WorldWideScience

Sample records for total daily calories

  1. Predictors of total calories purchased at fast-food restaurants: restaurant characteristics, calorie awareness, and use of calorie information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissette, Ian; Lowenfels, Ann; Noble, Corina; Spicer, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    To examine purchase patterns at fast-food restaurants and their relation to restaurant characteristics, customer characteristics, and use of calorie information. Cross-sectional survey. Fast-food restaurants in New York State. Adult fast-food restaurant customers (n = 1,094). Restaurant characteristics (fast-food chain type, presence of calorie labels, and poverty of location), participant characteristics (demographics, calorie knowledge, awareness, and use), and customer purchasing patterns (ordering low-calorie or no beverage, small or no fries, or restaurant and customer characteristics, fast-food chain customer age, sex, calorie use, and calorie awareness were independently associated with total calories purchased (all P < .05; model R2 = .19). When 3 purchasing patterns were added to the model, calorie use (P = .005), but not calorie awareness, remained associated with total calories purchased. The 3 purchase patterns collectively accounted for the majority of variance in calorie totals (Δ model R2 = .40). Promoting use of calorie information, purchase strategies, and calorie awareness represents complementary ways to support lower-calorie choices at fast-food chains. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Bleil, Maria E; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Nackers, Lisa M; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2013-10-02

    Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥ 0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (food were calculated for each eating occasion and day. In covariate-adjusted models, energy intake from solid food did not differ between eating occasions that included high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women's daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines. © 2013.

  3. Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Bleil, Maria E.; Waring, Molly E.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Nackers, Lisa M.; Busch, Andrew M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (food were calculated for each eating occasion and day. In covariate-adjusted models, energy intake from solid food did not differ between eating occasions that included high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women’s daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines. PMID:24041722

  4. The publics' understanding of daily caloric recommendations and their perceptions of calorie posting in chain restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleich Sara N

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calorie posting in chain restaurants has received increasing attention as a policy lever to reduce energy intake. Little research has assessed consumer understanding of overall daily energy requirements or perceived effectiveness of calorie posting. Methods A phone survey was conducted from May 1 through 17, 2009 with 663 randomly selected, nationally-representative adults aged 18 and older, including an oversample of Blacks and Hispanics in the United States. To examine differences in responses by race and ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic and gender, we compared responses by conducting chi-squared tests for differences in proportions. Results We found that most Americans were knowledgeable about energy requirements for moderately active men (78% and women (69%, but underestimated energy requirements for inactive adults (60%. Whites had significantly higher caloric literacy and confidence about their caloric knowledge than Blacks and Hispanics (p Conclusion Mandating calorie posting in chain restaurants may be a useful policy tool for promoting energy balance, particularly among Blacks, Hispanics and women who have higher obesity risk.

  5. Intermittent fasting vs daily calorie restriction for type 2 diabetes prevention: a review of human findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnosky, Adrienne R; Hoddy, Kristin K; Unterman, Terry G; Varady, Krista A

    2014-10-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) regimens have gained considerable popularity in recent years, as some people find these diets easier to follow than traditional calorie restriction (CR) approaches. IF involves restricting energy intake on 1-3 d/wk, and eating freely on the nonrestriction days. Alternate day fasting (ADF) is a subclass of IF, which consists of a "fast day" (75% energy restriction) alternating with a "feed day" (ad libitum food consumption). Recent findings suggest that IF and ADF are equally as effective as CR for weight loss and cardioprotection. What remains unclear, however, is whether IF/ADF elicits comparable improvements in diabetes risk indicators, when compared with CR. Accordingly, the goal of this review was to compare the effects of IF and ADF with daily CR on body weight, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese adults. Results reveal superior decreases in body weight by CR vs IF/ADF regimens, yet comparable reductions in visceral fat mass, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance. None of the interventions produced clinically meaningful reductions in glucose concentrations. Taken together, these preliminary findings show promise for the use of IF and ADF as alternatives to CR for weight loss and type 2 diabetes risk reduction in overweight and obese populations, but more research is required before solid conclusions can be reached. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. TCTE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Means V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) Calibration Transfer Experiment (TCTE) data set TCTE3TSID contains daily averaged total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data...

  7. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The Clean Water Act Section 303(d) establishes the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The purpose of the TMDL program is to identify sources of pollution and...

  8. Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Assessment TMDL Tracking And Implementation System (ATTAINS) stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads...

  9. A randomized pilot study comparing zero-calorie alternate-day fasting to daily caloric restriction in adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenacci, Victoria A; Pan, Zhaoxing; Ostendorf, Danielle; Brannon, Sarah; Gozansky, Wendolyn S; Mattson, Mark P; Martin, Bronwen; MacLean, Paul S; Melanson, Edward L; Troy Donahoo, William

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the safety and tolerability of alternate-day fasting (ADF) and to compare changes in weight, body composition, lipids, and insulin sensitivity index (Si) with those produced by a standard weight loss diet, moderate daily caloric restriction (CR). Adults with obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) , age 18-55) were randomized to either zero-calorie ADF (n = 14) or CR (-400 kcal/day, n = 12) for 8 weeks. Outcomes were measured at the end of the 8-week intervention and after 24 weeks of unsupervised follow-up. No adverse effects were attributed to ADF, and 93% completed the 8-week ADF protocol. At 8 weeks, ADF achieved a 376 kcal/day greater energy deficit; however, there were no significant between-group differences in change in weight (mean ± SE; ADF -8.2 ± 0.9 kg, CR -7.1 ± 1.0 kg), body composition, lipids, or Si. After 24 weeks of unsupervised follow-up, there were no significant differences in weight regain; however, changes from baseline in % fat mass and lean mass were more favorable in ADF. ADF is a safe and tolerable approach to weight loss. ADF produced similar changes in weight, body composition, lipids, and Si at 8 weeks and did not appear to increase risk for weight regain 24 weeks after completing the intervention. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  10. A randomized pilot study comparing zero-calorie alternate-day fasting to daily caloric restriction in adults with obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenacci, Victoria A.; Pan, Zhaoxing; Ostendorf, Danielle; Brannon, Sarah; Gozansky, Wendolyn S.; Mattson, Mark P.; Martin, Bronwen; MacLean, Paul S.; Melanson, Edward L.; Donahoo, William Troy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and tolerability of alternate-day fasting (ADF) and to compare changes in weight, body composition, lipids, and insulin sensitivity index (Si) to those produced by a standard weight loss diet, moderate daily caloric restriction (CR). Methods Adults with obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2, age 18-55) were randomized to either zero-calorie ADF (n=14) or CR (-400 kcal/day, n=12) for 8 weeks. Outcomes were measured at the end of the 8-week intervention and after 24 weeks of unsupervised follow-up. Results No adverse effects were attributed to ADF and 93% completed the 8-week ADF protocol. At 8 weeks, ADF achieved a 376 kcal/day greater energy deficit, however there were no significant between-group differences in change in weight (mean±SE; ADF -8.2±0.9 kg, CR -7.1±1.0 kg), body composition, lipids, or Si. After 24 weeks of unsupervised follow-up, there were no significant differences in weight regain, however changes from baseline in % fat mass and lean mass were more favorable in ADF. Conclusions ADF is a safe and tolerable approach to weight loss. ADF produced similar changes in weight, body composition, lipids and Si at 8 weeks and did not appear to increase risk for weight regain 24 weeks after completing the intervention. PMID:27569118

  11. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: III. Impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on mean daily body temperature and torpor use in the C57BL/6 mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sharon E.; Delville, Camille; Konstantopedos, Penelope; Derous, Davina; Green, Cara L.; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong J.; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Douglas, Alex; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A commonly observed response in mammals to calorie restriction (CR) is reduced body temperature (Tb). We explored how the Tb of male C57BL/6 mice responded to graded CR (10 to 40%), compared to the response to equivalent levels of protein restriction (PR) over 3 months. Under CR there was a dynamic change in daily Tb over the first 30–35 days, which stabilized thereafter until day 70 after which a further decline was noted. The time to reach stability was dependent on restriction level. Body mass negatively correlated with Tb under ad libitum feeding and positively correlated under CR. The average Tb over the last 20 days was significantly related to the levels of body fat, structural tissue, leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1. Some mice, particularly those under higher levels of CR, showed periods of daily torpor later in the restriction period. None of the changes in Tb under CR were recapitulated by equivalent levels of PR. We conclude that changes in Tb under CR are a response only to the shortfall in calorie intake. The linear relationship between average Tb and the level of restriction supports the idea that Tb changes are an integral aspect of the lifespan effect. PMID:26286956

  12. Effect of intermittent versus daily calorie restriction on changes in weight and patient reported outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    An intermittent fasting or calorie restriction diet has favorable effects in the mouse forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and may provide additional anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective advantages beyond benefits obtained from weight loss alone. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled feeding stud...

  13. SORCE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Average V016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) data set SOR3TSID contains the total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data collected by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM)...

  14. Calorie Underestimation When Buying High-Calorie Beverages in Fast-Food Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franckle, Rebecca L; Block, Jason P; Roberto, Christina A

    2016-07-01

    We asked 1877 adults and 1178 adolescents visiting 89 fast-food restaurants in New England in 2010 and 2011 to estimate calories purchased. Calorie underestimation was greater among those purchasing a high-calorie beverage than among those who did not (adults: 324 ±698 vs 102 ±591 calories; adolescents: 360 ±602 vs 198 ±509 calories). This difference remained significant for adults but not adolescents after adjusting for total calories purchased. Purchasing high-calorie beverages may uniquely contribute to calorie underestimation among adults.

  15. Use of the cellular model of body composition to describe changes in body water compartments after total fasting, very low calorie diet and low calorie diet in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, M; Faber, P; Gibney, E R; Lobley, G E; Elia, M; Stubbs, R J; Johnstone, A M

    2010-05-01

    The cellular model of body composition divides the body in body cell mass (BCM), extracellular solids and extracellular fluids. This model has been infrequently applied for the evaluation of weight loss (WL) programmes. (1) To assess changes in body compartments in obese men undergoing fasting, very low calorie diet (VLCD) and low calorie diet (LCD); (2) to evaluate two cellular models for the determination of changes in BCM, fat mass (FM) and body fluids. Three groups of six, obese men participated in a total fast (F) for 6 days, a VLCD (2.5 MJ per day) for 3 weeks or an LCD (5.2 MJ per day) for 6 weeks. Body composition was measured at baseline and after small ( approximately 5%) and moderate ( approximately 10%) WL. FM was measured using a four-compartment model. Total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) were, respectively, measured by deuterium and sodium bromide dilution and intracellular water (ICW) calculated by difference. Two cellular models were used to measure BCM, FM and body fluids distribution. After about 5%WL changes in TBW were F=-3.2+/-1.2 kg (Pfasting (+1.5+/-3.1 kg, n.s.), decreased during the VLCD (-2.0+/-1.5 kg, Pfasting (-4.7+/-3.9 kg, Pfasting group and it was directly associated with changes in ICW. After a 6-day period of fasting we observed more ICW losses and less fat mobilization compared with VLCD and LCD. The cellular model of body composition is suitable for the characterization of changes in body fluids distribution during WL.

  16. Oral calorie supplements for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Rosalind L; Rayner, Oli

    2017-05-04

    Poor nutrition occurs frequently in people with cystic fibrosis and is associated with other adverse outcomes. Oral calorie supplements are used to increase total daily calorie intake and improve weight gain. However, they are expensive and there are concerns they may reduce the amount of food eaten and not improve overall energy intake. This is an update of a previously published review. To establish whether in people with cystic fibrosis, oral calorie supplements: increase daily calorie intake; and improve overall nutritional intake, nutritional indices, lung function, survival and quality of life. To assess adverse effects associated with using these supplements. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register comprising references from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We contacted companies marketing oral calorie supplements.Last search: 18 October 2016. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing use of oral calorie supplements for at least one month to increase calorie intake with no specific intervention or additional nutritional advice in people with cystic fibrosis. We independently selected the included trials, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. We contacted the authors of included trials and obtained additional information for two trials. We identified 21 trials and included three, reporting results from 131 participants lasting between three months and one year. Two trials compared supplements to additional nutritional advice and one to no intervention. Two of the included trials recruited only children. In one trial the risk of bias was low across all domains, in a second trial the risk of bias was largely unclear and in the third mainly low. Blinding of participants was unclear in two of the trials. Also, in one trial the clinical condition of groups appeared to be unevenly balanced at baseline and in another trial there were

  17. Knowledge of Recommended Calorie Intake and Influence of Calories on Food Selection Among Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Cassondra; Vanderlee, Lana; White, Christine M; Reid, Jessica L; Hammond, David

    2016-03-01

    To examine knowledge of recommended daily calorie intake, use of calorie information, and sociodemographic correlates between knowledge and use. Population-based, random digit-dialed phone surveys. Canadian adults (n = 1,543) surveyed between October and December, 2012. Knowledge of recommended calorie intake and use of calorie information when purchasing food. Regression models, adjusting for sociodemographics and diet-related measures. Overall, 24% of participants correctly stated their recommended daily calorie intake; the majority (63%) underestimated it, whereas few (4%) overestimated it. Females, younger participants, those with a higher income and more education, and those who consumed fruits and vegetables at least 5 times daily were significantly more likely to state recommended intake correctly. Most respondents (82%) reported considering calories when selecting foods. Respondents considered calories more often if they were female, had a higher income and more education, perceived themselves to be overweight, were actively trying to control their weight, reported a healthier diet, or consumed fruits and vegetables at least 5 times daily. Although most Canadians reported using calorie information to guide their food choices, few knew their daily recommended calorie intake. To promote healthy weights, policy initiatives, including education regarding daily calorie intake and changes to the Nutrition Facts table, may help consumers make better choices about food. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of calorie information on food selection and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girz, L; Polivy, J; Herman, C P; Lee, H

    2012-10-01

    To examine the effects of calorie labeling on food selection and intake in dieters and non-dieters, and to explore whether expectations about food healthfulness moderate these effects. Participants were presented with a menu containing two items, a salad and a pasta dish. The menu had (a) no calorie information, (b) information that the salad was low in calories and the pasta was high in calories, (c) information that the salad was high in calories and the pasta was low in calories or (d) information that both were high in calories (study 2 only). Calorie labels influenced food selection for dieters, but not for non-dieters. Dieters were more likely to order salad when the salad was labeled as low in calories and more likely to order pasta, even high-calorie pasta, when the salad was labeled as high in calories. Participants who chose high-calorie foods over low-calorie foods did not eat less in response to calorie information, although non-dieters reduced their intake somewhat when calorie labels were put in the context of recommended daily calories. The results suggest that the rush to provide calorie information may not prove to be the best approach to fighting the obesity epidemic.

  19. Trends in total and daily precipitation indices in japan from 1901 to 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Nagata, Rena; Zaiki, Masumi

    2008-01-01

    Long-term trends in seasonal precipitation amount and daily precipitation indices were investigated for spring, summer, autumn, and winter with a daily precipitation dataset for Japan from 1901 to 2000. Heavy precipitation in spring and summer has significantly increased along the west coast of Japan. Such changes in precipitation have resulted in the increased heavy precipitation intensity. For autumn and winter, total precipitation significantly decreased in the Kanto district and central J...

  20. Springs-neaps cycles in daily total seabed light: Daylength-induced changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E. M.; Bowers, D. G.; Davies, A. J.

    2014-04-01

    In shallow, tidal seas, daily total seabed light is determined largely by the interaction of the solar elevation cycle, the tidal cycle in water depth, and any temporal variability in turbidity. Since tidal range, times of low water, and often turbidity vary in regular ways over the springs-neaps cycle, daily total seabed light exhibits cycles of the same periodicity. Corresponding cycles are likely to be induced in the daily total primary production of benthic algae and plants, particularly those light-limited specimens occupying the lower reaches of a sub-tidal population. Consequently, this effect is an important control on the growth patterns, depth distribution and survival of, for example, macroalgal forests and seagrass meadows. Seasonal changes in daylength exert an important additional control on these cycles, as they alter the fraction of the tidal and turbidity cycles occurring within daylight hours. Bowers et al. (1997) modelled this phenomenon numerically and predicted that for a site with low water at about midday and midnight at neaps tides, 6 am and 6 pm at springs, daily total seabed light peaks at neaps in winter, but the ‘sense' of the cycle ‘switches' so that it peaks at springs in summer - the longer daylength permits the morning and evening low water springs to contribute substantially to the daily total. Observations for such a site in North Wales (UK), presented in this paper, show that no such ‘switch' occurs, and neaps tides host the largest daily totals throughout the year. The predicted ‘switch' is not observed because turbidity increases generally at spring tides, and specifically at low water springs, both of which were not accounted for in the model. Observations at a second site in Brittany (France), diametrically opposite in terms of the times of low water at neaps and at springs, indicate a peak at springs throughout the year. Analytical tools are developed to calculate the percentage of daily total sea surface irradiance

  1. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent (PACE) Labeling on Adult Fast Food Ordering and Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Antonelli, Ray; Viera, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numeric calorie content labels show limited efficacy in reducing the number of calories ordered from fast food meals. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels are an alternative that may reduce the number of calories ordered in fast food meals while encouraging patrons to exercise. Methods A total of 1000 adults from 47 US states were randomly assigned via internet survey to one of four generic fast food menus: no label, calories only, calories + minutes, or calories + ...

  2. "Calories in, calories out" and macronutrient intake: the hope, hype, and science of calories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Scott; Kones, Richard

    2017-11-01

    One of the central tenets in obesity prevention and management is caloric restriction. This perspective presents salient features of how calories and energy balance matter, also called the "calories in, calories out" paradigm. Determinants of energy balance and relationships to dietary macronutrient content are reviewed. The rationale and features of the carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis postulate that carbohydrate restriction confers a metabolic advantage. According to this model, a large amount of fat intake is enabled without weight gain. Evidence concerning this possibility is detailed. The relationship and application of the laws of thermodynamics are then clarified with current primary research. Strong data indicate that energy balance is not materially changed during isocaloric substitution of dietary fats for carbohydrates. Results from a number of sources refute both the theory and effectiveness of the carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis. Instead, risk for obesity is primarily determined by total calorie intake. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. In adolescence a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Perrar, Ines; Roßbach, Sarah; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2018-05-26

    The present manuscript addressed two hypotheses: (i) As children age, energy intake is shifted from morning (energy intake energy intake >6pm) (ii) A higher 'eveningness in energy intake' (i.e. evening minus morning energy intake) is associated with a higher total daily energy intake. Data were analyzed from 262 DONALD cohort study participants, who had completed at least one 3-day weighed dietary record in the age groups 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/12, 13/14, 15/16 and 17/18 years (y). 'Eveningness in energy intake' was compared across age groups and related to total daily energy intake for each age group (multiple cross-sectional analyses). 'Eveningness' increased progressively from age group 3/4y to age group 17/18y. A median surplus of evening energy intake (i.e. when evening intake exceeded morning intake) was firstly observed for age group 11/12y. From age group 11/12y onwards, a higher 'eveningness' was associated with a higher total daily energy intake (all p energy intake between the highest and the lowest tertile of 'eveningness' was largest for age group 17/18y, amounting to an 11% higher intake among adolescents in the highest as compared to those in the lowest tertile. In conclusion, energy intake progressively shifts from morning to evening hours as children age. Once evening energy intake exceeds morning energy intake, a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Low-calorie cocktails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bottle of beer, read the label and pay attention to: Fluid oz (serving size) Alcohol by Volume (ABV) Calories (if listed) Choose beers that have fewer calories per serving and pay attention to how many servings are in the bottle ...

  5. An adaptive wavelet-network model for forecasting daily total solar-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellit, A.; Benghanem, M.; Kalogirou, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    The combination of wavelet theory and neural networks has lead to the development of wavelet networks. Wavelet-networks are feed-forward networks using wavelets as activation functions. Wavelet-networks have been used successfully in various engineering applications such as classification, identification and control problems. In this paper, the use of adaptive wavelet-network architecture in finding a suitable forecasting model for predicting the daily total solar-radiation is investigated. Total solar-radiation is considered as the most important parameter in the performance prediction of renewable energy systems, particularly in sizing photovoltaic (PV) power systems. For this purpose, daily total solar-radiation data have been recorded during the period extending from 1981 to 2001, by a meteorological station in Algeria. The wavelet-network model has been trained by using either the 19 years of data or one year of the data. In both cases the total solar radiation data corresponding to year 2001 was used for testing the model. The network was trained to accept and handle a number of unusual cases. Results indicate that the model predicts daily total solar-radiation values with a good accuracy of approximately 97% and the mean absolute percentage error is not more than 6%. In addition, the performance of the model was compared with different neural network structures and classical models. Training algorithms for wavelet-networks require smaller numbers of iterations when compared with other neural networks. The model can be used to fill missing data in weather databases. Additionally, the proposed model can be generalized and used in different locations and for other weather data, such as sunshine duration and ambient temperature. Finally, an application using the model for sizing a PV-power system is presented in order to confirm the validity of this model

  6. Prediction equation for estimating total daily energy requirements of special operations personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, N D; Pasiakos, S M; McClung, H L; Crombie, A P; Margolis, L M

    2018-01-01

    Special Operations Forces (SOF) engage in a variety of military tasks with many producing high energy expenditures, leading to undesired energy deficits and loss of body mass. Therefore, the ability to accurately estimate daily energy requirements would be useful for accurate logistical planning. Generate a predictive equation estimating energy requirements of SOF. Retrospective analysis of data collected from SOF personnel engaged in 12 different SOF training scenarios. Energy expenditure and total body water were determined using the doubly-labeled water technique. Physical activity level was determined as daily energy expenditure divided by resting metabolic rate. Physical activity level was broken into quartiles (0 = mission prep, 1 = common warrior tasks, 2 = battle drills, 3 = specialized intense activity) to generate a physical activity factor (PAF). Regression analysis was used to construct two predictive equations (Model A; body mass and PAF, Model B; fat-free mass and PAF) estimating daily energy expenditures. Average measured energy expenditure during SOF training was 4468 (range: 3700 to 6300) Kcal·d- 1 . Regression analysis revealed that physical activity level ( r  = 0.91; P  plan appropriate feeding regimens to meet SOF nutritional requirements across their mission profile.

  7. Calorie labeling and consumer estimation of calories purchased

    OpenAIRE

    Taksler, Glen B; Elbel, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies rarely find fewer calories purchased following calorie labeling implementation. However, few studies consider whether estimates of the number of calories purchased improved following calorie labeling legislation. Findings Researchers surveyed customers and collected purchase receipts at fast food restaurants in the United States cities of Philadelphia (which implemented calorie labeling policies) and Baltimore (a matched comparison city) in December 2009 (pre-implementation...

  8. Estimating total maximum daily loads with the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory; Jones, Susan Cheung

    2017-01-01

    The Massachusetts Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Rhode Island DOT are assessing and addressing roadway contributions to total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Example analyses for total nitrogen, total phosphorus, suspended sediment, and total zinc in highway runoff were done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with FHWA to simulate long-term annual loads for TMDL analyses with the stochastic empirical loading and dilution model known as SELDM. Concentration statistics from 19 highway runoff monitoring sites in Massachusetts were used with precipitation statistics from 11 long-term monitoring sites to simulate long-term pavement yields (loads per unit area). Highway sites were stratified by traffic volume or surrounding land use to calculate concentration statistics for rural roads, low-volume highways, high-volume highways, and ultraurban highways. The median of the event mean concentration statistics in each traffic volume category was used to simulate annual yields from pavement for a 29- or 30-year period. Long-term average yields for total nitrogen, phosphorus, and zinc from rural roads are lower than yields from the other categories, but yields of sediment are higher than for the low-volume highways. The average yields of the selected water quality constituents from high-volume highways are 1.35 to 2.52 times the associated yields from low-volume highways. The average yields of the selected constituents from ultraurban highways are 1.52 to 3.46 times the associated yields from high-volume highways. Example simulations indicate that both concentration reduction and flow reduction by structural best management practices are crucial for reducing runoff yields.

  9. Economic total maximum daily load for watershed-based pollutant trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, A Z; deMonsabert, S M

    2015-04-01

    Water quality trading (WQT) is supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) under the framework of its total maximum daily load (TMDL) program. An innovative approach is presented in this paper that proposes post-TMDL trade by calculating pollutant rights for each pollutant source within a watershed. Several water quality trading programs are currently operating in the USA with an objective to achieve overall pollutant reduction impacts that are equivalent or better than TMDL scenarios. These programs use trading ratios for establishing water quality equivalence among pollutant reductions. The inbuilt uncertainty in modeling the effects of pollutants in a watershed from both the point and nonpoint sources on receiving waterbodies makes WQT very difficult. A higher trading ratio carries with it increased mitigation costs, but cannot ensure the attainment of the required water quality with certainty. The selection of an applicable trading ratio, therefore, is not a simple process. The proposed approach uses an Economic TMDL optimization model that determines an economic pollutant reduction scenario that can be compared with actual TMDL allocations to calculate selling/purchasing rights for each contributing source. The methodology is presented using the established TMDLs for the bacteria (fecal coliform) impaired Muddy Creek subwatershed WAR1 in Rockingham County, Virginia, USA. Case study results show that an environmentally and economically superior trading scenario can be realized by using Economic TMDL model or any similar model that considers the cost of TMDL allocations.

  10. Bayesian modeling of the assimilative capacity component of nutrient total maximum daily loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, B. R.

    2008-08-01

    Implementing stream restoration techniques and best management practices to reduce nonpoint source nutrients implies enhancement of the assimilative capacity for the stream system. In this paper, a Bayesian method for evaluating this component of a total maximum daily load (TMDL) load capacity is developed and applied. The joint distribution of nutrient retention metrics from a literature review of 495 measurements was used for Monte Carlo sampling with a process transfer function for nutrient attenuation. Using the resulting histograms of nutrient retention, reference prior distributions were developed for sites in which some of the metrics contributing to the transfer function were measured. Contributing metrics for the prior include stream discharge, cross-sectional area, fraction of storage volume to free stream volume, denitrification rate constant, storage zone mass transfer rate, dispersion coefficient, and others. Confidence of compliance (CC) that any given level of nutrient retention has been achieved is also determined using this approach. The shape of the CC curve is dependent on the metrics measured and serves in part as a measure of the information provided by the metrics to predict nutrient retention. It is also a direct measurement, with a margin of safety, of the fraction of export load that can be reduced through changing retention metrics. For an impaired stream in western Oklahoma, a combination of prior information and measurement of nutrient attenuation was used to illustrate the proposed approach. This method may be considered for TMDL implementation.

  11. Intraspecies variation in BMR does not affect estimates of early hominin total daily energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehle, Andrew W; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2006-12-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 45 studies reporting basal metabolic rate (BMR) data for Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes to determine the effects of sex, age, and latitude (a proxy for climate, in humans only). BMR was normalized for body size using fat-free mass in humans and body mass in chimpanzees. We found no effect of sex in either species and no age effect in chimpanzees. In humans, juveniles differed significantly from adults (ANCOVA: P BMR and body size, and used them to predict total daily energy expenditure (TEE) in four early hominin species. Our predictions concur with previous TEE estimates (i.e. Leonard and Robertson: Am J Phys Anthropol 102 (1997) 265-281), and support the conclusion that TEE increased greatly with H. erectus. Our results show that intraspecific variation in BMR does not affect TEE estimates for interspecific comparisons. Comparisons of more closely related groups such as humans and Neandertals, however, may benefit from consideration of this variation. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Testing food-related inhibitory control to high- and low-calorie food stimuli: Electrophysiological responses to high-calorie food stimuli predict calorie and carbohydrate intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbine, Kaylie A; Christensen, Edward; LeCheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A; Larson, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Maintaining a healthy diet has important implications for physical and mental health. One factor that may influence diet and food consumption is inhibitory control-the ability to withhold a dominant response in order to correctly respond to environmental demands. We examined how N2 amplitude, an ERP that reflects inhibitory control processes, differed toward high- and low-calorie food stimuli and related to food intake. A total of 159 participants (81 female; M age = 23.5 years; SD = 7.6) completed two food-based go/no-go tasks (one with high-calorie and one with low-calorie food pictures as no-go stimuli) while N2 amplitude was recorded. Participants recorded food intake using the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Recall system. Inhibiting responses toward high-calorie stimuli elicited a larger (i.e., more negative) no-go N2 amplitude; inhibiting responses toward low-calorie stimuli elicited a smaller no-go N2 amplitude. Participants were more accurate during the high-calorie than low-calorie task, but took longer to respond on go trials toward high-calorie rather than low-calorie stimuli. When controlling for age, gender, and BMI, larger high-calorie N2 difference amplitude predicted lower caloric intake (β = 0.17); low-calorie N2 difference amplitude was not related to caloric intake (β = -0.03). Exploratory analyses revealed larger high-calorie N2 difference amplitude predicted carbohydrate intake (β = 0.22), but not protein (β = 0.08) or fat (β = 0.11) intake. Results suggest that withholding responses from high-calorie foods requires increased recruitment of inhibitory control processes, which may be necessary to regulate food consumption, particularly for foods high in calories and carbohydrates. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. Association of total daily physical activity with disability in community-dwelling older persons: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Raj C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on findings primarily using self-report measures, physical activity has been recommended to reduce disability in old age. Collecting objective measures of total daily physical activity in community-dwelling older adults is uncommon, but might enhance the understanding of the relationship of physical activity and disability. We examined whether greater total daily physical activity was associated with less report of disability in the elderly. Methods Data were from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a longitudinal prospective cohort study of common, age-related, chronic conditions. Total daily physical activity was measured in community-dwelling participants with an average age of 82 using actigraphy for approximately 9 days. Disability was measured via self-reported basic activities of daily living (ADL. The odds ratio and 95% Confidence Interval (CI were determined for the baseline association of total daily physical activity and ADL disability using a logistic regression model adjusted for age, education level, gender and self-report physical activity. In participants without initial report of ADL disability, the hazard ratio and 95% CI were determined for the relationship of baseline total daily physical activity and the development of ADL disability using a discrete time Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for demographics and self-report physical activity. Results In 870 participants, the mean total daily physical activity was 2. 9 × 105 counts/day (range in 105 counts/day = 0.16, 13. 6 and the mean hours/week of self-reported physical activity was 3.2 (SD = 3.6. At baseline, 718 (82.5% participants reported being independent in all ADLs. At baseline, total daily physical activity was protective against disability (OR per 105 counts/day difference = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.47, 0.65. Of the participants without baseline disability, 584 were followed for 3.4 years on average. Each 105 counts/day additional total

  14. Oral protein calorie supplementation for children with chronic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Damian K; Smith, Joanne; Saljuqi, Tawab; Watling, Ruth M

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor growth and nutritional status are common in children with chronic diseases. Oral protein calorie supplements are used to improve nutritional status in these children. These expensive products may be associated with some adverse effects, e.g. the development of inappropriate eating behaviour patterns. This is a new update of a Cochrane review last updated in 2009. Objectives To examine evidence that in children with chronic disease, oral protein calorie supplements alter daily nutrient intake, nutritional indices, survival and quality of life and are associated with adverse effects, e.g. diarrhoea, vomiting, reduced appetite, glucose intolerance, bloating and eating behaviour problems. Search methods Trials of oral protein calorie supplements in children with chronic diseases were identified through comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearching relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Companies marketing these products were also contacted. Most recent search of the Group's Trials Register: 24 February 2015. Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing oral protein calorie supplements for at least one month to increase calorie intake with existing conventional therapy (including advice on improving nutritional intake from food or no specific intervention) in children with chronic disease. Data collection and analysis We independently assessed the outcomes: indices of nutrition and growth; anthropometric measures of body composition; calorie and nutrient intake (total from oral protein calorie supplements and food); eating behaviour; compliance; quality of life; specific adverse effects; disease severity scores; and mortality; we also assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. Main results Four studies (187 children) met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were carried out in children with cystic fibrosis and one study included children with paediatric malignant disease

  15. Potential effect of physical activity calorie equivalent labeling on parent fast food decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Anthony J; Antonelli, Ray

    2015-02-01

    Menu labels displaying food energy in physical activity calorie equivalents (PACE) is a possible strategy to encourage ordering meals with fewer calories and promoting physical activity. Potential effects of such labeling for children have never been examined. We conducted a national survey of 1000 parents randomized to 1 of 4 fast food menus: no labels, calories only, calories plus minutes, or calories plus miles needed to walk to burn the calories. Respondents were asked to imagine they were in a fast food restaurant and place an order for their child. At the survey's conclusion, all respondents were shown a calorie-only label and both PACE labels and asked to rate the likelihood each label would influence them to encourage their child to exercise. We excluded respondents whose meals totaled 0 calories or >4000 calories, leaving 823 parents in the analysis. The mean age of the child for whom the meal was "ordered" was 9.5 years. Parents whose menus displayed no label ordered an average of 1294 calories, whereas those shown calories only, calories plus minutes, or calories plus miles ordered 1066, 1060, and 1099 calories, respectively (P = .0001). Only 20% of parents reported that calories-only labeling would be "very likely" to prompt them to encourage their children to exercise versus 38% for calories plus minutes (P calories plus miles (P food items to order for their children and encourage them to get their children to exercise. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. An ecological function and services approach to total maximum daily load (TMDL) prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert K; Guiliano, David; Swanson, Sherman; Philbin, Michael J; Lin, John; Aron, Joan L; Schafer, Robin J; Heggem, Daniel T

    2014-04-01

    Prioritizing total maximum daily load (TMDL) development starts by considering the scope and severity of water pollution and risks to public health and aquatic life. Methodology using quantitative assessments of in-stream water quality is appropriate and effective for point source (PS) dominated discharge, but less so in watersheds with mostly nonpoint source (NPS) related impairments. For NPSs, prioritization in TMDL development and implementation of associated best management practices should focus on restoration of ecosystem physical functions, including how restoration effectiveness depends on design, maintenance and placement within the watershed. To refine the approach to TMDL development, regulators and stakeholders must first ask if the watershed, or ecosystem, is at risk of losing riparian or other ecologically based physical attributes and processes. If so, the next step is an assessment of the spatial arrangement of functionality with a focus on the at-risk areas that could be lost, or could, with some help, regain functions. Evaluating stream and wetland riparian function has advantages over the traditional means of water quality and biological assessments for NPS TMDL development. Understanding how an ecosystem functions enables stakeholders and regulators to determine the severity of problem(s), identify source(s) of impairment, and predict and avoid a decline in water quality. The Upper Reese River, Nevada, provides an example of water quality impairment caused by NPS pollution. In this river basin, stream and wetland riparian proper functioning condition (PFC) protocol, water quality data, and remote sensing imagery were used to identify sediment sources, transport, distribution, and its impact on water quality and aquatic resources. This study found that assessments of ecological function could be used to generate leading (early) indicators of water quality degradation for targeting pollution control measures, while traditional in-stream water

  17. 40 CFR 130.7 - Total maximum daily loads (TMDL) and individual water quality-based effluent limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Total maximum daily loads (TMDL) and individual water quality-based effluent limitations. 130.7 Section 130.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.7 Total...

  18. TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Aerosol Index UV-Reflectivity UV-B Erythemal Irradiances Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 8 Daily Gridded Data consist of daily, global coverage of total column ozone, aerosol index, Lambertian effective...

  19. Oral protein calorie supplementation for children with chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Damian K; Smith, Joanne; Saljuqi, Tawab; Watling, Ruth M

    2015-05-27

    Poor growth and nutritional status are common in children with chronic diseases. Oral protein calorie supplements are used to improve nutritional status in these children. These expensive products may be associated with some adverse effects, e.g. the development of inappropriate eating behaviour patterns. This is a new update of a Cochrane review last updated in 2009. To examine evidence that in children with chronic disease, oral protein calorie supplements alter daily nutrient intake, nutritional indices, survival and quality of life and are associated with adverse effects, e.g. diarrhoea, vomiting, reduced appetite, glucose intolerance, bloating and eating behaviour problems. Trials of oral protein calorie supplements in children with chronic diseases were identified through comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearching relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Companies marketing these products were also contacted.Most recent search of the Group's Trials Register: 24 February 2015. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing oral protein calorie supplements for at least one month to increase calorie intake with existing conventional therapy (including advice on improving nutritional intake from food or no specific intervention) in children with chronic disease. We independently assessed the outcomes: indices of nutrition and growth; anthropometric measures of body composition; calorie and nutrient intake (total from oral protein calorie supplements and food); eating behaviour; compliance; quality of life; specific adverse effects; disease severity scores; and mortality; we also assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. Four studies (187 children) met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were carried out in children with cystic fibrosis and one study included children with paediatric malignant disease. Overall there was a low risk of bias for blinding and incomplete outcome data.Two studies had a high

  20. Calorie labeling and consumer estimation of calories purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksler, Glen B; Elbel, Brian

    2014-07-12

    Studies rarely find fewer calories purchased following calorie labeling implementation. However, few studies consider whether estimates of the number of calories purchased improved following calorie labeling legislation. Researchers surveyed customers and collected purchase receipts at fast food restaurants in the United States cities of Philadelphia (which implemented calorie labeling policies) and Baltimore (a matched comparison city) in December 2009 (pre-implementation) and June 2010 (post-implementation). A difference-in-difference design was used to examine the difference between estimated and actual calories purchased, and the odds of underestimating calories.Participants in both cities, both pre- and post-calorie labeling, tended to underestimate calories purchased, by an average 216-409 calories. Adjusted difference-in-differences in estimated-actual calories were significant for individuals who ordered small meals and those with some college education (accuracy in Philadelphia improved by 78 and 231 calories, respectively, relative to Baltimore, p = 0.03-0.04). However, categorical accuracy was similar; the adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for underestimation by >100 calories was 0.90 (p = 0.48) in difference-in-difference models. Accuracy was most improved for subjects with a BA or higher education (AOR = 0.25, p calories varied by subgroup, suggesting that at some level, consumers may incorporate labeling information.

  1. Contribution of complementary foods to the total daily water needs of urban Guatemalan infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enneman, A.; Campos, R.; Hernandez, L.; Palma, A.V.; Vossenaar, M.; Solomons, N.W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Estimates of adequate intake (AI) for water only became available in 2005. The daily water AI for 6-12-month-old infants of both sexes is 800 mL. The present study aimed to estimate the water intake of urban infants receiving both breast milk and complementary feeding (CF) and to compare

  2. TOMS/Earth-Probe Total Ozone Aerosol Index UV-Reflectivity UV-B Erythemal Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 8 daily global gridded data consist of total column ozone, aerosol index, Lambertian effective surface...

  3. 76 FR 549 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Notice for the Establishment of the Total Maximum Daily Load...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Establishment of the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for the Chesapeake Bay AGENCY: Environmental Protection... that when met will assure the attainment and maintenance of all applicable water quality standards for... productive estuaries in the world. Despite significant efforts by federal, state, and local governments and...

  4. Total error shift patterns for daily CT on rails image-guided radiotherapy to the prostate bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Helvecio C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the daily total error shift patterns on post-prostatectomy patients undergoing image guided radiotherapy (IGRT with a diagnostic quality computer tomography (CT on rails system. Methods A total of 17 consecutive post-prostatectomy patients receiving adjuvant or salvage IMRT using CT-on-rails IGRT were analyzed. The prostate bed's daily total error shifts were evaluated for a total of 661 CT scans. Results In the right-left, cranial-caudal, and posterior-anterior directions, 11.5%, 9.2%, and 6.5% of the 661 scans required no position adjustments; 75.3%, 66.1%, and 56.8% required a shift of 1 - 5 mm; 11.5%, 20.9%, and 31.2% required a shift of 6 - 10 mm; and 1.7%, 3.8%, and 5.5% required a shift of more than 10 mm, respectively. There was evidence of correlation between the x and y, x and z, and y and z axes in 3, 3, and 3 of 17 patients, respectively. Univariate (ANOVA analysis showed that the total error pattern was random in the x, y, and z axis for 10, 5, and 2 of 17 patients, respectively, and systematic for the rest. Multivariate (MANOVA analysis showed that the (x,y, (x,z, (y,z, and (x, y, z total error pattern was random in 5, 1, 1, and 1 of 17 patients, respectively, and systematic for the rest. Conclusions The overall daily total error shift pattern for these 17 patients simulated with an empty bladder, and treated with CT on rails IGRT was predominantly systematic. Despite this, the temporal vector trends showed complex behaviors and unpredictable changes in magnitude and direction. These findings highlight the importance of using daily IGRT in post-prostatectomy patients.

  5. It's Not All About Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losing weight is about balancing calories in (food and drink) with calories out (exercise). Sounds simple, right? But if it were that simple, you and the millions of other women struggling with their weight probably would have figured it out.

  6. Calorie count - fast food

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Calorie count - fast food URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/ ...

  7. Daily total physical activity level and total cancer risk in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Manami; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Kurahashi, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-08-15

    The impact of total physical activity level on cancer risk has not been fully clarified, particularly in non-Western, relatively lean populations. The authors prospectively examined the association between daily total physical activity (using a metabolic equivalents/day score) and subsequent cancer risk in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. A total of 79,771 general-population Japanese men and women aged 45-74 years who responded to a questionnaire in 1995-1999 were followed for total cancer incidence (4,334 cases) through 2004. Compared with subjects in the lowest quartile, increased daily physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased risk of cancer in both sexes. In men, hazard ratios for the second, third, and highest quartiles were 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90, 1.11), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.07), and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.96), respectively (p for trend = 0.005); in women, hazard ratios were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.05), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.96), and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.97), respectively (p for trend = 0.007). The decreased risk was more clearly observed in women than in men, especially among the elderly and those who regularly engaged in leisure-time sports or physical exercise. By site, decreased risks were observed for cancers of the colon, liver, and pancreas in men and for cancer of the stomach in women. Increased daily physical activity may be beneficial in preventing cancer in a relatively lean population.

  8. Estimation of the total daily oral intake of NDMA attributable to drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristachi, Anthony; Rice, Glenn

    2007-09-01

    Disinfection with chlorine and chloramine leads to the formation of many disinfection by-products including N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Because NDMA is a probable human carcinogen, public health officials are concerned with its occurrence in drinking water. The goal of this study was to estimate NDMA concentrations from exogenous (i.e., drinking water and food) and endogenous (i.e., formed in the human body) sources, calculate average daily doses for ingestion route exposures and estimate the proportional oral intake (POI) of NDMA attributable to the consumption of drinking water relative to other ingestion sources of NDMA. The POI is predicted to be 0.02% relative to exogenous and endogenous NDMA sources combined. When only exogenous sources are considered, the POI was predicted to be 2.7%. The exclusion of endogenously formed NDMA causes the POI to increase dramatically, reflecting its importance as a potentially major source of exposure and uncertainty in the model. Although concentrations of NDMA in foods are small and human exposure to NDMA from foods is quite low, the contribution from food is predicted to be high relative to that of drinking water. The mean concentration of NDMA in drinking water would need to increase from 2.1 x 10(-3) microg/L to 0.10 microg/L, a 47-fold increase, for the POI to reach 1%, relative to all sources of NDMA considered in our model, suggesting that drinking water consumption is most likely a minor source of NDMA exposure.

  9. Macronutrients and obesity: revisiting the calories in, calories out framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera-Crichton, Daniel; Tefft, Nathan

    2014-07-01

    Recent clinical research has studied weight responses to varying diet composition, but the contribution of changes in macronutrient intake and physical activity to rising population weight remains controversial. Research on the economics of obesity typically assumes a "calories in, calories out" framework, but a weight production model separating caloric intake into carbohydrates, fat, and protein, has not been explored in an economic framework. To estimate the contributions of changes in macronutrient intake and physical activity to changes in population weight, we conducted dynamic time series and structural VAR analyses of U.S. data between 1974 and 2006 and a panel analysis of 164 countries between 2001 and 2010. Findings from all analyses suggest that increases in carbohydrates are most strongly and positively associated with increases in obesity prevalence even when controlling for changes in total caloric intake and occupation-related physical activity. Our structural VAR results suggest that, on the margin, a 1% increase in carbohydrates intake yields a 1.01 point increase in obesity prevalence over 5 years while an equal percent increase in fat intake decreases obesity prevalence by 0.24 points. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent (PACE) Labeling on Adult Fast Food Ordering and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Ray; Viera, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Numeric calorie content labels show limited efficacy in reducing the number of calories ordered from fast food meals. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels are an alternative that may reduce the number of calories ordered in fast food meals while encouraging patrons to exercise. A total of 1000 adults from 47 US states were randomly assigned via internet survey to one of four generic fast food menus: no label, calories only, calories + minutes, or calories + miles necessary to walk to burn off the calories. After completing hypothetical orders participants were asked to rate the likelihood of calorie-only and PACE labels to influence (1) food choice and (2) physical activity. Respondents (n = 823) ordered a median of 1580 calories from the no-label menu, 1200 from the calories-only menu, 1140 from the calories + minutes menu, and 1210 from the calories + miles menu (p = 0.0001). 40% of respondents reported that PACE labels were "very likely" to influence food item choice vs. 28% for calorie-only labels (pcalorie-only labels (pcalories ordered in fast food meals and may have the added benefit of encouraging exercise.

  11. Efficacy and consumer preferences for different approaches to calorie labeling on menus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jocelyn; Hammond, David

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and consumer preferences of calorie labeling on menus. Between-group experiment. Participants were randomized to view menu items according to 1 of 4 experimental conditions: no calorie information, calorie-only information, calorie plus health statement (HS), and calorie plus the Physical Activity Scale. Participants selected a snack and then rated menus from all conditions on the level of understanding and perceived effectiveness. University of Waterloo, Canada. A total of 213 undergraduate university students recruited from classrooms. The calorie amount of menu selection and ratings of understandability and perceived effectiveness. Linear regression models and chi-square tests. Participants who selected items from menus without calorie information selected snacks with higher calorie amounts than participants in the calorie-only condition (P = .002) and the calorie plus HS condition (P = .001). The calorie plus HS menu was perceived as most understandable and the calorie plus calorie plus Physical Activity Scale menu was perceived as most effective in helping to promote healthy eating. Calorie labeling on menus may assist consumers in making healthier choices, with consumer preference for menus that include contextual health statements. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The contact mechanics and occurrence of edge loading in modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement during daily activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of edge loading in hip joint replacement has been associated with many factors such as prosthetic design, component malposition and activities of daily living. The present study aimed to quantify the occurrence of edge loading/contact at the articulating surface and to evaluate the effect of cup angles and edge loading on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR) during different daily activities. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing system. Different cup inclination and anteversion angles were modelled and six daily activities were considered. The results showed that edge loading was predicted during normal walking, ascending and descending stairs activities under steep cup inclination conditions (≥55°) while no edge loading was observed during standing up, sitting down and knee bending activities. The duration of edge loading increased with increased cup inclination angles and was affected by the cup anteversion angles. Edge loading caused elevated contact pressure at the articulating surface and substantially increased equivalent plastic strain of the polyethylene liner. The present study suggested that correct positioning the component to avoid edge loading that may occur during daily activities is important for MoP THR in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. The costs and calorie content of à la carte food items purchased by students during school lunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsey Ramirez

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available School environments influence student food choices. À la carte foods and beverages are often low nutrient and energy dense. This study assessed how much money students spent for these foods, and the total kilocalories purchased per student during the 2012–2013 school year. Six elementary and four intermediate schools in the Houston area provided daily food purchase transaction data, and the cost and the calories for each item. Chi-square analysis assessed differences in the number of students purchasing à la carte items by grade level and school free/reduced-price meal (FRP eligibility. Analysis of covariance assessed grade level differences in cost and calories of weekly purchases, controlling for FRP eligibility. Intermediate grade students spent significantly more on à la carte food purchases and purchased more calories (both p < 0.001 than elementary school students. Lower socioeconomic status (SES elementary and intermediate school students purchased fewer à la carte foods compared to those in higher SES schools (p < 0.001. Intermediate school students purchased more à la carte foods and calories from à la carte foods than elementary students. Whether the new competitive food rules in schools improve student food selection and purchase, and dietary intake habits across all grade levels remains unknown. Keywords: National School Lunch Program, Elementary schools, Intermediate schools, À la carte foods, Competitive foods, Costs, Calories

  14. Orientale and Caloris

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    Applications of experimental explosion-crater data to Orientale and recent geologic mapping of the basin have produced a new stratigraphy and genetic model for Orientale that are also applicable to Caloris. The inner-basin scarp of Orientale is thought to be a bench separating the upper parts of the basin from its deep bowl-shaped interior. The elongated and complexly fractured domes of the basin floor formed by inward compression in the terminal stages of the cratering sequence. The Inner Montes Rook are considered a central peak ring. The Montes Rook and the nonlineated knobby and associated smoother materials that overlie the Cordillera scarp around much of its circumference are the uppermost parts of the overturned rim flap which formed early in the cratering event. The knobs and smaller massifs are probably coherent blocks quarried from deep within the moon. They were among the last materials to leave the basin and had little radial momentum unlike the lineated Hevelius which formed earlier by disaggregation of the rim flap, secondary cratering, and the ground surge. The Cordillera scarp, best seen on the east side of the basin but poorly developed and discontinuous on the west, is a primary feature formed early in the crater excavation process by basinward motions of the walls and the fractured zone beyond the rim of the expanding cavity. The Cordillera scarp is overlain by ejecta over most of its extent, and post-basin internal slumping, previously thought to be important, must be a subordinate process in development of the scarp. The basin fill in Caloris has no counterpart in Orientale but the materials between the most prominent scarp and the weakly developed outer scarp appear to be the degraded and possibly mantled equivalents of the massifs and knobs associated with the Montes Rook. The radially lineated terrain that generally lies beyond the outer scarp of Caloris is considered the subdued counterpart of the Hevelius Formation, which generally shows

  15. Estimating the contribution of strong daily export events to total pollutant export from the United States in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuanyuan; Fiore, Arlene M.; Horowitz, Larry W.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Levy, Hiram; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead G.

    2009-12-01

    While the export of pollutants from the United States exhibits notable variability from day to day and is often considered to be "episodic," the contribution of strong daily export events to total export has not been quantified. We use carbon monoxide (CO) as a tracer of anthropogenic pollutants in the Model of OZone And Related Tracers (MOZART) to estimate this contribution. We first identify the major export pathway from the United States to be through the northeast boundary (24-48°N along 67.5°W and 80-67.5°W along 48°N), and then analyze 15 summers of daily CO export fluxes through this boundary. These daily CO export fluxes have a nearly Gaussian distribution with a mean of 1100 Gg CO day-1 and a standard deviation of 490 Gg CO day-1. To focus on the synoptic variability, we define a "synoptic background" export flux equal to the 15 day moving average export flux and classify strong export days according to their fluxes relative to this background. As expected from Gaussian statistics, 16% of summer days are "strong export days," classified as those days when the CO export flux exceeds the synoptic background by one standard deviation or more. Strong export days contributes 25% to the total export, a value determined by the relative standard deviation of the CO flux distribution. Regressing the anomalies of the CO export flux through the northeast U.S. boundary relative to the synoptic background on the daily anomalies in the surface pressure field (also relative to a 15 day running mean) suggests that strong daily export fluxes are correlated with passages of midlatitude cyclones over the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The associated cyclonic circulation and Warm Conveyor Belts (WCBs) that lift surface pollutants over the northeastern United States have been shown previously to be associated with long-range transport events. Comparison with observations from the 2004 INTEX-NA field campaign confirms that our model captures the observed enhancements in CO outflow

  16. Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Atiya Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. Objective: To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. Design: A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an ‘ideal diet’ (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO] list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. Results: The adolescents’ mean daily polyamine intake was 316±170 µmol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 µmol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. Conclusions: The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an ‘ideal’ diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe.

  17. Low-calorie marmalades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Saša R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of people suffering from insulin-dependent (Diabetes Melitus type I and insulin-independent (Diabetes Melitus type II is huge, and the number of potential diseased is in permanent rise. For that reason products with reduced amount of sugar have become very popular. Factory "Srbijanka" Valjevo manufactures reduced–sugar marmalades from apricot peach, strawberry, apple and orange. Low–metoxyl pectins and high-grade locust bean gum were used as gelation agents. Sensory evaluation and energy value of these marmalades were determined and all samples were highly graded. All marmalades belonged to the group of low-calorie (dietetic products.

  18. Development and daily use of an electronic oncological patient record for the total management of cancer patients: 7 years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galligioni, E; Berloffa, F; Caffo, O; Tonazzolli, G; Ambrosini, G; Valduga, F; Eccher, C; Ferro, A; Forti, S

    2009-02-01

    We describe our experience with an electronic oncological patient record (EOPR) for the total management of cancer patients. The web-based EOPR was developed on the basis of a user-centred design including user education and training, followed by continuous assistance; user acceptance was monitored by means of three questionnaires administered after 2 weeks, 6 months and 6 years. The EOPR has been used daily for all in-ward, day hospital and ambulatory clinical activities since July 2000. The most widely appreciated functions are its rapid multipoint access, the self-updated summary of the patients' clinical course, the management of the entire therapeutic programme synchronised with working agendas and oncological teleconsultation. Security and privacy are assured by means of the separate storage of clinical and demographic data, with access protected by login and a password. The questionnaires highlighted appreciation of rapid data retrieval and exchange and the perception of improved quality of care, but also revealed a sense of additional work and a negative impact on doctor-patient relationships. Our EOPR has proved to be effective in the total management of cancer patients. Its user-centred design and flexible web technology have been key factors in its successful implementation and daily use.

  19. Aging, adiposity, and calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Luigi; Klein, Samuel

    2007-03-07

    Excessive calorie intake and subsequent obesity increases the risk of developing chronic disease and decreases life expectancy. In rodent models, calorie restriction with adequate nutrient intake decreases the risk of developing chronic disease and extends maximum life span. To evaluate the physiological and clinical implications of calorie restriction with adequate nutrient intake. Search of PubMed (1966-December 2006) using terms encompassing various aspects of calorie restriction, dietary restriction, aging, longevity, life span, adiposity, and obesity; hand search of journals that focus on obesity, geriatrics, or aging; and search of reference lists of pertinent research and review articles and books. Reviewed reports (both basic science and clinical) included epidemiologic studies, case-control studies, and randomized controlled trials, with quality of data assessed by taking into account publication in a peer-reviewed journal, number of animals or individuals studied, objectivity of measurements, and techniques used to minimize bias. It is not known whether calorie restriction extends maximum life span or life expectancy in lean humans. However, calorie restriction in adult men and women causes many of the same metabolic adaptations that occur in calorie-restricted rodents and monkeys, including decreased metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory risk factors for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and possibly cancer. Excessive calorie restriction causes malnutrition and has adverse clinical effects. Calorie restriction in adult men and women causes beneficial metabolic, hormonal, and functional changes, but the precise amount of calorie intake or body fat mass associated with optimal health and maximum longevity in humans is not known. In addition, it is possible that even moderate calorie restriction may be harmful in specific patient populations, such as lean persons who have minimal amounts of body fat.

  20. Correlations between patient satisfaction and ability to perform daily activities after total knee arthroplasty: why aren't patients satisfied?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Hiroyuki; Okazaki, Ken; Mizu-Uchi, Hideki; Hamai, Satoshi; Tashiro, Yasutaka; Matsuda, Shuichi; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2015-01-01

    Patient satisfaction has become an important parameter for assessing overall outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The level of difficulty in performing activities of daily life that affects overall patient satisfaction is unknown. We therefore evaluated the influence of difficulty in performing activities of daily life on patient satisfaction and expectations. The 2011 Knee Society Knee Scoring System Questionnaire was mailed to patients who had undergone TKA with 375 patients completing and returning it. We evaluated the relationship between the ability to perform daily activities, as assessed via the questionnaire, and patient satisfaction and expectations of the same score in each patient using linear regression analysis. We also determined which activities affected patient satisfaction and expectations using multivariate linear regression analyses. All patient-derived functional activities correlated significantly with the patient satisfaction score. In particular, "climbing up or down a flight of stairs" followed by "getting into or out of a car," "moving laterally (stepping to the side)" and "walking and standing" correlated strongly with patient satisfaction by linear regression analysis and were revealed to have significant contributions to patient satisfaction by multivariate linear regression analysis. Regarding expectations, all patient-derived functional activities correlated significantly with the patient expectation score, although none of the correlation coefficients was very high. "Squatting," followed by "walking and standing," contributed to the patient expectation score by multivariate linear regression analysis. Activities related to walking and standing are some of the most basic movements and basic demands for patients. In addition, "climbing up or down a flight of stairs," "getting into and out of a car" and "squatting" are very important and distressing activities that significantly correlate with patient satisfaction after TKA.

  1. Knee Flexion and Daily Activities in Patients following Total Knee Replacement: A Comparison with ISO Standard 14243

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus A. Wimmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking is only one of many daily activities performed by patients following total knee replacement (TKR. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypotheses (a that subject activity characteristics are correlated with knee flexion range of motion (ROM and (b that there is a significant difference between the subject’s flexion/extension excursion throughout the day and the ISO specified input for knee wear testing. In order to characterize activity, the number of walking and stair stepping cycles, the time spent with dynamic and stationary activities, the number of activity sequences, and the knee flexion/extension excursion of 32 TKR subjects were collected during daily activity. Flexion/extension profiles were compared with the ISO 14243 simulator input profile using a level crossing classification algorithm. Subjects took an average of 3102 (range: 343–5857 walking cycles including 65 (range: 0–319 stair stepping cycles. Active and passive ROMs were positively correlated with stair walking time, stair step counts, and stair walking sequences. Simulated knee motion according to ISO showed significantly fewer level crossings at the flexion angles 20–40° and beyond 50° than those measured with the monitor. This suggests that implant wear testing protocols should contain more cycles and a variety of activities requiring higher knee flexion angles with incorporated resting/transition periods to account for the many activity sequences.

  2. Waste Load Allocation Based on Total Maximum Daily Load Approach Using the Charged System Search (CSS Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Faraji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the capability of a charged system search algorithm (CSS in handling water management optimization problems is investigated. First, two complex mathematical problems are solved by CSS and the results are compared with those obtained from other metaheuristic algorithms. In the last step, the optimization model developed by the CSS algorithm is applied to the waste load allocation in rivers based on the total maximum daily load (TMDL concept. The results are presented in Tables and Figures for easy comparison. The study indicates the superiority of the CSS algorithm in terms of its speed and performance over the other metaheuristic algorithms while its precision in water management optimization problems is verified.

  3. A free sugars daily value (DV) identifies more "less healthy" prepackaged foods and beverages than a total sugars DV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jodi T; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Franco-Arellano, Beatriz; Schermel, Alyssa; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2018-04-01

    Regulatory changes in Canada will require food labels to have a benchmark [% Daily Value, %DV] for total sugars, based on 100 g/day, while US labels will require a %DV for added sugars, based on 50 g/day. The objective of this study was to compare two labelling policies, a total sugars DV (100 g/day) and a free sugars DV (50 g/day) on food labels. This cross-sectional analysis of the Food Label Information Program database focussed on top sources of total sugars intake in Canada (n = 6924 foods). Products were categorized as "less healthy" using two sets of criteria: a) free sugars levels exceeding the WHO guidelines (≥10% energy from free sugars); and b) exceeding healthfulness cut-offs of the Food Standards Australia New Zealand Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (FSANZ-NPSC). The proportion of "less healthy" products with ≥15%DV (defined as "a lot" of sugars i.e. high in sugars, based on Health Canada's %DV labelling footnote and educational message for dietary guidance) were compared for each sugar labelling scenario. The free sugars DV showed better alignment with both methods for assessing "healthfulness" than the total sugars DV. The free sugars DV identified a greater proportion of "less healthy" foods with ≥15%DV, based on both the FSANZ-NPSC (70% vs. 45%, p chocolate bars, confectionery, and frozen desserts categories. Compared to total sugars DV labelling, using a free sugars DV identified more "less healthy" foods. Findings support the adoption of free sugars labelling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sociodemographic disparities among fast-food restaurant customers who notice and use calorie menu labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jessie E; Brown, Alan G; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2015-07-01

    As part of the recently passed Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, chain restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide will soon be required to post calorie information on menus with the aim of helping customers make healthier food choices. To be effective, this policy must affect all customers, especially those most at risk for poor health and diet outcomes. To determine whether noticing or using calorie menu labels was associated with demographic characteristics of customers at a national fast-food chain currently implementing calorie menu labeling. Cross-sectional analysis. Customer receipts and survey data were collected from 329 participants using street-intercept survey methodology at 29 McDonald's restaurant locations in low- and high-income neighborhoods throughout the Phoenix, AZ, metropolitan area. Calorie menu labeling awareness and use were assessed. The total number of calories purchased was evaluated using participants' itemized receipts. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the odds of customers noticing or using calorie menu labels. Approximately 60% of participants noticed calorie menu labels, whereas only 16% reported using the information for food or beverage purchases. Higher-income individuals had twice the odds of noticing calorie labels (P=0.029) and three times the odds of using them (P=0.004). Significant positive associations were found between individuals with a bachelor's degree or higher and use of calorie menu labels (odds ratio 3.25; P=0.023). Noticing calorie menu labels was not associated with purchasing fewer calories; however, those who reported using calorie information purchased 146 fewer calories than those who did not (P=0.001). Using calorie menu labels is associated with purchasing fewer calories. However, there are significant socioeconomic disparities among customers who notice and use calorie menu labels. Targeted education campaigns are needed to improve the use of menu labeling

  5. Experimental application of the "total maximum daily load" approach as a tool for WFD implementation in temporary rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Porto, A.; De Girolamo, A. M.; Santese, G.

