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Sample records for total daily activity

  1. Association of total daily physical activity with disability in community-dwelling older persons: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Raj C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on findings primarily using self-report measures, physical activity has been recommended to reduce disability in old age. Collecting objective measures of total daily physical activity in community-dwelling older adults is uncommon, but might enhance the understanding of the relationship of physical activity and disability. We examined whether greater total daily physical activity was associated with less report of disability in the elderly. Methods Data were from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a longitudinal prospective cohort study of common, age-related, chronic conditions. Total daily physical activity was measured in community-dwelling participants with an average age of 82 using actigraphy for approximately 9 days. Disability was measured via self-reported basic activities of daily living (ADL. The odds ratio and 95% Confidence Interval (CI were determined for the baseline association of total daily physical activity and ADL disability using a logistic regression model adjusted for age, education level, gender and self-report physical activity. In participants without initial report of ADL disability, the hazard ratio and 95% CI were determined for the relationship of baseline total daily physical activity and the development of ADL disability using a discrete time Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for demographics and self-report physical activity. Results In 870 participants, the mean total daily physical activity was 2. 9 × 105 counts/day (range in 105 counts/day = 0.16, 13. 6 and the mean hours/week of self-reported physical activity was 3.2 (SD = 3.6. At baseline, 718 (82.5% participants reported being independent in all ADLs. At baseline, total daily physical activity was protective against disability (OR per 105 counts/day difference = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.47, 0.65. Of the participants without baseline disability, 584 were followed for 3.4 years on average. Each 105 counts/day additional total

  2. The contact mechanics and occurrence of edge loading in modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement during daily activities.

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    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of edge loading in hip joint replacement has been associated with many factors such as prosthetic design, component malposition and activities of daily living. The present study aimed to quantify the occurrence of edge loading/contact at the articulating surface and to evaluate the effect of cup angles and edge loading on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR) during different daily activities. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing system. Different cup inclination and anteversion angles were modelled and six daily activities were considered. The results showed that edge loading was predicted during normal walking, ascending and descending stairs activities under steep cup inclination conditions (≥55°) while no edge loading was observed during standing up, sitting down and knee bending activities. The duration of edge loading increased with increased cup inclination angles and was affected by the cup anteversion angles. Edge loading caused elevated contact pressure at the articulating surface and substantially increased equivalent plastic strain of the polyethylene liner. The present study suggested that correct positioning the component to avoid edge loading that may occur during daily activities is important for MoP THR in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Knee Flexion and Daily Activities in Patients following Total Knee Replacement: A Comparison with ISO Standard 14243

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    Markus A. Wimmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking is only one of many daily activities performed by patients following total knee replacement (TKR. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypotheses (a that subject activity characteristics are correlated with knee flexion range of motion (ROM and (b that there is a significant difference between the subject’s flexion/extension excursion throughout the day and the ISO specified input for knee wear testing. In order to characterize activity, the number of walking and stair stepping cycles, the time spent with dynamic and stationary activities, the number of activity sequences, and the knee flexion/extension excursion of 32 TKR subjects were collected during daily activity. Flexion/extension profiles were compared with the ISO 14243 simulator input profile using a level crossing classification algorithm. Subjects took an average of 3102 (range: 343–5857 walking cycles including 65 (range: 0–319 stair stepping cycles. Active and passive ROMs were positively correlated with stair walking time, stair step counts, and stair walking sequences. Simulated knee motion according to ISO showed significantly fewer level crossings at the flexion angles 20–40° and beyond 50° than those measured with the monitor. This suggests that implant wear testing protocols should contain more cycles and a variety of activities requiring higher knee flexion angles with incorporated resting/transition periods to account for the many activity sequences.

  4. Correlations between patient satisfaction and ability to perform daily activities after total knee arthroplasty: why aren't patients satisfied?

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    Nakahara, Hiroyuki; Okazaki, Ken; Mizu-Uchi, Hideki; Hamai, Satoshi; Tashiro, Yasutaka; Matsuda, Shuichi; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2015-01-01

    Patient satisfaction has become an important parameter for assessing overall outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The level of difficulty in performing activities of daily life that affects overall patient satisfaction is unknown. We therefore evaluated the influence of difficulty in performing activities of daily life on patient satisfaction and expectations. The 2011 Knee Society Knee Scoring System Questionnaire was mailed to patients who had undergone TKA with 375 patients completing and returning it. We evaluated the relationship between the ability to perform daily activities, as assessed via the questionnaire, and patient satisfaction and expectations of the same score in each patient using linear regression analysis. We also determined which activities affected patient satisfaction and expectations using multivariate linear regression analyses. All patient-derived functional activities correlated significantly with the patient satisfaction score. In particular, "climbing up or down a flight of stairs" followed by "getting into or out of a car," "moving laterally (stepping to the side)" and "walking and standing" correlated strongly with patient satisfaction by linear regression analysis and were revealed to have significant contributions to patient satisfaction by multivariate linear regression analysis. Regarding expectations, all patient-derived functional activities correlated significantly with the patient expectation score, although none of the correlation coefficients was very high. "Squatting," followed by "walking and standing," contributed to the patient expectation score by multivariate linear regression analysis. Activities related to walking and standing are some of the most basic movements and basic demands for patients. In addition, "climbing up or down a flight of stairs," "getting into and out of a car" and "squatting" are very important and distressing activities that significantly correlate with patient satisfaction after TKA.

  5. Daily total physical activity level and total cancer risk in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan.

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    Inoue, Manami; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Kurahashi, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-08-15

    The impact of total physical activity level on cancer risk has not been fully clarified, particularly in non-Western, relatively lean populations. The authors prospectively examined the association between daily total physical activity (using a metabolic equivalents/day score) and subsequent cancer risk in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. A total of 79,771 general-population Japanese men and women aged 45-74 years who responded to a questionnaire in 1995-1999 were followed for total cancer incidence (4,334 cases) through 2004. Compared with subjects in the lowest quartile, increased daily physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased risk of cancer in both sexes. In men, hazard ratios for the second, third, and highest quartiles were 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90, 1.11), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.07), and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.78, 0.96), respectively (p for trend = 0.005); in women, hazard ratios were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.05), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.96), and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.97), respectively (p for trend = 0.007). The decreased risk was more clearly observed in women than in men, especially among the elderly and those who regularly engaged in leisure-time sports or physical exercise. By site, decreased risks were observed for cancers of the colon, liver, and pancreas in men and for cancer of the stomach in women. Increased daily physical activity may be beneficial in preventing cancer in a relatively lean population.

  6. Daily total physical activity level and premature death in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan (JPHC study).

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    Inoue, Manami; Iso, Hiroyasu; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Kurahashi, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2008-07-01

    The impact of daily total physical activity level on premature deaths has not been fully clarified in non-Western, relatively lean populations. We prospectively examined the association between daily total physical activity level (METs/day) and subsequent risk of all-cause mortality and mortalities from cancer, heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease. A total of 83,034 general Japanese citizens ages 45-74 years who responded to the questionnaire in 1995-1999 were followed for any cause of death through December 2005. Mutlivariate-adjusted hazard ratios were calculated with a Cox proportional hazards model controlling for potential confounding factors. During follow-up, a total of 4564 deaths were recorded. Compared with subjects in the lowest quartile, increased daily total physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased risk of all-cause mortality in both sexes (hazard ratios for the second, third, and highest quartiles were: men, 0.79, 0.82, 0.73 and women, 0.75, 0.64, 0.61, respectively). The decreased risk was observed regardless of age, frequency of leisure-time sports or physical exercise, or obesity status, albeit with a degree of risk attenuation among those with a high body mass index. A significantly decreased risk was similarly observed for death from cancer and heart disease in both sexes, and from cerebrovascular disease in women. Greater daily total physical activity level, either from occupation, daily life, or leisure time, may be of benefit in preventing premature death.

  7. No difference between fixed- and mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty in activities of daily living and pain: a randomized clinical trial.

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    Amaro, Joicemar Tarouco; Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Astur, Diego Costa; Debieux, Pedro; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Cohen, Moises

    2017-06-01

    Until now, there are no definitive conclusions regarding functional differences related to middle- and long-term everyday activities and patient pain following implantation of mobile- and fixed-platform tibial prostheses. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are middle-term differences in knee function and pain in patients undergoing fixed- and mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Eligible patients were randomized into two groups: the first group received TKA implantation with a fixed tibial platform (group A); the second group received TKA with a mobile tibial platform (group B). Patients were followed up (2 years), and their symptoms and limitations in daily living activities were evaluated using the Knee Outcome Survey-Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADLS), in addition to pain evaluation assessed using the pain visual analogue scale (VAS). There were no significant differences in function and symptoms in the ADLS and VAS between the study groups. The type of platform used in TKA (fixed vs. mobile) does not change the symptoms, function or pain of patients 2 years post-surgery. Although mobile TKAs may have better short-term results, at medium- and long-term follow-up they do not present important clinical differences compared with fixed-platform TKAs. This information is important so that surgeons can choose the most suitable implant for each patient. Randomized clinical trial, Level I.

  8. Estimation of total as well as bioaccessible levels and average daily dietary intake of iodine from Japanese edible seaweeds by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Chatt, A.

    2012-01-01

    An epi-thermal instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA) method in conjunction with Compton suppression spectrometry (EINAA-CSS) was used for the determination of total iodine in eight different species of edible seaweeds from Japan. This method gave an absolute detection limit of about 2 μg. The accuracy of the method was evaluated using various reference materials and found to be generally in agreement within ±6% of the certified values. The longitudinal distributions of iodine at different growing stages in Japanese sea mustard and tangle seaweeds were investigated. For a 150-cm-high tangle, the highest concentration (5,360 mg/kg) of iodine was found at the root, then decreased slowly to 780 mg/kg in the middle portion (60-75 cm), and increased to 2,300 mg/kg at the apex. On the other hand, for a 190-cm-high sea mustard the highest levels of iodine were found both at the roots (164 mg/kg) and apex (152 mg/kg) with lower values (98 mg/kg) in the middle section. In order to estimate the bioaccessible fraction of iodine, seaweeds were digested by an in vitro enzymolysis method, dietary fibre separated from residue, and both fractions analyzed by EINAA-CSS. The average daily dietary intakes of total (0.14 mg) as well as bioaccessible fraction (0.12 mg) of iodine from the consumption of sea mustards were estimated. (author)

  9. TCTE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Means V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) Calibration Transfer Experiment (TCTE) data set TCTE3TSID contains daily averaged total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data...

  10. Daily Physical Activity Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the Daily Physical Activity (DPA) Survey was to gather school-level information from teachers and principals regarding their perceptions of DPA, thus providing a greater understanding of DPA implementation in grades 1 to 9. This study aimed to help identify the many variables that influence the attainment of the DPA outcomes and…

  11. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

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    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The Clean Water Act Section 303(d) establishes the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The purpose of the TMDL program is to identify sources of pollution and...

  12. Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS)

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    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Assessment TMDL Tracking And Implementation System (ATTAINS) stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads...

  13. Daily Public Assistance Grants Award Activity

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    Department of Homeland Security — Daily activity of Public Assistance Grant Awards, including FEMA Region, State, Disaster Declaration Number, Event description, Mission Assigned agency, Assistance...

  14. SIMADL: Simulated Activities of Daily Living Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talal Alshammari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the realisation of the Internet of Things (IoT paradigm, the analysis of the Activities of Daily Living (ADLs, in a smart home environment, is becoming an active research domain. The existence of representative datasets is a key requirement to advance the research in smart home design. Such datasets are an integral part of the visualisation of new smart home concepts as well as the validation and evaluation of emerging machine learning models. Machine learning techniques that can learn ADLs from sensor readings are used to classify, predict and detect anomalous patterns. Such techniques require data that represent relevant smart home scenarios, for training, testing and validation. However, the development of such machine learning techniques is limited by the lack of real smart home datasets, due to the excessive cost of building real smart homes. This paper provides two datasets for classification and anomaly detection. The datasets are generated using OpenSHS, (Open Smart Home Simulator, which is a simulation software for dataset generation. OpenSHS records the daily activities of a participant within a virtual environment. Seven participants simulated their ADLs for different contexts, e.g., weekdays, weekends, mornings and evenings. Eighty-four files in total were generated, representing approximately 63 days worth of activities. Forty-two files of classification of ADLs were simulated in the classification dataset and the other forty-two files are for anomaly detection problems in which anomalous patterns were simulated and injected into the anomaly detection dataset.

  15. Vestibular Function and Activities of Daily Living

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    Aisha Harun MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vestibular dysfunction increases with age and is associated with mobility difficulties and fall risk in older individuals. We evaluated whether vestibular function influences the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs. Method: We analyzed the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of adults aged older than 40 years ( N = 5,017. Vestibular function was assessed with the Modified Romberg test. We evaluated the association between vestibular function and difficulty level in performing specific basic and instrumental ADLs, and total number of ADL impairments. Results: Vestibular dysfunction was associated with significantly higher odds of difficulty with nine ADLs, most strongly with difficulty managing finances (odds ratio [ OR ] = 2.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.18, 5.90]. In addition, vestibular dysfunction was associated with a significantly greater number of ADL impairments (β = .21, 95% CI = [0.09, 0.33]. This effect size was comparable with the influence of heavy smoking (β = .21, 95% CI = [0.06, 0.36] and hypertension (β = .10, 95% CI = [0.02, 0.18] on the number of ADL impairments. Conclusion: Vestibular dysfunction significantly influences ADL difficulty, most strongly with a cognitive rather than mobility-based task. These findings underscore the importance of vestibular inputs for both cognitive and physical daily activities.

  16. Cognitive profile and activities of daily living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Thuesen, A M; Olsen, K J

    2015-01-01

    on the cognitive function and activities of daily living in patients with AM. METHODS: Thirty five AM patients, age 6-35 years, were included in the study. As a cognitive function test, we used the Leiter international performance scale-revised (Leiter-R), which consists of two batteries: the visual function...... and reasoning battery and the memory and attention battery, the latter including a memory screening. Additional two questionnaires, The Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) and EQ-5D-5 L, were filled out. RESULTS: We found IQ in the range of 30-81 in our cohort. The total equivalent age (mental age......) was significantly reduced, between 3-9 years old for the visual function and reasoning battery, between 2.3-10.2 years for the memory screening. Data suggested a specific developmental profile for AM with a positive intellectual development until the chronological age 10-12 years, followed by a static or slightly...

  17. Impact of intestinal stoma of daily activities

    OpenAIRE

    Kougl, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    In the theoretical part I am devoted to the history, anatomy, types of stoma, concept of stoma, indications for an establishment of stoma, pre and postoperative care, treatment of stoma, instruments and the influence on daily activities of a client while having a stoma. In the practical part I am following my own research of the impact of stoma on daily life's activities of klients with a stoma.

  18. SORCE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Average V016

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) data set SOR3TSID contains the total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data collected by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM)...

  19. Examining daily activity routines of older adults using workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jane; Ozkaynak, Mustafa; Demiris, George

    2017-07-01

    We evaluated the value of workflow analysis supported by a novel visualization technique to better understand the daily routines of older adults and highlight their patterns of daily activities and normal variability in physical functions. We used a self-reported activity diary to obtain data from six community-dwelling older adults for 14 consecutive days. Workflow for daily routine was analyzed using the EventFlow tool, which aggregates workflow information to highlight patterns and variabilities. A total of 1453 events were included in the data analysis. To demonstrate the patterns and variability of each individual's daily activities, participant activity workflows were visualized and compared. The workflow analysis revealed great variability in activity types, regularity, frequency, duration, and timing of performing certain activities across individuals. Also, when workflow approach was applied to spatial information of activities, the analysis revealed the ability to provide meaningful data on individuals' mobility in different levels of life spaces from home to community. Results suggest that using workflows to characterize the daily activities of older adults will be helpful for clinicians and researchers in understanding their daily routines and preparing education and prevention strategies tailored to each individual's activity level. This tool also has the potential to be integrated into consumer informatics technologies, such as patient portals or personal health records, so that consumers may be encouraged to become actively involved in monitoring and managing their health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prediction equation for estimating total daily energy requirements of special operations personnel.

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    Barringer, N D; Pasiakos, S M; McClung, H L; Crombie, A P; Margolis, L M

    2018-01-01

    Special Operations Forces (SOF) engage in a variety of military tasks with many producing high energy expenditures, leading to undesired energy deficits and loss of body mass. Therefore, the ability to accurately estimate daily energy requirements would be useful for accurate logistical planning. Generate a predictive equation estimating energy requirements of SOF. Retrospective analysis of data collected from SOF personnel engaged in 12 different SOF training scenarios. Energy expenditure and total body water were determined using the doubly-labeled water technique. Physical activity level was determined as daily energy expenditure divided by resting metabolic rate. Physical activity level was broken into quartiles (0 = mission prep, 1 = common warrior tasks, 2 = battle drills, 3 = specialized intense activity) to generate a physical activity factor (PAF). Regression analysis was used to construct two predictive equations (Model A; body mass and PAF, Model B; fat-free mass and PAF) estimating daily energy expenditures. Average measured energy expenditure during SOF training was 4468 (range: 3700 to 6300) Kcal·d- 1 . Regression analysis revealed that physical activity level ( r  = 0.91; P  plan appropriate feeding regimens to meet SOF nutritional requirements across their mission profile.

