW3 models was measured with ionization chamber with different thickness, simulating TBI real conditions. Finally it was performed a retrospective study over the last 4 years obtaining the patients absorbed dose based on the reading in the image and comparing with the planned dose. The analytical equation obtained permits estimate the absorbed dose using image pixel value and the dose measured with ionization chamber and correlated with patient clinical records. Those results are compared with reported evidence obtaining a difference less than 02%, the 3 methods were compared and the results are within 10%. (Author)

  18. Design of spray dried insulin microparticles to bypass deposition in the extrathoracic region and maximize total lung dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Keith T; Rao, Nagaraja; Weers, Jeffry G; Huang, Daniel; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-09-25

    Inhaled drugs all too often deliver only a fraction of the emitted dose to the target lung site due to deposition in the extrathoracic region (i.e., mouth and throat), which can lead to increased variation in lung exposure, and in some instances increases in local and systemic side effects. For aerosol medications, improved targeting to the lungs may be achieved by tailoring the micromeritic properties of the particles (e.g., size, density, rugosity) to minimize deposition in the mouth-throat and maximize the total lung dose. This study evaluated a co-solvent spray drying approach to modulate particle morphology and dose delivery characteristics of engineered powder formulations of insulin microparticles. The binary co-solvent system studied included water as the primary solvent mixed with an organic co-solvent, e.g., ethanol. Factors such as the relative rate of evaporation of each component of a binary co-solvent mixture, and insulin solubility in each component were considered in selecting feedstock compositions. A water-ethanol co-solvent mixture with a composition range considered suitable for modulating particle shell formation during drying was selected for experimental investigation. An Alberta Idealized Throat model was used to evaluate the in vitro total lung dose of a series of spray dried insulin formulations engineered with different bulk powder properties and delivered with two prototype inhalers that fluidize and disperse powder using different principles. The in vitro total lung dose of insulin microparticles was improved and favored for powders with low bulk density and small primary particle size, with reduction of deposition in the extrathoracic region. The results demonstrated that a total lung dose >95% of the delivered dose can be achieved with engineered particles, indicating a high degree of lung targeting, almost completely bypassing deposition in the mouth-throat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Low dose CBCT reconstruction via prior contour based total variation (PCTV) regularization: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingxuan; Yin, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Yawei; Zhang, You; Ren, Lei

    2018-04-01

    Purpose: compressed sensing reconstruction using total variation (TV) tends to over-smooth the edge information by uniformly penalizing the image gradient. The goal of this study is to develop a novel prior contour based TV (PCTV) method to enhance the edge information in compressed sensing reconstruction for CBCT. Methods: the edge information is extracted from prior planning-CT via edge detection. Prior CT is first registered with on-board CBCT reconstructed with TV method through rigid or deformable registration. The edge contours in prior-CT is then mapped to CBCT and used as the weight map for TV regularization to enhance edge information in CBCT reconstruction. The PCTV method was evaluated using extended-cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom, physical CatPhan phantom and brain patient data. Results were compared with both TV and edge preserving TV (EPTV) methods which are commonly used for limited projection CBCT reconstruction. Relative error was used to calculate pixel value difference and edge cross correlation was defined as the similarity of edge information between reconstructed images and ground truth in the quantitative evaluation. Results: compared to TV and EPTV, PCTV enhanced the edge information of bone, lung vessels and tumor in XCAT reconstruction and complex bony structures in brain patient CBCT. In XCAT study using 45 half-fan CBCT projections, compared with ground truth, relative errors were 1.5%, 0.7% and 0.3% and edge cross correlations were 0.66, 0.72 and 0.78 for TV, EPTV and PCTV, respectively. PCTV is more robust to the projection number reduction. Edge enhancement was reduced slightly with noisy projections but PCTV was still superior to other methods. PCTV can maintain resolution while reducing the noise in the low mAs CatPhan reconstruction. Low contrast edges were preserved better with PCTV compared with TV and EPTV. Conclusion: PCTV preserved edge information as well as reduced streak artifacts and noise in low dose CBCT reconstruction

  20. Dose fractionated gamma knife radiosurgery for large arteriovenous malformations on daily or alternate day schedule outside the linear quadratic model: Proof of concept and early results. A substitute to volume fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kanchan Kumar; Kumar, Narendra; Tripathi, Manjul; Oinam, Arun S; Ahuja, Chirag K; Dhandapani, Sivashanmugam; Kapoor, Rakesh; Ghoshal, Sushmita; Kaur, Rupinder; Bhatt, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of dose fractionated gamma knife radiosurgery (DFGKRS) on a daily schedule beyond the linear quadratic (LQ) model, for large volume arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Between 2012-16, 14 patients of large AVMs (median volume 26.5 cc) unsuitable for surgery or embolization were treated in 2-3 of DFGKRS sessions. The Leksell G frame was kept in situ during the whole procedure. 86% (n = 12) patients had radiologic evidence of bleed, and 43% (n = 6) had presented with a history of seizures. 57% (n = 8) patients received a daily treatment for 3 days and 43% (n = 6) were on an alternate day (2 fractions) regimen. The marginal dose was split into 2 or 3 fractions of the ideal prescription dose of a single fraction of 23-25 Gy. The median follow up period was 35.6 months (8-57 months). In the three-fraction scheme, the marginal dose ranged from 8.9-11.5 Gy, while in the two-fraction scheme, the marginal dose ranged from 11.3-15 Gy at 50% per fraction. Headache (43%, n = 6) was the most common early postoperative complication, which was controlled with short course steroids. Follow up evaluation of at least three years was achieved in seven patients, who have shown complete nidus obliteration in 43% patients while the obliteration has been in the range of 50-99% in rest of the patients. Overall, there was a 67.8% reduction in the AVM volume at 3 years. Nidus obliteration at 3 years showed a significant rank order correlation with the cumulative prescription dose (p 0.95, P value 0.01), with attainment of near-total (more than 95%) obliteration rates beyond 29 Gy of the cumulative prescription dose. No patient receiving a cumulative prescription dose of less than 31 Gy had any severe adverse reaction. In co-variate adjusted ordinal regression, only the cumulative prescription dose had a significant correlation with common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) severity (P value 0.04), independent of age, AVM volume

  1. A randomised clinical trial on the efficacy of oxytetracycline dose through water medication of nursery pigs on diarrhoea, faecal shedding of Lawsonia intracellularis and average daily weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Inge-Lise; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Holm, Anders

    2016-01-01

    the efficacy of three oral dosage regimens (5, 10 and 20mg/kg body weight) of oxytetracycline (OTC) in drinking water over a five-day period on diarrhoea, faecal shedding of LI and average daily weight gain (ADG). A randomised clinical trial was carried out in four Danish pig herds. In total, 539 animals from...

  2. Application of a Pelletron accelerator to study total dose radiation effects on 50 GHz SiGe HBTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen, K.C.; Pushpa, N.; Naik, P.S. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006 (India); Cressler, John D. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tripathi, Ambuj [Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi 110 067 (India); Gnana Prakash, A.P., E-mail: gnanaprakash@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006 (India)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total dose effects of 50 MeV Li3+ ion on 50 GHz SiGe HBTs is investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ion irradiated results were compared with Co-60 gamma results. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 50 MeV Li ions create more damage in E-B spacer oxide when compared to Co-60 gamma radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-60 gamma radiation create more damage in STI oxide when compared to 50 MeV Li ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Worst case total dose radiation effects can be studied using Pelletron accelerator facilities. - Abstract: We have investigated the effects of 50 MeV lithium ion irradiation on the DC electrical characteristics of first-generation silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors (50 GHz SiGe HBTs) in the dose range of 600 krad to 100 Mrad. The results of 50 MeV Li{sup 3+} ion irradiation on the SiGe HBTs are compared with 63 MeV proton and Co-60 gamma irradiation results in the same dose range in order to understand the damage induced by different LET species. The radiation response of emitter-base (EB) spacer oxide and shallow trench isolation (STI) oxide to different irradiation types are discussed in this paper. We have also focused on the efficacy in the application of a Pelletron accelerator to study total dose irradiation studies in SiGe HBTs.

  3. Intralesional Versus Oral Chloroquine in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Comparison of Outcome, Duration of Treatment and Total Dose of Drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, M. M.; Akram, K.; Mustafa, G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare intralesional versus oral chloroquine in cutaneous leishmaniasis and determine the cure rate, duration of treatment, and total dose of drug. Study Design: Randomized controlled study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Dermatology, Sheikh Zayed Medical College/Hospital, Rahim Yar Khan, from November 2013 to June 2014. Methodology: Consecutive 86 patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis, with single to multiple lesions of various sizes were enrolled and divided randomly into group A and B for the purpose of intralesional and oral chloroquine administration, respectively to compare the effect of the two routes on duration of treatment and total dose of the drug. SPSS version 16 was used for data analysis after data entry into it. Quantitative variables like, duration, cost and total dose of treatment were calculated as mean and standard deviation and compared by using T-test. P-value of less than 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Cure rate was 100% in both groups towards the end of treatment. Mean duration of treatment was 9.17 ± 3 weeks in intralesional (A) group as against 11.37 ± 3 weeks in oral (B) group (p = 0.0028). Mean total dose of the drug given to each patient in group A was 5.8 ± 0.5 gm and in group B, it was 19.2 ± 1.5 gm, which is significantly higher (p=0.001). The total cost of treatment in group A was Rs. 90 ± 8 and in group B it was Rs. 91 ± 1 (p=0.446). Conclusion: Duration of treatment is significantly shorter and total dose is lesser with intralesional compared to oral chloroquine in treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. (author)

  4. 85Kr management trade-offs: a perspective to total radiation dose commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Hoenes, G.R.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Greenborg, J.

    1980-01-01

    Radiological consequences arising from the trade-offs for 85 Kr waste management from possible nuclear fuel resource recovery activities have been investigated. The reference management technique is to release all the waste gas to the atmosphere where it is diluted and dispersed. A potential alternative is to collect, concentrate, package and submit the gas to long-term storage. This study compares the radiation dose commitment to the public and to the occupationally exposed work force from these alternatives. The results indicate that it makes little difference to the magnitude of the world population dose whether 85 Kr is captured and stored or chronically released to the environment. Further, comparisons of radiation exposures (for the purpose of estimating health effects) at very low dose rates to very large populations with exposures to a small number of occupationally exposed workers who each receive much higher dose rates may be misleading. Finally, cost studies (EPA 1976 and DOE 1979a) show that inordinate amounts of money will be required to lower this already extremely small 80-year cumulative world population dose of 0.05 mrem/person

  5. 85Kr management trade-offs: a perspective to total radiation dose commitment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Hoenes, G.R.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Greenborg, J.

    1980-01-01

    Radiological consequences arising from the trade-offs for /sup 85/Kr waste management from possible nuclear fuel resource recovery activities have been investigated. The reference management technique is to release all the waste gas to the atmosphere where it is diluted and dispersed. A potential alternative is to collect, concentrate, package and submit the gas to long-term storage. This study compares the radiation dose commitment to the public and to the occupationally exposed work force from these alternatives. The results indicate that it makes little difference to the magnitude of the world population dose whether /sup 85/Kr is captured and stored or chronically released to the environment. Further, comparisons of radiation exposures (for the purpose of estimating health effects) at very low dose rates to very large populations with exposures to a small number of occupationally exposed workers who each receive much higher dose rates may be misleading. Finally, cost studies (EPA 1976 and DOE 1979a) show that inordinate amounts of money will be required to lower this already extremely small 80-year cumulative world population dose of 0.05 mrem/person (<0.001% of natural background radiation for the same time period).

  6. Recent advances in understanding total-dose effects in bipolar transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrimpf, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Gain degradation in irradiated bipolar transistors can be a significant problem, particularly in linear integrated circuits. In many bipolar technologies, the degradation is greater for irradiation at low dose rates than it is for typical laboratory dose rates. Ionizing radiation causes the base current in bipolar transistors to increase, due to the presence of net positive charge in the oxides covering sensitive device areas and increases in surface recombination velocity. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for radiation-induced gain degradation in bipolar transistors is important in developing appropriate hardness assurance methods. This paper reviews recent modeling and experimental work, with the emphasis on low-dose-rate effects. A promising hardness assurance method based on irradiation at elevated temperatures is described

  7. Serum level modifications of female sex hormones after radiocastration with different total doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naujokat, B.; Rohloff, R.; Willich, N.; Eiermann, W.

    1988-01-01

    We determined serum level of estradiol, FSH and LH over a period of six to eight weeks after ovarian irradiation for castration with different doses (2x2.5 Gy/3x2.5 Gy/4x2.5 Gy) in 15 patients with metastatic breast cancer as compared to changes after ovarectomy in five patients. The time course of the changing estradiol-, FSH and LH-serum levels sigificantly depends on the ovarian dose. After radiological castration with a dose of 4x2.5 Gy = 10 Gy in four days the estrogen levels decrease within two to three weeks, and the FSH- and LH-levels increase after three to four weeks into the postmenopausal range. Therefore, the time course is not very different from changes after ovarectomy. (orig.) [de

  8. A prospective, open-label study of low-dose total skin electron beam therapy in mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, Maria R; Specht, Lena; Skovgaard, Gunhild L

    2008-01-01

    causes and did not complete treatment. Acute side effects included desquamation, xerosis, and erythema of the skin. No severe side effects were observed. CONCLUSION: Low-dose total skin electron beam therapy can induce complete and partial responses in Stage IB-II mycosis fungoides; however, the duration......PURPOSE: To determine the effect of low-dose (4 Gy) total skin electron beam therapy as a second-line treatment of Stage IB-II mycosis fungoides in a prospective, open-label study. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ten patients (6 men, 4 women, average age 68.7 years [range, 55-82 years......]) with histopathologically confirmed mycosis fungoides T2-T4 N0-N1 M0 who did not achieve complete remission or relapsed within 4 months after treatment with psoralen plus ultraviolet-A were included. Treatment consisted of low-dose total skin electron beam therapy administered at a total skin dose of 4 Gy given in 4...

  9. Use of an electron reflector to improve dose uniformity at the vertex during total skin electron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, V.G.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The vertex of the scalp is always tangentially irradiated during total skin electron therapy (TSET). This study was conducted to determine the dose distribution at the vertex for a commonly used irradiation technique and to evaluate the use of an electron reflector, positioned above the head, as a means of improving the dose uniformity. Methods and Materials: Phantoms, simulating the head of a patient, were irradiated using our standard procedure for TSET. The technique is a six-field irradiation using dual angled electron beams at a treatment distance of 3.6 meters. Vertex dosimetry was performed using ionization methods and film. Measurements were made for an unmodified 6 MeV electron beam and for a 4 MeV beam obtained by placing an acrylic scattering plate in the beam line. Studies were performed to examine the effect of electron scattering on vertex dose when a lead reflector, 50 x 50 cm in area, was positioned above the phantom. Results: The surface dose at the vertex, in the absence of the reflector, was found to be less than 40% of the prescribed skin dose. Use of the lead reflector increased this value to 73% for the 6 MeV beam and 99% for the degraded 4 MeV beam. Significant improvements in depth dose were also observed. The dose enhancement is not strongly dependent on reflector distance or angulation since the reflector acts as a large source of broadly scattered electrons. Conclusion: The vertex may be significantly underdosed using standard techniques for total skin electron therapy. Use of an electron reflector improves the dose uniformity at the vertex and may reduce or eliminate the need for supplemental irradiation

  10. Cumulative total effective whole-body radiation dose in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Deborah J; Bennett, Suzanne; Samaratunga, Chandrasiri; Jewell, Elizabeth S; Smith, Jeffrey P; Gaskill-Shipley, Mary; Lisco, Steven J

    2013-11-01

    Uncertainty exists about a safe dose limit to minimize radiation-induced cancer. Maximum occupational exposure is 20 mSv/y averaged over 5 years with no more than 50 mSv in any single year. Radiation exposure to the general population is less, but the average dose in the United States has doubled in the past 30 years, largely from medical radiation exposure. We hypothesized that patients in a mixed-use surgical ICU (SICU) approach or exceed this limit and that trauma patients were more likely to exceed 50 mSv because of frequent diagnostic imaging. Patients admitted into 15 predesignated SICU beds in a level I trauma center during a 30-day consecutive period were prospectively observed. Effective dose was determined using Huda's method for all radiography, CT imaging, and fluoroscopic examinations. Univariate and multivariable linear regressions were used to analyze the relationships between observed values and outcomes. Five of 74 patients (6.8%) exceeded exposures of 50 mSv. Univariate analysis showed trauma designation, length of stay, number of CT scans, fluoroscopy minutes, and number of general radiographs were all associated with increased doses, leading to exceeding occupational exposure limits. In a multivariable analysis, only the number of CT scans and fluoroscopy minutes remained significantly associated with increased whole-body radiation dose. Radiation levels frequently exceeded occupational exposure standards. CT imaging contributed the most exposure. Health-care providers must practice efficient stewardship of radiologic imaging in all critically ill and injured patients. Diagnostic benefit must always be weighed against the risk of cumulative radiation dose.

  11. The effects of dose rate in total body irradiation of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, H.J.; Bodenberger, U.; Holler, E.; Thierfelder, S.; Eckstein, R.

    1986-01-01

    In summary the studies in dogs show that the dose rate or exposure time has a great impact on survival of acute radiation syndromes. In contrast the inactivation of colony forming hemopoietic precursors is less influenced by the dose rate. The potential of hemopoietic recovery is determined by the survival of hemopoietic precursor cells. Therefore in patients with a suspected whole body exposure of more than 1.50 Gy, bacterial and fungal decontamination and reverse isolation in a sterile environment has to be started immediately. Human patients treated with about 10 Gy of TBI frequently developed nausea, elevated temperatures and swelling of the parotic glands at the first and second day. The extent of these changes varies from patient to patient. The temperature is rarely elevated above 38.5 0 C. The swelling of parotics and the nausea subside within 48 hours. The presence of such systemic symptoms may suggest the exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. The disappearance of immature red cells, i.e. reticulocytes, and bandforms of granulocytes within the first 5 days supports this suggestion. HLA typing of the victim and his family should be performed as soon as possible after the accident. An HLA-identical sibling would be a suitable bone marrow donor. Unlike therapeutic TBI accidental exposures bring about uncertainties in the calculation of dose, dose distribution and dose rate. Early after irradiation biological changes are extremely variable. Both biological and physical data have to be considered, when microbiological decontamination, reverse isolation and transplantation of bone marrow are to be decided upon. Obviously these intensive therapeutic efforts are limited to a small number of victims. (orig.)

  12. Efficacy and optimal dose of daily polyethylene glycol 3350 for treatment of constipation and encopresis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashankar, D S; Bishop, W P

    2001-09-01

    To determine efficacy, safety, and optimal dose of a laxative, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350, in children with chronic constipation. Children with chronic constipation (n = 24) were treated with PEG for 8 weeks at an initial dose of 1 g/kg/d. The dose was adjusted every 3 days as required to achieve 2 soft stools per day. A diary was kept to monitor dose, stool frequency and consistency, soiling, and other symptoms. Stool consistency was rated from 1 (hard) to 5 (watery). Subjects were examined for fecal retention. The Student t test and the Fisher exact test were used for data analysis. All 20 children who completed the study found PEG to be palatable and were satisfied with the treatment. There were no significant adverse effects. Weekly stool frequency increased from 2.3 +/- 0.4 to 16.9 +/- 1.6 (P PEG at a mean dose of 0.8 g/kg is an effective, safe, and palatable treatment for constipation.

  13. Prediction of total dose effects on sub-micron process metal oxide semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, Hiroshi; Kato, Masataka.

    1991-01-01

    A method for correcting leakage currents is described to predict the radiation-induced threshold voltage shift of sub-micron MOSFETs. A practical model for predicting the leakage current generated by irradiation is also given on the basis of experimental results on 0.8-μm process MOSFETs. The constants in the threshold voltage shift model are determined from the 'true' I-V characteristic of the MOSFET, which is obtained by correction of leakage currents due to characteristic change of a parasitic transistor. In this way, the threshold voltage shift of the n-channel MOSFET irradiated at a low dose rate of 2 Gy(Si)/h was also calculated by using data from a high dose rate irradiation experiment (100 Gy(Si)/h, 5 h). The calculated result well represented the tendency of measured data on threshold voltage shift. The radiation-induced leakage current was considered to decay approximately in two exponential modes. The constants in this leakage current model were determined from the above high dose rate experiment. The response of leakage current predicted at a low dose rate of 2 Gy(Si)/h approximately agreed with that measured during and after irradiation. (author)

  14. Total dose effects on elementary transistors of a comparator in bipolar technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrabayrouse, G.; Guerre, F.X.