    2012-04-01

    In this presentation, the experience gained in the first experimental use in the UE (as far as we know) of the concept and methodology of the "Total Maximum Daily Load" (TMDL) is reported. The TMDL is an instrument required in the Clean Water Act in U.S.A for the management of water bodies classified impaired. The TMDL calculates the maximum amount of a pollutant that a waterbody can receive and still safely meet water quality standards. It permits to establish a scientifically-based strategy on the regulation of the emission loads control according to the characteristic of the watershed/basin. The implementation of the TMDL is a process analogous to the Programmes of Measures required by the WFD, the main difference being the analysis of the linkage between loads of different sources and the water quality of water bodies. The TMDL calculation was used in this study for the Candelaro River, a temporary Italian river, classified impaired in the first steps of the implementation of the WFD. A specific approach based on the "Load Duration Curves" was adopted for the calculation of nutrient TMDLs due to the more robust approach specific for rivers featuring large changes in river flow compared to the classic approach based on average long term flow conditions. This methodology permits to establish the maximum allowable loads across to the different flow conditions of a river. This methodology enabled: to evaluate the allowable loading of a water body; to identify the sources and estimate their loads; to estimate the total loading that the water bodies can receives meeting the water quality standards established; to link the effects of point and diffuse sources on the water quality status and finally to individuate the reduction necessary for each type of sources. The loads reductions were calculated for nitrate, total phosphorus and ammonia. The simulated measures showed a remarkable ability to reduce the pollutants for the Candelaro River. The use of the Soil and

  6. Using spatially detailed water-quality data and solute-transport modeling to improve support total maximum daily load development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton-Day, Katherine; Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.

    2012-01-01

    Spatially detailed mass-loading studies and solute-transport modeling using OTIS (One-dimensional Transport with Inflow and Storage) demonstrate how natural attenuation and loading from distinct and diffuse sources control stream water quality and affect load reductions predicted in total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Mass-loading data collected during low-flow from Cement Creek (a low-pH, metal-rich stream because of natural and mining sources, and subject to TMDL requirements) were used to calibrate OTIS and showed spatially variable effects of natural attenuation (instream reactions) and loading from diffuse (groundwater) and distinct sources. OTIS simulations of the possible effects of TMDL-recommended remediation of mine sites showed less improvement to dissolved zinc load and concentration (14% decrease) than did the TMDL (53-63% decrease). The TMDL (1) assumed conservative transport, (2) accounted for loads removed by remediation by subtracting them from total load at the stream mouth, and (3) did not include diffuse-source loads. In OTIS, loads were reduced near their source; the resulting concentration was decreased by natural attenuation and increased by diffuse-source loads during downstream transport. Thus, by not including natural attenuation and loading from diffuse sources, the TMDL overestimated remediation effects at low flow. Use of the techniques presented herein could improve TMDLs by incorporating these processes during TMDL development.

  7. Consumer preferences for front-of-pack calories labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans; Paeps, Frederic; Fernández-Celemín, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Objective In light of the emerging obesity pandemic, front-of-pack calories labels may be an important tool to assist consumers in making informed healthier food choices. However, there is little prior research to guide key decisions on whether caloric content should be expressed in absolute terms or relative to recommended daily intake, whether it should be expressed in per serving or per 100 g and whether the information should be further brought alive for consumers in terms of what the extra calorie intake implies in relation to activity levels. The present study aimed at providing more insight into consumers’ appreciation of front-of-pack labelling of caloric content of food products and their specific preferences for alternative execution formats for such information in Europe. Design For this purpose, eight executions of front-of-pack calorie flags were designed and their appeal and information value were extensively discussed with consumers through qualitative research in four different countries (Germany, The Netherlands, France and the UK). Results The results show that calories are well-understood and that participants were generally positive about front-of-pack flags, particularly when flags are uniform across products. The most liked flags are the simpler flags depicting only the number of calories per serving or per 100 g, while more complex flags including references to daily needs or exercise and the flag including a phrase referring to balanced lifestyle were least preferred. Some relevant differences between countries were observed. Although participants seem to be familiar with the notion of calories, they do not seem to fully understand how to apply them. Conclusion From the results, managerial implications for the design and implementation of front-of-pack calorie labelling as well as important directions for future research are discussed. PMID:17601362

  8. Consumer preferences for front-of-pack calories labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans; Paeps, Frederic; Fernández-Celemín, Laura

    2008-02-01

    In light of the emerging obesity pandemic, front-of-pack calories labels may be an important tool to assist consumers in making informed healthier food choices. However, there is little prior research to guide key decisions on whether caloric content should be expressed in absolute terms or relative to recommended daily intake, whether it should be expressed in per serving or per 100 g and whether the information should be further brought alive for consumers in terms of what the extra calorie intake implies in relation to activity levels. The present study aimed at providing more insight into consumers' appreciation of front-of-pack labelling of caloric content of food products and their specific preferences for alternative execution formats for such information in Europe. For this purpose, eight executions of front-of-pack calorie flags were designed and their appeal and information value were extensively discussed with consumers through qualitative research in four different countries (Germany, The Netherlands, France and the UK). The results show that calories are well-understood and that participants were generally positive about front-of-pack flags, particularly when flags are uniform across products. The most liked flags are the simpler flags depicting only the number of calories per serving or per 100 g, while more complex flags including references to daily needs or exercise and the flag including a phrase referring to balanced lifestyle were least preferred. Some relevant differences between countries were observed. Although participants seem to be familiar with the notion of calories, they do not seem to fully understand how to apply them. From the results, managerial implications for the design and implementation of front-of-pack calorie labelling as well as important directions for future research are discussed.

  9. Development of total maximum daily loads for bacteria impaired watershed using the comprehensive hydrology and water quality simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang M; Brannan, Kevin M; Zeckoski, Rebecca W; Benham, Brian L

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop bacteria total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) for the Hardware River watershed in the Commonwealth of Virginia, USA. The TMDL program is an integrated watershed management approach required by the Clean Water Act. The TMDLs were developed to meet Virginia's water quality standard for bacteria at the time, which stated that the calendar-month geometric mean concentration of Escherichia coli should not exceed 126 cfu/100 mL, and that no single sample should exceed a concentration of 235 cfu/100 mL. The bacteria impairment TMDLs were developed using the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF). The hydrology and water quality components of HSPF were calibrated and validated using data from the Hardware River watershed to ensure that the model adequately simulated runoff and bacteria concentrations. The calibrated and validated HSPF model was used to estimate the contributions from the various bacteria sources in the Hardware River watershed to the in-stream concentration. Bacteria loads were estimated through an extensive source characterization process. Simulation results for existing conditions indicated that the majority of the bacteria came from livestock and wildlife direct deposits and pervious lands. Different source reduction scenarios were evaluated to identify scenarios that meet both the geometric mean and single sample maximum E. coli criteria with zero violations. The resulting scenarios required extreme and impractical reductions from livestock and wildlife sources. Results from studies similar to this across Virginia partially contributed to a reconsideration of the standard's applicability to TMDL development.

  10. Calorie-labelling in catering outlets: acceptability and impacts on food sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Charoula K; Lean, Michael E J; Hankey, Catherine R

    2014-10-01

    Obesity is the biggest challenge facing preventive medicine. Calorie-labelling has been suggested as a way of changing the architecture of an 'obesogenic' environment without limiting consumer choice. This study examined the effect of calorie-labelling on sales of food items at catering outlets on a city-centre university campus. Sales data were collected for two consecutive months in 2013 on three UK university sites (two with calorie-labelling during second month, one control) and analysed with chi-square 'Goodness-of-Fit' tests. A questionnaire seeking consumers' views and use of the calorie-labelling was administered and analysed at group-level with chi-square tests. In intervention vs control sites, total sales of all labelled items fell significantly (-17% vs -2%, p<0.001) for the month with calorie-labelling. Calorie-labelling was associated with substantially reduced sales of high-calorie labelled items, without any compensatory changes in unlabelled alternative items. Among 1166 student- and 646 staff-respondents, 56% reported using the calorie-labels, 97% of them to make lower-calorie choices. More females (63%) than males (40%) reported being influenced by calorie-labels when choosing foods (p=0.01). This study provides evidence, beyond that from single-meal exposures, for the acceptability of meal calorie-labelling and its potential as an effective low-cost anti-obesity measure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Daily total physical activity level and premature death in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan (JPHC study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Manami; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Kurahashi, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-07-01

    The impact of daily total physical activity level on premature deaths has not been fully clarified in non-Western, relatively lean populations. We prospectively examined the association between daily total physical activity level (METs/day) and subsequent risk of all-cause mortality and mortalities from cancer, heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease. A total of 83,034 general Japanese citizens ages 45-74 years who responded to the questionnaire in 1995-1999 were followed for any cause of death through December 2005. Mutlivariate-adjusted hazard ratios were calculated with a Cox proportional hazards model controlling for potential confounding factors. During follow-up, a total of 4564 deaths were recorded. Compared with subjects in the lowest quartile, increased daily total physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased risk of all-cause mortality in both sexes (hazard ratios for the second, third, and highest quartiles were: men, 0.79, 0.82, 0.73 and women, 0.75, 0.64, 0.61, respectively). The decreased risk was observed regardless of age, frequency of leisure-time sports or physical exercise, or obesity status, albeit with a degree of risk attenuation among those with a high body mass index. A significantly decreased risk was similarly observed for death from cancer and heart disease in both sexes, and from cerebrovascular disease in women. Greater daily total physical activity level, either from occupation, daily life, or leisure time, may be of benefit in preventing premature death.

  12. TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping...

  13. TOMS/Earth Probe Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this...

  14. Why calories count: from science to politics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nestle, Marion; Nesheim, Malden C

    2012-01-01

    .... They are also hard to understand. In Why Calories Count, Marion Nestle and Malden Nesheim explain in clear and accessible language what calories are and how they work, both biologically and politically...

  15. Consumer estimation of recommended and actual calories at fast food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian

    2011-10-01

    Recently, localities across the United States have passed laws requiring the mandatory labeling of calories in all chain restaurants, including fast food restaurants. This policy is set to be implemented at the federal level. Early studies have found these policies to be at best minimally effective in altering food choice at a population level. This paper uses receipt and survey data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) (which implemented labeling) and a comparison community (which did not) to examine two fundamental assumptions necessary (though not sufficient) for calorie labeling to be effective: that consumers know how many calories they should be eating throughout the course of a day and that currently customers improperly estimate the number of calories in their fast food order. Then, we examine whether mandatory menu labeling influences either of these assumptions. We find that approximately one-third of consumers properly estimate that the number of calories an adult should consume daily. Few (8% on average) believe adults should be eating over 2,500 calories daily, and approximately one-third believe adults should eat lesser than 1,500 calories daily. Mandatory labeling in NYC did not change these findings. However, labeling did increase the number of low-income consumers who correctly estimated (within 100 calories) the number of calories in their fast food meal, from 15% before labeling in NYC increasing to 24% after labeling. Overall knowledge remains low even with labeling. Additional public policies likely need to be considered to influence obesity on a large scale.

  16. Betel quid chewing as a source of manganese exposure: total daily intake of manganese in a Bangladeshi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W; Jenkins, Richard O; Haris, Parvez I

    2011-02-07

    A relationship between betel quid chewing in Bangladeshi populations and the development of skin lesions and tremor has been previously reported, for people exposed to high levels of arsenic (As) through drinking contaminated groundwater. Exposure to manganese (Mn) is also known to induce neurotoxicity and levels of Mn in Bangladeshi groundwater are also high. The present study evaluates betel quid chewing as an overlooked source of Mn exposure in a Bangladeshi population. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine (1) urinary Mn levels for 15 chewers and 22 non-chewers from the ethnic Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom, and (2) Mn levels in betel quids, its individual components and other Bangladeshi foods. Betel quid chewers displayed a significantly higher (P = 0.009) mean Mn concentration in urine (1.93 μg L(-1)) compared to non-chewers (0.62 μg L(-1)). High levels of Mn were detected in Piper betel leaves with an overall average of 135 mg kg(-1) (range 26 -518 mg kg(-1)). The mean concentration of Mn in betel quid was 41 mg kg(-1) (SD 27) and the daily intake of Mn in the Bangladeshi population was estimated to be 20.3 mg/day. Chewing six betel quids could contribute up to 18% of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn. We have demonstrated that Mn in betel quids is an overlooked source of exposure to Mn in humans. Chewers display a 3.1 fold increased urinary Mn concentration compared to non-chewers. The practice of betel quid chewing contributes a high proportion of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn, which could make chewers in Bangladesh more vulnerable to Mn neurotoxicity.

  17. Review of revised Klamath River Total Maximum Daily Load models from Link River Dam to Keno Dam, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Sullivan, Annett B.

    2013-01-01

    Flow and water-quality models are being used to support the development of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) plans for the Klamath River downstream of Upper Klamath Lake (UKL) in south-central Oregon. For riverine reaches, the RMA-2 and RMA-11 models were used, whereas the CE-QUAL-W2 model was used to simulate pooled reaches. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was asked to review the most upstream of these models, from Link River Dam at the outlet of UKL downstream through the first pooled reach of the Klamath River from Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam. Previous versions of these models were reviewed in 2009 by USGS. Since that time, important revisions were made to correct several problems and address other issues. This review documents an assessment of the revised models, with emphasis on the model revisions and any remaining issues. The primary focus of this review is the 19.7-mile Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam reach of the Klamath River that was simulated with the CE-QUAL-W2 model. Water spends far more time in the Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam reach than in the 1-mile Link River reach that connects UKL to the Klamath River, and most of the critical reactions affecting water quality upstream of Keno Dam occur in that pooled reach. This model review includes assessments of years 2000 and 2002 current conditions scenarios, which were used to calibrate the model, as well as a natural conditions scenario that was used as the reference condition for the TMDL and was based on the 2000 flow conditions. The natural conditions scenario included the removal of Keno Dam, restoration of the Keno reef (a shallow spot that was removed when the dam was built), removal of all point-source inputs, and derivation of upstream boundary water-quality inputs from a previously developed UKL TMDL model. This review examined the details of the models, including model algorithms, parameter values, and boundary conditions; the review did not assess the draft Klamath River TMDL or the TMDL allocations

  18. 75 FR 43160 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Final Agency Action on One Arkansas Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... taking final agency action on the following TMDL for waters located within the State of Arkansas: Segment-reach Waterbody name Pollutant 11070208-901 Town Branch..... Total Phosphorus. EPA requested the public...

  19. A simple approach to estimate daily loads of total, refractory, and labile organic carbon from their seasonal loads in a watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ying; Grace, Johnny M; Zipperer, Wayne C; Hatten, Jeff; Dewey, Janet

    2018-05-22

    Loads of naturally occurring total organic carbons (TOC), refractory organic carbon (ROC), and labile organic carbon (LOC) in streams control the availability of nutrients and the solubility and toxicity of contaminants and affect biological activities through absorption of light and complex metals with production of carcinogenic compounds. Although computer models have become increasingly popular in understanding and management of TOC, ROC, and LOC loads in streams, the usefulness of these models hinges on the availability of daily data for model calibration and validation. Unfortunately, these daily data are usually insufficient and/or unavailable for most watersheds due to a variety of reasons, such as budget and time constraints. A simple approach was developed here to calculate daily loads of TOC, ROC, and LOC in streams based on their seasonal loads. We concluded that the predictions from our approach adequately match field measurements based on statistical comparisons between model calculations and field measurements. Our approach demonstrates that an increase in stream discharge results in increased stream TOC, ROC, and LOC concentrations and loads, although high peak discharge did not necessarily result in high peaks of TOC, ROC, and LOC concentrations and loads. The approach developed herein is a useful tool to convert seasonal loads of TOC, ROC, and LOC into daily loads in the absence of measured daily load data.

  20. Reducing calories and added sugars by improving children's beverage choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefel, Ronette R; Wilson, Ander; Cabili, Charlotte; Hedley Dodd, Allison

    2013-02-01

    Because childhood obesity is such a threat to the physical, mental, and social health of youth, there is a great need to identify effective strategies to reduce its prevalence. The objective of this study was to estimate the mean calories from added sugars that are saved by switching sugar-sweetened beverages (including soda, fruit-flavored drinks, and sport drinks) and flavored milks consumed to unflavored low-fat milk (calories from added sugars both at and away from school. Overall, these changes translated to a mean of 205 calories or a 10% savings in energy intake across all students (8% among children in elementary school and 11% in middle and high schools). Eighty percent of the daily savings were attributed to beverages consumed away from school, with results consistent across school level, sex, race/ethnicity, and weight status. Children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages at home contributed the greatest share of empty calories from added sugars. Such findings indicate that parental education should focus on the importance of reducing or eliminating sugar-sweetened beverages served at home. This conclusion has implications for improving children's food and beverage environments for food and nutrition educators and practitioners, other health care professionals, policy makers, researchers, and parents. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [More calories in modern desserts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemstra-Borst, Corien G

    2010-01-01

    To investigate if in the Netherlands, just as in the USA, there has been an increase in the number of calories in recipes. Comparative study. This study investigated one potential source of excess calories. In a widely-read Dutch cookery magazine - Allerhande - all dessert recipes in the years 1987 and 2009 that had their calorie content mentioned, were selected. This amounted to 37 recipes in each of those years. The number of kcal and amount of carbohydrates, proteins and fat were compared using the two-tailed t test. It was shown that between 1987 and 2009 the number of kcal per single portion had increased by 20% (70 kcal). This was statistically significant. Linked to this increase, there was also an increase in the amount of carbohydrates and fat, but this was not statistically significant. There was a clear increase in the number of kcal per portion between the recipes written in 1987 and 2009. It can be assumed that there is a relationship with the obesity epidemic.

  2. The effects of feeding time on milk production, total-tract digestibility, and daily rhythms of feeding behavior and plasma metabolites and hormones in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, M; Ying, Y; Bartell, P A; Harvatine, K J

    2014-12-01

    The timing of feed intake entrains circadian rhythms regulated by internal clocks in many mammals. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of feeding entrains daily rhythms in dairy cows. Nine Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. An automated system recorded the timing of feed intake over the last 7 d of each period. Treatments were feeding 1×/d at 0830 h (AM) or 2030 h (PM) and feeding 2×/d in equal amounts at 0830 and 2030 h. All treatments were fed at 110% of daily intake. Cows were milked 2×/d at 0500 and 1700 h. Milk yield and composition were not changed by treatment. Daily intake did not differ, but twice-daily feeding tended to decrease total-tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). A treatment by time of day interaction was observed for feeding behavior. The amount of feed consumed in the first 2h after feeding was 70% greater for PM compared with AM feeding. A low rate of intake overnight (2400 to 0500 h; 2.2 ± 0.74% daily intake/h, mean ± SD) and a moderate rate of intake in the afternoon (1200 to 1700 h; 4.8 ± 1.1% daily intake/h) was noted for all treatments, although PM slightly reduced the rate during the afternoon period compared with AM. A treatment by time of day interaction was seen for fecal NDF and indigestible NDF (iNDF) concentration, blood urea nitrogen, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, body temperature, and lying behavior. Specifically, insulin increased and glucose decreased more after evening feeding than after morning feeding. A cosine function within a 24-h period was used to characterize daily rhythms using a random regression. Rate of feed intake during spontaneous feeding, fecal NDF and iNDF concentration, plasma glucose, insulin, NEFA, body temperature, and lying behavior fit a cosine function within a 24-h period that was modified by treatment. In conclusion, feeding time can reset the daily rhythms of feeding and

  3. 75 FR 26956 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of Los Angeles Area Lakes Total Maximum Daily Loads...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9146-6] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of Los...: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This action announces the availability of EPA proposed total maximum... nutrient, mercury, chlordane, dieldrin, DDT, PCB, and trash impairments pursuant to Clean Water Act Section...

  4. Evaluation of Total Daily Dose and Glycemic Control for Patients on U-500 Insulin Admitted to the Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    regular insulin has significantly increased in recent years. These patients are severely insulin resistant requiring high doses of insulin to achieve...on U-500 Insulin Admitted to the Hospital presented at SURF Conference, San Antonio, TX 20 May 201 6 with MDWI 41-108, and has been assigned local...59th CSPG/SGVU) C.201 4 . I 52d PROTOCOL TITLE Evaluation of Total Dai ly Dose and Glycemic Control for Patients on U-500 Insulin Admitted to the

  5. Determination of daily intake of elements from Philippine total diet samples using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, G.C. de; Shiraishi, K.; Kawamura, H.; Igaraishi, Y.; Palattao, M.V.; Azanon, E.M.

    1990-10-01

    Total diet samples were analyzed for major elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P) and some minor trace elements (Fe, Zn, Mn, Al, Sr, Cu, Ba, Yt) using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Samples analyzed were classified into sex and age groups. Results for some elements (Na, K, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn) were compared with values from Bataan dietary survey calculated using the Philippine composition table. Exceot for Na, analytical results were similar to calculated values. Analytical results for Ca and Fe were also compared with the values from Food and Nutrition Research Institute. In general, values obtained in the study were lower than the FNRI values. Comparison of the analytical and calculated results with the Japanese and ICRP data showed that Philippine values were lower than foreign values. (Auth.). 22 refs., 9 tabs

  6. The Demand for Calories in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Odin K. Knudsen; Pasquale L. Scandizzo

    1982-01-01

    This paper employs characteristic demand theory to estimate demand functions for calories for a set of developing countries and to investigate the potential impact of income growth, redistribution, and price changes on alleviating underconsumption of calories. The analysis finds that, although calorie elasticities with respect to income are substantial for the poorer consumers, income growth above historical rates is required for the food needs of the entire population to be satisfied within ...

  7. Time Course of Visual Attention to High-Calorie Virtual Food in Individuals with Bulimic Tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiwon; Kim, Kiho; Lee, Jang-Han

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to use an eye-tracking device to investigate attention bias and its mechanism toward high-calorie virtual food in individuals with bulimic tendencies (BT). A total of 76 participants were divided into two groups: a BT group (n = 38) and a control group (n = 38). The eye movements of all participants were continuously measured while the participants were confronted with pairs of high-calorie, low-calorie, and nonfood virtual stimuli (pictures). It was found that the BT group detected high-calorie food more quickly than they did the low-calorie food and nonfood stimuli, but they also avoided the high-calorie food. These results indicate that individuals with BT automatically allocate their attention toward high-calorie food and, subsequently, try to avoid it. Based on these results, we suggest that this approach-avoidance pattern for high-calorie virtual food could be a factor in the development and maintenance of bulimia symptoms by encouraging individuals with BT to be in conflict with the urge to overeat.

  8. Targeted Calorie Message Promotes Healthy Beverage Consumption Better than Charity Incentive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policastro, Peggy; Palm, Taylor; Schwartz, Janet; Chapman, Gretchen

    2017-08-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is cited as a major contributor to the U.S. obesity epidemic. The objective of this paper was to leverage insights from behavioral economics to examine whether nudges would entice college students to save meal calories by choosing water over SSBs. Three message-based nudge interventions, with washout periods between, were used during the 7-week study. Calorie savings (self-interest), charity (prosocial), or charity-plus-calorie message posters were displayed in a college-based food franchise. Multilevel logistic regressions compared the proportions of students choosing water during three experimental conditions. This study assessed whether the frequency of dining establishment visits over the study period moderated effects of the experimental conditions on beverage choices. Multiple data points from the same customer were treated as repeated measures. A total of 2,393 unique students purchased 6,730 meals. Posters displaying calorie information increased water choice relative to washout periods, while the poster without calorie information (charity only) had no effect. Controlling for fixed effects produced the same results. The calorie message poster influenced less frequent diners more than frequent diners. Food-service operations can nudge college students to substitute water for SSBs with a simple calorie-based message to save hundreds of calories per meal. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  9. Effect of treatment with single total-dose intravenous iron versus daily oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose on moderate puerperal iron-deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyoke CA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,1 Fausta Chioma Emegoakor,1 Euzebus Chinonye Ezugwu,1 Lucky Osaheni Lawani,2 Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1 Jude Anazoeze Madu,3 Hyginus Uzo Ezegwui,1 Frank Okechukwu Ezugwu4 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, 3Department of Haematology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medicine, Enugu State University, Enugu, Nigeria Background: Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional cause of anemia in pregnancy and is often responsible for puerperal anemia. Puerperal anemia can impair postpartum maternal and neonatal well-being. Objective: To determine the effect of treatment of moderate puerperal iron-deficiency anemia using a single intravenous total-dose iron dextran versus daily single dose oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose. Methodology: A randomized controlled study in which postpartum women with moderate iron-deficiency anemia were randomized into treatment with either a single total-dose intravenous iron dextran or with daily single doses of oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose tablets for 6 weeks. Effects on hemoglobin concentration using either method were compared at 6 weeks postpartum. Analysis was per protocol using SPSS version 17 for windows. P-values ≤0.05 were considered significant. Results: Two hundred eighty-four women were recruited for the study: 142 women received single total dose intravenous infusion of iron dextran while 142 received daily oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose tablets. Approximately 84.0% (237/282 completed the study and were analyzed including 81% (115/142 of those randomized to injectable iron therapy compared to 85.9% (122/142 of those randomized to oral treatment. The proportions of women who had attained hemoglobin concentration of at least 10 g/dL by the 6 weeks postpartum visit did not differ

  10. Weighing every day matters: daily weighing improves weight loss and adoption of weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Dori M; Bennett, Gary G; Askew, Sandy; Tate, Deborah F

    2015-04-01

    Daily weighing is emerging as the recommended self-weighing frequency for weight loss. This is likely because it improves adoption of weight control behaviors. To examine whether weighing every day is associated with greater adoption of weight control behaviors compared with less frequent weighing. Longitudinal analysis of a previously conducted 6-month randomized controlled trial. Overweight men and women in Chapel Hill, NC, participated in the intervention arm (N=47). The intervention focused on daily weighing for weight loss using an e-scale that transmitted weights to a study website, along with weekly e-mailed lessons and tailored feedback on daily weighing adherence and weight loss progress. We gathered objective data on self-weighing frequency from the e-scales. At baseline and 6 months, weight change was measured in the clinic and weight control behaviors (total items=37), dietary strategies, and calorie expenditure from physical activity were assessed via questionnaires. Calorie intake was assessed using an online 24-hour recall tool. We used χ(2) tests to examine variation in discrete weight control behaviors and linear regression models to examine differences in weight, dietary strategies, and calorie intake and expenditure by self-weighing frequency. Fifty-one percent of participants weighed every day (n=24) over 6 months. The average self-weighing frequency among those weighing less than daily (n=23) was 5.4±1.2 days per week. Daily weighers lost significantly more weight compared with those weighing less than daily (mean difference=-6.1 kg; 95% CI -10.2 to -2.1; P=0.004). The total number of weight control behaviors adopted was greater among daily weighers (17.6±7.6 vs 11.2±6.4; P=0.004). There were no differences by self-weighing frequency in dietary strategies, calorie intake, or calorie expenditure. Weighing every day led to greater adoption of weight control behaviors and produced greater weight loss compared with weighing most days of the

  11. Calorie Changes in Large Chain Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.; Jarlenski, Marian P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Large chain restaurants reduced the number of calories in newly introduced menu items in 2013 by about 60 calories (or 12%) relative to 2012. This paper describes trends in calories available in large U.S. chain restaurants to understand whether previously documented patterns persist. Methods Data (a census of items for included restaurants) were obtained from the MenuStat project. This analysis included 66 of the 100 largest U.S. restaurants that are available in all three 3 of the data (2012–2014; N=23,066 items). Generalized linear models were used to examine: (1) per-item calorie changes from 2012 to 2014 among items on the menu in all years; and (2) mean calories in new items in 2013 and 2014 compared with items on the menu in 2012 only. Data were analyzed in 2014. Results Overall, calories in newly introduced menu items declined by 71 (or 15%) from 2012 to 2013 (p=0.001) and by 69 (or 14%) from 2012 to 2014 (p=0.03). These declines were concentrated mainly in new main course items (85 fewer calories in 2013 and 55 fewer calories in 2014; p=0.01). Although average calories in newly introduced menu items are declining, they are higher than items common to the menu in all 3 years. No differences in mean calories among items on menus in 2012, 2013, or 2014 were found. Conclusions The previously observed declines in newly introduced menu items among large restaurant chains have been maintained, which suggests the beginning of a trend toward reducing calories. PMID:26163168

  12. Guideline recommendations for post-acute postoperative physiotherapy in total hip and knee arthroplasty: are they used in daily clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, W F; Nelissen, R G H H; Vlieland, T P M Vliet

    2014-09-01

    In a Dutch guideline on physiotherapy (PT) in hip and knee osteoarthritis, a number of recommendations on post-acute (i.e. after discharge from hospital) PT following total hip (THA) and total knee (TKA) arthroplasty were included. Little is known about the uptake of these recommendations in daily clinical practice. The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which the guideline recommendations regarding post-acute PT after THA and TKA are followed in daily clinical practice. An online pilot survey on the delivery of post-acute, postoperative PT was sent to a random sample of 957 Dutch physiotherapists. The survey included questions on the application of recommended, neither recommended nor advised against, and advised against treatment modalities and various treatment modalities for which there were no formulated recommendations. A total of 219 physiotherapists completed the questionnaire, with a mean age of 40 years (standard deviation 12.6), 55% female and 95% working in primary care. The vast majority reported the use of the recommended exercise modalities (muscle strengthening exercises (96%), and functional exercises (99%). Continuous passive motion, which was neither recommended nor advised against, and electrical muscle stimulation, which was not recommended, were provided by 1%. Reported treatment modalities for which there were no formulated recommendations included patient education (99%), gait training (95%), active range of motion (ROM) exercises (93%), balance exercises (86%), passive ROM exercises (58%), aerobic exercises (50%), massage (18%) and cold therapy (11%). The vast majority of physiotherapists reported adhering to recommendations on post-acute postoperative PT in THA and TKA patients after discharge from hospital. Although yet to be confirmed in a larger nationwide survey, the relatively high frequency of use of many other treatment modalities, for which there were no formulated recommendations, suggests the need to extend

  13. No difference between fixed- and mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty in activities of daily living and pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Joicemar Tarouco; Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Astur, Diego Costa; Debieux, Pedro; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Cohen, Moises

    2017-06-01

    Until now, there are no definitive conclusions regarding functional differences related to middle- and long-term everyday activities and patient pain following implantation of mobile- and fixed-platform tibial prostheses. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are middle-term differences in knee function and pain in patients undergoing fixed- and mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Eligible patients were randomized into two groups: the first group received TKA implantation with a fixed tibial platform (group A); the second group received TKA with a mobile tibial platform (group B). Patients were followed up (2 years), and their symptoms and limitations in daily living activities were evaluated using the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADLS), in addition to pain evaluation assessed using the pain visual analogue scale (VAS). There were no significant differences in function and symptoms in the ADLS and VAS between the study groups. The type of platform used in TKA (fixed vs. mobile) does not change the symptoms, function or pain of patients 2 years post-surgery. Although mobile TKAs may have better short-term results, at medium- and long-term follow-up they do not present important clinical differences compared with fixed-platform TKAs. This information is important so that surgeons can choose the most suitable implant for each patient. Randomized clinical trial, Level I.

  14. Carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio is estimated from 300-400 divided by total daily insulin dose in type 1 diabetes patients who use the insulin pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Akio; Yasuda, Tetsuyuki; Takahara, Mitsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Fumie; Kasami, Ryuichi; Miyashita, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Sumiko; Kondo, Eri; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Endo, Itsuro; Matsuoka, Taka-aki; Kaneto, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Toshio; Shimomura, Iichiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide

    2012-11-01

    To optimize insulin dose using insulin pump, basal and bolus insulin doses are widely calculated from total daily insulin dose (TDD). It is recommended that total daily basal insulin dose (TBD) is 50% of TDD and that the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio (CIR) equals 500 divided by TDD. We recently reported that basal insulin requirement is approximately 30% of TDD. We therefore investigated CIR after adjustment of the proper basal insulin rate. Forty-five Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes were investigated during several weeks of hospitalization. The patients were served standard diabetes meals (25-30 kcal/kg of ideal body weight). Each meal omission was done to confirm basal insulin rate. Target blood glucose level was set at 100 and 150 mg/dL before and 2 h after each meal, respectively. After the basal insulin rate was fixed and target blood glucose levels were achieved, TBD, CIR, TDD, and their products were determined. Mean (±SD) blood glucose levels before and 2 h after meals were 121±47 and 150±61 mg/dL, respectively. TDD was 31.5±9.0 U, and TBD was 27.0±6.5% of TDD. CIR×TDD of breakfast was significantly lower than those of lunch and supper (288±73 vs. 408±92 and 387±83, respectively; Plunch and supper in type 1 diabetes patients. These results indicate that the insulin dose has been underestimated by using previously established calculations.

  15. Ethnic variation in the correlation between waist to height ratio and total daily insulin requirement in children with type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uday, Suma; Gorman, Shaun; Feltbower, Richard G; Mathai, Mathew

    2017-03-01

    Total daily insulin required to achieve glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depends on numerous factors. Correlation of insulin requirement to body mass index and waist circumference has been variably reported in the literature and that of waist-to-height ratio has not been studied. To study the correlation between daily insulin requirement [total daily dose (TDD)] and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in a multiethnic population. A cross-sectional study of children (5-18 years) with T1D attending a diabetes clinic in a multiethnic population in Bradford, UK was conducted. Physical measurements were undertaken in the clinic setting and data collected from case notes and patients/carers. Sixty nine patients with mean age 12.7(±3.1) yr, duration of diabetes 5.4(±3.5) yr and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 80(±18)mmol/mol(9.5 ± 1.6%) were recruited. Nearly 54% (n = 37) were white and 46% were non-white (29 Asian Pakistani; 1 Indian; 2 mixed White Afro-Caribbean). The two groups had similar demographics and disease profiles. Non-whites compared with whites had a higher prevalence of obesity (15 vs 5%, p 1), family history of type 2 diabetes (T2D) (49% vs. 33%), microalbuminuria (22% vs. 11%, p 1). WHtR and TDD were poorly correlated in the whole group. There was however a significant positive correlation in Caucasians (r = 0.583, N = 37, p 1) and a negative correlation in Asian Pakistanis (r = -0.472, N = 32, p 1); with a significant negative correlation seen in subjects with relatives with T2D (r = -0.86, N = 6, p = 0.02). The variation in correlations highlights that the two ethnic groups behave differently and should therefore be studied separately with regards to factors influencing insulin requirements with careful consideration to the presence of parental IR. Further prospective studies are required to explore the reasons for these differences. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Examination of Cognitive Function During Six Months of Calorie Restriction: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Corby K.; Anton, Stephen D.; Han, Hongmei; York-Crowe, Emily; Redman, Leanne M.; Ravussin, Eric; Williamson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Calorie restriction increases longevity in many organisms, and calorie restriction or its mimetic might increase longevity in humans. It is unclear if calorie restriction/dieting contributes to cognitive impairment. During this randomized controlled trial, the effect of 6 months of calorie restriction on cognitive functioning was tested. Methods Participants (n = 48) were randomized to one of four groups: (1) control (weight maintenance), (2) calorie restriction (CR; 25% restriction), (3) CR plus structured exercise (CR + EX, 12.5% restriction plus 12.5% increased energy expenditure via exercise), or (4) low-calorie diet (LCD; 890 kcal/d diet until 15% weight loss, followed by weight maintenance). Cognitive tests (verbal memory, visual memory, attention/concentration) were conducted at baseline and months 3 and 6. Mixed linear models tested if cognitive function changed significantly from baseline to months 3 and 6, and if this change differed by group. Correlation analysis was used to determine if average daily energy deficit (quantified from change in body energy stores) was associated with change in cognitive test performance for the three dieting groups combined. Results No consistent pattern of verbal memory, visual retention/memory, or attention/concentration deficits emerged during the trial. Daily energy deficit was not significantly associated with change in cognitive test performance. Conclusions This randomized controlled trial suggests that calorie restriction/dieting was not associated with a consistent pattern of cognitive impairment. These conclusions must be interpreted in the context of study limitations, namely small sample size and limited statistical power. Previous reports of cognitive impairment might reflect sampling biases or information processing biases. PMID:17518698

  17. Determination of total vanadium and vanadium(V) in groundwater from Mt. Etna and estimate of daily intake of vanadium(V) through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Giovanni; Copat, Chiara; Dimartino, Angela; Grasso, Alfina; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-06-01

    Vanadium(V) can be found in natural waters in the form of V(IV) and V(V) species, which have different biological properties and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of total V and V(V) in groundwater from the area of Mt. Etna and to assess the estimated daily intake (EDI) of V(V) of adults and children through drinking water. Water was sampled monthly at 21 sites in 2011. Total vanadium was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and speciation by ion chromatography-ICP-MS (IC-ICP-MS). The concentration of V(V) species ranged from 62.8 to 98.9% of total V, with significantly higher concentrations in samples from the S/SW slope of Mt. Etna. The annual mean concentrations of total V exceeded the Italian legal limit of 140 μg/L at four sites on the S/SW slope. In the absence of thresholds for V(V) intake, only the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has calculated a reference dose. Children's EDI of V(V) at the sites with the higher V concentrations exceeded EPA thresholds (9 μg/kg/day). In particular, we found in Camporotondo, Mascalucia, Ragalna and San Pietro Clarenza sites children's EDIs of 11, 9.3, 11 and 9.9, respectively. The EDI of V(V) was significantly higher than the literature range (0.09-0.34 μg/kg/day).

  18. Estimation of total as well as bioaccessible levels and average daily dietary intake of iodine from Japanese edible seaweeds by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Chatt, A.

    2012-01-01

    An epi-thermal instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA) method in conjunction with Compton suppression spectrometry (EINAA-CSS) was used for the determination of total iodine in eight different species of edible seaweeds from Japan. This method gave an absolute detection limit of about 2 μg. The accuracy of the method was evaluated using various reference materials and found to be generally in agreement within ±6% of the certified values. The longitudinal distributions of iodine at different growing stages in Japanese sea mustard and tangle seaweeds were investigated. For a 150-cm-high tangle, the highest concentration (5,360 mg/kg) of iodine was found at the root, then decreased slowly to 780 mg/kg in the middle portion (60-75 cm), and increased to 2,300 mg/kg at the apex. On the other hand, for a 190-cm-high sea mustard the highest levels of iodine were found both at the roots (164 mg/kg) and apex (152 mg/kg) with lower values (98 mg/kg) in the middle section. In order to estimate the bioaccessible fraction of iodine, seaweeds were digested by an in vitro enzymolysis method, dietary fibre separated from residue, and both fractions analyzed by EINAA-CSS. The average daily dietary intakes of total (0.14 mg) as well as bioaccessible fraction (0.12 mg) of iodine from the consumption of sea mustards were estimated. (author)

  19. Restaurants With Calories Displayed On Menus Had Lower Calorie Counts Compared To Restaurants Without Such Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A; Jarlenski, Marian P; Block, Jason P

    2015-11-01

    Beginning in December 2016, calorie labeling on menus will be mandatory for US chain restaurants and many other establishments that serve food, such as ice cream shops and movie theaters. But before the federal mandate kicks in, several large chain restaurants have begun to voluntarily display information about the calories in the items on their menus. This increased transparency may be associated with lower overall calorie content of offered items. This study used data for the period 2012-14 from the MenuStat project, a data set of menu items at sixty-six of the largest US restaurant chains. We compared differences in calorie counts of food items between restaurants that voluntarily implemented national menu labeling and those that did not. We found that the mean per item calorie content in all years was lower for restaurants that voluntarily posted information about calories (the differences were 139 calories in 2012, 136 in 2013, and 139 in 2014). New menu items introduced in 2013 and 2014 showed a similar pattern. Calorie labeling may have important effects on the food served in restaurants by compelling the introduction of lower-calorie items. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. Restaurants With Calories Displayed On Menus Had Lower Calorie Counts Compared To Restaurants Without Such Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.; Jarlenski, Marian P.; Block, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in December 2016, calorie labeling on menus will be mandatory for US chain restaurants and many other establishments that serve food, such as ice cream shops and movie theaters. But before the federal mandate kicks in, several large chain restaurants have begun to voluntarily display information about the calories in the items on their menus. This increased transparency may be associated with lower overall calorie content of offered items. This study used data for the period 2012–14 from the MenuStat project, a data set of menu items at sixty-six of the largest US restaurant chains. We compared differences in calorie counts of food items between restaurants that voluntarily implemented national menu labeling and those that did not. We found that the mean per item calorie content in all years was lower for restaurants that voluntarily posted information about calories (the differences were 139 calories in 2012, 136 in 2013, and 139 in 2014). New menu items introduced in 2013 and 2014 showed a similar pattern. Calorie labeling may have important effects on the food served in restaurants by compelling the introduction of lower-calorie items. PMID:26526245

  1. Heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the opportunity and the ability to choose low-calorie snack foods and beverages: associations with real-life choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Colin; van der Lans, Ivo A; van Rijnsoever, Frank J; van Trijp, Hans Cm

    2016-06-01

    Employing Rothschild's Motivation-Opportunity-Ability framework, the present study examines the extent to which heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the perceived opportunity and the perceived ability to choose low-calorie over high-calorie snacks is associated with the proportion of low-calorie snack choices in real life. Furthermore, the study investigates which dominant barrier profiles can be discerned. Data were obtained from a survey about participants' motivation, opportunity and ability to choose low-calorie over high-calorie snacks and an FFQ that measured habitual consumption of snack foods and beverages. Data were analysed using R packages lavaan and NbClust, and IBM SPSS Statistics. A representative sample (n 1318) of the Dutch population based on gender (686 women), age and education level. For both snack foods and beverages, motivation to choose low-calorie over high-calorie snacks was associated strongest with proportions of low-calorie choices. The perceived ability and perceived opportunity were also associated with proportions of low-calorie choices, albeit to a lesser extent. Furthermore, three dominant profiles of barriers were identified: the no-barrier profile, the lack-of-opportunity profile and the lack-of-motivation profile. These profiles differed significantly on proportions of low-calorie snack choices, daily meal consumption and sociodemographic characteristics. Heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the perceived opportunity and the perceived ability to choose low-calorie over high-calorie snacks is associated with the proportion of low-calorie snack choices in real life. By identifying and appreciating heterogeneity in barriers, the present study provides further incentives for the tailoring of intervention strategies.

  2. Newer antidiabetic drugs and calorie restriction mimicry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available De-acceleration of aging and delayed development of age-related morbidity accompanies the restriction of calories (without malnutrition in laboratory mice, nematodes, yeast, fish, and dogs. Recent results from long-term longitudinal studies conducted on primates have suggested longevity benefits of a 30% restriction of calories in rhesus monkeys as well. Among calorie restricted rhesus monkeys one of the mechanisms for the improvement in lifespan was the reduction in the development of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular disease. Although there are no comparable human studies, it is likely that metabolic and longevity benefits will accompany a reduction in calories in humans as well. However, considering the difficulties in getting healthy adults to limit food intake science has focused on understanding the biochemical processes that accompany calorie restriction (CR to formulate drugs that would mimic the effects of CR without the need to actually restrict calories. Drugs in this emerging therapeutic field are called CR mimetics. Some of the currently used anti-diabetic agents may have some CR mimetic like effects. This review focuses on the CR mimetic properties of the currently available anti-diabetic agents.

  3. A randomized controlled trial comparing a standard postoperative diet with low-volume high-calorie oral supplements following colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M; Wahed, S; O'Dair, G; Gemmell, L; Hainsworth, P; Horgan, A F

    2013-07-01

    Postoperative oral nutritional supplementation is becoming a part of most patient care pathways. This study examined the effects of low-volume high-calorie prescribed supplemental nutrition on patient outcome following elective colorectal surgery. Patients undergoing elective colorectal resections were randomized to a prescribed nutritional supplementation group (SG) [standard diet + 6 × 60 ml/day of Pro-Cal (60 ml = 200 kcal + 4 g protein)] or conventional postoperative diet group (CG) (standard diet alone). Preoperative and daily postoperative hand-grip strengths were measured using a grip dynamometer after randomization. Daily food intake, return of bowel activity, nausea score for the first 3 days and postoperative length of hospital stay (LOS) were prospectively recorded. Micro-diet standardized software was used to analyse food diaries. Nonparametric tests were used to analyse the data. Fifty-five patients were analysed (SG 28, CG 27). There was no difference in median preoperative and postoperative handgrip strengths at discharge within each group (SG 31.7 vs 31.7 kPa, P = 0.932; CG 28 vs 28.1 kPa, P = 0.374). The total median daily calorie intake was higher in SG than CG (SG 818.5 kcal vs CG 528 kcal; P = 0.002). There was no difference in median number of days to first bowel movement (SG 3 days vs CG 4 days, P = 0.096). The median LOS was significantly shorter in SG than CG (6.5 vs 9 days; P = 0.037). Prescribed postoperative high-calorie, low-volume oral supplements in addition to the normal dietary intake are associated with significantly better total daily oral calorie intake and may contribute to a reduced postoperative hospital stay. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. Measurements of Daily Energy Intake and Total Energy Expenditure in People with Dementia in Care Homes: The Use of Wearable Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J; Holmes, J; Brooks, C

    2017-01-01

    To estimate daily total energy expenditure (TEE) using a physical activity monitor, combined with dietary assessment of energy intake to assess the relationship between daily energy expenditure and patterns of activity with energy intake in people with dementia living in care homes. A cross-sectional study in care homes in the UK. Twenty residents with confirmed dementia diagnosis were recruited from two care homes that specialised in dementia care. A physical activity monitor (SensewearTM Armband, Body Media, Pittsburgh, PA) was employed to objectively determine total energy expenditure, sleep duration and physical activity. The armband was placed around the left upper triceps for up to 7 days. Energy intake was determined by weighing all food and drink items over 4 days (3 weekdays and 1 weekend day) including measurements of food wastage. The mean age was 78.7 (SD ± 11.8) years, Body Mass Index (BMI) 23.0 (SD ± 4.2) kg/m2; 50% were women. Energy intake (mean 7.4; SD ± 2.6) MJ/d) was correlated with TEE (mean 7.6; SD ± 1.8 MJ/d; r=0.49, p<0.05). Duration of sleeping ranged from 0.4-12.5 (mean 6.1) hrs/d and time spent lying down was 1.3-16.0 (8.3) hrs/d. On average residents spent 17.9 (6.3-23.4) hrs/d undertaking sedentary activity. TEE was correlated with BMI (r=0.52, p<0.05) and body weight (r=0.81, p<0.001) but inversely related to sleep duration (r=-0.59, p<0.01) and time lying down (r=-0.62, p<0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that after taking BMI, sleep duration and time spent lying down into account, TEE was no longer correlated with energy intake. The results show the extent to which body mass, variable activity and sleep patterns may be contributing to TEE and together with reduced energy intake, energy requirements were not satisfied. Thus wearable technology has the potential to offer real-time monitoring to provide appropriate nutrition management that is more person-centred to prevent weight loss in dementia.

  5. The effect of a very low calorie diet on insulin sensitivity, beta cell function, insulin clearance, incretin hormone secretion, androgen levels and body composition in obese young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille F; Jensen, Frank K; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the effect of an 8-week very low calorie diet (VLCD, 500-600 kcal daily) on weight, body fat distribution, glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism, androgen levels and incretin secretion in obese women.......Evaluation of the effect of an 8-week very low calorie diet (VLCD, 500-600 kcal daily) on weight, body fat distribution, glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism, androgen levels and incretin secretion in obese women....

  6. Menu labeling regulations and calories purchased at chain restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, James W; Chan, Nadine L; Saelens, Brian E; Ta, Myduc L; Solet, David; Fleming, David W

    2013-06-01

    The federal menu labeling law will require chain restaurants to post caloric information on menus, but the impact of labeling is uncertain. The goal of the current study was to examine the effect of menu labeling on calories purchased, and secondarily, to assess self-reported awareness and use of labels. Single-community pre-post-post cross-sectional study. Data were collected in 2008-2010 and analyzed in 2011-2012. 50 sites from 10 chain restaurants in King County, Washington, selected through stratified, two-stage cluster random sampling. A total of 7325 customers participated. Eligibility criteria were: being an English speaker, aged ≥ 14 years, and having an itemized receipt. The study population was 59% male, 76% white non-Hispanic, and 53% agedmenu boards was implemented. Mean number of calories purchased. No significant changes occurred between baseline and 4-6 months postregulation. Mean calories per purchase decreased from 908.5 to 870.4 at 18 months post-implementation (38 kcal, 95% CI=-76.9, 0.8, p=0.06) in food chains and from 154.3 to 132.1 (22 kcal, 95% CI=-35.8, -8.5, p=0.002) in coffee chains. Calories decreased in taco and coffee chains, but not in burger and sandwich establishments. They decreased more among women than men in coffee chains. Awareness of labels increased from 18.8% to 61.7% in food chains and from 4.4% to 30.0% in coffee chains (both pmenu labeling in some restaurant chains and among women but not men. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Effect of total mixed ration composition and daily grazing pattern on milk production, composition and fatty acids profile of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Martha; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; González, Amelia; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M; Argamentería, Alejandro; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña; Vicente, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    The possibilities of using high quality pastures in conjunction with total mixed ration (TMR) during the grazing season have been examined. An experiment with sixteen Holstein cows blocked and randomly assigned to four treatments in a factorial arrangement was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of grazing time of day (day or night) and type of silage (maize or Italian ryegrass) included in the TMR of dairy cows grazing 12 h daily on milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile. The silage type had no effect on the dry matter intake, milk yield and fat and protein proportions. However, cows grazing during the night ate more grass than cows grazing during the day (8·53 vs. 5·65 kg DM/d; Pdairy cows grazing at night-time than grazing at day-time, especially 18:2n-6 (2·37 vs. 2·12 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05) and 18:2cis9trans11 (2·08 vs. 1·74 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05).

  8. A field studies and modeling approach to develop organochlorine pesticide and PCB total maximum daily load calculations: Case study for Echo Park Lake, Los Angeles, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, V.R., E-mail: vrvasquez@ucla.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Curren, J., E-mail: janecurren@yahoo.com [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Lau, S.-L., E-mail: simlin@ucla.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Stenstrom, M.K., E-mail: stenstro@seas.ucla.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Suffet, I.H., E-mail: msuffet@ucla.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Echo Park Lake is a small lake in Los Angeles, CA listed on the USA Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list of impaired water bodies for elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissue. A lake water and sediment sampling program was completed to support the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDL) to address the lake impairment. The field data indicated quantifiable levels of OCPs and PCBs in the sediments, but lake water data were all below detection levels. The field sediment data obtained may explain the contaminant levels in fish tissue using appropriate sediment-water partitioning coefficients and bioaccumulation factors. A partition-equilibrium fugacity model of the whole lake system was used to interpret the field data and indicated that half of the total mass of the pollutants in the system are in the sediments and the other half is in soil; therefore, soil erosion could be a significant pollutant transport mode into the lake. Modeling also indicated that developing and quantifying the TMDL depends significantly on the analytical detection level for the pollutants in field samples and on the choice of octanol-water partitioning coefficient and bioaccumulation factors for the model. - Research highlights: {yields} Fugacity model using new OCP and PCB field data supports lake TMDL calculations. {yields} OCP and PCB levels in lake sediment were found above levels for impairment. {yields} Relationship between sediment data and available fish tissue data evaluated. {yields} Model provides approximation of contaminant sources and sinks for a lake system. {yields} Model results were sensitive to analytical detection and quantification levels.

  9. New England SPARROW Water-Quality Modeling to Assist with the Development of Total Maximum Daily Loads in the Connecticut River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. B.; Robinson, K. W.; Simcox, A. C.; Johnston, C. M.

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission (NEWIPCC), is currently preparing a water-quality model, called SPARROW, to assist in the regional total maximum daily load (TMDL) studies in New England. A model is required to provide estimates of nutrient loads and confidence intervals at unmonitored stream reaches. SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes) is a spatially detailed, statistical model that uses regression equations to relate total phosphorus and nitrogen (nutrient) stream loads to pollution sources and watershed characteristics. These statistical relations are then used to predict nutrient loads in unmonitored streams. The New England SPARROW model is based on a hydrologic network of 42,000 stream reaches and associated watersheds. Point source data are derived from USEPA's Permit Compliance System (PCS). Information about nonpoint sources is derived from data such as fertilizer use, livestock wastes, and atmospheric deposition. Watershed characteristics include land use, streamflow, time-of-travel, stream density, percent wetlands, slope of the land surface, and soil permeability. Preliminary SPARROW results are expected in Spring 2002. The New England SPARROW model is proposed for use in the TMDL determination for nutrients in the Connecticut River Basin, upstream of Connecticut. The model will be used to estimate nitrogen loads from each of the upstream states to Long Island Sound. It will provide estimates and confidence intervals of phosphorus and nitrogen loads, area-weighted yields of nutrients by watershed, sources of nutrients, and the downstream movement of nutrients. This information will be used to (1) understand ranges in nutrient levels in surface waters, (2) identify the environmental factors that affect nutrient levels in streams, (3) evaluate monitoring efforts for better determination of

  10. Calories in the classroom: celebration foods offered and consumed during classroom parties at an elementary school in a low-income, urban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoldi, Kathy K; Dalton, Sharron

    2012-08-01

    The school food environment is an important area of exploration in investigating the potential for schoolchildren to consume foods and beverages containing excess calories on school grounds. Several venues offer schoolchildren access to lownutrient, calorie-dense foods and beverages. Classroom celebrations offer such a venue; however, little is known about current practices during these events. Trained observers recorded foods and beverages offered, activities engaged in, and goody bag distribution during six separate classroom celebrations. Additionally, foods and beverages consumed by 24 individual students were recorded in detail for calorie estimation. The majority of food items offered during classroom celebrations were low-nutrient, calorie-dense items. The mean caloric contribution for all 24 students was 444 ± 221 calories, with a range of 130–905 calories, and a median intake of 386 calories. Mean total estimated calorie intake per grade level was 225 ± 90, 286 ± 105, and 550 ± 212 calories for students in prekindergarten, kindergarten, and 1st grade, respectively. Only one-third of all the parties observed included activities other than eating. Our observations reveal that food items offered during classroom celebrations offer children opportunities to consume low-nutrient, calorie-dense foods and beverages on the school campus. More research is needed to support these findings, and to identify the best practice to implement for effective school wellness policies aimed at regulating classroom celebrations.

  11. Monitoring to assess progress toward meeting the Assabet River, Massachusetts, phosphorus total maximum daily load - Aquatic macrophyte biomass and sediment-phosphorus flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Qian, Yu; Yong Q., Tian

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for Total Phosphorus in the Assabet River, Massachusetts, was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The goal of the TMDL was to decrease the concentrations of the nutrient phosphorus to mitigate some of the instream ecological effects of eutrophication on the river; these effects were, for the most part, direct consequences of the excessive growth of aquatic macrophytes. The primary instrument effecting lower concentrations of phosphorus was to be strict control of phosphorus releases from four major wastewatertreatment plants in Westborough, Marlborough, Hudson, and Maynard, Massachusetts. The improvements to be achieved from implementing this control were lower concentrations of total and dissolved phosphorus in the river, a 50-percent reduction in aquatic-plant biomass, a 30-percent reduction in episodes of dissolved oxygen supersaturation, no low-flow dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 5.0 milligrams per liter, and a 90-percent reduction in sediment releases of phosphorus to the overlying water. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, initiated studies to evaluate conditions in the Assabet River prior to the upgrading of wastewater-treatment plants to remove more phosphorus from their effluents. The studies, completed in 2008, implemented a visual monitoring plan to evaluate the extent and biomass of the floating macrophyte Lemna minor (commonly known as lesser duckweed) in five impoundments and evaluated the potential for phosphorus flux from sediments in impounded and free-flowing reaches of the river. Hydrologically, the two study years 2007 and 2008 were quite different. In 2007, summer streamflows, although low, were higher than average, and in 2008, the flows were generally higher than in 2007. Visually, the effects of these streamflow differences on the distribution of Lemna were obvious. In 2007, large amounts of

  12. Low-/No-Calorie Sweeteners: A Review of Global Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danika Martyn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The current review examined published data on the intake of all major low-/no-calorie sweeteners—aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, thaumatin and steviol glycosides—globally over the last decade. The most detailed and complex exposure assessments were conducted in Europe, following a standardized approach. Japan and Korea similarly had up-to-date and regular intake data available. The data for other Asian countries, Latin America, Australia/New Zealand and global estimates, evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA, while available, were shown to be more limited in terms of design. Overall, the studies conducted since 2008 raised no concerns with respect to exceedance of individual sweetener acceptable daily intake (ADIs among the general population globally. The data identified do not suggest a shift in exposure over time, with several studies indicating a reduction in intake. However, some data suggest there may have been an increase in the numbers of consumers of low-/no-calorie-sweetened products. Future research should consider a more standardized approach to allow the monitoring of potential changes in exposure based upon events such as sugar reduction recommendations, to ensure there is no shift in intake, particularly for high-risk individuals, including diabetics and children with specific dietary requirements, and to ensure risk management decisions are based on quality intake analyses.

  13. Minimization of Food Cost on 2000-Calorie Diabetic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, J. D.; Mercado, J.; Tampis, R. L.

    2017-03-01

    This study focuses on minimization of food cost that satisfies the daily nutrients required based on 2000-calorie diet for a diabetic person. This paper attempts to provide a food combination that satisfies the daily nutrient requirements of a diabetic person and its lowest possible dietary food cost. A linear programming diet model is used to determine the cheapest combination of food items that satisfy the recommended daily nutritional requirements of the diabetic persons. According to the findings, a 50 year old and above diabetic male need to spend a minimum of 72.22 pesos for foods that satisfy the daily nutrients they need. In order to attain the minimum spending, the foods must consist of 60.49 grams of anchovy, 91.24 grams of carrot, 121.92 grams of durian, 121.41 grams of chicken egg, 70.82 grams of pork (lean), and 369.70 grams of rice (well-milled). For a 50 year old and above diabetic female, the minimum spending is 64.65 pesos per day and the food must consist of 75.87 grams of anchovy, 43.38 grams of carrot, 160.46 grams of durian, 69.66 grams of chicken egg, 23.16 grams of pork (lean) and 416.19 grams of rice (well-milled).

  14. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / ... to learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. ...

  15. Is a Calorie Really a Calorie? Metabolic Advantage of Low-Carbohydrate Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first law of thermodynamics dictates that body mass remains constant when caloric intake equals caloric expenditure. It should be noted, however, that different diets lead to different biochemical pathways that are not equivalent when correctly compared through the laws of thermodynamics. It is inappropriate to assume that the only thing that counts in terms of food consumption and energy balance is the intake of dietary calories and weight storage. Well-controlled studies suggest that calorie content may not be as predictive of fat loss as is reduced carbohydrate consumption. Biologically speaking, a calorie is certainly not a calorie. The ideal weight loss diet, if it even exists, remains to be determined, but a high-carbohydrate/low-protein diet may be unsatisfactory for many obese individuals.

  16. Embodied crop calories in animal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Prajal; Lüdeke, Matthias K B; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P

    2013-01-01

    Increases in animal products consumption and the associated environmental consequences have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. Consequences of such increases include rises in greenhouse gas emissions, growth of consumptive water use, and perturbation of global nutrients cycles. These consequences vary spatially depending on livestock types, their densities and their production system. In this letter, we investigate the spatial distribution of embodied crop calories in animal products. On a global scale, about 40% of the global crop calories are used as livestock feed (we refer to this ratio as crop balance for livestock) and about 4 kcal of crop products are used to generate 1 kcal of animal products (embodied crop calories of around 4). However, these values vary greatly around the world. In some regions, more than 100% of the crops produced is required to feed livestock requiring national or international trade to meet the deficit in livestock feed. Embodied crop calories vary between less than 1 for 20% of the livestock raising areas worldwide and greater than 10 for another 20% of the regions. Low values of embodied crop calories are related to production systems for ruminants based on fodder and forage, while large values are usually associated with production systems for non-ruminants fed on crop products. Additionally, we project the future feed demand considering three scenarios: (a) population growth, (b) population growth and changes in human dietary patterns and (c) changes in population, dietary patterns and feed conversion efficiency. When considering dietary changes, we project the global feed demand to be almost doubled (1.8–2.3 times) by 2050 compared to 2000, which would force us to produce almost equal or even more crops to raise our livestock than to directly nourish ourselves in the future. Feed demand is expected to increase over proportionally in Africa, South-Eastern Asia and Southern Asia, putting additional stress on

  17. Estimating how extra calories from alcohol consumption are likely an overlooked contributor to youth obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Kate; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-06-01

    Youth obesity rates in Canada continue to rise. In this study, we produced conservative estimates of the potential excess calories from alcohol use across different alcohol consumption patterns common among Canadian youth to assess whether alcohol use should be considered in future obesity prevention strategies. Using data from 10 144 Grade 12 students participating in the COMPASS study (2013/14), we estimated the number of calories consumed per year from alcohol consumption. Our estimates were based on three different generic types of alcoholic beverages, which were grouped according to average calorie content (vodka coolers; beer [5%]; and beer [4%], wine and liquor) across different frequencies of alcohol use and binge drinking. Results indicated high potential caloric intake for students who binge drank, as well as high variability in the estimates for calories consumed based on common consumption patterns for the different beverage types. For instance, 27.2% of students binge drank once per month, meaning they consumed between 6000 and 13 200 calories in one year (equivalent to 0.78 - 1.71 kg of fat). For the 4.9% of students who binge drank twice per week, the total calories in one year would range from 52 000 to 114 400 (equivalent to 6.74 - 14.83 kg of fat). Current recommendations for preventing youth obesity do not generally include any consideration of alcohol use. The high prevalence of frequent alcohol consumption and binge drinking by youth in this study and the substantial number of calories contained in alcoholic beverages suggest alcohol use among youth may warrant consideration in relation to youth obesity prevention.