  1. An adaptive wavelet-network model for forecasting daily total solar-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellit, A.; Benghanem, M.; Kalogirou, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    The combination of wavelet theory and neural networks has lead to the development of wavelet networks. Wavelet-networks are feed-forward networks using wavelets as activation functions. Wavelet-networks have been used successfully in various engineering applications such as classification, identification and control problems. In this paper, the use of adaptive wavelet-network architecture in finding a suitable forecasting model for predicting the daily total solar-radiation is investigated. Total solar-radiation is considered as the most important parameter in the performance prediction of renewable energy systems, particularly in sizing photovoltaic (PV) power systems. For this purpose, daily total solar-radiation data have been recorded during the period extending from 1981 to 2001, by a meteorological station in Algeria. The wavelet-network model has been trained by using either the 19 years of data or one year of the data. In both cases the total solar radiation data corresponding to year 2001 was used for testing the model. The network was trained to accept and handle a number of unusual cases. Results indicate that the model predicts daily total solar-radiation values with a good accuracy of approximately 97% and the mean absolute percentage error is not more than 6%. In addition, the performance of the model was compared with different neural network structures and classical models. Training algorithms for wavelet-networks require smaller numbers of iterations when compared with other neural networks. The model can be used to fill missing data in weather databases. Additionally, the proposed model can be generalized and used in different locations and for other weather data, such as sunshine duration and ambient temperature. Finally, an application using the model for sizing a PV-power system is presented in order to confirm the validity of this model

  2. Egocentric daily activity recognition via multitask clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Ricci, Elisa; Liu, Gaowen; Sebe, Nicu

    2015-10-01

    Recognizing human activities from videos is a fundamental research problem in computer vision. Recently, there has been a growing interest in analyzing human behavior from data collected with wearable cameras. First-person cameras continuously record several hours of their wearers' life. To cope with this vast amount of unlabeled and heterogeneous data, novel algorithmic solutions are required. In this paper, we propose a multitask clustering framework for activity of daily living analysis from visual data gathered from wearable cameras. Our intuition is that, even if the data are not annotated, it is possible to exploit the fact that the tasks of recognizing everyday activities of multiple individuals are related, since typically people perform the same actions in similar environments, e.g., people working in an office often read and write documents). In our framework, rather than clustering data from different users separately, we propose to look for clustering partitions which are coherent among related tasks. In particular, two novel multitask clustering algorithms, derived from a common optimization problem, are introduced. Our experimental evaluation, conducted both on synthetic data and on publicly available first-person vision data sets, shows that the proposed approach outperforms several single-task and multitask learning methods.

  3. School playground facilities as a determinant of children's daily activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity.......This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity....

  4. Participation in Daily Life Activities among Children with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohammadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Participation in daily life activities is an essential aspect of health, which can facilitate a child’s development. Children with cancer are at risk of functional limitations and participation restrictions. The present study aims to investigate participation of children with cancer in daily life activities compared to healthy peers. Methods: This was a comparative cross-sectional study. In the first phase, we assessed the test-retest reliability of the Iranian Children Participation Assessment Scale in 30 children (6-12 years of age diagnosed with cancer and their parents (child and parent versions. The second phase of the study included a comparison of daily life activities as measured by the Iranian Children Participation Assessment Scale between the children with cancer (diagnosed at least 4 months prior and currently receiving active treatment and their age- and gender-matched healthy peers. Results: The child version had excellent reliability according to Cronbach’s alpha in diversity of activities (0.97, intensity of participation (0.95, with whom they participated (0.95, and enjoyment of daily activities (0.94. The parent version had excellent reliability (Cronbach’s alpha as follows: 0.99 for diversity, 0.97 for intensity, 0.97 for with whom, 0.98 for enjoyment, and 0.98 for parents’ satisfaction. The coefficients of agreement were 0.77 (total scores of diversity, 0.63 (intensity, 0.60 (with whom, and 0.91 (enjoyment. The child version indicated that children with cancer had significantly lower scores in daily life activities items of diversity (P=0.000, intensity (P=0.000, with whom (P=0.000, and enjoyment (P=0.000 compared to healthy children. Based on the total scores in the parent version, children with cancer showed significantly lower scores in diversity (P=0.001, intensity (P=0.000, with whom (P=0.001, enjoyment (P=0.002, and satisfaction (P=0.000 compared to the healthy group. Conclusion: The findings of the

  5. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Tikkanen

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours. EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC. During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC. Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min. Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC than men (p<0.05. In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  6. Trends in total and daily precipitation indices in japan from 1901 to 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Nagata, Rena; Zaiki, Masumi

    2008-01-01

    Long-term trends in seasonal precipitation amount and daily precipitation indices were investigated for spring, summer, autumn, and winter with a daily precipitation dataset for Japan from 1901 to 2000. Heavy precipitation in spring and summer has significantly increased along the west coast of Japan. Such changes in precipitation have resulted in the increased heavy precipitation intensity. For autumn and winter, total precipitation significantly decreased in the Kanto district and central J...

  7. Springs-neaps cycles in daily total seabed light: Daylength-induced changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E. M.; Bowers, D. G.; Davies, A. J.

    2014-04-01

    In shallow, tidal seas, daily total seabed light is determined largely by the interaction of the solar elevation cycle, the tidal cycle in water depth, and any temporal variability in turbidity. Since tidal range, times of low water, and often turbidity vary in regular ways over the springs-neaps cycle, daily total seabed light exhibits cycles of the same periodicity. Corresponding cycles are likely to be induced in the daily total primary production of benthic algae and plants, particularly those light-limited specimens occupying the lower reaches of a sub-tidal population. Consequently, this effect is an important control on the growth patterns, depth distribution and survival of, for example, macroalgal forests and seagrass meadows. Seasonal changes in daylength exert an important additional control on these cycles, as they alter the fraction of the tidal and turbidity cycles occurring within daylight hours. Bowers et al. (1997) modelled this phenomenon numerically and predicted that for a site with low water at about midday and midnight at neaps tides, 6 am and 6 pm at springs, daily total seabed light peaks at neaps in winter, but the ‘sense' of the cycle ‘switches' so that it peaks at springs in summer - the longer daylength permits the morning and evening low water springs to contribute substantially to the daily total. Observations for such a site in North Wales (UK), presented in this paper, show that no such ‘switch' occurs, and neaps tides host the largest daily totals throughout the year. The predicted ‘switch' is not observed because turbidity increases generally at spring tides, and specifically at low water springs, both of which were not accounted for in the model. Observations at a second site in Brittany (France), diametrically opposite in terms of the times of low water at neaps and at springs, indicate a peak at springs throughout the year. Analytical tools are developed to calculate the percentage of daily total sea surface irradiance

  8. Improving activities of daily living ability in women with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Cecilie; Amris, Kirstine; Bandak, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore and compare the outcomes of adaptation and physical activity programmes regarding activities of daily living (ADL) ability following interdisciplinary rehabilitation in women with fibromyalgia. METHODS: Participants (n = 85) were quasi-randomized to 16-week adaptation (ADAPT...

  9. In adolescence a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Perrar, Ines; Roßbach, Sarah; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2018-05-26

    The present manuscript addressed two hypotheses: (i) As children age, energy intake is shifted from morning (energy intake energy intake >6pm) (ii) A higher 'eveningness in energy intake' (i.e. evening minus morning energy intake) is associated with a higher total daily energy intake. Data were analyzed from 262 DONALD cohort study participants, who had completed at least one 3-day weighed dietary record in the age groups 3/4, 5/6, 7/8, 9/10, 11/12, 13/14, 15/16 and 17/18 years (y). 'Eveningness in energy intake' was compared across age groups and related to total daily energy intake for each age group (multiple cross-sectional analyses). 'Eveningness' increased progressively from age group 3/4y to age group 17/18y. A median surplus of evening energy intake (i.e. when evening intake exceeded morning intake) was firstly observed for age group 11/12y. From age group 11/12y onwards, a higher 'eveningness' was associated with a higher total daily energy intake (all p energy intake between the highest and the lowest tertile of 'eveningness' was largest for age group 17/18y, amounting to an 11% higher intake among adolescents in the highest as compared to those in the lowest tertile. In conclusion, energy intake progressively shifts from morning to evening hours as children age. Once evening energy intake exceeds morning energy intake, a higher 'eveningness in energy intake' is associated with higher total daily energy intake. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Unsupervised daily routine and activity discovery in smart homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie Yin; Qing Zhang; Karunanithi, Mohan

    2015-08-01

    The ability to accurately recognize daily activities of residents is a core premise of smart homes to assist with remote health monitoring. Most of the existing methods rely on a supervised model trained from a preselected and manually labeled set of activities, which are often time-consuming and costly to obtain in practice. In contrast, this paper presents an unsupervised method for discovering daily routines and activities for smart home residents. Our proposed method first uses a Markov chain to model a resident's locomotion patterns at different times of day and discover clusters of daily routines at the macro level. For each routine cluster, it then drills down to further discover room-level activities at the micro level. The automatic identification of daily routines and activities is useful for understanding indicators of functional decline of elderly people and suggesting timely interventions.

  11. Seasonal and daily activity patterns of leopard tortoises ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal and daily activity patterns of leopard tortoises ( Stigmochelys pardalis Bell, 1828) on farmland in the Nama-Karoo, South Africa. ... that activity is also initiated by the time since sunrise. Key words: Stigmochelys pardalis, leopard tortoise, activity patterns, activity behaviour, Nama-Karoo Biome, time of day, season.

  12. Perceived health status and daily activity participation of older Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sor Tho; Tengku-Aizan, Hamid; Tey, Nai Peng

    2011-07-01

    This article investigates the influence of perceived health status on the daily activity participation of older Malaysians. Data from the Survey on Perceptions of Needs and Problems of the Elderly, which was conducted in 1999, were used. The negative binomial regression results show that older persons with good perceived health status reported more varieties of daily activity participation, especially among the uneducated and those with below-average self-esteem. The multinomial logistic regression model suggests that older persons with good perceived health status tended to engage daily in paid work only or with leisure activities, whereas those perceived to have poor health were more likely to engage in leisure activities only or leisure and family role activities. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle at a younger age encourages every person to monitor and take responsibility for their own health, which is a necessary strategy to ensure active participation at an older age, and thus improve their well-being.

  13. Differences in ability to perform activities of daily living among women with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Cecilie; Amris, Kirstine; La Cour, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), the physical function subscales of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ PF) and the 36-item Short Form (SF-36 PF) can identify subgroups of women with fibromyalgia with clinically relevant differences...... in ability to perform activities of daily living. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A total of 257 women with fibromyalgia. Methods: Participants were evaluated with the AMPS (measuring activities of daily living motor and activities of daily living process ability), FIQ and SF-36. AMPS independence...

  14. Daily Physical Activity and Cognitive Function Variability in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Christine B; Edwards, Jerri D; Andel, Ross; Kilpatrick, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) is believed to preserve cognitive function in older adulthood, though little is known about these relationships within the context of daily life. The present microlongitudinal pilot study explored within- and between-person relationships between daily PA and cognitive function and also examined within-person effect sizes in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Fifty-one healthy participants (mean age = 70.1 years) wore an accelerometer and completed a cognitive assessment battery for five days. There were no significant associations between cognitive task performance and participants' daily or average PA over the study period. Effect size estimates indicated that PA explained 0-24% of within-person variability in cognitive function, depending on cognitive task and PA dose. Results indicate that PA may have near-term cognitive effects and should be explored as a possible strategy to enhance older adults' ability to perform cognitively complex activities within the context of daily living.

  15. Performance of activities of daily living among hospitalized cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Line; Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen

    2015-01-01

    and characterize ADL task performance problems among a group of adult disabled hospitalized cancer patients using interview and questionnaire data. METHODS: Cross-sectional study on prevalence of ADL task performance problems experienced by disabled hospitalized cancer patients using the Activities of Daily Living...... Questionnaire (ADL-Q) (n = 118) and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) (n = 55). RESULTS: All 118 patients reported problems with ADL task performance. Based on the ADL-Q patients reported more problems within instrumental (I-)ADL than personal (P-)ADL. In both I-ADL and P-ADL the results......BACKGROUND: Many cancer patients report unmet rehabilitation needs. Rehabilitation may include activities of daily living (ADL) tasks, but little is known about how cancer patients perform these tasks and how they prioritize their daily activities. Hence, this study aims to identify...

  16. Estimating total maximum daily loads with the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory; Jones, Susan Cheung

    2017-01-01

    The Massachusetts Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Rhode Island DOT are assessing and addressing roadway contributions to total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Example analyses for total nitrogen, total phosphorus, suspended sediment, and total zinc in highway runoff were done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with FHWA to simulate long-term annual loads for TMDL analyses with the stochastic empirical loading and dilution model known as SELDM. Concentration statistics from 19 highway runoff monitoring sites in Massachusetts were used with precipitation statistics from 11 long-term monitoring sites to simulate long-term pavement yields (loads per unit area). Highway sites were stratified by traffic volume or surrounding land use to calculate concentration statistics for rural roads, low-volume highways, high-volume highways, and ultraurban highways. The median of the event mean concentration statistics in each traffic volume category was used to simulate annual yields from pavement for a 29- or 30-year period. Long-term average yields for total nitrogen, phosphorus, and zinc from rural roads are lower than yields from the other categories, but yields of sediment are higher than for the low-volume highways. The average yields of the selected water quality constituents from high-volume highways are 1.35 to 2.52 times the associated yields from low-volume highways. The average yields of the selected constituents from ultraurban highways are 1.52 to 3.46 times the associated yields from high-volume highways. Example simulations indicate that both concentration reduction and flow reduction by structural best management practices are crucial for reducing runoff yields.

  17. Daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness and body fat in an urban sample of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Thorsson, O; Karlsson, M K

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates associations between objectively measured daily physical activity vs aerobic fitness and body fat in children aged 8-11 years. A cross-sectional study of 225 children aged 7.9-11.1 years was performed. Abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF) were quantified by dual......-energy x-ray absorptiometry. TBF was calculated as percentage of total body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Aerobic fitness was measured by indirect calorimetry during a maximal cycle ergometer exercise test. Daily physical activity was assessed by accelerometers for 4 days...... and daily accumulation of moderate-to-vigorous and vigorous activity was calculated. Significant relationships (Pfitness (r=0.38), whereas moderate-to-vigorous activity displayed weaker relationships...

  18. Improvement in Activities of Daily Living among Danish Centenarians?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Signe Høi; Thinggaard, Mikael; Højgaard, Majken Boris

    2018-01-01

    at investigating if the later born cohort had better functioning in terms of activities of daily living (ADL). Methods: Identification, methodology and assessment instruments were identical in the 1895-West and 1915-West Birth Cohort Studies: All persons living in the western part of Denmark and turning 100 years...

  19. Physical activity and affect in elementary school children's daily lives

    OpenAIRE

    Kühnhausen, Jan; Leonhardt, Anja; Dirk, Judith; Schmiedek, Florian

    2013-01-01

    A positive influence of physical activity (PA) on affect has been shown in numerous studies. However, this relationship has not yet been studied in the daily life of children. We present a part of the FLUX study that attempts to contribute to filling that gap. To this end, a proper way to measure PA and affect in the daily life of children is needed. In pre-studies of the FLUX study, we were able to show that affect can be measured in children with self-report items that are answered using sm...

  20. FUNGSI KOGNITIF MEMILIKI HUBUNGAN DENGAN KEMANDIRIAN ACTIVITY DAILY LIVING LANSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Suspiyanti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground:The increasing number of the elderly will becomeproblems due to theaging process. Theagingprocess in elderly has many aspects of life especially in health problem, one of them is the cognitivefunction. The cognitiveproblemwill be a serious problem because it attacks the elderly’s thought. Thecognitive destructionon the elderly known as demensia. Sliding scale of demensia will influence the socialactivities, normal occupation and daily activities whereas the daily activities are important to the viability,health and prosperity of the elderly.Objective:The study aimed to know between cognitive function with the independency of the elderly infullfiling activity daily living in Jodog Village, Gilangharjo District, Pandak, Bantul.Methods:The study used a cross sectional design. The data collection used proportional random samplingmethode, with the number of 62 elderly. The data are collected using MMSE andKatz Indexquestionaire.The data analysis method used the univariat and bivariat analysis of Kendall’s tau with p<0,05.Results:The result of cognitive function showed that 11,3% of the elderly have average level of cognitivefunction, 56,5% have light interruption level of cognitive function, and 3,2 % have heavy destruction level ofcognitive function. The assesment of independency of the elderly in doing activity daily living shows that theindepency of the elderly in category A (35,5%, B (19,4%, C (17,7%, D(14,5%, E (4,8%, F (1,6% and G(6,5%. The result of Kendall’s tau correlation between cognitive function with the indepency of the elderly indoing daily activities has 0,003 significance level (0<0,05 with the lowest correlation strength (coefficientcorrelation 0,321.Conclusion:There was a correlation between cognitive function and independency elderly in the doingactivity daily living.Suggestion :The result of study can give more information for cadre at Jodog Village about the value ofelderly cognitive impairment and

  1. Development and daily use of an electronic oncological patient record for the total management of cancer patients: 7 years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galligioni, E; Berloffa, F; Caffo, O; Tonazzolli, G; Ambrosini, G; Valduga, F; Eccher, C; Ferro, A; Forti, S

    2009-02-01

    We describe our experience with an electronic oncological patient record (EOPR) for the total management of cancer patients. The web-based EOPR was developed on the basis of a user-centred design including user education and training, followed by continuous assistance; user acceptance was monitored by means of three questionnaires administered after 2 weeks, 6 months and 6 years. The EOPR has been used daily for all in-ward, day hospital and ambulatory clinical activities since July 2000. The most widely appreciated functions are its rapid multipoint access, the self-updated summary of the patients' clinical course, the management of the entire therapeutic programme synchronised with working agendas and oncological teleconsultation. Security and privacy are assured by means of the separate storage of clinical and demographic data, with access protected by login and a password. The questionnaires highlighted appreciation of rapid data retrieval and exchange and the perception of improved quality of care, but also revealed a sense of additional work and a negative impact on doctor-patient relationships. Our EOPR has proved to be effective in the total management of cancer patients. Its user-centred design and flexible web technology have been key factors in its successful implementation and daily use.