    1995-01-01

    In the present work we investigate elementary transistors behaviour of an Integrated Circuit using junction isolation bipolar technology. Polarization conditions and dose rate effects on the main elementary transistor types are analysed. Furthermore, the IC electronic function degradations are studied. Finally, a comparison between the function degradations and the elementary component ones is attempted. (author)

  15. Vitamin E can improve behavioral tests impairment, cell loss, and dendrite changes in rats' medial prefrontal cortex induced by acceptable daily dose of aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, Ali; Noorafshan, Ali; Jahangir, Mahboubeh; Hosseini, Leila; Karbalay-Doust, Saied

    2018-01-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetener used in about 6000 sugar-free products. Aspartame consumption could be associated with various neurological disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of aspartame onmedial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) as well as neuroprotective effects of vitamin E. The rats were divided into seven groups, including distilled water, corn oil, vitamin E (100mg/kg/day), and low (acceptable daily dose) and high doses of aspartame (40 and 200mg/kg/day) respectively, with or without vitamin E consumption, for 8 weeks. Behavioral tests were recorded and the brain was prepared for stereological assessments. Novel objects test and eight-arm radial maze showed impairmentoflong- and short-termmemoriesin aspartame groups. Besides, mPFC volume, infralimbic volume, neurons number, glial cells number, dendrites length per neuron,and number of spines per dendrite length were decreased by 7-61% in the rats treated with aspartame. However, neurons' number, glial cells number, and rats' performance in eight-arm radial mazes were improved by concomitant consumption of vitamin E and aspartame. Yet, the mPFC volume and infralimbic cortex were protected only in the rats receiving the low dose of aspartame+vitamin E. On the other hand, dendrites length, spines number,and novel object recognition were not protected by treatment with vitamin E+aspartame. The acceptable daily dose or higher doses of aspartame could induce memory impairments and cortical cells loss in mPFC. However, vitamin E could ameliorate some of these changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. The feasibility of 10 keV X-ray as radiation source in total dose response radiation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ruoyu; Li Bin; Luo Hongwei; Shi Qian

    2005-01-01

    The standard radiation source utilized in traditional total dose response radiation test is 60 Co, which is environment-threatening. X-rays, as a new radiation source, has the advantages such as safety, precise control of dose rate, strong intensity, possibility of wafer-level test or even on-line test, which greatly reduce cost for package, test and transportation. This paper discussed the feasibility of X-rays replacing 60 Co as the radiation source, based on the radiation mechanism and the effects of radiation on gate oxide. (authors)

  17. Total Ionizing Dose Effects on Threshold Switching in 1T-Tantalum Disulfide Charge-Density-Wave Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, G.; Zhang, E. X.; Liang, C. D.; Bloodgood, M. A.; Salguero, T. T.; Fleetwood, D. M.; Balandin, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The 1T polytype of TaS2 exhibits voltage-triggered threshold switching as a result of a phase transition from nearly commensurate to incommensurate charge density wave states. Threshold switching, persistent above room temperature, can be utilized in a variety of electronic devices, e.g., voltage controlled oscillators. We evaluated the total-ionizing-dose response of thin film 1T-TaS2 at doses up to 1 Mrad(SiO2). The threshold voltage changed by less than 2% after irradiation, with persisten...

  18. Single, 14-Day, and 13-Week Repeated Dose Toxicity Studies of Daily Oral Gelidium elegans Extract Administration to Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jia; Ryu, Su-Jung; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kim, Hyung-Min; Chung, Hee-Chul; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2018-01-20

    Gelidium elegans extract (GEE) is derived from a red alga from the Asia-Pacific region, which has antioxidant, anti-adipogenic, and anti-hyperglycemic effects. However, detailed studies of the toxicology of GEE have not been performed. We evaluated the single oral dose toxicity of GEE in male and female Sprague-Dawley (CD) rats. GEE did not cause deaths or have toxic effects at dosages of 5000 mg/kg/day, although compound-colored stools and diarrhea were observed in both sexes, which lasted 5000 mg/kg. We next evaluated the repeated oral dose toxicity of GEE in CD rats over 14 days and 13 weeks. GEE did not induce any significant toxicological changes in either sex at 2000 mg/kg/day. Repeated oral dose toxicity studies showed no adverse effects, in terms of clinical signs, mortality, body mass, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy, organ masses, or histopathology, at dosages of 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for GEE is thus likely to be >2000 mg/kg/day, and no pathology was identified in potential target organs. Therefore, this study indicates that repeated oral dosing with GEE is safe in CD rats.

  19. Single, 14-Day, and 13-Week Repeated Dose Toxicity Studies of Daily Oral Gelidium elegans Extract Administration to Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelidium elegans extract (GEE is derived from a red alga from the Asia–Pacific region, which has antioxidant, anti-adipogenic, and anti-hyperglycemic effects. However, detailed studies of the toxicology of GEE have not been performed. We evaluated the single oral dose toxicity of GEE in male and female Sprague-Dawley (CD rats. GEE did not cause deaths or have toxic effects at dosages of 5000 mg/kg/day, although compound-colored stools and diarrhea were observed in both sexes, which lasted <2 days. Therefore, the LD50 of GEE is likely to be >5000 mg/kg. We next evaluated the repeated oral dose toxicity of GEE in CD rats over 14 days and 13 weeks. GEE did not induce any significant toxicological changes in either sex at 2000 mg/kg/day. Repeated oral dose toxicity studies showed no adverse effects, in terms of clinical signs, mortality, body mass, food consumption, ophthalmic examination, urinalysis, hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy, organ masses, or histopathology, at dosages of 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg/day. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for GEE is thus likely to be >2000 mg/kg/day, and no pathology was identified in potential target organs. Therefore, this study indicates that repeated oral dosing with GEE is safe in CD rats.

  20. SU-F-J-62: Assessment of Dose Changes Due to Anterior-Posterior Patient Separation During Daily MVCT Scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leney, M [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Nalichowski, A; Patel, S [Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To determine the effects of patient separation on absolute dose and dose distribution in patients undergoing pelvic radiotherapy on TomoTherapy. Methods: An Alderson RANDO phantom with 4cm of bolus was imaged on a CT simulator and the resulting scans were contoured as a whole pelvic case. Using TomoTherapy Planning Station, the plan was designed to give 45 Gy to 95% of the treatment volume in 25 fractions. TomoTherapy MVCT scans were performed on the RANDO phantom with 2cm and 4cm of bolus removed to simulate visible changes in a patient’s anatomy. The MVCT images were rigidly registered with planning CT images on TomoTherapy Planned Adaptive. The original fluence was recalculated on the MVCT images and changes in dose distribution due to patient separation were quantified by the changes in DVHs for the target volume and the organs at risk. Results: Patient separation difference equivalent to 2cm and 4cm in anterior-posterior direction resulted in an increase of the PTV D50 and maximum PTV dose of 5.6%, 6.2% for 2cm and 7.7%, 10.4% for 4cm, respectively. For the 2cm change, D50 and maximum doses to organs at risk increased by 6.5%, 7.1% in the bladder, 4.9%, 4.8% in the rectum, and 5.3%, 6.6% in the bowel. For the 4cm change, D50 and maximum doses increased by 10.7%, 12.2% in the bladder, 5.9%, 6.1% in the rectum, and 7.7%, 10.1% in the bowel. Conclusion: This research indicates that, without any changes to the structures, patient separation in the anterior-posterior direction can affect the dose distribution for the PTV and organs at risk. These results can assist physicians in determining if obtaining a new CT simulation set and replanning is necessary for pelvic patients on TomoTherapy.

  1. High total dose proton irradiation effects on silicon NPN rf power transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharathi, M. N.; Praveen, K. C.; Prakash, A. P. Gnana; Pushpa, N.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of 3 MeV proton irradiation on the I-V characteristics of NPN rf power transistors were studied in the dose range of 100 Krad to 100 Mrad. The different electrical characteristics like Gummel, current gain and output characteristics were systematically studied before and after irradiation. The recovery in the I-V characteristics of irradiated NPN BJTs were studied by isochronal and isothermal annealing methods

  2. High total dose proton irradiation effects on silicon NPN rf power transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathi, M. N.; Praveen, K. C.; Prakash, A. P. Gnana, E-mail: gnanaprakash@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore-570006, Karnataka (India); Pushpa, N. [Department of PG Studies in Physics, JSS College, Ooty Road, Mysore-570025, Karnataka (India)

    2014-04-24

    The effects of 3 MeV proton irradiation on the I-V characteristics of NPN rf power transistors were studied in the dose range of 100 Krad to 100 Mrad. The different electrical characteristics like Gummel, current gain and output characteristics were systematically studied before and after irradiation. The recovery in the I-V characteristics of irradiated NPN BJTs were studied by isochronal and isothermal annealing methods.

  3. Impact of total radiotherapy dose on survival for head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma after resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sagar A; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Mak, Kimberley S; Sahni, Debjani; Giacalone, Nicholas J; Ezzat, Waleed; Jalisi, Scharukh; Truong, Minh Tam

    2017-07-01

    Head and neck Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is commonly treated with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for high-risk features. The optimal radiation dose is unknown. One thousand six hundred twenty-five eligible patients with head and neck MCC were identified in the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). Radiation dose was divided into 3 groups: 30 to 55-70 Gy. Cox regression was used to compare overall survival (OS) between groups, accounting for age, sex, stage, surgery type, margin status, comorbidities, and use of chemotherapy. With a median follow-up of 33.5 months, 3-year OS was 48.9%, 70.3%, and 58.7% for 30 to 55-70 Gy, respectively (P 55-70 Gy (adjusted HR 1.21; 95% CI 1.0-1.46; P = .06) were associated with worse survival. Adjuvant radiation doses within 50-55 Gy may be optimal for head and neck MCC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Separation of the Galactic Cosmic Rays and Inner Earth Radiation Belt Contributions to the Daily Dose Onboard the International Space Station in 2005-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishnevskii, A. E.; Benghin, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    The DB-8 detectors of the ISS radiation monitoring system (RMS) have operated almost continuously onboard the ISS service module since August 2001 till December 2014. The RMS data obtained were used for the daily monitoring of the radiation environment aboard the station. This paper considers the technique of RMS data analysis that allows one to distinguish the contributions of galactic cosmic rays and the Earth's inner radiation belt to the daily dose based on the dosimetry data obtained as a result of the station's passage in areas of the highest geomagnetic latitudes. The paper presents the results of an analysis of the dosimetry data based on this technique for 2005-2011, as well as a comparison with similar results the authors obtained previously using the technique based on an analysis of the dosimetry data obtained during station passages in the area of the South Atlantic Anomaly.

  5. Dosimetric comparison of stereotactic body radiotherapy using 4D CT and multiphase CT images for treatment planning of lung cancer: Evaluation of the impact on daily dose coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lu; Hayes, Shelly; Paskalev, Kamen; Jin Lihui; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Ma, Charlie C.-M.; Feigenberg, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric impact of using 4D CT and multiphase (helical) CT images for treatment planning target definition and the daily target coverage in hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of lung cancer. Materials and methods: For 10 consecutive patients treated with SBRT, a set of 4D CT images and three sets of multiphase helical CT scans, taken during free-breathing, end-inspiration and end-expiration breath-hold, were obtained. Three separate planning target volumes (PTVs) were created from these image sets. A PTV 4D was created from the maximum intensity projection (MIP) reconstructed 4D images by adding a 3 mm margin to the internal target volume (ITV). A PTV 3CT was created by generating ITV from gross target volumes (GTVs) contoured from the three multiphase images. Finally, a third conventional PTV (denoted PTV conv ) was created by adding 5 mm in the axial direction and 10 mm in the longitudinal direction to the GTV (in this work, GTV = CTV = clinical target volume) generated from free-breathing helical CT scans. Treatment planning was performed based on PTV 4D (denoted as Plan-1), and the plan was adopted for PTV 3CT and PTV conv to form Plan-2 and Plan-3, respectively, by superimposing 'Plan-1' onto the helical free-breathing CT data set using modified beam apertures that conformed to either PTV 3CT or PTV conv . We first studied the impact of PTV design on treatment planning by evaluating the dosimetry of the three PTVs under the three plans, respectively. Then we examined the effect of the PTV designs on the daily target coverage by utilizing pre-treatment localization CT (CT-on-rails) images for daily GTV contouring and dose recalculation. The changes in the dose parameters of D 95 and D 99 (the dose received by 95% and 99% of the target volume, respectively), and the V p (the volume receiving the prescription dose) of the daily GTVs were compared under the three plans before and after setup error correction

  6. Guideline recommendations for post-acute postoperative physiotherapy in total hip and knee arthroplasty: are they used in daily clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, W F; Nelissen, R G H H; Vlieland, T P M Vliet

    2014-09-01

    In a Dutch guideline on physiotherapy (PT) in hip and knee osteoarthritis, a number of recommendations on post-acute (i.e. after discharge from hospital) PT following total hip (THA) and total knee (TKA) arthroplasty were included. Little is known about the uptake of these recommendations in daily clinical practice. The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which the guideline recommendations regarding post-acute PT after THA and TKA are followed in daily clinical practice. An online pilot survey on the delivery of post-acute, postoperative PT was sent to a random sample of 957 Dutch physiotherapists. The survey included questions on the application of recommended, neither recommended nor advised against, and advised against treatment modalities and various treatment modalities for which there were no formulated recommendations. A total of 219 physiotherapists completed the questionnaire, with a mean age of 40 years (standard deviation 12.6), 55% female and 95% working in primary care. The vast majority reported the use of the recommended exercise modalities (muscle strengthening exercises (96%), and functional exercises (99%). Continuous passive motion, which was neither recommended nor advised against, and electrical muscle stimulation, which was not recommended, were provided by 1%. Reported treatment modalities for which there were no formulated recommendations included patient education (99%), gait training (95%), active range of motion (ROM) exercises (93%), balance exercises (86%), passive ROM exercises (58%), aerobic exercises (50%), massage (18%) and cold therapy (11%). The vast majority of physiotherapists reported adhering to recommendations on post-acute postoperative PT in THA and TKA patients after discharge from hospital. Although yet to be confirmed in a larger nationwide survey, the relatively high frequency of use of many other treatment modalities, for which there were no formulated recommendations, suggests the need to extend

  7. Concentration of total proteins in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs with low dose gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilic, M.; Kraljevic, P.; Miljanic, S.; Simpraga, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that low-dose ionising radiation may have stimulating effects on chickens. Low doses may also cause changes in the concentration of blood plasma total proteins, glucose and cholesterol in chickens. This study investigates the effects of low dose gamma-radiation on the concentration of total proteins in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy on incubation days 7 and 19. Results were compared with the control group (chickens hatched from non-irradiated eggs). After hatching, all other conditions were the same for both groups. Blood samples were drawn from the heart, and later from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7,10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of total proteins was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimised kits. The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 7 showed a statistically significant decrease on the sampling day 3 (P less than 0.05) and 7 (P less than 0.01). The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 19 showed a statistically significant increase only on sampling day 1 (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that exposure of eggs to 0.15 Gy of gamma-radiation on the 7th and 19th day of incubation could produce different effects on the protein metabolism in chickens.(author)

  8. Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Does Not Affect the Quality or Total Ascorbic Acid Concentration of "Sweetheart" Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, John B; Blades, Barbara L; Satyan, Shashirekha; Spohr, Lorraine J; Harris, Anne; Jessup, Andrew J; Archer, John R; Davies, Justin B; Banos, Connie

    2015-08-26

    Passionfruit ( Passiflora edulis , Sims, cultivar "Sweetheart") were subject to gamma irradiation at levels suitable for phytosanitary purposes (0, 150, 400 and 1000 Gy) then stored at 8 °C and assessed for fruit quality and total ascorbic acid concentration after one and fourteen days. Irradiation at any dose (≤1000 Gy) did not affect passionfruit quality (overall fruit quality, colour, firmness, fruit shrivel, stem condition, weight loss, total soluble solids level (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) level, TSS/TA ratio, juice pH and rot development), nor the total ascorbic acid concentration. The length of time in storage affected some fruit quality parameters and total ascorbic acid concentration, with longer storage periods resulting in lower quality fruit and lower total ascorbic acid concentration, irrespective of irradiation. There was no interaction between irradiation treatment and storage time, indicating that irradiation did not influence the effect of storage on passionfruit quality. The results showed that the application of 150, 400 and 1000 Gy gamma irradiation to "Sweetheart" purple passionfruit did not produce any deleterious effects on fruit quality or total ascorbic acid concentration during cold storage, thus supporting the use of low dose irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests in purple passionfruit.

  9. Radiobiological basis of total body irradiation with different dose rate and fractionation: repair capacity of hemopoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, C.W.; Kim, T.H.; Khan, F.M.; Kersey, J.H.; Levitt, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) followed by bone marrow transplantation is being used in the treatment of malignant or non-malignant hemopoietic disorders. It has been believed that the ability of hemopoietic cells to repair sublethal radiation damage is negligible. Therefore, several schools of investigators suggested that TBI in a single exposure at extremely low dose rate (5 rad/min) over several hours, or in several fractions in 2-3 days, should yield a higher therapeutic gain, as compared with a single exposure at a high dose rate (26 rad/min). We reviewed the existing data in the literature, in particular, the response of hemopoietic cells to fractionated doses of irradiation and found that the repair capacity of both malignant and non-malignant hemopoietic cells might be greater than has been thought. It is concluded that we should not underestimate the ability of hemopoietic cells to repair sublethal radiation damage in using TBI

  10. Total and single doses influence the effectiveness of radiotherapy in palliative treatment of plasmacytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoelting, T.; Knauerhase, H.; Klautke, G. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. of Rostock (Germany); Kundt, G. [Inst. for Medical Informatics and Biometry, Univ. of Rostock (Germany); Fietkau, R. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. of Rostock (Germany); Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. of Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    Purpose: in a retrospective analysis of radiotherapy of plasmacytomas, the effectiveness and the prognostic factors in regard to pain reduction and recalcification were evaluated. Patients and methods: 138 patients (70 women, 68 men; 15-86 years, median 61 years) were irradiated at 272 target volumes (TVs) from January 1970 to December 2003. Results: in 192/225 TVs (85.3%), there was a pain reduction. The recalcification rate was 44.7% (51/114 TVs). Significant parameters for pain relief in the multivariate analysis were completeness of therapy (odds ratio [OR] 87.8; p < 0.001 vs. interruption), patients < 60 years (OR 23.0; p < 0.001 vs. {>=} 70 years), and a single dose of 2 Gy (OR 11.0; p = 0.027 vs. 4-15.0 Gy). Significant parameters for recalcification in the multivariate analysis were concurrent chemotherapy (OR 12.3; p < 0.001 vs. no chemotherapy), no fractures in the TV (OR 5.9; p < 0.004 vs. fracture), and a dose of 40-< 50 Gy (OR 21.9; p = 0.035 vs. < 30 Gy) or {>=} 50 Gy (OR 26.4; p = 0.033 vs. < 30 Gy). Conclusion: radiotherapy is a very effective palliative treatment. Patients with a reduced general condition, with multiple bone lesions and a poor prognosis profit from short-term schemes (e.g., 1 x 8 Gy to 10 x 3 Gy). Patients in good general condition with a life expectancy of > 1 year and an osteolysis at risk of fracture, should be treated with doses up to 40-50 Gy (20-25 x 2 Gy), in order to achieve the best possible recalcification and pain relief. (orig.)

  11. What do unsuccessful radiographs contribute to the total radiation dose to a patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.; Nemec, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    Prevention of, or reduction of, unnecessary exposure to radiation is one of the prime goals of radiological protection in diagnostic radiology. The paper explains the advantages of a new approach, namely to achieve optimum focussing and adjustment of radiation sources for difficult imaging tasks by way of the fluoroscopic rather than the collimator method. The patient's exposure during this preliminary examination on the average will amount to 25 p.c. of the doses applied by the subsequent radiograph; on the other hand, this approach will reduce the number of unsuccessful pictures. (orig.) [de

  12. No difference between fixed- and mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty in activities of daily living and pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Joicemar Tarouco; Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Astur, Diego Costa; Debieux, Pedro; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Cohen, Moises

    2017-06-01

    Until now, there are no definitive conclusions regarding functional differences related to middle- and long-term everyday activities and patient pain following implantation of mobile- and fixed-platform tibial prostheses. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are middle-term differences in knee function and pain in patients undergoing fixed- and mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Eligible patients were randomized into two groups: the first group received TKA implantation with a fixed tibial platform (group A); the second group received TKA with a mobile tibial platform (group B). Patients were followed up (2 years), and their symptoms and limitations in daily living activities were evaluated using the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADLS), in addition to pain evaluation assessed using the pain visual analogue scale (VAS). There were no significant differences in function and symptoms in the ADLS and VAS between the study groups. The type of platform used in TKA (fixed vs. mobile) does not change the symptoms, function or pain of patients 2 years post-surgery. Although mobile TKAs may have better short-term results, at medium- and long-term follow-up they do not present important clinical differences compared with fixed-platform TKAs. This information is important so that surgeons can choose the most suitable implant for each patient. Randomized clinical trial, Level I.

  13. Radiation in daily life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Rodriguez, P.

    1999-01-01

    The medical community benefits on a daily basis from the ionizing radiations used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The doses received in the medical field are only a small fraction of the total radiation received in a year. This bibliographic review has several objectives. The first one is to present the different components of natural radiation (background radiation). Secondly, it will introduce many consumer products that contain radioactive sources and expose our bodies. Third, arguments to diminish the radiation phobia will be presented and finally an easy to understand dosimetric magnitude will be introduced for the physician, the technologist and the patient. (author) [es

  14. Allogeneic marrow transplantation following cyclophosphamide and escalating doses of hyperfractionated total body irradiation in patients with advanced lymphoid malignancies: a phase I/II trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirer, Taner; Petersen, Finn B.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Barnett, Todd A.; Sanders, Jean; Deeg, H. Joachim; Storb, Rainer; Doney, Kristine; Bensinger, William I.; Shannon-Dorcy, Kathleen; Buckner, C. Dean

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of unshielded total body irradiation (TBI) delivered from dual 60 C sources at an exposure rate of 0.08 Gy/min and given in thrice daily fractions of 1.2 Gy in patients with advanced lymphoid malignancies. Methods and Materials: Forty-four patients with a median age of 28 (range 6-48) years were entered into a Phase I/II study. All patients received cyclophosphamide (CY), 120 mg/kg administered over 2 days before TBI. Marrow from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical siblings was infused following the last dose of TBI. An escalation-deescalation schema designed to not exceed an incidence of 25% of Grade 3-4 regimen-related toxicities (RRTs) was used. The first dose level tested was 13.2 Gy followed by 14.4 Gy. Results: None of the four patients at the dose level of 13.2 Gy developed Grade 3-4 RRT. Two of the first eight patients receiving 14.4 Gy developed Grade 3-4 RRT, establishing this as the MTD. An additional 32 patients were evaluated at the 14.4 Gy level to confirm these initial observations. Of 40 patients receiving 14.4 Gy, 13 (32.5%) developed Grade 3-4 RRTs; 46% in adults and 12% in children. The primary dose limiting toxicity was Grade 3-4 hepatic toxicity, which occurred in 12.5% of patients. Noninfectious Grade 3-4 interstitial pneumonia syndrome occurred in 5% of patients. The actuarial probabilities of event-free survival, relapse, and nonrelapse mortality at 2 years were 0.10, 0.81, and 0.47, respectively, for patients who received 14.4 Gy of TBI. Conclusions: The outcome for patients receiving 14.4 Gy of TBI was not different from previous studies of other CY and TBI regimens in patients with advanced lymphoid malignancies. These data showed that the incidence of Grade 3-4 RRTs in adults was greater than the 25% maximum set as the goal of this study, suggesting that 13.2 Gy is a more appropriate dose of TBI for adults, while 14.4 Gy is an appropriate dose for children

  15. Total-dose radiation-induced degradation of thin film ferroelectric capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwank, J.R.; Nasby, R.D.; Miller, S.L.; Rodgers, M.S.; Dressendorfer, P.V.