  18. A Systematic Review of Calorie Labeling and Modified Calorie Labeling Interventions: Impact on Consumer and Restaurant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Economos, Christina D; Spiker, Marie L; Vercammen, Kelsey A; VanEpps, Eric M; Block, Jason P; Elbel, Brian; Story, Mary; Roberto, Christina A

    2017-12-01

    Evidence on the effects of restaurant calorie labeling on consumer and restaurant behavior is mixed. This paper examined: (1) consumer responses to calorie information alone or compared to modified calorie information and (2) changes in restaurant offerings following or in advance of menu labeling implementation. Searches were conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Policy File, and PAIS International to identify restaurant calorie labeling studies through October 1, 2016, that measured calories ordered, consumed, or available for purchase on restaurant menus. The reference lists of calorie labeling articles were also searched. Fifty-three studies were included: 18 in real-world restaurants, 9 in cafeterias, and 21 in laboratory or simulation settings. Five examined restaurant offerings. Because of a lack of well-powered studies with strong designs, the degree to which menu labeling encourages lower-calorie purchases and whether that translates to a healthier population are unclear. Although there is limited evidence that menu labeling affects calories purchased at fast-food restaurants, some evidence demonstrates that it lowers calories purchased at certain types of restaurants and in cafeteria settings. The limited data on modified calorie labels find that such labels can encourage lower-calorie purchases but may not differ in effects relative to calorie labels alone. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  19. A systematic review of calorie labeling and modified calorie labeling interventions: Impact on consumer and restaurant behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Economos, Christina D.; Spiker, Marie L.; Vercammen, Kelsey; VanEpps, Eric M.; Block, Jason P.; Elbel, Brian; Story, Mary; Roberto, Christina A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Evidence on the effects of restaurant calorie labeling on consumer and restaurant behavior is mixed. This paper examined: 1) consumer responses to calorie information alone or compared to modified calorie information, and 2) changes in restaurant offerings following or in advance of menu labeling implementation. Methods We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Policy File and PAIS International to identify restaurant calorie labeling studies through October 1, 2016, that measured calories ordered, consumed, or available for purchase on restaurant menus. We also searched reference lists of calorie labeling articles. Results Fifty-three studies were included: 18 in real-world restaurants, 9 in cafeterias, and 21 in laboratory or simulation settings. Five examined restaurant offerings. Conclusion Due to a lack of well-powered studies with strong designs, the degree to which menu labeling encourages lower calorie purchases and whether that translates to a healthier population is unclear. Although there is limited evidence that menu labeling affects calories purchased at fast-food restaurants, some evidence demonstrates that it lowers calories purchased at certain types of restaurants and in cafeteria settings. The limited data on modified calorie labels find that such labels can encourage lower-calorie purchases, but may not differ in effects relative to calorie labels alone. PMID:29045080

  20. The influence of menu labeling on calories selected or consumed: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Susan E; Cooper, Marcia; Mansfield, Elizabeth D

    2014-09-01

    Recent menu labeling initiatives in North America involve posting the calorie content of standard menu items, sometimes with other nutrients of public health concern, with or without contextual information (such as the recommended daily caloric intake for an average adult) or interpretive information (such as traffic light symbols). It is not clear whether this is an effective method to convey nutrition information to consumers wanting to make more-informed food choices. Of particular concern are those consumers who may be limited in their food and health literacy skills to make informed food choices to meet their dietary needs or goals. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine whether the provision of menu-based nutrition information affects the selection and consumption of calories in restaurants and other foodservice establishments. A secondary objective was to determine whether the format of the nutrition information (informative vs contextual or interpretive) influences calorie selection or consumption. Several bibliographic databases were searched for experimental or quasiexperimental studies that tested the effect of providing nutrition information in a restaurant or other foodservice setting on calories selected or consumed. Studies that recruited generally healthy, noninstitutionalized adolescents or adults were included. When two or more studies reported similar outcomes and sufficient data were available, meta-analysis was performed. Menu labeling with calories alone did not have the intended effect of decreasing calories selected or consumed (-31 kcal [P=0.35] and -13 kcal [P=0.61], respectively). The addition of contextual or interpretive nutrition information on menus appeared to assist consumers in the selection and consumption of fewer calories (-67 kcal [P=0.008] and -81 kcal [P=0.007], respectively). Sex influenced the effect of menu labeling on selection and consumption of calories, with women using the information to select and

  1. Correlation between Calorie Intake and Nutritional Status of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryo Windaru

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is a severe pervasive developmental disorder with prevalence as high as one in sixty-eight children. Children diagnosed with ASD may have food intake problem and might affect their nutritional status in the future. The objective of this study was to analyze the correlation between total calorie intake and nutritional status of ASD children. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Indigrow Child Development and Autism Center involving 16 patients from October to November 2015. Total calorie intake was assessed by 24-hour food recall and nutritional status was measured by Z-score. Correlation was analyzed using Spearman’s Rho. Results: Overweight and obesity were found in 10 out of 16 ASD children assessed. Total calorie intake was not significantly correlated with nutritional status of ASD children (r=0.021, p=0.940. Conclusions: There is no significant relevance between total calorie intake and nutritional status in ASD children at Indigrow Child Development and Autism Center.

  2. Death Rates in the Calorie Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Machay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Calorie model unifies the Classical demand and the supply in the food market. Hence, solves the major problem of Classical stationary state. It is, hence, formalization of the Classical theory of population. The model does not reflect the imperfections of reality mentioned by Malthus himself. It is the aim of this brief paper to relax some of the strong assumptions of the Calorie model to make it more realistic. As the results show the political economists were correct. The death resulting from malnutrition can occur way sooner than the stationary state itself. Moreover, progressive and retrograde movements can be easily described by the death rate derived in the paper. JEL Classification: J11, Q11, Q15, Q21, Y90.

  3. Adolescent eating in the absence of hunger and relation to discretionary calorie allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Tanja V E; Moore, Reneé H; Stunkard, Albert J; Berkowitz, Robert I; Stettler, Nicolas; Stallings, Virginia A; Tanaka, Leeann M; Kabay, April C; Faith, Myles S

    2010-12-01

    Eating in the absence of hunger is a risk factor for overeating during childhood. The objective of this study was to examine eating in the absence of hunger in adolescents based on their familial predisposition to obesity and current weight status. Thirty-one subjects (16 male, 15 female), who were 13 years of age and born at low risk or high risk for obesity, consumed lunch to fullness. After lunch, subjects had access to different snacks for 15 minutes. Eating in the absence of hunger referred to energy intake from the snacks. Low-risk females consumed two and a half times more calories from snacks than high-risk females and twice as many calories as low-risk and high-risk males when expressed as an individualized percentage of daily allowance for discretionary calories. Normal-weight females consumed two and a half times more calories from snacks than obese females and normal-weight males. The association between eating in the absence of hunger and weight and obesity risk status depended on adolescents' sex and could reflect emerging developmental differences, such as dieting or social desirability. Copyright © 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in acyl and total ghrelin concentrations and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency of finishing beef steers and heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced in the gut that is implicated in signaling appetite and regulating DMI. The objective of this experiment was to determine the change in acyl ghrelin, total ghrelin, and the ghrelin ratio (acyl ghrelin/total ghrelin) over an 84-d DMI and ADG measurement period a...

  5. Effect of PGX, a novel functional fibre supplement, on subjective ratings of appetite in overweight and obese women consuming a 3-day structured, low-calorie diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacinik, V; Lyon, M; Purnama, M; Reimer, R A; Gahler, R; Green, T J; Wood, S

    2011-12-12

    Dietary factors that help control perceived hunger might improve adherence to calorie-reduced diets. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of supplementing a three-day, low-calorie diet with PolyGlycopleX (PGX), a highly viscous fibre, on subjective ratings of appetite compared with a placebo. In a double-blind crossover design with a 3-week washout, 45 women (aged 38±9 years, body mass index 29.9±2.8 kg m(-2)) were randomised to consume a 1000-kcal per day diet for 3 days, supplemented with 5 g of PGX or placebo at each of breakfast, lunch and dinner. Subjective appetite was assessed using 100 mm visual analogue scales that were completed daily before, between and after consumption of meals. Thirty-five women completed the study. Consumption of PGX compared with placebo led to significantly lower mean area under the curve for hunger on day 3 (440.4 versus 375.4; P=0.048), prospective consumption on day 3 (471.0 versus 401.8; P=0.017) and the overall 3-day average (468.6 versus 420.2; P=0.026). More specifically, on day 3 PGX significantly reduced total appetite, hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption for 2.5 and 4.5 h after lunch and before dinner times, with hunger also being reduced 2.5 h after dinner (P<0.05). The results show that adding 5 g of PGX to meals during consumption of a low-calorie diet reduces subjective ratings of prospective consumption and increases the feelings of satiety, especially during afternoon and evening. This highly viscous polysaccharide may be a useful adjunct to weight-loss interventions involving significant caloric reductions.

  6. Short-Term Preoperative Calorie and Protein Restriction Is Feasible in Healthy Kidney Donors and Morbidly Obese Patients Scheduled for Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franny Jongbloed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgery-induced oxidative stress increases the risk of perioperative complications and delay in postoperative recovery. In mice, short-term preoperative dietary and protein restriction protect against oxidative stress. We investigated the feasibility of a calorie- and protein-restricted diet in two patient populations. Methods. In this pilot study, 30 live kidney donors and 38 morbidly obese patients awaiting surgery were randomized into three groups: a restricted diet group, who received a synthetic liquid diet with 30% fewer calories and 80% less protein for five consecutive days; a group who received a synthetic diet containing the daily energy requirements (DER; and a control group. Feasibility was assessed using self-reported discomfort, body weight changes, and metabolic parameters in blood samples. Results. Twenty patients (71% complied with the restricted and 13 (65% with the DER-diet. In total, 68% of the patients reported minor discomfort that resolved after normal eating resumed. The mean weight loss on the restricted diet was significantly greater (2.4 kg than in the control group (0 kg, p = 0.002, but not in the DER-diet (1.5 kg. The restricted diet significantly reduced levels of serum urea and plasma prealbumin (PAB and retinol binding protein (RBP. Conclusions. A short-term preoperative calorie- and protein-restricted diet is feasible in kidney donors and morbidly obese patients. Compliance is high and can be objectively measured via changes in urea, PAB, and RBP levels. These results demonstrate that this diet can be used to study the effects of dietary restriction on surgery-induced oxidative stress in a clinical setting.

  7. Method to support Total Maximum Daily Load development using hydrologic alteration as a surrogate to address aquatic life impairment in New Jersey streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennen, Jonathan G.; Riskin, Melissa L.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Colarullo, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    More than 300 ambient monitoring sites in New Jersey have been identified by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) in its integrated water-quality monitoring and assessment report (that is, the 305(b) Report on general water quality and 303(d) List of waters that do not support their designated uses) as being impaired with respect to aquatic life; however, no unambiguous stressors (for example, nutrients or bacteria) have been identified. Because of the indeterminate nature of the broad range of possible impairments, surrogate measures that more holistically encapsulate the full suite of potential environmental stressors need to be developed. Streamflow alteration resulting from anthropogenic changes in the landscape is one such surrogate. For example, increases in impervious surface cover (ISC) commonly cause increases in surface runoff, which can result in “flashy” hydrology and other changes in the stream corridor that are associated with streamflow alteration. The NJDEP has indicated that methodologies to support a hydrologically based Total Maximum Daily Load (hydro-TMDL) need to be developed in order to identify hydrologic targets that represent a minimal percent deviation from a baseline condition (“minimally altered”) as a surrogate measure to meet criteria in support of designated uses. The primary objective of this study was to develop an applicable hydro-TMDL approach to address aquatic-life impairments associated with hydrologic alteration for New Jersey streams. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the NJDEP, identified 51 non- to moderately impaired gaged streamflow sites in the Raritan River Basin for evaluation. Quantile regression (QR) analysis was used to compare flow and precipitation records and identify baseline hydrographs at 37 of these sites. At sites without an appropriately long period of record (POR) or where a baseline hydrograph could not be identified with QR, a rainfall-runoff model was used

  8. Perceptions of university students regarding calories, food healthiness, and the importance of calorie information in menu labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana Carolina; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Rodrigues, Vanessa Mello; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck; da Costa Proença, Rossana Pacheco

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated Brazilian university students' perceptions of the concept of calories, how it relates to food healthiness, and the role of calorie information on menus in influencing food choices in different restaurant settings. Focus groups were conducted with 21 undergraduate students from various universities. Transcriptions were analysed for qualitative content, by coding and grouping words and phrases into similar themes. Two categories were obtained: Calorie concept and connection to healthiness; and Calorie information and food choices in restaurants. Calories were understood as energy units, and their excessive intake was associated with weight gain or fat gain. However, food healthiness was not associated to calorie content, but rather to food composition as a whole. Calorie information on restaurant menus was not considered enough to influence food choices, with preferences, dietary restrictions, food composition, and even restaurant type mentioned as equally or more important. Only a few participants mentioned using calorie information on menus to control food intake or body weight. Students' discussions were suggestive of an understanding of healthy eating as a more complex issue than calorie-counting. Discussions also suggested the need for more nutrition information, besides calorie content, to influence food choices in restaurants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Low/No Calorie Sweetened Beverage Consumption in the National Weight Control Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenacci, Victoria A.; Pan, Zhaoxing; Thomas, J. Graham; Ogden, Lorraine G.; Roberts, Susan A.; Wyatt, Holly R.; Wing, Rena R.; Hill, James O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate prevalence of and strategies behind low/no calorie sweetened beverage (LNCSB) consumption in successful weight loss maintainers. Methods An online survey was administered to 434 members of the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR, individuals who have lost ≥13.6 kg and maintained weight loss for > 1 year). Results While few participants (10%) consume sugar-sweetened beverages on a regular basis, 53% regularly consume LNCSB. The top five reasons for choosing LNCSB were for taste (54%), to satisfy thirst (40%), part of routine (27%), to reduce calories (22%) and to go with meals (21%). The majority who consume LNCSB (78%) felt they helped control total calorie intake. Many participants considered changing patterns of beverage consumption to be very important in weight loss (42%) and maintenance (40%). Increasing water was by far the most common strategy, followed by reducing regular calorie beverages. Conclusions Regular consumption of LNCSB is common in successful weight loss maintainers for various reasons including helping individuals to limit total energy intake. Changing beverage consumption patterns was felt to be very important for weight loss and maintenance by a substantial percentage of successful weight loss maintainers in the NWCR. PMID:25044563

  10. Protein metabolism in obese patients during very low-calorie mixed diets containing different amounts of proteins and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, R; Casimirri, F; Melchionda, N

    1987-12-01

    To assess long-term nitrogen sparing capacity of very low-calorie mixed diets, we administered two isoenergetic (2092KJ) liquid formula regimens of different composition for 8 weeks to two matched groups of massively obese patients (group 1: proteins 60 g, carbohydrate 54 g; group 2: proteins 41 g, carbohydrates 81 g). Weight loss was similar in both groups. Daily nitrogen balance (g) during the second month resulted more a negative in group 2 with respect to group 1. However, within the groups individual nitrogen sparing capacity varied markedly; only a few in group 1 and one in group 2 were able to attain nitrogen equilibrium throughout the study. Daily urine excretion of 3-methylhistidine fell significantly in group 1 but did not change in group 2. Unlike total proteins, albumins, and transferrin, serum levels of retinol-binding protein, thyroxin-binding globulin, and complement-C3 fell significantly in both groups but per cent variations of complement-C3 were more pronounced in the first group. Prealbumin levels fell persistently in group 1 and transiently in group 2. The results indicate that even with this type of diet an adequate amount of dietary protein represents the most important factor in minimizing whole body protein catabolism during long-term semistarvation in massively obese patients. Moreover, they confirm the possible role of dietary carbohydrates in the regulation of some visceral protein metabolism.

  11. OMI/Aura Ozone (O3) DOAS Total Column Daily L2 Global 0.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura Level-2G Total Column Ozone Data Product OMDOAO3G (Version 003) is now available ( http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omdoao3g_v003.shtml ) from the...

  12. OMI/Aura Ozone (O3) Total Column Daily L2 Global 0.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OMI/Aura Level-2G Total Column Ozone Data Product OMTO3G (Version 003) is made available ( http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Aura/OMI/omto3g_v003.shtml ) from the NASA...

  13. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals

  14. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals.

  15. A nutritional intervention to reduce the calorie content of meals served at psychiatric rehabilitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Sarah Stark; Dalcin, Arlene; McCarron, Phyllis; Appel, Lawrence J; Gayles, Debra; Hayes, Jennifer; Daumit, Gail

    2011-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce the calorie content of meals served at two psychiatric rehabilitation programs. Intervention staff assisted kitchen staff with ways to reduce calories and improve the nutritional quality of meals. Breakfast and lunch menus were collected before and after a 6-month intervention period. ESHA software was used to determine total energy and nutrient profiles of meals. Total energy of served meals significantly decreased by 28% at breakfast and 29% at lunch for site 1 (P breakfast for site 2 (P = 0.018). Total sugars significantly decreased at breakfast for both sites (P ≤ 0.001). In general, sodium levels were high before and after the intervention period. The nutrition intervention was effective in decreasing the total energy and altering the composition of macro-nutrients of meals. These results highlight an unappreciated opportunity to improve diet quality in patients attending psychiatric rehabilitation programs.

  16. Low-calorie- and calorie-sweetened beverages: diet quality, food intake, and purchase patterns of US household consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Mendez, Michelle A; Ng, Shu Wen; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the diet quality of consumers of low-calorie-sweetened (LCS) and calorie-sweetened (CS) beverages. The objective was to examine the dietary quality and adherence to dietary purchasing and consumption patterns of beverage consumers from 2000 to 2010. We analyzed purchases for 140,352 households from the Homescan longitudinal data set 2000-2010 and dietary intake from NHANES 2003-2010 (n = 34,393). We defined mutually exclusive consumer profiles as main exposures: LCS beverages, CS beverages, LCS & CS beverages, and non/low consumers. As main outcomes, we explored dietary quality by using total energy and macronutrients (kcal/d). We performed factor analyses and applied factor scores to derive dietary patterns as secondary outcomes. Using multivariable linear (NHANES) and random-effects (Homescan) models, we investigated the associations between beverage profiles and dietary patterns. We found "prudent" and "breakfast" patterns in Homescan and NHANES, "ready-to-eat meals/fast-food" and "prudent/snacks/LCS desserts" patterns in Homescan, and "protein/potatoes" and "CS desserts/sweeteners" patterns in NHANES. In both data sets, compared with non/low consumers, both CS- and LCS-beverage consumers had a significantly higher total energy from foods, higher energy from total and SFAs, and lower probability of adherence to prudent and breakfast patterns. In Homescan, LCS-beverage consumers had a higher probability of adherence to 2 distinct patterns: a prudent/snacks/LCS dessert pattern and a ready-to-eat meals/fast-food purchasing pattern. Our findings suggest that overall dietary quality is lower in LCS-, CS-, and LCS & CS-beverage consumers relative to non/low consumers. Our study highlights the importance of targeting foods that are linked with sweetened beverages (either LCS or CS) in intervention and policy efforts that aim to improve nutrition in the United States.

  17. Low-calorie- and calorie-sweetened beverages: diet quality, food intake, and purchase patterns of US household consumers123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piernas, Carmen; Mendez, Michelle A; Ng, Shu Wen; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated the diet quality of consumers of low-calorie-sweetened (LCS) and calorie-sweetened (CS) beverages. Objective: The objective was to examine the dietary quality and adherence to dietary purchasing and consumption patterns of beverage consumers from 2000 to 2010. Design: We analyzed purchases for 140,352 households from the Homescan longitudinal data set 2000–2010 and dietary intake from NHANES 2003–2010 (n = 34,393). We defined mutually exclusive consumer profiles as main exposures: LCS beverages, CS beverages, LCS & CS beverages, and non/low consumers. As main outcomes, we explored dietary quality by using total energy and macronutrients (kcal/d). We performed factor analyses and applied factor scores to derive dietary patterns as secondary outcomes. Using multivariable linear (NHANES) and random-effects (Homescan) models, we investigated the associations between beverage profiles and dietary patterns. Results: We found “prudent” and “breakfast” patterns in Homescan and NHANES, “ready-to-eat meals/fast-food” and “prudent/snacks/LCS desserts” patterns in Homescan, and “protein/potatoes” and “CS desserts/sweeteners” patterns in NHANES. In both data sets, compared with non/low consumers, both CS- and LCS-beverage consumers had a significantly higher total energy from foods, higher energy from total and SFAs, and lower probability of adherence to prudent and breakfast patterns. In Homescan, LCS-beverage consumers had a higher probability of adherence to 2 distinct patterns: a prudent/snacks/LCS dessert pattern and a ready-to-eat meals/fast-food purchasing pattern. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that overall dietary quality is lower in LCS-, CS-, and LCS & CS–beverage consumers relative to non/low consumers. Our study highlights the importance of targeting foods that are linked with sweetened beverages (either LCS or CS) in intervention and policy efforts that aim to improve nutrition in the

  18. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A.; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F.; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. Objective To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Design Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). Results In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (− 2 to 2). Conclusions Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered. PMID:27014577

  19. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Debra; Diaz, George A; Lee, Brendan; Bartley, James; Longo, Nicola; Berquist, William; Le Mons, Cynthia; Rudolph-Angelich, Ingrid; Porter, Marty; Scharschmidt, Bruce F; Mokhtarani, Masoud

    2016-03-01

    Little prospectively collected data are available comparing the dietary intake of urea cycle disorder (UCD) patients to UCD treatment guidelines or to healthy individuals. To examine the protein and calorie intakes of UCD subjects who participated in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB) and compare these data to published UCD dietary guidelines and nutritional surveys. Dietary data were recorded for 45 adult and 49 pediatric UCD subjects in metabolic control during participation in clinical trials of GPB. Protein and calorie intakes were compared to UCD treatment guidelines, average nutrient intakes of a healthy US population based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA). In adults, mean protein intake was higher than UCD recommendations but lower than RDA and NHANES values, while calorie intake was lower than UCD recommendations, RDA and NHANES. In pediatric subjects, prescribed protein intake was higher than UCD guidelines, similar to RDA, and lower than NHANES data for all age groups, while calorie intake was at the lower end of the recommended UCD range and close to RDA and NHANES data. In pediatric subjects height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores were within normal range (- 2 to 2). Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered.

  20. Counting Calories: Resident Perspectives on Calorie Labeling in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Cynthia; Hayes, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates consumer responses to New York City's 2008 calorie labeling regulation in 2 lower-income neighborhoods of New York City. Methods: Focus groups were conducted, and 34 fast-food consumers participated. Group summaries and descriptive and analytic depictions of group responses and interactions were developed…

  1. "A calorie is a calorie" violates the second law of thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Eugene J

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The principle of "a calorie is a calorie," that weight change in hypocaloric diets is independent of macronutrient composition, is widely held in the popular and technical literature, and is frequently justified by appeal to the laws of thermodynamics. We review here some aspects of thermodynamics that bear on weight loss and the effect of macronutrient composition. The focus is the so-called metabolic advantage in low-carbohydrate diets – greater weight loss compared to isocaloric diets of different composition. Two laws of thermodynamics are relevant to the systems considered in nutrition and, whereas the first law is a conservation (of energy law, the second is a dissipation law: something (negative entropy is lost and therefore balance is not to be expected in diet interventions. Here, we propose that a misunderstanding of the second law accounts for the controversy about the role of macronutrient effect on weight loss and we review some aspects of elementary thermodynamics. We use data in the literature to show that thermogenesis is sufficient to predict metabolic advantage. Whereas homeostasis ensures balance under many conditions, as a general principle, "a calorie is a calorie" violates the second law of thermodynamics.

  2. "A calorie is a calorie" violates the second law of thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J

    2004-07-28

    The principle of "a calorie is a calorie," that weight change in hypocaloric diets is independent of macronutrient composition, is widely held in the popular and technical literature, and is frequently justified by appeal to the laws of thermodynamics. We review here some aspects of thermodynamics that bear on weight loss and the effect of macronutrient composition. The focus is the so-called metabolic advantage in low-carbohydrate diets--greater weight loss compared to isocaloric diets of different composition. Two laws of thermodynamics are relevant to the systems considered in nutrition and, whereas the first law is a conservation (of energy) law, the second is a dissipation law: something (negative entropy) is lost and therefore balance is not to be expected in diet interventions. Here, we propose that a misunderstanding of the second law accounts for the controversy about the role of macronutrient effect on weight loss and we review some aspects of elementary thermodynamics. We use data in the literature to show that thermogenesis is sufficient to predict metabolic advantage. Whereas homeostasis ensures balance under many conditions, as a general principle, "a calorie is a calorie" violates the second law of thermodynamics.

  3. Liquid fructose supplementation in LDL-R−/− mice fed a western-type diet enhances lipid burden and atherosclerosis despite identical calorie consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Hutter

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: SLF, without changing total calorie intake, increases atherosclerosis, visceral adipose tissue and cholesterol burden in a background of overweight LDL receptor knockout mice consuming an unhealthy, Western-type solid rodent chow.

  4. Calorie restriction increases cigarette use in adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheskin, Lawrence J; Hess, Judith M; Henningfield, Jack; Gorelick, David A

    2005-05-01

    Cigarette smokers weigh less than nonsmokers, and smokers often gain weight when they quit. This is a major barrier to smoking cessation, especially among women. However, strict dieting is not recommended during smoking cessation out of concern that it might promote relapse. This concern derives, in part, from the observation that calorie restriction increases self-administration of drugs of abuse in animals. This relationship has never been experimentally demonstrated in humans. To evaluate whether calorie restriction increases cigarette smoking in humans. Seventeen (nine males, eight females) healthy, normal-weight smokers not attempting to quit were cycled in partially counterbalanced order, double-blind, through four diets-normal calorie (2,000-2,800 kcal/day), low calorie (700 kcal/day deficit), low-carbohydrate (CHO)/normal-calorie, and low-CHO/low-calorie-for 6 days per diet in an inpatient research ward. Smoking was assessed by cigarette counts, breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels, and cigarette craving. Compared with the normal-calorie diet, while on the low-calorie diet, subjects smoked 8% more cigarettes (Plow-CHO/normal-calorie diet showed no significant effect on either variable, but there was a 15% increase in breath CO levels (Plow-CHO/low-calorie diet. There were no changes in self-reported cigarette craving or mood. Consistent with animal studies, moderate calorie restriction was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in cigarette smoking, with no independent effect of CHO deprivation. These findings suggest that dieting may increase smoking behavior and could impede smoking-cessation attempts.

  5. Child and adolescent fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labeling: a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, B; Gyamfi, J; Kersh, R

    2011-04-01

    Obesity is an enormous public health problem and children have been particularly highlighted for intervention. Of notable concern is the fast-food consumption of children . However, we know very little about how children or their parents make fast-food choices, including how they respond to mandatory calorie labeling. We examined children's and adolescents' fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labels in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) and in a comparison city (Newark, NJ). Natural experiment: Survey and receipt data were collected from low-income areas in NYC, and Newark, NJ (as a comparison city), before and after mandatory labeling began in NYC. Study restaurants included four of the largest chains located in NYC and Newark: McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's and Kentucky Fried Chicken. A total of 349 children and adolescents aged 1-17 years, who visited the restaurants with their parents (69%) or alone (31%) before or after labeling was introduced. In total, 90% were from racial or ethnic minority groups. We found no statistically significant differences in calories purchased before and after labeling; many adolescents reported noticing calorie labels after their introduction (57% in NYC) and a few considered the information when ordering (9%). Approximately 35% of adolescents ate fast food six or more times per week and 72% of adolescents reported that taste was the most important factor in their meal selection. Adolescents in our sample reported that parents have some influence on their meal selection. Adolescents in low-income communities notice calorie information at similar rates as adults, although they report being slightly less responsive to it than adults. We did not find evidence that labeling influenced adolescent food choice or parental food choices for children in this population.

  6. The relationship between mother to child calories served and maternal perception of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, S E; Janicke, D M

    2016-06-01

    Research has examined self-serving portions in adults and children and has shown that larger portion size is related to more calories consumed. The present study examines factors that may influence the portion sizes a mother serves her child at a mealtime. The present observational study included a community-based sample of 29 mother-child dyads. Dyads attended a 1-h session in which they shared a meal together. A buffet of food was provided and the mother was asked to serve her child and herself. The amount of food served and consumed by the child was recorded. Main independent variables of interest included maternal body mass index (BMI), child BMI Z-score, and maternal perception of personal and child hunger. The primary dependent variable was the total calories the mother served her child. Regression models and a moderated mediation were used to examine the relation between variables. Calories served to the child was positively associated with calories consumed by the child. Maternal perception of her own hunger was related to her perception of her child's hunger. Furthermore, maternal perception of child hunger explained the relationship between maternal perception of personal hunger and total calories served to the child, although only for obese mothers. Mothers may be serving their children larger portion sizes based on their personal weight and their perception of their child's hunger. To help children obtain or maintain a healthy weight, obesity prevention and intervention programmes should help mothers serve more appropriate serving sizes to their children. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Child and adolescent fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labeling: a natural experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, B; Gyamfi, J; Kersh, R

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity is an enormous public health problem and children have been particularly highlighted for intervention. Of notable concern is the fast-food consumption of children. However, we know very little about how children or their parents make fast-food choices, including how they respond to mandatory calorie labeling. We examined children’s and adolescents’ fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labels in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) and in a comparison city (Newark, NJ). Design Natural experiment: Survey and receipt data were collected from low-income areas in NYC, and Newark, NJ (as a comparison city), before and after mandatory labeling began in NYC. Study restaurants included four of the largest chains located in NYC and Newark: McDonald’s, Burger King, Wendy’s and Kentucky Fried Chicken. Subjects A total of 349 children and adolescents aged 1–17 years who visited the restaurants with their parents (69%) or alone (31%) before or after labeling was introduced. In total, 90% were from racial or ethnic minority groups. Results We found no statistically significant differences in calories purchased before and after labeling; many adolescents reported noticing calorie labels after their introduction (57% in NYC) and a few considered the information when ordering (9%). Approximately 35% of adolescents ate fast food six or more times per week and 72% of adolescents reported that taste was the most important factor in their meal selection. Adolescents in our sample reported that parents have some influence on their meal selection. Conclusions Adolescents in low-income communities notice calorie information at similar rates as adults, although they report being slightly less responsive to it than adults. We did not find evidence that labeling influenced adolescent food choice or parental food choices for children in this population. PMID:21326209

  8. Identification of genes differentially expressed by calorie restriction in the rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oo, Aung Kyaw Swar; Kaneko, Gen; Hirayama, Makoto; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Watabe, Shugo

    2010-01-01

    A monogonont rotifer Brachionus plicatilis has been widely used as a model organism for physiological, ecological studies and for ecotoxicology. Because of the availability of parthenogenetic mode of reproduction as well as its versatility to be used as live food in aquaculture, the population dynamic studies using the rotifer have become more important and acquired the priority over those using other species. Although many studies have been conducted to identify environmental factors that influence rotifer populations, the molecular mechanisms involved still remain to be elucidated. In this study, gene(s) differentially expressed by calorie restriction in the rotifer was analyzed, where a calorie-restricted group was fed 3 h day(-1) and a well-fed group fed ad libitum. A subtracted cDNA library from the calorie-restricted rotifer was constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). One hundred sixty-three expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified, which included 109 putative genes with a high identity to known genes in the publicly available database as well as 54 unknown ESTs. After assembling, a total of 38 different genes were obtained among 109 ESTs. Further validation of expression by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that 29 out of the 38 genes obtained by SSH were up regulated by calorie restriction.

  9. Balancing selected medication costs with total number of daily injections: a preference analysis of GnRH-agonist and antagonist protocols by IVF patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During in vitro fertilization (IVF, fertility patients are expected to self-administer many injections as part of this treatment. While newer medications have been developed to substantially reduce the number of these injections, such agents are typically much more expensive. Considering these differences in both cost and number of injections, this study compared patient preferences between GnRH-agonist and GnRH-antagonist based protocols in IVF. Methods Data were collected by voluntary, anonymous questionnaire at first consultation appointment. Patient opinion concerning total number of s.c. injections as a function of non-reimbursed patient cost associated with GnRH-agonist [A] and GnRH-antagonist [B] protocols in IVF was studied. Results Completed questionnaires (n = 71 revealed a mean +/− SD patient age of 34 +/− 4.1 yrs. Most (83.1% had no prior IVF experience; 2.8% reported another medical condition requiring self-administration of subcutaneous medication(s. When out-of-pocket cost for [A] and [B] were identical, preference for [B] was registered by 50.7% patients. The tendency to favor protocol [B] was weaker among patients with a health occupation. Estimated patient costs for [A] and [B] were $259.82 +/− 11.75 and $654.55 +/− 106.34, respectively (p  Conclusions This investigation found consistently higher non-reimbursed direct medication costs for GnRH-antagonist IVF vs. GnRH-agonist IVF protocols. A conditional preference to minimize downregulation (using GnRH-antagonist was noted among some, but not all, IVF patient sub-groups. Compared to IVF patients with a health occupation, the preference for GnRH-antagonist was weaker than for other patients. While reducing total number of injections by using GnRH-antagonist is a desirable goal, it appears this advantage is not perceived equally by all IVF patients and its utility is likely discounted heavily by patients when nonreimbursed medication costs

  10. Balancing selected medication costs with total number of daily injections: a preference analysis of GnRH-agonist and antagonist protocols by IVF patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, E Scott; Collins, Gary S; Salem, Shala A; Jones, Christopher A; Peck, Alison C; Salem, Rifaat D

    2012-08-30

    During in vitro fertilization (IVF), fertility patients are expected to self-administer many injections as part of this treatment. While newer medications have been developed to substantially reduce the number of these injections, such agents are typically much more expensive. Considering these differences in both cost and number of injections, this study compared patient preferences between GnRH-agonist and GnRH-antagonist based protocols in IVF. Data were collected by voluntary, anonymous questionnaire at first consultation appointment. Patient opinion concerning total number of s.c. injections as a function of non-reimbursed patient cost associated with GnRH-agonist [A] and GnRH-antagonist [B] protocols in IVF was studied. Completed questionnaires (n = 71) revealed a mean +/- SD patient age of 34 +/- 4.1 yrs. Most (83.1%) had no prior IVF experience; 2.8% reported another medical condition requiring self-administration of subcutaneous medication(s). When out-of-pocket cost for [A] and [B] were identical, preference for [B] was registered by 50.7% patients. The tendency to favor protocol [B] was weaker among patients with a health occupation. Estimated patient costs for [A] and [B] were $259.82 +/- 11.75 and $654.55 +/- 106.34, respectively (p cost difference increased. This investigation found consistently higher non-reimbursed direct medication costs for GnRH-antagonist IVF vs. GnRH-agonist IVF protocols. A conditional preference to minimize downregulation (using GnRH-antagonist) was noted among some, but not all, IVF patient sub-groups. Compared to IVF patients with a health occupation, the preference for GnRH-antagonist was weaker than for other patients. While reducing total number of injections by using GnRH-antagonist is a desirable goal, it appears this advantage is not perceived equally by all IVF patients and its utility is likely discounted heavily by patients when nonreimbursed medication costs reach a critical level.

  11. Calorie labeling, fast food purchasing and restaurant visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbel, Brian; Mijanovich, Tod; Dixon, L Beth; Abrams, Courtney; Weitzman, Beth; Kersh, Rogan; Auchincloss, Amy H; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2013-11-01

    Obesity is a pressing public health problem without proven population-wide solutions. Researchers sought to determine whether a city-mandated policy requiring calorie labeling at fast food restaurants was associated with consumer awareness of labels, calories purchased and fast food restaurant visits. Difference-in-differences design, with data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants and via a random digit dial telephone survey, before (December 2009) and after (June 2010) labeling in Philadelphia (which implemented mandatory labeling) and Baltimore (matched comparison city). Measures included: self-reported use of calorie information, calories purchased determined via fast food receipts, and self-reported weekly fast-food visits. The consumer sample was predominantly Black (71%), and high school educated (62%). Postlabeling, 38% of Philadelphia consumers noticed the calorie labels for a 33% point (P < 0.001) increase relative to Baltimore. Calories purchased and number of fast food visits did not change in either city over time. While some consumers report noticing and using calorie information, no population level changes were noted in calories purchased or fast food visits. Other controlled studies are needed to examine the longer term impact of labeling as it becomes national law. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  12. Quantifying Accurate Calorie Estimation Using the "Think Aloud" Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Michael E.; Stearns-Bruening, Kay; Rozelle, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Clients often have limited time in a nutrition education setting. An improved understanding of the strategies used to accurately estimate calories may help to identify areas of focused instruction to improve nutrition knowledge. Methods: A "Think Aloud" exercise was recorded during the estimation of calories in a standard dinner meal…

  13. Preliminary assessment of a water-quality monitoring program for total maximum daily loads in Johnson County, Kansas, January 2015 through June 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Paxson, Chelsea R.

    2017-08-25

    Municipalities in Johnson County in northeastern Kansas are required to implement stormwater management programs to reduce pollutant discharges, protect water quality, and comply with applicable water-quality regulations in accordance with National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits for stormwater discharge. To this end, municipalities collect grab samples at streams entering and leaving their jurisdiction to determine levels of excessive nutrients, sediment, and fecal bacteria to characterize pollutants and understand the factors affecting them.In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Johnson County Stormwater Management Program, with input from the Kansas Department of Health and Environment, initiated a 5-year monitoring program to satisfy minimum sampling requirements for each municipality as described by new stormwater permits issued to Johnson County municipalities. The purpose of this report is to provide a preliminary assessment of the monitoring program. The monitoring program is described, a preliminary assessment of the monitoring program design is provided using water-quality data collected during the first 2 years of the program, and the ability of the current monitoring network and sampling plan to provide data sufficient to quantify improvements in water quality resulting from implemented and planned best management practices is evaluated. The information in this initial report may be used to evaluate changes in data collection methods while data collection is still ongoing that may lead to improved data utility.Discrete water-quality samples were collected at 27 sites and analyzed for nutrients, Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, total suspended solids, and suspended-sediment concentration. In addition, continuous water-quality data (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, turbidity, and nitrate plus nitrite) were collected at one site to characterize variability and provide a basis for comparison to discrete

  14. New York City's fight over calorie labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Thomas A; Caffarelli, Anna; Bassett, Mary T; Silver, Lynn; Frieden, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, New York City's Health Department amended the city Health Code to require the posting of calorie counts by chain restaurants on menus, menu boards, and item tags. This was one element of the city's response to rising obesity rates. Drafting the rule involved many decisions that affected its impact and its legal viability. The restaurant industry argued against the rule and twice sued to prevent its implementation. An initial version of the rule was found to be preempted by federal law, but a revised version was implemented in January 2008. The experience shows that state and local health departments can use their existing authority over restaurants to combat obesity and, indirectly, chronic diseases.

  15. Two Asymmetric and Conflicting Learning Effects of Calorie Posting on Overeating: Laboratory Snack Choice Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Shimokawa, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    We develop a new framework to analyze the effect of calorie posting on overconsumption of calories in a fixed-price context (e.g., fixed-price buffets). The framework demonstrates that a desire to get `a good deal’ (transaction utility) and loss aversion can induce asymmetry between two conflicting learning effects of calorie posing: a calorie-decreasing effect of learning that one was underestimating calorie contents (LUE effect) and a calorie-increasing effect of learning that one was overe...

  16. Point-of-Purchase Calorie Labeling Has Little Influence on Calories Ordered Regardless of Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Sarah Litman; Swencionis, Charles

    2014-09-01

    The obesity epidemic has incited legislation aimed to inform consumers of the nutritional value of food items available in restaurants and fast food establishments, with the presumption that knowing the caloric content in a meal might enable patrons to make healthier choices when ordering. However, available research shows mixed results regarding consumers' use of calorie information to promote healthier purchases. The aim of this study was to determine whether menu type, specifically having viewed a menu with calorie disclosures or not, would have an impact on how many calories were in a lunch meal ordered by a patron. Additionally, we sought to identify body mass index (BMI) as a moderator of the relationship between viewing a menu with or without calorie information and the number of calories an individual orders for lunch. Two hundred forty-five adults participated in the study and completed the questionnaire. Results indicated neither menu type, nor reporting having seen calorie information, was significantly related to the number of calories in the foods that participants ordered, even after controlling demographic variables age, sex, income, education, race/ethnicity, and BMI. BMI did not serve as a moderator in the relationship between menu type and food calories ordered. Implications for policy change and clinical work with overweight and obese patients are discussed.

  17. The energy content of restaurant foods without stated calorie information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Lorien E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Gary, Christine E; Fierstein, Jamie L; Equi, Ashley; Kussmaul, Carolyn; Dallal, Gerard E; Roberts, Susan B

    2013-07-22

    National recommendations for the prevention and treatment of obesity emphasize reducing energy intake through self-monitoring food consumption. However, little information is available on the energy content of foods offered by nonchain restaurants, which account for approximately 50% of restaurant locations in the United States. To measure the energy content of foods from independent and small-chain restaurants that do not provide stated information on energy content. We used bomb calorimetry to determine the dietary energy content of the 42 most frequently purchased meals from the 9 most common restaurant categories. Independent and small-chain restaurants were randomly selected, and 157 individual meals were analyzed. Area within 15 miles of downtown Boston. A random sample of independent and small-chain restaurants. Dietary energy. All meal categories provided excessive dietary energy. The mean energy content of individual meals was 1327 (95% CI, 1248-1406) kcal, equivalent to 66% of typical daily energy requirements. We found a significant effect of food category on meal energy (P ≤ .05), and 7.6% of meals provided more than 100% of typical daily energy requirements. Within-meal variability was large (average SD, 271 kcal), and we found no significant effect of restaurant establishment or size. In addition, meal energy content averaged 49% greater than those of popular meals from the largest national chain restaurants (P restaurants have been criticized for offering meals with excess dietary energy. This study finds that independent and small-chain restaurants, which provide no nutrition information, also provide excessive dietary energy in amounts apparently greater than popular meals from chain restaurants or information in national food databases. A national requirement for accurate calorie labeling in all restaurants may discourage menus offering unhealthy portions and would allow consumers to make informed choices about ordering meals that promote weight

  18. Low salt and low calorie diet does not reduce more body fat than same calorie diet: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye Jin; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Seung Min; Jang, Eun Chul; Cho, Yong Kyun

    2018-02-02

    Recent several observational studies have reported that high salt intake is associated with obesity. But it is unclear whether salt intake itself induce obesity or low salt diet can reduce body fat mass. We investigated whether a low salt diet can reduce body weight and fat amount. The randomized, open-label pilot trial was conducted at a single institution. A total of 85 obese people were enrolled. All participants were served meals three times a day, and provided either a low salt diet or control diet with same calorie. Visceral fat was measured with abdominal computer tomography, while body fat mass and total body water was measured with bio-impedance. Reductions in body weight (-6.3% vs. -5.0%, p = 0.05) and BMI (-6.6% vs. -5.1%, p = 0.03) were greater in the low salt group than in the control group. Extracellular water and total body water were significantly reduced in the low salt group compared to the control group. However, changes in body fat mass, visceral fat area, and skeletal muscle mass did not differ between the two groups. Changes in lipid profile, fasting glucose, and HOMA-IR did not differ between the two groups. A two-month low salt diet was accompanied by reduction of body mass index. However, the observed decrease of body weight was caused by reduction of total body water, not by reduction of body fat mass or visceral fat mass.

  19. Calorie changes in large chain restaurants from 2008 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A; Jarlenski, Marian P

    2017-07-01

    No prior studies examining changes in the calorie content of chain restaurants have included national data before and after passage of federal menu labeling legislation, required by the 2010 Affordable Care Act. This paper describes trends in calories available in large U.S. chain restaurants in 2008 and 2012 to 2015 using data were obtained from the MenuStat project (2012 to 2015) and from the Center for Science in the Public Interest (2008). This analysis included 44 of the 100 largest U.S. restaurants which are available in all years of the data (2008 and 2012-2015) (N=19,391 items). Generalized linear models were used to examine 1) per-item calorie changes from 2008 to 2015 among items on the menu in all years and 2) mean calories in new items in 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015 compared to items on the menu in 2008 only. We found that Among items common to the menu in all years, overall calories declined from 327kcal in 2008 to 318kcal in 2015 (p-value for trend=0.03). No differences in mean calories among menu items newly introduced in 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015 relative to items only on the menu in 2008 were found. These results suggest that the federal menu labeling mandate (to be implemented in May 2017) appears to be influencing restaurant behavior towards lower average calories for menu items. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental analysis of the effect of taxes and subsides on calories purchased in an on-line supermarket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H; Finkelstein, Eric; Raynor, Hollie; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Fletcher, Kelly D; Jankowiak, Noelle; Paluch, Rocco A

    2015-12-01

    Taxes and subsidies are a public health approach to improving nutrient quality of food purchases. While taxes or subsidies influence purchasing, it is unclear whether they influence total energy or overall diet quality of foods purchased. Using a within subjects design, selected low nutrient dense foods (e.g. sweetened beverages, candy, salty snacks) were taxed, and fruits and vegetables and bottled water were subsidized by 12.5% or 25% in comparison to a usual price condition for 199 female shoppers in an experimental store. Results showed taxes reduced calories purchased of taxed foods (coefficient = -6.61, CI = -11.94 to -1.28) and subsidies increased calories purchased of subsidized foods (coefficient = 13.74, CI = 8.51 to 18.97). However, no overall effect was observed on total calories purchased. Both taxes and subsidies were associated with a reduction in calories purchased for grains (taxes: coefficient = -6.58, CI = -11.91 to -1.24, subsidies: coefficient = -12.86, CI = -18.08 to -7.63) and subsidies were associated with a reduction in calories purchased for miscellaneous foods (coefficient = -7.40, CI = -12.62 to -2.17) (mostly fats, oils and sugars). Subsidies improved the nutrient quality of foods purchased (coefficient = 0.14, CI = 0.07 to 0.21). These results suggest that taxes and subsidies can influence energy purchased for products taxed or subsidized, but not total energy purchased. However, the improvement in nutrient quality with subsidies indicates that pricing can shift nutritional quality of foods purchased. Research is needed to evaluate if differential pricing strategies based on nutrient quality are associated with reduction in calories and improvement in nutrient quality of foods purchased. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of calorie or exercise labels on menus on calories and macronutrients ordered and calories from specific foods in Hispanic participants: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Meena; Bouza, Brooke; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Jaffery, Manall; Esposito, Phil; Dart, Lyn

    2016-12-01

    The effect of menu labels on food choices is unknown in Hispanics. This study evaluated the impact of menu labels on calories and macronutrients ordered in Hispanics. 372 Hispanics (18-65 years) were randomly assigned to menus with no labels (NL) (n=127), rank-ordered calorie labels plus a statement on energy needs per meal (CL) (n=123), or rank-ordered exercise labels showing minutes of brisk walking necessary to burn the food calories (EL) (n=122). The menus had identical food choices. Participants were instructed to select foods from the assigned menu as if having lunch in a fast food restaurant. One-way analysis of variance found no difference in calories ordered (median (25th and 75th centiles)) by menu condition (NL: 785.0 (465.0, 1010.0) kcal; CL: 790.0 (510.0, 1020.0) kcal; EL: 752.5 (520.0, 1033.8) kcal; p=0.75). Calories from specific foods and macronutrient intake were not different by menu condition. Menu label use was 26.8% in the CL and 25.4% in the EL condition. Calories ordered were not different between those who used and those who did not use the labels. Regression analysis showed that perception of being overweight (p=0.02), selecting foods based on health value (p<0.0001), and meeting exercise guidelines (p<0.0001) were associated with fewer calories ordered. Logistic regression showed that selecting foods based on health value (p=0.01) was associated with higher food label use. Menu labels did not affect food choices in Hispanic participants. Future studies should determine if nutrition, exercise, and weight perception counseling prior to menu labels intervention would result in better food choices. NCT02804503; post-results. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  2. Hip Hop HEALS: Pilot Study of a Culturally Targeted Calorie Label Intervention to Improve Food Purchases of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Olajide; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Sawyer, Vanessa; Apakama, Donald; Shaffer, Michele; Gerin, William; Noble, James

    2016-02-01

    We explored the effect of a culturally targeted calorie label intervention on food purchasing behavior of elementary school students. We used a quasi-experimental design with two intervention schools and one control school to assess food purchases of third through fifth graders at standardized school food sales before and after the intervention (immediate and delayed) in schools. The intervention comprised three 1-hour assembly-style hip-hop-themed multimedia classes. A mean total of 225 children participated in two baseline preintervention sales with and without calorie labels; 149 children participated in immediate postintervention food sales, while 133 children participated in the delayed sales. No significant change in purchased calories was observed in response to labels alone before the intervention. However, a mean decline in purchased calories of 20% (p < .01) and unhealthy foods (p < .01) was seen in immediately following the intervention compared to baseline purchases, and this persisted without significant decay after 7 days and 12 days. A 3-hour culturally targeted calorie label intervention may improve food-purchasing behavior of children. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  3. A Meta-Analysis to Determine the Impact of Restaurant Menu Labeling on Calories and Nutrients (Ordered or Consumed) in U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu-Jungles, Thaisa M; McCormack, Lacey A; Slaven, James E; Slebodnik, Maribeth; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2017-09-30

    A systematic review and meta-analysis determined the effect of restaurant menu labeling on calories and nutrients chosen in laboratory and away-from-home settings in U.S. adults. Cochrane-based criteria adherent, peer-reviewed study designs conducted and published in the English language from 1950 to 2014 were collected in 2015, analyzed in 2016, and used to evaluate the effect of nutrition labeling on calories and nutrients ordered or consumed. Before and after menu labeling outcomes were used to determine weighted mean differences in calories, saturated fat, total fat, carbohydrate, and sodium ordered/consumed which were pooled across studies using random effects modeling. Stratified analysis for laboratory and away-from-home settings were also completed. Menu labeling resulted in no significant change in reported calories ordered/consumed in studies with full criteria adherence, nor the 14 studies analyzed with ≤1 unmet criteria, nor for change in total ordered carbohydrate, fat, and saturated fat (three studies) or ordered or consumed sodium (four studies). A significant reduction of 115.2 calories ordered/consumed in laboratory settings was determined when analyses were stratified by study setting. Menu labeling away-from-home did not result in change in quantity or quality, specifically for carbohydrates, total fat, saturated fat, or sodium, of calories consumed among U.S. adults.

  4. Physical and physicochemical evaluation of different brands of traditional, low calorie and sugar-free guava preserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. P. Pereira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and physicochemical properties of different brands of traditional (A, B and E, low calorie (C and sugar-free (D guava preserves. The results of these analysis indicated that there are differences in the physical and physicochemical properties of the different brands studied, and the partial and/or total exclusion of sugar from guava alters its physical and physicochemical properties, making the product redder; even added body and sweetening agents are incapable of conferring properties similar to those of conventional products. Regarding the relaxation test, the Maxwell model was the best for sample discrimination. The results also showed that the samples have a traditional standardization and that the sample labeled "low calorie" has a tendency to exhibit a composition similar to the conventional sample, which is evidence that brand (C cannot be considered to be low calorie.

  5. The effect of low calorie structured lipid palm mid fraction, virgin coconut oil and canola oil blend on rats body weight and plasma profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Aftar Mizan Abu; Ayob, Mohd Khan; Maskat, Mohamad Yusof

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of low calorie cocoa butter substitutes, the structured lipids (SLs) on rats' body weight and plasma lipid levels. The SLs were developed from a ternary blending of palm mid fraction (PMF), virgin coconut oil (VCO) and canola oil (CO). The optimized blends were then underwent enzymatic acidolysisusing sn-1,3-specific lipase. This process produced A12, a SL which hasa solid fat content almost comparable to cocoa butter but has low calories. Therefore, it has a high potential to be used for cocoa butter substitute with great nutritional values. Fourty two Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups and were force feed for a period of 2 months (56 days) and the group were Control 1(rodent chow), Control 2(cocoa butter), Control 3(PMF:VCO:CO 90:5:5 - S3 blend), High doseSL (A12:C8+S3), Medium dose SL (A12:C8+S3) and Low dose SL (A12:C8+S3). The body weight of each rat was recorded once daily. The plasma profile of treated and control rats, which comprised of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride was measured on day 0 (baseline) and day 56 (post-treatment). Low calorie structured lipid (SL) was synthesized through acidolysis reaction using sn 1-3-specific lipase of ThermomycesLanuginos (TLIM) among 25 samples with optimum parameter obtained from the RSM. Blood samples for plasma separation were collected using cardiac puncture and requiring anesthesia via tail vein(Anesthetics for rats: Ketamine/Xylazine) for day 0 and day 56. Results of the study showed that rats in group 1 and group 2 has gained weight by 1.66 g and 4.75 g respectively and showed significant difference (p0.05) between G3 on day 0 and 56 days for total cholesterol. Meanwhile, total plasma HDLcholesterol content of rats fed with C8:0 was significantly higher (pstructured lipids effectively altered the plasma cholesterol levels of experimental rats.

  6. Calorie-labelling: does it impact on calorie purchase in catering outlets and the views of young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, C K; Hankey, C R; Lean, M E J

    2015-03-01

    Calorie-labelling of meals has been suggested as an antiobesity measure, but evidence for impact is scarce. It might have a particular value for young adults, when weight gain is most rapid. A systematic literature review and a meta-analysis was performed to assess the effect of calorie-labelling on calories purchased. Seven studies met the inclusion and quality criteria of which six provided data allowing a meta-analysis. Three reported significant changes, all reductions in calories purchased (-38.1 to -12.4 kcal). Meta-analysis showed no overall effect, -5.8 kcal (95% confidence interval (CI)=-19.4 to 7.8 kcal) but a reduction of -124.5 kcal (95% CI=-150.7 to 113.8 kcal) among those who noticed the calorie-labelling (30-60% of customers). A questionnaire, to gauge views on calorie-labelling, was devised and sent to young adults in higher education: 1440 young adults (mean age 20.3 (s.d.=2.9) years) completed the survey. Nearly half (46%) said they would welcome calorie information in catering settings and on alcoholic drinks. Females opposing to calorie-labelling were heavier to those who did not (64.3 kg vs. 61.9 kg, P=0.03; BMI=22.4 kg m(-2) vs. 21.7 kg m(-2), P=0.02). In conclusion, the limited evidence supports a valuable effect from clearly visible calorie-labelling for obesity prevention, and it appears an attractive strategy to many young adults.

  7. Calorie Restriction, Stem Cells, and Rejuvenation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrachman Nasihun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging may be defined as the time-dependent deterioration in function of an organism associated with or responsible for the increase in susceptibility to disease and probability of death with advancing age (Harman, 1981; Cefalu, 2011. Generally, the aging organisms are characterized by both biochemical and functional declines. Declining of basal metabolism rates, protein turnover, glucose tolerance, reproductive capacity, telomere shortening, and oxidative phosphorylation are related to the biochemical. Whilst, lung expansion volume, renal glomerular and tubular capacities, cardiovascular performance, musculoskeletal system, nerve conduction velocity, endocrine and exocrine systems, immunological defenses, and sensory systems are associated with the physiological declining (Baynes and Dominiczak, 2015. Some evidences indicated that, although members of a species develop into adults in the same way, even genetically similar or identical individuals, raised in identical conditions and eating identical food, but they may age differently (Baynes and Dominiczak, 2015. These aging differences are attributable to the life style particularly calorie and dietary restriction intakes, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and thus its implication on severity of damage, repair capacity, and error accumulation in cellular genetic material (Baynes and Dominiczak, 2015; Mihaylova et al., 2014; Mazzoccoli et al., 2014. Therefore, in molecular terms, aging can be defined as a decline of the homeostatic mechanisms that ensure the function of cells, tissues, and organs systems (Mazzoccoli et al., 2014. Accordingly, if the homeostatic mechanism can be repaired, the result is rejuvenation.

  8. Calorie restriction in rodents: Caveats to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Donald K; de Cabo, Rafael

    2017-10-01

    The calorie restriction paradigm has provided one of the most widely used and most useful tools for investigating mechanisms of aging and longevity. By far, rodent models have been employed most often in these endeavors. Over decades of investigation, claims have been made that the paradigm produces the most robust demonstration that aging is malleable. In the current review of the rodent literature, we present arguments that question the robustness of the paradigm to increase lifespan and healthspan. Specifically, there are several questions to consider as follows: (1) At what age does CR no longer produce benefits? (2) Does CR attenuate cognitive decline? (3) Are there negative effects of CR, including effects on bone health, wound healing, and response to infection? (4) How important is schedule of feeding? (5) How long does CR need to be imposed to be effective? (6) How do genotype and gender influence CR? (7) What role does dietary composition play? Consideration of these questions produce many caveats that should guide future investigations to move the field forward. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Immunosuppressive mechanisms in protein-calorie malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redmond, H.P.; Shou, J.; Kelly, C.J.; Schreiber, S.; Miller, E.; Leon, P.; Daly, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) induces immunosuppression leading to increased mortality rates. Impaired macrophage respiratory burst activity (superoxide anion [O2-] generation) occurs in PCM, but cellular mechanisms are unclear. The major pathway resulting in O2- production involves inositol lipid-dependent signal transduction. This study examined the effect of mild versus severe PCM on macrophage O2- generating signal transduction pathways specific for responses to Candida albicans. Mice (CFW/Swiss Webster: n = 300) were randomized to either control or low protein diets for 3 or 8 weeks. Peritoneal macrophages were harvested for O2- production, mannose-fucose receptor (MFR) expression, membrane phospholipid analysis, arachidonic acid (AA) content, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, and protein kinase C levels. O2- release was impaired in both mild and severe PCM. MFR expression was also decreased at these time points. Inositol lipid content was significantly lower at the 8-week time point only, although PGE2 and AA were significantly higher in the low protein diet group at 3 weeks. Protein kinase C levels were unchanged by PCM. Thus, mild PCM significantly increases macrophage-PGE2 production secondary to increased AA phospholipid content, with subsequent inhibition of O2- and MFR expression. Severe PCM inhibits macrophage (O2-) through depletion of critical membrane phospholipid components with subsequent impairment in signal transduction

  10. Reduced-calorie avocado paste attenuates metabolic factors associated with a hypercholesterolemic-high fructose diet in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahua-Ramos, María Elena; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Chamorro-Cevallos, German; Herrera-Martínez, Julieta; Osorio-Esquivel, Obed; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of reduced-calorie avocado paste on lipid serum profile, insulin sensitivity, and hepatic steatosis in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic-high fructose diet. Thirty five male Wistar rats were randomly separated in five groups: Control group (ground commercial diet); hypercholesterolemic diet plus 60% fructose solution (HHF group); hypercholesterolemic diet plus 60% fructose solution supplemented with avocado pulp (HHF+A group); hypercholesterolemic diet plus 60% fructose solution supplemented with reduced-calorie avocado paste (HHF+P group); and hypercholesterolemic diet plus 60% fructose solution supplemented with a reduced-calorie avocado paste plus fiber (HHF+FP group). The A, P, and FP were supplemented at 2 g/kg/d. The study was carried out for seven weeks. Rats belonging to the HHF group exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin levels in serum as well as lower insulin sensitivity than the control group. Supplementation with reduced-calorie avocado paste showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in total cholesterol (43.1%), low-density lipoprotein (45.4%), and triglycerides (32.8%) in plasma as well as elevated insulin sensitivity compared to the HHF group. Additionally, the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase decreased significantly in the HHF-P group (39.8 and 35.1%, respectively). These results are likely due to biocompounds present in the reduced-calorie avocado paste, such as polyphenols, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and dietary fibre, which are capable of reducing oxidative stress. Therefore, reduced-calorie avocado paste attenuates the effects of a hypercholesterolemic-high fructose diet in rats.

  11. Calories count. Improved weight gain with dietary intervention in congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, R; DeKleermaeker, M; Gidding, S S; Christoffel, K K

    1992-09-01

    We assessed the nutritional status of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) to evaluate the role of dietary intake in impaired weight for patient length. Underweight patients with CHD underwent nutritional counseling to evaluate the role of this intervention in improvement of weight for length. We prospectively evaluated a clinical protocol for nutritional assessment and counseling in patients with CHD. Eligible patients were enrolled from a cardiology clinic during a 13-month period. Initial anthropometric measurements and measurements of dietary intake of underweight and normal-weight patients were compared. Initial and follow-up measurements of underweight patients who received nutritional counseling were compared. Nineteen underweight patients with CHD and 16 normal-weight patients with CHD, aged 1 month to 2 years, were studied. Exclusion criteria included noncardiac factors that could affect growth (eg, low birth weight, Down syndrome, gastrointestinal deficit, and any severe abnormality of the central nervous system). Seventeen of the 19 underweight patients underwent nutritional counseling in the presence of a parent every 2 months for 6 months. Caloric and protein intakes were maximized using high-calorie formulas. Baseline dietary intake was lower in underweight patients than in normal-weight patients (mean percentage of the recommended daily allowance of calories, 89% vs 108%). Follow-up evaluation in normal-weight patients showed no change in percentage of ideal body weight for length. Follow-up evaluation in underweight patients showed improvement in mean dietary intake (from 90% to 104% of the recommended daily allowance of calories) and in mean percentage of ideal body weight for length after intervention (from 83.1% to 88.3%). Nutritional evaluation of patients with CHD demonstrated that underweight children had inadequate diets. Underweight patients with CHD who received nutritional counseling showed increased dietary intake and improved

  12. Sweet proteins – Potential replacement for artificial low calorie sweeteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kant Ravi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exponential growth in the number of patients suffering from diseases caused by the consumption of sugar has become a threat to mankind's health. Artificial low calorie sweeteners available in the market may have severe side effects. It takes time to figure out the long term side effects and by the time these are established, they are replaced by a new low calorie sweetener. Saccharine has been used for centuries to sweeten foods and beverages without calories or carbohydrate. It was also used on a large scale during the sugar shortage of the two world wars but was abandoned as soon as it was linked with development of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring sweet and taste modifying proteins are being seen as potential replacements for the currently available artificial low calorie sweeteners. Interaction aspects of sweet proteins and the human sweet taste receptor are being investigated.