  2. Physical activity and negative affective reactivity in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterman, Eli; Weiss, Jordan; Beauchamp, Mark R; Mogle, Jacqueline; Almeida, David M

    2017-12-01

    The results from experimental studies indicate that physically active individuals remain calmer and report less anxiety after the induction of a standardized stressor. The current study extends this research to real life, and examines whether daily physical activity attenuates negative affect that occurs in response to naturally occurring daily stressors. The current study used data from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences, a sub-study of the second wave of the Midlife in the United States Study (MIDUS-II) of 2,022 individuals aged 33-84 questioned nightly for eight consecutive days about their general affect and affective responses to stressful events and their engagement in physical activity. Results indicated that while negative affect is significantly elevated on days with stressful events compared to days free of events in all individuals, these effects are attenuated in those who remain physically active when compared to those who were underactive. This was also true for any day participants were physically active. Importantly, negative affect in response to any specific stressor was reduced the closer in time that the stressor occurred to the bout of exercise in underactive participants, while, in active participants, negative affect in response to any stressor remained low throughout the entire day that participants reported that they were active. Given the significant mental and physical health implications of elevated affective reactivity observed in previous studies, the current study sheds further light on the importance of remaining physically active in times of stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Economic total maximum daily load for watershed-based pollutant trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, A Z; deMonsabert, S M

    2015-04-01

    Water quality trading (WQT) is supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) under the framework of its total maximum daily load (TMDL) program. An innovative approach is presented in this paper that proposes post-TMDL trade by calculating pollutant rights for each pollutant source within a watershed. Several water quality trading programs are currently operating in the USA with an objective to achieve overall pollutant reduction impacts that are equivalent or better than TMDL scenarios. These programs use trading ratios for establishing water quality equivalence among pollutant reductions. The inbuilt uncertainty in modeling the effects of pollutants in a watershed from both the point and nonpoint sources on receiving waterbodies makes WQT very difficult. A higher trading ratio carries with it increased mitigation costs, but cannot ensure the attainment of the required water quality with certainty. The selection of an applicable trading ratio, therefore, is not a simple process. The proposed approach uses an Economic TMDL optimization model that determines an economic pollutant reduction scenario that can be compared with actual TMDL allocations to calculate selling/purchasing rights for each contributing source. The methodology is presented using the established TMDLs for the bacteria (fecal coliform) impaired Muddy Creek subwatershed WAR1 in Rockingham County, Virginia, USA. Case study results show that an environmentally and economically superior trading scenario can be realized by using Economic TMDL model or any similar model that considers the cost of TMDL allocations.

  4. Bayesian modeling of the assimilative capacity component of nutrient total maximum daily loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, B. R.

    2008-08-01

    Implementing stream restoration techniques and best management practices to reduce nonpoint source nutrients implies enhancement of the assimilative capacity for the stream system. In this paper, a Bayesian method for evaluating this component of a total maximum daily load (TMDL) load capacity is developed and applied. The joint distribution of nutrient retention metrics from a literature review of 495 measurements was used for Monte Carlo sampling with a process transfer function for nutrient attenuation. Using the resulting histograms of nutrient retention, reference prior distributions were developed for sites in which some of the metrics contributing to the transfer function were measured. Contributing metrics for the prior include stream discharge, cross-sectional area, fraction of storage volume to free stream volume, denitrification rate constant, storage zone mass transfer rate, dispersion coefficient, and others. Confidence of compliance (CC) that any given level of nutrient retention has been achieved is also determined using this approach. The shape of the CC curve is dependent on the metrics measured and serves in part as a measure of the information provided by the metrics to predict nutrient retention. It is also a direct measurement, with a margin of safety, of the fraction of export load that can be reduced through changing retention metrics. For an impaired stream in western Oklahoma, a combination of prior information and measurement of nutrient attenuation was used to illustrate the proposed approach. This method may be considered for TMDL implementation.

  5. Intraspecies variation in BMR does not affect estimates of early hominin total daily energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehle, Andrew W; Schoeninger, Margaret J

    2006-12-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 45 studies reporting basal metabolic rate (BMR) data for Homo sapiens and Pan troglodytes to determine the effects of sex, age, and latitude (a proxy for climate, in humans only). BMR was normalized for body size using fat-free mass in humans and body mass in chimpanzees. We found no effect of sex in either species and no age effect in chimpanzees. In humans, juveniles differed significantly from adults (ANCOVA: P BMR and body size, and used them to predict total daily energy expenditure (TEE) in four early hominin species. Our predictions concur with previous TEE estimates (i.e. Leonard and Robertson: Am J Phys Anthropol 102 (1997) 265-281), and support the conclusion that TEE increased greatly with H. erectus. Our results show that intraspecific variation in BMR does not affect TEE estimates for interspecific comparisons. Comparisons of more closely related groups such as humans and Neandertals, however, may benefit from consideration of this variation. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. TOTAL 2003 activities report in brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This activities report presents the activities of the petroleum industry Group Total for the year 2003. The following topics are detailed: the corporate social responsibility with the environment stewardship, the energy future management, the safety enhancing, the human resources and the ethics and local development; the shareholder information with the Total share and the share-holding structure; the activities with informations on the Group, the main events, the upstream exploration and production,, the downstream refining, marketing, trading and shipping, the chemicals with overview 2003, base chemical and polymers, performance and specialities. (A.L.B.)

  7. A microcomputer-based daily living activity recording system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Shingo; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Hahn, Allen W; Thayer, Julian F; Caldwell, W Morton

    2003-01-01

    A new daily living activity recording system has been developed for monitoring health conditions and living patterns, such as respiration, posture, activity/rest ratios and general activity level. The system employs a piezoelectric sensor, a dual axis accelerometer, two low-power active filters, a low-power 8-bit single chip microcomputer and a 128 MB compact flash memory. The piezoelectric sensor, whose electrical polarization voltage is produced by mechanical strain, detects body movements. Its high-frequency output components reflect body movements produced by walking and running activities, while the low frequency components are mainly respiratory. The dual axis accelerometer detects, from body X and Y tilt angles, whether the patient is standing, sitting or lying down (prone, supine, left side or right side). The detected respiratory, behavior and posture signals are stored by the compact flash memory. After recording, these data are downloaded to a desktop computer and analyzed.

  8. Achieving recommended daily physical activity levels through commuting by public transportation: unpacking individual and contextual influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, Rania A; Ross, Nancy A; El-Geneidy, Ahmed M

    2013-09-01

    This paper estimates the amount of daily walking associated with using public transportation in a large metropolitan area and examines individual and contextual characteristics associated with walking distances. Total walking distance to and from transit was calculated from a travel diary survey for 6913 individuals. Multilevel regression modelling was used to examine the underlying factors associated with walking to public transportation. The physical activity benefits of public transportation varied along gender and socio-economic lines. Recommended minutes of daily physical activity can be achieved for public transportation users, especially train users living in affluent suburbs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Daily physical activity and life satisfaction across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P; Pincus, Aaron L; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult life span. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e., a within-person association driven by differences between more and less active days). To resolve this inconsistency, a daily diary study was conducted with a life span sample of community-dwelling adults (age 18-89 years; N = 150) over three 21-day measurement bursts. Usual physical activity was positively associated with life satisfaction in middle and older adulthood; however, this association was not present in young adulthood. When present, this between-person association was mediated by physical and mental health. A within-person association between physical activity and life satisfaction was also present (and did not differ across age). Generally, on days when people were more physically active then was typical for them, they experienced greater life satisfaction. Age differences in life satisfaction followed a cubic trajectory: lower during emerging adulthood, higher during midlife, and lower during older adulthood. This study adds to accumulating evidence that daily fluctuations in physical activity have important implications for well-being regardless of age, and clarifies developmental differences in life satisfaction dynamics that can inform strategies for enhancing life satisfaction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult lifespan. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e., a within-person association driven by differences between more and less active days). To resolve this inconsistency, a daily diary study was conducted with a lifespan sample of community-dwelling adults (age 18– 89 years; N = 150) over three 21-day measurement bursts. Usual physical activity was positively associated with life satisfaction in middle and older adulthood; however, this association was not present in young adulthood. When present, this between-person association was mediated by physical and mental health. A within-person association between physical activity and life satisfaction was also present (and did not differ across age). Generally, on days when people were more physically active then was typical for them, they experienced greater life satisfaction. Age differences in life satisfaction followed a cubic trajectory: lower during emerging adulthood, higher during midlife, and lower during older adulthood. This study adds to accumulating evidence that daily fluctuations in physical activity have important implications for well-being regardless of age, and clarifies developmental differences in life satisfaction dynamics that can inform strategies for enhancing life satisfaction. PMID:26280838

  11. An ecological function and services approach to total maximum daily load (TMDL) prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert K; Guiliano, David; Swanson, Sherman; Philbin, Michael J; Lin, John; Aron, Joan L; Schafer, Robin J; Heggem, Daniel T

    2014-04-01

    Prioritizing total maximum daily load (TMDL) development starts by considering the scope and severity of water pollution and risks to public health and aquatic life. Methodology using quantitative assessments of in-stream water quality is appropriate and effective for point source (PS) dominated discharge, but less so in watersheds with mostly nonpoint source (NPS) related impairments. For NPSs, prioritization in TMDL development and implementation of associated best management practices should focus on restoration of ecosystem physical functions, including how restoration effectiveness depends on design, maintenance and placement within the watershed. To refine the approach to TMDL development, regulators and stakeholders must first ask if the watershed, or ecosystem, is at risk of losing riparian or other ecologically based physical attributes and processes. If so, the next step is an assessment of the spatial arrangement of functionality with a focus on the at-risk areas that could be lost, or could, with some help, regain functions. Evaluating stream and wetland riparian function has advantages over the traditional means of water quality and biological assessments for NPS TMDL development. Understanding how an ecosystem functions enables stakeholders and regulators to determine the severity of problem(s), identify source(s) of impairment, and predict and avoid a decline in water quality. The Upper Reese River, Nevada, provides an example of water quality impairment caused by NPS pollution. In this river basin, stream and wetland riparian proper functioning condition (PFC) protocol, water quality data, and remote sensing imagery were used to identify sediment sources, transport, distribution, and its impact on water quality and aquatic resources. This study found that assessments of ecological function could be used to generate leading (early) indicators of water quality degradation for targeting pollution control measures, while traditional in-stream water

  12. 40 CFR 130.7 - Total maximum daily loads (TMDL) and individual water quality-based effluent limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Total maximum daily loads (TMDL) and individual water quality-based effluent limitations. 130.7 Section 130.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.7 Total...

  13. Vaginal pressure during daily activities before and after vaginal repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, L; Hulbaek, M; Brostrøm, S

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to measure vaginal pressure during various daily activities in patients before and after vaginal surgery for pelvic organ prolapse, searching data for evidence-based activity guidelines. Vaginal pressure (VP) was studied in 23 patients during activities such as rest......, pelvic floor contraction (PFC), coughing, Valsalva, rising from sitting to standing and lifting 2 and 5 kg with four different lifting techniques. VP was measured before, 1-5 days and 4-6 weeks after vaginal repair. Mean VP was four to five times higher during coughing and Valsalva compared to PFC...... was not related to the type of vaginal repair. The results imply that post-operative counselling should concentrate more on treating chronic cough and constipation than restrictions of moderate physical activities....

  14. [Psychometric properties of the Activities Daily Life Scale (ADL)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, L; Murcia, A; Belzeaux, R; Loundou, A; Azorin, J-M; Chabannes, J-M; Dassa, D; Naudin, J; Samuelian, J-C; Lancon, C

    2010-10-01

    Deficits in social functioning are an important core feature of mental health. Recently in France, the Activities Daily Life (ADL) scale has been proposed by the French authorities to assess social functioning for all hospitalized patients in a psychiatric ward. The perspective is to use this scale in the financing and organization of mental health services in France. The ADL scale is a 6-item (dressing/undressing, walking/mobility, eating/drinking, using toilets, behaviour, relationships/communication) heteroquestionnaire completed by a health care professional at the beginning of each hospitalization, assessing functioning of patients suffering from mental health diseases. However, limited consensus exists on this scale. The psychometric properties of the ADL scale have not been assessed. There is a pressing need for detailed examination of its performance. The aim of this study was to explore ADL psychometric properties in a sample of hospitalized patients in a psychiatric ward. We retrospectively analyzed data for all episodes of care delivered to hospitalized patients in a psychiatric ward in our French Public Hospital from January 1, 2008 to June 30, 2008. The study involved retrospective review of administrative and medical databases. The following data were collected: age, gender, diagnoses based on the International Classification of Diseases - 10th version, ADL scale and Assessment of Social Self-Sufficiency scale (ASSS). The psychometric properties were examined using construct validity, reliability, external validity, reproducibility and sensitivity to change. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 15.0 and WINSTEP software. A total of 1066 patients completed the ADL scale. Among them, 49.7% were male, mean age was 36.5 ± 10.8, and 83.5% were single. Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (40.0%), mood disorders (27.9%) and mental and behavioural disorders due to psychoactive substance use (12%) were the most common diagnoses. Factor

  15. Causes of decreased activity of daily life in elderly patients who need daily living care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Takashi; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Yokono, Koichi

    2011-07-01

    The causes of decreased activity of daily life (ADL) in elderly patients include cerebrovascular diseases, bone fracture by falls, and dementia. The present study was conducted among elderly patients with decreased ADL who were hospitalized in nursing wards in order to investigate the causes of becoming early bedridden and to determine precautionary measures against decreased ADL. The study subjects were 224 elderly patients with decreased ADL (mean age: 83.3 ± 8.0 years) and 49 outpatients without decreased ADL (mean age: 76.8 ± 5.3 years). Current age, age at the start of ADL decrease, medical history and history of smoking were investigated. In the groups with decreased ADL, current age and the age of becoming bedridden in non-diabetic versus diabetic groups were 84.7 ± 7.9 versus 80.3 ± 7.5 and 82.7 ± 8.3 versus 77.6 ± 8.0 years, respectively, both showing significantly lower values in the diabetic group (P bedridden. Diabetic patients with smoking habit were significantly younger than diabetic and non-diabetic patients without smoking habit. Sex difference, smoking habit and presence of diabetes mellitus are independent risk factors of becoming early bedridden. Therefore, the major targets of medical care among elderly should be diabetic men with a smoking habit to lower the risks of decreased ADL. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Differences in ability to perform activities of daily living among women with fibromyalgia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bülow, Cecilie; Amris, Kirstine; la Cour, Karen; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Ejlersen, Eva Wæhrens

    2015-11-01

    To investigate whether the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), the physical function subscales of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ PF) and the 36-item Short Form (SF-36 PF) can identify subgroups of women with fibromyalgia with clinically relevant differences in ability to perform activities of daily living. Cross-sectional study. A total of 257 women with fibromyalgia. Participants were evaluated with the AMPS (measuring activities of daily living motor and activities of daily living process ability), FIQ and SF-36. AMPS independence cut-offs were used to divide the participants into 4 subgroups. Clinically relevant differences between subgroups were investigated based on the AMPS, FIQ PF and SF-36 PF. Participants in the 4 AMPS-derived subgroups demon-strated clinically relevant differences in observed activities of daily living motor and process ability. Neither the FIQ PF nor the SF-36 PF could differentiate between subgroups with clinically relevant differences in AMPS activities of daily living process ability. Activities of daily living process skills reflect underlying organizational and adaptive capacities of the individual and are relevant targets for interventions aiming at improving activities of daily living ability. Since self-report instruments do not capture differences in activities of daily living process ability, clinicians should include observations-based assessment of activities of daily living ability in order to individualize interventions offered.

  17. TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Aerosol Index UV-Reflectivity UV-B Erythemal Irradiances Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 8 Daily Gridded Data consist of daily, global coverage of total column ozone, aerosol index, Lambertian effective...

  18. Contribution of complementary foods to the total daily water needs of urban Guatemalan infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enneman, A.; Campos, R.; Hernandez, L.; Palma, A.V.; Vossenaar, M.; Solomons, N.W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Estimates of adequate intake (AI) for water only became available in 2005. The daily water AI for 6-12-month-old infants of both sexes is 800 mL. The present study aimed to estimate the water intake of urban infants receiving both breast milk and complementary feeding (CF) and to compare

  19. Body fat related to daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the associations between body fat versus daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic young children in a cross-sectional study of 172 children (93 boys and 79 girls) aged 8-11 years. Blood samples were analysed for serum insulin and daily physical activity......%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Body fat distribution was independently linked to both insulin concentrations and physical activity. In contrast, TBF, AFM, and BF% were linked to physical activity only and not to insulin concentrations. In conclusion in this population of non-diabetic...... was measured by accelerometers. Time spent performing vigorous activity was estimated from accelerometer data by using established cut-off points. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF), also calculated as percentage of body weight (BF...

  20. Low-intensity daily walking activity is associated with hippocampal volume in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Vijay R; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Harris, Gregory C; Tan, Erwin J; Carlson, Michelle C

    2015-05-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is associated with memory impairment and dementia and serves as a key biomarker in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. Physical activity, one of the most promising behavioral interventions to prevent or delay cognitive decline, has been shown to be associated with hippocampal volume; specifically increased aerobic activity and fitness may have a positive effect on the size of the hippocampus. The majority of older adults, however, are sedentary and have difficulty initiating and maintaining exercise programs. A modestly more active lifestyle may nonetheless be beneficial. This study explored whether greater objectively measured daily walking activity was associated with larger hippocampal volume. We additionally explored whether greater low-intensity walking activity, which may be related to leisure-time physical, functional, and social activities, was associated with larger hippocampal volume independent of exercise and higher-intensity walking activity. Segmentation of hippocampal volumes was performed using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain's Software Library (FSL), and daily walking activity was assessed using a step activity monitor on 92, nondemented, older adult participants. After controlling for age, education, body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and the Mini Mental State Exam, we found that a greater amount, duration, and frequency of total daily walking activity were each associated with larger hippocampal volume among older women, but not among men. These relationships were specific to hippocampal volume, compared with the thalamus, used as a control brain region, and remained significant for low-intensity walking activity, independent of moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity and self-reported exercise. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to explore the relationship between objectively measured daily walking activity and hippocampal volume in an older adult population. Findings

  1. TOMS/Earth-Probe Total Ozone Aerosol Index UV-Reflectivity UV-B Erythemal Irradiance Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version 8 daily global gridded data consist of total column ozone, aerosol index, Lambertian effective surface...