    1990-01-01

    Thin film PbZr y Ti 1-y O 3 (PZT) ferroelectric memories offer the potential for radiation-hardened, high-speed nonvolatile memories with good retention and fatigue properties. In this paper we explore in detail the radiation hardness of PZT ferroelectric capacitors. Ferroelectric capacitors were irradiated using x-ray and Co-60 sources to dose levels up to 16 Mrad(Si). The capacitors were characterized for their memory properties both before and after irradiation. The radiation hardness was process dependent. Three out of four processes resulted in capacitors that showed less than 30% radiation-induced degradation in retained polarization charge and remanent polarization after irradiating to 16 Mrad(Si). On the other hand, one of the processes showed significant radiation-induced degradation in retained polarization charge and remanent polarization at dose levels above 1 Mrad(Si). The decrease in retained polarization charge appears to be due to an alteration of the switching characteristics of the ferroelectric due to changes in the internal fields. The radiation-induced degradation is recoverable by a postirradiation biased anneal and can be prevented entirely if devices are cycled during irradiation. The authors have developed a model to simulate the observed degradation

  16. Preliminary Radiation Analysis of the Total Ionizing Dose for the Resource Prospector Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Tylka, Allan J.; Atwell, William

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Resource Prospector (RP) is a collaborative project between multiple centers and institutions to search for volatiles at the polar regions of the Moon as a potential resource for oxygen and propellant production. The mission is rated Class D and will be the first In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) demonstration on the lunar surface and at the lunar poles. Given that this mission is rated Class D, the project is considering using commercial off the shelf (COTS) electronics parts to reduce cost. However, COTS parts can be more susceptible to space radiation than typical aerospace electronic parts and carry some additional risk. Thus, prior to parts selection, having a better understanding of the radiation environment can assist designers in the parts selection process. The focus of this paper is to provide a preliminary analysis of the radiation environment from launch, through landing on the surface, and some surface stay as an initial step in determining worst case mission doses to assist designers in screening out electronic parts that would not meet the potential dose levels experienced on this mission.

  17. SU-F-J-203: Retrospective Assessment of Delivered Proton Dose in Prostate Cancer Patients Based On Daily In-Room CT Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuetzer, K; Paessler, T [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Valentini, C; Thiele, J; Hoelscher, T [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Techenische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Exner, F [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); now with: University of Wuerzburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Krause, M; Richter, C [OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Techenische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiooncology, Dresden (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Dresden, Germany and German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Retrospective calculation of the delivered proton dose in prostate cancer patients based on a unique dataset of daily CT images. Methods: Inter-fractional motion in prostate cancer patients treated at our proton facility is counteracted by water-filled endorectal ballon and bladder filling protocol. Typical plans (XiO, Elekta Instruments AB, Stockholm) for 74 Gy(RBE) sequential boost treatment in 37 fractions include two series of opposing lateral double-scattered proton beams covering the respective iCTV. Stability of fiducial markers and anatomy were checked in 12 patients by daily scheduled in-room control CT (cCT) after immobilization and positioning according to bony anatomy utilizing orthogonal X-ray. In RayStation 4.6 (RaySearch Laboritories AB, Stockholm), all cCTs are delineated retrospectively and the treatment plans were recalculated on the planning CT and the registered cCTs. All fraction doses were accumulated on the planning CT after deformable registration. Parameters of delivered dose to iCTV (D98%>95%, D2%<107%), bladder (V75Gy<15%, V70Gy<25%, V65Gy<30%), rectum (V70Gy<10%, V50Gy<40%) and femoral heads (V50Gy<5%) are compared to those in the treatment plan. Intra-therapy variation is represented in DVH bands. Results: No alarming differences were observed between planned and retrospectively accumulated dose: iCTV constraints were met, except for one patient (D98%=94.6% in non-boosted iCTV). Considered bladder and femoral head values were below the limits. Rectum V70Gy was slightly exceeded (<11.3%) in two patients. First intra-therapy variability analysis in 4 patients showed no timedependent parameter drift, revealed strongest variability for bladder dose. In some fractions, iCTV coverage (D98%) and rectum V70Gy was missed. Conclusion: Double scattered proton plans are accurately delivered to prostate cancer patients due to fractionation effects and the applied precise positioning and immobilization protocols. As a result of rare

  18. Low-dose 4D cone-beam CT via joint spatiotemporal regularization of tensor framelet and nonlocal total variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hao; Gao, Hao; Xing, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Excessive radiation exposure is still a major concern in 4D cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) due to its prolonged scanning duration. Radiation dose can be effectively reduced by either under-sampling the x-ray projections or reducing the x-ray flux. However, 4D-CBCT reconstruction under such low-dose protocols is prone to image artifacts and noise. In this work, we propose a novel joint regularization-based iterative reconstruction method for low-dose 4D-CBCT. To tackle the under-sampling problem, we employ spatiotemporal tensor framelet (STF) regularization to take advantage of the spatiotemporal coherence of the patient anatomy in 4D images. To simultaneously suppress the image noise caused by photon starvation, we also incorporate spatiotemporal nonlocal total variation (SNTV) regularization to make use of the nonlocal self-recursiveness of anatomical structures in the spatial and temporal domains. Under the joint STF-SNTV regularization, the proposed iterative reconstruction approach is evaluated first using two digital phantoms and then using physical experiment data in the low-dose context of both under-sampled and noisy projections. Compared with existing approaches via either STF or SNTV regularization alone, the presented hybrid approach achieves improved image quality, and is particularly effective for the reconstruction of low-dose 4D-CBCT data that are not only sparse but noisy.

  19. Effects on Ferroelectric Thin-Film Stacks and Devices for Piezoelectric MEMS Applications at Varied Total Ionizing Dose (TID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    non -linearly mobile internal interfaces, e.g. domain walls and eventual phase boundaries. Radiation exposure is expected...zirconate titanate; PZT; actuator; radiation ; gamma; total ionization dose; TID; top electrode; Pt; IrO2; polarization; PE; hysteresis; permittivity...Hayashigawa, et. al., “A 2 Mbit Radiation Hardened Stackable Ferroelectric Memory” Non - Volatile Memory Technology Symposium, NVMTS 07, Nov 10-13, 2007 Albuquerque, NM, USA

  20. Daily Dose effect of Valerian root extract on some Neurotransmitter contents in different Brain areas of male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggas, Abeer M

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the daily effect of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L .) root extract on epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) , and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in different brain areas (cerebellum , pons plus medulla oblongata , striatum , cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rats .The daily intraperitoneal ( i.p.) injection of 300 mg/kg body wt valerian for 30 days caused a significant increase in epinephrine ( E ) content in pons plus medulla oblongata, cerebral cortex , hypothalamus and in midbrain . Norepinephrine (NE ) content was significantly increased in all brain areas tested except in cerebellum and cerebral cortex . Dopamine (DA) content was significantly increased in all tested brain areas except in cerebral cortex and hippocampus . moreover , there was also a significant increase in serotonin (5-HT ) and 5-hydroxyindol acetic acid (5-HIAA) contents in all tested brain areas . However, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content was significantly decreased in all tested brain areas . After the extract withdrawal, the increase in ( E, NE, DA , 5-HT ) contents and the decrease in GABA content persisted in pons plus medulla oblongata , striatum , midbrain and hippocampus , and this might be due to regional differences toward the effect. The increase in E, NE, DA , 5-HT and 5-HIAA contents, at the same time the decrease in GABA content in the different brain areas of albino rats may be due to the presence of both valepotriates and valerenic acid in the extract which mediated the GABA ergic mechanisms including the inhibition of GABA metabolism and the increase in GABA synthesis and release , although agonized the GABAA receptors which led to the inhibit of the neurotransmitter release. Valerian root extract may be useful as a herbal medicine having sedative effect and it is safe. (author)

  1. radioactivity analysis in food-stuffs and evaluation of annual effective doses from intakes of radionuclides through daily diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.N.; Chowdhury, M. I.; Kamal, M.; Ghose, S.; Islam, M. N.; Mustafa, M. N.; Islam, Al Amin S.

    1996-01-01

    The concentrations of natural and anthropogenic gamma emitting radionuclides in different vegetables, grains,fishes, sugar and common salt samples were measured by using high purity germanium ( HPGe ) detector coupled with Personal Computer Analyzer ( PCA ) and thereby the effective doses from the consumption of these diet were evaluated. The activities of 232 Th in vegetable, grains, salt, sugar and fish samples ranged from 0.13±0.02 to 1.49±0.32 Bq. kg -1 . The concentration of 238 U in these food-stuffs ranged from 0.07±0.01 to 0.95±0.26 Bq Kg -1 . The observed activity of 40 K ranged between 5.04±1.05 and 196.60±41.0 Bq Kg -1 . Caesium was not detected in any of the samples, Assessment of annual intake of these radionuclides has been made on the basis of the average annual intake of these food-stuffs by the population of Bangladesh.The annual effective dose equivalent due to ingestion of different naturally occurring radionuclides ( 232 Th, 238 U, and 40 K) by intake food-stuffs ranged from 0.2 to 113.62 μ Sv. y'-1. The annual effective doses observed in the present study for various types of food-stuffs were less than the ICRP-60 (1990) recommendation, which is 1 m Sv. y -1 for the members of the public. The result and knowledge of this study, would be helpful in making a yardstick comparing with which an appropriate radiation control limit may be imposed on food materials for public consumption in Bangladesh. 1 fig., 2 tables, 13 refs. (Author)

  2. Total and single doses influence the effectiveness of radiotherapy in palliative treatment of plasmacytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoelting, T.; Knauerhase, H.; Klautke, G.; Kundt, G.; Fietkau, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: in a retrospective analysis of radiotherapy of plasmacytomas, the effectiveness and the prognostic factors in regard to pain reduction and recalcification were evaluated. Patients and methods: 138 patients (70 women, 68 men; 15-86 years, median 61 years) were irradiated at 272 target volumes (TVs) from January 1970 to December 2003. Results: in 192/225 TVs (85.3%), there was a pain reduction. The recalcification rate was 44.7% (51/114 TVs). Significant parameters for pain relief in the multivariate analysis were completeness of therapy (odds ratio [OR] 87.8; p 1 year and an osteolysis at risk of fracture, should be treated with doses up to 40-50 Gy (20-25 x 2 Gy), in order to achieve the best possible recalcification and pain relief. (orig.)

  3. Models for Total-Dose Radiation Effects in Non-Volatile Memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Philip Montgomery; Wix, Steven D.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this work is to develop models to predict radiation effects in non- volatile memory: flash memory and ferroelectric RAM. In flash memory experiments have found that the internal high-voltage generators (charge pumps) are the most sensitive to radiation damage. Models are presented for radiation effects in charge pumps that demonstrate the experimental results. Floating gate models are developed for the memory cell in two types of flash memory devices by Intel and Samsung. These models utilize Fowler-Nordheim tunneling and hot electron injection to charge and erase the floating gate. Erase times are calculated from the models and compared with experimental results for different radiation doses. FRAM is less sensitive to radiation than flash memory, but measurements show that above 100 Krad FRAM suffers from a large increase in leakage current. A model for this effect is developed which compares closely with the measurements.

  4. Twelve-hour brain lithium concentration in lithium maintenance treatment of manic-depressive disorder: daily versus alternate-day dosing schedule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H.V.; Plenge, P; Stensgaard, A

    1996-01-01

    The 12-h brain lithium concentration was measured by lithium-7 magnetic resonance spectroscopy in ten manic-depressive patients receiving daily or alternate-day lithium carbonate treatment. The median dose of lithium carbonate was 800 mg in the daily treatment group and 1200 mg in the alternate......-day group. Median 12-h serum lithium concentration in the two groups was 0.86 mmol l-1 and 0.55 mmol l-1, respectively, while the corresponding concentration in brain was 0.67 mmol l-1 and 0.52 mmol l-1, respectively. The 12-h brain lithium concentration was independent of lithium dosing schedule (multiple...... linear regression), but correlated significantly with the 12-h serum lithium concentration (P = 0.003; B = 0.53, 95% c.l. 0.24-0.82; beta = 0.83). Thus at identical 12-h serum lithium concentrations the 12-h brain lithium concentration is similar with both treatment regimes. As the risk of manic...

  5. Estimation of total as well as bioaccessible levels and average daily dietary intake of iodine from Japanese edible seaweeds by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Chatt, A.

    2012-01-01

    An epi-thermal instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA) method in conjunction with Compton suppression spectrometry (EINAA-CSS) was used for the determination of total iodine in eight different species of edible seaweeds from Japan. This method gave an absolute detection limit of about 2 μg. The accuracy of the method was evaluated using various reference materials and found to be generally in agreement within ±6% of the certified values. The longitudinal distributions of iodine at different growing stages in Japanese sea mustard and tangle seaweeds were investigated. For a 150-cm-high tangle, the highest concentration (5,360 mg/kg) of iodine was found at the root, then decreased slowly to 780 mg/kg in the middle portion (60-75 cm), and increased to 2,300 mg/kg at the apex. On the other hand, for a 190-cm-high sea mustard the highest levels of iodine were found both at the roots (164 mg/kg) and apex (152 mg/kg) with lower values (98 mg/kg) in the middle section. In order to estimate the bioaccessible fraction of iodine, seaweeds were digested by an in vitro enzymolysis method, dietary fibre separated from residue, and both fractions analyzed by EINAA-CSS. The average daily dietary intakes of total (0.14 mg) as well as bioaccessible fraction (0.12 mg) of iodine from the consumption of sea mustards were estimated. (author)

  6. Effect of radiation dose rate and cyclophosphamide on pulmonary toxicity after total body irradiation in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safwat, Akmal; Nielsen, Ole S.; El-Badawy, Samy; Overgaard, Jens

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Interstitial pneumonitis (IP) is still a major complication after total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT). It is difficult to determine the exact role of radiation in this multifactorial complication, especially because most of the experimental work on lung damage was done using localized lung irradiation and not TBI. We have thus tested the effect of radiation dose rate and combining cyclophosphamide (CTX) with single fraction TBI on lung damage in a mouse model for BMT. Methods and Materials: TBI was given as a single fraction at a high dose rate (HDR, 0.71 Gy/min) or a low dose rate (LDR, 0.08 Gy/min). CTX (250 mg/kg) was given 24 h before TBI. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) was performed 4-6 h after the last treatment. Lung damage was assessed using ventilation rate (VR) and lethality between 28 and 180 days (LD (50(28))-180 ). Results: The LD 50 for lung damage, ± standard error (SE), increased from 12.0 (± 0.2) Gy using single fraction HDR to 15.8 (± 0.6) Gy using LDR. Adding CTX shifted the dose-response curves towards lower doses. The LD 50 values for the combined treatment were 5.3 (± 0.2) and 3.5 (± 0.2) Gy for HDR and LDR, respectively. This indicates that the combined effect of CTX and LDR was more toxic than that of combined CTX and HDR. Lung damage evaluated by VR demonstrated two waves of VR increase. The first wave of VR increase occurred after 6 weeks using TBI only and after 3 weeks in the combined CTX-TBI treatment, irrespective of total dose or dose rate. The second wave of VR elevation resembled the IP that follows localized thoracic irradiation in its time of occurrence. Conclusions: Lung damage following TBI could be spared using LDR. However, CTX markedly enhances TBI-induced lung damage. The combination of CTX and LDR is more toxic to the lungs than combining CTX and HDR

  7. Low-dose dual-energy cone-beam CT using a total-variation minimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jong Hwan

    2011-02-01

    Dual-energy cone-beam CT is an important imaging modality in diagnostic applications, and may also find its use in other application such as therapeutic image guidance. Despite of its clinical values, relatively high radiation dose of dual-energy scan may pose a challenge to its wide use. In this work, we investigated a low-dose, pre-reconstruction type of dual-energy cone-beam CT (CBCT) using a total-variation minimization algorithm for image reconstruction. An empirical dual-energy calibration method was used to prepare material-specific projection data. Raw data at high and low tube voltages are converted into a set of basis functions which can be linearly combined to produce material-specific data using the coefficients obtained through the calibration process. From much fewer views than are conventionally used, material specific images are reconstructed by use of the total-variation minimization algorithm. An experimental study was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method using a micro-CT system. We have reconstructed images of the phantoms from only 90 projections acquired at tube voltages of 40 kVp and 90 kVp each. Aluminum-only and acryl-only images were successfully decomposed. We evaluated the quality of the reconstructed images by use of contrast-to-noise ratio and detectability. A low-dose dual-energy CBCT can be realized via the proposed method by greatly reducing the number of projections

  8. Compendium of Single Event Effects, Total Ionizing Dose, and Displacement Damage for Candidate Spacecraft Electronics for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; OBryan, Martha V.; Chen, Dakai; Campola, Michael J.; Casey, Megan C.; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Wilcox, Edward P.; Topper, Alyson D.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present results and analysis investigating the effects of radiation on a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to proton and heavy ion induced single event effects (SEE), proton-induced displacement damage (DD), and total ionizing dose (TID). Introduction: This paper is a summary of test results.NASA spacecraft are subjected to a harsh space environment that includes exposure to various types of ionizing radiation. The performance of electronic devices in a space radiation environment is often limited by its susceptibility to single event effects (SEE), total ionizing dose (TID), and displacement damage (DD). Ground-based testing is used to evaluate candidate spacecraft electronics to determine risk to spaceflight applications. Interpreting the results of radiation testing of complex devices is quite difficult. Given the rapidly changing nature of technology, radiation test data are most often application-specific and adequate understanding of the test conditions is critical. Studies discussed herein were undertaken to establish the application-specific sensitivities of candidate spacecraft and emerging electronic devices to single-event upset (SEU), single-event latchup (SEL), single-event gate rupture (SEGR), single-event burnout (SEB), single-event transient (SET), TID, enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS), and DD effects.

  9. Dose-effect relationship for cataract induction after single-dose total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempen-Harteveld, M. Loes van; Belkacemi, Yazid; Kal, Henk B.; Labopin, Myriam; Frassoni, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine a dose-effect relationship for cataract induction, the tissue-specific parameter, α/β, and the rate of repair of sublethal damage, μ value, in the linear-quadratic formula have to be known. To obtain these parameters for the human eye lens, a large series of patients treated with different doses and dose rates is required. The data of patients with acute leukemia treated with single-dose total body irradiation (STBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) collected by the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation were analyzed. Methods and Materials: The data of 495 patients who underwent BMT for acute leukemia, who had STBI as part of their conditioning regimen, were analyzed using the linear-quadratic concept. The end point was the incidence of cataract formation after BMT. Of the analyzed patients, 175 were registered as having cataracts. Biologic effective doses (BEDs) for different sets of values for α/β and μ were calculated for each patient. With Cox regression analysis, using the overall chi-square test as the parameter evaluating the goodness of fit, α/β and μ values were found. Risk factors for cataract induction were the BED of the applied TBI regimen, allogeneic BMT, steroid therapy for >14 weeks, and heparin administration. To avoid the influence of steroid therapy and heparin on cataract induction, patients who received steroid or heparin treatment were excluded, leaving only the BED as a risk factor. Next, the most likely set of α/β and μ values was obtained. With this set, the cataract-free survival rates were calculated for specific BED intervals, according to the Kaplan-Meier method. From these calculations, cataract incidences were obtained as function of the BED at 120 months after STBI. Results: The use of BED instead of the TBI dose enabled the incidence of cataract formation to be predicted in a reasonably consistent way. With Cox regression analysis for all STBI data, a maximal chi-square value was

  10. Pre-Altitude Serum Ferritin Levels and Daily Oral Iron Supplement Dose Mediate Iron Parameter and Hemoglobin Mass Responses to Altitude Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Govus

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of daily oral iron supplementation on changes in hemoglobin mass (Hbmass and iron parameters after 2-4 weeks of moderate altitude exposure.Hematological data collected from 178 athletes (98 males, 80 females exposed to moderate altitude (1,350-3,000 m were analysed using linear regression to determine how altitude exposure combined with oral iron supplementation influenced Hbmass, total iron incorporation (TII and blood iron parameters [ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT].Altitude exposure (mean ± s: 21 ± 3 days increased Hbmass by 1.1% [-0.4, 2.6], 3.3% [1.7, 4.8], and 4.0% [2.0, 6.1] from pre-altitude levels in athletes who ingested nil, 105 mg and 210 mg respectively, of oral iron supplement daily. Serum ferritin levels decreased by -33.2% [-46.9, -15.9] and 13.8% [-32.2, 9.7] from pre-altitude levels in athletes who supplemented with nil and 105 mg of oral iron supplement daily, but increased by 36.8% [1.3, 84.8] in athletes supplemented with 210 mg of oral iron daily. Finally, athletes who ingested either 105 mg or 210 mg of oral iron supplement daily had a greater TII compared with non-supplemented athletes (0 versus 105 mg: effect size (d = -1.88 [-2.56, -1.17]; 0 versus 210 mg: effect size (d = -2.87 [-3.88, -1.66].Oral iron supplementation during 2-4 weeks of moderate altitude exposure may enhance Hbmass production and assist the maintenance of iron balance in some athletes with low pre-altitude iron stores.