  13. Development of a food to calorie converter mobile application: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of a food to calorie converter mobile application: a case study of ... have risen to the challenge of creating weight management software, they do not ... Our methodology includes an android application with an inbuilt SQLite ...

  14. Consumers' estimation of calorie content at fast food restaurants: cross sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Jason P; Condon, Suzanne K; Kleinman, Ken; Mullen, Jewel; Linakis, Stephanie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Gillman, Matthew W

    2013-05-23

    To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fast food restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fast food restaurant chains. 89 fast food restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald's, Burger King, Subway, Wendy's, KFC, Dunkin' Donuts. 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1178 adolescents visiting restaurants after school or at lunchtime in 2010 and 2011. Estimated calorie content of purchased meals. Among adults, adolescents, and school age children, the mean actual calorie content of meals was 836 calories (SD 465), 756 calories (SD 455), and 733 calories (SD 359), respectively. A calorie is equivalent to 4.18 kJ. Compared with the actual figures, participants underestimated calorie content by means of 175 calories (95% confidence interval 145 to 205), 259 calories (227 to 291), and 175 calories (108 to 242), respectively. In multivariable linear regression models, underestimation of calorie content increased substantially as the actual meal calorie content increased. Adults and adolescents eating at Subway estimated 20% and 25% lower calorie content than McDonald's diners (relative change 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.96; 0.75, 0.57 to 0.99). People eating at fast food restaurants underestimate the calorie content of meals, especially large meals. Education of consumers through calorie menu labeling and other outreach efforts might reduce the large degree of underestimation.

  15. The Use of Very Low Calorie Diets in the Management of Type 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    normalised following a very low calorie diet (VLCD) (less than (<) ...... obese patients with Type II diabetes: Does inclusion of an intermittent very low calorie ... exercise on weight-loss maintenance after a very-low-calorie diet or low-calorie diet: ...

  16. Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption and daily energy and nutrient intakes in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, R

    2016-01-01

    Calorie intake and diet quality are influenced by the source of food and the place of consumption. This study examines the impacts of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on daily energy and nutrient intakes in US adults. Nationally representative data of 18,098 adults 18 years of age and above from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2010 waves were analyzed. Outcomes included daily intake of total calories and 24 nutrients of public health concern. The key predictors were any food/beverage consumption in a day from fast-food or full-service restaurant, differentiated by consumption at home versus away from home. First-difference estimator addressed confounding bias from time-invariant unobservables such as personal food/beverage preferences by using within-individual variations in diet and restaurant consumption status between two nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, were associated with a net increase in daily total energy intake of 190.29 and 186.74 kcal, total fat of 10.61 and 9.58 g, saturated fat of 3.49 and 2.46 g, cholesterol of 10.34 and 57.90 mg, and sodium of 297.47 and 411.92 mg. The impact of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on energy and nutrient intakes differed by sex, race/ethnicity, education, income and weight status. Increased total energy, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intake were substantially larger when full-service restaurant food was consumed away from home than at home. A holistic policy intervention is warranted to target the American's overall dining-out behavior rather than fast-food consumption alone.

  17. Variation in Protein and Calorie Consumption Following Protein Malnutrition in Rattus norvegicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Donna C.; German, Rebecca Z.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Catch-up growth following malnutrition is likely influenced by available protein and calories. We measured calorie and protein consumption following the removal of protein malnutrition after 40, 60 and 90 days, in laboratory rats. Following the transition in diet, animals self-selected fewer calories, implying elevated protein is sufficient to fuel catch-up growth, eventually resulting in body weights and bone lengths greater or equal to those of control animals. Rats rehabilitated at younger ages, had more drastic alterations in consumption. Variable responses in different ages and sex highlight the plasticity of growth and how nutrition affects body form. This work furthers our understanding of how humans and livestock can recover from protein-restriction malnutrition, which seems to employ different biological responses. Abstract Catch-up growth rates, following protein malnutrition, vary with timing and duration of insult, despite unlimited access to calories. Understanding changing patterns of post-insult consumption, relative rehabilitation timing, can provide insight into the mechanisms driving those differences. We hypothesize that higher catch-up growth rates will be correlated with increased protein consumption, while calorie consumption could remain stable. As catch-up growth rates decrease with age/malnutrition duration, we predict a dose effect in protein consumption with rehabilitation timing. We measured total and protein consumption, body mass, and long bone length, following an increase of dietary protein at 40, 60 and 90 days, with two control groups (chronic reduced protein or standard protein) for 150+ days. Immediately following rehabilitation, rats’ food consumption decreased significantly, implying that elevated protein intake is sufficient to fuel catch-up growth rates that eventually result in body weights and long bone lengths greater or equal to final measures of chronically fed standard (CT) animals. The duration of

  18. Estimativa do total de horas abaixo de determinada temperatura-base através das medidas diárias da temperatura do ar Number of hours below any base temperature estimated by daily measurements of air temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz B. Angelocci

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available São propostas equações matemáticas para estimar o total diário de horas abaixo de determinada temperatura-base, em certo período, utilizando-se somente dos valores diários das temperaturas máxima, mínima e das 21 horas (hora local. A comparação entre os totais diários e mensais de "horas de frio" estimados pelas equações propostas e os observados através de termogramas, para várias localidades do Estado de São Paulo, mostrou boa concordância entre os métodos de cálculo. O modelo proposto dispensa o uso de registros contínuos de temperatura. As vantagens de tal estimativa residem na maior disponibilidade de registros de temperaturas máximas, mínimas e das 21 horas, permitindo maior densidade de pontos em trabalhos de zoneamento agroclimático e de cartografia, além da eliminação do processo de cotação de termogramas.Mathematical equations are proposed to estimate the daily number of hours in which the air temperature remains below a determined treshold value. The equations require only daily values of maximum, minimum and 9 p.m. local time temperature, measured inside the meteorological shelter. This technique is suitable for machine computation thus avoiding the tremendous task of quantifying a large number of thermograms. This fact permits the utilization of a greater number of stations in studies of crop zonation and cartography. Good correlations were obtained between estimated and observed data of the daily and monthly total number of hours below 7°C, 13°C and 17°C, for five stations in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, showing relative accuracy of the proposed equations.

  19. Metabolic effects of fasting and very low calorie diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henson, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the mechanism of nitrogen sparing in obese subjects on very low calorie diets (VLC-PS), effects of total fasting (TF) and VLC-PS (380 Kcal/day) supplying protein without carbohydrate on metabolites, hormones, urea nitrogen excretion, and plasma [3- 3 H]glucose turnover, [U- 14 C]lysine flux, and [1- 14 C]leucine flux and oxidation were compared. Subjects with a wide range of relative obesity were studied during a control period and after one week of TF. Urea excretion and lysine flux decreased in all subjects, while 3-methylhistidine excretion was unchanged. Glucagon:insulin ratio and cortisol increased, while triiodothyronine (T 3 ) decreased and would be expected to be nitrogen-sparing. In a separate study, groups of obese women were studied during a control period and during 14 days of TF or VLC-PS supplying either 80 g (80G) or 40 g (40G) high-quality protein. Increases in branched chain amino acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, and glucagon:insulin ratio and decrease in T 3 did not differ among groups. Glucose production decreased to the same extent in all groups. Serum and urinary urea nitrogen were maintained at control values throughout the diet in 80G but decreased to the same extent in TF and 40G. Nitrogen balance estimated from urea nitrogen appearance was negative in all groups

  20. Promoting the purchase of low-calorie foods from school vending machines: a cluster-randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, Paul L; Eeuwijk, Jennifer; Van Kesteren, Nicole M C; Dusseldorp, Elise; Buijs, Goof; Bassa-Dafesh, Zeina; Snel, Jeltje

    2012-03-01

    Vending machines account for food sales and revenue in schools. We examined 3 strategies for promoting the sale of lower-calorie food products from vending machines in high schools in the Netherlands. A school-based randomized controlled trial was conducted in 13 experimental schools and 15 control schools. Three strategies were tested within each experimental school: increasing the availability of lower-calorie products in vending machines, labeling products, and reducing the price of lower-calorie products. The experimental schools introduced the strategies in 3 consecutive phases, with phase 3 incorporating all 3 strategies. The control schools remained the same. The sales volumes from the vending machines were registered. Products were grouped into (1) extra foods containing empty calories, for example, candies and potato chips, (2) nutrient-rich basic foods, and (3) beverages. They were also divided into favorable, moderately unfavorable, and unfavorable products. Total sales volumes for experimental and control schools did not differ significantly for the extra and beverage products. Proportionally, the higher availability of lower-calorie extra products in the experimental schools led to higher sales of moderately unfavorable extra products than in the control schools, and to higher sales of favorable extra products in experimental schools where students have to stay during breaks. Together, availability, labeling, and price reduction raised the proportional sales of favorable beverages. Results indicate that when the availability of lower-calorie foods is increased and is also combined with labeling and reduced prices, students make healthier choices without buying more or fewer products from school vending machines. Changes to school vending machines help to create a healthy school environment. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  1. The Effects of Balanced Low Calorie Diet on Weight Loss and Insulin Resistance among Obese Women in Ardabil City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghannadiasl

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Obesity is associated with metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance. Weight loss is always recommended for meaningful reduction in these abnormalities. Therefore, we examined the effects of balanced low calorie diet on weight loss, fasting insulin and insulin resistance in obese women attending the nutrition clinic. Methods: In this clinical trial, forty five volunteer apparently healthy obese women (body mass index: 33.28 ± 2.90 kg/m2 and age: 28.40 ± 7.98 years were recruited from the nutrition clinic in their first visit. The participants were received a balanced low calorie diet over 6 months after anthropometry measurement and blood sampling for determination of fasting insulin and insulin resistance level. Balanced low calorie diet was an individualized diet with an energy deficit of 500 calories of daily energy intake that was calculated from 3-day food records for every person. At 6 months after intervention, continuous and dichotomous variables were assessed using paired t-test and McNemar test, respectively. Results: The mean recommended energy intake was 2241.78 ± 219.02(kcal. After 6 months, there were significant reductions in body weight (p=0.003, body mass index (p=0.005, waist and hip circumferences (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively. There was also significant improvement in fasting insulin level (13.47 ± 6.55 vs. 11.95 ± 4.17 µU/ml, p=0.01. Whereas, insulin resistance had not significant reduction (p=0.1. Conclusion: In obese women attending the nutrition clinic, the balanced low calorie diet resulted in weight loss and improvement in fasting insulin. These positive changes can help to decrease the risk factor profile in obese individuals.

  2. AN ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN AND CALORIE CONSUMPTION IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Widarjono

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study analyses calorie and protein consumption in Central Java Province. The calorie and protein elasticity are derived from demand elasticity of the ten food groups encompassing cereals, fish, meats, eggs and milk, vegetables, fruits, oil and fats, prepared foods and drinks, other foods and tobacco products. Most of calorie and protein-price elasticity of the ten food group are negative. Consumption of calorie and protein are most responsive to prices of eggs and milk. Protein -price elasticities are less elastic than calorie-price elasticities. Calorie and protein-income elasticity are positive and become lesselastic in moving from lower to higher income households but protein is less responsive to income change than calorie. Keywords: QUAIDS, demand elasticity, nutrient elasticity, Central Java ProvinceJEL Classification numbers: D12, O12AbstrakStudi ini menganlisis konsumsi kalori dan protein di Jawa Tengah. Elastisitas kalori dan protein dihitung dari elastisitas permintaan dari 10 kelompok komoditi makanan yang terdiri dari padi-padian, ikan, daging, telur dan susu, sayur-sayuran, buah-buahan, minyak dan lemak, makanan dan minumun jadi, makanan lainnya dan tembakau dan hasilnya. Sebagian besar elastisitas harga kalori dan protein adalah negatif. Konsumsi kalori dan protein adalah kelompok makanan yang paling responsif terhadap perubahan harga telur dan susu. Elastisitas pendapatan kalori dan protein adalah positif tetapi menjadi lebih elastis untuk rumah tangga berpenghasilan lebih tinggi tetapi protein kurang responsif terhadap perubahan pendapatan daripada kalori.Keywords: QUAIDS, elastisitas permintaan, elastisitas nutrisi, Jawa TengahJEL Classification numbers: D12, O12

  3. Calorie Restriction Attenuates Terminal Differentiation of Immune Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Matthew J; Beaver, Charlotte M; Goodier, Martin R; Bottomley, Christian; Nielsen, Carolyn M; Wolf, Asia-Sophia F M; Boldrin, Luisa; Whitmore, Charlotte; Morgan, Jennifer; Pearce, Daniel J; Riley, Eleanor M

    2016-01-01

    Immune senescence is a natural consequence of aging and may contribute to frailty and loss of homeostasis in later life. Calorie restriction increases healthy life-span in C57BL/6J (but not DBA/2J) mice, but whether this is related to preservation of immune function, and how it interacts with aging, is unclear. We compared phenotypic and functional characteristics of natural killer (NK) cells and T cells, across the lifespan, of calorie-restricted (CR) and control C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. Calorie restriction preserves a naïve T cell phenotype and an immature NK cell phenotype as mice age. The splenic T cell populations of CR mice had higher proportions of CD11a - CD44 lo cells, lower expression of TRAIL, KLRG1, and CXCR3, and higher expression of CD127, compared to control mice. Similarly, splenic NK cells from CR mice had higher proportions of less differentiated CD11b - CD27 + cells and correspondingly lower proportions of highly differentiated CD11b + CD27 - NK cells. Within each of these subsets, cells from CR mice had higher expression of CD127, CD25, TRAIL, NKG2A/C/E, and CXCR3 and lower expression of KLRG1 and Ly49 receptors compared to controls. The effects of calorie restriction on lymphoid cell populations in lung, liver, and lymph nodes were identical to those seen in the spleen, indicating that this is a system-wide effect. The impact of calorie restriction on NK cell and T cell maturation is much more profound than the effect of aging and, indeed, calorie restriction attenuates these age-associated changes. Importantly, the effects of calorie restriction on lymphocyte maturation were more marked in C57BL/6 than in DBA/2J mice indicating that delayed lymphocyte maturation correlates with extended lifespan. These findings have implications for understanding the interaction between nutritional status, immunity, and healthy lifespan in aging populations.

  4. One day of moderate energy deficit reduces fasting and postprandial triacylglycerolemia in women: the role of calorie restriction and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, Maria; Magkos, Faidon; Christodoulou, Nektarios; Aggelopoulou, Niki; Skenderi, Katerina P; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Kavouras, Stavros A; Sidossis, Labros S

    2010-08-01

    Fasting and postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia are important cardiovascular risk factors in women. We sought to examine the effects of acute (1 day), moderate ( approximately 2 MJ) energy deficit induced by calorie restriction, exercise, or combination of both on fasting and postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism in women. Six healthy premenopausal women performed four oral fat tolerance tests in the morning after a day of a) rest (control), b) calorie restriction ( approximately 2 MJ), c) exercise (net deficit of approximately 2 MJ) and d) calorie restriction-plus-exercise (total energy deficit of approximately 2 MJ). All energy deficit trials significantly reduced fasting and postprandial total plasma TAG concentrations by 15-23% and 12-23%, respectively, and triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein TAG concentrations by 37-43% and 25-39%, respectively, compared with the control condition (Pwomen. Exercise elicits a somewhat greater effect than calorie restriction in the postprandial state. The acute effect of diet and exercise should be taken into account when studying the long-term effects of weight loss and exercise training on TAG metabolism. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effects of Calorie Restriction in Depression and Potential Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifan; Liu, Changhong; Zhao, Yinghao; Zhang, Xingyi; Li, Bingjin; Cui, Ranji

    2015-01-01

    Depression, also called major depressive disorder, is a neuropsychiatric disorder jeopardizing an increasing number of the population worldwide. To date, a large number of studies have devoted great attention to this problematic condition and raised several hypotheses of depression. Based on these theories, many antidepressant drugs were developed for the treatment of depression. Yet, the depressed patients are often refractory to the antidepressant therapies. Recently, increasing experimental evidences demonstrated the effects of calorie restriction in neuroendocrine system and in depression. Both basic and clinical investigations indicated that short-term calorie restriction might induce an antidepressant efficacy in depression, providing a novel avenue for treatment. Molecular basis underlying the antidepressant actions of calorie restriction might involve multiple physiological processes, primarily including orexin signaling activation, increased CREB phosphorylation and neurotrophic effects, release of endorphin and ketone production. However, the effects of chronic calorie restriction were quite controversial, in the cases that it often resulted in the long-term detrimental effects via inhibiting the function of 5-HT system and decreasing leptin levels. Here we review such dual effects of calorie restriction in depression and potential molecular basis behind these effects, especially focusing on antidepressant effects.

  6. College Students Must Overcome Barriers to Use Calorie Labels in Fast-Food Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stran, Kimberly A; Knol, Linda L; Turner, Lori W; Severt, Kimberly; McCallum, Debra M; Lawrence, Jeannine C

    2016-02-01

    To explore predictors of intention of college students to use calorie labels on fast-food menus and differences in calories ordered after viewing calorie information. Quasi-experimental design. Participants selected a meal from a menu without calorie labels, selected a meal from the same menu with calorie labels, and completed a survey that assessed demographics, dietary habits, Theory of Planned Behavior constructs, and potential barriers to use of calorie labeling. A southern university. Undergraduate university students (n = 97). Predictors of intention to use calorie labels and whether calories selected from the nonlabeled menu differed from the labeled menu. Confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory factor analysis, multiple regression, and paired t tests. Participants ordered significantly fewer calories (P = .02) when selecting from the labeled menu vs the menu without labels. Attitudes (P = .006), subjective norms (P behavioral control (P = .01) predicted intention to use calorie information but did not predict a difference in the calories ordered. Hunger (P = .03) and cost (P = .04) were barriers to using the calorie information. If students can overcome barriers, calorie labeling could provide information that college students need to select lower-calorie items at fast-food restaurants. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The GOAT-ghrelin system is not essential for hypoglycemia prevention during prolonged calorie restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Xia Yi

    Full Text Available Ghrelin acylation by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT has recently been reported to be essential for the prevention of hypoglycemia during prolonged negative energy balance. Using a unique set of four different genetic loss-of-function models for the GOAT/ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR system, we thoroughly tested the hypothesis that lack-of-ghrelin activation or signaling would lead to hypoglycemia during caloric deprivation.Male and female knockout (KO mice for GOAT, ghrelin, GHSR, or both ghrelin and GHSR (dKO were subjected to prolonged calorie restriction (40% of ad libitum chow intake. Body weight, fat mass, and glucose levels were recorded daily and compared to wildtype (WT controls. Forty-eight hour blood glucose profiles were generated for each individual mouse when 2% or less body fat mass was reached. Blood samples were obtained for analysis of circulating levels of acyl- and desacyl-ghrelin, IGF-1, and insulin.Chronic calorie restriction progressively decreased body weight and body fat mass in all mice regardless of genotype. When fat mass was depleted to 2% or less of body weight for 2 consecutive days, random hypoglycemic events occurred in some mice across all genotypes. There was no increase in the incidence of hypoglycemia in any of the four loss-of-function models for ghrelin signaling including GOAT KO mice. Furthermore, no differences in insulin or IGF-1 levels were observed between genotypes.The endogenous GOAT-ghrelin-GHSR system is not essential for the maintenance of euglycemia during prolonged calorie restriction.

  8. The impact of extended release exenatide as adjuvant therapy on hemoglobin A1C, weight, and total daily dose of insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using U-500 insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farwig, Phillip A; Zielinski, Angela J; Accursi, Mallory L; Burant, Christopher J

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjuvant exenatide extended release (ER) therapy in patients treated with regular U-500 insulin. In this retrospective chart review at an ambulatory care center in the Midwest, 18 patients with type 2 diabetes being treated with regular U-500 insulin and adjuvant exenatide ER were identified. These patients were evaluated for outcomes following the addition of exenatide ER. The primary outcome was change in HbA 1C from baseline to 3, 6, and 12months. Secondary outcomes included change in weight, total daily dose (TDD) of insulin, and hypoglycemia. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed to assess the differences in mean scores over four time periods. A total of 18 of 50 patients met inclusion criteria with sufficient data to be included in analysis. HbA 1C showed non-significant findings from baseline to 12months (8.08% vs. 8.23%; p=0.75). A non-significant, modest weight loss occurred (146.4kgvs. 144.2kg; -2.2kg; p=0.31). A significant decrease in TDD of insulin was observed (378 units vs. 326 units; p1). There was a trend towards hypoglycemia from baseline to month 3 post addition of exenatide ER (0.33 events vs. 1.33 events; p=0.055). In patients treated with regular U-500 insulin, adjuvant exenatide ER therapy showed no significant improvement in HbA 1C , but did show modest weight loss as well as decreased insulin requirements to achieve a HbA 1C that was comparable to baseline. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Stochastic modelling of optimum initial body weight, daily weight gain and effect of genetic changes in ovulation rate and age at sexual maturity on total egg production of broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R; Hocking, P M

    2009-01-01

    1. A model that simulates the total production of eggs (TEP) in broiler breeders was used to predict the optimum initial (20 week) body weight (IBWexp), daily weight gains from 20 to 30 (DWGexp(20-30)) and 31 to 62 weeks of age (DWGexp(31-62)), age at photostimulation (affecting age at first egg, AFEexp), coefficients of variation of initial body weight (CV-IBWexp) and age at first egg (CV-AFEexp), and the effect of genetically increasing the numbers of yellow follicles at the onset of lay. 2. The results suggest that TEP in broiler breeders is very sensitive to changes in body weight gain during the first 10 weeks of the production period and body weight at the start of egg production, whereas changes in body weight gain after peak rate of lay showed only minor effects on TEP. Increasing CV-IBWexp was associated with a linear decrease in the mean and increased variability of TEP. 3. Decreasing AFEexp was negatively associated with TEP, whereas higher CV-AFEexp increased variability of TEP and had a trivial affect on the mean. 4. Results of the simulation suggested that reducing ovarian yellow follicle numbers by means of genetic selection could reduce the degree of feed restriction currently used in broiler breeder commercial stocks while maintaining total egg production. Higher numbers of yellow follicles associated with selection for higher growth rate would not result in lower egg production if the body weight target was maintained at the currently recommended commercial level and the effect on TEP of increasing the target in proportion to potential body weight may be relatively small.

  10. Measuring Acetabular Cup Orientation on Antero-Posterior Radiographs of the Hip after Total Hip Arthroplasty with a Vector Arithmetic Radiological Method. Is It Valid and Verified for Daily Clinical Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craiovan, B; Weber, M; Worlicek, M; Schneider, M; Springorum, H R; Zeman, F; Grifka, J; Renkawitz, T

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this prospective study is to validate a vector arithmetic method for measuring acetabular cup orientation after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and to verify the clinical practice. We measured cup anteversion and inclination of 123 patients after cementless primary THA twice by two examiners on AP pelvic radiographs with a vector arithmetic method and compared with a 3D-CT based reconstruction model within the same radiographic coronal plane. The mean difference between the radiographic and the 3D-CT measurements was - 1.4° ± 3.9° for inclination and 0.8°± 7.9° for anteversion with excellent correlation for inclination (r = 0.81, p cup position after THA on pelvic radiographs by this vector arithmetic method, there is a need for a correct postoperative ap view, with special regards to the pelvic tilt for the future. • Measuring acetabular cup orientation on anteroposterior radiographs of the hip after THA is a helpful procedure in everyday clinical practice as a first-line imaging modality• CT remains the golden standard to accurately determine acetabular cup position.• Future measuring on radiographs for cup orientation after THA should account for integration of the pelvic tilt in order to maximize the measurement accuracy. Citation Format: • Craiovan B, Weber M, Worlicek M et al. Measuring Acetabular Cup Orientation on Antero-Posterior Radiographs of the Hip after Total Hip Arthroplasty with a Vector Arithmetic Radiological Method. Is It Valid and Verified for Daily Clinical Practice?. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2016; 188: 574 - 581. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Production Optimization of Low-Calorie Orange Nectar Using Stevioside Sweetener and Evaluation of Its Physicochemical Properties during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hosseini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays low-calorie products are increasingly becoming popular. One of the methods to produce low-calorie food is replacement of sugar (sucrose with low-calorie sweeteners such as stevioside. This compound is isolated from the leaves of the Paraguayan plant, Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Since orange juice is a popular beverage with an important role in human nutrition, production of low-calorie orange nectar (containing 60% natural juice and optimization of formulation parameters using response surface methodology (RSM was the purpose of this study. Three levels of independent variables, sugar, stevioside and pectin were used to optimize formulation and two responses of brix and viscosity were evaluated. After the determination of the best formula, they were produced and stored at refrigerator (4°C and ambient (25°C temperatures for 60 days and their physicochemical properties were measured in 20 days intervals. The results showed that after 60 days of storage, stevioside content was reduced (5%. Sucrose, turbidity and viscosity were reduced during storage but brix did not indicate a notable change over the course of the study. These changes were greater at the higher storage temperature (except brix. At the end of the storage, optimal treatment had higher turbidity and total phenolic contents than the blank sample. Results showed that it is possible to produce orange nectar with 70% decrease in its sugar content by using 0.06% of stevioside and 0.03% of pectin, without any significant effects on physicochemical and sensory properties.

  12. High-Cost Calories: Food Preference and Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    Food preferences play an important role in the diet of the poor. Increasing the supply of unappealing foods is not likely to effectively solve the problem of malnutrition. Improved income is more likely to remedy malnutrition than are categorical programs aimed at providing protein or calories. (Author/GC)

  13. Consumer preferences for front-of-pack calories labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Paeps, F.; Fernández-Celemín, L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective In light of the emerging obesity pandemic, front-of-pack calories labels may be an important tool to assist consumers in making informed healthier food choices. However, there is little prior research to guide key decisions on whether caloric content should be expressed in absolute terms

  14. 10 ways to cut 500 calories a day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toppings. Just say "no" to fried food. Frying food adds lots of unhealthy calories and saturated fat to any dish. Instead of fried chicken or fish, choose grilled, broiled, or poached instead. And skip the French fries. A large serving of fries alone can ...

  15. Metabolism and Weight Loss: How You Burn Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... energy. During this complex biochemical process, calories in food and beverages are combined with oxygen to release the energy ... Aug. 7, 2017. Obesity for Adults, Prevention and Management of. ... weight loss. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ ...

  16. 5 Ways to Avoid Filling Up on Empty Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    It's easy to get overwhelmed by our busy lives and grab food on the go that doesn’t provide the nourishment our bodies need. Pretty much anything you would call “junk food” is an empty-calorie culprit.

  17. Obesity in minority women: calories, commerce, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Sharon T

    2009-06-01

    Obesity is increasing at epidemic rates in all women, but especially in minority women and children. Factors that contribute to this include changes in caloric intake and expenditure (calories), cost and ease of acquiring food along with pressures from the marketplace and media (commerce) and the community response to the increasing prevalence of obesity and sedentary lifestyle (culture).

  18. Consumers’ estimation of calorie content at fast food restaurants: cross sectional observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Suzanne K; Kleinman, Ken; Mullen, Jewel; Linakis, Stephanie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Gillman, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fast food restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Design Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fast food restaurant chains. Setting 89 fast food restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s, KFC, Dunkin’ Donuts. Participants 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1178 adolescents visiting restaurants after school or at lunchtime in 2010 and 2011. Main outcome measure Estimated calorie content of purchased meals. Results Among adults, adolescents, and school age children, the mean actual calorie content of meals was 836 calories (SD 465), 756 calories (SD 455), and 733 calories (SD 359), respectively. A calorie is equivalent to 4.18 kJ. Compared with the actual figures, participants underestimated calorie content by means of 175 calories (95% confidence interval 145 to 205), 259 calories (227 to 291), and 175 calories (108 to 242), respectively. In multivariable linear regression models, underestimation of calorie content increased substantially as the actual meal calorie content increased. Adults and adolescents eating at Subway estimated 20% and 25% lower calorie content than McDonald’s diners (relative change 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.96; 0.75, 0.57 to 0.99). Conclusions People eating at fast food restaurants underestimate the calorie content of meals, especially large meals. Education of consumers through calorie menu labeling and other outreach efforts might reduce the large degree of underestimation. PMID:23704170

  19. POVERTY AND CALORIE DEPRIVATION ACROSS SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROUPS IN RURAL INDIA: A DISAGGREGATED ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Abha; Mishra, Deepak K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the linkages between calorie deprivation and poverty in rural India at a disaggregated level. It aims to explore the trends and pattern in levels of nutrient intake across social and economic groups. A spatial analysis at the state and NSS-region level unravels the spatial distribution of calorie deprivation in rural India. The gap between incidence of poverty and calorie deprivation has also been investigated. The paper also estimates the factors influencing calorie depri...

  20. Health Behavior Theory in Popular Calorie Counting Apps: A Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Siena F; Ellsworth, Marisa A; Payne, Hannah E; Hall, Shelby M; West, Joshua H; Nordhagen, Amber L

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the Health & Fitness category of the Apple App Store features hundreds of calorie counting apps, the extent to which popular calorie counting apps include health behavior theory is unknown. Objective This study evaluates the presence of health behavior theory in calorie counting apps. Methods Data for this study came from an extensive content analysis of the 10 most popular calorie counting apps in the Health & Fitness category of the Apple App Store. Results Each app was ...

  1. Nonprotein calorie supplement improves adherence to low-protein diet and exerts beneficial responses on renal function in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hung-Lien; Sung, Junne-Ming; Kao, Mei-Ding; Wang, Ming-Cheng; Tseng, Chin-Chung; Chen, Shu-Tzu

    2013-07-01

    Malnutrition is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) who are on low-protein diets and is a powerful predictor of morbidity and mortality in CKD. Studies have shown that patients on low-protein diets often have difficulty meeting nutritional energy requirements. Our study evaluated the effects of a nonprotein calorie (NPC) supplement on renal function and nutritional status in patients on a low-protein diet. This was a prospective, randomized, open-label, controlled clinical trial. A total of 109 patients with CKD (men, 67%; mean age, 54.5 ± 13 years) with stage 3 to 4 disease were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 55) or the control group (n = 54). All participants received individualized dietary counseling aimed at achieving a daily protein intake of 0.6 to 0.8 g and a daily energy intake of 30 to 35 kcal/kg. The intervention group consumed a 200-kcal NPC supplement daily. The control group received dietary counseling only. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation. Urine protein excretion, dietary protein and energy intake, and serum levels of creatinine, urea nitrogen, cholesterol, triglycerides, and albumin were assessed at baseline, at 12 weeks, and at 24 weeks. Dietary protein intake and urine protein excretion levels decreased significantly in the intervention group and were significantly lower than those of the control group. In addition, serum levels of creatinine and urea nitrogen decreased significantly, and eGFR increased significantly in the intervention group compared with baseline assessments. No significant differences were observed in the control group. The NPC supplement improved patient adherence to the low-protein diet and reduced urine protein excretion in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predicted national productivity implications of calorie and sodium reductions in the American diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall, Timothy M; Fulgoni, Victor L; Zhang, Yiduo; Reimers, Kristin J; Packard, Patricia T; Astwood, James D

    2009-01-01

    To model the potential long-term national productivity benefits from reduced daily intake of calories and sodium. Simulation based on secondary data analysis; quantitative research. Measures include absenteeism, presenteeism, disability, and premature mortality under various hypothetical dietary changes. United States. Two hundred twenty-five million adults. Findings come from a Nutrition Impact Model that combines information from national surveys, peer-reviewed studies, and government reports. We compare current estimates of national productivity loss associated with overweight, obesity, and hypertension to estimates for hypothetical scenarios in which national prevalence of these risk factors is lower. Using the simulation model, we illustrate how modest dietary change can achieve lower national prevalence of excess weight and hypertension. We estimate that permanent 100-kcal reductions in daily intake among the overweight/obese would eliminate approximately 71.2 million cases of overweight/obesity. In the long term, this could increase national productivity by $45.7 billion annually. Long-term sodium reductions of 400 mg in those with uncontrolled hypertension would eliminate about 1.5 million cases, potentially increasing productivity by $2.5 billion annually. More aggressive diet changes of 500 kcal and 1100 mg of sodium reductions yield potential productivity benefits of $133.3 and $5.8 billion, respectively. The potential long-term benefit of reduced calories and sodium, combining medical cost savings with productivity increases, ranges from $108.5 billion for moderate reductions to $255.6 billion for aggressive reductions. These findings help inform public health policy and the business case for improving diet. (AmJ Health Promot 2009;23[6]:423-430.)

  3. 21 CFR 101.60 - Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of... Claims § 101.60 Nutrient content claims for the calorie content of foods. (a) General requirements. A claim about the calorie or sugar content of a food may only be made on the label or in the labeling of a...

  4. Hunger and food intake following consumption of low-calorie foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, B J; Laster, L J; Summerfelt, A

    1989-10-01

    Although high-intensity sweeteners are widely used to decrease the energy density of foods, little is known about how this affects hunger and food intake. We have studied the effects of consumption of commercially available foods sweetened with either sucrose or aspartame on subjective appetite ratings and food intake. When normal-weight non-dieting males and females were given large portions of either a high- or low-calorie pudding or jello and instructed to eat as much as they liked, they ate similar weights of the different caloric versions of each food. Despite the resulting difference in caloric intake (up to 206 kcal), subjects showed only a non-significant trend towards caloric compensation when presented with a variety of foods 2 h later. Total caloric intake (preload plus test meal) did not differ between conditions. Ratings of hunger, desire to eat, the amount subjects wanted to eat, and the pleasantness of the taste of the eaten food were similarly decreased and fullness similarly increased by consumption of the different caloric versions of the foods. Awareness of the caloric content of the foods did not influence intake or appetite in that both informed and uniformed subjects responded similarly in the tests. Thus reduced calorie foods suppressed ratings of hunger for several hours after consumption, but were not associated with a significant reduction in total energy intake.

  5. Calorie changes in chain restaurant menu items: implications for obesity and evaluations of menu labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A; Jarlenski, Marian P

    2015-01-01

    Supply-side reductions to the calories in chain restaurants are a possible benefit of upcoming menu labeling requirements. To describe trends in calories available in large U.S. restaurants. Data were obtained from the MenuStat project, a census of menu items in 66 of the 100 largest U.S. restaurant chains, for 2012 and 2013 (N=19,417 items). Generalized linear models were used to calculate (1) the mean change in calories from 2012 to 2013, among items on the menu in both years; and (2) the difference in mean calories, comparing newly introduced items to those on the menu in 2012 only (overall and between core versus non-core items). Data were analyzed in 2014. Mean calories among items on menus in both 2012 and 2013 did not change. Large restaurant chains in the U.S. have recently had overall declines in calories in newly introduced menu items (-56 calories, 12% decline). These declines were concentrated mainly in new main course items (-67 calories, 10% decline). New beverage (-26 calories, 8% decline) and children's (-46 calories, 20% decline) items also had fewer mean calories. Among chain restaurants with a specific focus (e.g., burgers), average calories in new menu items not core to the business declined more than calories in core menu items. Large chain restaurants significantly reduced the number of calories in newly introduced menu items. Supply-side changes to the calories in chain restaurants may have a significant impact on obesity prevention. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduction of serum advanced glycation end-products with a low calorie Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Leiva Balich, Laura; Concha, M J; Mizón, C; Bunout Barnett, Daniel; Barrera Acevedo, Gladys; Hirsch Birn, Sandra; Jiménez Jaime, Teresa; Henríquez, Sandra; Uribarri, Jaime; de la Maza Cave, María Pía

    2015-06-01

    Dietary intake of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) increases circulating and tissue levels of these substances, contributing to a state of increased oxidative stress and inflammation. A low dietary AGE intervention has been shown to reduce body AGE content. Mediterranean diets (MD) are theoretically considered low in AGEs, but the specific effects of a MD on AGEs serum levels has not been tested. Forty-seven overweight and obese premenopausal women underwent a three-month calorie restriction treatment (20 kcal/kg initial weight) with a Mediterranean-type diet that excluded wine intake. The adherence to the MD was assessed before and at the end of treatment using an on-line questionnaire, which scores from 0 to 14 (minimal to maximal adherence). Body composition, insulin resistance, lipoproteins and carboxymethyl-lisine (CML) serum levels were measured at both time periods. Serum CML was assessed through ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Compliance to calorie restriction was assessed according to weight loss ( 5% initial weight). Mean body weight, body fat, waist circumference, total cholesterol, triglycerides and serum CML fell significantly, together with an increase in the Mediterranean score, although none of the patients reached the highest score. Significant changes in CML and insulin resistance were observed in 17 women classified as compliant to caloric restriction, but not in the 27 participants who were considered adherent to the MD (according to improvement of the Mediterranean Score). CML serum levels can be reduced through calorie restricted-Mediterranean-type diet. We could not reach a high enough MD score, so we cannot conclude whether the MD itself has an additive effect to caloric restriction. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M. Margolis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL, and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL or CR (40% restriction, adequate (10%, or high (32% protein (PRO milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g−1 lower (p < 0.05 in CR and 32% PRO compared to AL and 10% PRO, respectively. Gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN, stearoyl-CoA destaurase-1 (SCD1 and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4 were 45% ± 1%, 23% ± 1%, and 57% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05, respectively, in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05 in 32% PRO compared to 10% PRO, independent of calorie intake. Results from this investigation provide evidence that the metabolic health benefits associated with CR—specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content—may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet.

  8. Radiation in daily life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Rodriguez, P.

    1999-01-01

    The medical community benefits on a daily basis from the ionizing radiations used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The doses received in the medical field are only a small fraction of the total radiation received in a year. This bibliographic review has several objectives. The first one is to present the different components of natural radiation (background radiation). Secondly, it will introduce many consumer products that contain radioactive sources and expose our bodies. Third, arguments to diminish the radiation phobia will be presented and finally an easy to understand dosimetric magnitude will be introduced for the physician, the technologist and the patient. (author) [es

  9. Radioprotective effect of calorie restriction in Hela cells and SD rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yang; Chong Yu; Jiao Yang; Xu Jiaying; Fan Saijun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of low calorie metabolism on the survival of HeLa cells exposed to X-rays, and the influence of starvation on the antioxidative factors in the blood of rats after irradiation. Methods: MTT method was used to evaluate the impact of different concentration glucose on the proliferation of HeLa cells. Colony formation assay was employed to detect the influence of glucose (1, 5, 10 and 25 mmol/L) on radiosensitivity of HeLa cells. Flow cytometry assay was used to analyze distribution of cell cycle and apoptosis. 60 male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups with 10 rats each. Rats in every two groups were fed ad libitum, fasted for 24 h and fasted for 48 h, respectively. Rats in one group of each approach were respectively exposed to whole-body X-rays at 11 Gy. At 2 h after irradiation,all of rats were sacrificed and their venous blood was collected. Elisa kits were used to detect superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). Results: An increased viability was observed in HeLa cells treated with the glucose at low concentration (<25 mmol/L), while HeLa cell growth was inhibited by glucose at doses of >25 mmol/L. Relevant to cells treated with 1 mmoL/L glucose, SERs (sensitive enhancement ratio) in cells exposed to 5, 10 and 25 mmol/L glucose were 1.07, 1.10 and 1.23,respectively. A reduction of G 2 /M and S arrests and apoptosis caused by 6 Gy X-ray irradiation were observed [(49.68 ±1.88)% and (35.54±1.45)% at G 2 /M phase, (16.88 ±1.22)% and (10.23 ±1.65)% at S phase, t=10.42, 5.61, P<0.05] and in the cells treated with 1 mmol/L glucose compared with cells treated with 25 mmol/L glucose [(25.50 ± 0.95)% and (7.56 ± 1.07)%, t=21.72, P<0.05].Without irradiation, calorie restriction exhibited a negligible influence on SOD and T-AOC in rats. However, after 11 Gy irradiation, compared with rats fed ad libitum, the levels of SOD and T-AOC were significantly increased in rats with calorie restriction (t=40

  10. Aplicação do método da carga máxima total diária (CMTD para a amônia no Rio Atibaia, região de Campinas/Paulínia - SP Application of ammonia total maximum daily load (TMDL to Atibaia River, Campinas/Paulínia region - São Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Silvério da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram avaliadas a capacidade de suporte e o estado de degradação do Rio Atibaia, considerando a ameaça para a vida aquática pela presença da Amônia, a qual representa um dos principais riscos às comunidades aquáticas no Rio Atibaia. Com este objetivo foi aplicado o método da Carga Máxima Total Diária (CMTD, da Agência de Proteção Ambiental dos Estados Unidos (EPA. Os resultados revelaram que as cargas de Amônia aumentavam progressivamente ao longo do Rio Atibaia, principalmente devido às fontes pontuais. As cargas de Amônia diárias assumiram valores de 30 a 5000 kg NH3. A capacidade de suporte das águas Rio Atibaia, para proteger a vida aquática contra os efeitos tóxicos da Amônia, tem sido violadas em trechos próximos à sua foz. A degradação dessas águas foi mais intensa na estação seca. Este trabalho mostrou que o esgoto doméstico não-tratado de uma população aproximada de 250 mil habitantes da cidade de Campinas, via Ribeirão Anhumas, é a principal fonte de Amônia na bacia do Rio Atibaia, apesar do grande número de indústrias ali presentes.This study evaluated the tolerance capacity and the impairment state of the Atibaia River, considering the threat to aquatic life by the presence of Ammonia, which represents one of the main risks to the aquatic communities in the Atibaia River. With this aim, the method Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL, from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, was applied. The results revealed that the Ammonia loads increased progressively through the Atibaia River, especially due to the point sources. The daily Ammonia loads assumed values that ranged from 30 to 5000 kg NH3. The tolerance capacity of the waters of the Atibaia River, to protect aquatic life against the toxic effects of the Ammonia, has been violated in reaches near its mouth. The impairment of these waters was more intense during the dry season. This study showed that the domestic sewer

  11. A comparison of two low-calorie sweeteners and sugar in dark chocolate on sensory attributes and emotional conceptualisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagast, Sofie; De Steur, Hans; Schouteten, Joachim J; Gellynck, Xavier

    2018-05-01

    Reducing sugar consumption is an important aspect in the prevention of and fight against obesity. A broader understanding of consumers' perceptions of low-calorie sweeteners is needed. This study examined two low-calorie sweeteners, tagatose and stevia, in comparison to sugar in dark chocolate. A total of 219 consumers participated in this study and rated overall liking and sensory attributes. Participants also listed their emotional conceptualisations upon consumption and were assessed on emotional eating behaviour and health and taste attitudes. The chocolate with tagatose was perceived as more similar to the chocolate with sugar than with stevia on overall liking, texture, bitterness, duration of aftertaste and intensity of aftertaste. Furthermore, chocolate with sugar and chocolate with tagatose both elicited positive emotional conceptualisations whereas chocolate with stevia elicited negative emotional conceptualisations. In conclusion, dark chocolate with tagatose did not significantly differ from sugar in overall liking, most sensory attributes and emotional conceptualisation.

  12. Agreement of dietary fiber and calorie intake values according to the choice of nutrient composition and household measure tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele DREHMER

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the variations in the daily intake of dietary fiber and calories according to the different nutrient composition and homemade measure tables. Methods: Five different methods based on different nutrient composition and household measure tables were used to calculate daily calorie and fiber intake, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, of 633 pregnant women receiving care in primary health care units in the Southern region of Brazil; they were selected to participate in a cohort study. The agreement between the five methods was evaluated using the Kappa and weighted Kappa coefficients. The Nutritional Support Table, a Brazilian traditional food composition table and the Brazilian household expenditure survey were used in Method 1. Brazilian Food Composition Table and the Table for the Assessment of Household Measures (Pinheiro were used in Methods 2 and 3. The average values of all subtypes of food listed in the Brazilian Food Composition Table for each corresponding item in the food frequency questionnaire were calculated in the method 3. The United States Department of Agriculture Food Composition Table and the table complied by Pinheiro were used in Method 4. The Brazilian Food Composition Table and the Brazilian household expenditure survey were used in Method 5. Results: The highest agreement of calorie intake values were found between Methods 2 and 3 (Kappa=0.94; 0.92-0.95, and the lowest agreement was found between Methods 4 and 5 (Kappa=0.46; 0.42-0.50. As for the fiber intake, the highest agreement was found between Methods 2 and 5 (Kappa=0.87; 0.82-0.90, and the lowest agreement was observed between Methods 1 and 4 (Kappa=0.36; 0.3-0.43. Conclusion: Considerable differences were found between the nutritional composition tables. Therefore, the choice of the table can influence the comparability between studies.

  13. Effects of dietary fat and calorie on immunologic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barness, L.A.; Carver, J.D.; Friedman, H.; Hsu, K.H.L.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of dietary fat and calories on immunologic function in specific pathogen-free inbred DBA/2 and CBA/J mice was studied. Three diets were modified from control, the AIN-76 purified diet. The high saturated fat diet contained 22.5% coconut oil and 2.5% safflower oil. The high unsaturated fat diet contained 25% safflower oil. Fat was substituted isoclorically for carbohydrate in these two diets. The low calorie diet contained 40% less protein, carbohydrate and fat than control diet; fiber was substituted for these ingredients. Female weanling mice were on the diets for more than 35 days before testing. The natural killer (NK) activity of spleen cells was determined by in vitro cytolysis of 51 Cr-labeled YAC-1 cells. The spleen cells response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or allogeneic tumor EL-4 cells was measured after immunizing the mice with SRBC or EL-4 cells for 4 or 11 days, respectively. The results showed no significant effect of the low calorie diet on NK activity, anti-SRBC or anti-EL-4 response compared to normal diet. Anti-SRBC plaque response was significantly enhanced (27% higher), while anti-EL-4 response was significantly suppressed (15% less) with high saturated fat diet. NK activity was normal. Mice on high unsaturated fat diet showed suppressed anti-SRBC response (16% less) and anti-EL-4 response (17% less), while NK activity was significantly enhanced (70% higher)

  14. Where are kids getting their empty calories? Stores, schools, and fast food restaurants each play an important role in empty calorie intake among US children in 2009-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Poti, Jennifer M.; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kenan, W.R.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of empty calories, the sum of energy from added sugar and solid fat, exceeds recommendations, but little is known about where US children obtain these empty calories. The objectives of this study were to compare children's empty calorie consumption from retail food stores, schools, and fast food restaurants; to identify food groups that were top contributors of empty calories from each location; and to determine the location providing the majority of calories for these key food gr...

  15. Availability of and ease of access to calorie information on restaurant websites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary G Bennett

    Full Text Available Offering calories on restaurant websites might be particularly important for consumer meal planning, but the availability of and ease of accessing this information are unknown.We assessed websites for the top 100 U.S. chain restaurants to determine the availability of and ease of access to calorie information as well as website design characteristics. We also examined potential predictors of calorie availability and ease of access.Eighty-two percent of restaurants provided calorie information on their websites; 25% presented calories on a mobile-formatted website. On average, calories could be accessed in 2.35±0.99 clicks. About half of sites (51.2% linked to calorie information via the homepage. Fewer than half had a separate section identifying healthful options (46.3%, or utilized interactive meal planning tools (35.4%. Quick service/fast casual, larger restaurants, and those with less expensive entrées and lower revenue were more likely to make calorie information available. There were no predictors of ease of access.Calorie information is both available and largely accessible on the websites of America's leading restaurants. It is unclear whether consumer behavior is affected by the variability in the presentation of calorie information.

  16. Availability of and ease of access to calorie information on restaurant websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary G; Steinberg, Dori M; Lanpher, Michele G; Askew, Sandy; Lane, Ilana B; Levine, Erica L; Goodman, Melody S; Foley, Perry B

    2013-01-01

    Offering calories on restaurant websites might be particularly important for consumer meal planning, but the availability of and ease of accessing this information are unknown. We assessed websites for the top 100 U.S. chain restaurants to determine the availability of and ease of access to calorie information as well as website design characteristics. We also examined potential predictors of calorie availability and ease of access. Eighty-two percent of restaurants provided calorie information on their websites; 25% presented calories on a mobile-formatted website. On average, calories could be accessed in 2.35±0.99 clicks. About half of sites (51.2%) linked to calorie information via the homepage. Fewer than half had a separate section identifying healthful options (46.3%), or utilized interactive meal planning tools (35.4%). Quick service/fast casual, larger restaurants, and those with less expensive entrées and lower revenue were more likely to make calorie information available. There were no predictors of ease of access. Calorie information is both available and largely accessible on the websites of America's leading restaurants. It is unclear whether consumer behavior is affected by the variability in the presentation of calorie information.

  17. Do low-calorie drinks 'cheat' the enteral-brain axis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Adaliene V M; Generoso, Simone Vasconcelos; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio

    2014-09-01

    The consumption of low-calorie beverages has increased worldwide, mainly because of their combination of sweet taste without adding significant calories to the diet. However, some epidemiological studies have linked the higher consumption of low-calorie beverages with increased body weight gain. Although a matter of debate, this paradoxical association between low-calorie beverages and weight gain has been attributed to their effect on the enteral-brain axis. More specifically, artificial sweeteners present in low-calorie beverages could induce appetite increase, probably due to an ambiguous psychobiological signal (uncoupling sweet taste from calorie intake) that confounds the appetite's regulatory mechanisms, promoting overeating and, ultimately, leading to weight gain. However, many studies do not support this assumption, and the mechanisms underlying the interaction between low-calorie beverages and the enteral-brain axis remain to be defined. The understanding of the effects of low-calorie drinks on the enteral-brain axis still remains in its infancy and needs to be unveiled. The consumption of low-calorie beverages reduces the calories from that drink, but compensatory phenomena may increase energy intake, and if so must be recognized and avoided.

  18. Potential effect of physical activity based menu labels on the calorie content of selected fast food meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowray, Sunaina; Swartz, Jonas J; Braxton, Danielle; Viera, Anthony J

    2013-03-01

    In this study we examined the effect of physical activity based labels on the calorie content of meals selected from a sample fast food menu. Using a web-based survey, participants were randomly assigned to one of four menus which differed only in their labeling schemes (n=802): (1) a menu with no nutritional information, (2) a menu with calorie information, (3) a menu with calorie information and minutes to walk to burn those calories, or (4) a menu with calorie information and miles to walk to burn those calories. There was a significant difference in the mean number of calories ordered based on menu type (p=0.02), with an average of 1020 calories ordered from a menu with no nutritional information, 927 calories ordered from a menu with only calorie information, 916 calories ordered from a menu with both calorie information and minutes to walk to burn those calories, and 826 calories ordered from the menu with calorie information and the number of miles to walk to burn those calories. The menu with calories and the number of miles to walk to burn those calories appeared the most effective in influencing the selection of lower calorie meals (p=0.0007) when compared to the menu with no nutritional information provided. The majority of participants (82%) reported a preference for physical activity based menu labels over labels with calorie information alone and no nutritional information. Whether these labels are effective in real-life scenarios remains to be tested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Provision of information to consumers about the calorie content of alcoholic drinks: did the Responsibility Deal pledge by alcohol retailers and producers increase the availability of calorie information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petticrew, M; Douglas, N; Knai, C; Maani Hessari, N; Durand, M A; Eastmure, E; Mays, N

    2017-08-01

    Alcohol is a significant source of dietary calories and is a contributor to obesity. Industry pledges to provide calorie information to consumers have been cited as reasons for not introducing mandatory ingredient labelling. As part of the Public Health Responsibility Deal (RD) in England, alcohol retailers and producers committed to providing consumers with information on the calorie content of alcoholic drinks. This study examines what was achieved following this commitment and considers the implications for current industry commitments to provide information on alcohol calories. Analysis of RD pledge delivery plans and progress reports. Assessment of calorie information in supermarkets and in online stores. (i) Analysis of the content of pledge delivery plans and annual progress reports of RD signatories to determine what action they had committed to, and had taken, to provide calorie information. (ii) Analysis of the availability of calorie information on product labels; in UK supermarkets; and on online shopping sites and websites. No information was provided in any of 55 stores chosen to represent all the main UK supermarkets. Calorie information was not routinely provided on supermarkets' websites, or on product labels. One of the stated purposes of the RD was to provide consumers with the information to make informed health-related choices, including providing information on the calorie content of alcoholic drinks. This study indicates that this did not take place to any significant extent. The voluntary implementation of alcohol calorie labelling by industry needs to continue to be carefully monitored to determine whether and how it is done. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Transcriptome Analysis of the Thymus in Short-Term Calorie-Restricted Mice Using RNA-seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Omeroğlu Ulu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR, which is a factor that expands lifespan and an important player in immune response, is an effective protective method against cancer development. Thymus, which plays a critical role in the development of the immune system, reacts to nutrition deficiency quickly. RNA-seq-based transcriptome sequencing was performed to thymus tissues of MMTV-TGF-α mice subjected to ad libitum (AL, chronic calorie restriction (CCR, and intermittent calorie restriction (ICR diets in this study. Three cDNA libraries were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 4000 to produce 100 base pair-end reads. On average, 105 million clean reads were mapped and in total 6091 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified (p<0.05. These DEGs were clustered into Gene Ontology (GO categories. The expression pattern revealed by RNA-seq was validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR analysis of four important genes, which are leptin, ghrelin, Igf1, and adinopectin. RNA-seq data has been deposited in NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database (GSE95371. We report the use of RNA sequencing to find DEGs that are affected by different feeding regimes in the thymus.

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of the Thymus in Short-Term Calorie-Restricted Mice Using RNA-seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeroğlu Ulu, Zehra; Ulu, Salih; Dogan, Soner; Guvenc Tuna, Bilge

    2018-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR), which is a factor that expands lifespan and an important player in immune response, is an effective protective method against cancer development. Thymus, which plays a critical role in the development of the immune system, reacts to nutrition deficiency quickly. RNA-seq-based transcriptome sequencing was performed to thymus tissues of MMTV-TGF-α mice subjected to ad libitum (AL), chronic calorie restriction (CCR), and intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) diets in this study. Three cDNA libraries were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 4000 to produce 100 base pair-end reads. On average, 105 million clean reads were mapped and in total 6091 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified (p < 0.05). These DEGs were clustered into Gene Ontology (GO) categories. The expression pattern revealed by RNA-seq was validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis of four important genes, which are leptin, ghrelin, Igf1, and adinopectin. RNA-seq data has been deposited in NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database (GSE95371). We report the use of RNA sequencing to find DEGs that are affected by different feeding regimes in the thymus. PMID:29511668

  2. Hotspots of inefficiency: Mapping the difference between crop production and food calorie delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, E. S.; Foley, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Meeting growing demands for food calories will be a substantial challenge. One place to search for solutions is in how we allocate the world's crops, and finding ways to feed more people with current crop production. Currently, a substantial proportion of crop calories are used as animal feed, and only a small fraction of those feed calories ultimately contribute to human diets. Countries like the United States and China, which together produce over a third of the world's meat, eggs and dairy, lose a substantial portion of calories and protein to the feed-to-animal conversion process. This study looks at global croplands that have a large difference between calories grown, and the food calories available for consumption. These hotspots have the potential to feed more people, while reducing environmental impacts of agriculture.;

  3. Calorie Intake and Gambling: Is Fat and Sugar Consumption 'Impulsive'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; A Redden, Sarah; Grant, Jon E

    2017-09-01

    Excessive calorie intake constitutes a global public health concern, due to its associated range of untoward outcomes. Gambling is commonplace and gambling disorder is now considered a behavioral addiction in DSM-5. The relationships between calorie intake, gambling, and other types of putatively addictive and impulsive behaviors have received virtually no research attention. Two-hundred twenty-five young adults who gamble were recruited from two Mid-Western university communities in the United States using media advertisements. Dietary intake over the preceding year was quantified using the Dietary Fat and Free Sugar Short questionnaire (DFS). Clinician rating scales, questionnaires, and cognitive tests germane to impulsivity were completed. Relationships between dietary fat/sugar intake and gambling behaviors, as well as other measures of psychopathology and cognition germane to addiction, were evaluated using correlational analyses controlling for multiple comparisons. Greater dietary fat and sugar intake were associated with lower educational levels and with male gender. Controlling for these variables, higher dietary fat and sugar intake were correlated significantly with worse gambling pathology and anxiety scores. Dietary sugar intake was also significantly associated with higher depressive scores, more alcohol intake, lower self-esteem, and with greater risk of having one or more mental disorders in general. Dietary intake did not correlate significantly with ADHD symptoms, presence of one or more impulse control disorders, Barratt impulsiveness, or cognitive functioning. These data suggest a particularly strong relationship between fat/sugar intake and symptoms of gambling pathology, but not most other forms of impulsivity and behavioral addiction (excepting alcohol intake). Providing education about healthy diet may be especially valuable in gamblers and in community settings where gambling advertisements feature prominently. Future work should explore

  4. Stevia, Nature’s Zero-Calorie Sustainable Sweetener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a plant native to South America that has been used as a sweetener for hundreds of years. Today, zero-calorie stevia, as high-purity stevia leaf extract, is being used globally to reduce energy and added sugar content in foods and beverages. This article introduces stevia, explaining its sustainable production, metabolism in the body, safety assessment, and use in foods and drinks to assist with energy reduction. The article also summarizes current thinking of the evidence for the role of nonnutritive sweeteners in energy reduction. Overall, stevia shows promise as a new tool to help achieve weight management goals. PMID:27471327

  5. Calorie reduction of chocolate ganache through substitution of whipped cream

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Jin Kim; Suna Kang; Da Hee Kim; Yeo Jin Kim; Woo Ri Kim; Yoo Min Kim; Sunmin Park

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate has been around for 3,000 years and is loved by many people for as long as its history. However, chocolate is classified as a high calorie food due to the high fat and sugar contents. These contents have negative effects on health, such as obesity, so some people have concerns about chocolate. Nevertheless, it has attracted more attention recently due to functional ingredients such as polyphenols and flavonoids of cacao, which is a main component of chocolate. This study was conduct...

  6. LOW-CALORIES RAISINS OBTAINED BY COMBINED DEHYDRATION: PROCESS OPTIMIZATION AND EVALUATION OF THE ANTIOXIDANT EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana B. Laborde

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A healthy dehydrated food of high nutritional-quality and added-value was developed: low-calories raisin obtained by an ultrasonic assisted combined-dehydration with two-stage osmotic treatment (D3S complemented by drying. Pink Red Globe grape produced at Mendoza (Argentina, experienced a substitution of sugar by natural sweetener Stevia in two osmotic stages under different conditions (treatment with/without ultrasound; sweetener concentration 18, 20, 22% w/w; time 35, 75, 115 minutes, evaluating soluble solids (SS, moisture (M, total polyphenols (PF, antioxidant efficiency (AE and sugar profile. The multiple optimization of the process by response surface methodology and desirability analysis, allowed to minimize M, maximize SS (Stevia incorporation, and preserve the maximum amount of PF. After the first stage, the optimal treatment reduced the majority sugars of the grape in 32% (sucrose, glucose, and the 57% at the end of the dehydration process.

  7. Calorie menu labeling on quick-service restaurant menus: an updated systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Jonas J; Braxton, Danielle; Viera, Anthony J

    2011-12-08

    Nutrition labels are one strategy being used to combat the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 mandates that calorie labels be added to menu boards of chain restaurants with 20 or more locations. This systematic review includes seven studies published since the last review on the topic in 2008. Authors searched for peer-reviewed studies using PUBMED and Google Scholar. Included studies used an experimental or quasi-experimental design comparing a calorie-labeled menu with a no-calorie menu and were conducted in laboratories, college cafeterias, and fast food restaurants. Two of the included studies were judged to be of good quality, and five of were judged to be of fair quality. Observational studies conducted in cities after implementation of calorie labeling were imprecise in their measure of the isolated effects of calorie labels. Experimental studies conducted in laboratory settings were difficult to generalize to real world behavior. Only two of the seven studies reported a statistically significant reduction in calories purchased among consumers using calorie-labeled menus. The current evidence suggests that calorie labeling does not have the intended effect of decreasing calorie purchasing or consumption.

  8. Changes in Serving Size, Calories, and Sodium Content in Processed Foods From 2009 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Jenifer E; Niederman, Sarah A; Leonard, Elizabeth; Curtis, Christine J

    2018-03-15

    Approximately 60% of the American diet comes from processed foods, which makes improving their nutritional quality important for Americans' health. The objective of this study was to measure changes in serving sizes, calories, and sodium in top-selling processed foods that were on the market in 2009 and 2015. We analyzed products in the top 80% of sales in the 54 processed food categories with consistent serving sizes and sales metrics that were on the market in both 2009 and 2015. Mean serving size, calories (per serving and density), sodium (per serving and density), and sales were calculated for 2,979 branded processed food products. For each stratification of calorie density and sodium density (decreased, increased, or did not change), we calculated the mean serving size, calorie density, sodium density, and sales for each year. From 2009 to 2015, we found decreases in serving size (-2.3%, P calories per serving (-2.0%, P calorie density (-1.1%, P calorie density did not correspond to an increase in sodium density or vice versa. A decline in sales was observed regardless of whether calorie density or sodium density decreased, increased, or did not change. Reductions in calorie and sodium density occurred in tandem, suggesting that manufacturers reformulated for more than one health goal at the same time. Instead of unintended negative consequences of encouraging companies to reformulate for one nutrient, an overall net nutritional benefit occurred.