  2. 76 FR 549 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Notice for the Establishment of the Total Maximum Daily Load...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Establishment of the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for the Chesapeake Bay AGENCY: Environmental Protection... that when met will assure the attainment and maintenance of all applicable water quality standards for... productive estuaries in the world. Despite significant efforts by federal, state, and local governments and...

  3. [Development of an activity of daily living scale for patients with COPD: the Activity of Daily Living Dyspnea scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoza, Yoshiyasu; Ariyoshi, Koya; Honda, Sumihisa; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2009-10-01

    Patients with COPD often experience restriction in their activities of daily living (ADL) due to dyspnea. This type of restriction is unique to patients with COPD and cannot be adequately evaluated by the generic ADL scales. This study developed an ADL scale (the Activity of Daily Living Dyspnea scale [ADL-D scale]) for patients with COPD and investigated its validity and internal consistency. Patients with stable COPD were recruited and completed a pilot 26-item questionnaire. Patients also performed the Incremental Shuttle Walk Test (ISWT), and completed the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), and Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea grade. There were 83 male participants who completed the pilot questionnaire. Following the pilot, 8 items that were not undertaken by the majority of subjects, and 3 items judged to be of low clinical importance by physical therapists were removed from the pilot questionnaire. The final ADL-D scale contained 15 items. Scores obtained with the ADL-D scale were significantly correlated with the MRC dyspnea grades, distance walked on the ISWT and SGRQ scores. The ADL-D scores were significantly different across the five grades of the MRC dyspnea grade. The ADL-D scale showed high consistency (Chronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.96). The ADL-D scale is a useful scale for assessing impairments in ADL in Japanese male patients with COPD.

  4. Total error shift patterns for daily CT on rails image-guided radiotherapy to the prostate bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Helvecio C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the daily total error shift patterns on post-prostatectomy patients undergoing image guided radiotherapy (IGRT with a diagnostic quality computer tomography (CT on rails system. Methods A total of 17 consecutive post-prostatectomy patients receiving adjuvant or salvage IMRT using CT-on-rails IGRT were analyzed. The prostate bed's daily total error shifts were evaluated for a total of 661 CT scans. Results In the right-left, cranial-caudal, and posterior-anterior directions, 11.5%, 9.2%, and 6.5% of the 661 scans required no position adjustments; 75.3%, 66.1%, and 56.8% required a shift of 1 - 5 mm; 11.5%, 20.9%, and 31.2% required a shift of 6 - 10 mm; and 1.7%, 3.8%, and 5.5% required a shift of more than 10 mm, respectively. There was evidence of correlation between the x and y, x and z, and y and z axes in 3, 3, and 3 of 17 patients, respectively. Univariate (ANOVA analysis showed that the total error pattern was random in the x, y, and z axis for 10, 5, and 2 of 17 patients, respectively, and systematic for the rest. Multivariate (MANOVA analysis showed that the (x,y, (x,z, (y,z, and (x, y, z total error pattern was random in 5, 1, 1, and 1 of 17 patients, respectively, and systematic for the rest. Conclusions The overall daily total error shift pattern for these 17 patients simulated with an empty bladder, and treated with CT on rails IGRT was predominantly systematic. Despite this, the temporal vector trends showed complex behaviors and unpredictable changes in magnitude and direction. These findings highlight the importance of using daily IGRT in post-prostatectomy patients.

  5. Interrelationship among the health-related and subjective quality of life, daily life activities, instrumental activities of daily living of community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemasa, Seiichi; Nakagoshi, Ryoma; Uesugi, Masayuki; Inoue, Yuri; Gotou, Makoto; Naruse, Susumu; Nanba, Yoshihumi

    2017-05-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the health-related and subjective quality of life of community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients, and also examined how such quality of life correlate with their daily life activities and instrumental activities of daily living. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 27 community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients (mean age: 76.3 ± 7.4 years). Their health-related quality of life and subjective quality of life, life-space assessment, frenchay activities index were researched. [Results] For the relationships between the total subjective quality of life scores and health-related quality of life scores, significant positive correlations were observed for body pain, general health, vitality, social functions and mental health. The correlations were not statistically significant between the subjective quality of life scores and the life-space assessment and frenchay activities index scores. The correlations were statistically significant between some health-related quality of life scores and the life-space assessment and frenchay activities index scores. [Conclusion] The results suggest that supporting community-dwelling elderly females in orthopedic outpatients to improve their sense of physical and mental well-being, and prevent and reduce their depression and physical pain, is required in order to improve their QOL.

  6. The role of daily physical activity and nutritional status on bone turnover in cystic fibrosis: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Tejero,Sergio; Cejudo,Pilar; Quintana-Gallego,E.; Sañudo,Borja; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca,A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Nutritional status and daily physical activity (PA) may be an excellent tool for the maintenance of bone health in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Objective To evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, daily physical activity and bone turnover in cystic fibrosis patients. Method A cross-sectional study of adolescent and adult patients diagnosed with clinically stable cystic fibrosis was conducted. Total body, femoral neck, and lumbar spine bone mineral d...

  7. Appliances facilitating everyday life - electricity use derived from daily activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellegaard, Kajsa (Dept of Thematic Studies, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden)), e-mail: kajsa.ellegard@liu.se; Widen, Joakim (Dept of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)); Vrotsou, Katerina (Dept of Science and Technology, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present how, using a visualization method, electricity use can be derived from the everyday activity patterns of household members. Target groups are, on the one hand, professionals in the energy sector and energy advisors who need more knowledge about household energy use, and, on the other hand, household members wanting to reduce the energy use by revealing their own habits and thereby finding out how changed activity performance may influence electricity use. The focus is on the relation between utilizing electric appliances to perform everyday life activities and the use of electricity. The visualization method is based on the time-geographic approach developed by Haegerstrand and includes a model that estimates appliance electricity use from household members' activities. Focus, in this paper, is put on some basic activities performed to satisfy daily life needs: cooking and use of information, communication and entertainment devices. These activities appear frequently in the everyday life of households, even though not all household members perform them all. The method is applied on a data material comprising time-diaries written by 463 individuals (aged 10 to 85+) in 179 households in different parts of Sweden. The visualization method reveals when and for how long activities that claim electric appliances are performed by which individual(s). It also shows electricity load curves generated from the use of appliances at different levels, such as individual, household and group or population levels. At household level the method can reveal which household members are the main users of electricity, i.e. the division of labour between household members. Thereby it also informs about whom could be approached by energy companies and energy advisors in information campaigns. The main result of the study is that systematic differences in activity patterns in subgroups of a population can be identified (e.g. men and women) but

  8. Estimation of the total daily oral intake of NDMA attributable to drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristachi, Anthony; Rice, Glenn

    2007-09-01

    Disinfection with chlorine and chloramine leads to the formation of many disinfection by-products including N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Because NDMA is a probable human carcinogen, public health officials are concerned with its occurrence in drinking water. The goal of this study was to estimate NDMA concentrations from exogenous (i.e., drinking water and food) and endogenous (i.e., formed in the human body) sources, calculate average daily doses for ingestion route exposures and estimate the proportional oral intake (POI) of NDMA attributable to the consumption of drinking water relative to other ingestion sources of NDMA. The POI is predicted to be 0.02% relative to exogenous and endogenous NDMA sources combined. When only exogenous sources are considered, the POI was predicted to be 2.7%. The exclusion of endogenously formed NDMA causes the POI to increase dramatically, reflecting its importance as a potentially major source of exposure and uncertainty in the model. Although concentrations of NDMA in foods are small and human exposure to NDMA from foods is quite low, the contribution from food is predicted to be high relative to that of drinking water. The mean concentration of NDMA in drinking water would need to increase from 2.1 x 10(-3) microg/L to 0.10 microg/L, a 47-fold increase, for the POI to reach 1%, relative to all sources of NDMA considered in our model, suggesting that drinking water consumption is most likely a minor source of NDMA exposure.

  9. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Patterns of Participation in Daily Physical and Play Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Memari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD indicates several neurodevelopmental impairments which may end in impairments in motor or physical activities. Daily physical activity involvement was investigated in a total of 83 children (52 boys and 31 girls with ASD aged 6–15 years. Results indicated that only 10 (12% of children with ASD were physically active. Children were predominantly engaged in solitary play rather than social play activities. Gender, family income, and household structure were found to be associated with activity scores. Financial burden and lack of opportunities were noted as the leading barriers to physical activities. In conclusion, findings indicated a low rate of physical activity participation in children with ASD that is closely associated with sociodemographic variables.

  10. Daily Life Satisfaction in Older Adults as a Function of (In)Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P; Conroy, David E

    2017-07-01

    This 14-day daily diary study tested the between-person and within-person associations between sedentary behavior, physical activity, and life satisfaction in community-dwelling older adults. Older adults (n = 100) wore ActivPAL3 activity monitors for 14 days and, at the end of each day, answered questions regarding their health behaviors and life satisfaction. Separate multilevel models were tested for self-reported and objectively measured behavioral data. In the model using objectively measured behavioral data, life satisfaction was (a) negatively associated with sedentary behavior at the within-person level and unassociated with sedentary behavior at the between-person level and (b) unassociated with physical activity at either the between-person or within-person level. In the model using self-reported behavioral data, life satisfaction was (a) unassociated with sedentary behavior at either the between-person or within-person level and (2) positively associated with physical activity at the within-person, but not at the between-person, level. Results indicated that daily deviations in objectively measured sedentary behavior and self-reported physical activity have implications for older adults' well-being. Interventions designed to enhance well-being and quality of life in older adults should consider targeting daily changes in total sedentary behavior and daily changes in the volume or frequency of physical activity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A simple approach to estimate daily loads of total, refractory, and labile organic carbon from their seasonal loads in a watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ying; Grace, Johnny M; Zipperer, Wayne C; Hatten, Jeff; Dewey, Janet

    2018-05-22

    Loads of naturally occurring total organic carbons (TOC), refractory organic carbon (ROC), and labile organic carbon (LOC) in streams control the availability of nutrients and the solubility and toxicity of contaminants and affect biological activities through absorption of light and complex metals with production of carcinogenic compounds. Although computer models have become increasingly popular in understanding and management of TOC, ROC, and LOC loads in streams, the usefulness of these models hinges on the availability of daily data for model calibration and validation. Unfortunately, these daily data are usually insufficient and/or unavailable for most watersheds due to a variety of reasons, such as budget and time constraints. A simple approach was developed here to calculate daily loads of TOC, ROC, and LOC in streams based on their seasonal loads. We concluded that the predictions from our approach adequately match field measurements based on statistical comparisons between model calculations and field measurements. Our approach demonstrates that an increase in stream discharge results in increased stream TOC, ROC, and LOC concentrations and loads, although high peak discharge did not necessarily result in high peaks of TOC, ROC, and LOC concentrations and loads. The approach developed herein is a useful tool to convert seasonal loads of TOC, ROC, and LOC into daily loads in the absence of measured daily load data.

  12. Gender differences in the daily physical activities of Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the daily physical activities of Danish children with a focus on describing and explaining gender differences. Accelerometer measurements of physical activity in different contexts, as well as questionnaire data, were collected from more than 500 children...... at pre-school and later at third grade. The study showed that boys were generally more physically active than girls (18% at age 6–7, and 16% at age 9–10, both p differences in the types of activities undertaken by the two genders. These findings are in accordance with numerous other...... studies in Denmark as well as internationally. However, this study adds to this knowledge by showing that the gender difference in total amounts of activity was mainly due to large gender differences in the amounts of self-organized physical activity such as after-school day care (difference at age 6...

  13. Activities of Daily Living in Children With Developmental Coordination Disorder : Performance, Learning, and Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Linde, Berdien W.; van Netten, Jaap J.; Otten, Bert; Postema, Klaas; Geuze, Reint H.; Schoemaker, Marina M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) face evident motor difficulties in daily functioning. Little is known, however, about their difficulties in specific activities of daily living (ADL). Objective. The purposes of this study were: (1) to investigate differences

  14. Activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder : performance, learning, and participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraal-van der Linde, Berdien; Netten, Jaap; Otten, Bert; Postema, Klaas; Geuze, Reint; Schoemaker, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Background. Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) face evident motor difficulties in daily functioning. Little is known, however, about their difficulties in specific activities of daily living (ADL). Objective. To (a) investigate differences between children with DCD and their

  15. Relationship between daily physical activity and exercise capacity in patients with COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwerink, Marlies; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; van der Valk, P.; Brusse-Keizer, M.G.J.; Effing, T.W.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise training programmes for patients with COPD are effective in improving exercise capacity. The few trials that have investigated the effects of exercise programmes on daily physical activity show contradictory results. AIM: To investigate the relation between daily physical

  16. Hospitalar radioactive waste of low activity, a daily practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezio, M.T.; Vieira, M.R. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Francisco Gentil - CROL, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    Introduction According to the law we should have a specific area for storing and treating waste. That area should have special containers for temporary storage in order to assure the radioactive decay for all the radioactive waste, biological contaminated or non biological and in solid or liquid form. According with that law the limits established for discharge are: For solid waste, we must not discharge more than 370 MBq in a minimum volume of 0,1 m{sup 3} and is not allowed waste with activities higher than 3,7 kBq; For liquid waste discharges from the department to the public sewer, the average concentrations calculated taking into account the water flow of the sewer system that serves the installation, should be the following:The annual medium concentration must not exceed 3 times the reference concentration (C.R.) for that nuclide; The monthly medium concentration must not exceed 15 times the reference concentration (C.R.); The daily medium concentration must not exceed 60 times the reference concentration (C.R.); The reference concentration (C.R.), expressed in Bq.m{sup -3}, should be calculated taking into account the relevant incorporation per ingestion. The calculation of C.R. in liquid waste should have into account the following: For the general public the effective dose E achieved, per ingestion by an individual in the group of age g is determined according to the following formula(1):E= {sigma}{sub i} h(g){sub j,ing} X J{sub j,ing}, where h(g){sub j,ing} is the committed effective dose per unit-intake for the ingested radionuclide j (Sv/Bq) by an individual in the group of age g; J{sub j,ing} is the relevant intake via ingestion of the radionuclide j (Bq). The effective dose E achieved by an individual in the group of age g should not be higher than 0,1 mSv/year. If the average water volume ingested by an individual adult is 800 l, the value J{sub j,ing}, calculated by the formula (1) should be referred to 1000 l, in order to obtain the C.R., for the

  17. Evaluation of disabilities and activities of daily living of war-related bilateral lower extremity amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Moradi, Ali; Bozorgnia, Shahram; Hallaj-Moghaddam, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    Long-term consequences and the activities of daily living of bilateral lower limb amputation are not well documented. The aims of our study were to identify the long-term effects of bilateral lower extremity amputations on daily activities and understand how these amputees cope with their mobility assistive devices. Cross-sectional study. A total of 291 veterans with war bilateral lower limb amputations accepted to participate in a cross-sectional study. The average of follow-up was 25.4 years. A total of 152 amputees (54%) were involved in sports averagely 6.7 h per week. Bilateral amputees walk 10 m by the average of 15 ± 33 s, and they could walk continuously with their prosthesis 315 ± 295 m. They wore their prosthesis 6.8 ± 1.7 days per week and 7.9 ± 8.1 h per day. Of these, 6.7% of bilateral lower limb amputees needed help to wear their prosthesis; 88.3% of amputees used assistant device for walking. According to this survey, 73 (42%) prostheses in right limb were appropriate, 95 (54.6%) needed to be replaced, and 6 (3.4) needed to be fixed. On the left side, it was 76 (42%), 92 (52.0%), and 9 (5.1%), respectively. A total of 203 (74.9%) amputees reported limitations in at least one domain of the activities of daily living. The most common single item that affected the patients was ascending and descending stairs by the score of 66% of normal population. Veterans with bilateral lower limb amputations suffering from vast categories of daily problems. This study and its results confirm that bilateral lower limb amputees have major progressive disabilities in daily activities and their social performance. This should attract the attention of amputees' administrative organizations, social workers, health-care providers and caregiver providers. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  18. Estimating the contribution of strong daily export events to total pollutant export from the United States in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuanyuan; Fiore, Arlene M.; Horowitz, Larry W.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Levy, Hiram; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead G.