  11. Long-term evacuation after the nuclear accident in Fukushima. Different daily living under low-dose radioactive suffering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Kazunobu

    2013-01-01

    One year has passed since the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant accident. Even currently, more than 150,000 evacuees in Fukushima Prefecture are forced to leave their home and to move throughout Japan. Because of the limited space of temporary housing and the weakening of personal ties in local communities, many families need to move and have separate lives. As a consequence, Fukushima has a serious shortage of caregivers for the elderly. There have been more than 1,300 disaster-related deaths due to shock and stress after long-distance drifts from town to town. Most of the victims were the elderly, who collapsed, caught pneumonia, suffered stroke and heart attack. Concerns about the safety of low-dose radiation exposure deprived the elderly of important contact with playing outside with their grandchildren in Fukushima. Fear of invisible radioactive contamination inactivated outdoor activities such as farming, dairy, fishing, gardening, hiking and wild-vegetable/mushroom hunting, although most of these activities have been traditionally supported by the wisdom of the elderly. Several recent questionnaire investigations revealed that older evacuees wish to go home even if the environment has significant contamination. In contrast, more than half of younger generation with small children have a different attitude. Nuclear accident brought serious social pains although it did not acutely hurt our bodies. (author)

  12. Single dose total lymphoid irradiation combined with cyclophosphamide as immunosuppression for human marrow transplantation in aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.H.; Kersey, J.H.; Khan, F.M.; Sewchand, W.; Ramsey, N.; Krivit, W.; Coccia, P.; Nesbit, M.E.; Levitt, S.H.

    1979-01-01

    Six patients with aplastic anemia underwent bone marrow transplantation following conditioning with high dose cyclophosphamide and single dose total lymphoid irradiation with 750 rad, 26 rad/min at the midplane of the patient. They all received bone marrow from human leukocyte antigens/mixed lymphocyte culture (HLA/MLC) matched siblings. Five of 6 patients were alive without complications at 12, 11, 7, 4 and 4 months respectively. The remaining patient died from sepis which he had prior to transplantation. There were no graft rejection, graft-vs-Host Disease (GVHD) or interstitial pneumonitis among these patients. The procedure was well tolerated with minimal side effects. The results will be compared with those of groups whose bone marrow was previously transplanted with different immunosuppressive methods

  13. Measurements of Daily Energy Intake and Total Energy Expenditure in People with Dementia in Care Homes: The Use of Wearable Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J; Holmes, J; Brooks, C

    2017-01-01

    To estimate daily total energy expenditure (TEE) using a physical activity monitor, combined with dietary assessment of energy intake to assess the relationship between daily energy expenditure and patterns of activity with energy intake in people with dementia living in care homes. A cross-sectional study in care homes in the UK. Twenty residents with confirmed dementia diagnosis were recruited from two care homes that specialised in dementia care. A physical activity monitor (SensewearTM Armband, Body Media, Pittsburgh, PA) was employed to objectively determine total energy expenditure, sleep duration and physical activity. The armband was placed around the left upper triceps for up to 7 days. Energy intake was determined by weighing all food and drink items over 4 days (3 weekdays and 1 weekend day) including measurements of food wastage. The mean age was 78.7 (SD ± 11.8) years, Body Mass Index (BMI) 23.0 (SD ± 4.2) kg/m2; 50% were women. Energy intake (mean 7.4; SD ± 2.6) MJ/d) was correlated with TEE (mean 7.6; SD ± 1.8 MJ/d; r=0.49, p<0.05). Duration of sleeping ranged from 0.4-12.5 (mean 6.1) hrs/d and time spent lying down was 1.3-16.0 (8.3) hrs/d. On average residents spent 17.9 (6.3-23.4) hrs/d undertaking sedentary activity. TEE was correlated with BMI (r=0.52, p<0.05) and body weight (r=0.81, p<0.001) but inversely related to sleep duration (r=-0.59, p<0.01) and time lying down (r=-0.62, p<0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that after taking BMI, sleep duration and time spent lying down into account, TEE was no longer correlated with energy intake. The results show the extent to which body mass, variable activity and sleep patterns may be contributing to TEE and together with reduced energy intake, energy requirements were not satisfied. Thus wearable technology has the potential to offer real-time monitoring to provide appropriate nutrition management that is more person-centred to prevent weight loss in dementia.

  14. Comparison of the Effects of Daily Single-Dose Use of Flurbiprofen, Diclofenac Sodium, and Tenoxicam on Postoperative Pain, Swelling, and Trismus: A Randomized Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Volkan; Eroğlu, Cennet Neslihan

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of daily single-dose use of flurbiprofen, diclofenac sodium, and tenoxicam on pain, swelling, and trismus that occur after surgical extraction of impacted wisdom teeth using local anesthesia. The present study included 3 groups with 30 patients in each group. Those volunteering to participate in this double-blind randomized study (n = 90) were selected from a patient population with an indication for extraction of impacted wisdom teeth. Group 1 patients received 200 mg flurbiprofen, group 2 patients received 100 mg diclofenac sodium, and group 3 patients received 20 mg tenoxicam. All doses were once a day, starting preoperatively. Pain was evaluated postoperatively at 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, and 24 hours and at 2 and 7 days using a visual analog scale (VAS). For comparison with the preoperative measurements, the patients were invited to postoperative follow-up visits 2 and 7 days after extraction to evaluate for swelling and trismus. The statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics in SAS, version 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC), software. Statistical analysis of the pain, swelling, and trismus data was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn, and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U tests. The statistical level of significance was accepted at P = .05 and power of 0.80. Clinically, tenoxicam showed better analgesic and anti-inflammatory efficacy compared with diclofenac sodium and, in particular, flurbiprofen. Although the VAS scores in the evaluation of pain showed statistically significant differences at 2 days, no statistically significant difference was found for swelling and trismus. Our study evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects with a daily single dose of flurbiprofen, diclofenac sodium, and tenoxicam. Daily 20 mg tenoxicam can be accepted as an adequate and safe option for patients after a surgical procedure. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial

  15. Enrichment increases hippocampal neurogenesis independent of blood monocyte-derived microglia presence following high-dose total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenberg, Marc J; Wells, Julia; Bartlett, Perry F; Harvey, Alan R; Vukovic, Jana

    2017-06-01

    Birth of new neurons in the hippocampus persists in the brain of adult mammals and critically underpins optimal learning and memory. The process of adult neurogenesis is significantly reduced following brain irradiation and this correlates with impaired cognitive function. In this study, we aimed to compare the long-term effects of two environmental paradigms (i.e. enriched environment and exercise) on adult neurogenesis following high-dose (10Gy) total body irradiation. When housed in standard (sedentary) conditions, irradiated mice revealed a long-lasting (up to 4 months) deficit in neurogenesis in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, the region that harbors the neurogenic niche. This depressive effect of total body irradiation on adult neurogenesis was partially alleviated by exposure to enriched environment but not voluntary exercise, where mice were single-housed with unlimited access to a running wheel. Exposure to voluntary exercise, but not enriched environment, did lead to significant increases in microglia density in the granule cell layer of the hippocampus; our study shows that these changes result from local microglia proliferation rather than recruitment and infiltration of circulating Cx 3 cr1 +/gfp blood monocytes that subsequently differentiate into microglia-like cells. In summary, latent neural precursor cells remain present in the neurogenic niche of the adult hippocampus up to 8 weeks following high-dose total body irradiation. Environmental enrichment can partially restore the adult neurogenic process in this part of the brain following high-dose irradiation, and this was found to be independent of blood monocyte-derived microglia presence. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulation and measurement of total ionizing dose radiation induced image lag increase in pinned photodiode CMOS image sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan (China); State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an (China); Chen, Wei, E-mail: chenwei@nint.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an (China); Wang, Zujun, E-mail: wangzujun@nint.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an (China); Xue, Yuanyuan; Yao, Zhibin; He, Baoping; Ma, Wuying; Jin, Junshan; Sheng, Jiangkun; Dong, Guantao [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an (China)

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents an investigation of total ionizing dose (TID) induced image lag sources in pinned photodiodes (PPD) CMOS image sensors based on radiation experiments and TCAD simulation. The radiation experiments have been carried out at the Cobalt −60 gamma-ray source. The experimental results show the image lag degradation is more and more serious with increasing TID. Combining with the TCAD simulation results, we can confirm that the junction of PPD and transfer gate (TG) is an important region forming image lag during irradiation. These simulations demonstrate that TID can generate a potential pocket leading to incomplete transfer.

  17. Effect of high-dose preoperative methylprednisolone on pain and recovery after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunn, Troels; Kristensen, Billy Bjarne; Andersen, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with severe pain and inflammation despite an extensive multimodal analgesic approach, but the effect of high-dose glucocorticoid administration has not been studied.......Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with severe pain and inflammation despite an extensive multimodal analgesic approach, but the effect of high-dose glucocorticoid administration has not been studied....

  18. Compendium of Current Total Ionizing Dose and Displacement Damage Results from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, Alyson D.; Campola, Michael J.; Chen, Dakai; Casey, Megan C.; Yau, Ka-Yen; Cochran, Donna J.; Label, Kenneth A.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; Mondy, Timothy K.; O'Bryan, Martha V.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Total ionizing dose and displacement damage testing was performed to characterize and determine the suitability of candidate electronics for NASA space utilization. Devices tested include optoelectronics, digital, analog, linear bipolar devices, and hybrid devices. Displacement Damage, Optoelectronics, Proton Damage, Single Event Effects, and Total Ionizing Dose.

  19. Effect of total mixed ration composition and daily grazing pattern on milk production, composition and fatty acids profile of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Martha; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; González, Amelia; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M; Argamentería, Alejandro; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña; Vicente, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    The possibilities of using high quality pastures in conjunction with total mixed ration (TMR) during the grazing season have been examined. An experiment with sixteen Holstein cows blocked and randomly assigned to four treatments in a factorial arrangement was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of grazing time of day (day or night) and type of silage (maize or Italian ryegrass) included in the TMR of dairy cows grazing 12 h daily on milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile. The silage type had no effect on the dry matter intake, milk yield and fat and protein proportions. However, cows grazing during the night ate more grass than cows grazing during the day (8·53 vs. 5·65 kg DM/d; Pdairy cows grazing at night-time than grazing at day-time, especially 18:2n-6 (2·37 vs. 2·12 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05) and 18:2cis9trans11 (2·08 vs. 1·74 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05).

  20. A field studies and modeling approach to develop organochlorine pesticide and PCB total maximum daily load calculations: Case study for Echo Park Lake, Los Angeles, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, V.R., E-mail: vrvasquez@ucla.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Curren, J., E-mail: janecurren@yahoo.com [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Lau, S.-L., E-mail: simlin@ucla.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Stenstrom, M.K., E-mail: stenstro@seas.ucla.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Suffet, I.H., E-mail: msuffet@ucla.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Echo Park Lake is a small lake in Los Angeles, CA listed on the USA Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list of impaired water bodies for elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissue. A lake water and sediment sampling program was completed to support the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDL) to address the lake impairment. The field data indicated quantifiable levels of OCPs and PCBs in the sediments, but lake water data were all below detection levels. The field sediment data obtained may explain the contaminant levels in fish tissue using appropriate sediment-water partitioning coefficients and bioaccumulation factors. A partition-equilibrium fugacity model of the whole lake system was used to interpret the field data and indicated that half of the total mass of the pollutants in the system are in the sediments and the other half is in soil; therefore, soil erosion could be a significant pollutant transport mode into the lake. Modeling also indicated that developing and quantifying the TMDL depends significantly on the analytical detection level for the pollutants in field samples and on the choice of octanol-water partitioning coefficient and bioaccumulation factors for the model. - Research highlights: {yields} Fugacity model using new OCP and PCB field data supports lake TMDL calculations. {yields} OCP and PCB levels in lake sediment were found above levels for impairment. {yields} Relationship between sediment data and available fish tissue data evaluated. {yields} Model provides approximation of contaminant sources and sinks for a lake system. {yields} Model results were sensitive to analytical detection and quantification levels.

  1. New England SPARROW Water-Quality Modeling to Assist with the Development of Total Maximum Daily Loads in the Connecticut River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. B.; Robinson, K. W.; Simcox, A. C.; Johnston, C. M.

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission (NEWIPCC), is currently preparing a water-quality model, called SPARROW, to assist in the regional total maximum daily load (TMDL) studies in New England. A model is required to provide estimates of nutrient loads and confidence intervals at unmonitored stream reaches. SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes) is a spatially detailed, statistical model that uses regression equations to relate total phosphorus and nitrogen (nutrient) stream loads to pollution sources and watershed characteristics. These statistical relations are then used to predict nutrient loads in unmonitored streams. The New England SPARROW model is based on a hydrologic network of 42,000 stream reaches and associated watersheds. Point source data are derived from USEPA's Permit Compliance System (PCS). Information about nonpoint sources is derived from data such as fertilizer use, livestock wastes, and atmospheric deposition. Watershed characteristics include land use, streamflow, time-of-travel, stream density, percent wetlands, slope of the land surface, and soil permeability. Preliminary SPARROW results are expected in Spring 2002. The New England SPARROW model is proposed for use in the TMDL determination for nutrients in the Connecticut River Basin, upstream of Connecticut. The model will be used to estimate nitrogen loads from each of the upstream states to Long Island Sound. It will provide estimates and confidence intervals of phosphorus and nitrogen loads, area-weighted yields of nutrients by watershed, sources of nutrients, and the downstream movement of nutrients. This information will be used to (1) understand ranges in nutrient levels in surface waters, (2) identify the environmental factors that affect nutrient levels in streams, (3) evaluate monitoring efforts for better determination of

  2. Ionizing Radiation Effects on the Noise of 65 nm CMOS Transistors for Pixel Sensor Readout at Extreme Total Dose Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Re, V.; Manghisoni, M.; Riceputi, E.; Traversi, G.; Ratti, L.

    2018-01-01

    This paper is focused on the study of the noise performance of 65 nm CMOS transistors at extremely high total ionizing dose (TID) levels of the order of several hundreds of Mrad(SiO2). Noise measurements are reported and discussed, analyzing radiation effects on 1/ f noise and channel thermal noise. In nMOSFETs, up to 10 Mrad(SiO2), the experimental behavior is consistent with a damage mechanism mainly associ- ated with lateral isolation oxides, and can be modeled by parasitic transistors turning on after irradiation and contributing to the total noise of the device. At very high dose, these parasitic transistors tend to be turned off by negative charge accumulating in interface states and compensating radiation-induced positive charge building up inside thick isolation oxides. Effects associated with ionization and hydrogen transport in spacer oxides may become dominant at 600 Mrad(SiO2) and may explain the observed noise behavior at extremely high TID. The results of this analysis provide an understanding o...

  3. Dose measurements in the treatment of mycosis fungoides with total skin irradiation using a 4 MeV electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poli, M.E.R. [Hospital Real e Benemerita Sociedade Portuguesa de Beneficencia (Brazil); Todo, A.S.; Campos, L.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, CNEN/SP Travessa R, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2000-05-01

    The total skin irradiation (TSI) is one of the most efficient techniques in the treatment administered with curative intent of the mycosis fungoides. The cure may be obtained in 10% to 40% of cases. The original Stanford University technique, created in 1960, was applied in a 4.8 MeV linear accelerator, that provided 2.5 MeV electrons in the patient, by the use of 4 couple beams with the patient placed in front of the beam, 3 meters distant from the apparatus. In this work we describe a 4 MeV electrons beam treatment method. We intend to improve the uniformity of the dose in the patient, as well, to reduce the problems with the overlapping treatment fields, that occurs in conventional treatment that uses 1 meter of focus-skin distance, and the treatment time to the patient. Only one modification was done in the apparatus: the dose rate for this treatment was doubled. The patient is placed on a rotative base and he assumes successively 6 positions: stand up and perpendicular to the beam, distant 2.83 meters from the gantry, with 60 degrees of interval between the rotations. In each position, the patient receives a couple of beams (the beam angulation is 19.5 degrees above the transversal axis in the middle of the patient and 19.5 degrees below it). The dosimetric data obtained were compared to the international protocols (AAPM). The delivered doses in the patient were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters placed on skin surface and with Kodak XV-2 films placed between different slabs of an anthropomorphic phantom. The dose distribution in the phantom shows a good uniformity, in all thickness of interest, so it is possible to use this technique in the treatment of the mycosis fungoides as well Kaposi's sarcoma. (author)

  4. Noise reduction technology reduces radiation dose in chronic total occlusions percutaneous coronary intervention: a propensity score-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccagni, Davide; Benincasa, Susanna; Bellini, Barbara; Candilio, Luciano; Poletti, Enrico; Carlino, Mauro; Colombo, Antonio; Azzalini, Lorenzo

    2018-03-23

    Chronic total occlusions (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is associated with high radiation dose. Our study aim was to evaluate the impact of the implementation of a noise reduction technology (NRT) on patient radiation dose during CTO PCI. A total of 187 CTO PCIs performed between February 2016 and May 2017 were analyzed according to the angiographic systems utilized: Standard (n = 60) versus NRT (n = 127). Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to control for differences in baseline characteristics. Primary endpoints were Cumulative Air Kerma at Interventional Reference Point (AK at IRP), which correlates with patient's tissue reactions; and Kerma Area Product (KAP), a surrogate measure of patient's risk of stochastic radiation effects. An Efficiency Index (defined as fluoroscopy time/AK at IRP) was calculated for each procedure. Image quality was evaluated using a 5-grade Likert-like scale. After PSM, n = 55 pairs were identified. Baseline and angiographic characteristics were well matched between groups. Compared to the Standard system, NRT was associated with lower AK at IRP [2.38 (1.80-3.66) vs. 3.24 (2.04-5.09) Gy, p = 0.035], a trend towards reduction for KAP [161 (93-244) vs. 203 (136-363) Gycm 2 , p = 0.069], and a better Efficiency Index [16.75 (12.73-26.27) vs. 13.58 (9.92-17.63) min/Gy, p = 0.003]. Image quality was similar between the two groups (4.39 ± 0.53 Standard vs. 4.34 ± 0.47 NRT, p = 0.571). In conclusion, compared with a Standard system, the use of NRT in CTO PCI is associated with lower patient radiation dose and similar image quality.

  5. Daily low-dose/continuous capecitabine combined with neo-adjuvant irradiation reduces VEGF and PDGF-BB levels in rectal carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loven, David; B e'Ery, Einat; Yerushalmi, Rinat; Koren, Claude; Sulkes, Aaron; Fenig, Eyal; Lavi, Idit; Shaked, Yuval

    2008-01-01

    Metronomic low-dose chemotherapy regimen was found to have an antiangiogenic effect in tumors. However, its effect on levels of circulating pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors is not fully explored. Materials and methods. The levels of both VEGF and PDGF-BB were measured in three time points, in the serum of 32 rectal carcinoma patients receiving daily reduced-dose/continuous capecitabine in combination with preoperative pelvic irradiation. Results. We found a significant decrease in VEGF and PDGF-BB serum levels during the combination treatment (p<0.0001), followed by an increase in the successive rest-period (p<0.0001). In addition, substantial changes in platelets counts were observed during treatment in correlation with the changes of VEGF and PDGF-BB serum levels. Discussion. These results suggest that combined chemo-irradiation affect levels of pro-angiogenic factors during treatment, and may reflect an anti-angiogenic window induced during this treatment. The potential implications of this inducible phenomenon, including a possible clinical benefit from the administration of long lasting metronomic chemotherapy immediately following combined chemo-irradiation, would warrant further investigation

  6. Monitoring to assess progress toward meeting the Assabet River, Massachusetts, phosphorus total maximum daily load - Aquatic macrophyte biomass and sediment-phosphorus flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Qian, Yu; Yong Q., Tian

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for Total Phosphorus in the Assabet River, Massachusetts, was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The goal of the TMDL was to decrease the concentrations of the nutrient phosphorus to mitigate some of the instream ecological effects of eutrophication on the river; these effects were, for the most part, direct consequences of the excessive growth of aquatic macrophytes. The primary instrument effecting lower concentrations of phosphorus was to be strict control of phosphorus releases from four major wastewatertreatment plants in Westborough, Marlborough, Hudson, and Maynard, Massachusetts. The improvements to be achieved from implementing this control were lower concentrations of total and dissolved phosphorus in the river, a 50-percent reduction in aquatic-plant biomass, a 30-percent reduction in episodes of dissolved oxygen supersaturation, no low-flow dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 5.0 milligrams per liter, and a 90-percent reduction in sediment releases of phosphorus to the overlying water. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, initiated studies to evaluate conditions in the Assabet River prior to the upgrading of wastewater-treatment plants to remove more phosphorus from their effluents. The studies, completed in 2008, implemented a visual monitoring plan to evaluate the extent and biomass of the floating macrophyte Lemna minor (commonly known as lesser duckweed) in five impoundments and evaluated the potential for phosphorus flux from sediments in impounded and free-flowing reaches of the river. Hydrologically, the two study years 2007 and 2008 were quite different. In 2007, summer streamflows, although low, were higher than average, and in 2008, the flows were generally higher than in 2007. Visually, the effects of these streamflow differences on the distribution of Lemna were obvious. In 2007, large amounts of

  7. Hyperfractionated high-dose total body irradiation in bone marrow transplantation for Ph{sup 1}-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Akira; Ebihara, Yasuhiro; Mitsui, Tetsuo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Hospital of the Institute of Medical Science] [and others