  9. The effect of menu labeling with calories and exercise equivalents on food selection and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platkin, Charles; Yeh, Ming-Chin; Hirsch, Kimberly; Wiewel, Ellen Weiss; Lin, Chang-Yun; Tung, Ho-Jui; Castellanos, Victoria H

    2014-01-01

    Better techniques are needed to help consumers make lower calorie food choices. This pilot study examined the effect of menu labeling with caloric information and exercise equivalents (EE) on food selection. Participants, 62 females, ages 18-34, recruited for this study, ordered a fast food meal with menus that contained the names of the food (Lunch 1 (L1), control meal). One week later (Lunch 2 (L2), experiment meal), participants ordered a meal from one of three menus with the same items as the previous week: no calorie information, calorie information only, or calorie information and EE. There were no absolute differences between groups in calories ordered from L1 to L2. However, it is noteworthy that calorie only and calorie plus exercise equivalents ordered about 16% (206 kcal) and 14% (162 kcal) fewer calories from Lunch 1 to Lunch 2, respectively; whereas, the no information group ordered only 2% (25 kcal) fewer. Menu labeling alone may be insufficient to reduce calories; however, further research is needed in finding the most effective ways of presenting the menu labels for general public.

  10. Calorie menu labeling on quick-service restaurant menus: an updated systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Jonas J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nutrition labels are one strategy being used to combat the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 mandates that calorie labels be added to menu boards of chain restaurants with 20 or more locations. This systematic review includes seven studies published since the last review on the topic in 2008. Authors searched for peer-reviewed studies using PUBMED and Google Scholar. Included studies used an experimental or quasi-experimental design comparing a calorie-labeled menu with a no-calorie menu and were conducted in laboratories, college cafeterias, and fast food restaurants. Two of the included studies were judged to be of good quality, and five of were judged to be of fair quality. Observational studies conducted in cities after implementation of calorie labeling were imprecise in their measure of the isolated effects of calorie labels. Experimental studies conducted in laboratory settings were difficult to generalize to real world behavior. Only two of the seven studies reported a statistically significant reduction in calories purchased among consumers using calorie-labeled menus. The current evidence suggests that calorie labeling does not have the intended effect of decreasing calorie purchasing or consumption.

  11. Managing Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duchenne / Managing Daily Life Print Email Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...

  12. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  13. Phenotypic Stability of Energy Balance Responses to Experimental Total Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Restriction in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Dennis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have shown that sleep restriction (SR and total sleep deprivation (TSD produce increased caloric intake, greater fat consumption, and increased late-night eating. However, whether individuals show similar energy intake responses to both SR and TSD remains unknown. A total of N = 66 healthy adults (aged 21–50 years, 48.5% women, 72.7% African American participated in a within-subjects laboratory protocol to compare daily and late-night intake between one night of SR (4 h time in bed, 04:00–08:00 and one night of TSD (0 h time in bed conditions. We also examined intake responses during subsequent recovery from SR or TSD and investigated gender differences. Caloric and macronutrient intake during the day following SR and TSD were moderately to substantially consistent within individuals (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.34–0.75. During the late-night period of SR (22:00–04:00 and TSD (22:00–06:00, such consistency was slight to moderate, and participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein (p = 0.01 and saturated fat (p = 0.02 during SR, despite comparable caloric intake (p = 0.12. Similarly, participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from saturated fat during the day following SR than TSD (p = 0.03. Participants also consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein during recovery after TSD (p < 0.001. Caloric intake was greater in men during late-night hours and the day following sleep loss. This is the first evidence of phenotypic trait-like stability and differential vulnerability of energy balance responses to two commonly experienced types of sleep loss: our findings open the door for biomarker discovery and countermeasure development to predict and mitigate this critical health-related vulnerability.

  14. Phenotypic Stability of Energy Balance Responses to Experimental Total Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Restriction in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Laura E; Spaeth, Andrea M; Goel, Namni

    2016-12-19

    Experimental studies have shown that sleep restriction (SR) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) produce increased caloric intake, greater fat consumption, and increased late-night eating. However, whether individuals show similar energy intake responses to both SR and TSD remains unknown. A total of N = 66 healthy adults (aged 21-50 years, 48.5% women, 72.7% African American) participated in a within-subjects laboratory protocol to compare daily and late-night intake between one night of SR (4 h time in bed, 04:00-08:00) and one night of TSD (0 h time in bed) conditions. We also examined intake responses during subsequent recovery from SR or TSD and investigated gender differences. Caloric and macronutrient intake during the day following SR and TSD were moderately to substantially consistent within individuals (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients: 0.34-0.75). During the late-night period of SR (22:00-04:00) and TSD (22:00-06:00), such consistency was slight to moderate, and participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein ( p = 0.01) and saturated fat ( p = 0.02) during SR, despite comparable caloric intake ( p = 0.12). Similarly, participants consumed a greater percentage of calories from saturated fat during the day following SR than TSD ( p = 0.03). Participants also consumed a greater percentage of calories from protein during recovery after TSD ( p sleep loss. This is the first evidence of phenotypic trait-like stability and differential vulnerability of energy balance responses to two commonly experienced types of sleep loss: our findings open the door for biomarker discovery and countermeasure development to predict and mitigate this critical health-related vulnerability.

  15. Diet matters: Glucocorticoid-related neuroadaptations associated with calorie intake in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Jodi R; Diaz, Maylen Perez; Pincus, Melanie; Kovacs-Balint, Zsofia; Feczko, Eric; Earl, Eric; Miranda-Dominguez, Oscar; Fair, Damien; Sanchez, Mar M; Wilson, Mark E; Michopoulos, Vasiliki

    2018-05-01

    predicted significantly more total calorie intake as well as more consumption of the CDD for females having a dietary choice, but had no relation to calorie intake in the chow-only condition. Overall, the current findings suggest that dietary environment modifies the consequences of adverse social experience on reward pathways and appetite regulation and, in an obesogenic dietary environment, may reflect impaired cognitive control of food intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Calorie Changes in Large Chain Restaurants: Declines in New Menu Items but Room for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A; Jarlenski, Marian P

    2016-01-01

    Large chain restaurants reduced the number of calories in newly introduced menu items in 2013 by about 60 calories (or 12%) relative to 2012. This paper describes trends in calories available in large U.S. chain restaurants to understand whether previously documented patterns persist. Data (a census of items for included restaurants) were obtained from the MenuStat project. This analysis included 66 of the 100 largest U.S. restaurants that are available in all three of the data years (2012-2014; N=23,066 items). Generalized linear models were used to examine: (1) per-item calorie changes from 2012 to 2014 among items on the menu in all years; and (2) mean calories in new items in 2013 and 2014 compared with items on the menu in 2012 only. Data were analyzed in 2014. Overall, calories in newly introduced menu items declined by 71 (or 15%) from 2012 to 2013 (p=0.001) and by 69 (or 14%) from 2012 to 2014 (p=0.03). These declines were concentrated mainly in new main course items (85 fewer calories in 2013 and 55 fewer calories in 2014; p=0.01). Although average calories in newly introduced menu items are declining, they are higher than items common to the menu in all 3 years. No differences in mean calories among items on menus in 2012, 2013, or 2014 were found. The previously observed declines in newly introduced menu items among large restaurant chains have been maintained, which suggests the beginning of a trend toward reducing calories. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Consistent relationships between sensory properties of savory snack foods and calories influence food intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, S E; Doerflinger, A; Davidson, T L

    2006-11-01

    Determine the influence of experience with consistent or inconsistent relationships between the sensory properties of snack foods and their caloric consequences on the control of food intake or body weight in rats. Rats received plain and BBQ flavored potato chips as a dietary supplement, along with ad lib rat chow. For some rats the potato chips were a consistent source of high fat and high calories (regular potato chips). For other rats, the chips provided high fat and high calories on some occasions (regular potato chips) and provided no digestible fat and fewer calories at other times (light potato chips manufactured with a fat substitute). Thus, animals in the first group were given experiences that the sensory properties of potato chips were strong predictors of high calories, while animals in the second group were given experiences that the sensory properties of potato chips were not predictors of high calories. Juvenile and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Following exposure to varying potato chip-calorie contingencies, intake of a novel, high-fat snack food and subsequent chow intake were assessed. Body weight gain and body composition as measured by DEXA were also measured. In juvenile animals, exposure to a consistent relationship between potato chips and calories resulted in reduced chow intake, both when no chips were provided and following consumption of a novel high-fat, high-calorie snack chip. Long-term experience with these contingencies did not affect body weight gain or body composition in juveniles. In adult rats, exposure to an inconsistent relationship between potato chips and calories resulted in increased consumption of a novel high-fat, high-calorie snack chip premeal along with impaired compensation for the calories contained in the premeal. Consumption of foods in which the sensory properties are poor predictors of caloric consequences may alter subsequent food intake.

  18. A comparative study of the sodium content and calories from sugar in toddler foods sold in low- and high-income New York City supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Lalitha; Ethan, Danna; Basch, Corey Hannah; Samuel, Benny

    2014-05-07

    Information from the nutrition facts labels of toddler foods marketed in low- and high-income New York City zip codes were analyzed for sodium content, the proportion of sugar-derived calories, and presence of sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup as an added sweetener in the list of ingredients. Among the 272 toddler foods analyzed, more than a quarter were high in sodium, over one-third derived at least 20% their calories from sugar, and more than 41% of the foods had sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup listed among the first five ingredients. The proportion of foods with such nutritional characteristics did not significantly differ between the low- and high-income neighborhood supermarkets. Median sodium content was highest among "side dishes" and "meals." The proportion of calories derived from sugar was found to be highest among "snacks and yogurt blends" in both low- and high-income neighborhoods and "breakfast foods and cereals" in low-income neighborhoods. When compared to high-income neighborhoods, more than three times the proportion of total calories in "breakfast foods and cereals" sold in low-income neighborhoods were derived from sugar. Since taste preferences established during childhood can have long-lasting influence on dietary habits, it is imperative to limit the promotion of toddler foods that are high in sodium and sugar as well as educate parents to make nutritionally sound decisions at the point of purchase.

  19. Five Years Later: Awareness Of New York City's Calorie Labels Declined, With No Changes In Calories Purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Jonathan; Torres, Alejandro; Abrams, Courtney; Elbel, Brian

    2015-11-01

    To follow up on a previous study that examined how the mandated displaying of calorie information on menu boards in fast-food restaurants in New York City influenced consumers' behavior, we analyzed itemized cash register receipts and survey responses from 7,699 consumers at four fast-food chains. Using a difference-in-differences study design, we found that consumers exposed to menu labeling immediately after the mandate took effect in 2008 and at three points in 2013-14 reported seeing and using the information more often than their counterparts at fast-food restaurants without menu labeling. In each successive period of data collection, the percentage of respondents noticing and using the information declined, while remaining above the prelabeling baseline. There were no statistically significant changes over time in levels of calories or other nutrients purchased or in the frequency of visits to fast-food restaurants. Menu labeling at fast-food chain restaurants, which the Affordable Care Act requires to be implemented nationwide in 2016, remains an unproven strategy for improving the nutritional quality of consumer food choices at the population level. Additional policy efforts that go beyond labeling and possibly alter labeling to increase its impact must be considered. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. Effects of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: A single blind randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Til, A.J.; Naumann, E.; Cox-Claessens, I.J.H.M.; Kremer, S.; Boelsma, E.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults.Design: A single blind randomised controlled trial.Setting: Rehabilitation

  1. Effect of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: a single blind randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Til, van A.J.; Naumann, E.; Cox-Claessens, I.J.H.M.; Kremer, S.; Boelsma, E.; Schueren, van der D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults. Design A single blind randomised controlled trial. Setting Rehabilitation centre.

  2. A Study of the Effects of Daily Physical Activity on Memory and Attention Capacities in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh-Van Phan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the relationship between daily physical activity (DPA and memory capacity, as well as the association between daily activity and attention capacity, in college students in Taiwan. Participants (mean age = 20.79 wore wearable trackers for 106 days in order to collect DPA. These data were analyzed in association with their memory and attention capacities, as assessed using the spatial span test (SST and the trail making test (TMT. The study showed significant negative correlations between memory capacity, time spent on the attention test (TSAT, calories burnt, and very active time duration (VATD on the day before testing (r=−0.272, r=−0.176, r=0.289, r=0.254, resp. and during the week prior to testing (r=−0.364, r=−0.395, r=0.268, r=0.241, resp.. The calories burnt and the VATD per day thresholds, which at best discriminated between normal-to-good and low attention capacity, were ≥2283 calories day−1, ≥20 minutes day−1 of very high activity (VHA on the day before testing, or ≥13,640 calories week−1, ≥76 minutes week−1 of VHA during the week prior to testing. Findings indicated the short-term effects that VATD and calories burnt on the day before or during the week before testing significantly and negatively associated with memory and attention capacities of college students.

  3. Combined enteral feeding and total parenteral nutritional support improves outcome in surgical intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Min-Hui; Yu, Ying E; Tsai, Yueh-Miao; Lee, Hui-Chen; Huang, Ying-Che; Hsu, Han-Shui

    2012-09-01

    For intensive care unit (ICU) patients with gastrointestinal dysfunction and in need of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) support, the benefit of additional enteral feeding is not clear. This study aimed to investigate whether combined TPN with enteral feeding is associated with better outcomes in surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patients. Clinical data of 88 patients in SICU were retrospectively collected. Variables used for analysis included route and percentage of nutritional support, total caloric intake, age, gender, body weight, body mass index, admission diagnosis, surgical procedure, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, comorbidities, length of hospital stay, postoperative complications, blood glucose values and hospital mortality. Wound dehiscence and central catheter infection were observed more frequently in the group of patients receiving TPN calories less than 90% of total calorie intake (p = 0.004 and 0.043, respectively). APACHE II scores were higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (p = 0.001). More nonsurvivors received TPN calories exceeding 90% of total calorie intake and were in need of dialysis during ICU admission (p = 0.005 and 0.013, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that the percentage of TPN calories over total calories and APACHE II scores were independent predictors of ICU mortality in patients receiving supplementary TPN after surgery. In SICU patients receiving TPN, patients who could be fed enterally more than 10% of total calories had better clinical outcomes than patients receiving less than 10% of total calorie intake from enteral feeding. Enteral feeding should be given whenever possible in severely ill patients. 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V

  4. Calorie Estimation in Adults Differing in Body Weight Class and Weight Loss Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth E; Canning, Karissa L; Fung, Michael; Jiandani, Dishay; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    Ability to accurately estimate calories is important for weight management, yet few studies have investigated whether individuals can accurately estimate calories during exercise or in a meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status. Fifty-eight adults who were either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW), and either attempting (WL) or not attempting weight loss (noWL), exercised on a treadmill at a moderate (60% HRmax) and a vigorous intensity (75% HRmax) for 25 min. Subsequently, participants estimated the number of calories they expended through exercise and created a meal that they believed to be calorically equivalent to the exercise energy expenditure. The mean difference between estimated and measured calories in exercise and food did not differ within or between groups after moderate exercise. After vigorous exercise, OW-noWL overestimated energy expenditure by 72% and overestimated the calories in their food by 37% (P food compared with both WL groups (P food. There was a wide range of underestimation and overestimation of calories during exercise and in a meal. Error in calorie estimation may be greater in overweight adults who are not attempting weight loss.

  5. Protein - Calorie Malnutrition in Children and its Relation to Psychological Development and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Michael C.

    1974-01-01

    Encompassing only human and excluding animal studies, this review surveys the literature on protein-calorie malnutrition and its possible role in retarding psychological, intellectual or behavioral development. Areas reviewed include types of protein-calorie malnutrition, the effects of malnutrition on brain development, cross-sectional and…

  6. 76 FR 19237 - Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... exemption from nutrition labeling for food that is served in restaurants or other establishments in which... the selection button that includes a clear and conspicuous statement disclosing the number of calories... Act also requires certain restaurants and similar retail food establishments to provide calorie and...

  7. Calories from beverages purchased at 2 major coffee chains in New York City, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Christina; Dumanovsky, Tamara; Silver, Lynn D; Nonas, Cathy; Bassett, Mary T

    2009-10-01

    Calorie intake from beverages has increased in the past decades, which most likely contributes to higher obesity rates. Although coffee chains have grown in popularity in recent years, few data examine the calorie contribution of these drinks. We examined afternoon beverage purchases in New York City at 2 major coffee chains and estimated the mean calorie content of these beverages. We collected purchase receipts and brief surveys from adult customers at 42 Starbucks and 73 Dunkin' Donuts stores during the spring of 2007. For each purchase, we obtained the calorie content from the company's Web site; these values were adjusted to account for self-reported customization of the drink. We included 1,127 beverage purchases at Starbucks and 1,830 at Dunkin' Donuts in our analyses. Brewed coffee or tea averaged 63 kcal, and blended coffee beverages averaged 239 kcal. Approximately two-thirds of purchases at Starbucks and one-fourth of purchases at Dunkin' Donuts were blended coffee beverages. Calories in blended coffee beverages are high; on average, customers bought 12% of a 2,000-kcal diet. Policy changes to provide for calorie posting at the point of purchase could increase customer awareness of the calories in these beverages; modifying standard formulations of blended coffee beverages, such as using low-fat milk or smaller serving sizes, would also reduce calorie content.

  8. Use of calorie information at fast-food and chain restaurants among US adults, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wethington, Holly; Maynard, Leah M; Haltiwanger, Christine; Blanck, Heidi M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine reading and use of calorie information at fast-food/chain restaurants. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a sample of 4363 US adults using the 2009 HealthStyles survey. The outcome variable was reading calorie information when available while ordering at fast-food/chain restaurants. Among those who go to fast-food/chain restaurants, we conducted multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between sociodemographic variables and reading calorie information when available. Among those who report reading calorie information when available, we assessed the proportion using calorie information. Among those who reported eating at fast-food/chain restaurants, 36.4% reported reading calorie information when available. Reading calorie information was not related to race/ethnicity, income or education. Compared with men, women had higher odds [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-2.1] of reading calorie information when available while those who frequented fast-food/chain restaurants ≥3 times/week (aOR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.4-0.8) had lower odds compared with those going Health 2013. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. Effects of the daily consumption of protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt on the total protein intake in older adults in a rehabilitation centre: a single blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Til, A J; Naumann, E; Cox-Claessens, I J H M; Kremer, S; Boelsma, E; de van der Schueren, M A E

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of protein enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, substituting regular products, on the total protein intake and the distribution of protein intake over the day in older adults. A single blind randomised controlled trial. Rehabilitation centre. Older adults (≥ 55 years) admitted to a rehabilitation centre after hospital discharge (n=34). Participants received a high protein diet (protein enriched bread and protein enriched drinking yoghurt; n=17) or a regular diet (regular bread and regular drinking yoghurt; n=17) for three consecutive weeks. Total protein intake and protein intake per meal, measured twice weekly over a three weeks period (six measurements per participant). Compared with controls, patients who received the protein enriched products had a significantly higher protein intake (115.3 g/d vs 72.5 g/d, Pconsumption of protein enriched products improves protein distribution over the day.

  10. Calorie Labeling in Chain Restaurants and Body Weight: Evidence from New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Brandon J

    2017-10-01

    This study analyzes the impact of local mandatory calorie labeling laws implemented by New York jurisdictions on body weight. The analysis indicates that on average the point-of-purchase provision of calorie information on chain restaurant menus reduced body mass index (BMI) by 1.5% and lowered the risk of obesity by 12%. Quantile regression results indicate that calorie labeling has similar impacts across the BMI distribution. An analysis of heterogeneity suggests that calorie labeling has a larger impact on the body weight of lower income individuals, especially lower income minorities. The estimated impacts of calorie labeling on physical activity, smoking, and the consumption of alcoholic beverages, fruits, and vegetables are small in magnitude, which suggests that other margins of adjustment drive the body-weight impacts estimated here. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Soft drink "pouring rights": marketing empty calories to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, M

    2000-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 objectives call for meals and snacks served in schools to contribute to overall diets that meet federal dietary guidelines. Sales in schools of foods and drinks high in calories and low in nutrients undermine this health objective, as well as participation in the more nutritious, federally sponsored, school lunch programs. Competitive foods also undermine nutrition information taught in the classroom. Lucrative contracts between school districts and soft drink companies for exclusive rights to sell one brand are the latest development in the increasing commercialization of school food. These contracts, intended to elicit brand loyalty among young children who have a lifetime of purchases ahead of them, are especially questionable because they place schools in the position of "pushing" soft drink consumption. "Pouring rights" contracts deserve attention from public health professionals concerned about the nutritional quality of children's diets.

  12. Foods, obesity, and diabetes-are all calories created equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2017-01-01

    Diet has become one of the top risk factors for poor health. The incidence of cardiometabolic disease in the United Sates, in Mexico, and in most countries is driven fundamentally by changes in diet quality. Weight gain has been typically framed as a problem of excess caloric intake, but, as reviewed in this paper, subtle changes in the quality of diet are associated with long-term weight gain. In order to successfully address obesity and diabetes, researchers and policy makers have to better understand how weight gain in the long term is modulated and to change the focus of research and public policy from one based on counting calories to one based on diet quality and its determinants at various levels. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Annual Fasting; the Early Calories Restriction for Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solat Eslami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Essentially, people’s diet and nutritional status has been changed substantially worldwide and several lines of evidence suggest that these changes are to the detriment of their health. Additionally, it has been well documented that unhealthy diet especially the fast foods, untraditional foods or bad-eating-habits influence the human gut microbiome. The gut microbiota shapes immune responses during human life and affects his/her metabolomic profiles. Furthermore, many studies highlight the molecular pathways that mediate host and symbiont interactions that regulate proper immune function and prevention of cancer in the body. Intriguingly, if cancer forms in a human body due to the weakness of immune system in detriment of microbiome, the removal of cancer stem cells can be carried out through early Calories Restriction with Annual Fasting (AF before tumor development or progress. Besides, fasting can b balance the gut microbiome for enhancement of immune system against cancer formation.

  14. Consumer understanding of calorie amounts and serving size: implications for nutritional labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlee, Lana; Goodman, Samantha; Sae Yang, Wiworn; Hammond, David

    2012-07-18

    Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has contributed to rising obesity levels. Under Canadian law, calories for pre-packaged foods and beverages are presented by serving size; however, serving sizes differ across products and even for the same product in different containers. This study examined consumer understanding of calorie amounts for government nutrition labels and industry labelling schemes. A national sample of 687 Canadian adults completed an online survey. Participants were randomized to view images of Coke® bottles that displayed different serving sizes and calorie amounts. Participants viewed either the regulated nutrition information on the "back" of containers, or the voluntary calorie symbols displayed on the "front" of Coke® products. Participants were asked to determine how many calories the bottle contained. Across all conditions, 54.2% of participants correctly identified the number of calories in the beverage. Participants who viewed government-mandated nutrition information were more likely to answer correctly (59.0%) than those who saw industry labelling (49.1%) (OR=5.3, 95% CI: 2.6-10.6). Only 11.8% who viewed the Coke® bottle with calorie amounts per serving correctly identified the calorie amount, compared to 91.8% who saw calorie amounts per container, regardless of whether information was presented in the Nutrition Facts Table or the front-of-pack symbol (OR=242.9, 95% CI: 112.1-526.2). Few individuals can use nutrition labels to correctly identify calorie content when presented per serving or using industry labelling schemes. The findings highlight the importance of revising labelling standards and indicate that industry labelling initiatives warrant greater scrutiny.

  15. Contributing Factors for Protein Calorie Malnutrition in Distsrict Mardan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, D.M.; Khan, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Protein calorie malnutrition (PCM) is a common health problem in developing countries resulting in high mortality in children under five years of age. It is also known as protein energy malnutrition. Objectives: To calculate the incidence and risk factors for Protein Calorie Malnutrition in children attending hospitals of district Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Study design, settings and duration: Retrospective hospital case record analysis of admitted children diagnosed as suffers of PCM and were admitted in hospitals from 2011-15 was done. Subjects and Methods: Children < 5 years fulfilling the inclusion criteria and reporting at four major hospitals of district Mardan from 2011-15 were included in the study. Data of children fulfilling the definition of PCM were further analyzed using SPSS software. Chi-square test and logistic regression model was used to determine the significance of the risk factors with the PCM disease. Results: Out of 448 children, 58.5 percent (n=262) had PCM and 41.5 percent (n=186) did not have PCM. The significant risk factors in the logistic model fitted for male children included economic status, number of living children, environmental sanitation, immunization, skin changes. Risk factors for PCM in female children were economic status, weight, height, number of living children, environmental sanitation, immunization, hair changes, time to time monitoring of the child and clean water availability. In the logistic model for both genders; the risk factors that showed significant association with PCM were economic status, weight, height, number of living children, environmental sanitation, immunization, hair changes, time to time monitoring of the child health, clean water availability and hypothermia. Conclusion: Almost 58 percent children admitted in different hospitals of district Mardan had PCM and the significant risk factors were economic status, weight, height, number of living children, environmental sanitation

  16. A calorie-restriction diet supplemented with fish oil and high-protein powder is associated with reduced severity of metabolic syndrome in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H-Y; Lee, H-C; Cheng, W-Y; Huang, S-Y

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity has increased worldwide, as well as in Taiwan, particularly in women aged>40 years. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of a calorie-restriction diet (CR) supplemented with protein and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on women with MetS. A total of 143 eligible female participants were recruited and assigned to four dietary interventions such as 1500-kcal CR, calorie-restriction meal-replacement diet (CRMR), calorie-restriction diet with fish oil supplementation (CRF) and calorie-restriction meal-replacement diet with fish oil supplementation (CRMRF). The changes in anthropometric measures, metabolic profiles, inflammatory response and the Z-score of severity of MetS were evaluated. Among 143 female MetS patients enrolled, 136 patients completed the 12-week study. After the 12-week dietary interventions, we observed reductions in body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in all groups. BMI and triglyceride (TG) levels decreased significantly in the CRMR, CRF and CRMRF groups, but not in the CR group. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) had significantly improved in all four groups, and the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) had significantly decreased in the CRF and CRMRF groups. Following the interventions, the changes in waist circumference (WC), mean arterial pressure (MAP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), TGs, HOMA-IR, CRP and IL-6 significantly correlated with the reductions in Z-score of MetS severity. Our study results indicate that a calorie-restriction dietary intervention combined with various macronutrients can reduce the severity of MetS in women and increase recovery from MetS by almost twofold in comparison with a CR alone.

  17. Circadian clocks govern calorie restriction-mediated life span extension through BMAL1- and IGF-1-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sonal A; Chaudhari, Amol; Gupta, Richa; Velingkaar, Nikkhil; Kondratov, Roman V

    2016-04-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) increases longevity in many species by unknown mechanisms. The circadian clock was proposed as a potential mediator of CR. Deficiency of the core component of the circadian clock-transcriptional factor BMAL1 (brain and muscle ARNT [aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator]-like protein 1)-results in accelerated aging. Here we investigated the role of BMAL1 in mechanisms of CR. The 30% CR diet increased the life span of wild-type (WT) mice by 20% compared to mice on anad libitum(AL) diet but failed to increase life span ofBmal1(-/-)mice. BMAL1 deficiency impaired CR-mediated changes in the plasma levels of IGF-1 and insulin. We detected a statistically significantly reduction of IGF-1 in CRvs.AL by 50 to 70% in WT mice at several daily time points tested, while inBmal1(-/-)the reduction was not significant. Insulin levels in WT were reduced by 5 to 9%, whileBmal1(-/-)induced it by 10 to 35% at all time points tested. CR up-regulated the daily average expression ofBmal1(by 150%) and its downstream target genesPeriods(by 470% forPer1and by 130% forPer2). We propose that BMAL1 is an important mediator of CR, and activation of BMAL1 might link CR mechanisms with biologic clocks.-Patel, S. A., Chaudhari, A., Gupta, R., Velingkaar, N., Kondratov, R. V. Circadian clocks govern calorie restriction-mediated life span extension through BMAL1- and IGF-1-dependent mechanisms. © FASEB.

  18. Drinking to our health: Can beverage companies cut calories while maintaining profits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Susan; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Carbonated soft drinks (CSD) and other beverages make up an increasing percentage of energy intake, and there are rising public health concerns about the links between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain, obesity, and other cardio-metabolic problems. In response, the food and beverage industry claims to be reformulating products, reducing package or portion sizes, and introducing healthier options. Comparative analysis on various changes and their potential effects on public health are needed. We conduct a case study using the two largest and most influential producers of sweetened beverages, The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo, who together control 34 percent of the global soft drink market, examining their product portfolios globally and in three critical markets (the US, Brazil, and China) from 2000-2010. On a global basis, total revenues and energy per capita sold increased, yet the average energy density (kilojoules per 100 milliliters) sold declined slightly, suggesting a shift to lower-calorie products. In the US, both total energy per capita and average energy density of beverages sold decreased, while the opposite was true in the developing markets of Brazil and China, with total per capita energy increasing greatly in China and, to a lesser extent, in Brazil. PMID:22070346

  19. Drinking to our health: can beverage companies cut calories while maintaining profits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, S; Ng, S W; Popkin, B

    2012-03-01

    Carbonated soft drinks and other beverages make up an increasing percentage of energy intake, and there are rising public health concerns about the links between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain, obesity, and other cardiometabolic problems. In response, the food and beverage industry claims to be reformulating products, reducing package or portion sizes and introducing healthier options. Comparative analysis on various changes and their potential effects on public health are needed. We conduct a case study using the two largest and most influential producers of sweetened beverages, The Coca-Cola Company and PepsiCo Inc., who together control 34% of the global soft drink market, examining their product portfolios globally and in three critical markets (the United States, Brazil and China) from 2000 to 2010. On a global basis, total revenues and energy per capita sold increased, yet the average energy density (kJ 100 mL(-1) ) sold declined slightly, suggesting a shift to lower-calorie products. In the United States, both total energy per capita and average energy density of beverages sold decreased, while the opposite was true in the developing markets of Brazil and China, with total per capita energy increasing greatly in China and, to a lesser extent, in Brazil. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  20. The Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Alanine Aminotransferase, Aspartate Aminotransferase, and Ultrasonographic Indices of Hepatic Steatosis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients Undergoing Low Calorie Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Shidfar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of death in the patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Studies have shown that there is a strong relation between the increase in the aminotransferase levels and fat accumulation in the liver with cardiovascular complications, independent of all aspects of the metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to examine the effect of virgin olive oil on alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST and the severity of steatosis in the NAFLD patients undergoing a weight-loss diet. Methods. This clinical trial was carried out on 50 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver (mean age of 45.91 ± 9.61 years, mean BMI of 29.7 ± 0.58 Kg/m2 and the subjects were randomly assigned to the olive oil group (receiving the equivalent of 20% of their total daily energy requirement from olive oil or the control group (with normal consumption of oil for 12 weeks. All the patients received a hypocaloric diet during the study. At the beginning and the end of the study, the serum levels of ALT and AST and liver steatosis were measured. Findings. A significant decrease in the level of ALT enzymes was observed in the control group at the end of the study (P = 0.004. In the olive oil group, both enzymes decreased compared to baseline measurements (P<0.01. There were significant differences in the ALT and AST levels between the two groups (P<0.02. The severity of liver steatosis did not change significantly during the study. Conclusion. The consumption of a low calorie diet enriched with olive oil, along with slight weight reduction, reinforces the desired effects of weight loss in improving the levels of the hepatic enzymes.

  1. The Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Alanine Aminotransferase, Aspartate Aminotransferase, and Ultrasonographic Indices of Hepatic Steatosis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients Undergoing Low Calorie Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidfar, Farzad; Bahrololumi, Samaneh Sadat; Doaei, Saeid; Mohammadzadeh, Assieh; Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadimanesh, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of death in the patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Studies have shown that there is a strong relation between the increase in the aminotransferase levels and fat accumulation in the liver with cardiovascular complications, independent of all aspects of the metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to examine the effect of virgin olive oil on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the severity of steatosis in the NAFLD patients undergoing a weight-loss diet. This clinical trial was carried out on 50 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver (mean age of 45.91 ± 9.61 years, mean BMI of 29.7 ± 0.58 Kg/m 2 ) and the subjects were randomly assigned to the olive oil group (receiving the equivalent of 20% of their total daily energy requirement from olive oil) or the control group (with normal consumption of oil) for 12 weeks. All the patients received a hypocaloric diet during the study. At the beginning and the end of the study, the serum levels of ALT and AST and liver steatosis were measured. A significant decrease in the level of ALT enzymes was observed in the control group at the end of the study ( P = 0.004). In the olive oil group, both enzymes decreased compared to baseline measurements ( P groups ( P < 0.02). The severity of liver steatosis did not change significantly during the study. The consumption of a low calorie diet enriched with olive oil, along with slight weight reduction, reinforces the desired effects of weight loss in improving the levels of the hepatic enzymes.

  2. Restoring normoglycaemia by use of a very low calorie diet in long- and short-duration Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, S; Taylor, R

    2015-09-01

    To establish whether an 8-week very-low-calorie diet could improve glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes of long duration. A total of 29 people with Type 2 diabetes [short-duration group (diabetes duration diabetes duration > 8 years), n = 14] completed an 8-week very-low-calorie diet, with assessments of fasting anthropometry, blood tests and blood pressure at baseline and weeks 1, 4 and 8 of the diet. Similar weight loss was achieved in the short- and long-duration groups (14.8 ± 0.8% and 14.4 ± 0.7% respectively; P = 0.662). The glucose response to acute calorie restriction was heterogeneous in the long-duration group with some responding similarly to those in the short-duration group, some responding, but only slowly, and others not responding at all. Overall, HbA1c concentration in the short- vs. long-duration groups fell to 44 ± 2 vs. 64 ± 6 mmol/l (6.2 ± 0.2 vs. 8.0 ± 0.5%; P = 0.002). Fasting plasma glucose levels decreased to 5.8 ± 0.2 vs. 8.4 ± 1.1 mmol/l (P = 0.024) respectively. A total of 87% of the short-duration group and 50% of the long-duration group achieved non-diabetic fasting plasma glucose levels at week 8. Clinically significant improvements in blood pressure and lipid profile were seen regardless of diabetes duration. In people with Type 2 diabetes of > 8 years' duration, a therapeutic trial of a very-low-calorie diet may be undertaken with a 50% chance of achieving non-diabetic fasting glucose levels off all antidiabetic therapies. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  3. Measuring acetabular cup orientation on antero-posterior radiographs of the hip after total hip arthroplasty with a vector arithmetic radiological method. Is it valid and verified for daily clinical practice?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craiovan, B.; Weber, M.; Worlicek, M.; Schneider, M.; Springorum, H.R.; Grifka, J.; Renkawitz, T. [University Medical Center Regensburg, Bad Abbach/Regensburg (Germany). Orthopedic Surgery; Zeman, F. [University Medical Center Regensburg, Bad Abbach/Regensburg (Germany). Center for Clinical Studies

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this prospective study is to validate a vector arithmetic method for measuring acetabular cup orientation after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and to verify the clinical practice. We measured cup anteversion and inclination of 123 patients after cementless primary THA twice by two examiners on AP pelvic radiographs with a vector arithmetic method and compared with a 3D-CT based reconstruction model within the same radiographic coronal plane. The mean difference between the radiographic and the 3D-CT measurements was -1.4 ±3.9 for inclination and 0.8 ±7.9 for anteversion with excellent correlation for inclination (r=0.81, p < 0.001) and moderate correlation for anteversion (r=0.65, p < 0.001). The intraclass correlation coefficient for measurements on radiographs ranged from 0.98 (95%-CI: 0.98; 0.99) for the first observer to 0.94 (95%-CI: 0.92; 0.96) for the second observer. The interrater reliability was 0.96 (95%-CI: 0.93; 0.98) for inclination and 0.93 (95%-CI: 0.85; 0.96) for anteversion. The largest errors in measurements were associated with an extraordinary pelvic tilt. In order to get a valuable measurement for measuring cup position after THA on pelvic radiographs by this vector arithmetic method, there is a need for a correct postoperative ap view, with special regards to the pelvic tilt for the future.

  4. Calorie restriction as an anti-invasive therapy for malignant brain cancer in the VM mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Laura M; Huysentruyt, Leanne C; Mukherjee, Purna; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2010-07-23

    GBM (glioblastoma multiforme) is the most aggressive and invasive form of primary human brain cancer. We recently developed a novel brain cancer model in the inbred VM mouse strain that shares several characteristics with human GBM. Using bioluminescence imaging, we tested the efficacy of CR (calorie restriction) for its ability to reduce tumour size and invasion. CR targets glycolysis and rapid tumour cell growth in part by lowering circulating glucose levels. The VM-M3 tumour cells were implanted intracerebrally in the syngeneic VM mouse host. Approx. 12-15 days post-implantation, brains were removed and both ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres were imaged to measure bioluminescence of invading tumour cells. CR significantly reduced the invasion of tumour cells from the implanted ipsilateral hemisphere into the contralateral hemisphere. The total percentage of Ki-67-stained cells within the primary tumour and the total number of blood vessels was also significantly lower in the CR-treated mice than in the mice fed ad libitum, suggesting that CR is anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic. Our findings indicate that the VM-M3 GBM model is a valuable tool for studying brain tumour cell invasion and for evaluating potential therapeutic approaches for managing invasive brain cancer. In addition, we show that CR can be effective in reducing malignant brain tumour growth and invasion.

  5. Calorie Restriction as an Anti-Invasive Therapy for Malignant Brain Cancer in the VM Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Shelton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available GBM (glioblastoma multiforme is the most aggressive and invasive form of primary human brain cancer. We recently developed a novel brain cancer model in the inbred VM mouse strain that shares several characteristics with human GBM. Using bioluminescence imaging, we tested the efficacy of CR (calorie restriction for its ability to reduce tumour size and invasion. CR targets glycolysis and rapid tumour cell growth in part by lowering circulating glucose levels. The VM-M3 tumour cells were implanted intracerebrally in the syngeneic VM mouse host. Approx. 12-15 days post-implantation, brains were removed and both ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres were imaged to measure bioluminescence of invading tumour cells. CR significantly reduced the invasion of tumour cells from the implanted ipsilateral hemisphere into the contralateral hemisphere. The total percentage of Ki-67-stained cells within the primary tumour and the total number of blood vessels was also significantly lower in the CR-treated mice than in the mice fed ad libitum, suggesting that CR is anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic. Our findings indicate that the VM-M3 GBM model is a valuable tool for studying brain tumour cell invasion and for evaluating potential therapeutic approaches for managing invasive brain cancer. In addition, we show that CR can be effective in reducing malignant brain tumour growth and invasion.

  6. Calorie labeling in a rural middle school influences food selection: findings from community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsberger, Monica; McGinnis, Paul; Smith, Jamie; Beamer, Beth Ann; O'Malley, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Calorie labeling at the point-of-purchase in chain restaurants has been shown to reduce energy intake. To investigate the impact of point-of-purchase calorie information at one rural middle school. With a community-based participatory research framework a mixed method approach was used to evaluate the impact of point-of-purchase calorie information. Students in grades 6-8, dining at the school cafeteria January and February 2010, participated for 17 school days each month; in January a menu was offered in the usual manner without calorie labels; the same menu was prepared in February with the addition of calorie labels at point-of-purchase. Gross calories served per student were measured each day allowing for matched comparison by menu. In March/April of 2010, 32 students who ate in the cafeteria 3 or more times per week were interviewed regarding their views on menu labeling. Calorie consumption decreased by an average of 47 calories/day; fat intake reduced by 2.1 grams/day. Five main themes were consistent throughout the interviews. Point-of-purchase calorie labels can play a role in reducing the number of calories consumed by middle school age children at the lunch. The majority of students interviewed found the calorie labels helped them choose healthier food.

  7. High tax on high energy dense foods and its effects on the purchase of calories in a supermarket. An experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederkoorn, Chantal; Havermans, Remco C; Giesen, Janneke C A H; Jansen, Anita

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined whether a high tax on high calorie dense foods effectively reduces the purchased calories of high energy dense foods in a web based supermarket, and whether this effect is moderated by budget and weight status. 306 participants purchased groceries in a web based supermarket, with an individualized budget based on what they normally spend. Results showed that relative to the no tax condition, the participants in the tax condition bought less calories. The main reduction was found in high energy dense products and in calories from carbohydrates, but not in calories from fat. BMI and budget did not influence the effectiveness of the tax. The reduction in calories occurred regardless of budget or BMI implying that a food tax may be a beneficial tool, along with other measures, in promoting a diet with fewer calories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ACRIM III Level 2 Daily Mean Data V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) III Level 2 Daily Mean Data product consists of Level 2 total solar irradiance in the form of daily means...

  9. MOPITT Gridded Daily CO Retrievals (Thermal Infrared Radiances) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT L3 files contain daily and monthly mean gridded versions of the daily L2 CO profile and total column retrievals. The averaging kernels associated with...

  10. Protein calorie malnutrition, nutritional intervention and personalized cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadharan, Anju; Choi, Sung Eun; Hassan, Ahmed; Ayoub, Nehad M; Durante, Gina; Balwani, Sakshi; Kim, Young Hee; Pecora, Andrew; Goy, Andre; Suh, K Stephen

    2017-04-04

    Cancer patients often experience weight loss caused by protein calorie malnutrition (PCM) during the course of the disease or treatment. PCM is expressed as severe if the patient has two or more of the following characteristics: obvious significant muscle wasting, loss of subcutaneous fat; nutritional intake of 2% in 1 week, 5% in 1 month, or 7.5% in 3 months. Cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS) is a multifactorial condition of advanced PCM associated with underlying illness (in this case cancer) and is characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. Cachexia is defined as weight loss of more than 5% of body weight in 12 months or less in the presence of chronic disease. Hence with a chronic illness on board even a small amount of weight loss can open the door to cachexia. These nutritional challenges can lead to severe morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. In the clinic, the application of personalized medicine and the ability to withstand the toxic effects of anti-cancer therapies can be optimized when the patient is in nutritional homeostasis and is free of anorexia and cachexia. Routine assessment of nutritional status and appropriate intervention are essential components of the effort to alleviate effects of malnutrition on quality of life and survival of patients.

  11. Calorie restriction and dwarf mice in gerontological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee Alderman, J; DePetrillo, Michael A; Gluesenkamp, Angela M; Hartley, Antonia C; Verhoff, S Veronica; Zavodni, Katherine L; Combs, Terry P

    2010-01-01

    What aging process is delayed by calorie restriction (CR) and mutations that produce long-lived dwarf mice? From 1935 until 1996, CR was the only option for increasing the maximum lifespan of laboratory rodents. In 1996, the mutation producing the Ames dwarf mouse (Prop-1(-/-)) was reported to increase lifespan. Since 1996, other gene mutations that cause dwarfism or lower body weight have been reported to increase the lifespan of mice. The recent discovery of long-lived mutant dwarf mice provides an opportunity to investigate common features between CR and dwarf models. Both CR and dwarf mutations increase insulin sensitivity. Elevated insulin sensitivity reduces oxidative stress, a potential cause of aging. The elevation of liver insulin sensitivity by the hormone adiponectin in CR and long-lived dwarf mice can lower endogenous glucose production and raise fatty acid oxidation. Adiponectin reduction of plasma glucose in CR and long-lived dwarf mice can thereby lower age-related increases in oxidative damage and cancer. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Nutrition modulation of human aging: The calorie restriction paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sai Krupa; Balasubramanian, Priya; Weerasekara, Yasoma K

    2017-11-05

    Globally, the aging population is growing rapidly, creating an urgent need to attenuate age-related health conditions, including metabolic disease and disability. A promising strategy for healthy aging based on consistently positive results from studies with a variety of species, including non-human primates (NHP), is calorie restriction (CR), or the restriction of energy intake while maintaining intake of essential nutrients. The burgeoning evidence for this approach in humans is reviewed and the major study to date to address this question, CALERIE (Comprehensive Assessment of the Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy), is described. CALERIE findings indicate the feasibility of CR in non-obese humans, confirm observations in NHP, and are consistent with improvements in disease risk reduction and potential anti-aging effects. Finally, the mechanisms of CR in humans are reviewed which sums up the fact that evolutionarily conserved mechanisms mediate the anti-aging effects of CR. Overall, the prospect for further research in both NHP and humans is highly encouraging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lightship Daily Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1936 - 1983. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...

  14. DailyMed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — DailyMed provides high quality information about marketed drugs. This information includes FDA labels (package inserts). This Web site provides health information...

  15. Daily Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  16. How calorie-focused thinking about obesity and related diseases may mislead and harm public health. An alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucan, Sean C; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2015-03-01

    Prevailing thinking about obesity and related diseases holds that quantifying calories should be a principal concern and target for intervention. Part of this thinking is that consumed calories - regardless of their sources - are equivalent; i.e. 'a calorie is a calorie'. The present commentary discusses various problems with the idea that 'a calorie is a calorie' and with a primarily quantitative focus on food calories. Instead, the authors argue for a greater qualitative focus on the sources of calories consumed (i.e. a greater focus on types of foods) and on the metabolic changes that result from consuming foods of different types. In particular, the authors consider how calorie-focused thinking is inherently biased against high-fat foods, many of which may be protective against obesity and related diseases, and supportive of starchy and sugary replacements, which are likely detrimental. Shifting the focus to qualitative food distinctions, a central argument of the paper is that obesity and related diseases are problems due largely to food-induced physiology (e.g. neurohormonal pathways) not addressable through arithmetic dieting (i.e. calorie counting). The paper considers potential harms of public health initiatives framed around calorie balance sheets - targeting 'calories in' and/or 'calories out' - that reinforce messages of overeating and inactivity as underlying causes, rather than intermediate effects, of obesity. Finally, the paper concludes that public health should work primarily to support the consumption of whole foods that help protect against obesity-promoting energy imbalance and metabolic dysfunction and not continue to promote calorie-directed messages that may create and blame victims and possibly exacerbate epidemics of obesity and related diseases.

  17. THE MEXICAN CALORIE ALLOCATION AMONG THE WORKING CLASS IN THE AMERICAN WEST, 1870-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Alan Carson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When measures for material conditions are sparse or unreliable, height and weight measurements are now widely accepted proxies that reflect changing economic conditions. This study uses two biological measurements related to height and weight: the basal metabolic rate (BMR and calorie accounting. BMRs and calories of Mexicans in the American West remained constant, indicating that their diets did not vary with United States economic development, but Mexican BMRs and diets varied with occupations. Farmers and unskilled workers had greater BMRs and received more calories per day than workers in other occupations. During much of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Mexicans born in Mexico received fewer calories in the US than Mexicans born in the West. Mexican nutrition and diets also did not vary by residence within the US, indicating that Mexican diets were similar across western states.

  18. Selected Intakes of Energy from Empty Calories, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    This section provides information on population distributions of energy intakes from solid fats, alcoholic beverages and added sugars. These sources of energy comprise a major portion of the discretionary calories consumed by the US population.

  19. Severe Protein-Calorie Malnutrition and Cognitive Development in Infancy and Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Lois M.; Ricciuti, Henry N.

    1971-01-01

    Following nutritional recovery from severe protein-calorie deficiency, 20 young children evidenced a retarded level of categorization behavior compared to a control group of 19 adequately nourished children from similar socioeconomic background. (NH)

  20. On the biomechanical analysis of the calories expended in a straight boxing jab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdi, T I

    2017-04-01

    Boxing and related sports activities have become a standard workout regime at many fitness studios worldwide. Oftentimes, people are interested in the calories expended during these workouts. This note focuses on determining the calories in a boxer's jab, using kinematic vector-loop relations and basic work-energy principles. Numerical simulations are undertaken to illustrate the basic model. Multi-limb extensions of the model are also discussed. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Who reports noticing and using calorie information posted on fast food restaurant menus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breck, Andrew; Cantor, Jonathan; Martinez, Olivia; Elbel, Brian

    2014-10-01

    Identify consumer characteristics that predict seeing and using calorie information on fast food menu boards. Two separate data collection methods were used in Philadelphia during June 2010, several weeks after calorie labeling legislation went into effect: (1) point-of-purchase survey and receipt collection conducted outside fast food restaurants (N = 669) and (2) a random digit dial telephone survey (N = 702). Logistic regressions were used to predict the odds of reporting seeing, and of reporting seeing and being influenced by posted calorie information. Approximately 35.1% of point-of-purchase and 65.7% of telephone survey respondents reported seeing posted calorie information, 11.8% and 41.7%, respectively, reported that the labels influenced their purchasing decisions, and 8.4% and 17% reported they were influenced in a healthful direction. BMI, education, income, gender, consumer preferences, restaurant chain, and frequency of visiting fast food restaurants were associated with heterogeneity in the likelihood of reporting seeing and reporting seeing and using calorie labels. Demographic characteristics and consumer preferences are important determinants in the use of posted calorie information. Future work should consider the types of consumers this information is intended for, and how to effectively reach them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. BMI modulates calorie-dependent dopamine changes in accumbens from glucose intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene-Jack Wang

    Full Text Available Dopamine mediates the rewarding effects of food that can lead to overeating and obesity, which then trigger metabolic neuroadaptations that further perpetuate excessive food consumption. We tested the hypothesis that the dopamine response to calorie intake (independent of palatability in striatal brain regions is attenuated with increases in weight.We used positron emission tomography with [11C]raclopride to measure dopamine changes triggered by calorie intake by contrasting the effects of an artificial sweetener (sucralose devoid of calories to that of glucose to assess their association with body mass index (BMI in nineteen healthy participants (BMI range 21-35.Neither the measured blood glucose concentrations prior to the sucralose and the glucose challenge days, nor the glucose concentrations following the glucose challenge vary as a function of BMI. In contrast the dopamine changes in ventral striatum (assessed as changes in non-displaceable binding potential of [11C]raclopride triggered by calorie intake (contrast glucose - sucralose were significantly correlated with BMI (r = 0.68 indicating opposite responses in lean than in obese individuals. Specifically whereas in normal weight individuals (BMI <25 consumption of calories was associated with increases in dopamine in the ventral striatum in obese individuals it was associated with decreases in dopamine.These findings show reduced dopamine release in ventral striatum with calorie consumption in obese subjects, which might contribute to their excessive food intake to compensate for the deficit between the expected and the actual response to food consumption.

  3. An obesogenic bias in women's spatial memory for high calorie snack food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, K; Allan, J L

    2013-08-01

    To help maintain a positive energy balance in ancestral human habitats, evolution appears to have designed a functional bias in spatial memory that enhances our ability to remember the location of high-calorie foodstuffs. Here, we investigated whether this functional bias has obesogenic consequences for individuals living in a modern urban environment. Spatial memory, dietary intentions, and perceived desirability, for high-calorie snacks and lower-calorie fruits and vegetables were measured using a computer-based task in 41 women (age: 18-35, body mass index: 18.5-30.0). Using multiple linear regression, we analyzed whether enhanced spatial memory for high-calorie snacks versus fruits and vegetables predicted BMI, controlling for dietary intention strength and perceived food desirability. We observed that enhanced spatial memory for high-calorie snacks (both independently, and relative to that for fruits and vegetables), significantly predicted higher BMI. The evolved function of high-calorie bias in human spatial memory, to promote positive energy balance, would therefore appear to be intact. But our data reveal that this function may contribute to higher, less healthy BMI in individuals in whom the memory bias is most marked. Our findings reveal a novel cognitive marker of vulnerability to weight gain that, once the proximal mechanisms are understood, may offer new possibilities for weight control interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Task 0715: Army Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    NDCEE/CTC The NDCEE is operated by: Office of the Assistant Sec etary of the Army for Installations, E ergy and Enviro ment Technology Transition...stockpiles of soils and sands; – Air emissions with deposition potential; – Construction projects; – Existence of septic systems/sewage holding tanks

  5. Clean Water Act Approved Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Documents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Information from Approved and Established TMDL Documents as well as TMDLs that have been Withdrawn. This includes the pollutants identified in the TMDL Document, the...

  6. Chronic daily headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

  7. Effects of protein-calorie malnutrition and refeeding on fluorouracil toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamelli, R.L.; Foster, R.S. Jr.

    1983-10-01

    Mice were used to study the effects of protein-calorie malnutrition and its reversal on granulocyte-macrophage production and fluorouracil's toxic effect on bone marrow. An in vitro quantitative clonal culture technique for bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (GM-CFC) was used. Animals on a protein-free but otherwise complete diet for ten days had a significant contraction in total marrow cellularity and GM-CFC numbers paralleling the animal's weight loss. The acute toxic effect of fluorouracil on bone marrow was not increased in protein-deprived animals. On refeeding, there was a biphasic response in the degree of toxic effect on marrow. Animals refed for one day had significantly increased fluorouracil-related marrow abnormalities. However, animals refed for four days, when marrows were repleted, were partially protected from the drug's cytotoxic effects. The increased sensitivity in mice refed for one day was related to more GM-CFC in active DNA synthesis.

  8. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey (2003–2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Objective Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Methods Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ≥2 years (n = 16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003–2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. Results No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to “as consumed” food categorizations. Conclusions Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient

  9. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Park, Keigan; Auestad, Nancy

    2013-08-08

    The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ≥2 years (n = 16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003-2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to "as consumed" food categorizations. Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient sources into account so as not to have the unintended

  10. Childhood and adolescent obesity: how many extra calories are responsible for excess of weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Helen Rose C; Bobbio, Tatiana Godoy; Antonio, Maria Ângela R G M; Barros Filho, Antônio de Azevedo

    2013-06-01

    To review the main articles on energy imbalance and obesity in order to quantify the daily energy surplus associated with weight gain in children and adolescents. Articles published in the last ten years, indexed in electronic databases Medline (Pubmed) and SciELO-Br. In the Medline database, the descriptor "energy gap" was used and describes the energy values ​​associated with changes in body weight in individuals or populations. In SciELO-Br database, the descriptors "obesity", "energy metabolism", "energy balance", and "energy imbalance" were used, once it was not possible to find national articles discussing the energy gap. In the pediatric population, four studies were performed and indicate that children and adolescents are gradually gaining weight due to a small, but persistent, daily positive energy balance of 70 to 160kcal above the total energy suitable for growth. The results suggest that small changes in daily eating behavior as well as physical activity would be enough to prevent future weight gain in this population. gradual weight gain can be explained by small daily average of positive energy balance, from 70 to 160kcal above the total energy suitable for growth. The incentive to small changes in eating behavior and physical activities that promotes daily reduction of 160kcal can be an accessible practice in order to block weight gain in this population.

  11. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  12. Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily), Version 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily) dataset integrates daily climate observations from approximately 30 different data sources. Version 3...

  13. [Effects of calorie information and nutrition traffic light on alimentation behaviour in public catering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, A; Honekamp, W; Hackl, J M

    2013-08-01

    Due to the significant increase in overweight and obese people, action is needed to raise eating behaviour awareness. A significant main meal (lunch) is witnessing a growing trend in the catering (part of the out-of-home nutrition). The aim of this study is to determine whether the selection of lunch menus is affected through the display of nutritional information in the form of number of calories or a traffic light model. In this exploratory study, quantitative data were collected in a cross-sectional design. In addition to the established measurement instruments, socio-demographic and socio-economic information of the subjects based on the study were evaluated. The survey took place in 2008 in 2 passes (time t A/t B). The identical lunch menu of a catering company was applied twice respectively for 4 weeks. In the second run (t B) the lunch menu contained additional nutritional information (big 4 instructions) in the form of calories or a traffic light nutrition. The test of group differences was based on scientific statistical analysis in SPSS. The overall results for the illustration of kilocalories or traffic light do not have a unique significance in the direction of a low average number of calories at the time t B in comparison to the time t A. The food participants, on average, choose a lower calorie-containing menu, when a combination of traffic light and calories is given. The nutrition behaviour is accompanied by an oversupply of unhealthy foods. Lunch participants are sensitised for the selection of healthier lunch menus by a traffic light nutrition information or calories information. Nutrition labelling for lunch menus in the form of calories nutrition information or a coloured traffic light could trigger preventive effects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Food companies' calorie-reduction pledges to improve U.S. diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slining, Meghan M; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2013-02-01

    Heretofore, corporate voluntary pledges to improve the health of Americans have been linked neither to explicit measurable commitments nor to a framework for an independent evaluation. The Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation (HWCF), whose members include 16 of the nation's leading consumer packaged goods food and beverage manufacturers, voluntarily pledged to collectively remove 1 trillion calories from their products by 2012 (against a 2007 baseline), and 1.5 trillion calories by 2015. The pledge is designed to reduce the calorie gap commensurate with the HWCF companies' role in the U.S. diet. To date, no system exists for documenting the nutritional and public health impacts of industry-led changes in the food supply on individual diets. The current study represents a unique opportunity to understand how the consumer packaged goods food and beverage sector is changing and how these changes are associated with changes in the American diet. It presents data on national caloric sales from this sector, purchases of these goods by various subpopulations, and methods linking these to individual intakes of Americans. Findings show that HWCF companies accounted for approximately 25% of calories consumed in the U.S. in 2007 and that the 1.5 trillion-calorie pledge (about 14 calories/day/capita) accounts for 0.8% of the calories sold across all consumer packaged goods food and beverage brands in 2007. The authors hope that this evaluation will continue to create models and methods for demonstrating the effects of changes in the food supply on individual diets, particularly among those from vulnerable subpopulations. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Food Companies’ Calorie-Reduction Pledges to Improve U.S. Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slining, Meghan M.; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Heretofore, corporate voluntary pledges to improve the health of Americans have been linked neither to explicit measurable commitments nor to a framework for an independent evaluation. The Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation (HWCF), whose members include 16 of the nation’s leading consumer packaged goods food and beverage manufacturers, voluntarily pledged to collectively remove 1 trillion calories from their products by 2012 (against a 2007 baseline), and 1.5 trillion calories by 2015. The pledge is designed to reduce the calorie gap commensurate with the HWCF companies’ role in the U.S. diet. To date, no system exists for documenting the nutritional and public health impacts of industry-led changes in the food supply on individual diets. The current study represents a unique opportunity to understand how the consumer packaged goods food and beverage sector is changing and how these changes are associated with changes in the American diet. It presents data on national caloric sales from this sector, purchases of these goods by various subpopulations, and methods linking these to individual intakes of Americans. Findings show that HWCF companies accounted for approximately 25% of calories consumed in the U.S. in 2007 and that the 1.5 trillion–calorie pledge (about 14 calories/day/capita) accounts for 0.8% of the calories sold across all consumer packaged goods food and beverage brands in 2007. The authors hope that this evaluation will continue to create models and methods for demonstrating the effects of changes in the food supply on individual diets, particularly among those from vulnerable subpopulations. PMID:23332336

  16. Elemental constituent of food and the daily intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazumasa

    1976-01-01

    Constituent of element in foods and it's daily intake was discussed. In tables were shown instances of analysed values of major elements in Japanese foods, daily dietary intake of 8 elements in Japan (analysed value of total diet and estimated amounts of daily dietary intake of 32 elements. (J.P.N.)