    2009-12-01

    While the export of pollutants from the United States exhibits notable variability from day to day and is often considered to be "episodic," the contribution of strong daily export events to total export has not been quantified. We use carbon monoxide (CO) as a tracer of anthropogenic pollutants in the Model of OZone And Related Tracers (MOZART) to estimate this contribution. We first identify the major export pathway from the United States to be through the northeast boundary (24-48°N along 67.5°W and 80-67.5°W along 48°N), and then analyze 15 summers of daily CO export fluxes through this boundary. These daily CO export fluxes have a nearly Gaussian distribution with a mean of 1100 Gg CO day-1 and a standard deviation of 490 Gg CO day-1. To focus on the synoptic variability, we define a "synoptic background" export flux equal to the 15 day moving average export flux and classify strong export days according to their fluxes relative to this background. As expected from Gaussian statistics, 16% of summer days are "strong export days," classified as those days when the CO export flux exceeds the synoptic background by one standard deviation or more. Strong export days contributes 25% to the total export, a value determined by the relative standard deviation of the CO flux distribution. Regressing the anomalies of the CO export flux through the northeast U.S. boundary relative to the synoptic background on the daily anomalies in the surface pressure field (also relative to a 15 day running mean) suggests that strong daily export fluxes are correlated with passages of midlatitude cyclones over the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The associated cyclonic circulation and Warm Conveyor Belts (WCBs) that lift surface pollutants over the northeastern United States have been shown previously to be associated with long-range transport events. Comparison with observations from the 2004 INTEX-NA field campaign confirms that our model captures the observed enhancements in CO outflow

  19. Total's LNG activities from Algeria to Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedrenne, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    In March 1995, further to an international tender, Total was awarded the leadership of the first LNG project in Yemen. On January 1997 Total announced the extension of the share-holding of the Yemen LNG Co. to include the companies with interests in the Marib area (Hunt-Exxon-Yukong). The Marib area will supply the gas to the future liquefaction plant. The ratification of these agreements confirms the role of Total as lead shareholder with 36% in the share-holding structure and guarantees gas supply from the Marib licence, operated by Hunt-Exxon. (author)

  20. Daily participation in sports and students' sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Melissa A; Dittus, Patricia J; De Rosa, Christine J; Chung, Emily Q; Kerndt, Peter R

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that student athletes may be less likely than nonathletes to engage in sexual behavior. However, few have explored sexual risk behavior among athletes in early adolescence. In 2005, a sample of 10,487 students in 26 Los Angeles public middle and high schools completed a self-administered survey that asked about their demographic characteristics, sports participation, sexual behaviors and expectations, and parental relationships. Chi-square analyses compared reported levels of daily participation in sports, experience with intercourse, experience with oral sex and condom use at last intercourse by selected characteristics. Predictors of sexual experience and condom use were assessed in multivariate logistic regression analyses. One-third of students reported daily participation in sports. This group had higher odds of ever having had intercourse and ever having had oral sex than their peers who did not play a sport daily (odds ratios, 1.2 and 1.1, respectively). The increases in risk were greater for middle school sports participants than for their high school counterparts (1.5 and 1.6, respectively). Among sexually experienced students, daily sports participants also had elevated odds of reporting condom use at last intercourse (1.4). Students as young as middle school age who participate in sports daily may have an elevated risk for STDs and pregnancy. Health professionals should counsel middle school athletes about sexual risk reduction, given that young students may find it particularly difficult to obtain contraceptives, STD testing and prevention counseling. Copyright © 2010 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  1. "I'll Speak in Proper Slang": Language Ideologies in a Daily Editing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godley, Amanda J.; Carpenter, Brian D.; Werner, Cynthia A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the language ideologies--the assumptions about the nature of language, language variation, and language learning--reflected in a widespread daily editing activity often known as Daily Oral Language or Daily Language Practice. Through a yearlong ethnographic study of grammar instruction in three urban,…

  2. Daily and seasonal variations of outdoor alpha-activity concentration in Salzburg city/Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettner, H.; Hubmer, A.K.; Rolle, R.; Winkler, R.; Steinhaeusler, F.

    1996-01-01

    Long-term continuous measurements of the atmospheric outdoor alpha-activity concentration have been performed by using a radioaerosol-monitor, roof-mounted 20 m above ground. The alpha-activity concentration was identified to be predominantly attributed to radon progeny. The total alpha-activity covers a range of two orders of magnitude. Three different components of variations could be identified with regard to temporal variations: Short-term diurnal component (daily variation), mid-term component (days to weeks) and long-term component (seasonal variation). Continuous measurements have been recorded since the end of 1993. The results of continuous measurements of the outdoor alpha-activity concentration over a time span from January 1994 to June 1995 are presented. (author)

  3. Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Atiya Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. Objective: To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. Design: A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an ‘ideal diet’ (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO] list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. Results: The adolescents’ mean daily polyamine intake was 316±170 µmol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 µmol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. Conclusions: The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an ‘ideal’ diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe.

  4. Describing Speech Usage in Daily Activities in Typical Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Laine; Baylor, Carolyn R; Eadie, Tanya L; Yorkston, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    "Speech usage" refers to what people want or need to do with their speech to meet communication demands in life roles. The purpose of this study was to contribute to validation of the Levels of Speech Usage scale by providing descriptive data from a sample of adults without communication disorders, comparing this scale to a published Occupational Voice Demands scale and examining predictors of speech usage levels. This is a survey design. Adults aged ≥25 years without reported communication disorders were recruited nationally to complete an online questionnaire. The questionnaire included the Levels of Speech Usage scale, questions about relevant occupational and nonoccupational activities (eg, socializing, hobbies, childcare, and so forth), and demographic information. Participants were also categorized according to Koufman and Isaacson occupational voice demands scale. A total of 276 participants completed the questionnaires. People who worked for pay tended to report higher levels of speech usage than those who do not work for pay. Regression analyses showed employment to be the major contributor to speech usage; however, considerable variance left unaccounted for suggests that determinants of speech usage and the relationship between speech usage, employment, and other life activities are not yet fully defined. The Levels of Speech Usage may be a viable instrument to systematically rate speech usage because it captures both occupational and nonoccupational speech demands. These data from a sample of typical adults may provide a reference to help in interpreting the impact of communication disorders on speech usage patterns. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Daily activities and living at a Therapeutic Residential Care Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Prado Kantorki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes and analyzes day-to-day issues in a Therapeutic Residential Care Center and the daily life characteristics of its residents. This case study was conducted in Caxias do Sul, based on an evaluation of the fourth generation together with a Methodology for Analyzing Everyday Life Networks. The following categories emerged: possibilities in the territory, participation and flexibility in household tasks, situations that mark living, employees who are mediators in conflict resolution, staff committed to the resident, freedom as a therapeutic tool, difficulties in daily life, and building of alliances. This study helped to get to know the structure of everyday life experienced by the residents, identifying some difficulties they face and the mechanisms used to overcome them, in addition to noticing that the professionals can be instrumental in strengthening a daily living that can be pluralized, busy, and enriched, while still respecting the uniqueness of each resident. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i4.22923.

  6. Analysis and prediction of daily physical activity level data using autoregressive integrated moving average models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, Xi; Pauws, S.C.; Pijl, M.; Lacroix, J.; Goris, A.H.C.; Aarts, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    Results are provided on predicting daily physical activity level (PAL) data from past data of participants of a physical activity lifestyle program aimed at promoting a healthier lifestyle consisting of more physical exercise. The PAL data quantifies the level of a person’s daily physical activity

  7. Activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder: dressing, personal hygiene, and eating skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Janet; Larkin, Dawne; Dewey, Deborah

    2008-04-01

    In order to understand how age, culture, and problems in motor coordination impact the performance of activities of daily living, we used focus groups and in-depth interviews with Australian and Canadian parents to examine activities of daily living of younger (5-7 years of age) and older (8-9 years of age) children with and without DCD. By comparison with their typically developing age group, children with DCD had more difficulty with dressing, personal hygiene, and eating skills. Difficulties with postural control and fine-motor skills were reported to contribute to poorer performance of activities of daily living. As expected, competence in the performance of activities of daily living improved in the older children with and without DCD and there were few differences in the performance of daily living tasks between typical children in Australia and Canada. Overall, the motor difficulties of children with DCD had a significant impact on performance of a wide range of daily activities.

  8. Durations and domains of daily aerobic activity: evidence from the 2010 Canadian time-use survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Hugh; Spinney J, E L; Scott, Darren

    2014-07-01

    This study employs national time-diary data to evaluate how much aerobic activity Canadians engage in on a daily basis, how that activity is apportioned by activity domain, and how subgroups within the population vary in their aerobic attainment. The study employs time-use data from the 2010 General Social Survey of Canada, for 15,390 respondents aged 15 and older. To estimate effort levels, the authors harmonized survey codes with those in the Compendium of Physical Activities. Aerobic activity was defined as moderate or vigorous effort at 3.5 Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) or higher. Among the 4 activity domains, aerobic participation is highest in leisure activities, followed by chores, paid work, and active transportation (AT). Only a minority (42%) of respondents recorded at least 20 mins/day of aerobic activity. Aerobic totals were particularly low for women and those in poor or fair health, and low for students, 15- to 24-year-olds, and those residing in Quebec, Ontario, and larger cities. The majority of Canadian adults are failing to meet recommended aerobic activity levels. However, there is considerable opportunity to increase aerobic participation for some groups, particularly women and young adults, especially in the leisure and AT domains.

  9. Predicting daily physical activity in a lifestyle intervention program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, Xi; Pauws, S.C.; Pijl, M.; Lacroix, J.; Goris, A.H.C.; Aarts, R.M.; Gottfried, B.; Aghajan, H.

    2011-01-01

    The growing number of people adopting a sedentary lifestyle these days creates a serious need for effective physical activity promotion programs. Often, these programs monitor activity, provide feedback about activity and offer coaching to increase activity. Some programs rely on a human coach who

  10. Environmental Consciousness in Daily Activities Measured by Negative Prompts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Hiramatsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The gap between people’s attitude and action as regards environmental issues has been pointed out even while surveys registered an increase in people’s environmental awareness. Among the possible reasons is that people tend to automatically answer “yes”, as most surveys on environmental consciousness use positively-phrased questions or prompts. To remove the “yes-bias” in previous surveys, this present study conducted in Japan a large-scale questionnaire survey on environmental consciousness using negative prompts and free-answered prompts on which behaviors people feel good/bad/uncertain for the environment. This study also investigated peoples’ psychological factors and concrete pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs in daily life. The results of the questionnaire with negative prompts showed that the rate of people’s consciousness to the environment was lower compared with other surveys. Through factor analysis, five psychological factors were extracted as the explanatory factors of environmental attitude. Demographic effects on the consciousness and PEBs were also observed. Comparison of free-answers on concrete daily behaviors among five different environmentally conscious groups showed there were certain phases in the perception of PEBs based on consciousness level. Similar common behaviors were highly ranked as both PEB and doubtful behaviors, indicating that people were worried about actions that involve a trade-off relationship from diversified standpoints.

  11. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult lifespan. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e...

  12. Variability and Stability in Daily Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity among 10 Year Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sara; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Day-to-day variability and stability of children’s physical activity levels across days of the week are not well understood. Our aims were to examine the day-to-day variability of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), to determine factors influencing the day-to-day variability of MVPA and to estimate stability of MVPA in children. The sample comprises 686 Portuguese children (10 years of age). MVPA was assessed with an accelerometer, and BMI was computed from measured height and weight. Daily changes in MVPA and their correlates (gender, BMI, and maturity) were modeled with a multilevel approach, and tracking was calculated using Foulkes & Davies γ. A total of 51.3% of boys and 26.2% of girls achieved 60 min/day of MVPA on average. Daily MVPA was lower during the weekend (23.6% of boys and 13.6% of girls comply with the recommended 60 min/day of MVPA) compared to weekdays (60.8% and 35.4%, boys and girls, respectively). Normal weight children were more active than obese children and no effect was found for biological maturation. Tracking is low in both boys (γ = 0.59 ± 0.01) and girls (γ = 0.56 ± 0.01). Children’s MVPA levels during a week are highly unstable. In summary, boys are more active than girls, maturation does not affect their MVPA, and obese children are less likely to meet 60 min/day of MVPA. These results highlight the importance of providing opportunities for increasing children’s daily MVPA on all days of week, especially on the weekend. PMID:26262632

  13. Waste Load Allocation Based on Total Maximum Daily Load Approach Using the Charged System Search (CSS Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Faraji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the capability of a charged system search algorithm (CSS in handling water management optimization problems is investigated. First, two complex mathematical problems are solved by CSS and the results are compared with those obtained from other metaheuristic algorithms. In the last step, the optimization model developed by the CSS algorithm is applied to the waste load allocation in rivers based on the total maximum daily load (TMDL concept. The results are presented in Tables and Figures for easy comparison. The study indicates the superiority of the CSS algorithm in terms of its speed and performance over the other metaheuristic algorithms while its precision in water management optimization problems is verified.

  14. Cognitive Activities and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Doi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to identify differences in the implementation of cognitive activities and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs between healthy individuals and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: The study included 2,498 cognitively healthy subjects (mean age, 71.2 ± 5.1 years and 809 MCI subjects (mean age, 71.8 ± 5.4 years. The subjects were interviewed regarding their participation in cognitive activities and the implementation of IADLs. Results: We found a significant association between participation in any cognitive activities (p Conclusions: Our study revealed that greater participation in cognitive activity was associated with lower odds of MCI. Participation in cognitive activities may reflect differences between healthy and MCI subjects. To clarify the causal relationship between cognitive activities and MCI, further studies are required.

  15. A free sugars daily value (DV) identifies more "less healthy" prepackaged foods and beverages than a total sugars DV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jodi T; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Franco-Arellano, Beatriz; Schermel, Alyssa; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2018-04-01

    Regulatory changes in Canada will require food labels to have a benchmark [% Daily Value, %DV] for total sugars, based on 100 g/day, while US labels will require a %DV for added sugars, based on 50 g/day. The objective of this study was to compare two labelling policies, a total sugars DV (100 g/day) and a free sugars DV (50 g/day) on food labels. This cross-sectional analysis of the Food Label Information Program database focussed on top sources of total sugars intake in Canada (n = 6924 foods). Products were categorized as "less healthy" using two sets of criteria: a) free sugars levels exceeding the WHO guidelines (≥10% energy from free sugars); and b) exceeding healthfulness cut-offs of the Food Standards Australia New Zealand Nutrient Profiling Scoring Criterion (FSANZ-NPSC). The proportion of "less healthy" products with ≥15%DV (defined as "a lot" of sugars i.e. high in sugars, based on Health Canada's %DV labelling footnote and educational message for dietary guidance) were compared for each sugar labelling scenario. The free sugars DV showed better alignment with both methods for assessing "healthfulness" than the total sugars DV. The free sugars DV identified a greater proportion of "less healthy" foods with ≥15%DV, based on both the FSANZ-NPSC (70% vs. 45%, p chocolate bars, confectionery, and frozen desserts categories. Compared to total sugars DV labelling, using a free sugars DV identified more "less healthy" foods. Findings support the adoption of free sugars labelling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A qualitative review of instrumental activities of daily living in dementia: what's cooking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkes, S.A.M.; de Rotrou, J.

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is common in clinical practice and research into dementia. IADL are cognitively complex daily activities, such as cooking and doing finances. Their measurement is required for the diagnostic process of dementia, and also useful for

  17. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult life span. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by…

  18. Validity of consumer-grade activity monitor to identify manual wheelchair propulsion in standardized activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leving, Marika T; Horemans, Henricus L D; Vegter, Riemer J K; de Groot, Sonja; Bussmann, Johannes B J; van der Woude, Lucas H V

    2018-01-01

    Hypoactive lifestyle contributes to the development of secondary complications and lower quality of life in wheelchair users. There is a need for objective and user-friendly physical activity monitors for wheelchair-dependent individuals in order to increase physical activity through self-monitoring, goal setting, and feedback provision. To determine the validity of Activ8 Activity Monitors to 1) distinguish two classes of activities: independent wheelchair propulsion from other non-propulsive wheelchair-related activities 2) distinguish five wheelchair-related classes of activities differing by the movement intensity level: sitting in a wheelchair (hands may be moving but wheelchair remains stationary), maneuvering, and normal, high speed or assisted wheelchair propulsion. Sixteen able-bodied individuals performed sixteen various standardized 60s-activities of daily living. Each participant was equipped with a set of two Activ8 Professional Activity Monitors, one at the right forearm and one at the right wheel. Task classification by the Active8 Monitors was validated using video recordings. For the overall agreement, sensitivity and positive predictive value, outcomes above 90% are considered excellent, between 70 and 90% good, and below 70% unsatisfactory. Division in two classes resulted in overall agreement of 82.1%, sensitivity of 77.7% and positive predictive value of 78.2%. 84.5% of total duration of all tasks was classified identically by Activ8 and based on the video material. Division in five classes resulted in overall agreement of 56.6%, sensitivity of 52.8% and positive predictive value of 51.9%. 59.8% of total duration of all tasks was classified identically by Activ8 and based on the video material. Activ8 system proved to be suitable for distinguishing between active wheelchair propulsion and other non-propulsive wheelchair-related activities. The ability of the current system and algorithms to distinguish five various wheelchair-related activities

  19. Daily physical activity and its contribution to the health-related quality of life of ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Debbie; Eng, Janice J; Tang, Pei-Fang; Hung, Chihya; Jeng, Jiann-Shing

    2010-08-03

    Participation in daily physical activity (PA) post-stroke has not previously been investigated as a possible explanatory variable of health-related quality of life (HRQL). The aims were 1) to determine the contribution of daily PA to the HRQL of individuals with chronic stroke and 2) to assess the relationship between the functional ability of these individuals to the amount of daily PA. The amount of daily PA of forty adults with chronic stroke (mean age 66.5 +/- 9.6 years) was monitored using two measures. Accelerometers (Actical) were worn on the hip for three consecutive days in conjunction with a self-report questionnaire [the PA Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD)]. The daily physical activity was measured as the mean total accelerometer activity counts/day and the PASIPD scores as the metabolic equivalent (MET) hr/day. HRQL was assessed by the Physical and Mental composite scores of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36) in addition to the functional ability of the participants. Correlation and regression analyses were performed. After controlling for the severity of the motor impairment, the amount of daily PA, as assessed by the PASIPD and accelerometers, was found to independently contribute to 10-12% of the variance of the Physical Composite Score of the SF-36. No significant relationship was found between PA and the Mental Composite Score of the SF-36.The functional ability of the participants was found to be correlated to the amount of daily PA (r = 0.33 - 0.67, p < 0.01). The results suggest that daily PA is associated with better HRQL (as assessed by the Physical composite score of the SF-36) for people living with stroke. Daily PA should be encouraged to potentially increase HRQL. Accelerometers in conjunction with a self-report questionnaire may provide important measures of PA which can be monitored and modified, and potentially influence HRQL.