    1998-12-01

    In two cases of Philadelphia-positive childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph{sup 1} ALL), we performed allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (AlloBMT) with preconditioning regimen, including hyperfractionated high-dose total body irradiation (TBI) (13.5 Gy, in 9 fractions). Their disease statuses at BMT were hematological relapse in case 1 and molecular relapse in case 2. Bone marrow donors were unrelated in case 1, and HLA was a partially mismatched mother in case 2. Regimen-related toxicity was tolerable in both cases. Hematological recovery was rapid, and engraftment was obtained on day 14 in case 1 and on day 12 in case 2. BCR/ABL message in bone marrow disappeared on day 89 in case 1 and on day 19 in case 2 and throughout their subsequent clinical courses. Although short-term MTX and Cy-A continuous infusion were used for GVHD prophylaxis, grade IV GVHD was observed in case 1 and grade III in case 2. Both cases experienced hemorrhagic cystitis because of adenovirus type 11 infection. Although case 1 died of interstitial pneumonitis on day 442, case 2 has been free of disease through day 231. AlloBMT for Ph{sup 1} ALL with preconditioning regimen including hyperfractionated high-dose TBI is considered to be worth further investigation. (author)

  8. Analysis of functional failure mode of commercial deep sub-micron SRAM induced by total dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qi-Wen; Cui Jiang-Wei; Zhou Hang; Yu De-Zhao; Yu Xue-Feng; Lu Wu; Guo Qi; Ren Di-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Functional failure mode of commercial deep sub-micron static random access memory (SRAM) induced by total dose irradiation is experimentally analyzed and verified by circuit simulation. We extensively characterize the functional failure mode of the device by testing its electrical parameters and function with test patterns covering different functional failure modes. Experimental results reveal that the functional failure mode of the device is a temporary function interruption caused by peripheral circuits being sensitive to the standby current rising. By including radiation-induced threshold shift and off-state leakage current in memory cell transistors, we simulate the influence of radiation on the functionality of the memory cell. Simulation results reveal that the memory cell is tolerant to irradiation due to its high stability, which agrees with our experimental result. (paper)

  9. Legal, ethical, and economic implications of breaking down once-daily fixed-dose antiretroviral combinations into their single components for cost reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro, Miguel A; Llibre, Josep M

    2014-11-01

    The availability of generic lamivudine in the context of the current economic crisis has raised a new issue in some European countries: breaking up the once-daily fixed-dose antiretroviral combinations (FDAC) of efavirenz/tenofovir/emtricitabine, tenofovir/emtricitabine, or abacavir/lamivudine, in order to administer their components separately, thereby allowing the use of generic lamivudine instead of branded emtricitabine or lamivudine. The legal, ethical, and economic implications of this potential strategy are reviewed, particularly in those patients receiving a once-daily single-tablet regimen. An unfamiliar change in antiretroviral treatment from a successful patient-friendly FDAC into a more complex regimen including separately the components to allow the substitution of one (or some) of them for generic surrogates (in the absence of a generic bioequivalent FDAC) could be discriminatory because it does not guarantee access to equal excellence in healthcare to all citizens. Furthermore, it could violate the principle of non-maleficence by potentially causing harm both at the individual level (hindering adherence and favouring treatment failure and resistance), and at the community level (hampering control of disease transmission and transmission of HIV-1 resistance). Replacing a FDAC with the individual components of that combination should only be permitted when the substituting medication has the same qualitative and quantitative composition of active ingredients, pharmaceutical form, method of administration, dosage and presentation as the medication being replaced, and a randomized study has demonstrated its non-inferiority. Finally, a strict pharma-economic study supporting this change, comparing the effectiveness and the cost of a specific intervention with the best available alternative, should be undertaken before its potential implementation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiolog

  10. [Study of personal best value of peak expiratory flow in patients with asthma--comparison of the highest value of daily PEF under good control and the highest value of daily PEF obtained after using repeated inhaled beta2-agonist during high-dose inhaled steroid treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoto; Makino, Sohei; Kihara, Norio; Fukuda, Takeshi

    2008-12-01

    In the guideline for asthma management, it is important to find the personal best value of peak expiratory flow (best PEF). Recently, we have substituted the highest value of PEF in daily life under good control (daily highest PEF) for the best PEF. In the present study, we considered whether the daily highest PEF could be used as the best PEF or not. Subjects were 30 asthmatics who were well controlled but whose baseline PEF values were less than 80 percent of predicted values. We compared the daily highest PEF and the highest of PEF obtained after repeated inhaled beta2-agonist (salbutamol MDI every 20 minutes three times). All subjects then received 1600 microg/day of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) for 4 to 8 weeks. We studied the effect of high-dose inhaled steroid treatment on each PEF value and compared the daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after using repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose inhaled steroid therapy on the examination day again. The baseline PEF, daily highest PEF and the highest PEF obtained after salbutamol MDI were significantly less than the each values obtained after high-dose BDP. The best PEF value of them was the value obtained after repeated salbutamol MDI during high dose BDP. We suggest that the daily highest PEF under good control is not a substitute for best PEF because it changes according to the degree of improvement of airway inflammation. We recommend that a course of high dose inhaled steroid is effective in finding the best value of PEF for each individual with moderate asthma.

  11. Compendium of Current Total Ionizing Dose and Displacement Damage Results from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and Selected NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, Alyson D.; Campola, Michael J.; Chen, Dakai; Casey, Megan C.; Yau, Ka-Yen; Cochran, Donna J.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Mondy, Timothy K.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Total ionizing dose and displacement damage testing was performed to characterize and determine the suitability of candidate electronics for NASA space utilization. Devices tested include optoelectronics, digital, analog, linear bipolar devices, and hybrid devices.

  12. The Relative Effects of Manual Versus Automatic Exposure Control on Radiation Dose to Vital Organs in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Katharine D; Li, Shidong; Jennings, Rachel; Amer, Kamil M; Haydel, Christopher; Ali, Sayed

    2018-01-01

    of a total hip arthroplasty implant, exposure values increased threefold at some anatomic locations and surpassed 1 mSv, the generally accepted threshold for concern. Radiation exposure to radiosensitive organs increased up to threefold after total hip implantation with automatic exposure control and up to approximately 1.5 times with the manual protocol. Doses were greater with manual exposures than with automatic exposure control (except at the control probe on the stomach, where exposure was negligible, as expected). However, after implant placement, doses increased more with automatic exposure control than with manual exposure. This difference can be attributed to increased scatter and the difficulty of dose modification because of the density of the implant. Current radiographic protocols should be reassessed to determine if the benefits of frequent radiographs outweigh the newly demonstrated risks.

  13. Blood responses under chronic low daily dose gamma irradiation: Pt. 2; Differential preclinical responses of irradiated female dogs in progression to either aplastic anemia or myeloproliferative disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.; Carnes, B.; Tolle, D.; Fritz, T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Biological and Medical Research Div.)

    1993-05-01

    Female beagle dogs were chronically exposed to low daily doses of [sup 60]Co gamma rays and responded in one of three distinct hemopathological patterns. These patterns, reflective of distinct subgroups, were characterized by (a) low radioresistance resulting in progressive hematopoietic suppression, terminal aplastic anemia (AA), and relatively short (<400 days) survival ([sup -]S-AA subgroups); (b) high radioresistance, initially coupled with strong but aberrant regenerative hematopoiesis, and later with the development of myeloproliferative disease (MPD) ([sup +]-R-MPD subgroup); and (c) high radioresistance, coupled with an early phase of strong regenerative hematopoiesis, but later with no myeloproliferative disease ([sup +]R-nonMPD subgroup). In this study, the changes in circulating blood cells levels (granulocytes, monotcytes, erythrocytes, lymphocytes and platelets) were sequentially assessed in time and fitted to a flexible, quadratic-linear-type response model previously developed. The results are consistent with our earlier observations of blood responses of chronically irradiated male dogs, in the subgroups of female dogs prone to specific radiogenic hematopathologies (i.e. AA and MPD) can be readily identified and staged in specific preclinical periods by a series of marked differential blood responses. (Author).

  14. Blood responses under chronic low daily dose gamma irradiation: Pt. 1; Differential preclinical responses of irradiated male dogs in progression to either aplastic anemia or myeloproliferative disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.; Carnes, B.A.; Tolle, D.V.; Fritz, T.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Male beagles chronically exposed to low daily doses of {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays show one of three hematopoietic patterns, which reflect three different distinctly responding subgroups: (1) low radioresistance with progressing aplastic anemia and shortened survival ({sup -S}-AA subgroup); (2) high radioresistance with a complex of progressing myeloproliferative disorders ({sup +}R-MPD group); or (3) high radioresistance with other nonMPD syndromes ({sup +}R-nonMPD group). Blood cell levels (granulocytes, monocytes, erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and platelets) were assessed and fitted to a flexible polynomial spline model. Results showed that relative to the overall magnitude of blood cell loss as well as to the maximum rate of suppression during the initial phase, the subgroups were generally ranked {sup -}S-AA >> {sup +}R-MPD > {sup +}R-nonMPD. Relative to the overall strength of the recovery response, the subgroups were generally ranked {sup +}R-MPD > {sup +}R-nonMPD >>> {sup -}S-AA. In terms of overall maintenance levels of circulating blood cells during the recovery phase, however, the {sup +}R-nonMPD subgroup consistently exhibited stronger responses than the {sup +}R-MPD subgroup. These results support our contention that selected subgroups of dogs have strong propensities to specific hematopathologies (i.e. aplastic anemia and myeloid leukemia) under chronic irradiation and that these pathology-prone animals exhibit a series of marked differential hematopoietic responses during early preclinical phases, which serve effectively to prognosticate subsequent pathological progression. (author).

  15. Adaptive-weighted total variation minimization for sparse data toward low-dose x-ray computed tomography image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Ma, Jianhua; Fan, Yi; Liang, Zhengrong

    2012-12-07

    Previous studies have shown that by minimizing the total variation (TV) of the to-be-estimated image with some data and other constraints, piecewise-smooth x-ray computed tomography (CT) can be reconstructed from sparse-view projection data without introducing notable artifacts. However, due to the piecewise constant assumption for the image, a conventional TV minimization algorithm often suffers from over-smoothness on the edges of the resulting image. To mitigate this drawback, we present an adaptive-weighted TV (AwTV) minimization algorithm in this paper. The presented AwTV model is derived by considering the anisotropic edge property among neighboring image voxels, where the associated weights are expressed as an exponential function and can be adaptively adjusted by the local image-intensity gradient for the purpose of preserving the edge details. Inspired by the previously reported TV-POCS (projection onto convex sets) implementation, a similar AwTV-POCS implementation was developed to minimize the AwTV subject to data and other constraints for the purpose of sparse-view low-dose CT image reconstruction. To evaluate the presented AwTV-POCS algorithm, both qualitative and quantitative studies were performed by computer simulations and phantom experiments. The results show that the presented AwTV-POCS algorithm can yield images with several notable gains, in terms of noise-resolution tradeoff plots and full-width at half-maximum values, as compared to the corresponding conventional TV-POCS algorithm.

  16. Research on total-dose hardening for H-gate PD NMOSFET/SIMOX by ion implanting into buried oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Cong; Zhang Zhengxuan; Zhang Feng; Lin Chenglu

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the back-gate I-V characteristics for two kinds of NMOSFET/SIMOX transistors with H gate structure fabricated on two different SOI wafers. A transistors are made on the wafer implanted with Si + and then annealed in N 2 , and B transistors are made on the wafer without implantation and annealing. It is demonstrated experimentally that A transistors have much less back-gate threshold voltage shift ΔV th than B transistors under X-ray total close irradiation. Subthreshold charge separation technique is employed to estimate the build-up of oxide charge and interface traps during irradiation, showing that the reduced ΔV th for A transistors is mainly due to its less build-up of oxide charge than B transistors. Photo-luminescence (PL) research indicates that Si implantation results in the formation of silicon nanocrystalline (nanocluster) whose size increases with the implant dose. This structure can trap electrons to compensate the positive charge build-up in the buried oxide during irradiation, and thus reduce the threshold voltage negative shift. (authors)

  17. Comparison of a single-dose vectored thermal pulsation procedure with a 3-month course of daily oral doxycycline for moderate-to-severe meibomian gland dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Kerry B; Bedi, Raman; Blackie, Caroline A; Christenson-Akagi, Kellie J

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a single bilateral 12-minute vectored thermal pulsation (VTP) procedure versus daily oral doxycycline for 3 months for moderate-to-severe meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). This prospective, randomized, parallel-group, single-masked study included 28 subjects who received either a single-dose VTP or 3 months of doxycycline treatment. At baseline and 3 months post treatment, all subjects were evaluated for the following: dry eye symptoms with a standard dry eye questionnaire (the Standard Patient Evaluation for Eye Dryness [SPEED]), meibomian gland (MG) function by counting the number of glands yielding liquid secretion with the MG evaluator (MGE), tear breakup time (TBUT) and corneal and conjunctival staining. In the VTP group, at 3 months, there was a significant improvement in MG function (4.00±1.47 to 7.73±5.53), SPEED score (11.00±3.30 to 5.42±2.15), TBUT (6.26±2.01 to 8.44±1.81), corneal staining (0.38±0.50 to 0.12±0.33) and conjunctival staining (1.69±1.93 to 0.62±0.85). In the doxycycline group, there was a significant improvement in MG function (4.63±1.41 to 10.63±5.91), SPEED score (13.42±4.17 to 9.42±5.47) and conjunctival staining (2.38±1.88 to 1.13±1.51), but the improvement in TBUT (6.90±2.56 to 7.59±2.03) and corneal staining (0.21±0.41 to 0.13±0.34) was not statistically significant ( p =0.262 and p =0.414, respectively). At 3 months, SPEED score was significantly better in the VTP group ( p oral doxycycline at improving the dry eye symptoms secondary to MGD. A single 12-minute VTP treatment was at least as effective as a dose of doxycycline for 3 months, in improving MG function and all measured signs of MGD. Given the minimal risk profile of the single VTP procedure over long-term doxycycline use, a single VTP presents a favorable alternative to long-term antibiotic use.

  18. Comparison of a single-dose vectored thermal pulsation procedure with a 3-month course of daily oral doxycycline for moderate-to-severe meibomian gland dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen KB

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kerry B Hagen,1 Raman Bedi,2 Caroline A Blackie,3 Kellie J Christenson-Akagi1 1EyeHealth Northwest, Portland, OR, USA; 2Iris Advanced Eye Centre, Chandigarh, India; 3TearScience, Inc., Morrisville, NC, USA Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a single bilateral 12-minute vectored thermal pulsation (VTP procedure versus daily oral doxycycline for 3 months for moderate-to-severe meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD.Methods: This prospective, randomized, parallel-group, single-masked study included 28 subjects who received either a single-dose VTP or 3 months of doxycycline treatment. At baseline and 3 months post treatment, all subjects were evaluated for the following: dry eye symptoms with a standard dry eye questionnaire (the Standard Patient Evaluation for Eye Dryness [SPEED], meibomian gland (MG function by counting the number of glands yielding liquid secretion with the MG evaluator (MGE, tear breakup time (TBUT and corneal and conjunctival staining.Results: In the VTP group, at 3 months, there was a significant improvement in MG function (4.00±1.47 to 7.73±5.53, SPEED score (11.00±3.30 to 5.42±2.15, TBUT (6.26±2.01 to 8.44±1.81, corneal staining (0.38±0.50 to 0.12±0.33 and conjunctival staining (1.69±1.93 to 0.62±0.85. In the doxycycline group, there was a significant improvement in MG function (4.63±1.41 to 10.63±5.91, SPEED score (13.42±4.17 to 9.42±5.47 and conjunctival staining (2.38±1.88 to 1.13±1.51, but the improvement in TBUT (6.90±2.56 to 7.59±2.03 and corneal staining (0.21±0.41 to 0.13±0.34 was not statistically significant (p=0.262 and p=0.414, respectively. At 3 months, SPEED score was significantly better in the VTP group (p<0.05; other parameters were comparable between the two groups.Conclusion: A single 12-minute bilateral VTP procedure was significantly more effective than the 3-month daily course of oral doxycycline at improving the dry eye symptoms secondary to MGD. A single

  19. Clinical and microbiological outcomes in treatment of men with non-gonococcal urethritis with a 100-mg twice-daily dose regimen of sitafloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shin; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Seike, Kensaku; Sugawara, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Deguchi, Takashi

    2012-06-01

    Several microorganisms cause non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU). Failure to eradicate Mycoplasma genitalium from the urethra could be associated with persistent or recurrent urethritis; thus, the choice of antibiotics with activities potent enough to eradicate M. genitalium is crucial in the treatment of NGU. In in vitro studies, sitafloxacin has been shown to be highly active against Chlamydia trachomatis and M. genitalium. We treated 89 males with NGU, including 15 patients with persistent or recurrent NGU and 1 patient with post-gonococcal urethritis, with a 100-mg twice-daily dose regimen of sitafloxacin to assess its efficacy against NGU. We examined first-void urine samples for the presence of C. trachomatis, M. genitalium, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum. After treatment, we evaluated 73 patients for clinical outcomes and 44 for microbiological outcomes. Symptoms were alleviated in 62 (84.9%) patients, who were judged clinically cured. Microorganisms detected before treatment were eradicated in 42 (95.5%) patients, who were judged microbiologically cured. Regarding microbiological outcomes of specific microorganisms, eradication rates of C. trachomatis (n = 33), M. genitalium (n = 11), and U. urealyticum (n = 10) were 100%, 100%, and 80.0%, respectively. In all 5 patients with M. genitalium-positive persistent or recurrent NGU who had experienced treatment failures with antibiotics, the mycoplasma was eradicated. These results suggested that the sitafloxacin regimen used, which was effective on both M. genitalium and C. trachomatis infections, could be useful as an appropriate option as first- and second-line treatment of NGU.

  20. Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of a fixed-dose combination of olmesartan 40 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5/25 mg in daily practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramlage P

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Peter Bramlage,1 Claudia Zemmrich,1 Reinhard Ketelhut,2 Wolf-Peter Wolf,3 Eva-Maria Fronk,4 Roland E Schmieder5 1Institut für Pharmakologie und Präventive Medizin, Mahlow, Germany; 2Institut für Sportmedizin, Universitätsklinikum Charité, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 3Daiichi Sankyo Deutschland GmbH, Munich, Germany; 4Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH, Munich, Germany; 5Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Klinik für Nephrologie und Hypertensiologie, Erlangen, Germany Background: The safety and efficacy of olmesartan 40 mg and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ as a fixed-dose combination has been investigated in clinical trials leading to its approval. The aims of the present study were to confirm these data in an unselected patient population in daily practice and to determine the impact of physical activity on blood pressure control. Methods: In a multicenter, noninterventional study, 3,333 patients with either insufficient blood pressure control on olmesartan 40 mg alone or on a fixed/free combination of olmesartan 40 mg and HCTZ 12.5/25 mg were primarily assessed for safety and tolerability of the fixed-dose combination of olmesartan 40 mg and HCTZ 12.5/25 mg at 24 ± 2 weeks. Secondary objectives were blood pressure reduction, treatment compliance, and impact of physical activity as measured by the sum of weekly energy costs. Results: The mean patient age was 63.2 ± 11.46 years, mean baseline blood pressure was 159.6 ± 15.28/93.5 ± 9.52 mmHg, and 70.9% had at least one additional cardiovascular risk factor. Adverse drug reactions were rare (n = 19, and no serious adverse drug reactions occurred. Compliance with drug therapy was at least sufficient in more than 99% of patients at the end of the study. Blood pressure at the last available visit was reduced by 26.1 ± 15.5/13.0 ± 10.1 mmHg versus baseline (P < 0.0001, but had reduced effectiveness in patients ≥75 years with diabetes or impaired renal function. In 69% of patients

  1. Recovery Profiles of T-Cell Subsets Following Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation and Improvement With Cinnamon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xiaodan; Guo, Yuqi; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Honghai; Wang, Shaobo; Wang, Li; An, Lei; Zhou, Xianbin; Li, Xia; Yao, Chengfang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Inefficient T-cell reconstitution from x-ray–induced immune damage reduces antitumor response. To understand the profile of T-cell reconstitution after irradiation will overcome the barrier of antitumor immunity. This study aimed to identify the recovery profile of T-cell subsets following x-ray irradiation and to highlight the role of cinnamon on efficient T-cell restoration postexposure in the antitumor response. Methods and Materials: CD3"+, CD8"+, and CD4"+ T cells and Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells were evaluated at different time points after single low-dose total body irradiation (SLTBI) with or without cinnamon treatments. T-bet, GATA3, RORγt, and Foxp3 signaling specific for Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg were also analyzed by RT-PCR assay. The effects of cinnamon on efficient T-cell subset reconstitution was confirmed in a lung melanoma model in irradiated mice. Results: Reconstitution of CD4"+ T cells was delayed more than that of CD8"+ T cells in T-cell restoration after SLTBI. The production of IFNγ by Th1 or Tc1 cells was sharply decreased and was accompanied by reduced T-bet mRNA, even when total T-cell numbers had recovered; the frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells and their specific transcription factors (RORγt and Foxp3, respectively) were obviously increased. Irradiation-induced inefficient T-cell reconstitution impaired the antitumor capacities in the lung melanoma model. Pretreatment with cinnamon in irradiated mice accelerated the generation of Th1 and reduced the differentiation of Treg cells by activating T-bet and limiting transcriptions of Foxp3. Improvement resulting from cinnamon pretreatment on the efficient T-cell recovery profile from SLTBI promoted antitumor immunity in the lung melanoma model. Conclusions: T-cell reconstitution from SLTBI was characterized by impaired Th1 and elevated Th17 and Treg cells. Cinnamon effectively improved the imbalance of T-cell subsets by promoting the proliferation of Th1 and

  2. Recovery Profiles of T-Cell Subsets Following Low-Dose Total Body Irradiation and Improvement With Cinnamon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xiaodan [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); School of Medicine and Life Science, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan (China); Guo, Yuqi [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Wang, Lei [Second Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan (China); Zhang, Honghai [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Wang, Shaobo [Shandong University, Jinan (China); Wang, Li [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); An, Lei [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); School of Medicine and Life Science, University of Jinan-Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Jinan (China); Zhou, Xianbin; Li, Xia [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China); Yao, Chengfang, E-mail: yaocf9941@163.com [Key Laboratory for Tumor Immunology and Traditional Chinese Medicine Immunology, Institute of Basic Medicine, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan (China)

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: Inefficient T-cell reconstitution from x-ray–induced immune damage reduces antitumor response. To understand the profile of T-cell reconstitution after irradiation will overcome the barrier of antitumor immunity. This study aimed to identify the recovery profile of T-cell subsets following x-ray irradiation and to highlight the role of cinnamon on efficient T-cell restoration postexposure in the antitumor response. Methods and Materials: CD3{sup +}, CD8{sup +}, and CD4{sup +} T cells and Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T (Treg) cells were evaluated at different time points after single low-dose total body irradiation (SLTBI) with or without cinnamon treatments. T-bet, GATA3, RORγt, and Foxp3 signaling specific for Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg were also analyzed by RT-PCR assay. The effects of cinnamon on efficient T-cell subset reconstitution was confirmed in a lung melanoma model in irradiated mice. Results: Reconstitution of CD4{sup +} T cells was delayed more than that of CD8{sup +} T cells in T-cell restoration after SLTBI. The production of IFNγ by Th1 or Tc1 cells was sharply decreased and was accompanied by reduced T-bet mRNA, even when total T-cell numbers had recovered; the frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells and their specific transcription factors (RORγt and Foxp3, respectively) were obviously increased. Irradiation-induced inefficient T-cell reconstitution impaired the antitumor capacities in the lung melanoma model. Pretreatment with cinnamon in irradiated mice accelerated the generation of Th1 and reduced the differentiation of Treg cells by activating T-bet and limiting transcriptions of Foxp3. Improvement resulting from cinnamon pretreatment on the efficient T-cell recovery profile from SLTBI promoted antitumor immunity in the lung melanoma model. Conclusions: T-cell reconstitution from SLTBI was characterized by impaired Th1 and elevated Th17 and Treg cells. Cinnamon effectively improved the imbalance of T-cell subsets by promoting the

  3. Changes in acyl and total ghrelin concentrations and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency of finishing beef steers and heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced in the gut that is implicated in signaling appetite and regulating DMI. The objective of this experiment was to determine the change in acyl ghrelin, total ghrelin, and the ghrelin ratio (acyl ghrelin/total ghrelin) over an 84-d DMI and ADG measurement period a...