  17. Calorie reduction of chocolate ganache through substitution of whipped cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate has been around for 3,000 years and is loved by many people for as long as its history. However, chocolate is classified as a high calorie food due to the high fat and sugar contents. These contents have negative effects on health, such as obesity, so some people have concerns about chocolate. Nevertheless, it has attracted more attention recently due to functional ingredients such as polyphenols and flavonoids of cacao, which is a main component of chocolate. This study was conducted to reduce the fat content in chocolate, which is the biggest disadvantage of chocolate. We investigated the physicochemical properties of different kinds of chocolate ganache made of whipped cream, milk, vegetable cream, and coconut milk. The whipped cream chocolate ganache was considered as the control group. The added ingredients affected moisture, crude fat, sugar contents, hardness, and influenced every result of the tests performed. The whipped cream chocolate ganache with the lowest moisture and highest fat contents showed the same result (the lowest moisture contents and highest fat contents; p < 0.05 and resulted in average hardness. The vegetable cream chocolate ganache showed similar results to that of the whipped cream’s result above, except in the category of hardness. The vegetable cream chocolate ganache showed a high circumference, height, and hardness. Milk chocolate, with the highest moisture and lowest fat content, showed identical results with the whipped cream’s result. In circumference, height and hardness, milk chocolate ganache showed the highest circumference (p < 0.05, a low height, and a similar value to whipped cream, but coconut milk also showed low values of circumferences and hardness. Overall, the whipped cream chocolate ganache was the most preferred chocolate in the sensory test, but the coconut milk chocolate ganache was the softest chocolate among the cream replacements. Because of its low caloric content and

  18. Pathways and mechanisms linking dietary components to cardiometabolic disease: thinking beyond calories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, K L; Goran, M I; Bosy-Westphal, A; King, J C; Schmidt, L A; Schwarz, J-M; Stice, E; Sylvetsky, A C; Turnbaugh, P J; Bray, G A; Gardner, C D; Havel, P J; Malik, V; Mason, A E; Ravussin, E; Rosenbaum, M; Welsh, J A; Allister-Price, C; Sigala, D M; Greenwood, M R C; Astrup, A; Krauss, R M

    2018-05-14

    Calories from any food have the potential to increase risk for obesity and cardiometabolic disease because all calories can directly contribute to positive energy balance and fat gain. However, various dietary components or patterns may promote obesity and cardiometabolic disease by additional mechanisms that are not mediated solely by caloric content. Researchers explored this topic at the 2017 CrossFit Foundation Academic Conference 'Diet and Cardiometabolic Health - Beyond Calories', and this paper summarizes the presentations and follow-up discussions. Regarding the health effects of dietary fat, sugar and non-nutritive sweeteners, it is concluded that food-specific saturated fatty acids and sugar-sweetened beverages promote cardiometabolic diseases by mechanisms that are additional to their contribution of calories to positive energy balance and that aspartame does not promote weight gain. The challenges involved in conducting and interpreting clinical nutritional research, which preclude more extensive conclusions, are detailed. Emerging research is presented exploring the possibility that responses to certain dietary components/patterns are influenced by the metabolic status, developmental period or genotype of the individual; by the responsiveness of brain regions associated with reward to food cues; or by the microbiome. More research regarding these potential 'beyond calories' mechanisms may lead to new strategies for attenuating the obesity crisis. © 2018 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  19. The effects of restaurant menu calorie labeling on hypothetical meal choices of females with disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynos, Ann F; Roberto, Christina A

    2017-03-01

    Concerns have been raised that obesity public policy measures may have harmful effects on individuals with eating disorders. However, little research has investigated this topic. We examined the impact of a popular obesity public policy, menu calorie labeling, on hypothetical food choices of women with disordered eating. Seven hundred sixteen adult females completed an online survey in which they were randomly assigned to receive a restaurant menu with or without calorie information listed. Participants selected foods representative of a meal they would choose to consume and answered questions on restaurant ordering and menu labeling. Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (Fairburn & Beglin, ) to assess global eating pathology. Diagnoses of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge-eating disorder (BED) were also derived from this measure. Generalized linear modeling examined the impact of menu label condition, disordered eating, and the menu label by disordered eating interaction on hypothetical food selection and related variables. When disordered eating was examined continuously, menu labeling did not differentially affect food selections of those with elevated disordered eating (p = .45). However, when examined by eating disorder diagnosis, participants with AN or BN ordered significantly fewer (p < .001) and participants with BED ordered significantly more (p = .001) calories in the menu label versus no label condition. Menu labeling may decrease the calories ordered among individuals with AN or BN and increase calories ordered among individuals with BED. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Storing empty calories and chronic disease risk: snack-food products, nutritive content, and manufacturers in Philadelphia corner stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucan, Sean C; Karpyn, Allison; Sherman, Sandy

    2010-05-01

    Corner stores are part of the urban food environment that may contribute to obesity and diet-related diseases, particularly for low-income and minority children. The snack foods available in corner stores may be a particularly important aspect of an urban child's food environment. Unfortunately, there is little data on exactly what snack foods corner stores stock, or where these foods come from. We evaluated snack foods in 17 Philadelphia corner stores, located in three ethnically distinct, low-income school neighborhoods. We recorded the manufacturer, calories, fat, sugar, and sodium for all snack items, excluding candy and prepared foods. We then compared the nutritive content of assessed snack items to established dietary recommendations and a school nutrition standard. In total, stores stocked 452 kinds of snacks, with only 15% of items common between all three neighborhoods. Total and unique snacks and snack food manufacturers varied by neighborhood, but distributions in snack type varied negligibly: overall, there were no fruit snacks, no vegetable snacks, and only 3.6% of all snacks (by liberal definition) were whole grain. The remainder (96.4% of snacks) was highly processed foods. Five of 65 manufacturers supplied 73.4% of all kinds of snack foods. Depending on serving size definition, 80.0-91.5% of snack foods were "unhealthy" (by the school nutrition standard), including seven of 11 wholegrain products. A single snack item could supply 6-14% of a day's recommended calories, fat, sugar, and sodium on average (or 56-169% at the extreme) for a "typical" child. We conclude that corner store snack food inventories are almost entirely unhealthful, and we discuss possible implications and next steps for research and intervention.

  1. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  2. Consumer purchasing patterns in response to calorie labeling legislation in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbel Brian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health threat and policies aimed at curbing this epidemic are emerging. National calorie labeling legislation is forthcoming and requires rigorous evaluation to examine its impact on consumers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether point-of-purchase calorie labels in New York City (NYC chain restaurants affected food purchasing patterns in a sample of lower income adults in NYC and Newark, NJ. Methods This study utilized a difference-in-difference design to survey 1,170 adult patrons of four popular chain restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ (which did not introduce labeling before and after calorie labeling was implemented in NYC. Receipt data were collected and analyzed to examine food and beverage purchases and frequency of fast food consumption. Descriptive statistics were generated, and linear and logistic regression, difference-in-difference analysis, and predicted probabilities were used to analyze the data. Results A difference-in-difference analysis revealed no significant favorable differences and some unfavorable differences in food purchasing patterns and frequency of fast food consumption between adult patrons of fast food restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ. Adults in NYC who reported noticing and using the calorie labels consumed fast food less frequently compared to adults who did not notice the labels (4.9 vs. 6.6 meals per week, p Conclusion While no favorable differences in purchasing as a result of labeling were noted, self-reported use of calorie labels was associated with some favorable behavioral patterns in a subset of adults in NYC. However, overall impact of the legislation may be limited. More research is needed to understand the most effective way to deliver calorie information to consumers.

  3. Reducing calorie sales from supermarkets - 'silent' reformulation of retailer-brand food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Sommer, Iben

    2017-08-23

    Food product reformulation is seen as one among several tools to promote healthier eating. Reformulating the recipe for a processed food, e.g. reducing the fat, sugar or salt content of the foods, or increasing the content of whole-grains, can help the consumers to pursue a healthier life style. In this study, we evaluate the effects on calorie sales of a 'silent' reformulation strategy, where a retail chain's private-label brands are reformulated to a lower energy density without making specific claims on the product. Using an ecological study design, we analyse 52 weeks' sales data - enriched with data on products' energy density - from a Danish retail chain. Sales of eight product categories were studied. Within each of these categories, specific products had been reformulated during the 52 weeks data period. Using econometric methods, we decompose the changes in calorie turnover and sales value into direct and indirect effects of product reformulation. For all considered products, the direct effect of product reformulation was a reduction in the sale of calories from the respective product categories - between 0.5 and 8.2%. In several cases, the reformulation led to indirect substitution effects that were counterproductive with regard to reducing calorie turnover. However, except in two insignificant cases, these indirect substitution effects were dominated by the direct effect of the reformulation, leading to net reductions in calorie sales between -3.1 and 7.5%. For all considered product reformulations, the reformulation had either positive, zero or very moderate negative effects on the sales value of the product category to which the reformulated product belonged. Based on these findings, 'silent' reformulation of retailer's private brands towards lower energy density seems to contribute to lowering the calorie intake in the population (although to a moderate extent) with moderate losses in retailer's sales revenues.

  4. Calorie-induced ER stress suppresses uroguanylin satiety signaling in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, G W; Lin, J E; Snook, A E; Aing, A S; Merlino, D J; Li, P; Waldman, S A

    2016-05-23

    The uroguanylin-GUCY2C gut-brain axis has emerged as one component regulating feeding, energy homeostasis, body mass and metabolism. Here, we explore a role for this axis in mechanisms underlying diet-induced obesity (DIO). Intestinal uroguanylin expression and secretion, and hypothalamic GUCY2C expression and anorexigenic signaling, were quantified in mice on high-calorie diets for 14 weeks. The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in suppressing uroguanylin in DIO was explored using tunicamycin, an inducer of ER stress, and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a chemical chaperone that inhibits ER stress. The impact of consumed calories on uroguanylin expression was explored by dietary manipulation. The role of uroguanylin in mechanisms underlying obesity was examined using Camk2a-Cre-ER(T2)-Rosa-STOP(loxP/loxP)-Guca2b mice in which tamoxifen induces transgenic hormone expression in brain. DIO suppressed intestinal uroguanylin expression and eliminated its postprandial secretion into the circulation. DIO suppressed uroguanylin through ER stress, an effect mimicked by tunicamycin and blocked by TUDCA. Hormone suppression by DIO reflected consumed calories, rather than the pathophysiological milieu of obesity, as a diet high in calories from carbohydrates suppressed uroguanylin in lean mice, whereas calorie restriction restored uroguanylin in obese mice. However, hypothalamic GUCY2C, enriched in the arcuate nucleus, produced anorexigenic signals mediating satiety upon exogenous agonist administration, and DIO did not impair these responses. Uroguanylin replacement by transgenic expression in brain repaired the hormone insufficiency and reconstituted satiety responses opposing DIO and its associated comorbidities, including visceral adiposity, glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis. These studies reveal a novel pathophysiological mechanism contributing to obesity in which calorie-induced suppression of intestinal uroguanylin impairs hypothalamic mechanisms

  5. Effects of physical activity calorie expenditure (PACE) labeling: study design and baseline sample characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Anthony J; Tuttle, Laura; Olsson, Emily; Gras-Najjar, Julie; Gizlice, Ziya; Hales, Derek; Linnan, Laura; Lin, Feng-Chang; Noar, Seth M; Ammerman, Alice

    2017-09-12

    Obesity and physical inactivity are responsible for more than 365,000 deaths per year and contribute substantially to rising healthcare costs in the US, making clear the need for effective public health interventions. Calorie labeling on menus has been implemented to guide consumer ordering behaviors, but effects on calories purchased has been minimal. In this project, we tested the effect of physical activity calorie expenditure (PACE) food labels on actual point-of-decision food purchasing behavior as well as physical activity. Using a two-group interrupted time series cohort study design in three worksite cafeterias, one cafeteria was assigned to the intervention condition, and the other two served as controls. Calories from food purchased in the cafeteria were assessed by photographs of meals (accompanied by notes made on-site) using a standardized calorie database and portion size-estimation protocol. Primary outcomes will be average calories purchased and minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) by individuals in the cohorts. We will compare pre-post changes in study outcomes between study groups using piecewise generalized linear mixed model regressions (segmented regressions) with a single change point in our interrupted time-series study. The results of this project will provide evidence of the effectiveness of worksite cafeteria menu labeling, which could potentially inform policy intervention approaches. Labels that convey information in a more readily understandable manner may be more effective at motivating behavior change. Strengths of this study include its cohort design and its robust data capture methods using food photographs and accelerometry.

  6. Changes of Insulin Resistance and Adipokines Following Supplementation with Glycyrrhiza Glabra L. Extract in Combination with a Low-Calorie Diet in Overweight and Obese Subjects: a Randomized Double Blind Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alizadeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Adipose tissue is a highly active endocrine organ which plays a key role in energy homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dried licorice extract along with a calorie restricted diet on body composition, insulin resistance and adipokines in overweight and obese subjects. Methods: Sixty-four overweight and obese volunteers (27 men, 37 women were recruited into this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, clinical trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the Licorice (n=32 or the placebo group (n=32, and each group received a low-calorie diet with either 1.5 g/day of Licorice extract or placebo for 8 weeks. Biochemical parameters, anthropometric indices, body composition and dietary intake were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Results: A total of 58 subjects completed the trial. No side effects were observed following licorice supplementation. At the end of the study, waist circumference, fat mass, serum levels of vaspin, zinc-α2 glycoprotein, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly decreased in the intervention group, but only the reduction in serum vaspin levels in the licorice group was significant when compared to the placebo group (p<0.01. Conclusion: Supplementation with dried licorice extract plus a low-calorie diet can increase vaspin levels in obese subjects. However, the anti-obesity effects of the intervention were not stronger than a low-calorie diet alone in the management of obesity.

  7. Calorie and Gram Differences between Meals at Fast Food and Table Service Restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    James K. Binkley

    2008-01-01

    Concerns about the calorie content of restaurant food have focused on fast food. However, there is no specific evidence that fast food is worse than other food eaten away from home (FAFH). We use the Continuing Survey of Individual Food Intake to compare fast food and table service meals. We find that both are larger and have more calories than meals prepared at home, with table service exceeding fast food, possibly due to different pricing methods. However, for the full day, both result in s...

  8. The Daily Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else

    2015-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, The Daily Selection, I will be addressing the overall question of how research on wardrobes can contribute to a more effective connection between the production and the consumption of dress objects. The thesis builds on exemplary studies of people in their wardrobes....... As such, the parts, when taken as a whole, represent an evolving process through which my overall research questions are being filtered and reflected. My scholarly approach builds on the fusing of fashion and dress research and design research, in this way closing a gap between dress practice as...

  9. Increased bile acids in enterohepatic circulation by short-term calorie restriction in male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Zidong Donna [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 66160 (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 66160 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Previous studies showed glucose and insulin signaling can regulate bile acid (BA) metabolism during fasting or feeding. However, limited knowledge is available on the effect of calorie restriction (CR), a well-known anti-aging intervention, on BA homeostasis. To address this, the present study utilized a “dose–response” model of CR, where male C57BL/6 mice were fed 0, 15, 30, or 40% CR diets for one month, followed by BA profiling in various compartments of the enterohepatic circulation by UPLC-MS/MS technique. This study showed that 40% CR increased the BA pool size (162%) as well as total BAs in serum, gallbladder, and small intestinal contents. In addition, CR “dose-dependently” increased the concentrations of tauro-cholic acid (TCA) and many secondary BAs (produced by intestinal bacteria) in serum, such as tauro-deoxycholic acid (TDCA), DCA, lithocholic acid, ω-muricholic acid (ωMCA), and hyodeoxycholic acid. Notably, 40% CR increased TDCA by over 1000% (serum, liver, and gallbladder). Interestingly, 40% CR increased the proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs (CA and DCA), which correlated with improved glucose tolerance and lipid parameters. The CR-induced increase in BAs correlated with increased expression of BA-synthetic (Cyp7a1) and conjugating enzymes (BAL), and the ileal BA-binding protein (Ibabp). These results suggest that CR increases BAs in male mice possibly through orchestrated increases in BA synthesis and conjugation in liver as well as intracellular transport in ileum. - Highlights: • Dose response effects of short-term CR on BA homeostasis in male mice. • CR increased the BA pool size and many individual BAs. • CR altered BA composition (increased proportion of 12α-hydroxylated BAs). • Increased mRNAs of BA enzymes in liver (Cyp7a1 and BAL) and ileal BA binding protein.

  10. Antiobesity Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata in High-Calorie/High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Kyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antiobesity effects of Codonopsis lanceolata (CL were evaluated in a high-calorie/high-fat-diet (HFD- induced obesity rat model and 3T3-L1 cells. The Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed a normal diet (ND or a HFD for a period of 12 weeks. The rats were subdivided into groups: ND, ND + wild Codonopsis lanceolata (wCL (900 mg/kg/day, p.o., ND + cultivated Codonopsis lanceolata (cCL (900 mg/kg/day, p.o., HFD, HFD + wCL (100, 300, or 900 mg/kg/day, p.o., HFD + cCL (100, 300, or 900 mg/kg/day, p.o., and HFD + sibutramine. The body weight gains of the administered HFD + CL (wCL or CCL were lower than those of the rats fed with only the HFD group. Moreover, the weight of adipose pads and the serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the group administered HDL + CL were significantly lower than in the HFD group. The inhibitory effect of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells was measured by Oil Red O staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with wCL inhibited lipid accumulation and expression of C/EBPα and PPARγ. These results suggest that CL has a great potential as a functional food with anti-obesity effects and as a therapeutic alternative in the treatment of obesity.

  11. Effect of calorie restriction on energy expenditure in overweight and obese adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Jaime, Teresa; Leiva Balich, Laura; Barrera Acevedo, Gladys; de la Maza Cave, María Pía; Hirsch Birn, Sandra; Henríquez Parada, Sandra; Rodríguez Silva, Juan; Bunout Barnett, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) may decrease in subjects on hypocaloric diets, in amounts that exceed body mass loss, favoring weight regain. To verify if a short-term caloric restriction lowers Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) and Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) more than predicted by changes in body composition, and if this reduction of EE is related with compliance to the diet. Twenty-two women aged 23-44 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 25-32 kg/m2, underwent a three-month calorie restriction treatment (20 kcal/kg initial weight) and were encouraged to increase their physical activity. At the beginning and end of the intervention, body composition (DEXA), REE, Physical Activity Energy Expenditure (PAEE) and TEE were assessed, through a combination of indirect calorimetry and actigraphy. Participants, who lost more or equal than 5% of their initial weight were considered compliant with the diet. In the compliant group, REE decreased, when expressed in absolute numbers or when adjusted by fat free mass (FFM) [-164 ± 168 kcal/day (10,6%) and -4,3 ± 4,6 kcal/kg FFM (10,5%)]. This decline was significantly greater than that observed in the non-compliant group [-6,2 ± 1.42 Kcal/day (0.16%) and -0,5 ± 3,4/Kg FFM (0.96%)]. FFM did not change in any of the two groups. At baseline, there was a significant correlation between FFM and REE (r = 0, 56 p women showed a significant reduction in both absolute and adjusted REE, which together with the loss of correlation between REE and FFM at the end of the intervention suggests a metabolic adaptation. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. The experiences of women with polycystic ovary syndrome on a very low-calorie diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Love JG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available John G Love,1 John S McKenzie,2 Efsevia A Nikokavoura,3 John Broom,3 Catherine Rolland,3 Kelly L Johnston4,5 1School of Applied Social Studies, Faculty of Health & Social Care, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK; 2Rowett Institute of Health & Nutrition, University of Aberdeen, St Mary’s, Kings College, Aberdeen, UK; 3Centre for Obesity Research, Faculty of Health & Social Care, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK; 4LighterLife, Harlow, Essex, UK; 5Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Kings College London, London, UK Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is variously reported to affect between 5% and 26% of reproductive age women in the UK and accounts for up to 75% of women attending fertility clinics due to anovulation. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions. However, optimal dietary guidelines are missing, with very little research having been done in this area. This paper presents the findings from a qualitative study (using semistructured interviews of ten obese women who had PCOS and who had used LighterLife Total (LLT, a commercial weight loss program which utilizes a very low-calorie diet in conjunction with behavioral change therapy underpinned by group support. We investigated the women’s history of obesity, their experiences of other diets compared with LLT, and the on-going impact that this has had on their lives. Findings show that most women reported greater success using this weight loss program in terms of achieving and maintaining weight loss when compared with other diets. Furthermore, all the women nominated LLT as their model weight loss intervention with only a few modifications. Keywords: PCOS, obesity, weight loss, diet

  13. The effect of very low-calorie diets on renal and hepatic outcomes: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roll

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Rolland,1 Alexandra Mavroeidi,2 Kelly L Johnston,3 John Broom1,31Centre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology (CORE, Faculty of Health and Social Care, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK; 2School of Medical Sciences, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK; 3LighterLife Ltd, Harlow, Essex, UKAbstract: Very low-calorie diets (VLCDs are an effective means by which to induce clinically significant weight loss. However, their acceptance by health care practitioners and the public is generally lower than that for other nonsurgical weight loss methods. Whilst there is currently little evidence to suggest they have any detrimental effect on hepatic and renal health, data assessing these factors remain limited. We carried out a systematic review of the literature on randomized controlled trials that had a VLCD component and that reported outcomes for hepatic and renal health, published between January 1980 and December 2012. Cochrane criteria were followed, and eight out of 196 potential articles met the inclusion criteria. A total of 548 participants were recruited across the eight studies. All eight studies reported significant weight loss following the VLCD. Changes in hepatic and renal outcomes were variable but generally led to either no change or improvements in either of these. Due to the heterogeneity in the quality and methodology of the studies included, the effect of VLCDs on hepatic and renal outcomes remains unclear at this stage. Further standardized research is therefore required to fully assess the impact of VLCDs on these outcome measures, to better guide clinical practice.Keywords: obesity, liver, kidney, weight loss, health

  14. Cross-sectional survey of the amount of free sugars and calories in carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages on sale in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J; Jenner, Katharine H; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the free sugars and calorie content of carbonated sugar-sweetened beverages (CSSB) available in the main UK supermarkets. Study design We carried out a cross-sectional survey in 2014 of 169 CSSB. Methods The free sugars (sugars g/100 mL) and calorie (kcal/100 mL) were collected from product packaging and nutrient information panels of CSSB available in 9 main UK supermarkets. Results The average free sugars content in CSSB was 30.1±10.7 g/330 mL, and 91% of CSSB would receive a ‘red’ (high) label for sugars per serving. There was a large variation in sugars content between different flavours of CSSB and within the same type of flavour ranging from 3.3 to 52.8 g/330 mL. On average, ginger beer (38.5±9.9 g/330 mL) contained the highest amounts of sugars and ginger ale (22.9±7.7 g/330 mL) contained the lowest. Cola flavour is the most popular flavour in the UK with an average free sugars content of 35.0±1.1 g/330 mL. On average, the supermarket own brand contained lower levels of sugars than branded products (27.9±10.6 vs 31.6±10.6 g/330 mL, p=0.02). The average calorie content in CSSB was 126.1±43.5 kcal/330 mL. Cola flavour had a calorie content of 143.5±5.2 kcal/330 mL. Among the 169 products surveyed, 55% exceeded the maximum daily recommendation for free sugars intake (30 g) per 330 mL. Conclusions Free sugars content of CSSB in the UK is high and is a major contributor to free sugars intake. There is a wide variation in the sugars content of CSSB and even within the same flavour of CSSB. These findings demonstrate that the amount of free sugars added to CSSB can be reduced without technical issues, and there is an urgent need to set incremental free sugars reduction targets. A reduction in sugars content and overall CSSB consumption will be very beneficial in reducing obesity, type 2 diabetes and dental caries. PMID:28186923

  15. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  16. College Students' Intentions to Use Calorie Information on a Restaurant Menu: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stran, Kimberly A.; Knol, Linda L.; Severt, Kimberly; Lawrence, Jeannine C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity continues to be an epidemic in the United States and is associated with multiple chronic diseases. Greater numbers of people eat in restaurants and select high calorie foods. Labeling laws require calorie information on menus in some restaurants. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of intention to…

  17. Tuning down the hedonic brain: Cognitive load reduces neural responses to high-calorie food pictures in the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dillen, Lotte F; van Steenbergen, Henk

    2018-06-01

    The present research examined whether cognitive load modulates the neural processing of appetitive, high-calorie food stimuli. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, participants quickly categorized high-calorie and low-calorie food pictures versus object pictures as edible or inedible while they concurrently performed a digit-span task that varied between low and high cognitive load (memorizing six digits vs. one digit). In line with predictions, the digit-span task engaged the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when cognitive load was high compared to low. Moreover, exposure to high-calorie compared to low-calorie food pictures led to increased activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), but only when cognitive load was low and not when it was high. In addition, connectivity analyses showed that load altered the functional coupling between NAcc and right DLPFC during presentation of the high-calorie versus low-calorie food pictures. Together, these findings indicate that loading the cognitive system moderates hedonic brain responses to high-calorie food pictures via interactions between NAcc and DLPFC. Our findings are consistent with the putative cognitive nature of food motivation. Implications for future research are discussed.

  18. Attenuation of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in high calorie fed/streptozotocin-treated rats by hydromethanolic extract of Padina tetrastromatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya S. Mohan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of defatted hydromethanolic extract of Padina tetrastromatica on carbohydrate metabolism and serum lipid profile were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in male Wistar rats by feeding high calorie/energy diet for two months followed by a single intraperitoneal injecttion of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were administered with the extract intragastrically at doses of 150, 300, 450, and 600 mg/kg body weight daily for 45 days. Treatment with graded doses showed a dose dependent reduction in blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels. Treatment significantly increased the activity of hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycogen content while there was significant reduction in the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. Serum lipid profile was also brought back to near normal levels in a dose dependent manner. The present study clearly indicates the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of P. tetrastromatica at an optimum dose of 450 mg/kg body weight.

  19. Chronic Low-Calorie Sweetener Use and Risk of Abdominal Obesity among Older Adults: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee W Chia

    Full Text Available Low-calorie sweetener use for weight control has come under increasing scrutiny as obesity, especially abdominal obesity, remain entrenched despite substantial low-calorie sweetener use. We evaluated whether chronic low-calorie sweetener use is a risk factor for abdominal obesity.We used 8268 anthropometric measurements and 3096 food diary records with detailed information on low-calorie sweetener consumption in all food products, from 1454 participants (741 men, 713 women in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging collected from 1984 to 2012 with median follow-up of 10 years (range: 0-28 years. At baseline, 785 were low-calorie sweetener non-users (51.7% men and 669 participants were low-calorie sweetener users (50.1% men. Time-varying low-calorie sweetener use was operationalized as the proportion of visits since baseline at which low-calorie sweetener use was reported. We used marginal structural models to determine the association between baseline and time-varying low-calorie sweetener use with longitudinal outcomes-body mass index, waist circumference, obesity and abdominal obesity-with outcome status assessed at the visit following low-calorie sweetener ascertainment to minimize the potential for reverse causality. All models were adjusted for year of visit, age, sex, age by sex interaction, race, current smoking status, dietary intake (caffeine, fructose, protein, carbohydrate, and fat, physical activity, diabetes status, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score as confounders.With median follow-up of 10 years, low-calorie sweetener users had 0.80 kg/m2 higher body mass index (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-1.44, 2.6 cm larger waist circumference (95% CI, 0.71-4.39, 36.7% higher prevalence (prevalence ratio = 1.37; 95% CI, 1.10-1.69 and 53% higher incidence (hazard ratio = 1.53; 95% CI 1.10-2.12 of abdominal obesity than low-calorie sweetener non-users.Low-calorie sweetener use is independently associated with heavier

  20. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. New daily persistent headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New daily persistent headache (NDPH is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.

  2. Making Daily Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon

    elucidate aspects of urban everyday mobility that can be utilized in policy and planning perspectives. This knowledge can aid construction of generalized qualitative scenarios that together with quantitative transport models can serve as wider knowledge foundation in decision making process.......In 2012 the average daily transportation distance for every Dane were 40 km (TU Data). Realising how much of life is spend thinking about, planning and performing mobility practices it becomes evident that it is much more than an instrumental physical phenomenon – it has great repercussions on life......, social networks, understanding of places and ultimately ourselves and others. To successfully accomplish everyday life, households have to cope with large number of different activities and mobility in relation to their children, work, social life, obligations, expectations, needs and wishes. Drawing...

  3. Physics in daily life

    CERN Document Server

    Hermans, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This book provides answers to everyday questions that any curious mind would ask, like : Why is water blue ? What makes ice so slippery ? How do we localize sound ? How do we keep our body temperature so nice and constant ? How do we survive the sauna at 90 C ? Why do large raindrops fall faster than small ones, and what exactly is their speed ? The answers are given in an accessible and playful way, and are illustrated with funny cartoons. In this book forty "Physics in Daily Life" columns, which appeared earlier in Europhysics News, are brought together in one inspiring volume. As well as being a source of enjoyment and satisfying insights for anyone with some physics background, it also serves as a very good teaching tool for science students. This booklet is a feast of erudition and humour.

  4. Treatment of Obesity by Behavior Therapy and Very Low Calorie Diet: A Pilot Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadden, Thomas A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Explored the effectiveness of a very low calorie diet to induce rapid weight loss, combined with behavioral techniques to maintain this loss in 17 obese women. Results showed a substantial and sustained weight loss. Subjects did not experience increased anxiety or depression. (JAC)

  5. Nicotinamide and PNC1 govern lifespan extension by calorie restriction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rozalyn M; Bitterman, Kevin J; Wood, Jason G; Medvedik, Oliver; Sinclair, David A

    2003-05-08

    Calorie restriction extends lifespan in a broad range of organisms, from yeasts to mammals. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, including decreased oxidative damage and altered energy metabolism. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, lifespan extension by calorie restriction requires the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase, Sir2 (ref. 1). We have recently shown that Sir2 and its closest human homologue SIRT1, a p53 deacetylase, are strongly inhibited by the vitamin B3 precursor nicotinamide. Here we show that increased expression of PNC1 (pyrazinamidase/nicotinamidase 1), which encodes an enzyme that deaminates nicotinamide, is both necessary and sufficient for lifespan extension by calorie restriction and low-intensity stress. We also identify PNC1 as a longevity gene that is responsive to all stimuli that extend lifespan. We provide evidence that nicotinamide depletion is sufficient to activate Sir2 and that this is the mechanism by which PNC1 regulates longevity. We conclude that yeast lifespan extension by calorie restriction is the consequence of an active cellular response to a low-intensity stress and speculate that nicotinamide might regulate critical cellular processes in higher organisms.

  6. High-calorie diet exacerbates prostate neoplasia in mice with haploinsufficiency of Pten tumor suppressor gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehnan Liu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: High-calorie diet promotes prostate cancer progression in the genetically susceptible Pten haploinsufficient mouse while preserving insulin sensitivity. This appears to be partly due to increased inflammatory response to high-caloric intake in addition to increased ability of insulin to promote lipogenesis.

  7. Differences in Sirtuin Regulation in Response to Calorie Restriction in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouklas, Tejas; Masone, Lindsey; Fries, Bettina C

    2018-02-18

    Cryptococcus neoformans successfully replicates in low glucose in infected patients. In the serotype A strain, H99, growth in this condition prolongs lifespan regulated by SIR2, and can be modulated with SIR2-specific drugs. Previous studies show that lifespan modulation of a cryptococcal population affects its sensitivity to antifungals, and survival in an infection model. Sirtuins and their role in longevity are conserved among fungi; however, the effect of glucose starvation is not confirmed even in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Lifespan analysis of C. neoformans strains in low glucose showed that 37.5% exhibited pro-longevity, and lifespan of a serotype D strain, RC2, was shortened. Transcriptome comparison of H99 and RC2 under calorie restriction demonstrated differences, confirmed by real-time PCR showing that SIR2 , TOR1 , SCH9 , and PKA1 expression correlated with lifespan response to calorie restriction. As expected, RC2 -sir2 Δ cells exhibited a shortened lifespan, which was reconstituted. However, shortened lifespan from calorie restriction was independent of SIR2 . In contrast to H99 but consistent with altered SIR2 regulation, SIR2 -specific drugs did not affect outcome of RC2 infection. These data suggest that SIR2 regulation and response to calorie restriction varies in C. neoformans, which should be considered when Sirtuins are investigated as potential therapy targets for fungal infections.

  8. Neural Processing of Calories in Brain Reward Areas Can be Modulated by Reward Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Inge; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    A food's reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food's acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity), however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth

  9. 76 FR 37291 - Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    .... FDA-2011-F-0171] Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines; Correction... certain articles of food sold from vending machines. The document published with several errors including... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Daniel Y. Reese, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-820), Food...

  10. Prevalence of Low Calorie Intake by Rural Families in Palpa District of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhan Ghimire

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy population is indispensable for national development. Adequate food intake by people is the key determinant to keep up their health. Malnutrition nevertheless remains pervasive in developing countries, undermining people’s health, productivity, and often their survival. Food insecurity and hunger remain persistent in Nepal. Prevalence of low calories intake by rural family is widespread throughout the country population. Mainly marginalized communities, ethnic group with poor economic status, traditional societies and lower cast people are exposed to food defi cit. Objective: to investigate the prevalence of low calories intake by rural families and its associated determinants in Palpa district. Materials and methods: The cross-sectional study was designed to achieve objective of the research. A random sample of 339 families was selected from rural areas (DUMRE, DAMKADA, GORKHEKOT and TELGHA villages of this district. Data were analyzed by using the SPSS software for Windows (version 16.0. Results: The existence of inadequate food calorie intake among rural families was most common. Most of them were malnourished. Conclusion: low calorie intake by ethnic group was considerably higher than other groups in community.

  11. The effect of economic factors on families calorie demand in rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hossein ebadipour

    2016-11-01

    The quantity of the received calories by families is one of the important debates in public and development economic context. This is an attractive subject for government officials and policy makers in different countries. In the current paper, the impacts of households' income shocks, price and food commodity subsidies on the quantity of the received amount of calories in the rural parts of Iran are studied. For this purpose, we used time series data of 1961-2011 in the vector auto-regressive (VAR model. The results indicated that the impact period of the applied shock on the quantity of paid subsidies to agricultural sector is shorter than the period of price and income shocks. Besides, the most sensitivity of calorie demand is related to the income factor. According to the research findings, we can conclude that for creating food security, we should create economic stability in the market and consider the final effect of changes in nutrition pattern when determining the policies regarding market regulation, subsidies and taxation regardless of income growth that affect rural households and will have a serious negative impact on calories.

  12. Food labeling; calorie labeling of articles of food in vending machines. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    To implement the vending machine food labeling provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is establishing requirements for providing calorie declarations for food sold from certain vending machines. This final rule will ensure that calorie information is available for certain food sold from a vending machine that does not permit a prospective purchaser to examine the Nutrition Facts Panel before purchasing the article, or does not otherwise provide visible nutrition information at the point of purchase. The declaration of accurate and clear calorie information for food sold from vending machines will make calorie information available to consumers in a direct and accessible manner to enable consumers to make informed and healthful dietary choices. This final rule applies to certain food from vending machines operated by a person engaged in the business of owning or operating 20 or more vending machines. Vending machine operators not subject to the rules may elect to be subject to the Federal requirements by registering with FDA.

  13. Obesity-related beliefs predict weight loss after an 8-week low-calorie diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamsteker, E.W.; Geenen, R.; Iestra, J.A.; Larsen, J.K.; Zelissen, P.M.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether beliefs about the cause, consequences, time line, and control of obesity are predictors of the amount of weight loss after an 8-week, low-calorie diet consisting of meal replacements. Forty-eight women and 18 men, mean age=45.9 (range=23 to 73

  14. A multicentre weight loss study using a low-calorie diet over 8 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Plada, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of low-calorie diets (LCDs) has not been investigated in large-scale studies or among people from different regions, who are perhaps unaccustomed to such methods of losing weight. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in obesity measures among overweight/obese adults...

  15. Calorie restricted high protein diets downregulate lipogenesis and lower intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR) alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-...

  16. Reshaping the gut microbiota: Impact of low calorie sweeteners and the link to insulin resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettleton, Jodi E; Reimer, Raylene A; Shearer, Jane

    2016-10-01

    Disruption in the gut microbiota is now recognized as an active contributor towards the development of obesity and insulin resistance. This review considers one class of dietary additives known to influence the gut microbiota that may predispose susceptible individuals to insulin resistance - the regular, long-term consumption of low-dose, low calorie sweeteners. While the data are controversial, mounting evidence suggests that low calorie sweeteners should not be dismissed as inert in the gut environment. Sucralose, aspartame and saccharin, all widely used to reduce energy content in foods and beverages to promote satiety and encourage weight loss, have been shown to disrupt the balance and diversity of gut microbiota. Fecal transplant experiments, wherein microbiota from low calorie sweetener consuming hosts are transferred into germ-free mice, show that this disruption is transferable and results in impaired glucose tolerance, a well-known risk factor towards the development of a number of metabolic disease states. As our understanding of the importance of the gut microbiota in metabolic health continues to grow, it will be increasingly important to consider the impact of all dietary components, including low calorie sweeteners, on gut microbiota and metabolic health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High-calorie food-cues impair working memory performance in high and low food cravers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Skirde, Ann Kathrin; Freund, Rebecca; Vögele, Claus; Kübler, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    The experience of food craving can lead to cognitive impairments. Experimentally induced chocolate craving exhausts cognitive resources and, therefore, impacts working memory, particularly in trait chocolate cravers. In the current study, we investigated the effects of exposure to food-cues on working memory task performance in a group with frequent and intense (high cravers, n=28) and less pronounced food cravings (low cravers, n=28). Participants performed an n-back task that contained either pictures of high-calorie sweets, high-calorie savory foods, or neutral objects. Current subjective food craving was assessed before and after the task. All participants showed slower reaction times and made more omission errors in response to food-cues, particularly savory foods. There were no differences in task performance between groups. State cravings did not differ between groups before the task, but increased more in high cravers compared to low cravers during the task. Results support findings about food cravings impairing visuo-spatial working memory performance independent of trait cravings. They further show that this influence is not restricted to chocolate, but also applies to high-calorie savory foods. Limiting working memory capacity may be especially crucial in persons who are more prone to high-calorie food-cues and experience such cravings habitually. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Calorie counting and fitness tracking technology: Associations with eating disorder symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Courtney C; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2017-08-01

    The use of online calorie tracking applications and activity monitors is increasing exponentially. Anecdotal reports document the potential for these trackers to trigger, maintain, or exacerbate eating disorder symptomatology. Yet, research has not examined the relation between use of these devices and eating disorder-related attitudes and behaviors. This study explored associations between the use of calorie counting and fitness tracking devices and eating disorder symptomatology. Participants (N=493) were college students who reported their use of tracking technology and completed measures of eating disorder symptomatology. Individuals who reported using calorie trackers manifested higher levels of eating concern and dietary restraint, controlling for BMI. Additionally, fitness tracking was uniquely associated with ED symptomatology after adjusting for gender and bingeing and purging behavior within the past month. Findings highlight associations between use of calorie and fitness trackers and eating disorder symptomatology. Although preliminary, overall results suggest that for some individuals, these devices might do more harm than good. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A dip-slide test for bacteriuria in protein-calorie malnutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple dip-slide test was used to determine the incidence of bacteriuria in children suffering from protein-calorie malnutrition. Bacteriuria was found to be equally common in patients suffering from kwashiorkor and atrophic malnutrition and in a control group with normal nutritional status. The test is inexpensive and has a ...

  20. Liver and gallbladder disease before and after very-low-calorie diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T

    1992-01-01

    Hepatobiliary characteristics of untreated obese patients and those of patients reducing weight through very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs) are reviewed. In untreated obesity, hepatobiliary abnormalities are prevalent. Fatty change is common and may be related to insulin resistance. Moreover, portal...

  1. Calorie restriction reduces the incidence of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia and spontaneous tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuko

    1999-01-01

    The host-defense mechanisms against cancers are known to be modulated by changing the environmental factor(s). The spontaneous incidence of myeloid leukemia is about 1% in C3H/He mice, and the incidence increases up to 23.3% when a single dose of radiation, 3 Gy X-ray, is exposed to a whole-body. Since calorie restriction was known to reduce the incidence of spontaneous tumors, a question as to whether such radiation induced-increase of myeloid leukemia would be also decreased by calorie restriction, was aimed to answer to elucidate possible mechanism of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia. By the calorie restriction, the incidence of myeloid leukemia was significantly decreased; it was reduced to 7.9% and 10.7% when restriction was started before (6 weeks old) and after (10 weeks old) irradiation, respectively. In addition, the latent period of the myeloid leukemia in the groups for calorie restriction was significantly extended at a greater extent as compared with the control diet groups. Number of hematopoietic stem cells, the possible target cells for radiation-induced leukemias, in the groups for the calorie restriction demonstrated a significant decrease, especially in the spleen, as compared with that in the control, when the evaluation was made at the time of radiation exposure. Then, we examined whether the decreased number of target cells at the time of exposure is caused by the reduction of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia with caloric restriction. The third restricted groups were fed 65 kcal diet (restricted diet) for the first 4 weeks i.e. from 6 weeks to 10 weeks old, then, the mice were fed with control diet after radiation. The incidence of myeloid leukemia in this group was slightly decreased but did not show statistically significance. Therefore, the caloric restriction seems to be more effective in the promotion stage than the initiation stage on radiation-induced leukemogenesis. It is well known that C3H/He mice develop hepatoma spontaneously

  2. Consumer purchasing patterns in response to calorie labeling legislation in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiveloo, Maya K; Dixon, L Beth; Elbel, Brian

    2011-05-27

    Obesity is a major public health threat and policies aimed at curbing this epidemic are emerging. National calorie labeling legislation is forthcoming and requires rigorous evaluation to examine its impact on consumers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether point-of-purchase calorie labels in New York City (NYC) chain restaurants affected food purchasing patterns in a sample of lower income adults in NYC and Newark, NJ. This study utilized a difference-in-difference design to survey 1,170 adult patrons of four popular chain restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ (which did not introduce labeling) before and after calorie labeling was implemented in NYC. Receipt data were collected and analyzed to examine food and beverage purchases and frequency of fast food consumption. Descriptive statistics were generated, and linear and logistic regression, difference-in-difference analysis, and predicted probabilities were used to analyze the data. A difference-in-difference analysis revealed no significant favorable differences and some unfavorable differences in food purchasing patterns and frequency of fast food consumption between adult patrons of fast food restaurants in NYC and Newark, NJ. Adults in NYC who reported noticing and using the calorie labels consumed fast food less frequently compared to adults who did not notice the labels (4.9 vs. 6.6 meals per week, p behavioral patterns in a subset of adults in NYC. However, overall impact of the legislation may be limited. More research is needed to understand the most effective way to deliver calorie information to consumers.

  3. Edificio Daily Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Owen

    1963-07-01

    Full Text Available The building has 18 levels. The Press occupies the 4 basement floors. The ground floor is taken up with the entrance hall, and an indoor carriage way. A snack bar and the telephone operators are situated on the second floor. The production department and the medical services are located on the third storey, whilst the fourth is occupied by the offices and library. The fifth floor is the beginning of the higher section of the building. This floor and up to including the 11th floor are devoted to office space, except for the 10th storey, which contains the office apartments of the directors and the Council Chamber. Equipment related to various services of the building is housed on the 12th storey. Finally, this tall building constitutes a fine landmark in the London skyline. The Daily Mirror building is outstanding for the appropriate nature, the completeness and the quality of its installations, which thus provide the most widely read paper in the world with outstandingly efficient offices.Este edificio consta de 18 plantas. El cuerpo de Prensa se aloja en los cuatro sótanos; los vestíbulos de entrada y una calzada interior para vehículos se hallan en la planta baja; la primera alberga un snack-bar y centralita telefónica; la segunda, el departamento de producción y centro de asistencia médica, y la tercera, las oficinas y biblioteca principales. La cuarta planta señala el comienzo del bloque alto; esta planta, junto con las quinta, sexta, séptima, octava y décima, están dedicadas a oficinas. La novena contiene las oficinas-apartamentos de los directores y salas de Consejo, y la undécima, la maquinaria para las diversas instalaciones del edificio. La elevada torre constituye un grandioso hito de referencia en esta zona de Londres. El «Daily Mirror» se distingue por el acierto, número y perfección de sus instalaciones, que proporcionan, al periódico de mayor actualidad mundial, las más adecuadas y amplias oficinas modernas.

  4. Where are kids getting their empty calories? Stores, schools, and fast-food restaurants each played an important role in empty calorie intake among US children during 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-06-01

    Consumption of empty calories, the sum of energy from added sugar and solid fat, exceeds recommendations, but little is known about where US children obtain these empty calories. The objectives of this study were to compare children's empty calorie consumption from retail food stores, schools, and fast-food restaurants; to identify food groups that were top contributors of empty calories from each location; and to determine the location providing the majority of calories for these key food groups. This cross-sectional analysis used data from 3,077 US children aged 2 to 18 years participating in the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The empty calorie content of children's intake from stores (33%), schools (32%), and fast-food restaurants (35%) was not significantly different in 2009-2010. In absolute terms, stores provided the majority of empty calorie intake (436 kcal). The top contributors of added sugar and solid fat from each location were similar: sugar-sweetened beverages, grain desserts, and high-fat milk∗ from stores; high-fat milk, grain desserts, and pizza from schools; and sugar-sweetened beverages, dairy desserts, french fries, and pizza from fast-food restaurants. Schools contributed about 20% of children's intake of high-fat milk and pizza. These findings support the need for continued efforts to reduce empty calorie intake among US children aimed not just at fast-food restaurants, but also at stores and schools. The importance of reformed school nutrition standards was suggested, as prior to implementation of these changes, schools resembled fast-food restaurants in their contributions to empty calorie intake. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Where are kids getting their empty calories? Stores, schools, and fast food restaurants each play an important role in empty calorie intake among US children in 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Jennifer M.; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.; Kenan, W.R.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of empty calories, the sum of energy from added sugar and solid fat, exceeds recommendations, but little is known about where US children obtain these empty calories. The objectives of this study were to compare children's empty calorie consumption from retail food stores, schools, and fast food restaurants; to identify food groups that were top contributors of empty calories from each location; and to determine the location providing the majority of calories for these key food groups. This cross-sectional analysis used data from 3,077 US children aged 2-18 years participating in the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The empty calorie content of children's intake from stores (33%), schools (32%), and fast food restaurants (35%) was not significantly different in 2009-2010. In absolute terms, stores provided the majority of empty calorie intake (436 kcal). The top contributors of added sugar and solid fat from each location were similar: sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs), grain desserts, and high-fat milk from stores; high-fat milk, grain desserts, and pizza from schools; and SSBs, dairy desserts, french fries, and pizza from fast food restaurants. Schools contributed about 20% of children's intake of high-fat milk and pizza. In conclusion, these findings support the need for continued efforts to reduce empty calorie intake among US children aimed not just at fast food restaurants, but also at stores and schools. The importance of reformed school nutrition standards was suggested, as prior to their implementation, schools resembled fast food restaurants in their contributions to empty calorie intake. PMID:24200654

  6. Combining Radar and Daily Precipitation Data to Estimate Meaningful Sub-daily Precipitation Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegram, G. G. S.; Bardossy, A.

    2016-12-01

    Short duration extreme rainfalls are important for design. The purpose of this presentation is not to improve the day by day estimation of precipitation, but to obtain reasonable statistics for the subdaily extremes at gauge locations. We are interested specifically in daily and sub-daily extreme values of precipitation at gauge locations. We do not employ the common procedure of using time series of control station to determine the missing data values in a target. We are interested in individual rare events, not sequences. The idea is to use radar to disaggregate daily totals to sub-daily amounts. In South Arica, an S-band radar operated relatively continuously at Bethlehem from 1998 to 2003, whose scan at 1.5 km above ground [CAPPI] overlapped a dense (10 km spacing) set of 45 pluviometers recording in the same 6-year period. Using this valuable set of data, we are only interested in rare extremes, therefore small to medium values of rainfall depth were neglected, leaving 12 days of ranked daily maxima in each set per year, whose sum typically comprised about 50% of each annual rainfall total. The method presented here uses radar for disaggregating daily gauge totals in subdaily intervals down to 15 minutes in order to extract the maxima of sub-hourly through to daily rainfall at each of 37 selected radar pixels [1 km square in plan] which contained one of the 45 pluviometers not masked out by the radar foot-print. The pluviometer data were aggregated to daily totals, to act as if they were daily read gauges; their only other task was to help in the cross-validation exercise. The extrema were obtained as quantiles by ordering the 12 daily maxima of each interval per year. The unusual and novel goal was not to obtain the reproduction of the precipitation matching in space and time, but to obtain frequency distributions of the gauge and radar extremes, by matching their ranks, which we found to be stable and meaningful in cross-validation tests. We provide and

  7. Lack of Efficacy of a Salience Nudge for Substituting Selection of Lower-Calorie for Higher-Calorie Milk in the Work Place

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Amy L.; Bogomolova, Svetlana; Buckley, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major burden on healthcare systems. Simple, cost effective interventions that encourage healthier behaviours are required. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a salience nudge for promoting a change in milk selection from full-cream to low-fat (lower calorie) in the kitchen of a university-based research institute that provided full-cream and low-fat milk free of charge. Milk selection was recorded for 12 weeks (baseline). A sign with the message “Pick me! I am low calor...

  8. Physical activity of elderly patients after total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Zbigniew; Praczko, Katarzyna; Kostka, Tomasz; Jegier, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the most common method of treatment of severe hip osteoarthritis. There is little data concerning the physical activity of total hip arthroplasty patients in Poland and investigations to explore this area are useful. The aim of the study was to describe the post-operative physical activity of total hip arthroplasty patients. A total of 146 adult people were examined, among which 28 men and 41 women had undergone total hip arthroplasty due to primary osteoarthritis of the hip, while another 32 men and 41 women matched for age who had not undergone hip surgery for osteoarthritis served as controls. The physical activity of study participants was assessed with the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire. All participants were also asked about the type and amount of physical activity they engaged in to maintain good health. Physical activity measured as the total amount of calories expended through physical activity per week was similar in the post-THA patients compared to the controls. The only differences were a smaller amount of calories expended during low-intensity physical activity by men after total hip arthroplasty compared to men who had not undergone surgery for osteoarthritis and a smaller amount of calories expended through high-intensity physical activity by women after total hip arthroplasty compared to female controls. The kinds of recreational physical activity most commonly practised by patients a mean of two years after total hip arthroplasty were marching, bicycling and general body conditioning exercises (usually the continuation of exercises recommended during post-operative rehabilitation). The percentage of post-THA patients undertaking physical activity for the prevention of non-communicable diseases was low. Physical activity should be more effectively encouraged in patients after total hip arthroplasty.

  9. Neural Processing of Calories in Brain Reward Areas Can be Modulated by Reward Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    A food's reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food's acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity), however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth and trait reward sensitivity in different hunger states. Firstly, we assessed this in data from a functional neuroimaging study (van Rijn et al., 2015), in which participants (n = 30) tasted simple solutions of a non-caloric sweetener with or without a non-sweet carbohydrate (maltodextrin) during hunger and satiety. Secondly, we expanded these analyses to regular drinks by assessing the same relationship in data from a study in which soft drinks sweetened with either sucrose or a non-caloric sweetener were administered during hunger (n = 18) (Griffioen-Roose et al., 2013). First, taste activation by the non-caloric solution/soft drink was subtracted from that by the caloric solution/soft drink to eliminate sweetness effects and retain activation induced by calories. Subsequently, this difference in taste activation was correlated with reward sensitivity as measured with the BAS drive subscale of the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) questionnaire. When participants were hungry and tasted calories from the simple solution, brain activation in the right ventral striatum (caudate), right amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (bilaterally) correlated negatively with BAS drive scores. In contrast, when participants were satiated, taste responses correlated positively with BAS drive scores in the left caudate. These results were not replicated for soft drinks. Thus, neural responses to oral calories from maltodextrin were modulated by reward sensitivity in reward-related brain areas. This was not the case for sucrose. This may be due to the direct detection of maltodextrin, but not sucrose in the oral cavity. Also, in a familiar beverage, detection of calories per se may be

  10. Neural processing of calories in brain reward areas can be modulated by reward sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge eVan Rijn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A food’s reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food’s acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity, however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth and trait reward sensitivity in different hunger states. Firstly, we assessed this in data from a functional neuroimaging study (van Rijn et al., 2015, in which participants (n=30 tasted simple solutions of a non-caloric sweetener with or without a non-sweet carbohydrate (maltodextrin during hunger and satiety. Secondly, we expanded these analyses to regular drinks by assessing the same relationship in data from a study in which soft drinks sweetened with either sucrose or a non-caloric sweetener were administered during hunger (n=18 (Griffioen-Roose et al., 2013. First, taste activation by the non-caloric solution/soft drink was subtracted from that by the caloric solution/soft drink to eliminate sweetness effects and retain activation induced by calories. Subsequently, this difference in taste activation was correlated with reward sensitivity as measured with the BAS drive subscale of the Behavioral Activation System (BAS questionnaire.When participants were hungry and tasted calories from the simple solution, brain activation in the right ventral striatum (caudate, right amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (bilaterally correlated negatively with BAS drive scores. In contrast, when participants were satiated, taste responses correlated positively with BAS drive scores in the left caudate. These results were not replicated for soft drinks. Thus, neural responses to oral calories from maltodextrin were modulated by reward sensitivity in reward-related brain areas. This was not the case for sucrose. This may be due to the direct detection of maltodextrin, but not sucrose in the oral cavity. Also, in a familiar beverage, detection of calories per

  11. A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Hua Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats.

  12. Lack of efficacy of a salience nudge for substituting selection of lower-calorie for higher-calorie milk in the work place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amy L; Bogomolova, Svetlana; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2015-06-02

    Obesity is a major burden on healthcare systems. Simple, cost effective interventions that encourage healthier behaviours are required. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a salience nudge for promoting a change in milk selection from full-cream to low-fat (lower calorie) in the kitchen of a university-based research institute that provided full-cream and low-fat milk free of charge. Milk selection was recorded for 12 weeks (baseline). A sign with the message "Pick me! I am low calorie" was then placed on the low-fat milk and consumption was recorded for a further 12 weeks. During baseline, selection of low-fat milk was greater than selection of full-cream milk (p = 0.001) with no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.12). During the intervention period overall milk selection was not different from baseline (p = 0.22), with low-fat milk consumption remaining greater than full-cream milk selection (p nudging promoted a transient increase in low-fat milk consumption, but also increased selection of full-cream milk, indicating that nudging was not effective in promoting healthier milk choices.

  13. Low calorie sweeteners: Evidence remains lacking for effects on human gut function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Charlotte; Mclaughlin, John

    2016-10-01

    The importance of nutrient induced gut-brain signalling in the regulation of human food intake has become an increasing focus of research. Much of the caloric excess consumed comes from dietary sugars, but our knowledge about the mechanisms mediating the physiological and appetitive effects of sweet tastants in the human gut and gut-brain axis is far from complete. The comparative effects of natural sugars vs low calorie sweeteners are also poorly understood. Research in animal and cellular models has suggested a key functional role in gut endocrine cells for the sweet taste receptors previously well described in oral taste. However human studies to date have very consistently failed to show that activation of the sweet taste receptor by low calorie sweeteners placed in the human gut fails to replicate any of the effects on gastric motility, gut hormones or appetitive responses evoked by caloric sugars. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Production of Low Calorie Bakery Product with Pleasant Flavour, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Ahmed M.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic plants are considered sources of antioxidants, antimicrobial and favouring agents. Four aromatic plants (Thymus vulgaris L., Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum L. and Trigonellafoenum-graecum L. were analysed in the study. Yoghurt was used to produce a low calorie pie. Chemical and rheological parameters, baking performance, staling rate and sensory properties of the pie were investigated. Volatile aroma compounds were anal-ysed with GC and GC/ MS, and antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH and β-carotene assays. The incorporation of yoghurt and some aromatic plants in the pie improved protein, fat, fibre, ash, and minerals contents and allowed achieving about 19% reduction in calories. Sensory evaluation of pie containing the mixture of aromatic plants showed its superior sensory quality. In addition, it could be concluded that aromatic plants were able to inhibit the growth of yeast, mould and bacteria and to prolong the storage periods of pie compared with the control.

  15. Reducing calorie sales from supermarkets - "silent" reformulation of retailer-brand food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Sommer, Iben

    2017-01-01

    Background Food product reformulation is seen as one among several tools to promote healthier eating. Reformulating the recipe for a processed food, e.g. reducing the fat, sugar or salt content of the foods, or increasing the content of whole-grains, can help the consumers to pursue a healthier......’ sales data – enriched with data on products’ energy density - from a Danish retail chain. Sales of eight product categories were studied. Within each of these categories, specific products had been reformulated during the 52 weeks data period. Using econometric methods, we decompose the changes...... in calorie turnover and sales value into direct and indirect effects of product reformulation. Results For all considered products, the direct effect of product reformulation was a reduction in the sale of calories from the respective product categories - between 0.5 and 8.2%. In several cases...

  16. Daily transactional and transformational leadership and daily employee engament

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breevaart, K.; Bakker, A.B.; Hetland, Jorn; Demerouti, E.; Olsen, O.K.; Espevik, R.

    2014-01-01

    This diary study adds to the leadership literature by examining the daily influence of transformational leadership, contingent reward, and active management-by-exception (MBE active) on followers' daily work engagement. We compare the unique contribution of these leadership behaviours and focus on

  17. What does self-reported "dieting" mean? Evidence from a daily diary study of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Elizabeth; Smith, Jane Ellen; Serier, Kelsey; Smith, Jamie; Santistevan, Dominique; Simmons, Jeremiah

    2018-04-21

    Dieting is often recommended as a means of weight loss, yet research consistently shows that self-reported dieting does not result in weight loss. Toward resolving this discrepancy, this study assessed the daily dietary intake and weight control strategies of people who self-identified as dieting. College women (N = 266) provided a report of their eating pattern (dieting, "watching what I eat," and/or "eating healthy") followed by three daily diaries (24-hour recalls of dietary intake and weight control strategies) elicited on randomly selected days during a one-month period. Dieters were expected to report fewer daily calories, more daily exercise, and more weight control strategies than non-dieters. At baseline, 122 participants (45.9%) endorsed both "watching" and "eating healthy" ("Concerned Eaters") while 55 (20.7%) endorsed current dieting along with "watching" and "eating healthy" ("Dieters"). Just 3 (1.1%) endorsed dieting only, and 31 (11.7%) endorsed no eating pattern ("Unconcerned Eaters"). Dieters' mean BMI was in the overweight range; the mean BMIs of other groups were in the normal weight range. Dieters did not consistently endorse dieting across diaries. Nevertheless, Dieters reported fewer daily calories, and more overall weight control strategies, including more healthy weight control strategies, than Concerned Eaters. Across groups, participants' weights did not change significantly during the study. Dieters appear to engage in weight control strategies which could result in weight loss; however, their reports of whether they are dieting vary across days, suggesting a need for more consistent behavior. These results have clinical and research implications in the area of weight loss. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Metabolic observations during the treatment of obese patients by periods of total starvation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, H.G. van; Schwarz, F.; Kinderen, P.J. der; Veeman, W.

    Ten very obese female patients were treated by periods of total starvation lasting 10 days each. In the interval between these starvation periods, a diet of 600 calories was given. Twenty-one periods were completed, 6 patients went through 3 periods each. The fasting was generally well tolerated;

  19. Forcasting Philippine daily stock exchange index | Urrutia | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study is to produce a model that can estimate a three-year forecast of the Philippine Daily Stock Exchange Index. Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model is applied ona total of 4,927 daily data observations from 1995 to 2014. By then, actual and predicted values was ...

  20. Satisfaction with daily occupations amongst asylum seekers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le; Erlandsson, Lena-Karin; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente

    2015-01-01

    to their satisfaction with daily occupations and activity level. METHODS: A total of 43 asylum seekers at baseline and 17 at follow-up were included. The questionnaires Satisfaction with Daily Occupations, Major Depression Inventory, WHO-5 Wellbeing, Pain Detect, a questionnaire covering torture, and basic social...

  1. Consumers’ estimation of calorie content at fast food restaurants: cross sectional observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Jason Perry; Condon, Suzanne K; Kleinman, Ken Paul; Mullen, Jewel; Linakis, Stephanie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl Lynn; Gillman, Matthew William

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fast food restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Design: Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fast food restaurant chains. Setting: 89 fast food restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s, KFC, Dunkin’ Donuts. Participants: 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1...

  2. By Ounce or By Calorie: The Different Effects of Alternative Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Tax Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen, Chen; Brissette, Ian; Ruff, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The obesity epidemic and excessive consumption of sugary beverages has led to proposals of economics-based interventions to promote healthy eating. We quantify the differential effects of taxing sugar-sweetened beverages by calories and by ounce on consumer demand, using a fully modified distance metric model of differentiated product demand that endogenizes the representation of group and rival product prices. The novel demand model outperformed the conventional distance metric model in both...

  3. Consumer Estimation of Recommended and Actual Calories at Fast Food Restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Elbel, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Recently, localities across the United States have passed laws requiring the mandatory labeling of calories in all chain restaurants, including fast food restaurants. This policy is set to be implemented at the federal level. Early studies have found these policies to be at best minimally effective in altering food choice at a population level. This paper uses receipt and survey data collected from consumers outside fast food restaurants in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) (which...

  4. When less may be more: calorie restriction and response to cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    O?Flanagan, Ciara H.; Smith, Laura A.; McDonell, Shannon B.; Hursting, Stephen D.

    2017-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) extends lifespan and has been shown to reduce age-related diseases including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases in experimental models. Recent translational studies have tested the potential of CR or CR mimetics as adjuvant therapies to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and novel immunotherapies. Chronic CR is challenging to employ in cancer patients, and therefore intermittent fasting, CR mimetic drugs, or alter...

  5. Soft Drink “Pouring Rights”: Marketing Empty Calories to Children

    OpenAIRE

    Nestle, Marion

    2000-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 objectives call for meals and snacks served in schools to contribute to overall diets that meet federal dietary guidelines. Sales in schools of foods and drinks high in calories and low in nutrients undermine this health objective, as well as participation in the more nutritious, federally sponsored, school lunch programs. Competitive foods also undermine nutrition information taught in the classroom. Lucrative contracts between school districts and soft drink companies fo...

  6. Solvent-free lipase-catalyzed synthesis of diacylgycerols as low-calorie food ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez, Luis; González, Noemí; Reglero, Guillermo; Torres, Carlos F.

    2016-01-01

    Problems derived from obesity and overweight have recently promoted the development of fat substitutes and other low-calorie foods. On the one hand, fats with short- and medium-chain fatty acids are a source of quick energy, easily hydrolyzable and hardly stored as fat. Furthermore, 1,3-diacylglycerols are not hydrolyzed to 2-monoacylglycerols in the gastrointestinal tract, reducing the formation of chylomicron and lowers the serum level of triacylglycerols by decreasing its resynthesis in th...

  7. Solvent-free lipase catalysed synthesis of diacylgycerols as low-calorie food ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Luis eVazquez

    2016-01-01

    Problems derived from obesity and overweight have recently promoted the development of fat substitutes and other low-calorie foods. On the one hand, fats with short and medium chain fatty acids are a source of quick energy, easily hydrolyzable and hardly stored as fat. Furthermore, 1,3-diacylglycerols are not hydrolyzed to 2-monoacylglycerols in the gastrointestinal tract, reducing the formation of chylomicron and lowers the serum level of triacylglycerols by decreasing its re-synthesis in th...