  20. Daily physical activity and its contribution to the health-related quality of life of ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rand Debbie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Participation in daily physical activity (PA post-stroke has not previously been investigated as a possible explanatory variable of health-related quality of life (HRQL. The aims were 1 to determine the contribution of daily PA to the HRQL of individuals with chronic stroke and 2 to assess the relationship between the functional ability of these individuals to the amount of daily PA. Methods The amount of daily PA of forty adults with chronic stroke (mean age 66.5 ± 9.6 years was monitored using two measures. Accelerometers (Actical were worn on the hip for three consecutive days in conjunction with a self-report questionnaire [the PA Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD]. The daily physical activity was measured as the mean total accelerometer activity counts/day and the PASIPD scores as the metabolic equivalent (MET hr/day. HRQL was assessed by the Physical and Mental composite scores of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36 in addition to the functional ability of the participants. Correlation and regression analyses were performed. Results After controlling for the severity of the motor impairment, the amount of daily PA, as assessed by the PASIPD and accelerometers, was found to independently contribute to 10-12% of the variance of the Physical Composite Score of the SF-36. No significant relationship was found between PA and the Mental Composite Score of the SF-36.The functional ability of the participants was found to be correlated to the amount of daily PA (r = 0.33 - 0.67, p Conclusion The results suggest that daily PA is associated with better HRQL (as assessed by the Physical composite score of the SF-36 for people living with stroke. Daily PA should be encouraged to potentially increase HRQL. Accelerometers in conjunction with a self-report questionnaire may provide important measures of PA which can be monitored and modified, and potentially influence HRQL.

  1. Experimental application of the "total maximum daily load" approach as a tool for WFD implementation in temporary rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Porto, A.; De Girolamo, A. M.; Santese, G.

    2012-04-01

    In this presentation, the experience gained in the first experimental use in the UE (as far as we know) of the concept and methodology of the "Total Maximum Daily Load" (TMDL) is reported. The TMDL is an instrument required in the Clean Water Act in U.S.A for the management of water bodies classified impaired. The TMDL calculates the maximum amount of a pollutant that a waterbody can receive and still safely meet water quality standards. It permits to establish a scientifically-based strategy on the regulation of the emission loads control according to the characteristic of the watershed/basin. The implementation of the TMDL is a process analogous to the Programmes of Measures required by the WFD, the main difference being the analysis of the linkage between loads of different sources and the water quality of water bodies. The TMDL calculation was used in this study for the Candelaro River, a temporary Italian river, classified impaired in the first steps of the implementation of the WFD. A specific approach based on the "Load Duration Curves" was adopted for the calculation of nutrient TMDLs due to the more robust approach specific for rivers featuring large changes in river flow compared to the classic approach based on average long term flow conditions. This methodology permits to establish the maximum allowable loads across to the different flow conditions of a river. This methodology enabled: to evaluate the allowable loading of a water body; to identify the sources and estimate their loads; to estimate the total loading that the water bodies can receives meeting the water quality standards established; to link the effects of point and diffuse sources on the water quality status and finally to individuate the reduction necessary for each type of sources. The loads reductions were calculated for nitrate, total phosphorus and ammonia. The simulated measures showed a remarkable ability to reduce the pollutants for the Candelaro River. The use of the Soil and

  2. Using spatially detailed water-quality data and solute-transport modeling to improve support total maximum daily load development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton-Day, Katherine; Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.

    2012-01-01

    Spatially detailed mass-loading studies and solute-transport modeling using OTIS (One-dimensional Transport with Inflow and Storage) demonstrate how natural attenuation and loading from distinct and diffuse sources control stream water quality and affect load reductions predicted in total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Mass-loading data collected during low-flow from Cement Creek (a low-pH, metal-rich stream because of natural and mining sources, and subject to TMDL requirements) were used to calibrate OTIS and showed spatially variable effects of natural attenuation (instream reactions) and loading from diffuse (groundwater) and distinct sources. OTIS simulations of the possible effects of TMDL-recommended remediation of mine sites showed less improvement to dissolved zinc load and concentration (14% decrease) than did the TMDL (53-63% decrease). The TMDL (1) assumed conservative transport, (2) accounted for loads removed by remediation by subtracting them from total load at the stream mouth, and (3) did not include diffuse-source loads. In OTIS, loads were reduced near their source; the resulting concentration was decreased by natural attenuation and increased by diffuse-source loads during downstream transport. Thus, by not including natural attenuation and loading from diffuse sources, the TMDL overestimated remediation effects at low flow. Use of the techniques presented herein could improve TMDLs by incorporating these processes during TMDL development.

  3. Genetic Analysis of Daily Activity in Humans and Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takahashi, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    .... We have characterized variation in five circadian phenotypes: free-running circadian period, phase angle of entrainment, amplitude of the circadian rhythm, circadian activity level, and dissociation of rhythmicity...

  4. Health-related aspects of objectively measured daily physical activity in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that physical inactivity in adults is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Whether daily physical activity level is related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children has been debated. Furthermore, objective data on the habitual daily physica...... activity. This review summarizes recently published studies that have used accelerometers to measure daily physical activity in children and related activity data to known risk factors for CVD.......It is well established that physical inactivity in adults is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Whether daily physical activity level is related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children has been debated. Furthermore, objective data on the habitual daily physical...... activity in children have at large been scarce in the literature. The main reason for this is the fact that daily physical activity is very difficult to measure in children. In recent years, a new device, the accelerometer, has emerged as a frequently used instrument for the measurement of daily physical...

  5. Antibacterial activity of soaps against daily encountered bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to check the antibacterial activity of various branded soaps against bacteria that are normally present in the environment. The proposed study includes selection of most common bacterial strains from the environment. Identification of bacterial strains was done by standard microbiological techniques, which ...

  6. Physical activity patterns and estimated daily energy expenditures in normal and overweight tunisian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Fayçal; Bouhlel, Ezdine; Feki, Youssef; Amri, Mohamed; Shephard, Roy J

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to test the normality of physical activity patterns and energy expenditures in normal weight and overweight primary school students. Heart rate estimates of total daily energy expenditure (TEE), active energy expenditure (AEE), and activity patterns were made over 3 consecutive school days in healthy middle-class Tunisian children (46 boys, 44 girls, median age (25(th)-75(th)) percentile, 9.2 (8.8-9.9) years. Our cross-section included 52 students with a normal body mass index (BMI) and 38 who exceeded age-specific BMI limits. TEE, AEE and overall physical activity level (PAL) were not different between overweight children and those with a normal BMI [median values (25(th)-75(th)) 9.20 (8.20-9.84) vs. 8.88 (7.42-9.76) MJ/d; 3.56 (2.59-4.22) vs. 3.85 (2.77-4.78) MJ/d and 1.74 (1.54-2.04) vs. 1.89 (1.66-2.15) respectively]. Physical activity intensities (PAI) were expressed as percentages of the individual's heart rate reserve (%HRR). The median PAI for the entire day (PAI24) and for the waking part of day (PAIw) were lower in overweight than in normal weight individuals [16.3 (14.2-18.9) vs. 20.6 (17.9-22.3) %HRR, p spend more time in moderate activity and less time in sedentary pursuits than overweight children.

  7. The use of choice heuristic in daily activity travel behaviour: an expert system

    OpenAIRE

    HANNES, Els; JANSSENS, Davy; WETS, Geert

    2007-01-01

    This research project aims at identifying the critical spatial factors in an individual’s mental map which influence daily activity travel behaviour in order to improve the agentbased modelling of activity travel behaviour by means of a computational process model. A qualitative travel survey and in depth interviews are used to identify the spatial factors that appear in the destination and travel mode choice heuristics of experts when discussing their daily activity space. Recorded interview...

  8. Daily activities of school-age children with cerebral palsy : development and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    In care and research, there is increasing interest in the daily lives of children with cerebral palsy (CP). So far, we know that CP can have a limiting impact on daily activities such as locomotion and self-care. What we, however, don’t know is how children with CP develop over time in terms of

  9. Proteasome activity related with the daily physical activity of COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee KY

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Kang-Yun Lee,1,2,* Tzu-Tao Chen,1,* Ling-Ling Chiang,1,3 Hsiao-Chi Chuang,1,3 Po-Hao Feng,1,2 Wen-Te Liu,1–3 Kuan-Yuan Chen,1 Shu-Chuan Ho1,3 1Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, 2Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 3School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: COPD is a debilitating disease that affects patients’ daily lives. One’s daily physical activity (DPA decreases due to multifactorial causes, and this decrease is correlated with a poor prognosis in COPD patients. Muscle wasting may at least be partly due to increased activity of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway and apoptosis.Methods: This study investigated the relationships among DPA, circulating proteasome activity, and protein carbonyl in COPD patients and healthy subjects (HSs. This study included 57 participants (42 patients and 15 healthy subjects. Ambulatory DPA was measured using actigraphy, and oxygen saturation was measured with a pulse oximeter.Results: COPD patients had lower DPA, lower 6 min walking distance (6MWD, lower delta saturation pulse oxygenation (SpO2 during the 6MWT, and lower delta SpO2 during DPA than HSs. COPD patients had higher proteasome activity and protein carbonyl than HSs. Circulating proteasome activity was significantly negatively correlated with DPA (r=−0.568, P<0.05 in COPD patients, whereas delta SpO2 during the 6MWT was significantly positively correlated with proteasome activity (r=0.685, P<0.05 in HSs. Protein carbonyl was significantly negatively correlated with the body mass index (r=−0.318, P<0.05, mid-arm circumference (r=0.350, P<0.05, calf circumference (r=0.322, P<0.05, forced expiratory volume in the first second (r=−0.441, P<0

  10. Daily physical activity and its relation to aerobic fitness in children aged 8-11 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K.

    2006-01-01

    and fitness in children has been published, where fitness has been assessed by direct measurement of maximum oxygen uptake and related to daily physical activity intensities by accelerometers. We examined 248 children (140 boys and 108 girls), aged 7.9-11.1 years. Maximum workload and maximal oxygen uptake...... in vigorous physical activity were calculated. VO2PEAK was correlated with mean accelerometer counts (r=0.23 for boys and r=0.23 for girls, both Pactivity (r=0.32 for boys, r=0.30 for girls, both P...Abstract  A positive relationship between daily physical activity and aerobic fitness exists in adults. Studies in children have given conflicting results, possibly because of differences in methods used to assess daily physical activity and fitness. No study regarding daily physical activity...

  11. Influences of patient informed cognitive complaints on activities of daily living in patients with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Träger, Conny; Decker, Lone; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen

    2017-01-01

    Many patients with bipolar disorder (BD) experience debilitating cognitive deficits, with risk of impaired occupational and psychosocial functioning. However, knowledge of how these deficits impact the patients’ ability to perform Activities of Daily Living (ADL), tasks related to self...... Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment questionnaire (COBRA)) were included. Objective neurocognitive function was evaluated with a short comprehensive cognitive test battery and ADL ability was evaluated with the performance-based Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) in the homes......-care and domestic life is limited. We explored the relation between impaired cognitive function and the ability to perform ADL in patients with BD. A total of 42 outpatients (mean age 36 years (range 19.0–58.0 years), 69% women) with BD in remission and with subjective cognitive complaints (≥ 13 on the Cognitive...

  12. Development of total maximum daily loads for bacteria impaired watershed using the comprehensive hydrology and water quality simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang M; Brannan, Kevin M; Zeckoski, Rebecca W; Benham, Brian L

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop bacteria total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) for the Hardware River watershed in the Commonwealth of Virginia, USA. The TMDL program is an integrated watershed management approach required by the Clean Water Act. The TMDLs were developed to meet Virginia's water quality standard for bacteria at the time, which stated that the calendar-month geometric mean concentration of Escherichia coli should not exceed 126 cfu/100 mL, and that no single sample should exceed a concentration of 235 cfu/100 mL. The bacteria impairment TMDLs were developed using the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF). The hydrology and water quality components of HSPF were calibrated and validated using data from the Hardware River watershed to ensure that the model adequately simulated runoff and bacteria concentrations. The calibrated and validated HSPF model was used to estimate the contributions from the various bacteria sources in the Hardware River watershed to the in-stream concentration. Bacteria loads were estimated through an extensive source characterization process. Simulation results for existing conditions indicated that the majority of the bacteria came from livestock and wildlife direct deposits and pervious lands. Different source reduction scenarios were evaluated to identify scenarios that meet both the geometric mean and single sample maximum E. coli criteria with zero violations. The resulting scenarios required extreme and impractical reductions from livestock and wildlife sources. Results from studies similar to this across Virginia partially contributed to a reconsideration of the standard's applicability to TMDL development.

  13. Pain-related Impairment of Daily Activities After Thoracic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Thomas K; Wildgaard, Kim; Kreiner, Svend

    2013-01-01

    -specific questionnaire for assessment of functional impairment due to PTPS. METHODS:: Activities were obtained from the literature supplemented by interviews with patients and surgeons. The questionnaire was validated using the Rasch model in order to describe an underlying pain impairment scale. RESULTS:: Four of 17...... found. A generalized log-linear Rasch model including local dependence was constructed. Though local dependence influenced reliability, the test-retest reliability estimated under the log-linear Rasch model was high (0.88-0.96). Correlation with items from the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand...... (quick) questionnaire supported validity (γ=0.46, P...

  14. Early Birds by Light at Night: Effects of Light Color and Intensity on Daily Activity Patterns in Blue Tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maaike; Caro, Samuel P; Gienapp, Phillip; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Visser, Marcel E

    2017-08-01

    Artificial light at night disturbs the daily rhythms of many organisms. To what extent this disturbance depends on the intensity and spectral composition of light remain obscure. Here, we measured daily activity patterns of captive blue tits ( Cyanistes caeruleus) exposed to similar intensities of green, red, or white light at night. Birds advanced their onset of activity in the morning under all light colors but more under red and white light than under green light. Offset of activity was slightly delayed in all light colors. The total activity over a 24-h period did not change but birds moved a part of their daily activity into the night. Since the effect of red and white lights are comparable, we tested the influence of light intensity in a follow-up experiment, where we compared the activity of the birds under different intensities of green and white light only. While in the higher range of intensities, the effects of white and green light were comparable; at lower intensities, green light had a less disturbing effect as compared with white light on daily rhythms in blue tits. Our results show that the extent of this disturbance can be mitigated by modulating the spectral characteristics and intensity of outdoor lighting, which is now feasible through the use of LED lighting.

  15. Cosmic Ray Daily Variation And SOLAR Activity On Anomalous Days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Rajesh Kumar; Mishra, Rekha Agarwal

    2008-01-01

    A study is carried out on the long-term changes in the diurnal anisotropy of cosmic rays using the ground based Deep River neutron monitor data during significantly low amplitude anisotropic wave train events in cosmic ray intensity for the period 1981-94. It has been observed that the phase of the diurnal anisotropy for majority of the low amplitude anisotropic wave train events significantly shifts towards earlier hours as compared to the co-rotational direction. The long-term behaviour of the amplitude of the diurnal anisotropy can be explained in terms of the occurrence of low amplitude anisotropic wave train events. The occurrence of these events is dominant during solar activity minimum years. The amplitude of the diurnal anisotropy is well correlated with the solar cycle but the direction of the anisotropy is not correlated with the solar cycle and shows a systematic shift to earlier hours. (authors)

  16. The influence of daily variation in foraging cost on the activity of small carnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Zielinski

    1988-01-01

    The daily activity of some predators is correlated with the activity pattern of their prey. If capture efficiency varies as a function of prey activity, a predator that synchronizes its foraging activity with the time of day that prey are most vulnerable should capture more prey, and at lower cost, than a predator that initiates foraging at random. Mink, ...

  17. Measuring limitations in activities of daily living: a population-based validation of a short questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Cronenberg, Sonja; Grebner, Simone; Tamcan, Oezguer; Müller, Urs

    2017-12-01

    A newly developed questionnaire assessing limitations in activity of daily living (LADL-Q) that should improve assessment of LADL is tested in a large population-based validation study. This survey was paper-based. Overall, 16,634 individuals who were representative of the working population in the German-speaking part of Switzerland participated in the study. Item analysis was used the final version of the LADL-Q to four items per subscale that correspond to potential problems in three body regions (back and neck, upper extremities, lower extremities). Analysis included tests for reliability, internal consistency, dimensionality and convergent validity. Test-retest reliability coefficients after 2 weeks ranged from 0.82 to 0.99 (Mdn = 0.87), with no item having a coefficient below 0.60. The median item-total coefficients ranged between moderate and good. Correlation coefficients between LADL-Q subscales and three validated clinical instruments (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index, shoulder pain disability index, Oswestry) ranged from 0.63 to 0.81. In structural equation modeling the three subscales were significantly related with two important outcomes in occupational rehabilitation: self-reported general health and daily task performance. The new LADL-Q is a brief, reliable and valid tool for assessment of LADL in studies on musculoskeletal health.