  4. Iron prophylaxis during pregnancy -- how much iron is needed? A randomized dose- response study of 20-80 mg ferrous iron daily in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, Nils; Bergholt, Thomas; Eriksen, Lisbeth

    2005-01-01

    To determine the lowest dose of iron preventative of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy.......To determine the lowest dose of iron preventative of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy....

  5. Total external dose equivalent and effective dose derived to the Piedmont population in the period 30 Apr 1986 - 22 Sep 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortissone, C.; Giacomelli, R.; Spezzano, P.; Porzio, L.

    1988-01-01

    Some dosimetric evaluations concerning the population of the Piemonte Region, obtained after the measurements made following the Chernobyl accident, are reported. The individual effective mean dose equivalent derived from the exposure and intake in the period April 30, 1986 - September 22, 1987, is about 0.50 mSv

  6. Non-randomized study on the effects of preoperative radiotherapy and daily administration of low-dose cisplatin against those of radiotherapy alone for oral cancer. Effects on local control, control of metastases, and overall survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Hiroshi; Ohtsuka, Akiko; Kobayashi, Hiroichi; Kurashina, Kenji; Shikama, Naoto; Oguchi, Masahiko

    2000-01-01

    Cisplatin is a known radiation modifier. Our previous study suggested that daily administration of low-dose cisplatin enhanced the efficacy of radiotherapy against primary oral squamous carcinoma. In this paper, we follow the patients who participated in the previous study and survey the benefit of combination low-dose cisplatin in improving local control, prevention of metastases, and overall survival. This study included patients with surgically resectable advanced oral tumors. Ten patients underwent preoperative radiotherapy of 30-40 Gy/15-20 days with concomitant daily administration of low-dose cisplatin (5 mg/body or 5 mg/m 2 ). Ten other patients received external radiotherapy alone. All patients then underwent a planned radical tumor resection. No significant difference was see in loco-regional control rates (primary: 86 vs. 88%, neck: 83 vs. 78% at 48 months) or incidence of metastasis (70 vs. 64%) between the two groups. Nor was there a significant difference in the overall survival rate (60 vs. 66%). The results of this study suggest that the concomitant use of daily administration of low-dose cisplatin with preoperative radiation brings no statistically significant benefit in improving local control and survival rate in patients with advanced resectable oral cancer. (author)

  7. Relative efficacy of weekly and two differing doses of daily iron-folate supplementation in improving hemoglobin in mild and moderately anemic children between 3 and 5 years of age: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, U; Sachdev, H P S; Dwivedi, S N; Pandey, R M; Upadhyay, A D; Sareen, N

    2013-04-01

    In India, 75% of children hemoglobin response with two dosages of daily (20 mg iron and 100 μg folic acid, or 40 mg iron and 200 μg folic acid) and weekly (40 mg iron and 200 μg folic acid) IFA supplementation in children of 3-5 years of age with mild or moderate anemia (hemoglobin 7-10 g/dl). Community-based cluster randomized control trial in nine adjoining Anganwadi Centers. Four hundred twenty six enrolled participants received directly supervised IFA tablet supplementation as per the above three groups. After 100 days, the number of available subjects in the NNACP daily dose (A), daily dose doubled (B) and weekly dose (C) groups were 112, 114 and 110, respectively. Hemoglobin was estimated at baseline, 50 and 100 days by the Cynmeth hemoglobin method. At 50 days, there were no differences between the three groups, but at 100 days, adjusted hemoglobin was lowered with weekly supplementation. The mean (95% confidence interval) hemoglobin (g/dl) differences were: (i) A-B: -0.05 (-0.17, 0.05), (ii) A-C: -0.38 (-0.50, -0.27) and (iii) B-C: -0.33, (-0.45, -0.21). Anemia reduction was 18.8%, 18.4% and 10.9%, respectively, in the three groups. Directly supervised IFA supplementation at the NNACP or double dose is equally efficacious but superior to weekly regimen.

  8. Method to support Total Maximum Daily Load development using hydrologic alteration as a surrogate to address aquatic life impairment in New Jersey streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennen, Jonathan G.; Riskin, Melissa L.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Colarullo, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    More than 300 ambient monitoring sites in New Jersey have been identified by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) in its integrated water-quality monitoring and assessment report (that is, the 305(b) Report on general water quality and 303(d) List of waters that do not support their designated uses) as being impaired with respect to aquatic life; however, no unambiguous stressors (for example, nutrients or bacteria) have been identified. Because of the indeterminate nature of the broad range of possible impairments, surrogate measures that more holistically encapsulate the full suite of potential environmental stressors need to be developed. Streamflow alteration resulting from anthropogenic changes in the landscape is one such surrogate. For example, increases in impervious surface cover (ISC) commonly cause increases in surface runoff, which can result in “flashy” hydrology and other changes in the stream corridor that are associated with streamflow alteration. The NJDEP has indicated that methodologies to support a hydrologically based Total Maximum Daily Load (hydro-TMDL) need to be developed in order to identify hydrologic targets that represent a minimal percent deviation from a baseline condition (“minimally altered”) as a surrogate measure to meet criteria in support of designated uses. The primary objective of this study was to develop an applicable hydro-TMDL approach to address aquatic-life impairments associated with hydrologic alteration for New Jersey streams. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the NJDEP, identified 51 non- to moderately impaired gaged streamflow sites in the Raritan River Basin for evaluation. Quantile regression (QR) analysis was used to compare flow and precipitation records and identify baseline hydrographs at 37 of these sites. At sites without an appropriately long period of record (POR) or where a baseline hydrograph could not be identified with QR, a rainfall-runoff model was used

  9. OMI/Aura Ozone (O3) DOAS Total Column Daily L2 Global 0.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura Level-2G Total Column Ozone Data Product OMDOAO3G (Version 003) is now available ( http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omdoao3g_v003.shtml ) from the...

  10. OMI/Aura Ozone (O3) Total Column Daily L2 Global 0.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura Level-2G Total Column Ozone Data Product OMTO3G (Version 003) is made available ( http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omto3g_v003.shtml ) from the NASA...

  11. OMI/Aura Surface UVB Irradiance and Erythemal Dose Daily L3 Global 1.0x1.0 deg Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Aura-OMI Daily Gridded Surface UV Irradiance Product (OMUVBd) is now available from the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES...

  12. Increased mortality by septicemia, interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis among bone marrow transplant recipients receiving an increased mean dose rate of total irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringden, O.; Baaryd, I.; Johansson, B.

    1983-01-01

    Seven bone marrow transplant recipients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia receiving a mean dose rate of 0.07 Gy/min of total body irradiation towards the pelvic midpoint and the lungs had an increased (p<0.01) overall death rate of 86 per cent compared with 33 per cent among 27 patients with acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with a mean dose rate of 0.04 Gy/min. Among the patients receiving the higher dose rate there was an increased mortality in causes related to radiation toxicity like early septicemia, interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, compared with all patients receiving the lower dose rate (p<0.01) and also with 10 patients from this group with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (p<0.02). (Auth.)

  13. Urinary excretion of total isothiocyanates from cruciferous vegetables shows high dose-response relationship and may be a useful biomarker for isothiocyanate exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz; Frederiksen, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    in urine was quanti- fied as the cyclocondensation product of 1,2-bezenedithiol by high performance liquid chromatography. Results The total urinary excretion of ITCs correlated significantly with the two doses of ITC from diets with high or low cruciferous content (r(s) = 0.90, P

  14. An evaluation of total disintegration time for three different doses of sublingual fentanyl tablets in patients with breakthrough pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalamachu, Srinivas

    2013-12-01

    Breakthrough pain is common among patients with cancer and presents challenges to effective pain management. Breakthrough pain is characterized by rapid onset, severe intensity, and duration typically lasting disintegration time of three different doses of sublingual fentanyl tablets in opioid-tolerant patients. This was a single-center, non-randomized, open-label study. Opioid-tolerant adult patients (N = 30) with chronic pain were assigned to one of three dose groups and self-administered a single 100, 200, or 300 μg sublingual fentanyl tablet (Abstral(®), Galena Biopharma, Portland, OR, USA). Time to complete disintegration was measured by each patient with a stopwatch and independently verified by study personnel. Disintegration time (mean ± SD) for sublingual fentanyl tablets (all doses) was 88.2 ± 55.1 s. Mean disintegration times tended to be slightly longer for the 200 μg (96.7 ± 57.9 s) and 300 μg doses (98.6 ± 64.8 s) compared to the 100 μg dose (69.5 ± 40.5 s). Differences were not statistically significant. Disintegration time was not significantly different between men and women and was not affected by age. Sublingual fentanyl tablets dissolved rapidly (average time <2 min) in all patients, with the higher doses taking slightly more time to dissolve.

  15. Dose-response relationship of physical activity to premature and total all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in walkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T Williams

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the dose-response relationships between cause-specific mortality and exercise energy expenditure in a prospective epidemiological cohort of walkers. METHODS: The sample consisted of the 8,436 male and 33,586 female participants of the National Walkers' Health Study. Walking energy expenditure was calculated in metabolic equivalents (METs, 1 MET = 3.5 ml O2/kg/min, which were used to divide the cohort into four exercise categories: category 1 (≤ 1.07 MET-hours/d, category 2 (1.07 to 1.8 MET-hours/d, category 3 (1.8 to 3.6 MET-hours/d, and category 4 (≥ 3.6 MET-hours/d. Competing risk regression analyses were use to calculate the risk of mortality for categories 2, 3 and 4 relative to category 1. RESULTS: 22.9% of the subjects were in category 1, 16.1% in category 2, 33.3% in category 3, and 27.7% in category 4. There were 2,448 deaths during the 9.6 average years of follow-up. Total mortality was 11.2% lower in category 2 (P = 0.04, 32.4% lower in category 3 (P<10(-12 and 32.9% lower in category 4 (P = 10(-11 than in category 1. For underlying causes of death, the respective risk reductions for categories 2, 3 and 4 were 23.6% (P = 0.008, 35.2% (P<10(-5, and 34.9% (P = 0.0001 for cardiovascular disease mortality; 27.8% (P = 0.18, 20.6% (P = 0.07, and 31.4% (P = 0.009 for ischemic heart disease mortality; and 39.4% (P = 0.18, 63.8% (P = 0.005, and 90.6% (P = 0.002 for diabetes mortality when compared to category 1. For all related mortality (i.e., underlying and contributing causes of death combined, the respective risk reductions for categories 2, 3 and 4 were 18.7% (P = 0.22, 42.5% (P = 0.001, and 57.5% (P = 0.0001 for heart failure; 9.4% (P = 0.56, 44.3% (P = 0.0004, and 33.5% (P = 0.02 for hypertensive diseases; 11.5% (P = 0.38, 41.0% (P<10(-4, and 35.5% (P = 0.001 for dysrhythmias: and 23.2% (P = 0.13, 45.8% (P = 0.0002, and 41.1% (P

  16. Some changes of cholesterol, glucose and total proteins in serum of chicken after effect of low dose of ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danova, D.; Novakova, J.; Benova, K.; Falis, M.; Sezstakova, E.; Toropila, M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of investigate was the effect of low-dose ionizing irradiation on the organism of chicken. We investigated changes of concentration of cholesterol and triacylglycerols in time gap 1, 3, 14 and 25 days after expose with a single whole-body gamma irradiation of 3 Gy. (authors)

  17. Physicochemical characterization, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in 'Gala' apples subjected to different UV-C radiation doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Gabrielle Dias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-C radiation is a food preservation method aimed to extend the life of the product, inactivate microorganisms, and stimulate the synthesis of phenolic compounds. This study aimed to physicochemically characterize and evaluate the antioxidant activity and phenolic content of ‘Gala’ apples subjected to different UV-C radiation doses.The fruits were harvested, sanitized, selected and inserted into a UV-C radiation chamber, and different radiation doses were applied as follows:0 KJ m-2 (0 min., 0.68 KJ m-2 (2 minutes,2.73 KJ m-2 (4 minutes, and 4.10 KJ m-2 (6 minutes. The apples were stored for 120 days at 5 ± 1°C and analyzed after 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of storage. Radiation doses had no influence on parameters, such as weight loss, firmness and Hue angle, and physicochemical aspects, such as pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity and the soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio. The 4.10 KJ m-2 dose was effective and increased the phenolic content and antioxidant activity for up to 90 days while maintaining the content of vitamin C during storage.

  18. Effect of different doses of aerobic exercise on total white blood cell (WBC and WBC subfraction number in postmenopausal women: results from DREW.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M Johannsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Elevated total white blood cell (WBC count is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and death. Aerobic exercise is associated with lower total WBC, neutrophil, and monocyte counts. However, no studies have evaluated the effect of the amount of aerobic exercise (dose on total WBC and WBC subfraction counts. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 3 different doses of aerobic exercise on changes in total WBC and WBC subfraction counts and independent effects of changes in fitness, adiposity, markers of inflammation (IL-6, TNF-α, C-reactive protein, fasting glucose metabolism, and adiponectin. METHODS: Data from 390 sedentary, overweight/obese postmenopausal women from the DREW study were used in these analyses. Women were randomized to a non-exercise control group or one of 3 exercise groups: energy expenditure of 4, 8, or 12 kcal kg(-1⋅week(-1 (KKW for 6 months at an intensity of 50% VO2peak. RESULTS: A dose-dependent decrease in total WBC counts (trend P = 0.002 was observed with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-163.1±140.0 cells/µL; mean±95%CI compared with the control (138.6±144.7 cells/µL. A similar response was seen in the neutrophil subfraction (trend P = 0.001 with a significant decrease in the 12KKW group (-152.6±115.1 cells/µL compared with both the control and 4KKW groups (96.4±119.0 and 21.9±95.3 cells/µL, respectively and in the 8KKW group (-102.4±125.0 cells/µL compared with the control. When divided into high/low baseline WBC categories (median split, a dose-dependent decrease in both total WBCs (P = 0.003 and neutrophils (P<0.001 was observed in women with high baseline WBC counts. The effects of exercise dose on total WBC and neutrophil counts persisted after accounting for significant independent effects of change in waist circumference and IL-6. CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise training reduces total WBC and neutrophil counts, in a dose-dependent manner, in

  19. Open-label phase II clinical trial in 75 patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma receiving daily dose of tableted liver cancer vaccine, hepcortespenlisimut-L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarakanovskaya MG

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Marina G Tarakanovskaya,1 Jigjidsuren Chinburen,2 Purev Batchuluun,2 Chogsom Munkhzaya,2 Genden Purevsuren,2 Dorjiin Dandii,3 Tsogkhuu Hulan,3 Dandii Oyungerel,4 Galyna A Kutsyna,5 Alan A Reid,6 Vika Borisova,6 Allen I Bain,7 Vichai Jirathitikal,7 Aldar S Bourinbaiar6–8 1Ekomed LLC, 2National Cancer Center, 3Monserum LLC, 4National Center for Public Health, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia; 5Department of Infectious Diseases, Luhansk State Medical University, Luhansk, Ukraine; 6Immunitor China Ltd, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 7Immunitor Inc, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 8Immunitor LLC, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia Background: An increasing number of studies is now devoted to immunotherapy of cancer. We evaluated the clinical benefit of hepcortespenlisimut-L (Hepko-V5 [formerly known as V5]—an oral therapeutic vaccine designated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA as an orphan drug for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. V5 was initially developed by us in 2002 to treat hepatitis B or C viral infections and liver cirrhosis.Methods: The outcome of open-label Phase II trial of daily dose of V5 pill was analyzed retrospectively. Over a period of 5 years, 75 patients with advanced HCC were enrolled, consisting of 29 (38.7% females and 46 (61.3% males with a median age of 60 years (mean 61.6±8.1 years. Out of these, 23 (30.7% had hepatitis B and 34 (45.3% had hepatitis C infections, including 9 (12% with dual infection, 4 (5.3% negative for both viruses, and 5 (6.7% without established viral diagnosis. Most patients (94.7% had underlying liver cirrhosis of varying severity.Results: After a median of 2 months of treatment, 50 out of 75 patients had experienced a decline in serum levels of the tumor marker, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP (66.7%; P=0.006 by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Baseline median AFP levels were 245.2 IU/mL (mean 4,233; range 7.2–92,407; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1,186–7,280 and post-treatment values were 102.3 IU

  20. SU-F-T-327: Total Body Irradiation In-Vivo Dose Measurements Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) NanoDots and Farmer Type Ion Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, H; Kumar, S; Sarkar, B; Ganesh, T; Giri, U; Jassal, K; Rathinamuthu, S; Gulia, G; Gopal, V; Mohanti, B; Munshi, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to analyze the agreement between optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) nanoDots measured doses and 0.6 cc Farmer type ionization chamber measured doses during total body irradiation (TBI). Methods: In-vivo dose measurements using OSL nanoDots and Farmer chamber were done in a total of twelve patients who received TBI at our center by bilateral parallel-opposed beams technique. In this technique, the patient is kept inside the TBI box which is filled with rice bags and irradiated using two bilateral parallel opposed beams of 40×40 cm"2 size with 45° collimator rotation at an SSD of 333.5 cm in an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. All patients received a dose of 2 Gy in single fraction as conditioning regimen. The beams were equally weighted at the midplane of the box. The nanoDots were placed over forehead, right and left neck, right and left lung, umbilicus, right and left abdomen, medial part of thigh, knee and toe. A 0.6 cc Farmer chamber was placed in between the thighs of the patient. Measured doses are reported along with the statistical comparisons using paired sample t-test. Results: For the above sites the mean doses were 212.2±21.1, 218.2±7.6, 218.7±9.3, 215.6±9.5, 217.5±11.5, 214.5±7.7, 218.3±6.8, 221.5±15, 229.1±11.0, 220.5±7.7 and 223.3±5.1 cGy respectively. For all OSL measurements the mean dose was 218.6±11.8 cGy. Farmer chamber measurements yielded a mean dose of 208.8±15.6 cGy. Statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between OSL measured doses in forehead, right and left neck, right and left lung, umbilicus, right and left abdomen and toe and Farmer chamber measured doses (0.72≤p≤0.06). However the mean OSL doses at thigh and knee were statistically different (p<0.05) from the Farmer chamber measurements. Conclusion: OSL measurements were found to be in agreement with Farmer type ionization chamber measurements in in-vivo dosimetry of TBI.

  1. SU-F-T-327: Total Body Irradiation In-Vivo Dose Measurements Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) NanoDots and Farmer Type Ion Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, H; Kumar, S; Sarkar, B; Ganesh, T; Giri, U; Jassal, K; Rathinamuthu, S; Gulia, G; Gopal, V; Mohanti, B; Munshi, A [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study was performed to analyze the agreement between optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) nanoDots measured doses and 0.6 cc Farmer type ionization chamber measured doses during total body irradiation (TBI). Methods: In-vivo dose measurements using OSL nanoDots and Farmer chamber were done in a total of twelve patients who received TBI at our center by bilateral parallel-opposed beams technique. In this technique, the patient is kept inside the TBI box which is filled with rice bags and irradiated using two bilateral parallel opposed beams of 40×40 cm{sup 2} size with 45° collimator rotation at an SSD of 333.5 cm in an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. All patients received a dose of 2 Gy in single fraction as conditioning regimen. The beams were equally weighted at the midplane of the box. The nanoDots were placed over forehead, right and left neck, right and left lung, umbilicus, right and left abdomen, medial part of thigh, knee and toe. A 0.6 cc Farmer chamber was placed in between the thighs of the patient. Measured doses are reported along with the statistical comparisons using paired sample t-test. Results: For the above sites the mean doses were 212.2±21.1, 218.2±7.6, 218.7±9.3, 215.6±9.5, 217.5±11.5, 214.5±7.7, 218.3±6.8, 221.5±15, 229.1±11.0, 220.5±7.7 and 223.3±5.1 cGy respectively. For all OSL measurements the mean dose was 218.6±11.8 cGy. Farmer chamber measurements yielded a mean dose of 208.8±15.6 cGy. Statistical analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between OSL measured doses in forehead, right and left neck, right and left lung, umbilicus, right and left abdomen and toe and Farmer chamber measured doses (0.72≤p≤0.06). However the mean OSL doses at thigh and knee were statistically different (p<0.05) from the Farmer chamber measurements. Conclusion: OSL measurements were found to be in agreement with Farmer type ionization chamber measurements in in-vivo dosimetry of TBI.