  8. Comparison of Calorie-Restricted Diet and Resveratrol Supplementation on Anthropometric Indices, Metabolic Parameters, and Serum Sirtuin-1 Levels in Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Somayyeh; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Somi, Mohammad-Hossein; Ghavami, Seyed-Mostafa; Rafraf, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    There is a promising perspective regarding the potential effect of resveratrol in preventing and treating metabolic disturbances similar to that of calorie restriction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of calorie-restricted (CR) diet on metabolic parameters and then to investigate whether resveratrol supplementation has beneficial effects similar to CR diet in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 90 patients with NAFLD (males and females) aged 20 to 60 years with body mass index (BMI) ranging from 25 to 35 kg/m 2 . Participants were assigned to one of three intervention groups as follows: The CR diet group (n = 30) received a prescribed low-calorie diet, the resveratrol group (n = 30) received 600 mg pure trans-resveratrol (2 × 300 mg) daily, and the placebo group (n = 30) received placebo capsules (2 × 300 mg) daily for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, and dietary intake and physical activity data were collected for all participants at baseline and at the end of the trial. CR diet significantly reduced weight (by 4.5%); BMI; waist circumference; waist-to-hip ratio; and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lipid profiles in participants compared to resveratrol and placebo (all p 0.05). No significant changes were seen in hepatic steatosis grade, serum glycemic parameters, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and sirtuin-1 levels in any group (all p > 0.05). CR diet with moderate weight loss has favorable effects on NAFLD, and resveratrol supplementation induced weight loss but failed to mimic other aspects of CR diet. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the long-term and dose-dependent effects of resveratrol on metabolic diseases.

  9. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric subjects with urea cycle disorders participating in clinical trials of glycerol phenylbutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Hook

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Pediatric patients treated with phenylbutyrate derivatives exhibited normal height and weight. Protein and calorie intakes in adult and pediatric UCD subjects differed from UCD dietary guidelines, suggesting that these guidelines may need to be reconsidered.

  10. Formulation of reduced-calorie biscuits using artificial sweeteners and fat replacer with dairy–multigrain approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipesh Aggarwal

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The study demonstrated that highly acceptable reduced-calorie biscuits can be produced by using dairy–multigrain composite flour with maltitol and FOS-sucralose (as sweetener and PD (as fat replacer.

  11. Reducing calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium in restaurant menu items: Effects on consumer acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anjali A; Lopez, Nanette V; Lawless, Harry T; Njike, Valentine; Beleche, Mariana; Katz, David L

    2016-12-01

    To assess consumer acceptance of reductions of calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium to current restaurant recipes. Twenty-four menu items, from six restaurant chains, were slightly modified and moderately modified by reducing targeted ingredients. Restaurant customers (n = 1,838) were recruited for a taste test and were blinded to the recipe version as well as the purpose of the study. Overall consumer acceptance was measured using a 9-point hedonic (like/dislike) scale, likelihood to purchase scale, Just-About-Right (JAR) 5-point scale, penalty analysis, and alienation analysis. Overall, modified recipes of 19 menu items were scored similar to (or better than) their respective current versions. Eleven menu items were found to be acceptable in the slightly modified recipe version, and eight menu items were found to be acceptable in the moderately modified recipe version. Acceptable ingredient modifications resulted in a reduction of up to 26% in calories and a reduction of up to 31% in sodium per serving. The majority of restaurant menu items with small reductions of calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium were acceptable. Given the frequency of eating foods away from home, these reductions could be effective in creating dietary improvements for restaurant diners. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  12. Association of nutrient-dense snack combinations with calories and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Brumberg, Adam

    2013-01-01

    With other factors such as general diet and insufficient exercise, eating non-nutrient dense snack foods such as potato chips contributes to childhood obesity. We examined whether children consumed fewer calories when offered high-nutrient dense snacks consisting of cheese and vegetables than children who were offered non-nutrient dense snacks (ie, potato chips). Two hundred one children (115 girls) entering the third to sixth grades were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 snacking conditions: (1) potato chips only, (2) cheese-only, (3) vegetables only, and (4) cheese and vegetables. Children were allowed to eat snacks freely provided while watching 45-minute TV programs. Satiety was measured before they started eating snacks, in the middle of the study, and 20 minutes after they finished eating the snacks. Parents completed a questionnaire regarding their family environment. Children consumed 72% fewer calories when eating a combined snack compared with when they were served potato chips, P snack needed significantly fewer calories to achieve satiety than those who ate potato chips, P snack conditions on caloric intake were more pronounced among overweight or obese children (P = .02) and those from low-involvement families (P = .049) The combination snack of vegetables and cheese can be an effective means for children to reduce caloric intake while snacking. The effect was more pronounced among children who were overweight or obese and children from low-involvement families.

  13. Metabolic acidosis mimicking diabetic ketoacidosis after use of calorie-free mineral water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Gry T; Woldseth, Berit; Lindemann, Rolf

    2012-09-01

    A previously healthy boy was admitted with fever, tachycardia, dyspnea, and was vomiting. A blood test showed a severe metabolic acidosis with pH 7.08 and an anion gap of 36 mmol/L. His urine had an odor of acetone. The serum glucose was 5.6 mmol/L, and no glucosuria was found. Diabetic ketoacidosis could therefore be eliminated. Lactate level was normal. Tests for the most common metabolic diseases were negative. Because of herpes stomatitis, the boy had lost appetite and only been drinking Diet Coke and water the last days. Diet Coke or Coca-Cola Light is sweetened with a blend containing cyclamates, aspartame, and acesulfame potassium, all free of calories. The etiology of the metabolic acidosis appeared to be a catabolic situation exaggerated by fasting with no intake of calories. The elevated anion gap was due to a severe starvation ketoacidosis, mimicking a diabetic ketoacidosis. Pediatricians should recommend carbohydrate/calorie-containing fluids for rehydration of children with acute fever, diarrhea, or illness.

  14. Does SIRT-1 Mediate Calorie Restriction and Prolong Life? – A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordala Anna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction is the only intervention proved to prolong both average and maximum lifespan in yeast, worms, fish, rodents and possibly primates. Not only does the regimen prolong life, but it also reduces the incident of numerous age-related diseases like diabetes, atherosclerosis or cancer and slows down ageing. Mechanisms by which that is thought to occur have not yet been elucidated, but they probably involve reactive oxygen species signaling, insulin growth factor and transcriptional factors. Here, special emphasis is given to SIRT1 - silent information regulator. There is sound evidence showing that SIRT1 is a key player in mediating physiological response to calorie restriction and that its overexpression is correlated with extended lifespan. The possible mechanism leading to its elevated levels is high NAD/NADH ratio, observed in Sir2 in yeast. SIRT1 increases glucose production, enhances fat mobilization, stimulates angiogenesis, prevents neuronal degeneration and rises insulin sensitivity. Therefore, it seems to be a very beneficial factor activated by such a simple intervention that is calorie restriction.

  15. Initial very low calorie diet (VLCD) improves ultimate weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, F; Astrup, A

    1989-01-01

    (4.1-28.8], than group 1 (8.7 kg (-1.1 to 19.1), P = 0.008; and 7.3 kg (0.9-18.2 P = 0.01). Weight losses in both groups eliminated or strongly reduced the need for a wide variety of expensive drugs: antidiabetics, diuretics, antihypertensives, analgetics, etc. It is concluded that VLCD...... for 2 months or more. The two groups were comparable with regard to height, absolute weight and percentual overweight, but group 2 was somewhat older than group 1 (49.5 vs 38.3 years, P less than 0.01). Group 2 lost significantly more weight, both totally (17.1 kg (7.8-40.1] and on VLCD alone (12.3 kg...... is an effective and encouraging way of starting a dieting program, and that it should be continued for at least two months, as the length of the initial VLCD period related significantly to the amount of weight eventually lost....

  16. Evaluation of the usefulness of a low-calorie diet with or without bread in the treatment of overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria-Kohen, Viviana; Gómez-Candela, Carmen; Fernández-Fernández, Ceila; Pérez-Torres, Almudena; García-Puig, Juan; Bermejo, Laura M

    2012-08-01

    Despite the lack of scientific evidence, bread is one of the most restricted foods in popular hypocaloric diets. The aim of this study was to compare two nutrition strategies (with or without bread) designed to promote weight loss in overweight/obese women. A clinical, prospective and randomised study in which 122 women >18 years, BMI ≥ 25 BREAD, n = 61) and control group (NO BREAD, n = 61). Both groups received a low-calorie diet (with or without bread), nutrition education and physical activity guidelines, and were monitored for 16 weeks. 104 women completed the study (48.4 ± 9 years, 29.8 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)). Anthropometric and biochemical markers improved after the intervention without significant differences between groups. BREAD group significantly increased total cereal consumption (3.2 ± 1.3 to 3.7 ± 0.5 servings/day, P BREAD group increased the discrepancy with recommended consumption. NO BREAD group had the most dropouts (21.3% vs. 6.6%, P bread inclusion in a low-calorie diet designed for weight loss favoured a better evolution of dietetic parameters and greater compliance with the diet with fewer dropouts. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no. NCT01223989. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffery Robert W; Story Mary T; Oakes J Michael; French Simone A; Harnack Lisa J; Rydell Sarah A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Although point-of-purchase calorie labeling at restaurants has been proposed as a strategy for improving consumer food choices, a limited number of studies have evaluated this approach. Likewise, little research has been conducted to evaluate the influence of value size pricing on restaurant meal choices. Methods To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast food meal choices a randomized 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conduc...

  18. Changes in energy content of lunchtime purchases from fast food restaurants after introduction of calorie labelling: cross sectional customer surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanovsky, Tamara; Huang, Christina Y; Nonas, Cathy A; Matte, Thomas D; Bassett, Mary T; Silver, Lynn D

    2011-07-26

    To assess the impact of fast food restaurants adding calorie labelling to menu items on the energy content of individual purchases. Cross sectional surveys in spring 2007 and spring 2009 (one year before and nine months after full implementation of regulation requiring chain restaurants' menus to contain details of the energy content of all menu items). Setting 168 randomly selected locations of the top 11 fast food chains in New York City during lunchtime hours. 7309 adult customers interviewed in 2007 and 8489 in 2009. Energy content of individual purchases, based on customers' register receipts and on calorie information provided for all items in menus. For the full sample, mean calories purchased did not change from before to after regulation (828 v 846 kcal, P = 0.22), though a modest decrease was shown in a regression model adjusted for restaurant chain, poverty level for the store location, sex of customers, type of purchase, and inflation adjusted cost (847 v 827 kcal, P = 0.01). Three major chains, which accounted for 42% of customers surveyed, showed significant reductions in mean energy per purchase (McDonald's 829 v 785 kcal, P = 0.02; Au Bon Pain 555 v 475 kcal, PKFC 927 v 868 kcal, P<0.01), while mean energy content increased for one chain (Subway 749 v 882 kcal, P<0.001). In the 2009 survey, 15% (1288/8489) of customers reported using the calorie information, and these customers purchased 106 fewer kilocalories than customers who did not see or use the calorie information (757 v 863 kcal, P<0.001). Although no overall decline in calories purchased was observed for the full sample, several major chains saw significant reductions. After regulation, one in six lunchtime customers used the calorie information provided, and these customers made lower calorie choices.

  19. Logistiline Daily Service / Paavo Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Paavo, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Sügisel ostis Leedu endise majandusministri Valetntinas Milaknise firma Daily Service ära kõik bürootarvetemüüja Reval Impexi aktsiad. 300 miljoni kroonise aastakäibega firma Eesti tütarettevõte prognoosib oma tänavuseks käibeks 31,2 miljonit krooni. Lisa: Daily Service'i struktuur

  20. Total parenteral nutrition in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norcross, E.D.; Stein, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    Parenteral Nutrition with hypertonic glucose is frequently given to diabetic patients. Large amounts of insulin can be required. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a totally parenterally nourished diabetic rat model. 200 g Female Sprague Dawley rats were made diabetic by i.v. injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Rats were then allowed to recover for at least 1 week before undergoing surgical insertion of a central venous catheter for parenteral feeding. TPN was begun 3 days after surgery. Prior to this they were allowed unlimited access to food and water. Control (non-streptozotocin treated) rats were run at the same time. Protein turnover was investigated by using 15 N glycine. Preliminary results: diabetic rats given mostly fat as a calorie source survived well in the absence of exogenous insulin whereas those that were given glucose only as their non-protein calorie source showed poor survival even with exogenous insulin. N balance and protein turnover in the lipid treated diabetic rats were comparable to the non-diabetic control rats

  1. Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) - Daily, Version 1.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) comprises a total of 27 products. The Version 1.2 Daily product covers the period October 1998 to the present,...

  2. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  3. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  4. Use of calorie information at fast food and chain restaurants among US youth aged 9-18 years, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wethington, H; Maynard, L M; Blanck, H M

    2013-09-01

    To examine whether youth use calorie information when it is available at fast food/chain restaurants and what factors are associated with using this information to make their food selection. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on a sample of 721 youth (9-18 years) using the 2010 YouthStyles and HealthStyles surveys. The outcome measure was reported use of calorie information at fast food/chain restaurants. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations between sociodemographic variables and the use of calorie information at fast food/chain restaurants. Of those who visited fast food/chain restaurants, 42.4% reported using calorie information at least sometimes. Girls were more likely than boys (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-2.5) and youth who were obese were more likely than those at a healthy weight (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.04-2.9) to use calorie information, and youth eating at a fast food/chain restaurant twice a week or more versus once a week or less were half as likely to report using calorie information (aOR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.4-0.8). Public health education efforts can benefit from research to determine how to increase usage among youth so that their food choices are appropriate for their caloric needs.

  5. Harnessing the power of disgust: a randomized trial to reduce high-calorie food appeal through implicit priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legget, Kristina T; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Rojas, Donald C; Lawful, Benjamin; Tregellas, Jason R

    2015-08-01

    In our increasingly obesogenic environment, in which high-calorie convenience foods are readily available, food choices can drastically affect weight and overall health. Learned food preferences, which are developed through repeated pairings with positively and negatively valenced stimuli, can contribute to obesity susceptibility if positive attitudes toward high-calorie foods are developed. Thus, the modification of automatic associations with food may be a viable strategy to promote healthier eating behaviors. In this study, we investigated the ability of an implicit priming (IP) intervention to alter responses to visual food cues by using an evaluative conditioning approach. The main objective was to implicitly (i.e., below conscious perception) associate disgust with high-calorie foods with the aim of reducing liking of these foods. Participants were randomly assigned to active or control IP. In active IP (n = 22), high-calorie food images were implicitly primed with negatively valenced images, and low-calorie food images were implicitly primed with positively valenced images. In control IP (n = 20), all food images were primed with neutral images of fixation crosses. Food images were rated on the desire to eat immediately before and after IP. A significant main effect of calorie (high compared with low; P habits. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Total, Added, and Free Sugars: Are Restrictive Guidelines Science-Based or Achievable?

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Erickson; Joanne Slavin

    2015-01-01

    Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) a...

  7. Estimation of undernutrition and mean calorie intake in Africa: methodology, findings and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wesenbeeck, Cornelia F A; Keyzer, Michiel A; Nubé, Maarten

    2009-06-27

    As poverty and hunger are basic yardsticks of underdevelopment and destitution, the need for reliable statistics in this domain is self-evident. While the measurement of poverty through surveys is relatively well documented in the literature, for hunger, information is much scarcer, particularly for adults, and very different methodologies are applied for children and adults. Our paper seeks to improve on this practice in two ways. One is that we estimate the prevalence of undernutrition in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) for both children and adults based on anthropometric data available at province or district level, and secondly, we estimate the mean calorie intake and implied calorie gap for SSA, also using anthropometric data on the same geographical aggregation level. Our main results are, first, that we find a much lower prevalence of hunger than presented in the Millennium Development reports (17.3% against 27.8% for the continent as a whole). Secondly, we find that there is much less spread in mean calorie intake across the continent than reported by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in the State of Food and Agriculture, 2007, the only estimate that covers the whole of Africa. While FAO estimates for calorie availability vary from a low of 1760 Kcal/capita/day for Central Africa to a high of 2825 Kcal/capita/day for Southern Africa, our estimates lay in a range of 2245 Kcal/capita/day (Eastern Africa) to 2618 Kcal/capita/day for Southern Africa. Thirdly, we validate the main data sources used (the Demographic and Health Surveys) by comparing them over time and with other available data sources for various countries. We conclude that the picture of Africa that emerges from anthropometric data is much less negative than that usually presented. Especially for Eastern and Central Africa, the nutritional status is less critical than commonly assumed and also mean calorie intake is higher, which implies that agricultural production and hence income must also

  8. Stratigraphy of the Caloris Basin, Mercury: Implications for Volcanic History and Basin Impact Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Carolyn M.; Denevi, Brett W.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Klimczak, Christian; Chabot, Nancy L.; Head, James W.; Murchie, Scott L.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Prockter, Louis M.; Robinson, Mark S.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Caloris basin, Mercury's youngest large impact basin, is filled by volcanic plains that are spectrally distinct from surrounding material. Post-plains impact craters of a variety of sizes populate the basin interior, and the spectra of the material they have excavated enable the thickness of the volcanic fill to be estimated and reveal the nature of the subsurface. The thickness of the interior volcanic plains is consistently at least 2.5 km, reaching 3.5 km in places, with thinner fill toward the edge of the basin. No systematic variations in fill thickness are observed with long-wavelength topography or azimuth. The lack of correlation between plains thickness and variations in elevation at large horizontal scales within the basin indicates that plains emplacement must have predated most, if not all, of the changes in long-wavelength topography that affected the basin. There are no embayed or unambiguously buried (ghost) craters with diameters greater than 10 km in the Caloris interior plains. The absence of such ghost craters indicates that one or more of the following scenarios must hold: the plains are sufficiently thick to have buried all evidence of craters that formed between the Caloris impact event and the emplacement of the plains; the plains were emplaced soon after basin formation; or the complex tectonic deformation of the basin interior has disguised wrinkle-ridge rings localized by buried craters. That low-reflectance material (LRM) was exposed by every impact that penetrated through the surface volcanic plains provides a means to explore near-surface stratigraphy. If all occurrences of LRM are derived from a single layer, the subsurface LRM deposit is at least 7.5-8.5 km thick and its top likely once made up the Caloris basin floor. The Caloris-forming impact would have generated a layer of impact melt 3-15 km thick; such a layer could account for the entire thickness of LRM. This material would have been derived from a combination of lower crust

  9. Estimation of undernutrition and mean calorie intake in Africa: methodology, findings and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubé Maarten

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As poverty and hunger are basic yardsticks of underdevelopment and destitution, the need for reliable statistics in this domain is self-evident. While the measurement of poverty through surveys is relatively well documented in the literature, for hunger, information is much scarcer, particularly for adults, and very different methodologies are applied for children and adults. Our paper seeks to improve on this practice in two ways. One is that we estimate the prevalence of undernutrition in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA for both children and adults based on anthropometric data available at province or district level, and secondly, we estimate the mean calorie intake and implied calorie gap for SSA, also using anthropometric data on the same geographical aggregation level. Results Our main results are, first, that we find a much lower prevalence of hunger than presented in the Millennium Development reports (17.3% against 27.8% for the continent as a whole. Secondly, we find that there is much less spread in mean calorie intake across the continent than reported by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO in the State of Food and Agriculture, 2007, the only estimate that covers the whole of Africa. While FAO estimates for calorie availability vary from a low of 1760 Kcal/capita/day for Central Africa to a high of 2825 Kcal/capita/day for Southern Africa, our estimates lay in a range of 2245 Kcal/capita/day (Eastern Africa to 2618 Kcal/capita/day for Southern Africa. Thirdly, we validate the main data sources used (the Demographic and Health Surveys by comparing them over time and with other available data sources for various countries. Conclusion We conclude that the picture of Africa that emerges from anthropometric data is much less negative than that usually presented. Especially for Eastern and Central Africa, the nutritional status is less critical than commonly assumed and also mean calorie intake is higher, which implies

  10. Effects of Popular Diets without Specific Calorie Targets on Weight Loss Outcomes: Systematic Review of Findings from Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D. Anton

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present review examined the evidence base for current popular diets, as listed in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report, on short-term (≤six months and long-term (≥one year weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese adults. For the present review, all diets in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report Rankings for “Best Weight-Loss Diets”, which did not involve specific calorie targets, meal replacements, supplementation with commercial products, and/or were not categorized as “low-calorie” diets were examined. Of the 38 popular diets listed in the U.S. News & World Report, 20 met our pre-defined criteria. Literature searches were conducted through PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science using preset key terms to identify all relevant clinical trials for these 20 diets. A total of 16 articles were identified which reported findings of clinical trials for seven of these 20 diets: (1 Atkins; (2 Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH; (3 Glycemic-Index; (4 Mediterranean; (5 Ornish; (6 Paleolithic; and (7 Zone. Of the diets evaluated, the Atkins Diet showed the most evidence in producing clinically meaningful short-term (≤six months and long-term (≥one-year weight loss. Other popular diets may be equally or even more effective at producing weight loss, but this is unknown at the present time since there is a paucity of studies on these diets.

  11. Half-size me? How calorie and price information influence ordering on restaurant menus with both half and full entrée portion sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, Kelly L; Liu, Peggy J

    2016-02-01

    Many restaurants are increasingly required to display calorie information on their menus. We present a study examining how consumers' food choices are affected by the presence of calorie information on restaurant menus. However, unlike prior research on this topic, we focus on the effect of calorie information on food choices made from a menu that contains both full size portions and half size portions of entrées. This different focus is important because many restaurants increasingly provide more than one portion size option per entrée. Additionally, we examine whether the impact of calorie information differs depending on whether full portions are cheaper per unit than half portions (non-linear pricing) or whether they have a similar per unit price (linear pricing). We find that when linear pricing is used, calorie information leads people to order fewer calories. This decrease occurs as people switch from unhealthy full sized portions to healthy full sized portions, not to unhealthy half sized portions. In contrast, when non-linear pricing is used, calorie information has no impact on calories selected. Considering the impact of calorie information on consumers' choices from menus with more than one entrée portion size option is increasingly important given restaurant and legislative trends, and the present research demonstrates that calorie information and pricing scheme may interact to affect choices from such menus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Outgoing Longwave Radiation Daily Climate Data Record (OLR Daily CDR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The product contains the 1-degree by 1-degree daily mean outgoing longwave radiation flux at the top of the atmosphere derived from HIRS radiance observations...

  13. Daily and Sub-daily Precipitation for the Former USSR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily and hourly meteorological observations for the former USSR initially obtained within the framework of several joint...

  14. Daily mineral intakes for Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio

    1990-01-01

    Recently it became necessary to assess the dietary intake of both stable and radioactive elements for non-radiation workers. But data of mineral intake in the literature are not good enough for this assessment. ICRP Pub. 23 in 'Reference Man' is one of the best references in this field. ICRP Reference Man was selected as the standard for Caucasian by using values reported during early 1970s or before. Moreover it seems not to be suitable for Japanese (Mongolian). In this report, analytical methods of minerals in total diet samples for Japanese were described. Furthermore, daily intakes for Japanese (Reference Japanese Man) and ICRP Reference Man were compared. After collected by a duplicate portion study and a model diet study, diet samples were dry-ashed followed by wet-digestion with a mixture of HNO 3 and HClO 4 . Diet sample solutions thus prepared were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Matrix effects of major elements (Na, K, P, Ca and Mg) in diet samples were compensated by a matrix-matching method. About 20 elements were simultaneously determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, more easily than by AAS. Most of dietary mineral intakes, except for Na, Mn, and Sr, for Japanese were lower than those of ICRP Reference Man. But, dietary intakes were found to be different depending on countries, even among European and American countries. New representative data for as many elements as possible are necessary now. (author)

  15. The Fast-Casual Conundrum: Fast-Casual Restaurant Entrées Are Higher in Calories than Fast Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoffman, Danielle E; Davidson, Charis R; Hales, Sarah B; Crimarco, Anthony E; Dahl, Alicia A; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M

    2016-10-01

    Frequently eating fast food has been associated with consuming a diet high in calories, and there is a public perception that fast-casual restaurants (eg, Chipotle) are healthier than traditional fast food (eg, McDonald's). However, research has not examined whether fast-food entrées and fast-casual entrées differ in calorie content. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the caloric content of entrées at fast-food restaurants differed from that found at fast-casual restaurants. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of secondary data. Calorie information from 2014 for lunch and dinner entrées for fast-food and fast-casual restaurants was downloaded from the MenuStat database. Mean calories per entrée between fast-food restaurants and fast-casual restaurants and the proportion of restaurant entrées that fell into different calorie ranges were assessed. A t test was conducted to test the hypothesis that there was no difference between the average calories per entrée at fast-food and fast-casual restaurants. To examine the difference in distribution of entrées in different calorie ranges between fast-food and fast-casual restaurants, χ(2) tests were used. There were 34 fast-food and 28 fast-casual restaurants included in the analysis (n=3,193 entrées). Fast-casual entrées had significantly more calories per entrée (760±301 kcal) than fast-food entrées (561±268; Prestaurants to determine whether the energy content or nutrient density of full meals (ie, entrées with sides and drinks) differs between fast-casual restaurants and fast-food restaurants. Calorie-conscious consumers should consider the calorie content of entrée items before purchase, regardless of restaurant type. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. MOPITT Gridded Daily CO Retrievals (Near and Thermal Infrared Radiances) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MOPITT L3 files contain daily and monthly mean gridded versions of the daily L2 CO profile and total column retrievals. The averaging kernels associated with...

  17. Lightship Daily Observations - NARA Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1893 - 1943. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...

  18. Allegheny County Jail Daily Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A daily census of the inmates at the Allegheny County Jail (ACJ). Includes gender, race, age at booking, and current age. The records for each month contain a...

  19. Effect of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on restaurant and cafeteria food choices: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnack, Lisa J; French, Simone A

    2008-10-26

    Eating away from home has increased in prevalence among US adults and now comprises about 50% of food expenditures. Calorie labeling on chain restaurant menus is one specific policy that has been proposed to help consumers make better food choices at restaurants. The present review evaluates the available empirical literature on the effects of calorie information on food choices in restaurant and cafeteria settings. Computer-assisted searches were conducted using the PUBMED database and the Google Scholar world wide web search engine to identify studies published in peer-review journals that evaluated calorie labeling of cafeteria or restaurant menu items. Studies that evaluated labeling only some menu items (e.g. low calorie foods only) were excluded from the review since the influence of selective labeling may be different from that which may be expected from comprehensive labeling. Six studies were identified that met the selection criteria for this review. Results from five of these studies provide some evidence consistent with the hypothesis that calorie information may influence food choices in a cafeteria or restaurant setting. However, results from most of these studies suggest the effect may be weak or inconsistent. One study found no evidence of an effect of calorie labeling on food choices. Each of the studies had at least one major methodological shortcoming, pointing toward the need for better designed studies to more rigorously evaluate the influence of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on food choices. More research is needed that meets minimum standards of methodological quality. Studies need to include behavioral outcomes such as food purchase and eating behaviors. Also, studies need to be implemented in realistic settings such as restaurants and cafeterias.

  20. Effect of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on restaurant and cafeteria food choices: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Simone A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating away from home has increased in prevalence among US adults and now comprises about 50% of food expenditures. Calorie labeling on chain restaurant menus is one specific policy that has been proposed to help consumers make better food choices at restaurants. The present review evaluates the available empirical literature on the effects of calorie information on food choices in restaurant and cafeteria settings. Methods Computer-assisted searches were conducted using the PUBMED database and the Google Scholar world wide web search engine to identify studies published in peer-review journals that evaluated calorie labeling of cafeteria or restaurant menu items. Studies that evaluated labeling only some menu items (e.g. low calorie foods only were excluded from the review since the influence of selective labeling may be different from that which may be expected from comprehensive labeling. Results Six studies were identified that met the selection criteria for this review. Results from five of these studies provide some evidence consistent with the hypothesis that calorie information may influence food choices in a cafeteria or restaurant setting. However, results from most of these studies suggest the effect may be weak or inconsistent. One study found no evidence of an effect of calorie labeling on food choices. Each of the studies had at least one major methodological shortcoming, pointing toward the need for better designed studies to more rigorously evaluate the influence of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on food choices. Conclusion More research is needed that meets minimum standards of methodological quality. Studies need to include behavioral outcomes such as food purchase and eating behaviors. Also, studies need to be implemented in realistic settings such as restaurants and cafeterias.

  1. Relationships Among Nightly Sleep Quality, Daily Stress, and Daily Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxton, Jessica M; Bergeman, Cindy S; Whitehead, Brenda R; Braun, Marcia E; Payne, Jessic D

    2017-05-01

    We explored the prospective, microlevel relationship between nightly sleep quality (SQ) and the subsequent day's stress on positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) as well as the moderating relationships between nightly SQ, subsequent stress, and subsequent PA on NA. We investigated whether age moderated these relationships. We collected 56 days of sleep, stress, and affect data using daily diary questionnaires (N = 552). We used multilevel modeling to assess relationships at the between- and within-person levels. Daily increases in SQ and decreases in stress interacted to predict higher daily PA and lower daily NA. Better SQ in older adults enhanced the benefits of PA on the stress-NA relationship more during times of low stress, whereas better sleep in younger adults enhanced the benefits of PA more during times of high stress. Between-person effects were stronger predictors of well-being outcomes than within-person variability. The combination of good SQ and higher PA buffered the impact of stress on NA. The moderating impact of age suggests that sleep and stress play different roles across adulthood. Targeting intervention and prevention strategies to improve SQ and enhance PA could disrupt the detrimental relationship between daily stress and NA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Food environments in university dorms: 20,000 calories per dorm room and counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Melissa C; Story, Mary

    2009-06-01

    Few young adults meet national dietary recommendations. Although home food availability likely has important influences on dietary intake, little research has examined this issue among young adults. The objective of this research was to conduct a detailed, observational assessment of food and beverages available in college-student dormitory rooms. Dormitory-residing students (n=100) were recruited from a large, public university. Research staff completed a detailed inventory of food and beverages in the dorm rooms, including nutrient contents and purchasing sources. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008. The mean number of food and beverage items per participant was 47 (range: 0-208), with 4% of participants not having any food or beverages. More than 70% of students had each of the following types of items: salty snacks, cereal or granola bars, main dishes, desserts or candy, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Fewer students had low-calorie beverages, fruits and vegetables, dairy products, tea/coffee, and 100% fruit/vegetable juice. The average number of calories per dorm room was 22,888. Items purchased by parents had a higher calorie and fat content than items purchased by students. Findings indicate that students maintain a wide array of food and beverages in their dormitory rooms. Parents purchased a substantial amount of food for their children's dormitory rooms, and these food items were less healthful than the food that students purchased. The foods observed in college students' living spaces may have an important impact on eating habits. Overall, young adult-oriented obesity prevention efforts are needed, and improving the various facets of campus food environments may mark an important component of such strategies.

  3. Ghrelin-AMPK Signaling Mediates the Neuroprotective Effects of Calorie Restriction in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Jacqueline A.; Lemus, Moyra B.; Stark, Romana; Santos, Vanessa V.; Thompson, Aiysha; Rees, Daniel J.; Galic, Sandra; Elsworth, John D.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Davies, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is neuroprotective in Parkinson's disease (PD) although the mechanisms are unknown. In this study we hypothesized that elevated ghrelin, a gut hormone with neuroprotective properties, during CR prevents neurodegeneration in an 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD. CR attenuated the MPTP-induced loss of substantia nigra (SN) dopamine neurons and striatal dopamine turnover in ghrelin WT but not KO mice, demonstrating that ghrelin mediates CR's neuroprotective effect. CR elevated phosphorylated AMPK and ACC levels in the striatum of WT but not KO mice suggesting that AMPK is a target for ghrelin-induced neuroprotection. Indeed, exogenous ghrelin significantly increased pAMPK in the SN. Genetic deletion of AMPKβ1 and 2 subunits only in dopamine neurons prevented ghrelin-induced AMPK phosphorylation and neuroprotection. Hence, ghrelin signaling through AMPK in SN dopamine neurons mediates CR's neuroprotective effects. We consider targeting AMPK in dopamine neurons may recapitulate neuroprotective effects of CR without requiring dietary intervention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The neuroprotective mechanisms of calorie restriction (CR) in Parkinson's disease are unknown. Indeed, the difficulty to adhere to CR necessitates an alternative method to recapitulate the neuroprotective benefits of CR while bypassing dietary constraints. Here we show that CR increases plasma ghrelin, which targets substantia nigra dopamine to maintain neuronal survival. Selective deletion on AMPK beta1 and beta2 subunits only in DAT cre-expressing neurons shows that the ghrelin-induced neuroprotection requires activation of AMPK in substantia nigra dopamine neurons. We have discovered ghrelin as a key metabolic signal, and AMPK in dopamine neurons as its target, which links calorie restriction with neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease. Thus, targeting AMPK in dopamine neurons may provide novel neuroprotective benefits in Parkinson's disease. PMID

  4. Glucose and lipid metabolism in rats supplemented with glycyrrhizic acid exposed to short- or long- term stress and fed on a high-calorie diet

    OpenAIRE

    Yaw, Hui Ping

    2017-01-01

    Stress and consumption of high-calorie diet are well-recognized as the primary contributor to various metabolic diseases such as the metabolic syndrome. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), an active compound in the root extract of the licorice plant, Glycyrrhiza glabra has been shown to improve hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia in rats fed on a high- calorie diet. However, the effect of GA on glucose and lipid metabolism in rats under stress in combination with high- calorie diet has yet to be expl...

  5. High-throughput search for caloric materials: the CaloriCool approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2018-01-01

    The high-throughput search paradigm adopted by the newly established caloric materials consortium—CaloriCool®—with the goal to substantially accelerate discovery and design of novel caloric materials is briefly discussed. We begin with describing material selection criteria based on known properties, which are then followed by heuristic fast estimates, ab initio calculations, all of which has been implemented in a set of automated computational tools and measurements. We also demonstrate how theoretical and computational methods serve as a guide for experimental efforts by considering a representative example from the field of magnetocaloric materials.

  6. Mineral Elements in Relation to Protein-Calorie Malnutrition and the Nutritional Anaemias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstead, H. H. [Division of Nutrition, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1970-07-01

    Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) and the nutritional anaemias are problems of major importance the world over. The metabolism of the major elements in PCM has been clarified during the last decade. However, relatively little is known about the trace elements. Of the trace elements, evidence has recently been reported which suggests that deficiencies of copper, zinc, selenium and chromium may occur in PCM. The pathological effects of potassium and magnesium deficiency in PCM have come under increased scrutiny. The mineral elements of importance in haematopoiesis include iron, copper, cobalt and possibly selenium. Studies of the effect of copper and selenium are in the formative stage. (author)

  7. Acid–base safety during the course of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Castro, Ana I.; Goday, Albert; Mas-Lorenzo, Antonio; Bellon, Ana; Tejera, Cristina; Bellido, Diego; Galban, Cristobal; Sajoux, Ignacio; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Casanueva, Felipe F.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diets have been consistently shown to be an effective obesity treatment, but the current evidence for its acid-base safety is limited. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the acid-base status of obese patients during the course of a VLCK diet. Method Twenty obese participants undertook a VLCK diet for 4 months. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, and venous blood gases were obtained on four subsequent visits: visit C-1 (base...

  8. Acid-base safety during the course of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Castro, Ana I.; Goday Arno, Alberto; Mas-Lorenzo, Antonio; Bellon, Ana; Tejera, Cristina; Bellido, Diego; Galban, Cristobal; Sajoux, Ignacio; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Casanueva, Felipe F.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diets have been consistently shown to be an effective obesity treatment, but the current evidence for its acid-base safety is limited. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the acid-base status of obese patients during the course of a VLCK diet. METHOD: Twenty obese participants undertook a VLCK diet for 4 months. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, and venous blood gases were obtained on four subsequent visits: visit C-1 (ba...

  9. Resting metabolic rate of obese patients under very low calorie ketogenic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Castro, Ana I.; Martinez-Olmos, Miguel A.; Canton, Ana; Ordoñez-Mayan, Lucia; Sajoux, Ignacio; Galban, Cristobal; Bellido, Diego; Casanueva, Felipe F.

    2018-01-01

    Background The resting metabolic rate (RMR) decrease, observed after an obesity reduction therapy is a determinant of a short-time weight regain. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate changes in RMR, and the associated hormonal alterations in obese patients with a very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK)-diet induced severe body weight (BW) loss. Method From 20 obese patients who lost 20.2 kg of BW after a 4-months VLCK-diet, blood samples and body composition analysis, determined by DXA...

  10. The Research on the High-Protein Low-Calorie Food Recipe for Teenager Gymnastics Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cong

    2015-01-01

    In order to prevent teenager gymnastics athletes getting fat deposition, weight gain, they should supply a rational food. This paper considers the normal growth and development of athletes, body fat deposition proteins and hunger feel, configured high-protein low-calorie food recipe. Then analysis the composition and the essential amino acids of the recipe. In the final choiced 18 adolescent gymnastics athletes as subjects, to verify the validity of the formula. And analysis the experimental results. The experimental results analysis shows that this recipe basically meets the design requirements.

  11. Looking at the label and beyond: the effects of calorie labels, health consciousness, and demographics on caloric intake in restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Brenna; Lusk, Jayson L; Davis, David

    2013-02-08

    Recent legislation has required calorie labels on restaurant menus as a means of improving Americans' health. Despite the growing research in this area, no consensus has been reached on the effectiveness of menu labels. This suggests the possibility of heterogeneity in responses to caloric labels across people with different attitudes and demographics. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential relationships between caloric intake and diners' socio-economic characteristics and attitudes in a restaurant field experiment that systematically varied the caloric information printed on the menus. We conducted a field experiment in a full service restaurant where patrons were randomly assigned to one of three menu treatments which varied the amount of caloric information printed on the menus (none, numeric, or symbolic calorie label). At the conclusion of their meals, diners were asked to complete a brief survey regarding their socio-economic characteristics, attitudes, and meal selections. Using regression analysis, we estimated the number of entrée and extra calories ordered by diners as a function of demographic and attitudinal variables. Additionally, irrespective of the menu treatment to which a subject was assigned, our study identified which types of people are likely to be low-, medium-, and high-calorie diners. Results showed that calorie labels have the greatest impact on those who are least health conscious. Additionally, using a symbolic calorie label can further reduce the caloric intake of even the most health conscious patrons. Finally, calorie labels were more likely to influence the selection of the main entrée as opposed to supplemental items such as drinks and desserts. If numeric calorie labels are implemented (as currently proposed), they are most likely to influence consumers who are less health conscious - probably one of the key targets of this legislation. Unfortunately, numeric labels did little for those consumers who were already

  12. Motivation for choice and healthiness perception of calorie-reduced dairy products. a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Susanne Bølling; Næs, Tormod; Hersleth, Margrethe

    2011-02-01

    Understanding consumers' motives for selecting calorie-reduced dairy products are important to provide targeted communication to different consumer segments. The aim of this study was to identify motives for consumption of calorie-reduced dairy products among young consumers, and to identify how these consumers perceive the healthiness of such products compared to other food products. Consumers, aged 18-30 years, from Norway (n=118), Denmark (n=125), and California (n=127) participated in this cross-cultural study. The respondents sorted 24 statements referring to motives for choosing calorie-reduced yoghurt and cheese. The study also assessed the aspect of perceived healthiness of these products in comparison with a selection of other food products using a two-step ranking procedure. The data were analysed using chi-square analysis, Friedman's test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results show that fat content, healthiness and taste were the most important motivators for choice of the calorie-reduced dairy products. In all three countries salmon was perceived as the healthiest among the products presented. The calorie-reduced dairy products were ranked as relatively healthy, with yoghurt ranked as healthier than cheese. Although cross-cultural differences existed in motives for choice and perceived healthiness of the products, the similarities between the countries were evident in this study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chronic stress exposure may affect the brain's response to high calorie food cues and predispose to obesogenic eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Matthew S; Carter, Cameron S; Decant, Rashel; Laugero, Kevin D

    2013-08-15

    Exaggerated reactivity to food cues involving calorically-dense foods may significantly contribute to food consumption beyond caloric need. Chronic stress, which can induce palatable "comfort" food consumption, may trigger or reinforce neural pathways leading to stronger reactions to highly rewarding foods. We implemented functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess whether chronic stress influences activation in reward, motivation and executive brain regions in response to pictures of high calorie and low calorie foods in thirty women. On separate lab visits, we also assessed food intake from a snack food buffet and circulating cortisol. In women reporting higher chronic stress (HCS), pictures of high calorie foods elicited exaggerated activity in regions of the brain involving reward, motivation, and habitual decision-making. In response to pictures of high calorie food, higher chronic stress was also associated with significant deactivation in frontal regions (BA10; BA46) linked to strategic planning and emotional control. In functional connectivity analysis, HCS strengthened connectivity between amygdala and the putamen, while LCS enhanced connectivity between amygdala and the anterior cingulate and anterior prefrontal cortex (BA10). A hypocortisolemic signature and more consumption of high calorie foods from the snack buffet were observed in the HCS group. These results suggest that persistent stress exposure may alter the brain's response to food in ways that predispose individuals to poor eating habits which, if sustained, may increase risk for obesity. © 2013.

  14. Prolonged calorie restriction downregulates skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling independent of dietary protein intake and associated microRNA expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee M Margolis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Short-term (5-10 days calorie restriction (CR downregulates muscle protein synthesis, with consumption of a high protein-based diet attenuating this decline. Benefit of increase protein intake is believed to be due to maintenance of amino acid-mediated anabolic signaling through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1, however, there is limited evidence to support this contention. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of prolonged CR and high protein diets on skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling and expression of associated microRNA (miR. 12-wk old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL or calorie restricted (CR; 40% adequate (10%, AIN-93M or high (32% protein milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Body composition was determined using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle protein content was calculated from muscle homogenate protein concentrations expressed relative to fat-free mass to estimate protein content. Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to determine mTORC1 signaling and mRNA and miR expression in fasted mixed gastrocnemius. Independent of dietary protein intake, muscle protein content was 38% lower (P < 0.05 in CR compared to AL. Phosphorylation and total Akt, mTOR, rpS6 and p70S6K were lower (P < 0.05 in CR versus AL, and total rpS6 was associated with muscle protein content (r = 0.64, r2 = 0.36. Skeletal muscle miR expression was not altered by either energy or protein intake. This study provides evidence that chronic CR attenuates muscle protein content by downregulating mTORC1 signaling. This response is independent of skeletal muscle miR and dietary protein.

  15. Effect of Daily Exposure to an Isolated Soy Protein Supplement on Body Composition, Energy and Macronutrient Intake, Bone Formation Markers, and Lipid Profile in Children in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Wilson; Córdoba, Diana; Durán, Paola; Chacón, Yersson; Rosselli, Diego

    2018-01-16

    A soy protein-based supplement may optimize bone health, support physical growth, and stimulate bone formation. This study aimed to assess the effect of a daily soy protein supplement (SPS) on nutritional status, bone formation markers, lipid profile, and daily energy and macronutrient intake in children. One hundred seven participants (62 girls), ages 2 to 9, started the study and were randomly assigned to lunch fruit juice with (n = 57, intervention group) or without (n = 50, control group) addition of 45 g (230 Kcal) of a commercial SPS during 12 months; 84 children (51 girls, 33 boys) completed the study (45 and 39 intervention and control, respectively). Nutritional assessment included anthropometry and nutrient intakes; initial and final blood samples were taken; insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), osteocalcin, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were analyzed. Statistically significant changes (p < .05) in body mass index and weight for age Z scores were observed between groups while changes in body composition were not. Changes in energy, total protein, and carbohydrate intakes were significantly higher in the intervention group (p < .01). Calorie intake changes were statistically significant between groups (p < .001), and BAP decreased in both groups, with values within normal ranges. Osteocalcin, IGFBP-3, and lipid profile were not different between groups. IGF-I levels and IGF/IGFBP-3 ratio increased significantly in both groups. In conclusion, changes in macronutrient and energy intake and nutritional status in the intervention group compared to control group may ensure harmonious and adequate bone health and development.

  16. Regulating Hypothalamus Gene Expression in Food Intake: Dietary Composition or Calorie Density?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Jang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe proportion of saturated fatty acids/unsaturated fatty acids in the diet seems to act as a physiological regulation on obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Differently composed fatty acid diets may induce satiety of the hypothalamus in different ways. However, the direct effect of the different fatty acid diets on satiety in the hypothalamus is not clear.MethodsThree experiments in mice were conducted to determine whether: different compositions of fatty acids affects gene mRNA expression of the hypothalamus over time; different types of fatty acids administered into the stomach directly affect gene mRNA expression of the hypothalamus; and fat composition changes in the diet affects gene mRNA expression of the hypothalamus.ResultsThe type of fat in cases of purified fatty acid administration directly into the stomach may cause changes of gene expressions in the hypothalamus. Gene expression by dietary fat may be regulated by calorie amount ingested rather than weight amount or type of fat.ConclusionTherefore, the calorie density factor of the diet in regulating hypothalamic gene in food intake may be detrimental, although the possibility of type of fat cannot be ruled out.

  17. Electrolytes, sugar, calories, osmolarity and pH of beverages and coconut water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavalittamrong, B; Pidatcha, P; Thavisri, U

    1982-09-01

    Oral rehydration has been recommended in patients with diarrhoea to replace fluid loss from the gastrointestinal tract and reduce the need for intravenous therapy. Beverages (i.e. Cola, Sprite etc.) and coconut water may be used as sources of oral fluid when glucose-electrolyte solution is not available. To evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of these soft drinks, the basic data such as electrolytes, sugar, calories, osmolarity and pH were determined. The electrolytes of the beverages were significantly lower (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water, especially potassium. The osmolarity of the beverages, which were 693 mOsm/l, was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (288 mOsm/l); pH of the beverages (3.1) was more acidic (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (5.4). While the sugar content of the beverages, which were 8.7 gm/dl, was significantly higher (p less than 0.001) than the coconut water (1.1 gm/dl). On comparison, all brands of beverages would give more calories than the coconut water however the coconut water would be absorbed more easily than any brand of soft drink beverage.

  18. Severe protein-calorie malnutrition in two brothers due to abuse by starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Montenegro Braga Barroso

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the case of two siblings with severe protein-calorie malnutrition due to abuse by starvation. Cases description: The two patients were simultaneously referred to the Hospital Municipal, where they were admitted to the Pediatric Gastroenterology clinic of a university hospital for diagnostic investigation of the cause of severe malnutrition and screening tests for Celiac Disease, Cystic Fibrosis and Environmental enteropathy among others. The exams were all normal, and after detailed research on the interactions of this family, we reached the conclusion that the malnutrition was due to abuse by starvation. The children spent approximately two months in the hospital, receiving a high-protein and high-calorie diet, with significant nutritional recovery. Comments: Abuse by starvation, although rare, should always be considered of as one of the causes of child malnutrition and pediatrician should be aware of the child's development, as well as the family interactions, to prevent more severe nutritional and emotional consequences in the future.

  19. Long-term calorie restriction, but not endurance exercise, lowers core body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, Andreea; Cangemi, Roberto; Omodei, Daniela; Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of body temperature has been proposed to contribute to the increased lifespan in calorie restricted animals and mice overexpressing the uncoupling protein-2 in hypocretin neurons. However, nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of calorie restriction (CR) with adequate nutrition on body temperature in humans. In this study, 24-hour core body temperature was measured every minute by using ingested telemetric capsules in 24 men and women (mean age 53.7±9.4 yrs) consuming a CR diet for an average of 6 years, 24 age- and sex-matched sedentary (WD) and 24 body fat-matched exercise-trained (EX) volunteers, who were eating Western diets. The CR and EX groups were significantly leaner than the WD group. Energy intake was lower in the CR group (1769±348 kcal/d) than in the WD (2302±668 kcal/d) and EX (2798±760 kcal/d) groups (Ptemperatures were all significantly lower in the CR group than in the WD and EX groups (P≤0.01). Long-term CR with adequate nutrition in lean and weight-stable healthy humans is associated with a sustained reduction in core body temperature, similar to that found in CR rodents and monkeys. This adaptation is likely due to CR itself, rather than to leanness, and may be involved in slowing the rate of aging. PMID:21483032

  20. Severe protein-calorie malnutrition in two brothers due to abuse by starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Marcela Montenegro Braga; Salvador, Luiza Martins; Fagundes Neto, Ulysses

    2016-12-01

    To describe the case of two siblings with severe protein-calorie malnutrition due to abuse by starvation. The two patients were simultaneously referred from the Municipal Hospital, where they were admitted to the Pediatric Gastroenterology clinic of a university hospital for diagnostic investigation of the cause of severe malnutrition and screening tests for Celiac Disease, Cystic Fibrosis and Environmental enteropathy among others. The exams were all normal, and after detailed research on the interactions of this family, we reached the conclusion that the malnutrition was due to abuse by starvation. The children spent approximately two months in the hospital, receiving a high-protein and high-calorie diet, with significant nutritional recovery. Abuse by starvation, although rare, should always be considered of as one of the causes of child malnutrition and pediatrician should be aware of the child's development, as well as the family interactions, to prevent more severe nutritional and emotional consequences in the future. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  1. What are the roles of calorie restriction and diet quality in promoting healthy longevity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Wanda; Veronese, Nicola; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that diet plays a central role in the pathogenesis of many age-associated chronic diseases, and in the biology of aging itself. Data from several animal studies suggest that the degree and time of calorie restriction (CR) onset, the timing of food intake as well as diet composition, play major roles in promoting health and longevity, breaking the old dogma that only calorie intake is important in extending healthy lifespan. Data from human studies indicate that long-term CR with adequate intake of nutrients results in several metabolic adaptations that reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Moreover, CR opposes the expected age-associated alterations in myocardial stiffness, autonomic function, and gene expression in the human skeletal muscle. However, it is possible that some of the beneficial effects on metabolic health are not entirely due to CR, but to the high quality diets consumed by the CR practitioners, as suggested by data collected in individuals consuming strict vegan diets. More studies are needed to understand the interactions among single nutrient modifications (e.g. protein/aminoacid, fatty acids, vitamins, phytochemicals, and minerals), the degree of CR and the frequency of food consumption in modulating anti-aging metabolic and molecular pathways, and in the prevention of age-associated diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Aspartame, low-calorie sweeteners and disease: regulatory safety and epidemiological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinovich, Marina; Galli, Corrado L; Bosetti, Cristina; Gallus, Silvano; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2013-10-01

    Aspartame is a synthetic sweetener that has been used safely in food for more than 30 years. Its safety has been evaluated by various regulatory agencies in accordance with procedures internationally recognized, and decisions have been revised and updated regularly. The present review summarizes the most relevant conclusions of epidemiological studies concerning the use of low-calorie sweeteners (mainly aspartame), published between January 1990 and November 2012. In the Nurses' Health study and the Health Professionals Followup study some excess risk of Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma was found in men but not in women; no association was found with leukemia. In the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, there was no association between aspartame and haematopoietic neoplasms. US case-control studies of brain and haematopoietic neoplasms also showed no association. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study and case-control studies from California showed no association with pancreatic cancer, and a case-control study from Denmark found no relation with breast cancer risk. Italian case-control studies conducted in 1991-2008 reported no consistent association for cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, digestive tract, breast, endometrium, ovary, prostate, and kidney. Low calorie sweeteners were not consistently related to vascular events and preterm deliveries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of calorie restriction and refeeding on skin wound healing in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Nicole D; Li, Garrick D; Zhu, Min; Miller, Marshall; Levette, Andrew; Chachich, Mark E; Spangler, Edward L; Allard, Joanne S; Hyun, Dong-Hoon; Ingram, Donald K; de Cabo, Rafael

    2012-12-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a reliable anti-aging intervention that attenuates the onset of a number of age-related diseases, reduces oxidative damage, and maintains function during aging. In the current study, we assessed the effects of CR and other feeding regimens on wound healing in 7-month-old Fischer-344 rats from a larger cohort of rats that had been fed either ad libitum (AL) or 40% calorie restricted based on AL consumption. Rats were assigned to one of three diet groups that received three skin punch wounds along the dorsal interscapular region (12-mm diameter near the front limbs) of the back as follows: (1) CR (n = 8) were wounded and maintained on CR until they healed, (2) AL (n = 5) were wounded and maintained on AL until wound closure was completed, and (3) CR rats were refed (RF, n = 9) AL for 48 h prior to wounding and maintained on AL until they healed. We observed that young rats on CR healed more slowly while CR rats refed for 48 h prior to wounding healed as fast as AL fed rats, similar to a study reported in aged CR and RF mice (Reed et al. 1996). Our data suggest that CR subjects, regardless of age, fail to heal well and that provision of increased nutrition to CR subjects prior to wounding enhances the healing process.

  4. Qualità totale e mobilità totale Total Quality and Total Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission’s White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on

  5. Calorie estimation accuracy and menu labeling perceptions among individuals with and without binge eating and/or purging disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Haynos, Ann F; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D; White, Marney A

    2013-09-01

    Menu labeling is a public health policy that requires chain restaurants in the USA to post kilocalorie information on their menus to help consumers make informed choices. However, there is concern that such a policy might promote disordered eating. This web-based study compared individuals with self-reported binge eating disorder (N = 52), bulimia nervosa (N = 25), and purging disorder (N = 17) and those without eating disorders (No ED) (N = 277) on restaurant calorie information knowledge and perceptions of menu labeling legislation. On average, people answered 1.46 ± 1.08 questions correctly (out of 6) (25%) on a calorie information quiz and 92% of the sample was in favor of menu labeling. The findings did not differ based on eating disorder, dieting, or weight status, or race/ethnicity. The results indicated that people have difficulty estimating the calories in restaurant meals and individuals with and without eating disorders are largely in favor of menu labeling laws.

  6. Sirtuins as Mediator of the Anti-Ageing Effects of Calorie Restriction in Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Zullo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fighting diseases and controlling the signs of ageing are the major goals of biomedicine. Sirtuins, enzymes with mainly deacetylating activity, could be pivotal targets of novel preventive and therapeutic strategies to reach such aims. Scientific proofs are accumulating in experimental models, but, to a minor extent, also in humans, that the ancient practice of calorie restriction could prove an effective way to prevent several degenerative diseases and to postpone the detrimental signs of ageing. In the present review, we summarize the evidence about the central role of sirtuins in mediating the beneficial effects of calorie restriction in skeletal and cardiac muscle since these tissues are greatly damaged by diseases and advancing years. Moreover, we entertain the possibility that the identification of sirtuin activators that mimic calorie restriction could provide the benefits without the inconvenience of this dietary style.

  7. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: Results from an experimental trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery Robert W

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although point-of-purchase calorie labeling at restaurants has been proposed as a strategy for improving consumer food choices, a limited number of studies have evaluated this approach. Likewise, little research has been conducted to evaluate the influence of value size pricing on restaurant meal choices. Methods To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast food meal choices a randomized 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted in which participants ordered a fast food meal from one of four menus that varied with respect to whether calorie information was provided and whether value size pricing was used. Study participants included 594 adolescents and adults who regularly ate at fast food restaurants. Study staff recorded the foods ordered and consumed by each participant. Participants also completed surveys to assess attitudes, beliefs and practices related to fast food and nutrition. Results No significant differences in the energy composition of meals ordered or eaten were found between menu conditions. The average energy content of meals ordered by those randomized to a menu that included calorie information and did not include value size pricing was 842 kcals compared with 827 kcals for those who ordered their meal from a menu that did not include calorie information but had value size pricing (control menu. Results were similar in most analyses conducted stratified by factors such as age, race and education level. Conclusion Additional research is needed to better evaluate the effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices. Studies in which participants are repeatedly exposed to these factors are needed since long term exposure may be required for behavior change.

  8. The Impact of U.S. Free Trade Agreements on Calorie Availability and Obesity: A Natural Experiment in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Pepita; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2018-05-01

    Globalization via free trade and investment agreements is often implicated in the obesity pandemic. Concerns center on how free trade and investment agreements increase population exposure to unhealthy, high-calorie diets, but existing studies preclude causal conclusions. Few studies of free trade and investment agreements and diets isolated their impact from confounding changes, and none examined any effect on caloric intake, despite its critical role in the etiology of obesity. This study addresses these limitations by analyzing a unique natural experiment arising from the exceptional circumstances surrounding the implementation of the 1989 Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement. Data from the UN (2017) were analyzed using fixed-effects regression models and the synthetic control method to estimate the impact of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement on calorie availability in Canada, 1978-2006, and coinciding increases in U.S. exports and investment in Canada's food and beverage sector. The impact of changes to calorie availability on body weights was then modeled. Calorie availability increased by ≅170 kilocalories per capita per day in Canada after the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement. There was a coinciding rise in U.S. trade and investment in the Canadian food and beverage sector. This rise in calorie availability is estimated to account for an average weight gain of between 1.8 kg and 12.2 kg in the Canadian population, depending on sex and physical activity levels. The Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement was associated with a substantial rise in calorie availability in Canada. U.S. free trade and investment agreements can contribute to rising obesity and related diseases by pushing up caloric intake. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices: results from an experimental trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnack, Lisa J; French, Simone A; Oakes, J Michael; Story, Mary T; Jeffery, Robert W; Rydell, Sarah A

    2008-12-05

    Although point-of-purchase calorie labeling at restaurants has been proposed as a strategy for improving consumer food choices, a limited number of studies have evaluated this approach. Likewise, little research has been conducted to evaluate the influence of value size pricing on restaurant meal choices. To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast food meal choices a randomized 2 x 2 factorial experiment was conducted in which participants ordered a fast food meal from one of four menus that varied with respect to whether calorie information was provided and whether value size pricing was used. Study participants included 594 adolescents and adults who regularly ate at fast food restaurants. Study staff recorded the foods ordered and consumed by each participant. Participants also completed surveys to assess attitudes, beliefs and practices related to fast food and nutrition. No significant differences in the energy composition of meals ordered or eaten were found between menu conditions. The average energy content of meals ordered by those randomized to a menu that included calorie information and did not include value size pricing was 842 kcals compared with 827 kcals for those who ordered their meal from a menu that did not include calorie information but had value size pricing (control menu). Results were similar in most analyses conducted stratified by factors such as age, race and education level. Additional research is needed to better evaluate the effects of calorie labeling and value size pricing on fast food meal choices. Studies in which participants are repeatedly exposed to these factors are needed since long term exposure may be required for behavior change.

  10. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VI. Impact of short-term graded calorie restriction on transcriptomic responses of the hypothalamic hunger and circadian signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derous, Davina; Mitchell, Sharon E; Green, Cara L; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong J; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E L; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R; Douglas, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Food intake and circadian rhythms are regulated by hypothalamic neuropeptides and circulating hormones, which could mediate the anti-ageing effect of calorie restriction (CR). We tested whether these two signaling pathways mediate CR by quantifying hypothalamic transcripts of male C57BL/6 mice exposed to graded levels of CR (10 % to 40 %) for 3 months. We found that the graded CR manipulation resulted in upregulation of core circadian rhythm genes, which correlated negatively with circulating levels of leptin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In addition, key components in the hunger signaling pathway were expressed in a manner reflecting elevated hunger at greater levels of restriction, and which also correlated negatively with circulating levels of insulin, TNF-α, leptin and IGF-1. Lastly, phenotypes, such as food anticipatory activity and body temperature, were associated with expression levels of both hunger genes and core clock genes. Our results suggest modulation of the hunger and circadian signaling pathways in response to altered levels of circulating hormones, that are themselves downstream of morphological changes resulting from CR treatment, may be important elements in the response to CR, driving some of the key phenotypic outcomes.

  11. Lack of Efficacy of a Salience Nudge for Substituting Selection of Lower-Calorie for Higher-Calorie Milk in the Work Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amy L.; Bogomolova, Svetlana; Buckley, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major burden on healthcare systems. Simple, cost effective interventions that encourage healthier behaviours are required. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a salience nudge for promoting a change in milk selection from full-cream to low-fat (lower-calorie) in the kitchen of a university-based research institute that provided full-cream and low-fat milk free of charge. Milk selection was recorded for 12 weeks (baseline). A sign with the message “Pick me! I am low calorie” was then placed on the low-fat milk and selection was recorded for a further 12 weeks. During baseline, selection of low-fat milk was greater than selection of full-cream milk (p = 0.001) with no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.12). During the intervention period overall milk selection was not different from baseline (p = 0.22), with low-fat milk selection remaining greater than full-cream milk selection (p nudging promoted a transient increase in low-fat milk selection, but also increased selection of full-cream milk, indicating that nudging was not effective in promoting healthier milk choices. PMID:26043033

  12. On polar daily geomagnetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Michelis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the nature of the daily magnetic field perturbations produced by ionospheric and magnetospheric currents at high latitudes. We analyse the hourly means of the X and Y geomagnetic field components recorded by a meridian chain of permanent geomagnetic observatories in the polar region of the Northern Hemisphere during a period of four years (1995-1998 around the solar minimum. We apply a mathematical method, known as natural orthogonal component (NOC, which is capable of characterizing the dominant modes of the geomagnetic field daily variability through a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. Using the first two modes we reconstruct a two-dimensional equivalent current representation of the ionospheric electric currents, which contribute substantially to the geomagnetic daily variations. The obtained current structures resemble the equivalent current patterns of DP2 and DP1. We characterize these currents by studying their evolution with the geomagnetic activity level and by analysing their dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field. The obtained results support the idea of a coexistence of two main processes during all analysed period although one of them, the directly driven process, represents the dominant component of the geomagnetic daily variation.

  13. Daily Physical Activity Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the Daily Physical Activity (DPA) Survey was to gather school-level information from teachers and principals regarding their perceptions of DPA, thus providing a greater understanding of DPA implementation in grades 1 to 9. This study aimed to help identify the many variables that influence the attainment of the DPA outcomes and…

  14. Relationship between sleep pattern and efficacy of calorie-restricted Mediterranean diet in overweight/obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliai, Giuditta; Dinu, Monica; Casini, Alessandro; Sofi, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    The association between the sleep pattern and the effectiveness of a calorie-restricted Mediterranean diet in people with overweight/obesity has been investigated in this study. Four hundred and three subjects were provided with a calorie-restricted Mediterranean diet and followed for 9 months. Personal information, including sleep pattern, was obtained at the baseline. Body weight and composition were measured every 3 months. Poor sleepers reported to have significantly (p sleeping 6-8 or >8 h/day had an increased probability of losing fat mass than women who reported sleeping sleep pattern is necessary to maintain body weight and optimal body composition.