  18. A new informant-based questionnaire for instrumental activities of daily living in dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkes, S.A.M.; de Lange-de Klerk, E.S.M.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Gillissen, F.; Romkes, R.; Knol, D.L.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.; Scheltens, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Interference in everyday functioning is part of the diagnostic criteria for dementia. Questionnaires measuring "instrumental activities of daily living" (IADL) are used to measure this interference, but the psychometric quality of these questionnaires is often questioned. In addition,

  19. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  20. Promoting Daily Physical Activity by Means of Mobile Gaming: A Review of the State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Monique; Dekker-van Weering, Marit; van Dijk, Hylke; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    To review mobile games and gaming applications that claim to improve physical activity behavior in daily life. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and the ACM Digital Library and performed a manual search of relevant journals and reference lists. Studies that reported on a mobile game that requires players to perform physical activity in daily life and where the game has specific goals, rules, and feedback mechanisms were included. This excludes non-mobile exergames. Theoretical foundations, game characteristics, and evaluation methodologies were assessed. In total, 797 articles were identified through the search, of which 11 articles were included. The reviewed studies show that there is limited theoretical foundation for the game development, and most studies used goal setting as a motivation strategy to engage people in playing the game. There was a large variety in game characteristics found, although the majority of the studies used metaphors or avatars to visualize activity, whereas feedback was mostly provided in relation to the goal. Rewards and competition were the most commonly incorporated game elements. The evaluations were focused on feasibility, and clinical evidence is lacking with only two randomized controlled studies found. This review provides a first overview of mobile gaming applications to promote daily life physical activity and shows this as a new research area with demonstration of its acceptability and feasibility among the users. Clinical effectiveness and the added value of gaming in changing daily activity behavior have by far not yet been established.

  1. Guideline recommendations for post-acute postoperative physiotherapy in total hip and knee arthroplasty: are they used in daily clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, W F; Nelissen, R G H H; Vlieland, T P M Vliet

    2014-09-01

    In a Dutch guideline on physiotherapy (PT) in hip and knee osteoarthritis, a number of recommendations on post-acute (i.e. after discharge from hospital) PT following total hip (THA) and total knee (TKA) arthroplasty were included. Little is known about the uptake of these recommendations in daily clinical practice. The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which the guideline recommendations regarding post-acute PT after THA and TKA are followed in daily clinical practice. An online pilot survey on the delivery of post-acute, postoperative PT was sent to a random sample of 957 Dutch physiotherapists. The survey included questions on the application of recommended, neither recommended nor advised against, and advised against treatment modalities and various treatment modalities for which there were no formulated recommendations. A total of 219 physiotherapists completed the questionnaire, with a mean age of 40 years (standard deviation 12.6), 55% female and 95% working in primary care. The vast majority reported the use of the recommended exercise modalities (muscle strengthening exercises (96%), and functional exercises (99%). Continuous passive motion, which was neither recommended nor advised against, and electrical muscle stimulation, which was not recommended, were provided by 1%. Reported treatment modalities for which there were no formulated recommendations included patient education (99%), gait training (95%), active range of motion (ROM) exercises (93%), balance exercises (86%), passive ROM exercises (58%), aerobic exercises (50%), massage (18%) and cold therapy (11%). The vast majority of physiotherapists reported adhering to recommendations on post-acute postoperative PT in THA and TKA patients after discharge from hospital. Although yet to be confirmed in a larger nationwide survey, the relatively high frequency of use of many other treatment modalities, for which there were no formulated recommendations, suggests the need to extend

  2. A new tent trap for monitoring the daily activity of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Martínez, Mauricio; Orozco Bonilla, Arnoldo; Muñoz Reyes, Miguel; Ulloa García, Armando; Bond, J Guillermo; Valle Mora, Javier; Weber, Manuel; Rojas, Julio C

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we designed a new tent trap; the BioDiVector (BDV) tent trap, consisting of two rectangular tents that use human bait without endangering the technical personnel. The daily activity pattern of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in intra, peri, and extradomiciliary sites was studied in an endemic area of dengue in southern Mexico by using the BDV tent trap. Totals of 3,128 individuals of Ae. aegypti and 833 Ae. albopictus were captured. More Ae. aegypti males than females were caught, while the opposite was true with Ae. albopictus. The activity of both mosquito species was affected by the interaction between the collection site and time of day. In general, more individuals of both mosquito species were captured at the extradomicillary sites than at the peri and intradomicillary sites. Mosquitoes showed two peaks of activity, one in the morning and the other in the afternoon, but in general this only occurred at the extradomicillary sites, whereas no peak of activity was observed at the intra and peridomicillary sites. Overall, Ae. aegypti had a higher indirect biting rate than Ae. albopictus. Finally, due to its efficiency, simplicity, and low cost, we suggest the use of this innovative tool for entomological surveillance, bionomics and vector incrimination studies in geographical areas where dengue and other arboviruses are present. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  3. The Daily Pattern of Main Activities in the Gelada Baboon (Theropithecus gelada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Filipčík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to observe and analyse the main daily activities in the group of geladas kept in the Zlín Zoo. The experimental group was formed by three males (one of them was a dominant alfa male and four females who were in the reproductive cycle at the observation period. The behavioural study included five recurrent observations which took place in March 2014. The observations revealed that geladas spent most of the time feeding (44.1% and performing comfort behaviour (24.6%. About 7.7–10.4% of the total time the geladas spent moving, resting and observing the neighbourhoods. The settled and stable social hierarchy within the group prevented greater incidence (0.7% of aggressive behaviour. Occurrence of other types of activities was low – play (1.7%, climbing the trees (0.5% and sexual behaviour (2.3%. The work also studied how the incidence of a particular type of behaviour changed over time within the day. A certain pattern in behavioural activities was apparent because their incidence tended to be similar on all observation days. Foraging activities were the greatest (44.80 ± 3.64 observations between 15.00 and 16.00, resting (8.00–9.80 observations between 12.00 and 14.00 and comfort behaviour (23.20 ± 2.82 observations in the morning.

  4. Physical activity of elderly patients after total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Zbigniew; Praczko, Katarzyna; Kostka, Tomasz; Jegier, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is the most common method of treatment of severe hip osteoarthritis. There is little data concerning the physical activity of total hip arthroplasty patients in Poland and investigations to explore this area are useful. The aim of the study was to describe the post-operative physical activity of total hip arthroplasty patients. A total of 146 adult people were examined, among which 28 men and 41 women had undergone total hip arthroplasty due to primary osteoarthritis of the hip, while another 32 men and 41 women matched for age who had not undergone hip surgery for osteoarthritis served as controls. The physical activity of study participants was assessed with the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire. All participants were also asked about the type and amount of physical activity they engaged in to maintain good health. Physical activity measured as the total amount of calories expended through physical activity per week was similar in the post-THA patients compared to the controls. The only differences were a smaller amount of calories expended during low-intensity physical activity by men after total hip arthroplasty compared to men who had not undergone surgery for osteoarthritis and a smaller amount of calories expended through high-intensity physical activity by women after total hip arthroplasty compared to female controls. The kinds of recreational physical activity most commonly practised by patients a mean of two years after total hip arthroplasty were marching, bicycling and general body conditioning exercises (usually the continuation of exercises recommended during post-operative rehabilitation). The percentage of post-THA patients undertaking physical activity for the prevention of non-communicable diseases was low. Physical activity should be more effectively encouraged in patients after total hip arthroplasty.

  5. TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Nimbus-7 Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. The Total Ozone Mapping...

  6. Measurements of Daily Energy Intake and Total Energy Expenditure in People with Dementia in Care Homes: The Use of Wearable Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J; Holmes, J; Brooks, C

    2017-01-01

    To estimate daily total energy expenditure (TEE) using a physical activity monitor, combined with dietary assessment of energy intake to assess the relationship between daily energy expenditure and patterns of activity with energy intake in people with dementia living in care homes. A cross-sectional study in care homes in the UK. Twenty residents with confirmed dementia diagnosis were recruited from two care homes that specialised in dementia care. A physical activity monitor (SensewearTM Armband, Body Media, Pittsburgh, PA) was employed to objectively determine total energy expenditure, sleep duration and physical activity. The armband was placed around the left upper triceps for up to 7 days. Energy intake was determined by weighing all food and drink items over 4 days (3 weekdays and 1 weekend day) including measurements of food wastage. The mean age was 78.7 (SD ± 11.8) years, Body Mass Index (BMI) 23.0 (SD ± 4.2) kg/m2; 50% were women. Energy intake (mean 7.4; SD ± 2.6) MJ/d) was correlated with TEE (mean 7.6; SD ± 1.8 MJ/d; r=0.49, p<0.05). Duration of sleeping ranged from 0.4-12.5 (mean 6.1) hrs/d and time spent lying down was 1.3-16.0 (8.3) hrs/d. On average residents spent 17.9 (6.3-23.4) hrs/d undertaking sedentary activity. TEE was correlated with BMI (r=0.52, p<0.05) and body weight (r=0.81, p<0.001) but inversely related to sleep duration (r=-0.59, p<0.01) and time lying down (r=-0.62, p<0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that after taking BMI, sleep duration and time spent lying down into account, TEE was no longer correlated with energy intake. The results show the extent to which body mass, variable activity and sleep patterns may be contributing to TEE and together with reduced energy intake, energy requirements were not satisfied. Thus wearable technology has the potential to offer real-time monitoring to provide appropriate nutrition management that is more person-centred to prevent weight loss in dementia.

  7. The association of daily physical activity and birth outcome: A population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.I. Both (Marieke); M.A. Overvest (Mathilde); M.F. Wildhagen (Mark); J. Golding (Jean); H.I.J. Wildschut (Hajo)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe potential relationship between daily physical activity and pregnancy outcome remains unclear because of the wide variation in study designs and physical activity assessment measures. We sought to prospectively quantify the potential effects of the various domains of physical activity

  8. Seasonal variation of daily physical activity in individuals with heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Shoemaker

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPrevious studies indicate that seasonal variation affects daily physical activity (PA, but none have investigated this relationship in individuals with heart failure (HF who also have implanted cardioverter defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy (ICD/CRT devices. The purpose of the present study was to determine if seasonal variation in temperature affects daily PA in patients with HF and ICD/CRTs.Patients and methodsSecondary analysis of data from 16 subjects with HF and Medtronic® ICD/CRT devices enrolled in a randomized trial investigating interventions to improve daily PA. Due to the rolling study enrollment, daily PA data for all subjects were not available for the entire time frame and were divided into two groups. Determination of seasonal variation of daily PA was determined using visual analysis of daily PA plotted with average temperature, autocorrelation, visual analysis of seasonal subseries plots and boxplot analysis, as well as Wilcoxon signed-rank tests.ResultsSubjects 1-8 demonstrated the greatest differences in daily PA during periods of seasonal transition whereas subjects 9-16 demonstrated the greatest variation in daily PA with greatest seasonal temperature difference. Wilcoxon signed-rank testing of the lowest and highest months for daily PA revealed median differences of 0.30 (p = 0.050 and 0.36 hours (p = 0.036 for subjects 1-8 and 9-16, with effect sizes of 0.69 and 0.74, respectively.ConclusionsSeasonal variation in mean temperature appears to affect daily PA in individuals with HF and ICD/CRT devices by a magnitude of 0.30-0.36 hours, which may need to be accounted for in future research investigating interventions to improve daily PA.

  9. School Playground Facilities as a Determinant of Children's Daily Activity: A Cross-Sectional Study of Danish Primary School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity.......This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity....

  10. Fitness, daily activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahlkvist, S; Pedersen, S

    2009-01-01

    Background: Information about how the asthma disease affects the life style and health in children is sparse. Aim: To measure fitness, daily physical activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and healthy controls, and to assess the association between...... the level of asthma control and these parameters. Methods: Daily physical activity measured using accelerometry, cardiovascular fitness and body composition (per cent fat, per cent lean tissue and bone mineral density) were measured in 57 children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and in 157 healthy...... fitness and daytime spent in intensive activity. Overweight children are physically less active than normal weight children....

  11. Goal conflict and goal facilitation as predictors of daily accelerometer-assessed physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presseau, Justin; Tait, Richard I; Johnston, Derek W; Francis, Jill J; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2013-12-01

    To test whether perceptions of conflicting and facilitating personal goals, and actual daily time spent in their pursuit, predict accelerometer-assessed physical activity (PA). A prospective multilevel design with a daily accelerometer-based assessment of PA over 1 week was used (N = 106). Participants' personal goals were elicited using personal projects analysis. Participants then rated their personal goals in terms of how they were perceived to facilitate and conflict with their regular PA. Items assessing PA-specific intention and perceived behavioral control (PBC) were also embedded within the baseline measures. For the subsequent 7 consecutive days, participants completed a daily diary based on the day reconstruction method, indicating the time spent in daily episodes involving each of their personal goals, and wore an RT3 tri-axial accelerometer. The main outcome was accelerometer-assessed daily time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Random intercept multilevel models indicated that perceived goal facilitation, but not perceived goal conflict, predicted MVPA over and above intention and PBC. Daily time pursuing conflicting goals negatively predicted MVPA when subsequently added to the model and in so doing, attenuated the association between perceived goal facilitation and MVPA. Perceived goal facilitation predicts objectively measured PA over and above intention and PBC, but daily time spent in pursuit of conflicting personal goals provides a better account of how alternative goals relate to engaging in regular PA.

  12. Reduction of physical activity in daily life and its determinants in smokers without airflow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanetto, Karina Couto; Mantoani, Leandro Cruz; Bisca, Gianna; Morita, Andrea Akemi; Zabatiero, Juliana; Proença, Mahara; Kovelis, Demétria; Pitta, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    In smokers without airflow obstruction, detailed, objective and controlled quantification of the level of physical inactivity in daily life has never been performed. This study aimed to objectively assess the level of physical activity in daily life in adult smokers without airflow obstruction in comparison with matched non-smokers, and to investigate the determinants for daily physical activity in smokers. Sixty smokers (aged 50 (39-54) years) and 50 non-smokers (aged 48 (40-53) years) matched for gender, age, anthropometric characteristics, educational level, employment status and seasons of the year assessment period were cross-sectionally assessed regarding their daily physical activity with a step counter, besides assessment of lung function, functional exercise capacity, quality of life, anxiety, depression, self-reported comorbidities carbon monoxide level, nicotine dependence and smoking habits. When compared with non-smokers, smokers walked less in daily life (7923 ± 3558 vs 9553 ± 3637 steps/day, respectively), presented worse lung function, functional exercise capacity, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Multiple regression analyses identified functional exercise capacity, Borg fatigue, self-reported motivation/physical activity behaviour and cardiac disease as significant determinants of number of steps/day in smokers (partial r(2)  = 0.10, 0.12, 0.16 and 0.05; b = 15, -997, 1207 and -2330 steps/day, respectively; overall fit of the model R(2)  = 0.38; P smokers without airflow obstruction presented reduced level of daily physical activity. Functional exercise capacity, extended fatigue sensation, aspects of motivation/physical activity behaviour and self-reported cardiac disease are significant determinants of physical activity in daily life in smokers. © 2014 The Authors. Respirology © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  13. Assessment of the psychometrics of a PROMIS item bank: self-efficacy for managing daily activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ickpyo; Velozo, Craig A; Li, Chih-Ying; Romero, Sergio; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Shulman, Lisa M

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the psychometrics of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System self-efficacy for managing daily activities item bank. The item pool was field tested on a sample of 1087 participants via internet (n = 250) and in-clinic (n = 837) surveys. All participants reported having at least one chronic health condition. The 35 item pool was investigated for dimensionality (confirmatory factor analyses, CFA and exploratory factor analysis, EFA), item-total correlations, local independence, precision, and differential item functioning (DIF) across gender, race, ethnicity, age groups, data collection modes, and neurological chronic conditions (McFadden Pseudo R (2) less than 10 %). The item pool met two of the four CFA fit criteria (CFI = 0.952 and SRMR = 0.07). EFA analysis found a dominant first factor (eigenvalue = 24.34) and the ratio of first to second eigenvalue was 12.4. The item pool demonstrated good item-total correlations (0.59-0.85) and acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.97). The item pool maintained its precision (reliability over 0.90) across a wide range of theta (3.70), and there was no significant DIF. The findings indicated the item pool has sound psychometric properties and the test items are eligible for development of computerized adaptive testing and short forms.

  14. Chapter 4: Measurements of total beta-activity in the fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggleby, J.C.; Johannessen, J.C.; Kotler, L.H.; Stewart, F.M.

    1974-01-01

    In order to provide information on fresh fission products in fallout reaching Australia from nuclear tests being conducted by France in Polynesia, measurements were made of total beta activity in daily fallout deposition of 25 Australian sampling stations covering a three month period from 25 July to 23 October 1973. The methods employed to measure the radioactivity of the samples are described and the data on total beta-activity, and the calculated external gamma radiation doses from fresh fallout are presented. (R.L.)

  15. Effects of daily living occupational therapy and resistance exercise on the activities of daily living and muscular fitness in Guillain-Barré syndrome: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kwang-Jun; Ha, Gi-Chul; Kang, Seol-Jung

    2017-05-01

    [Purpose] The study aimed to investigate the effects of daily living occupational therapy and resistance exercise on the performance of activities of daily living and muscular fitness in a patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome. [Subject and Methods] A 35-year-old man was diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome. He was hospitalized at A Hospital for 3 years, and was discharged from the hospital after he became able to execute daily life activities. After discharge, he performed daily occupational therapy and resistance exercise twice a week for 70 minutes per session for 12 weeks. Performance in the activities of daily living was assessed using the modified Barthel index, and muscular fitness was measured in terms of isokinetic muscular function using the Biodes system. [Results] The subject's Barthel index score improved from 54 points before the intervention to 62 points after 4 weeks, 69 points after 8 weeks, and 79 points after 12 weeks. In addition, his shoulder flexion and extension, knee flexion and extension, and lumbar flexion and extension were improved. [Conclusion] The present study suggests that daily living occupational therapy and resistance exercise are effective in improving the activities of daily living and muscular fitness in a patient recovering from Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  16. Telemonitoring of Daily Activity and Symptom Behavior in Patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Tabak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study investigated the activity behavior of patients with COPD in detail compared to asymptomatic controls, and the relationship between subjective and objective activities (awareness, and readiness to change activity behavior. Methods. Thirty-nine patients with COPD (66.0 years; FEV1% predicted: 44.9% and 21 healthy controls (57.0 years participated. Objective daily activity was assessed by accelerometry and expressed as amount of activity in counts per minute (cpm. Patients' baseline subjective activity and stage of change were assessed prior to measurements. Results. Mean daily activity in COPD patients was significantly lower compared to the healthy controls ( cpm versus  cpm, . COPD patients showed a temporary decrease in objective activities in the early afternoon. Objective and subjective activities were significantly moderately related and most patients (55.3% were in the maintenance phase of the stages of change. Conclusions. COPD patients show a distinctive activity decrease in the early afternoon. COPD patients are moderately aware of their daily activity but regard themselves as physically active. Therefore, future telemedicine interventions might consider creating awareness of an active lifestyle and provide feedback that aims to increase and balance activity levels.