  2. Possible changes in the dose of biologically active ultraviolet radiation received by the biosphere in the summertime Arctic due to total ozone interannual variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, Aleksandr N. (Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation))

    1994-12-01

    Data for total ozone measurements since 1972 from the world ozone measuring network have been analyzed to study ozone interannual variability and estimate its possible effect on the UV-B dose received by the arctic biosphere. Possible interannual changes in the UV-B dose received by DNA associated with overall interannual ozone variability, as well as with the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in total ozone were computed for different summer months. In general, the largest interannual variations in UV-B dose may occur in the Russian Arctic, whereas the possible variations in the Canadian Arctic are the smallest. Overall variations in the UV-B dose received by DNA can exceed 25% (2[sigma] criterion) in the Taimyr and Severnaya Zemlya for June and July, and 30% in the Laptev Sea for August. In the European sector of the Arctic, the possible variations are greater than 10%, and can exceed 15% in the north Norwegian Sea for July and 20% in Spitsbergen for August. Possible overall variations in the Canadian Arctic and Alaska are [<=]10%, reaching 15% in Alaska for August, however. The total ozone QBO can also cause essential and (statistically) predicted changes in UV-B radiation. In general, the UV-B dose received by DNA is found to be greater in the Arctic during the westerly phase of the QBO of the equatorial stratospheric wind at 50 mb level than during the easterly phase. The difference can reach or exceed 15% (relative to the mean value) in Taimyr for June and in Severnaya Zemlya for July and August. In northern Europe and Iceland, the difference can reach 10% for August. In the Canadian Arctic, the QBO-related effect is small. In Alaska, the appropriate difference in UV-B dose has an opposite sign for August, exceeding 5% in magnitude

  3. TLD-300 detectors for separate measurement of total and gamma absorbed dose distributions of single, multiple, and moving-field neutron treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassow, J.

    1984-01-01

    Fast neutron therapy requirements, because of the poor depth dose characteristic of present therapeutical sources, are at least as complex in treatment plans as photon therapy. The physical part of the treatment planning is very important; however, it is much more complicated than for photons or electrons owing to the need for: Separation of total and gamma absorbed dose distributions (Dsub(T) and Dsub(G)); and more stringent tissue-equivalence conditions of phantoms than in photon therapy. Therefore, methods of clinical dosimetry for the separate determination of total and gamma absorbed dose distributions in irregularly shaped (inhomogeneous) phantoms are needed. A method using TLD-300 (CaF 2 :Tm) detectors is described, which is able to give an approximate solution of the above-mentioned dosimetric requirements. The two independent doses, Dsub(T) and Dsub(G), can be calculated by an on-line computer analysis of the digitalized glow curve of TLD-300 detectors, irradiated with d(14)+Be neutrons of the cyclotron isocentric neutron therapy facility CIRCE in Essen. Results are presented for depth and lateral absorbed dose distributions (Dsub(T) and Dsub(G)) for fixed neutron beams of different field sizes compared with measurements by standard procedures (TE-TE ionization chamber, GM counter) in an A-150 phantom. The TLD-300 results for multiple and moving-field treatments (with and without wedge filters) in a patient simulating irregularly shaped (inhomogeneous) phantoms, are shown together with computer calculations of these dose distributions. The probable causes for some systematic deviations are discussed, which lead to open problems for further investigations owing to features of the detector material and the evaluation method, but mainly to differences in the composition of phantom materials used for the calculations (standard dose distributions) and TLD-300 measurements. (author)

  4. Results of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation After Treatment With Different High-Dose Total-Body Irradiation Regimens in Five Dutch Centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loes van Kempen-Harteveld, M.; Brand, Ronald; Kal, Henk B.; Verdonck, Leo F.; Hofman, Pieter; Schattenberg, Anton V.; Maazen, Richard W. van der; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Eijkenboom, Wil M.H.; Lelie, Johannes P. van der; Oldenburger, Foppe; Barge, Renee M.; Biezen, Anja van; Vossen, Jaak M.J.J.; Noordijk, Evert M.; Struikmans, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate results of high-dose total-body irradiation (TBI) regimens for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 1,032 patients underwent TBI in one or two fractions before autologous or allogeneic hematologic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The TBI regimens were normalized by using the biological effective dose (BED) concept. The BED values were divided into three dose groups. Study end points were relapse incidence (RI), non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS). Multivariate analysis was performed, stratified by disease. Results: In the highest TBI dose group, RI was significantly lower and NRM was higher vs. the lower dose groups. However, a significant influence on RFS and OS was not found. Relapses in the eye region were found only after shielding to very low doses. Age was of significant influence on OS, RFS, and NRM in favor of younger patients. The NRM of patients older than 40 years significantly increased, and OS decreased. There was no influence of age on RI. Men had better OS and RFS and lower NRM. Type of transplantation significantly influenced RI and NRM for patients with acute leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There was no influence on RFS and OS. Conclusions: Both RI and NRM were significantly influenced by the size of the BED of single-dose or two-fraction TBI regimens; OS and RFS were not. Age was of highly significant influence on NRM, but there was no influence of age on RI. Hyperfractionated TBI with a high BED might be useful, assuming NRM can be reduced

  5. Radiation dose reduction in digital plain radiography of the knee after total knee arthroplasty; Dosisreduktion in der digitalen Radiografie des Kniegelenkes nach endoprothetischem Gelenkersatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloth, J.K.; Kauczor, H.U.; Weber, M.A. [University Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Tanner, M.; Ewerbeck, V. [University Hospital Heidelberg (Germany). Center of Orthopedics, Trauma and Spinal Cord Injury; Stiller, W. [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Radiology (E010), Heidelberg (Germany); Burkholder, I. [Univ. of Applied Sciences of the Saarland, Dept. of Nursing and Health, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    To reduce radiation exposure of frequently performed radiographs of the knee in follow-up of total-knee arthroplasty ensuring accurate assessment by using objective quality control criteria. In this prospective randomized study 278 radiographs of the knee in follow-up of total-knee arthroplasty were performed with standard and 37 % reduced radiation dose. The evaluation of the plain-radiographs was conducted using the following criteria: bone-implant interface, implant-surface character, implant-implant discrimination and periarticular heterotopic ossification. Two radiologists evaluated these criteria using a score ranging from 1 (definitely assessable) to 4 (not assessable). If a single criterion had been evaluated with a score ≥ 3 or more than 2 criteria with ≥ 2 points, the radiograph was score das ''not assessable''. The study was designed as non-inferiority-trial. 100 % of examined radiographs were scored as assessable, hence no statistical inferiority between the examinations with standard and reduced dose could be observed. Singular assessment of the defined criteria was likewise dose-independent. Plain-radiography of the knee following total-knee arthroplasty can be performed with 63 % of standard dose without loss of diagnostic validity.

  6. Time- and radiation-dose dependent changes in the plasma proteome after total body irradiation of non-human primates: Implications for biomarker selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie D Byrum

    Full Text Available Acute radiation syndrome (ARS is a complex multi-organ disease resulting from total body exposure to high doses of radiation. Individuals can be exposed to total body irradiation (TBI in a number of ways, including terrorist radiological weapons or nuclear accidents. In order to determine whether an individual has been exposed to high doses of radiation and needs countermeasure treatment, robust biomarkers are needed to estimate radiation exposure from biospecimens such as blood or urine. In order to identity such candidate biomarkers of radiation exposure, high-resolution proteomics was used to analyze plasma from non-human primates following whole body irradiation (Co-60 at 6.7 Gy and 7.4 Gy with a twelve day observation period. A total of 663 proteins were evaluated from the plasma proteome analysis. A panel of plasma proteins with characteristic time- and dose-dependent changes was identified. In addition to the plasma proteomics study reported here, we recently identified candidate biomarkers using urine from these same non-human primates. From the proteomic analysis of both plasma and urine, we identified ten overlapping proteins that significantly differentiate both time and dose variables. These shared plasma and urine proteins represent optimal candidate biomarkers of radiation exposure.

  7. Low-dose (10-Gy) total skin electron beam therapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: an open clinical study and pooled data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstrup, Maria R; Gniadecki, Robert; Iversen, Lars; Skov, Lone; Petersen, Peter Meidahl; Loft, Annika; Specht, Lena

    2015-05-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are dominated by mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS), and durable disease control is a therapeutic challenge. Standard total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is an effective skin-directed therapy, but the possibility of retreatments is limited to 2 to 3 courses in a lifetime due to skin toxicity. This study aimed to determine the clinical effect of low-dose TSEBT in patients with MF and SS. In an open clinical study, 21 patients with MF/SS stages IB to IV were treated with low-dose TSEBT over dose of 10 Gy in 10 fractions. Data from 10 of these patients were published previously but were included in the current pooled data analysis. Outcome measures were response rate, duration of response, and toxicity. The overall response rate was 95% with a complete cutaneous response or a very good partial response rate (dose (10-Gy) TSEBT offers a high overall response rate and is relatively safe. With this approach, reirradiation at times of relapse or progression is likely to be less toxic than standard dose TSEBT. It remains to be established whether adjuvant and combination treatments can prolong the beneficial effects of low-dose TSEBT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantifying the importance of pMHC valency, total pMHC dose and frequency on nanoparticle therapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Jordan; Tsai, Sue; Santamaria, Pere; Khadra, Anmar

    2013-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) coated with β-cell-specific peptide major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) class I molecules can effectively restore normoglycemia in spontaneously diabetic nonobese diabetic mice. They do so by expanding pools of cognate memory autoreactive regulatory CD8+ T cells that arise from naive low-avidity T-cell precursors to therapeutic levels. Here we develop our previously constructed mathematical model to explore the effects of compound design parameters (NP dose and pMHC valency) on therapeutic efficacy with the underlying hypothesis that the functional correlates of the therapeutic response (expansion of autoregulatory T cells and deletion of autoantigen-loaded antigen-presenting cells by these T cells) are biphasic. We show, using bifurcation analysis, that the model exhibits a 'resonance'-like behavior for a given range of NP dose in which bistability between the healthy state (possessing zero level of effector T-cell population) and autoimmune state (possessing elevated level of the same population) disappears. A heterogeneous population of model mice subjected to several treatment protocols under these new conditions is conducted to quantify both the average percentage of autoregulatory T cells in responsive and nonresponsive model mice, and the average valency-dependent minimal optimal dose needed for effective therapy. Our results reveal that a moderate increase (≥1.6-fold) in the NP-dependent expansion rate of autoregulatory T-cell population leads to a significant increase in the efficacy and the area corresponding to the effective treatment regimen, provided that NP dose ≥8 μg. We expect the model developed here to generalize to other autoimmune diseases and serve as a computational tool to understand and optimize pMHC-NP-based therapies.

  9. Balancing selected medication costs with total number of daily injections: a preference analysis of GnRH-agonist and antagonist protocols by IVF patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During in vitro fertilization (IVF, fertility patients are expected to self-administer many injections as part of this treatment. While newer medications have been developed to substantially reduce the number of these injections, such agents are typically much more expensive. Considering these differences in both cost and number of injections, this study compared patient preferences between GnRH-agonist and GnRH-antagonist based protocols in IVF. Methods Data were collected by voluntary, anonymous questionnaire at first consultation appointment. Patient opinion concerning total number of s.c. injections as a function of non-reimbursed patient cost associated with GnRH-agonist [A] and GnRH-antagonist [B] protocols in IVF was studied. Results Completed questionnaires (n = 71 revealed a mean +/− SD patient age of 34 +/− 4.1 yrs. Most (83.1% had no prior IVF experience; 2.8% reported another medical condition requiring self-administration of subcutaneous medication(s. When out-of-pocket cost for [A] and [B] were identical, preference for [B] was registered by 50.7% patients. The tendency to favor protocol [B] was weaker among patients with a health occupation. Estimated patient costs for [A] and [B] were $259.82 +/− 11.75 and $654.55 +/− 106.34, respectively (p  Conclusions This investigation found consistently higher non-reimbursed direct medication costs for GnRH-antagonist IVF vs. GnRH-agonist IVF protocols. A conditional preference to minimize downregulation (using GnRH-antagonist was noted among some, but not all, IVF patient sub-groups. Compared to IVF patients with a health occupation, the preference for GnRH-antagonist was weaker than for other patients. While reducing total number of injections by using GnRH-antagonist is a desirable goal, it appears this advantage is not perceived equally by all IVF patients and its utility is likely discounted heavily by patients when nonreimbursed medication costs

  10. Balancing selected medication costs with total number of daily injections: a preference analysis of GnRH-agonist and antagonist protocols by IVF patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, E Scott; Collins, Gary S; Salem, Shala A; Jones, Christopher A; Peck, Alison C; Salem, Rifaat D

    2012-08-30

    During in vitro fertilization (IVF), fertility patients are expected to self-administer many injections as part of this treatment. While newer medications have been developed to substantially reduce the number of these injections, such agents are typically much more expensive. Considering these differences in both cost and number of injections, this study compared patient preferences between GnRH-agonist and GnRH-antagonist based protocols in IVF. Data were collected by voluntary, anonymous questionnaire at first consultation appointment. Patient opinion concerning total number of s.c. injections as a function of non-reimbursed patient cost associated with GnRH-agonist [A] and GnRH-antagonist [B] protocols in IVF was studied. Completed questionnaires (n = 71) revealed a mean +/- SD patient age of 34 +/- 4.1 yrs. Most (83.1%) had no prior IVF experience; 2.8% reported another medical condition requiring self-administration of subcutaneous medication(s). When out-of-pocket cost for [A] and [B] were identical, preference for [B] was registered by 50.7% patients. The tendency to favor protocol [B] was weaker among patients with a health occupation. Estimated patient costs for [A] and [B] were $259.82 +/- 11.75 and $654.55 +/- 106.34, respectively (p cost difference increased. This investigation found consistently higher non-reimbursed direct medication costs for GnRH-antagonist IVF vs. GnRH-agonist IVF protocols. A conditional preference to minimize downregulation (using GnRH-antagonist) was noted among some, but not all, IVF patient sub-groups. Compared to IVF patients with a health occupation, the preference for GnRH-antagonist was weaker than for other patients. While reducing total number of injections by using GnRH-antagonist is a desirable goal, it appears this advantage is not perceived equally by all IVF patients and its utility is likely discounted heavily by patients when nonreimbursed medication costs reach a critical level.

  11. TU-F-CAMPUS-T-01: Dose and Energy Spectra From Neutron Induced Radioactivity in Medical Linear Accelerators Following High Energy Total Body Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keehan, S; Taylor, M; Franich, R; Smith, R; Dunn, L; Kron, T

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the risk posed by neutron induced activation of components in medical linear accelerators (linacs) following the delivery of high monitor unit 18 MV photon beams such as used in TBI. Methods: Gamma spectroscopy was used to identify radioisotopes produced in components of a Varian 21EX and an Elekta Synergy following delivery of photon beams. Dose and risk estimates for TBI were assessed using dose deliveries from an actual patient treatment. A 1 litre spherical ion chamber (PTW, Germany) has been used to measure the dose at the beam exit window and at the total body irradiation (TBI) treatment couch following large and small field beams with long beam-on times. Measurements were also made outside of the closed jaws to quantify the benefit of the attenuation provided by the jaws. Results: The radioisotopes produced in the linac head have been identified as 187 W, 56 Mn, 24 Na and 28 Al, which have half-lives from between 2.3 min to 24 hours. The dose at the beam exit window following an 18 MV 2197 MU TBI beam delivery was 12.6 µSv in ten minutes. The dose rate at the TBI treatment couch 4.8 m away is a factor of ten lower. For a typical TBI delivered in six fractions each consisting of four beams and an annual patient load of 24, the annual dose estimate for a staff member at the treatment couch for ten minutes is 750 µSv. This can be further reduced by a factor of about twelve if the jaws are closed before entering the room, resulting in a dose estimate of 65 µSv. Conclusion: The dose resulting from the activation products for a representative TBI workload at our clinic of 24 patients per year is 750 µSv, which can be further reduced to 65 µSv by closing the jaws

  12. Preliminary assessment of a water-quality monitoring program for total maximum daily loads in Johnson County, Kansas, January 2015 through June 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Paxson, Chelsea R.

    2017-08-25

    Municipalities in Johnson County in northeastern Kansas are required to implement stormwater management programs to reduce pollutant discharges, protect water quality, and comply with applicable water-quality regulations in accordance with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits for stormwater discharge. To this end, municipalities collect grab samples at streams entering and leaving their jurisdiction to determine levels of excessive nutrients, sediment, and fecal bacteria to characterize pollutants and understand the factors affecting them.In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Johnson County Stormwater Management Program, with input from the Kansas Department of Health and Environment, initiated a 5-year monitoring program to satisfy minimum sampling requirements for each municipality as described by new stormwater permits issued to Johnson County municipalities. The purpose of this report is to provide a preliminary assessment of the monitoring program. The monitoring program is described, a preliminary assessment of the monitoring program design is provided using water-quality data collected during the first 2 years of the program, and the ability of the current monitoring network and sampling plan to provide data sufficient to quantify improvements in water quality resulting from implemented and planned best management practices is evaluated. The information in this initial report may be used to evaluate changes in data collection methods while data collection is still ongoing that may lead to improved data utility.Discrete water-quality samples were collected at 27 sites and analyzed for nutrients, Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, total suspended solids, and suspended-sediment concentration. In addition, continuous water-quality data (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, turbidity, and nitrate plus nitrite) were collected at one site to characterize variability and provide a basis for comparison to discrete

  13. Accelerating an Ordered-Subset Low-Dose X-Ray Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Reconstruction with a Power Factor and Total Variation Minimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsuan-Ming; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in low-dose X-ray cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in many fields, including dentistry, guided radiotherapy and small animal imaging. Despite reducing the radiation dose, low-dose CBCT has not gained widespread acceptance in routine clinical practice. In addition to performing more evaluation studies, developing a fast and high-quality reconstruction algorithm is required. In this work, we propose an iterative reconstruction method that accelerates ordered-subsets (OS) reconstruction using a power factor. Furthermore, we combine it with the total-variation (TV) minimization method. Both simulation and phantom studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method can accelerate conventional OS methods, greatly increase the convergence speed in early iterations. Moreover, applying the TV minimization to the power acceleration scheme can further improve the image quality while preserving the fast convergence rate.

  14. Low-Dose (10-Gy) Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma: An Open Clinical Study and Pooled Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamstrup, Maria R., E-mail: mkam0004@bbh.regionh.dk [Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Gniadecki, Robert [Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Iversen, Lars [Department of Dermatology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Skov, Lone [Department of Dermatology, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Petersen, Peter Meidahl [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Loft, Annika [Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Specht, Lena [Department of Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are dominated by mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS), and durable disease control is a therapeutic challenge. Standard total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is an effective skin-directed therapy, but the possibility of retreatments is limited to 2 to 3 courses in a lifetime due to skin toxicity. This study aimed to determine the clinical effect of low-dose TSEBT in patients with MF and SS. Methods and Materials: In an open clinical study, 21 patients with MF/SS stages IB to IV were treated with low-dose TSEBT over <2.5 weeks, receiving a total dose of 10 Gy in 10 fractions. Data from 10 of these patients were published previously but were included in the current pooled data analysis. Outcome measures were response rate, duration of response, and toxicity. Results: The overall response rate was 95% with a complete cutaneous response or a very good partial response rate (<1% skin involvement with patches or plaques) documented in 57% of the patients. Median duration of overall cutaneous response was 174 days (5.8 months; range: 60-675 days). TSEBT-related acute adverse events (grade 1 or 2) were observed in 60% of patients. Conclusions: Low-dose (10-Gy) TSEBT offers a high overall response rate and is relatively safe. With this approach, reirradiation at times of relapse or progression is likely to be less toxic than standard dose TSEBT. It remains to be established whether adjuvant and combination treatments can prolong the beneficial effects of low-dose TSEBT.

  15. TU-CD-304-04: Scanning Field Total Body Irradiation Using Dynamic Arc with Variable Dose Rate and Gantry Speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, B; Xu, H; Mutaf, Y; Prado, K [Univ. of Maryland School Of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Enable a scanning field total body irradiation (TBI) technique, using dynamic arcs, which is biologically equivalent to a moving couch TBI. Methods: Patient is treated slightly above the floor and the treatment field scans across the patient by a moving gantry. MLC positions change during gantry motion to keep same field opening at the level of the treatment plane (170 cm). This is done to mimic the same geometry as the moving couch TBI technique which has been used in our institution for over 10 years. The dose rate and the gantry speed are determined considering a constant speed of the moving field, variations in SSD and slanted depths resulting from oblique gantry angles. An Eclipse (Varian) planning system is commissioned to accommodate the extended SSD. The dosimetric foundations of the technique have been thoroughly investigated using phantom measurements. Results: Dose uniformity better than 2% across 180 cm length at 10cm depth is achieved by moving the gantry from −55 to +55 deg. Treatment range can be extended by increasing gantry range. No device such as a gravity-oriented compensator is needed to achieve a uniform dose. It is feasible to modify the dose distribution by adjusting the dose rate at each gantry angle to compensate for body thickness differences. Total treatment time for 2 Gy AP/PA fields is 40–50 minutes excluding patient set up time, at the machine dose rate of 100 MU/min. Conclusion: This novel yet transportable moving field technique enables TBI treatment in a small treatment room with less program development preparation than other techniques. Treatment length can be extended per need, and. MLC-based thickness compensation and partial lung blocking are also possible.