  15. People trying to lose weight dislike calorie counting apps and want motivational support to help them achieve their goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbrig, Linda; Jones, Ray; Kavanagh, David; May, Jon; Parkin, Tracey; Andrade, Jackie

    2017-03-01

    Two thirds of UK adults are overweight or obese and at increased risk of chronic conditions such as heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers. Basic public health support for weight loss comprises information about healthy eating and lifestyle, but internet and mobile applications (apps) create possibilities for providing long-term motivational support. To explore among people currently trying to lose weight, or maintaining weight loss, (i) problems, experiences and wishes in regards to weight management and weight loss support including e-health support; (ii) reactions to Functional Imagery Training (FIT) as a possible intervention. Six focus groups ( N  = 24 in total) were recruited from a public pool of people who had expressed an interest in helping with research. The topics considered were barriers to weight loss, desired support for weight loss and acceptability of FIT including the FIT app. The focus group discussions were transcribed and thematically analysed. All groups spontaneously raised the issue of waning motivation and expressed the desire for motivational app support for losing weight and increasing physical activity. They disliked calorie counting apps and those that required lots of user input. All groups wanted behavioural elements such as setting and reviewing goals to be included, with the ability to personalise the app by adding picture reminders and choosing times for goal reminders. Participants were positive about FIT and FIT support materials. There is a mismatch between the help provided via public health information campaigns and commercially available weight-loss self-help (lifestyle information, self-monitoring), and the help that individuals actually desire (motivational and autonomous e-support), posing an opportunity to develop more effective electronic, theory-driven, motivational, self-help interventions.

  16. Intermittent fasting combined with calorie restriction is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempel, Monica C; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Bhutani, Surabhi; Trepanowski, John F; Varady, Krista A

    2012-11-21

    Intermittent fasting (IF; severe restriction 1 d/week) facilitates weight loss and improves coronary heart disease (CHD) risk indicators. The degree to which weight loss can be enhanced if IF is combined with calorie restriction (CR) and liquid meals, remains unknown. This study examined the effects of IF plus CR (with or without a liquid diet) on body weight, body composition, and CHD risk. Obese women (n = 54) were randomized to either the IFCR-liquid (IFCR-L) or IFCR-food based (IFCR-F) diet. The trial had two phases: 1) 2-week weight maintenance period, and 2) 8-week weight loss period. Body weight decreased more (P = 0.04) in the IFCR-L group (3.9 ± 1.4 kg) versus the IFCR-F group (2.5 ± 0.6 kg). Fat mass decreased similarly (P < 0.0001) in the IFCR-L and IFCR-F groups (2.8 ± 1.2 kg and 1.9 ± 0.7 kg, respectively). Visceral fat was reduced (P < 0.001) by IFCR-L (0.7 ± 0.5 kg) and IFCR-F (0.3 ± 0.5 kg) diets. Reductions in total and LDL cholesterol levels were greater (P = 0.04) in the IFCR-L (19 ± 10%; 20 ± 9%, respectively) versus the IFCR-F group (8 ± 3%; 7 ± 4%, respectively). LDL peak particle size increased (P < 0.01), while heart rate, glucose, insulin, and homocysteine decreased (P < 0.05), in the IFCR-L group only. These findings suggest that IF combined with CR and liquid meals is an effective strategy to help obese women lose weight and lower CHD risk.

  17. Family food purchases of high- and low-calorie foods in full-service supermarkets and other food retailers by Black women in an urban US setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W. Chrisinger

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Public health interventions to increase supermarket access assume that shopping in supermarkets is associated with healthier food purchases compared to other store types. To test this assumption, we compared purchasing patterns by store-type for certain higher-calorie, less healthy foods (HCF and lower-calorie, healthier foods (LCF in a sample of 35 black women household shoppers in Philadelphia, PA. Data analyzed were from 450 food shopping receipts collected by these shoppers over four-week periods in 2012. We compared the likelihood of purchasing the HCF (sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet/salty snacks, and grain-based snacks and LCF (low-fat dairy, fruits, and vegetables at full-service supermarkets and six other types of food retailers, using generalized estimating equations. Thirty-seven percent of participants had household incomes at or below the poverty line, and 54% had a BMI >30. Participants shopped primarily at full-service supermarkets (55% or discount/limited assortment supermarkets (22%, making an average of 11 shopping trips over a 4-week period and spending mean (SD of $350 ($222. Of full-service supermarket receipts, 64% included at least one HCF item and 58% at least one LCF. Most trips including HCF (58% and LCF (60% expenditures were to full-service or discount/limited assortment supermarkets rather than smaller stores. Spending a greater percent of total dollars in full-service supermarkets was associated with spending more on HCF (p = 0.03 but not LCF items (p = 0.26. These findings in black women suggest a need for more attention to supermarket interventions that change retailing practices and/or consumer shopping behaviors related to foods in the HCF categories examined. Keywords: Obesity, Store choice, Food choice, Food shopping, Supermarkets, African Americans

  18. Family food purchases of high- and low-calorie foods in full-service supermarkets and other food retailers by Black women in an urban US setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisinger, Benjamin W; DiSantis, Katherine Isselmann; Hillier, Amy E; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2018-06-01

    Public health interventions to increase supermarket access assume that shopping in supermarkets is associated with healthier food purchases compared to other store types. To test this assumption, we compared purchasing patterns by store-type for certain higher-calorie, less healthy foods (HCF) and lower-calorie, healthier foods (LCF) in a sample of 35 black women household shoppers in Philadelphia, PA. Data analyzed were from 450 food shopping receipts collected by these shoppers over four-week periods in 2012. We compared the likelihood of purchasing the HCF (sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet/salty snacks, and grain-based snacks) and LCF (low-fat dairy, fruits, and vegetables) at full-service supermarkets and six other types of food retailers, using generalized estimating equations. Thirty-seven percent of participants had household incomes at or below the poverty line, and 54% had a BMI >30. Participants shopped primarily at full-service supermarkets (55%) or discount/limited assortment supermarkets (22%), making an average of 11 shopping trips over a 4-week period and spending mean (SD) of $350 ($222). Of full-service supermarket receipts, 64% included at least one HCF item and 58% at least one LCF. Most trips including HCF (58%) and LCF (60%) expenditures were to full-service or discount/limited assortment supermarkets rather than smaller stores. Spending a greater percent of total dollars in full-service supermarkets was associated with spending more on HCF (p = 0.03) but not LCF items (p = 0.26). These findings in black women suggest a need for more attention to supermarket interventions that change retailing practices and/or consumer shopping behaviors related to foods in the HCF categories examined.

  19. A 2-Week Course of Enteral Treatment with a Very Low-Calorie Protein-Based Formula for the Management of Severe Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Castaldo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Multiple weight loss failures among obese patients suggest the design of new therapeutic strategies. We investigated the role of 2-week course of enteral treatment with a very low-calorie protein-based formula in the management of severe obesity. Methods. We evaluated the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of 2-week continuous administration of a protein-based formula (1.2 g/kg of ideal body weight/day by nasogastric tube in severely obese adults (body mass index (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2. Results. In total, 364 patients (59% women; BMI = 46.6±7.2 kg/m2 were recruited. The intervention was discontinued within 48 hours in 26 patients, due to nasogastric tube intolerance. No serious adverse events occurred. During the first and the second week, 65% and 80% patients, respectively, reported no side effects. All biochemical safety parameters were affected by the intervention, particularly uric acid (+45% and aminotransferases (+48%. In the other cases the change was negligible. We observed significant weight loss (5.7±2.3% and improvement in blood pressure and glucose and lipid metabolism parameters (P<0.001. Conclusions. A 2-week course of enteral treatment with a very low-calorie protein-based formula appeared a feasible, likely safe, and efficacious therapeutic option to be considered for inclusion into a composite weight loss program for the management of severe obesity. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01965990.

  20. Heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the opportunity and the ability to choose low-calorie snack foods and beverages: associations with real-life choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.; Lans, van der I.A.; Rijnsoever, van F.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Employing Rothschild’s Motivation–Opportunity–Ability framework, the present study examines the extent to which heterogeneity in barriers regarding the motivation, the perceived opportunity and the perceived ability to choose low-calorie over high-calorie snacks is associated with the

  1. Exploring food reward and calorie intake in self-perceived food addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddock, Helen K; Field, Matt; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2017-08-01

    Previous research indicates that many people perceive themselves to be addicted to food. These 'self-perceived food addicts' may demonstrate aberrant eating patterns which put them at greater risk of overeating. However this is yet to be empirically investigated. The current study investigated whether self-perceived food addicts would exhibit higher food reward and calorie intake in a laboratory context relative to self-perceived non-addicts. A secondary aim was to investigate whether self-perceived food addicts would demonstrate increased food liking and/or increased hunger ratings. Finally, we explored whether self-perceived food addicts demonstrate patterns of aberrant eating, beyond that predicted by measures of trait dietary disinhibition and restraint. Female participants (self-perceived food addicts n = 31, non-addicts n = 29) completed measures of hunger, food reward (desire-to-eat, willingness-to-pay ratings, and an operant response task) and liking for high- and low-fat foods. Participants completed all measures when they were hungry, and again when they were satiated after consuming a fixed-lunch meal. Finally, participants were provided with ad-libitum access to high-and low-fat foods. Results indicated that self-perceived food addicts consumed more calories from high-fat food compared to non-addicts, despite the absence of any between-group differences in hunger or overall liking ratings. Self-perceived food addicts also displayed higher desire-to-eat ratings across foods compared to non-addicts, but groups did not differ on other measures of food reward. However, the differences in calorie intake and desire-to-eat between self-perceived food addicts and non-addicts were no longer significant after controlling for dietary disinhibition and restraint. These findings suggest that self-perceived food addicts experience food as more rewarding and have a tendency to overeat. However, this may be attributable to increased dietary disinhibition and

  2. Observability of market daily volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  3. Dayak and Their Daily Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Darmadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article titled "Dayak and Daily Life" This paper aims to reveal the Dayak and in their daily life. Dayak is a native of Borneo has its own characteristics. Dayak, divided into 405 sub-sub clans [1]. Each sub Dayak both Indonesia and Malaysia are identical. Dayak customs and culture comes from the word "Power" which means upstream, to refer to people who live in inland areas or in the interior of Borneo. In the arsenal of art and culture, Dayak has many similarities such as; saber, chopsticks, beliong, betang, cupai, renjung, empajang and others. Dayak indigenous religion is Kaharingan which is the original religion born of the cultural ancestors of the Dayaks. Most of the Dayak people still adhere to the belief of the existence of unseen objects in certain places such as rocks, large trees, planting gardens in the forest, lakes, pools, and others are believed to have "magical powers". Daily life of the Dayaks in general farming, farming. When will open farming land, farming they held ritual.

  4. Similar metabolic responses to calorie restriction in lean and obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Takuya; Komatsu, Toshimitsu; Nakayama, Masahiko; Adachi, Toshiyuki; Tamashiro, Yukari; Hayashi, Hiroko; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Higami, Yoshikazu; Shimokawa, Isao

    2009-10-15

    Calorie restriction (CR), which is thought to be largely dependent on the neuroendocrine system modulated by insulin/insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and leptin signaling, decreases morbidity and increases lifespan in many organisms. To elucidate whether insulin and leptin sensitivities are indispensable in the metabolic adaptation to CR, we investigated the effects of CR on obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats and lean control (+/+) rats. CR did not fully improve insulin resistance in (fa/fa) rats. Nonetheless, CR induced neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and metabolism related gene expression changes in the liver in (fa/fa) rats and (+/+) rats. Up-regulation of NPY augmented plasma corticosterone levels and suppressed pituitary growth hormone (GH) expression, thereby modulating adipocytokine production to induce tissue-specific insulin sensitivity. Thus, central NPY activation via peripheral signaling might play a crucial role in the effects of CR, even in insulin resistant and leptin receptor deficient conditions.

  5. Low-calorie sweeteners in food and food supplements on the Italian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Steven; Goscinny, Séverine; Le Donne, Cinzia; Van Loco, Joris

    2015-01-01

    This study determines the occurrence and concentration levels of artificial low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) in food and food supplements on the Italian market. The analysed sample set (290 samples) was representative of the Italian market and comprised of beverages, jams, ketchups, confectionery, dairy products, table-top sweeteners and food supplements. All samples were analysed via UPLC-MS/MS. The method was in-house validated for the analysis of seven LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, neotame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone) in food and for five LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate and sucralose) in food supplements. Except for cyclamate in one beverage which exceeded the maximum level (ML) with 13%, all concentrations measured in food were around or below the ML. In food supplements, 40 of the 52 samples (77%) were found to be above the ML, with exceedances of up to 200% of the ML.

  6. Does providing nutrition information at vending machines reduce calories per item sold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Deirdre A; Schulz, Mark R; Wyrick, David L; Bibeau, Daniel L; Gupta, Sat N

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, the United States (US) enacted a restaurant menu labeling law. The law also applied to vending machine companies selling food. Research suggested that providing nutrition information on menus in restaurants might reduce the number of calories purchased. We tested the effect of providing nutrition information and 'healthy' designations to consumers where vending machines were located in college residence halls. We conducted our study at one university in Southeast US (October-November 2012). We randomly assigned 18 vending machines locations (residence halls) to an intervention or control group. For the intervention we posted nutrition information, interpretive signage, and sent a promotional email to residents of the hall. For the control group we did nothing. We tracked sales over 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after we introduced the intervention. Our intervention did not change what the residents bought. We recommend additional research about providing nutrition information where vending machines are located, including testing formats used to present information.

  7. Soft Drink “Pouring Rights”: Marketing Empty Calories to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, Marion

    2000-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 objectives call for meals and snacks served in schools to contribute to overall diets that meet federal dietary guidelines. Sales in schools of foods and drinks high in calories and low in nutrients undermine this health objective, as well as participation in the more nutritious, federally sponsored, school lunch programs. Competitive foods also undermine nutrition information taught in the classroom. Lucrative contracts between school districts and soft drink companies for exclusive rights to sell one brand are the latest development in the increasing commercialization of school food. These contracts, intended to elicit brand loyalty among young children who have a lifetime of purchases ahead of them, are especially questionable because they place schools in the position of “pushing” soft drink consumption. “Pouring rights” contracts deserve attention from public health professionals concerned about the nutritional quality of children's diets. Imagesp308-ap313-a PMID:11059423

  8. Transcriptional response according to strength of calorie restriction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yae-Lim; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2008-09-30

    To characterize gene expression that is dependent on the strength of calorie restriction (CR), we obtained transcriptome at different levels of glucose, which is a major energy and carbon source for budding yeast. To faithfully mimic mammalian CR in yeast culture, we reconstituted and grew seeding yeast cells in fresh 2% YPD media before inoculating into 2%, 1%, 0.5% and 0.25% YPD media to reflect different CR strengths. We collected and characterized 160 genes that responded to CR strength based on the rigorous statistical analyses of multiple test corrected ANOVA (adjusted p0.7). Based on the individual gene studies and the GO Term Finder analysis of 160 genes, we found that CR dose-dependently and gradually increased mitochondrial function at the transcriptional level. Therefore, we suggest these 160 genes are markers that respond to CR strength and that might be useful in elucidating CR mechanisms, especially how stronger CR extends life span more.

  9. HMB attenuates muscle loss during sustained energy deficit induced by calorie restriction and endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bong-Sup; Henning, Paul C; Grant, Samuel C; Lee, Won Jun; Lee, Sang-Rok; Arjmandi, Bahram H; Kim, Jeong-Su

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the efficacy and underlying mechanisms of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on body composition, muscle mass and physical performance under catabolic versus normal training conditions. Mice were divided into four groups (n=10/group): (1) ALT=ad libitum+trained (1 h/d for 3 d/wk); (2) ALTH=ALT+HMB (0.5 g/kg BW/d); (3) C=calorie restricted (-30%)+trained (6 h/d, 6 d/wk); and (4) CH=C+HMB. Repeated in vivo assessments included body composition, grip strength and sensorimotor coordination before and after the experimental protocol, while in vitro analyses included muscle wet weights, expression of selected genes and proteins regulating muscle mass, and myofiber cross-sectional area. ANOVAs were used with significance set at pHMB improves body composition and sensorimotor function during normal training and attenuates muscle mass and strength loss during catabolic conditions. © 2013.

  10. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling and calorie restriction increase fasting eNOS, akt and mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Fernanda M; Laurindo, Francisco R M; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2011-03-31

    Enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis promoted by eNOS activation is believed to play a central role in the beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR). Since treatment of mice with dinitrophenol (DNP) promotes health and lifespan benefits similar to those observed in CR, we hypothesized that it could also impact biogenesis. We found that DNP and CR increase citrate synthase activity, PGC-1α, cytochrome c oxidase and mitofusin-2 expression, as well as fasting plasma levels of NO• products. In addition, eNOS and Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue was activated in fasting CR and DNP animals. Overall, our results indicate that systemic mild uncoupling activates eNOS and Akt-dependent pathways leading to mitochondrial biogenesis.

  11. Mild mitochondrial uncoupling and calorie restriction increase fasting eNOS, akt and mitochondrial biogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M Cerqueira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis promoted by eNOS activation is believed to play a central role in the beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR. Since treatment of mice with dinitrophenol (DNP promotes health and lifespan benefits similar to those observed in CR, we hypothesized that it could also impact biogenesis. We found that DNP and CR increase citrate synthase activity, PGC-1α, cytochrome c oxidase and mitofusin-2 expression, as well as fasting plasma levels of NO• products. In addition, eNOS and Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue was activated in fasting CR and DNP animals. Overall, our results indicate that systemic mild uncoupling activates eNOS and Akt-dependent pathways leading to mitochondrial biogenesis.

  12. Lack of Efficacy of a Salience Nudge for Substituting Selection of Lower-Calorie for Higher-Calorie Milk in the Work Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Wilson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major burden on healthcare systems. Simple, cost effective interventions that encourage healthier behaviours are required. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a salience nudge for promoting a change in milk selection from full-cream to low-fat (lower calorie in the kitchen of a university-based research institute that provided full-cream and low-fat milk free of charge. Milk selection was recorded for 12 weeks (baseline. A sign with the message “Pick me! I am low calorie” was then placed on the low-fat milk and consumption was recorded for a further 12 weeks. During baseline, selection of low-fat milk was greater than selection of full-cream milk (p = 0.001 with no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.12. During the intervention period overall milk selection was not different from baseline (p = 0.22, with low-fat milk consumption remaining greater than full-cream milk selection (p < 0.001 and no significant milk-type × time interaction (p = 0.41. However, sub-analysis of the first two weeks of the intervention period indicated an increase in selection of both milk types (p = 0.03, but with a greater increase in low-fat milk selection (p = 0.01, milk-type × time interaction. However, milk selection then returned towards baseline during the rest of the intervention period. Thus, in the present setting, salience nudging promoted a transient increase in low-fat milk consumption, but also increased selection of full-cream milk, indicating that nudging was not effective in promoting healthier milk choices.

  13. Calorie Restriction-like Effects of 30 Days of Resveratrol Supplementation on Energy Metabolism and Metabolic Profile in Obese Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, S.; Konings, E.; Bilet, L.; Houtkooper, R.H.; Weijer, van de T.; Goossens, G.H.; Hoeks, J.; Krieken, van der S.; Ryu, D.; Kersten, A.H.; Moonen-Kornips, E.; Hesselink, M.K.C.; Kunz, I.; Schrauwen-Hinderling, V.B.; Blaak, E.E.; Auwerx, J.; Schrauwen, P.

    2011-01-01

    Resveratrol is a natural compound that affects energy metabolism and mitochondrial function and serves as a calorie restriction mimetic, at least in animal models of obesity. Here, we treated 11 healthy, obese men with placebo and 150 mg/day resveratrol (resVida) in a randomized double-blind

  14. Calorie restriction-like effects of 30 days of resveratrol supplementation on energy metabolism and metabolic profile in obese humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Silvie; Konings, Ellen; Bilet, Lena; Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; Weijer, van de Tineke; Hoeks, Joris; Krieken, van der Sophie; Ryu, Dongryeol; Kersten, Sander; Moonen-Kornips, Esther; Goossens, Gijs H.; Hesselink, Matthijs K.; Kunz, Iris; Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera B.; Blaak, Ellen E.; Auwerx, Johan; Schrauwen, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Resveratrol is a naturally occurring compound that profoundly affects energy metabolism and mitochondrial function and serves as a calorie restriction mimetic, at least in animal models of obesity. Here we treated 10 healthy, obese men with placebo and 150 mg/day resveratrol in a randomized

  15. Calorie restriction-like effects of 30 days of resveratrol supplementation on energy metabolism and metabolic profile in obese humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Silvie; Konings, Ellen; Bilet, Lena; Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; van de Weijer, Tineke; Goossens, Gijs H.; Hoeks, Joris; van der Krieken, Sophie; Ryu, Dongryeol; Kersten, Sander; Moonen-Kornips, Esther; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.; Kunz, Iris; Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera B.; Blaak, Ellen E.; Auwerx, Johan; Schrauwen, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Resveratrol is a natural compound that affects energy metabolism and mitochondrial function and serves as a calorie restriction mimetic, at least in animal models of obesity. Here, we treated 11 healthy, obese men with placebo and 150 mg/day resveratrol (resVida) in a randomized double-blind

  16. NAD+ metabolite levels as a function of vitamins and calorie restriction: evidence for different mechanisms of longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Peng

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NAD+ is a coenzyme for hydride transfer enzymes and a substrate for sirtuins and other NAD+-dependent ADPribose transfer enzymes. In wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae, calorie restriction accomplished by glucose limitation extends replicative lifespan in a manner that depends on Sir2 and the NAD+ salvage enzymes, nicotinic acid phosphoribosyl transferase and nicotinamidase. Though alterations in the NAD+ to nicotinamide ratio and the NAD+ to NADH ratio are anticipated by models to account for the effects of calorie restriction, the nature of a putative change in NAD+ metabolism requires analytical definition and quantification of the key metabolites. Results Hydrophilic interaction chromatography followed by tandem electrospray mass spectrometry were used to identify the 12 compounds that constitute the core NAD+ metabolome and 6 related nucleosides and nucleotides. Whereas yeast extract and nicotinic acid increase net NAD+ synthesis in a manner that can account for extended lifespan, glucose restriction does not alter NAD+ or nicotinamide levels in ways that would increase Sir2 activity. Conclusions The results constrain the possible mechanisms by which calorie restriction may regulate Sir2 and suggest that provision of vitamins and calorie restriction extend lifespan by different mechanisms.

  17. Stricter School Soda Limits Offered: Facing Lawsuit Threat, Beverage Industry Vows to Curb High-Calorie Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2006-01-01

    The soft-drink industry vowed to voluntarily curb selling sugary sodas and other high-calorie beverages in schools, a move that was taken under threat of litigation by critics who see the industry as a prime culprit in a national obesity crisis. The promise offered no guarantee that schools would go along with the restrictions, though many…

  18. Promoting the purchase of low-calorie foods from school vending machines: A cluster-randomized controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Eeuwijk, J.; Kesten, N.M.C. van; Dusseldorp, E.; Buijs, G.; Bassa-Dafesh, Z.; Snel, J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vending machines account for food sales and revenue in schools. We examined 3 strategies for promoting the sale of lower-calorie food products from vending machines in high schools in the Netherlands. METHODS: A school-based randomized controlled trial was conducted in 13 experimental

  19. Promoting the Purchase of Low-Calorie Foods from School Vending Machines: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, Paul L.; Eeuwijk, Jennifer; van Kesteren, Nicole M.C.; Dusseldorp, Elise; Buijs, Goof; Bassa-Dafesh, Zeina; Snel, Jeltje

    2012-01-01

    Background: Vending machines account for food sales and revenue in schools. We examined 3 strategies for promoting the sale of lower-calorie food products from vending machines in high schools in the Netherlands. Methods: A school-based randomized controlled trial was conducted in 13 experimental schools and 15 control schools. Three strategies…

  20. Insulin resistance in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus : effects of a very low calorie diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jazet, Ingrid Maria

    2006-01-01

    Insulin resistance is of major pathogenic importance in obese DM2 and this can be improved by weight loss. Very low calorie diets (VLCDs) are often used for this purpose. This thesis focused on the safety and tolerability of a VLCD and on the short-term and long-term effects of a VLCD on glucose and

  1. Hip Hop HEALS: Pilot Study of a Culturally Targeted Calorie Label Intervention to Improve Food Purchases of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Olajide; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Sawyer, Vanessa; Apakama, Donald; Shaffer, Michele; Gerin, William; Noble, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We explored the effect of a culturally targeted calorie label intervention on food purchasing behavior of elementary school students. Method: We used a quasi-experimental design with two intervention schools and one control school to assess food purchases of third through fifth graders at standardized school food sales before and after…

  2. Low-fat, light, and reduced in calories : Do these claims really lead to an increase in consumption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Versluis (Iris); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractRecent experimental research has shown that light, low-fat and other claims that signal low calorie content can increase consumption and hence can be counter-effective. In this article we use detailed data from the Dutch National Food Consumption survey to determine the extent to which

  3. Are School Vending Machines Loaded with Calories and Fat: An Assessment of 106 Middle and High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Samuelson, Anne C.; Farbakhsh, Kian; Kubik, Martha Y.; Patnode, Carrie D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which vending offerings in 106 schools in the St. Paul-Minneapolis, Minnesota metropolitan area, met criteria for types of beverages, fat, and calories based on selected criteria offered by the Institute of Medicine. Methods: Schools where youth participants were attending for the…

  4. Very low-calorie ketogenic diet may allow restoring response to systemic therapy in relapsing plaque psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, Giuseppe; Galdo, Giovanna; Rotondi Aufiero, Felice; Cereda, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic disease associated with overweight/obesity and related cardiometabolic complications. The link between these diseases is likely the inflammatory background associated with adipose tissue, particularly the visceral one. Accordingly, previous studies have demonstrated that in the long-term weight loss may improve the response to systemic therapies. We report a case report of a woman in her 40s suffering from relapsing moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis and obesity-related metabolic syndrome, in whom adequate response to ongoing treatment with biological therapy (adalimumab) was restored after only 4 weeks of very low-calorie, carbohydrate-free (ketogenic), protein-based diet. Accordingly, through rapid and consistent weight loss, very low calorie ketogenic diet may allow restoring a quick response to systemic therapy in a patient suffering from relapsing psoriasis. This intervention should be considered in overweight/obese patients before the rearrangement of systemic therapy. Nonetheless, studies are required to evaluate whether very low calorie ketogenic diets should be preferred to common low-calorie diets to improve the response to systemic therapy at least in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The incidence of calorie labeling on fast food choices: A comparison between stated preferences and actual choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Maria L; Rahmani, Djamel

    2016-09-01

    In order to test the effect of calorie information on fast food choices, we conducted a questionnaire employing two types of stated preferences methods (the best-worst-scaling and intentional questions) and a follow-up randomized field experiment in a sample of 119 participants. This combined approach allowed us to test the internal validity of preferences for fast food meals across elicitation scenarios. The results showed that calorie information reduces the probability of selecting high calorie meals only in the questionnaire, while it did not have any significant impact on actual purchasing behavior in the field experiment. Thus, the findings show that there is a clear difference between the role of calorie information on immediate stated preference choices, and the relatively low level of responsiveness in real choices in a restaurant. We believe that the current results are quite suggestive, indicating the limits of predicting actual fast food behavior, and may open the way to using data sources that combine stated methods with field experiments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Calorie restriction attenuates cardiac remodeling and diastolic dysfunction in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsu, Miwa; Nakashima, Chieko; Takahashi, Keiji; Murase, Tamayo; Hattori, Takuya; Ito, Hiromi; Murohara, Toyoaki; Nagata, Kohzo

    2013-11-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) can modulate the features of obesity-related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We have recently characterized DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa)/Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats, derived from a cross between Dahl salt-sensitive and Zucker rats, as a new animal model of metabolic syndrome. DS/obese rats develop hypertension and manifest left ventricular remodeling and diastolic dysfunction, as well as increased cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation. We have now investigated the effects of CR on cardiac pathophysiology in DS/obese rats. DS/obese rats were fed either normal laboratory chow ad libitum or a calorie-restricted diet (65% of the average food intake for ad libitum) from 9 to 13 weeks. Age-matched homozygous lean (DahlS.Z-Lepr(+)/Lepr(+) or DS/lean) littermates served as controls. CR reduced body weight in both DS/obese and DS/lean rats, as well as attenuated the development of hypertension in DS/obese rats without affecting blood pressure in DS/lean rats. CR also reduced body fat content, ameliorated left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction, and attenuated cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation in DS/obese rats. In addition, it increased serum adiponectin concentration, as well as downregulated the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II type 1A receptor genes in the heart of DS/obese rats. Our results thus show that CR attenuated obesity and hypertension, as well as left ventricular remodeling and diastolic dysfunction in DS/obese rats, with these latter effects being associated with reduced cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation.

  7. Solvent-free lipase catalysed synthesis of diacylgycerols as low-calorie food ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis eVazquez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Problems derived from obesity and overweight have recently promoted the development of fat substitutes and other low-calorie foods. On the one hand, fats with short and medium chain fatty acids are a source of quick energy, easily hydrolyzable and hardly stored as fat. Furthermore, 1,3-diacylglycerols are not hydrolyzed to 2-monoacylglycerols in the gastrointestinal tract, reducing the formation of chylomicron and lowers the serum level of triacylglycerols by decreasing its re-synthesis in the enterocyte and its metabolism and absorption by the enterocyte are limited in comparison with the TAG, reducing chylomicron formation. In this work these two effects were combined to synthesize short and medium chain 1,3 diacylglycerols, leading to a product with great potential as for their low-calorie properties. Lipase catalysed transesterification reactions were performed between short and medium chain fatty acid ethyl esters and glycerol. Different variables were investigated such as the type of biocatalyst, the molar ratio FAEE:glycerol, the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel or the addition of lecithin. Best reaction conditions were evaluated considering the conversion intopercentage of 1,3-DAG produced and the reaction rate. Except Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica, other lipases required the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel to form acylglycerols. Lipases that gave the best results with adsorption were Novozym 435 and Lipozyme RM IM (Rhizomucor miehei with 52% and 60.7% of DAG at 32 h, respectively. Because of its specificity for sn-1 and sn-3 positions, lipases leading to a higher proportion of 1,3-DAG vs 1,2-DAG were Lipozyme RM IM (39.8% and 20.9%, respectively and Lipase PLG (Alcaligenes sp. (35.9% and 19.3%, respectively. By adding 1% (w/w of lecithin to the reaction with Novozym 435 and raw glycerol the reaction rate was considerably increased from 41.7% to 52.8% DAG at 24 h.

  8. Solvent-Free Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Diacylgycerols as Low-Calorie Food Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Luis; González, Noemí; Reglero, Guillermo; Torres, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Problems derived from obesity and overweight have recently promoted the development of fat substitutes and other low-calorie foods. On the one hand, fats with short- and medium-chain fatty acids are a source of quick energy, easily hydrolyzable and hardly stored as fat. Furthermore, 1,3-diacylglycerols are not hydrolyzed to 2-monoacylglycerols in the gastrointestinal tract, reducing the formation of chylomicron and lowers the serum level of triacylglycerols by decreasing its resynthesis in the enterocyte. In this work, these two effects were combined to synthesize short- and medium-chain 1,3-diacylglycerols, leading to a product with great potential as for their low-calorie properties. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification reactions were performed between short- and medium-chain fatty acid ethyl esters and glycerol. Different variables were investigated, such as the type of biocatalyst, the molar ratio FAEE:glycerol, the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel, or the addition of lecithin. Best reaction conditions were evaluated considering the percentage of 1,3-DAG produced and the reaction rate. Except Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica), other lipases required the adsorption of glycerol on silica gel to form acylglycerols. Lipases that gave the best results with adsorption were Novozym 435 and Lipozyme RM IM (Rhizomucor miehei) with 52 and 60.7% DAG at 32 h, respectively. Because of its specificity for sn-1 and sn-3 positions, lipases leading to a higher proportion of 1,3-DAG vs. 1,2-DAG were Lipozyme RM IM (39.8 and 20.9%, respectively) and Lipase PLG (Alcaligenes sp.) (35.9 and 19.3%, respectively). By adding 1% (w/w) of lecithin to the reaction with Novozym 435 and raw glycerol, the reaction rate was considerably increased from 41.7 to 52.8% DAG at 24 h.

  9. Low-calorie energy drink improves physiological response to exercise in previously sedentary men: a placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Christopher M; Moon, Jordan R; Smith, Abbie E; Tobkin, Sarah E; Kendall, Kristina L; Graef, Jennifer L; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2010-08-01

    Energy drink use has grown despite limited research to support efficacy or safety and amid concerns when combined with exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of 10 weeks of once-daily energy drink consumption or energy drink consumption with exercise on measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, mood, and safety in previously sedentary males. Thirty-eight males were randomly assigned to energy drink + exercise (EX-A), energy drink (NEX-A), placebo + exercise (EX-B), or placebo (NEX-B). All participants consumed 1 drink per day for 10 weeks; EX-A and EX-B participated in 10 weeks of resistance and endurance exercise. Testing was performed before (PRE) and after (POST) the 10-week intervention. No significant (p > 0.05) changes were observed for body composition, fitness, or strength in NEX-A; however, significantly greater decreases in fat mass and percentage body fat and increases in VO2peak were observed in EX-A versus EX-B. Ventilatory threshold (VT), minute ventilation, VO2 at VT, and power output at VT improved significantly PRE to POST in EX-A but not in EX-B or nonexercising groups. Clinical markers for hepatic, renal, cardiovascular, and immune function, as determined by PRE and POST blood work revealed no adverse effects in response to the energy drink. Mood was not affected by energy drink use. Absent energy restriction or other dietary controls, chronic ingestion of a once-daily low-calorie energy drink appears ineffective at improving body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, or strength in sedentary males. However, when combined with exercise, preworkout energy drink consumption may significantly improve some physiological adaptations to combined aerobic and resistance training.

  10. Total, added, and free sugars: are restrictive guidelines science-based or achievable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jennifer; Slavin, Joanne

    2015-04-15

    Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND). Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. Compliance with proposed added sugar recommendations would require strict dietary compliance and may not be sustainable for many Americans. Without an accepted definition and equation for calculating added sugar, added sugar recommendations are arbitrary and may reduce intakes of nutrient-rich, recommended foods, such as yogurt, whole grains, and tart fruits including cranberries, cherries, and grapefruit. Added sugars are one part of excess calorie intake; however, compliance with low added sugar recommendations may not be achievable for the general public.

  11. Total, Added, and Free Sugars: Are Restrictive Guidelines Science-Based or Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Erickson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugar consumption, especially added sugars, is under attack. Various government and health authorities have suggested new sugar recommendations and guidelines as low as 5% of total calories from free sugars. Definitions for total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars are not standardized, nor are there accepted nutrient databases for this information. Our objective was to measure total sugars and added sugars in sample meal plans created by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND. Utilizing the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR nutritional database, results found that plans created by the USDA and AND averaged 5.1% and 3.1% calories from added sugar, 8.7% and 3.1% from free sugar, and 23.3% and 21.1% as total sugars respectively. Compliance with proposed added sugar recommendations would require strict dietary compliance and may not be sustainable for many Americans. Without an accepted definition and equation for calculating added sugar, added sugar recommendations are arbitrary and may reduce intakes of nutrient-rich, recommended foods, such as yogurt, whole grains, and tart fruits including cranberries, cherries, and grapefruit. Added sugars are one part of excess calorie intake; however, compliance with low added sugar recommendations may not be achievable for the general public.

  12. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Johannes Morscher

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer's oxidative phosphorylation system.Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two neuroblastoma cell lines having distinct genetic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity [SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2]. Mice were randomized to four treatment groups receiving standard diet, calorie-restricted standard diet, long chain fatty acid based ketogenic diet or calorie-restricted ketogenic diet. Tumor growth, survival, metabolic parameters and weight of the mice were monitored. Cancer tissue was evaluated for diet-induced changes of proliferation indices and multiple oxidative phosphorylation system parameters (respiratory chain enzyme activities, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial DNA content.Ketogenic diet and/or calorie restriction significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft model. Neuroblastoma growth reduction correlated with decreased blood glucose concentrations and was characterized by a significant decrease in Ki-67 and phospho-histone H3 levels in the diet groups with low tumor growth. As in human tumor tissue, neuroblastoma xenografts showed distinctly low mitochondrial complex II activity in combination with a generalized low level of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, validating the tumor model. Neuroblastoma showed no ability to adapt its mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity to the change in nutrient supply induced by dietary intervention.Our data suggest that targeting the metabolic characteristics of neuroblastoma could open a new front in supporting standard therapy regimens

  13. Reducing high calorie snack food in young adults: a role for social norms and health based messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Harris, Ellis; Thomas, Jason; Aveyard, Paul; Higgs, Suzanne

    2013-06-05

    Consumption of high calorie junk foods has increased recently, especially among young adults and higher intake may cause weight gain. There is a need to develop public health approaches to motivate people to reduce their intake of junk food. To assess the effect of health and social norm messages on high calorie snack food intake (a type of junk food) as a function of usual intake of junk food. In a between-subjects design, 129 young adults (45 men and 84 women, mean age = 22.4 years, SD = 4.5) were assigned to one of three conditions: 1) a social norm condition, in which participants saw a message about the junk food eating habits of others; 2) a health condition, in which participants saw a message outlining the health benefits of reducing junk food consumption and; 3) a control condition, in which participants saw a non-food related message. After exposure to the poster messages, participants consumed a snack and the choice and amount of snack food consumed was examined covertly. We also examined whether usual intake of junk food moderated the effect of message type on high calorie snack food intake. The amount of high calorie snack food consumed was significantly lower in both the health and the social norm message condition compared with the control message condition (36% and 28%, both p food or energy intake between the health and social norm message conditions. There was no evidence that the effect of the messages depended upon usual consumption of junk food. Messages about the health effects of junk food and social normative messages about intake of junk food can motivate people to reduce their consumption of high calorie snack food.

  14. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morscher, Raphael Johannes; Aminzadeh-Gohari, Sepideh; Feichtinger, René Gunther; Mayr, Johannes Adalbert; Lang, Roland; Neureiter, Daniel; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer's oxidative phosphorylation system. Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two neuroblastoma cell lines having distinct genetic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity [SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)]. Mice were randomized to four treatment groups receiving standard diet, calorie-restricted standard diet, long chain fatty acid based ketogenic diet or calorie-restricted ketogenic diet. Tumor growth, survival, metabolic parameters and weight of the mice were monitored. Cancer tissue was evaluated for diet-induced changes of proliferation indices and multiple oxidative phosphorylation system parameters (respiratory chain enzyme activities, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial DNA content). Ketogenic diet and/or calorie restriction significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft model. Neuroblastoma growth reduction correlated with decreased blood glucose concentrations and was characterized by a significant decrease in Ki-67 and phospho-histone H3 levels in the diet groups with low tumor growth. As in human tumor tissue, neuroblastoma xenografts showed distinctly low mitochondrial complex II activity in combination with a generalized low level of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, validating the tumor model. Neuroblastoma showed no ability to adapt its mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity to the change in nutrient supply induced by dietary intervention. Our data suggest that targeting the metabolic characteristics of neuroblastoma could open a new front in supporting standard therapy regimens. Therefore, we propose

  15. Chronic and Daily Stressors Along With Negative Affect Interact to Predict Daily Tiredness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsell, Elizabeth N; Neupert, Shevaun D

    2017-11-01

    The present study examines the within-person relationship of daily stressors and tiredness and whether this depends on daily negative affect and individual differences in chronic stress. One hundred sixteen older adult participants were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk for a 9-day daily diary study. Daily tiredness, daily stressors, and negative affect were measured each day, and chronic stress was measured at baseline. Daily stressors, daily negative affect, and chronic stress interacted to predict daily tiredness. People with high chronic stress who experienced an increase in daily negative affect were the most reactive to daily stressors in terms of experiencing an increase in daily tiredness. We also found that people with low levels of chronic stress were the most reactive to daily stressors when they experienced low levels of daily negative affect. Our results highlight the need for individualized and contextualized approaches to combating daily tiredness in older adults.

  16. Digital daily cycles of individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader...... day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We...

  17. SIMADL: Simulated Activities of Daily Living Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talal Alshammari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the realisation of the Internet of Things (IoT paradigm, the analysis of the Activities of Daily Living (ADLs, in a smart home environment, is becoming an active research domain. The existence of representative datasets is a key requirement to advance the research in smart home design. Such datasets are an integral part of the visualisation of new smart home concepts as well as the validation and evaluation of emerging machine learning models. Machine learning techniques that can learn ADLs from sensor readings are used to classify, predict and detect anomalous patterns. Such techniques require data that represent relevant smart home scenarios, for training, testing and validation. However, the development of such machine learning techniques is limited by the lack of real smart home datasets, due to the excessive cost of building real smart homes. This paper provides two datasets for classification and anomaly detection. The datasets are generated using OpenSHS, (Open Smart Home Simulator, which is a simulation software for dataset generation. OpenSHS records the daily activities of a participant within a virtual environment. Seven participants simulated their ADLs for different contexts, e.g., weekdays, weekends, mornings and evenings. Eighty-four files in total were generated, representing approximately 63 days worth of activities. Forty-two files of classification of ADLs were simulated in the classification dataset and the other forty-two files are for anomaly detection problems in which anomalous patterns were simulated and injected into the anomaly detection dataset.

  18. Vestibular Function and Activities of Daily Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Harun MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vestibular dysfunction increases with age and is associated with mobility difficulties and fall risk in older individuals. We evaluated whether vestibular function influences the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs. Method: We analyzed the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of adults aged older than 40 years ( N = 5,017. Vestibular function was assessed with the Modified Romberg test. We evaluated the association between vestibular function and difficulty level in performing specific basic and instrumental ADLs, and total number of ADL impairments. Results: Vestibular dysfunction was associated with significantly higher odds of difficulty with nine ADLs, most strongly with difficulty managing finances (odds ratio [ OR ] = 2.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.18, 5.90]. In addition, vestibular dysfunction was associated with a significantly greater number of ADL impairments (β = .21, 95% CI = [0.09, 0.33]. This effect size was comparable with the influence of heavy smoking (β = .21, 95% CI = [0.06, 0.36] and hypertension (β = .10, 95% CI = [0.02, 0.18] on the number of ADL impairments. Conclusion: Vestibular dysfunction significantly influences ADL difficulty, most strongly with a cognitive rather than mobility-based task. These findings underscore the importance of vestibular inputs for both cognitive and physical daily activities.

  19. The benefit of daily photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seité, Sophie; Fourtanier, Anny M A

    2008-05-01

    It is now recognized that both ultraviolet (UV)-A and UVB wavelengths participate in the generation of photodamaged human skin during sun exposure. During usual daily activities, an appropriate protection against solar UV exposure should prevent clinical, cellular, and molecular changes potentially leading to photoaging. This study was designed to evaluate in human beings the protection afforded by a day cream containing a photostable combination of UVB and UVA filters and thus protect against the UV-induced skin alterations. In solar-simulated radiation exposed and unprotected skin sites we observed melanization. The epidermis revealed a significant increase in stratum corneum and stratum granulosum thickness. In the dermis, an enhanced expression of tenascin and a reduced expression of type I procollagen were evidenced just below the dermoepidermal junction. Although no change in elastic fibers in exposed buttock skin was seen, a slightly increased deposit of lysozyme and alpha-1 antitrypsin on elastin fibers was observed using immunofluorescence techniques. A day cream with photoprotection properties was shown to prevent all of the above-described alterations. This study was performed on a limited number of patients (n = 12) with specific characteristics (20-35 years old and skin type II and III). Two dermal alterations were evaluated by visual assessment and not by computer-assisted image analysis quantification. Our in vivo results demonstrate the benefits of daily photoprotection using a day cream containing appropriate broad-spectrum sunscreens, which prevent solar UV-induced skin damages.

  20. Cognitive profile and activities of daily living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Thuesen, A M; Olsen, K J

    2015-01-01

    on the cognitive function and activities of daily living in patients with AM. METHODS: Thirty five AM patients, age 6-35 years, were included in the study. As a cognitive function test, we used the Leiter international performance scale-revised (Leiter-R), which consists of two batteries: the visual function...... and reasoning battery and the memory and attention battery, the latter including a memory screening. Additional two questionnaires, The Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) and EQ-5D-5 L, were filled out. RESULTS: We found IQ in the range of 30-81 in our cohort. The total equivalent age (mental age......) was significantly reduced, between 3-9 years old for the visual function and reasoning battery, between 2.3-10.2 years for the memory screening. Data suggested a specific developmental profile for AM with a positive intellectual development until the chronological age 10-12 years, followed by a static or slightly...

  1. Effects of 2-day calorie restriction on cardiovascular autonomic response, mood, and cognitive and motor functions in obese young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Sujeta, Artūras; Čekanauskaitė, Agnė

    2018-06-02

    Although long-term energy restriction has been widely investigated and has consistently induced improvements in health and cognitive and motor functions, the responses to short-duration calorie restriction are not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 2-day very low-calorie diet on evoked stress, mood, and cognitive and motor functions in obese women. Nine obese women (body fatness > 32%) aged 22-31 years were tested under two randomly allocated conditions: 2-day very low-calorie diet (511 kcal) and 2-day usual diet. The perceived stressfulness of the diet, cardiovascular autonomic response, and cognitive and motor performances were evaluated before and after each diet. The subjective stress rating of the calorie-restricted diet was 41.5 ± 23.3. Calorie restriction had no detectable effects on the heart rate variability indices, mood, grip strength, or psychomotor functions. By contrast, calorie restriction increased (p restriction evoked moderate stress in obese women, cardiovascular autonomic function was not affected. Calorie restriction had complex effects on cognition: it declined cognitive flexibility, and improved spatial processing and visuospatial working memory, but did not affect mood or motor behavior.

  2. Weight Changes and Metabolic Outcomes in Calorie-Restricted Obese Mice Fed High-Fat Diets Containing Corn or Flaxseed Oil: Physiological Role of Sugar Replacement with Polyphenol-Rich Grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, Hastimansooreh; Zamaninour, Negar; Djazayery, Abolghassem; Pishva, Hamideh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Ramin; Dilmaghanian, Aydin; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Shidfar, Farzad

    2017-08-01

    Because diet components are important during dieting in obesity treatment, we examined possible beneficial effects of substituting corn oil and sugar with flaxseed oil and grape in calorie-restricted high-fat diets on weight changes as well as improvement in some metabolic markers and related gene expression. Seventy-five C57BL/6J male mice were given free access to a high-fat (36% of energy from fat) diet containing corn oil plus sugar (CO + S). After 11 weeks, 15 mice were sacrificed and another 60 were divided among 4 high-fat diet groups with 30% calorie restriction (CR) for the next 12 weeks. The diets contained corn oil (CO) or flaxseed oil (FO) with sugar (S) or grape (G). Despite CR, a weight loss trend was observed only during the first 4 weeks in all groups. CR did not significantly increase SIRT1 gene expression. Higher liver weight was observed in mice consuming FO (p sugar (FBS) was significantly higher than in CO + G-CR. Grape intake increased Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) expression and decreased insulin resistance in CO + G-CR. Sugar replacement with polyphenol-rich grape along with CR improved glucose homeostasis, and substituting corn oil with flaxseed oil in obese mice reduced fat mass, but even with no change in adiponectin levels it could not decrease insulin resistance. However, none of the food item combinations facilitated weight reduction in the long-term CR. Therefore, regardless of the total calorie intake, different diet components and fat contents may have unexpected effects on metabolic regulation.

  3. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  4. Recreating Daily life in Pompeii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose an integrated Mixed Reality methodology for recreating ancient daily life that features realistic simulations of animated virtual human actors (clothes, body, skin, face who augment real environments and re-enact staged storytelling dramas. We aim to go further from traditional concepts of static cultural artifacts or rigid geometrical and 2D textual augmentations and allow for 3D, interactive, augmented historical character-based event representations in a mobile and wearable setup. This is the main contribution of the described work as well as the proposed extensions to AR Enabling technologies: a VR/AR character simulation kernel framework with real-time, clothed virtual humans that are dynamically superimposed on live camera input, animated and acting based on a predefined, historically correct scenario. We demonstrate such a real-time case study on the actual site of ancient Pompeii.

  5. Periodontal disease and percentage of calories from fat using national data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, T; Kitamura, M; Kawashita, Y; Ando, Y; Saito, T

    2017-02-01

    The association between periodontal disease and nutrient intake was examined using linked data from the 2005 National Health and Nutrition Survey, the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions and the Survey of Dental Diseases from the same year 'using linked data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey, the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions and the Survey of Dental Diseases, all from 2005'. There has been increasing focus on the importance of nutritional factors in disease in recent years, but very few studies in Japan have looked at the association between periodontal disease and nutrients. Therefore, in the present study we investigated factors associated with periodontal disease, particularly in terms of nutrient intake. Data from 3043 individuals, ≥ 20 years of age (the original study sample comprised 4873 individuals, but those younger than 20 years of age and pregnant women were excluded from the present study) were compiled from linked responses to these three surveys from the same year. Permission to use the data was obtained from the Lifestyle-Related Diseases Control General Affairs Division of the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare, Japan. Information including basic attributes, family structure, economic status, physical condition, lifestyle habits, diet, dental habits, blood data, intake of foods (including the categories of food) and nutrient-related information were obtained from the linked data. The individual maximum Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was used as an index of periodontal disease. Subjects were divided, according to maximum CPI, into groups in which CPI = 0-2 or CPI = 3-4, and associations between CPI and basic attributes, family structure, economic status, physical condition, lifestyle habits, diet, blood data and food intake were analyzed. Multivariate analysis revealed that the percentage of calories from fat was a nutrient factor associated with periodontal disease, with the percentage of calories from fat

  6. Estimation of Freely-Dissolved Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, 2,3,7,8-Substituted Congeners and Homologs of Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Water for Development of Total Maximum Daily Loadings for the Bluestone River Watershed, Virginia and West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, working closely with the State of West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is undertaking a polychlorinated biphenyl source assessment study for the Bluestone River watershed. The study area extends from the Bluefield area of Virginia and West Virginia, targets the Bluestone River and tributaries suspected of contributing to polychlorinated biphenyl, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran contamination, and includes sites near confluences of Big Branch, Brush Fork, and Beaver Pond Creek. The objectives of this study were to gather information about the concentrations, patterns, and distribution of these contaminants at specific study sites to expand current knowledge about polychlorinated biphenyl impacts and to identify potential new sources of contamination. Semipermeable membrane devices were used to integratively accumulate the dissolved fraction of the contaminants at each site. Performance reference compounds were added prior to deployment and used to determine site-specific sampling rates, enabling estimations of time-weighted average water concentrations during the deployed period. Minimum estimated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in water were about 1 picogram per liter per congener, and total concentrations at study sites ranged from 130 to 18,000 picograms per liter. The lowest concentration was 130 picograms per liter, about threefold greater than total hypothetical concentrations from background levels in field blanks. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in water fell into three groups of sites: low (130-350 picogram per liter); medium (640-3,500 picogram per liter; and high (11,000-18,000 picogram per liter). Concentrations at the high sites, Beacon Cave and Beaverpond Branch at the Resurgence, were about four- to sixfold higher than concentrations estimated for the medium group of sites

  7. The effects of an increased calorie breakfast consumed prior to simulated match-play in Academy soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marc A; Harper, Liam D; McNamee, Ged; Cockburn, Emma; Rumbold, Penny L S; Stevenson, Emma J; Russell, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Dietary analysis of Academy soccer players highlights that total energy and carbohydrate intakes are less than optimal, especially, on match-days. As UK Academy matches predominantly kick-off at ∼11:00 h, breakfast is likely the last pre-exercise meal and thus may provide an intervention opportunity on match-day. Accordingly, the physiological and performance effects of an increased calorie breakfast consumed ∼135-min before soccer-specific exercise was investigated. English Premier League Academy soccer players (n = 7) repeated a 90-min soccer match simulation on two occasions after consumption of habitual (B hab ; ∼1100 kJ) or increased (B inc ; ∼2100 kJ) energy breakfasts standardised for macronutrient contributions (∼60% carbohydrates, ∼15% proteins and ∼25% fats). Countermovement jump height, sprint velocities (15-m and 30-m), 30-m repeated sprint maintenance, gut fullness, abdominal discomfort and soccer dribbling performances were measured. Blood samples were taken at rest, pre-exercise, half-time and every 15-min during exercise. Although dribbling precision (P = .522; 29.9 ± 5.5 cm) and success (P = .505; 94 ± 8%) were unchanged throughout all time-points, mean dribbling speed was faster (4.3 ± 5.7%) in B inc relative to B hab (P = .023; 2.84 vs 2.75 m s -1 ). Greater feelings of gut fullness (67 ± 17%, P = .001) were observed in B inc without changes in abdominal discomfort (P = .595). All other physical performance measures and blood lactate and glucose concentrations were comparable between trials (all P > .05). Findings demonstrate that Academy soccer players were able to increase pre-match energy intake without experiencing abdominal discomfort; thus, likely contributing to the amelioration of energy deficits on match-days. Furthermore, whilst B inc produced limited benefits to physical performance, increased dribbling speed was identified, which may be of benefit to match-play.

  8. Examining daily activity routines of older adults using workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jane; Ozkaynak, Mustafa; Demiris, George

    2017-07-01

    We evaluated the value of workflow analysis supported by a novel visualization technique to better understand the daily routines of older adults and highlight their patterns of daily activities and normal variability in physical functions. We used a self-reported activity diary to obtain data from six community-dwelling older adults for 14 consecutive days. Workflow for daily routine was analyzed using the EventFlow tool, which aggregates workflow information to highlight patterns and variabilities. A total of 1453 events were included in the data analysis. To demonstrate the patterns and variability of each individual's daily activities, participant activity workflows were visualized and compared. The workflow analysis revealed great variability in activity types, regularity, frequency, duration, and timing of performing certain activities across individuals. Also, when workflow approach was applied to spatial information of activities, the analysis revealed the ability to provide meaningful data on individuals' mobility in different levels of life spaces from home to community. Results suggest that using workflows to characterize the daily activities of older adults will be helpful for clinicians and researchers in understanding their daily routines and preparing education and prevention strategies tailored to each individual's activity level. This tool also has the potential to be integrated into consumer informatics technologies, such as patient portals or personal health records, so that consumers may be encouraged to become actively involved in monitoring and managing their health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin Xiujing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ( 232 Th, 228 Th, 230 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, and 40 K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: 232 Th, 0.00-0.23; 228 Th, 0.00-2.04; 230 Th, 0.00-0.26; 228 Ra, 0.02-2.73; 226 Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and 40 K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 μSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was 40 K. These values were same level compiled in other countries

  10. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  11. Global Daily Climatology Network: Kazakhstan subset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily meteorological observations for Kazakhstan within the framework of joint efforts to create Global Daily Climatology...

  12. NOAA Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA 1/4° daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (or daily OISST) is an analysis constructed by combining observations from different platforms...

  13. Depression Among Non-Daily Smokers Compared to Daily Smokers and Never-Smokers in the United States: An Emerging Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Gbedemah, Misato; Wall, Melanie M; Hasin, Deborah S; Zvolensky, Michael J; Chaiton, Michael; Goodwin, Renee D

    2017-09-01

    Depression is strongly associated with daily smoking. Yet, little is known about the association between depression and non-daily smoking. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of past-year depression and changes in past-year depression over time among non-daily smokers, compared to daily smokers and never-smokers, overall and stratified by age, gender, income, nicotine dependence, and cigarettes per day. Data were drawn from the National Household Survey on Drug Use (NSDUH), an annual cross-sectional study of persons aged 12 and over (total study population N = 496 805). The prevalence of past-year depression was examined annually among non-daily smokers, daily smokers, and never-smokers from 2005 to 2013 using linear trend analyses. Past-year depression was common among 10.10% of non-daily smokers, common among 10.78% of daily smokers, and 5.51% of never-smokers in 2013. The prevalence of depression increased from 2005 to 2013 among non-daily smokers (9.06% vs. 10.10%; p = .034) while there was no significant change in depression over time among daily smokers. Increases in depression among non-daily smokers occurred for both men and women and appear most pronounced youth, those smoking fewer cigarettes, and those without nicotine dependence. The prevalence of depression among non-daily smokers was equivalent to daily smokers and nearly twice that among nonsmokers. Depression appears to be increasing over time in non-daily smokers especially among youth, those who smoke less, and those without nicotine dependence. More work on the mental health of non-daily smokers is needed as this is an increasing and understudied group. This is the first study to investigate changes in the prevalence of depression among non-daily smokers compared to daily smokers and never-smokers over the past decade in a nationally representative sample of the United States. The results suggest an increase in depression among non-daily smokers over time that did not

  14. Can alginate-based preloads increase weight loss beyond calorie restriction? A pilot study in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georg Jensen, M; Kristensen, M; Astrup, A

    2011-12-01

    This randomized, controlled, 2-week intervention study in 24 obese subjects tested the effect on body weight loss and gastrointestinal tolerance of consuming low viscous alginate fibre-based preloads of 3% concentration (500 ml volume) three times a day as an adjuvant to a calorie-restricted diet. The pilot study showed that intake of the alginate preloads was moderately acceptable to the majority of subjects but did not produce additional body weight loss beyond calorie restriction (-1.42 ± 0.38 kg) (n=12) compared to control group (-1.56 ± 0.21 kg) (n=8). These results do not support that alginate supplementation enhance the weight loss effects of a hypo-caloric diet, but a sufficiently powered long-term study is needed to explore whether alginate could be an aid for improving weight loss during caloric-restriction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Influence of Dietary Fat Source on Life Span in Calorie Restricted Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Domínguez, José A; Ramsey, Jon J; Tran, Dianna; Imai, Denise M; Koehne, Amanda; Laing, Steven T; Griffey, Stephen M; Kim, Kyoungmi; Taylor, Sandra L; Hagopian, Kevork; Villalba, José M; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; McDonald, Roger B

    2015-10-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition extends life span in several animal models. It has been proposed that a decrease in the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and especially n-3 fatty acids, in membrane phospholipids may contribute to life span extension with CR. Phospholipid PUFAs are sensitive to dietary fatty acid composition, and thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dietary lipids on life span in CR mice. C57BL/6J mice were assigned to four groups (a 5% CR control group and three 40% CR groups) and fed diets with soybean oil (high in n-6 PUFAs), fish oil (high in n-3 PUFAs), or lard (high in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids) as the primary lipid source. Life span was increased (p Life span was also increased (p life span in mice on CR, and suggest that a diet containing a low proportion of PUFAs and high proportion of monounsaturated and saturated fats may maximize life span in animals maintained on CR. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Exercise Training and Calorie Restriction Influence the Metabolic Parameters in Ovariectomized Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó Pósa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The estrogen deficiency after menopause leads to overweight or obesity, and physical exercise is one of the important modulators of this body weight gain. Female Wistar rats underwent ovariectomy surgery (OVX or sham operation (SO. OVX and SO groups were randomized into new groups based on the voluntary physical activity (with or without running and the type of diet for 12 weeks. Rats were fed standard chow (CTRL, high triglyceride diet (HT, or restricted diet (CR. The metabolic syndrome was assessed by measuring the body weight gain, the glucose sensitivity, and the levels of insulin, triglyceride, leptin, and aspartate aminotransferase transaminase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. The exercise training combined with the CR resulted in improvements in the glucose tolerance and the insulin sensitivity. Plasma TG, AST, and ALT levels were significantly higher in OVX rats fed with HT but these high values were suppressed by exercise and CR. Compared to SO animals, estrogen deprivation with HT caused a significant increase in leptin level. Our data provide evidence that CR combined with voluntary physical exercise can be a very effective strategy to prevent the development of a metabolic syndrome induced by high calorie diet.

  17. The capture of attention by entirely irrelevant pictures of calorie-dense foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Corbin A; Egeth, Howard E

    2018-04-01

    Inborn preference for palatable energy-dense food is thought to be an evolutionary adaptation. One way this preference manifests itself is through the control of visual attention. In the present study, we investigated how attentional capture is influenced by changes in naturally occurring goal-states, in this case desire for energy-dense foods (typically high fat and/or high sugar). We demonstrate that even when distractors are entirely irrelevant, participants were significantly more distracted by energy-dense foods compared with non-food objects and even low-energy foods. Additionally, we show the lability of these goal-states by having a separate set of participants consume a small amount of calorie-dense food prior to the task. The amount of distraction by the energy-dense food images in this case was significantly reduced and no different than distraction by images of low-energy foods and images of non-food objects. While naturally occurring goal-states can be difficult to ignore, they also are highly flexible.

  18. Effectiveness of a Low-Calorie Weight Loss Program in Moderately and Severely Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia K. Winkler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare effectiveness of a 1-year weight loss program in moderately and severely obese patients. Methods: The study sample included 311 obese patients participating in a weight loss program, which comprised a 12-week weight reduction phase (low-calorie formula diet and a 40-week weight maintenance phase. Body weight and glucose and lipid values were determined at the beginning of the program as well as after the weight reduction and the weight maintenance phase. Participants were analyzed according to their BMI class at baseline (30-34.9 kg/m2; 35-39.9 kg/m2; 40-44.9 kg/m2; 45-49.9 kg/m2; ≥50 kg/m2. Furthermore, mod