  16. The role of total dose in conservative surgery and radiation therapy for early stage breast cancer: is there a critical level?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Julia; Brown, Douglas; Gustafson, Greg; Chen, Peter; Matter, Richard; Cook, Carla; Martinez, Alvaro; Vicini, Frank A

    1995-07-01

    Purpose: Over the past several years, it has been our standard policy after breast conserving surgery to treat the entire breast to 45-50 Gy followed by a supplemental boost dose to the tumor bed to a minimum of 60 Gy with standard fractionation. We reviewed patients who received < 60 Gy to the tumor bed to identify any differences in recurrence rates in the breast. Materials and Methods: From 1/1/75 through 12/31/87, 443 consecutive patients diagnosed with stage I and II breast cancer (unilateral) were treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy (CSRT) at William Beaumont Hospital. All patients underwent at least an excisional biopsy and 268 (60%) patients were re-excised. An ipsilateral axillary lymph node dissection was performed on 420 patients (95%). All patients received whole breast irradiation to 45-50 Gy. A supplemental boost dose was delivered to the tumor bed with either an implant, electrons, or photons in 404 (91%) patients. Median follow-up of surviving patients is 88 months. Results: Thirty-three patients of the 443 have suffered a failure in the treated breast for a 5 and 10 yr actuarial rate of local recurrence of 5 and 10%, respectively. Evaluation by total dose to the tumor bed is as follows: The distribution of patient's respective histology, tumor size, hormonal status, age, re-excision status, and adjuvant systemic therapy was similar among the dose groups. On multivariate analysis (Cox), in addition to total dose to tumor bed (p=0.002), the only other factor which was significantly associated with local recurrence was patient age {<=} 35 (p=0.002). Conclusions: Patients who receive {<=} 50 Gy to the tumor bed without careful attention to excisional status are at a significantly higher risk of local failure. This underlies the importance of supplementing the tumor bed dose after whole breast radiation therapy in those patients whose status of excision is not definitely known.

  17. SU-E-T-515: Field-In-Field Compensation Technique Using Multi-Leaf Collimator to Deliver Total Body Irradiation (TBI) Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakeman, T [The State University of New York at Buffalo (United States); Wang, IZ [The State University of New York at Buffalo (United States); Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient's immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has been used conventionally to compensate for the varying thickness through the entire body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern field-in-field (FIF) technique with the multi-leaf collimator (MLC) to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Method: Treatment plans utilizing the FIF technique to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Treatment fields include one pair of opposed open large fields (collimator=45°) with a specific weighting and a succession of smaller fields (collimator=90°) each with their own weighting. The smaller fields are shaped by moving MLC to block the sections of the patient which have already received close to 100% of the prescribed dose. The weighting factors for each of these fields were calculated using the attenuation coefficient of the initial lead compensators and the separation of the patient in different positions in the axial plane. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for evaluating the FIF compensation technique. The maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the non-compensated 179.3% to 148.2% in the FIF plans, indicating a more uniform dose with the FIF compensation. All calculated monitor units were well within clinically acceptable limits and exceeded those of the original lead compensation plan by less than 50 MU (only ~1.1% increase). Conclusion: MLC FIF technique for TBI will not significantly increase the beam on time while it can substantially reduce the compensator setup time and the potential risk of errors in manually placing lead compensators.

  18. Low-Dose Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy as a Debulking Agent for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma: An open-label prospective phase II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamstrup, M R; Lindahl, Lise Maria; Gniadecki, R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) is a powerful treatment for cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL). Based on the occurrence of relapses with low radiation doses, doses of 30-36 Gy are commonly used but most patients still eventually relapse and repeat treatment courses are limited...... due to the cumulative toxicity. Complete response rates are about 60-90% for T2-4 stages with a 5-year relapse-free survival of 10-25% for stages IB-III. Objectives: To evaluate prospectively the efficacy of low-dose TSEBT (10 Gy) in terms of complete cutaneous response rate, overall response rate...... and response duration in CTCL. Methods: Ten patients with stage IB-IV mycosis fungoides (MF) were treated in an open-label manner with 4 fractions of 1 Gy/week TSEB to a total skin dose of 10 Gy. Treatment responses were assessed at 1 and 3 months after treatment and subsequently at least every 6 months...

  19. Total dose behavior of partially depleted SOI dynamic threshold voltage MOS (DTMOS) for very low supply voltage applications (0.6 - 1 V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlet-Cavrois, V.; Musseau, O.; Leray, J.L.; Faynot, O.; Raynaud, C.; Pelloie, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we presented two DTMOS architectures processed with a partially depleted SOI technology. The first architecture, DTMOS without limiting transistor, is dedicated to ultra-low voltage applications, at 0.6 V. For 1V applications, the second architecture, DTMOS with limiting transistor, needs an additional transistor to limit the body-source diode current. The total dose irradiation of both DTMOS architectures induces no change of the drain current, but an increase of the body-source diode current. Total dose induced trapped charge in the buried oxide increases the body potential of the DTMOS transistor. It induces an increase of the current flow at the back interface of the silicon film. Irradiation of complex circuits using DTMOS transistors would lead to a degradation of the stand-by consumption. (authors)

  20. A reviewed technique for total body electron therapy using a Varian Clinac 2100C/D high dose rate treatment beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, L.D.; Xuereb, E.M.A.; Last, V.; Hunt, P.B.; Wilfert, A.

    1996-01-01

    Our (Royal North Shore Hospital) most recent linear accelerator acquisition is a Varian Clinac 2100C/D which has a high dose rate (approximately 25Gy per minute at 1 metre) total body electron option. We investigated the physical characteristics of the electron beam to develop a suitable method of treatment for total body electron therapy. The useful electron beam width is defined as 80cm above and below the reference height. Measurements of the electron dose received from the two angled electron beams showed a critical dependence on the gantry angles. The treatment protocol uses ten different patient angles, fractionated into directly opposing fields and treated seuqentially each day. A full cycle of treatment is completed in five days. (author)

  1. The effect of total body irradiation dose and chronic graft-versus-host disease on leukaemic relapse after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frassoni, F; Bacigalupo, A [Ospedale San Martino (Italy). Centro Trapianti Midollo Osseo; Scarpati, D [Univ. di Genova (Italy). Ist. di Radiologia; and others

    1989-10-01

    One-hundred and five patients undergoing allo-geneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) (n=61) and chronic myeloid leukaemia (n=44) were analysed for risk factors associated with relapse. All patients received marrow from an HLA identical sibling after preparation with cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg and total body irradiation (TBI) 330 cGy on each of the three days prior to transplantation. A multivariate Cox analysis indicated that a lower TBI dose (less than 990 cGy) was the most significant factor associated with relapse and the second most important factor associated with recurrence of leukaemia was the absence of chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGvHD). Actuarial relapse incidence was 62%, 28% and 18% for patients with no, limited or extensive chronic GvHD respectively. However, chronic GvHD had no significant impact on survival. Combined stratification for TBI dose and cGvHD showed that the dose effect of TBI on relapse was evident both in patients with and without cGvHD. Chronic GvHD influenced the risk of relapse only in patients receiving less than 990 cGy. These results suggest that a higher dose of TBI, within this schedule, produced long-term disease-free survival in the majority of AMLs and CMLs. Minor radiobiological side effects were experienced, but a small reduction of the dose may significantly increase the risk of relapse. (author).

  2. The effect of total body irradiation dose and chronic graft-versus-host disease on leukaemic relapse after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frassoni, F.; Bacigalupo, A.; Scarpati, D.

    1989-01-01

    One-hundred and five patients undergoing allo-geneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) (n=61) and chronic myeloid leukaemia (n=44) were analysed for risk factors associated with relapse. All patients received marrow from an HLA identical sibling after preparation with cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg and total body irradiation (TBI) 330 cGy on each of the three days prior to transplantation. A multivariate Cox analysis indicated that a lower TBI dose (less than 990 cGy) was the most significant factor associated with relapse and the second most important factor associated with recurrence of leukaemia was the absence of chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGvHD). Actuarial relapse incidence was 62%, 28% and 18% for patients with no, limited or extensive chronic GvHD respectively. However, chronic GvHD had no significant impact on survival. Combined stratification for TBI dose and cGvHD showed that the dose effect of TBI on relapse was evident both in patients with and without cGvHD. Chronic GvHD influenced the risk of relapse only in patients receiving less than 990 cGy. These results suggest that a higher dose of TBI, within this schedule, produced long-term disease-free survival in the majority of AMLs and CMLs. Minor radiobiological side effects were experienced, but a small reduction of the dose may significantly increase the risk of relapse. (author)

  3. Total integrated dose testing of solid-state scientific CD4011, CD4013, and CD4060 devices by irradiation with CO-60 gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, A. R. V.; Gauthier, M. K.; Coss, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The total integrated dose response of three CMOS devices manufactured by Solid State Scientific has been measured using CO-60 gamma rays. Key parameter measurements were made and compared for each device type. The data show that the CD4011, CD4013, and CD4060 produced by this manufacturers should not be used in any environments where radiation levels might exceed 1,000 rad(Si).

  4. The role of low-dose total body irradiation in treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a new look at an old method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safwat, A.

    2000-01-01

    The use of low-dose total body irradiation (LTBI) in treatment of lymphomatous malignancies dates back to the 1920s. The usual practice was to give very low individual TBI fraction sizes (0. 1-0.25 Gy) several times a week to a total dose of 1.5-2 Gy. Despite this very low total dose, LTBI could induce long term remissions and was always as effective as the chemotherapy to which it was compared. In modem radiotherapy, LTBI is still a valid option in treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and the advanced stages of indolent low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Its use in the early stages of low-grade NHL is under investigation in a large multi-institutional trial. The efficacy of LTBI is believed to stem from three mechanisms, namely; immune-enhancement, induction of apoptosis, and the intrinsic hypersensitivity to low-radiation doses demonstrated in many cell lines and tumour systems. Thus, LTBI seems to provide 'alternative' mechanisms of action against cancer cells. This should encourage researchers to explore strategies that integrate LTBI in new and innovative experimental treatment protocols that explore the possible synergism between LTBI and chemotherapy, biological response modifiers and/or immunotherapy. The increased incidence of secondary leukaemia that occurs when LTBI is combined with alkylating agents and/or total lymphoid irradiation should be kept in mind when designing such protocols as it may limit the use of LTBI in highly curable diseases and young patients in whom long survival is expected. (author)

  5. Long-term brain structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive functioning in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia with high-dose methotrexate chemotherapy alone or combined with CNS radiotherapy at reduced total dose to 12 Gy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajac-Spychala, Olga; Pilarczyk, Jakub; Derwich, Katarzyna; Wachowiak, Jacek [Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Transplantology, Poznan (Poland); Pawlak, Mikolaj A. [Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Neurology and Cerebrovascular Disorders, Poznan (Poland); Karmelita-Katulska, Katarzyna [Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Department of Neuroradiology, Poznan (Poland)

    2017-02-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the long-term side effects of central nervous system prophylaxis (high-dose chemotherapy alone vs chemotherapy and CNS radiotherapy) according to the ALL IC-BFM 2002. Thirty-tree children aged 6.7-19.9 years have been studied. The control group consisted of 12 children newly diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We assessed subcortical gray matter volume using automatic MRI segmentation and cognitive performance to identify differences between two therapeutic schemes and patients prior to treatment. Patients treated with chemotherapy and CNS radiotherapy had smaller hippocampi than two other subgroups and lower IQ score than patients treated with chemotherapy alone. Both treated groups, whether with chemotherapy only or in combination with CNS radiotherapy, had significantly lower volumes of caudate nucleus and performed significantly worse on measures of verbal fluency in comparison with patients prior to treatment. There were no differences in the mean volumes of total white matter, total gray matter, thalamus, putamen, and amygdala between the studied groups. In all children treated according to the ALL IC-BFM 2002 with high-dose chemotherapy, both decreased volume of selected subcortical structures and cognitive impairment was observed, especially in children who received chemotherapy in combination with reduced dose CNS radiotherapy. In all children treated according to the ALL IC-BFM 2002 with high-dose chemotherapy, both decreased volume of selected subcortical structures and cognitive impairment were observed, especially in children who received chemotherapy in combination with CNS radiotherapy. (orig.)

  6. Long-term brain structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive functioning in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia with high-dose methotrexate chemotherapy alone or combined with CNS radiotherapy at reduced total dose to 12 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajac-Spychala, Olga; Pilarczyk, Jakub; Derwich, Katarzyna; Wachowiak, Jacek; Pawlak, Mikolaj A.; Karmelita-Katulska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the long-term side effects of central nervous system prophylaxis (high-dose chemotherapy alone vs chemotherapy and CNS radiotherapy) according to the ALL IC-BFM 2002. Thirty-tree children aged 6.7-19.9 years have been studied. The control group consisted of 12 children newly diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We assessed subcortical gray matter volume using automatic MRI segmentation and cognitive performance to identify differences between two therapeutic schemes and patients prior to treatment. Patients treated with chemotherapy and CNS radiotherapy had smaller hippocampi than two other subgroups and lower IQ score than patients treated with chemotherapy alone. Both treated groups, whether with chemotherapy only or in combination with CNS radiotherapy, had significantly lower volumes of caudate nucleus and performed significantly worse on measures of verbal fluency in comparison with patients prior to treatment. There were no differences in the mean volumes of total white matter, total gray matter, thalamus, putamen, and amygdala between the studied groups. In all children treated according to the ALL IC-BFM 2002 with high-dose chemotherapy, both decreased volume of selected subcortical structures and cognitive impairment was observed, especially in children who received chemotherapy in combination with reduced dose CNS radiotherapy. In all children treated according to the ALL IC-BFM 2002 with high-dose chemotherapy, both decreased volume of selected subcortical structures and cognitive impairment were observed, especially in children who received chemotherapy in combination with CNS radiotherapy. (orig.)

  7. Clinical Usefulness between High Dose Radioiodine Therapy and Helicobacter Pylori Infection after Total Thyroidectomy due to Well Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Kuk No; Lim, Seok Tae; Moon, Eun Ha; Kim, Jin Suk; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Helicobacter (H) pylori infection has been considered the most important cause of gastritis, dyspepsia, and gastroduodenal ulcer. Radioiodine can be accumulated in the remaining thyroid tissue, salivary gland, and stomach. We investigated if the high radiation induced by radioiodine in the stomach after high dose radioiodine therapy (HD-RIT) is effective in the eradication of H. pylori infection. One hundred ninety nine patients (M:F=33:166, age 46.7{+-}12.3 years) who had HD-RIT (dose 159.1{+-}25.9 mCi, range 120-250 mCi) after thyroidectomy due to well differentiated thyroid cancer were enrolled. To detect H. pylori infection, the urea breath tests (UBT) were performed at 1 hour before HD-RIT and at 4 weeks after HD-RIT. The results of UBT were classified as positive ({>=}50 dpm) or negative (<50 dpm), and analyzed its values. Of 199 patients, 103 (51.8%) patients had positive UBT before HD-RIT. Of these, 80 patients had follow-up UBT after HD-RIT. Among them, 76 (95.0%) patients had persistent positive UBT and only 4 (5.0%) patients were changed negative UBT. Among 76 patients with persistent positive UBT, 26 (34.2%) patients had increased the values of follow-up UBT, 49 (64.5%) had decreased them, and 1 (1.3%) had shown the same value. The different values of UBT between before and after HD-RIT were 62{+-}66.1 dpm in increased one of follow-up UBT, and 153.3{+-}157.1 dpm in decreased one of follow-up UBT. We conclude that the radiation induced by HD-RIT is ineffective in the eradication of H. pylori infection. However, it could be influential the degree or distribution of H. pylori infection.

  8. Clinical Usefulness between High Dose Radioiodine Therapy and Helicobacter Pylori Infection after Total Thyroidectomy due to Well Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Kuk No; Lim, Seok Tae; Moon, Eun Ha; Kim, Jin Suk; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter (H) pylori infection has been considered the most important cause of gastritis, dyspepsia, and gastroduodenal ulcer. Radioiodine can be accumulated in the remaining thyroid tissue, salivary gland, and stomach. We investigated if the high radiation induced by radioiodine in the stomach after high dose radioiodine therapy (HD-RIT) is effective in the eradication of H. pylori infection. One hundred ninety nine patients (M:F=33:166, age 46.7±12.3 years) who had HD-RIT (dose 159.1±25.9 mCi, range 120-250 mCi) after thyroidectomy due to well differentiated thyroid cancer were enrolled. To detect H. pylori infection, the urea breath tests (UBT) were performed at 1 hour before HD-RIT and at 4 weeks after HD-RIT. The results of UBT were classified as positive (≥50 dpm) or negative (<50 dpm), and analyzed its values. Of 199 patients, 103 (51.8%) patients had positive UBT before HD-RIT. Of these, 80 patients had follow-up UBT after HD-RIT. Among them, 76 (95.0%) patients had persistent positive UBT and only 4 (5.0%) patients were changed negative UBT. Among 76 patients with persistent positive UBT, 26 (34.2%) patients had increased the values of follow-up UBT, 49 (64.5%) had decreased them, and 1 (1.3%) had shown the same value. The different values of UBT between before and after HD-RIT were 62±66.1 dpm in increased one of follow-up UBT, and 153.3±157.1 dpm in decreased one of follow-up UBT. We conclude that the radiation induced by HD-RIT is ineffective in the eradication of H. pylori infection. However, it could be influential the degree or distribution of H. pylori infection

  9. Low-dose CT imaging of a total hip arthroplasty phantom using model-based iterative reconstruction and orthopedic metal artifact reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellenberg, R.H.H.; Streekstra, G.J.; Maas, M. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boomsma, M.F.; Osch, J.A.C. van [Department of Radiology, Zwolle (Netherlands); Vlassenbroek, A. [Philips Medical Systems, Brussels (Belgium); Milles, J. [Philips Medical Systems, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Edens, M.A. [Department of Innovation and Science, Zwolle (Netherlands); Slump, C.H. [University of Twente, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2017-05-15

    To compare quantitative measures of image quality, in terms of CT number accuracy, noise, signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs), and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs), at different dose levels with filtered-back-projection (FBP), iterative reconstruction (IR), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) alone and in combination with orthopedic metal artifact reduction (O-MAR) in a total hip arthroplasty (THA) phantom. Scans were acquired from high- to low-dose (CTDI{sub vol}: 40.0, 32.0, 24.0, 16.0, 8.0, and 4.0 mGy) at 120- and 140- kVp. Images were reconstructed using FBP, IR (iDose{sup 4} level 2, 4, and 6) and MBIR (IMR, level 1, 2, and 3) with and without O-MAR. CT number accuracy in Hounsfield Units (HU), noise or standard deviation, SNRs, and CNRs were analyzed. The IMR technique showed lower noise levels (p < 0.01), higher SNRs (p < 0.001) and CNRs (p < 0.001) compared with FBP and iDose{sup 4} in all acquisitions from high- to low-dose with constant CT numbers. O-MAR reduced noise (p < 0.01) and improved SNRs (p < 0.01) and CNRs (p < 0.001) while improving CT number accuracy only at a low dose. At the low dose of 4.0 mGy, IMR level 1, 2, and 3 showed 83%, 89%, and 95% lower noise values, a factor 6.0, 9.2, and 17.9 higher SNRs, and 5.7, 8.8, and 18.2 higher CNRs compared with FBP respectively. Based on quantitative analysis of CT number accuracy, noise values, SNRs, and CNRs, we conclude that the combined use of IMR and O-MAR enables a reduction in radiation dose of 83% compared with FBP and iDose{sup 4} in the CT imaging of a THA phantom. (orig.)

  10. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, parallel-group, dose-escalating, repeat dose study in healthy volunteers to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetics of the once daily rectal application of NRL001 suppositories for 14 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, D; Duffin, A; Jacobs, A; Pediconi, C; Gruss, H J

    2014-03-01

    The 1R,2S stereoisomer of methoxamine hydrochloride, NRL001, is a highly selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist being developed for the local treatment of non-structural faecal incontinence caused by weak internal anal sphincter tone. This study investigated the steady state pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of 2 g rectal suppositories containing NRL001 in different strengths (7.5, 10, 12.5 or 15 mg). Healthy volunteers aged 18-45 years received 14 daily doses of NRL001 2 g suppositories or matching placebo. In each dose group nine participants received NRL001 and three received placebo. Blood samples to determine NRL001 concentrations were taken on Days 1, 7 and 14. Cardiovascular parameters were collected via electrocardiograms, Holter monitoring (three lead Holter monitor) and vital signs. Forty-eight volunteers were enrolled; 43 completed the study and were included in the PK analysis population. AUC and Cmax broadly increased with increasing dose, Tmax generally occurred between 4.0 and 5.0 h. Although the data did not appear strongly dose proportional, dose proportionality analysis did not provide evidence against dose proportionality as the log(dose) coefficients were not significantly < 1. NRL001 did not accumulate over time for any dose. Increasing NRL001 concentrations were related to changes in vital sign variables, most notably decreased heart rate. The most commonly reported adverse events (AEs) in the active treatment groups were paraesthesia and piloerection. Treatment with NRL001 was generally well tolerated over 14 days once daily dosing and plasma NRL001 did not accumulate over time. Treatment was associated with changes in vital sign variables, most notably decreased heart rate. AEs commonly reported with NRL001 treatment were events indicative of a systemic α-adrenergic effect. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of