  17. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of cinchona ledgeriana leaves ethanol extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundowo, Andini; Artanti, Nina; Hanafi, M.; Minarti, Primahana, Gian

    2017-11-01

    C ledgeriana is a medicinal plant that contains alkaloids, especially on the barks for commercial production of quinine as antimalarial. The main alkaloids in this plant are cinchonine, cinchonidine, quinine and quinidine. Besides for antiamalarial this plant is also commonly used to treat whooping cough, influenza and dysentery. Compare to other medicinal plants, nowadays only very few studies were conducted in Cinchona species. Our current study aims to determine the content of phytochemical, total phenol and total flavonoids from C. ledgeriana leaves 70% ethanol extract. The extraction was performed by maceration method using 70% ethanol solvent and then fractionated into hexane, ethylacetate and butanol. Phytochemical screening was performed to determine the content of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and alumunium chloride colorimetric methods using gallic acid and quercetin as standards. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The results of phytochemical screening showed that the 70% ethanol extract of C. ledgeriana leaves contained alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. The total phenol and total flavonoids analysis showed that ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total phenol (40.23%) and total flavonoids (65.34%).

  18. Tiredness in daily activities among nondisabled old people as determinant of onset of disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Sakari-Rantala, Ritva

    2002-01-01

    in the follow-up study 5 years later (n = 510 and 429). Persons who felt tired in their daily activities had a larger risk of becoming disabled in mobility (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.4-7.6) and in daily activities (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.0-4.2) compared to persons without tiredness. In addition, persons with poor...... cognitive function, little diversity in social relations and no physical activity had an independent risk of onset of disability. The results indicate that it is important to take it seriously when older people complain about tiredness in daily activities, as these people are at higher risk of becoming...

  19. The evaluation of daily living activities, pressure sores and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın, Gökçen; Mucuk, Salime

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess daily living activities, pressure sores and risk factors. This was a descriptive study. The study was conducted at a rehabilitation center with 188 individuals participating in the study. Data were collected with a questionnaire form, Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADLS), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADLS) and Braden Risk Assessment Scale (BRAS). Among the participants, 48.9% were dependent according to activities of daily living and 71.8% were dependent on instrumental activities of daily living. It was noted that 4.8% had pressure sores and 38.8% were at high risk. A strong and positive correlation was found among ADLS, IADLS, and BRAS scores (p pressure sores (p pressure sores. Individuals who are treated at rehabilitation centers should be periodically assessed in terms of risk. Pressure sore development can be prevented with appropriate nursing interventions. To reduce the risk of developing pressure sores, nurses should describe the individual's degree of dependency according to ADLS and IADLS and initiate preventive nursing care. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  20. Correlation between Cognitive Functions and Activity of Daily Living among Post-Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan Prakoso

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive impairment is one of the most common post-stroke complications; however, neither patients nor health professionals are often aware of this complication. The impact of cognitive impairment on quality of life is reflected through basic activity daily living (bADL and instrumental activity daily living (IADL. Prior studies concerning the correlation between cognitive impairment and activity daily living has shown contradictive results. This study was conducted in order to analyze the correlation between the cognitive functions and activity daily living in post stroke patients at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out to 23 post-stroke patients from September–November 2015. Samples were collected through consecutive sampling at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital. Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE was used to assess the cognitive functions and Lawton and Brody Scale to assess both bADL and IADL. Spearman correlation was selected to analyze the existing correlation between each cognitive domain and activity daily living. Results: Spearman statistical correlation showed an insignificant correlation between the cognitive functions and bADL (r2=0.181, p=0.408 and a significant correlation with IADL was obtained (r2=0.517, p=0.03. The only cognitive domain positively correlated with IADL was orientation to time and verbal recall. Conclusions: There is a correlation between cognitive functions and IADL among post-stroke patients at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital.

  1. Changes in total carbohydrate and total antioxidant activity induced by gamma irradiation of wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manupriya, B.R.; Shenoy, K. Bhasker; Patil, Shrikant L.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat is a staple food grain in India after rice and occupies number one position in the world. The wheat crop not only gives food grains but also gives fodder for animals. Among many preservation methods irradiation is a current technique used to overcome infestation, contamination and spoilage of stored grains. The present study is aimed to check the changes in composition of irradiated wheat flour. Wheat flour was exposed to five different irradiation doses (0.25 KGy, 0.5KGy, 1KGy, 5KGy and 10 KGy) by using 60 Co gamma-irradiation chamber. Irradiated flour was stored in air sealed polyethylene pouch and plastic container at room temperature for different time intervals (0 th day, 1 month and 3 months). The stored flour was checked for total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdate method and total carbohydrates concentration by phenol-sulphuric acid method. On 0 th day total antioxidant activity and total carbohydrate concentration was found to be increased at 0.5KGy (0.113 mg/ml and 0.045 mg/ml respectively) when compared to control (0.79 mg/ml and 39.5 mg/ml). Similarly for 1 month stored samples of air sealed polyethylene pouch total antioxidant activity and total carbohydrate concentration was observed to be increased at 0.5KGy (0.117 mg/ml and 0.045mg/ml respectively) when compared to control (0.096 mg/ml and 0.035 mg/ml). But in case of stored samples of plastic container total antioxidant activity increased at 0.25KGy (0.060 mg/ml) and total carbohydrate increased at 5KGy (0.051 mg/ml). Increased and decreased values were found in both factors for 3 months stored samples of air sealed polyethylene pouch and plastic container. Total antioxidant activity increased at 5KGy (0.072 mg/ml) for polyethylene bag samples and at 0.5KGy (0.137 mg/ml) for plastic container sample. Same way total carbohydrate concentration increased at 0.25KGy (0.046 mg/ml) and at 1KGy (0.045 mg/ml) respectively. This increase is due to affects of γ-irradiation on biomolecules by

  2. Has the Alberta daily physical activity initiative been successfully implemented in Calgary schools?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, Christine Diane; Cantell, Marja; Dewey, Deborah

    INTRODUCTION: In September 2005, the Alberta government introduced the daily physical activity (DPA) initiative, which requires that students from grades 1 to 9 be physically active in school for a minimum of 30 min per day. OBJECTIVE: To obtain information on whether and how the DPA initiative has

  3. Quantifying daily physical activity and determinants in sedentary patients with Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dontje, M. L.; de Greef, M. H. G.; Speelman, A. D.; van Nimwegen, M.; Krijnen, W. P.; Stolk, R. P.; Kamsma, Y. P. T.; Munneke, M.; van der Schans, C. P.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although physical activity is beneficial for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, many do not meet the recommended levels. The range of physical activity among sedentary PD patients is unknown, as are factors that determine this variability. Hence, we aimed to (1) assess daily physical

  4. The Status of Daily Physical Activity in Northern Ontario's Elementary Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickwood, Greg

    2015-01-01

    The importance of daily physical activity (DPA) for children and youth is highlighted in Canada's Active Healthy Kids annual report on fitness. Since 2005, this report has revealed that elementary-aged students are spending most of their waking hours stationary, in front of screens (phones, televisions, computers). To counteract this trend, the…

  5. The dynamic relationship between daily activities, home environment, and identity when living with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærsk, Jesper Larsen

    The importance of daily activities and home to identity when living with advanced cancer Introduction Research within occupational science and gerontology has documented that being engaged in daily activities and having relational bonds to home are important to identity formation. For people living...... with advanced cancer in Denmark it is of priority to be able to live at home for as long as possible. For approximately 80% their home is the preferred place to die. Studies indicate home is the place where people with advanced cancer spent most of their day and are engaged in most of their daily activities...... with advanced cancer in Denmark may experience challenges to how they can form and express their identity through what they do and where they live. Objectives The purpose of this study is to generate knowledge about how people with advanced cancer through their words and actions express: • The importance...

  6. A daily analysis of physical activity and satisfaction with life in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P; Doerksen, Shawna E; Elavsky, Steriani; Hyde, Amanda L; Pincus, Aaron L; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E

    2013-06-01

    Subjective well-being has well-established positive health consequences. During emerging adulthood, from ages 18 to 25 years, people's global evaluations of their well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life [SWL]) appear to worsen more than any other time in the adult life span, indicating that this population would benefit from strategies to enhance SWL. In these studies, we investigated top-down (i.e., time-invariant, trait-like) and bottom-up (i.e., time-varying, state-like) influences of physical activity (PA) on daily SWL. Two daily diary studies lasting 8 days (N = 190) and 14 days (N = 63) were conducted with samples of emerging adults enrolled in college to evaluate relations between daily PA and SWL while controlling for established and plausible top-down and bottom-up influences on SWL. In both studies, multilevel models indicated that people reported greater SWL on days when they were more active (a within-person, bottom-up effect). Top-down effects of PA were not significant in either study. These findings were robust when we controlled for competing top-down influences (e.g., sex, personality traits, self-esteem, body mass index, mental health symptoms, fatigue) and bottom-up influences (e.g., daily self-esteem, daily mental health symptoms, daily fatigue). We concluded that SWL was impacted by people's daily PA rather than their trait level of PA over time. These findings extend evidence that PA is a health behavior with important consequences for daily well-being and should be considered when developing national policies to enhance SWL. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Association of Longitudinal Changes of Physical Activity on Smoking Cessation Among Young Daily Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Walker, Jerome F

    2016-01-01

    To our knowledge, no longitudinal epidemiological study among daily smokers has examined the effects of physical activity change/ trajectory on smoking cessation. The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal effects of changes in physical activity on smoking cessation among a national sample of young (16-24 y) daily smokers. Data from the 2003-2005 National Youth Smoking Cessation Survey were used (N = 1178). Using hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis, 5 distinct self-reported physical activity trajectories over 3 time periods (baseline, 12-month, and 24-month follow-up) were observed, including stable low physical activity, decreasing physical activity, curvilinear physical activity, stable high physical activity, and increasing physical activity. Nicotine dependence (Heaviness of Smoking Index) and demographic parameters were assessed via survey. With stable low physical activity (16.2% quit smoking) serving as the referent group, those in the stable high physical activity (24.8% quit smoking) group had 1.8 greater odds of not smoking at the 24-month follow-up period (odds ratio = 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.91) after adjusting for nicotine dependence, age, gender, race-ethnicity, and education. Maintenance of regular physical activity among young daily smokers may help to facilitate smoking cessation.

  8. Activities of daily living and quality of life across different stages of dementia: a UK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Clarissa M; Sutcliffe, Caroline; Challis, David

    2015-01-01

    People with dementia (PwD) require an increasing degree of assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs), and dependency may negatively impact on their well-being. However, it remains unclear which activities are impaired at each stage of dementia and to what extent this is associated with variations in quality of life (QoL) across the different stages, which were the two objectives of this study. The sample comprised 122 PwD, and their carers, either living at home or recently admitted to long-term care. Measures of cognition and QoL were completed by the PwD and proxy measures of psychopathology, depression, ADLs and QoL were recorded. Using frequency, correlation and multiple regression analysis, data were analysed for the number of ADL impairments across mild, moderate and severe dementia and for the factors impacting on QoL. ADL performance deteriorates differently for individual activities, with some ADLs showing impairment in mild dementia, including dressing, whereas others only deteriorate later on, including feeding. This decline may be seen in the degree to which carers perceive ADLs to explain the QoL of the PwD, with more ADLs associated with QoL in severe dementia. RESULTS of the regression analysis showed that total ADL performance however was only impacting on QoL in moderate dementia. Knowledge about performance deterioration in different ADLs has implications for designing interventions to address specific activities at different stages of the disease. Furthermore, findings suggest that different factors are important to consider when trying to improve or maintain QoL at different stages.

  9. Development, validity, and reliability of the General Activities of Daily Living Scale: a multidimensional measure of activities of daily living for older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas J. de Paula

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To propose and evaluate the psychometric properties of a multidimensional measure of activities of daily living (ADLs based on the Katz and Lawton indices for Alzheimer's disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: In this study, 85 patients with MCI and 93 with AD, stratified by age (≤ 74 years, > 74 years, completed the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Geriatric Depression Scale, and their caregivers completed scales for ADLs. Construct validity (factor analysis, reliability (internal consistency, and criterion-related validity (receiver operating characteristic analysis and logistic regression were assessed. Results: Three factors of ADL (self-care, domestic activities, and complex activities were identified and used for item reorganization and for the creation of a new inventory, called the General Activities of Daily Living Scale (GADL. The components showed good internal consistency (> 0.800 and moderate (younger participants or high (older participants accuracy for the distinction between MCI and AD. An additive effect was found between the GADL complex ADLs and global ADLs with the MMSE for the correct classification of younger patients. Conclusion: The GADL showed evidence of validity and reliability for the Brazilian elderly population. It may also play an important role in the differential diagnosis of MCI and AD.

  10. TOMS/Earth Probe Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data product contains TOMS/Earth Probe Total Column Ozone Daily L3 Global 1x1.25 deg Lat/Lon Grid Version 8 data in ASCII format. (The shortname for this...

  11. Pain mediates the association between physical activity and the impact of fibromyalgia on daily function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Masataka; Corbin, Lisa W; Maluf, Katrina S

    2015-01-01

    This study quantified the association between recreational physical activity and daily function in women with fibromyalgia, and determined if this association is mediated by symptoms of pain, depression, or body mass. Twenty-three women diagnosed with fibromyalgia participated in an observational survey study. Recreational physical activity and the impact of fibromyalgia on daily function were assessed using the sport and leisure time physical activity subscales of the Baecke Physical Activity Questionnaire (BPAQ) and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), respectively. Potential mediators of the association between physical activity and daily function were assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale for pain intensity (VAS-Pain), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and body mass index (BMI). BPAQ was inversely associated with FIQ (R (2) = 0.20) and VAS-Pain (R (2) = 0.39). VAS-Pain was positively associated with FIQ (R (2) = 0.23). The inverse association between BPAQ and FIQ was no longer significant after controlling for VAS-Pain. BDI was positively associated with FIQ (R (2) = 0.37), whereas BMI was not. BPAQ was not significantly associated with either BDI or BMI. These results indicate that the intensity of musculoskeletal pain, rather than depressive symptoms or body mass, mediates the association between physical activity and daily function among women with fibromyalgia.

  12. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRO M. TOZETTI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at describing daily and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and daily activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air temperature and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.

  13. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozetti, Alexandro M; Martins, Marcio

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed at describing daily and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado) in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and daily activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air temperature and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.

  14. Response of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of bush ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The positive health benefits associated with tea are made possible by the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds present in tea. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides DC.) and special tea (Monsonia burkeana) were studied. The extractions were done in triplicate using cold ...

  15. Direct and indirect effects of nutritional status, physical function and cognitive function on activities of daily living in Japanese older adults requiring long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamo, Tomohiko; Nishida, Yuusuke

    2014-10-01

    To identify the direct and indirect effects of nutritional status, physical function, and cognitive function on activities of daily living in Japanese older adults requiring long-term care. In total, 179 participants aged ≥ 65 years who were eligible for long-term care insurance (mean age 85.5 ± 7.8 years) were recruited for this study. Nutritional status (Mini Nutritional Assessment, Short Form) and physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery) were examined. Activities of daily living, cognitive function and frailty were assessed using the Barthel Index, Mini-Mental State Examination and Clinical Frailty Scale, respectively. Path analysis was used to determine relationships between these factors and the activities of daily living. For Japanese older adults requiring long-term care, pathways were modeled for nutritional status, physical function and the activities of daily living. The total effect of nutritional status was 0.516 (Pphysical function on the activities of daily living was 0.458 (Pphysical function in aged Japanese people requiring long-term care. These findings suggest that maintaining good nutritional status and nutritional support might delay physical function decline, and prolong the activities of daily living. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Daily portraits of five and six-year old boys: the play activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Bignardi da Silva Nunes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Daily life experiences provide maturity along human development, and the environments in which they occur are essential for this process. These experiences help to build children’s personalities and the way they deal with the world around them. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to understand the occupational behavior of four children aged five to six years old through their mothers’ reports. Methodology: The average time spent with daily activities is described, and playing was a central theme of analysis. We analyzed the preferences, companies and emotional characteristics of the play activity. We used an Activity Clock and semi-structured interviews with the children’s mothers as data collection instruments. Results: The main results show that most of their daily life time is spent with sleep, school and play activities. They indicate that children prefer games that challenge acquisitions that are under construction. Regarding company, these children still have their mothers as a reference to the play activity, but also peers their age or a little older. Conclusion: Play has an important representation in the daily occupational lives of these children and it stands as a key life experience to acquire skills and face challenges.

  17. Activities of daily living in children with hemiparesis: influence of cognitive abilities and motor competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Caroline; Rauchenzauner, Markus; Staudt, Martin; Berweck, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the article is to investigate whether motor competence and cognitive abilities influence the quality of performance of activities of daily living (ADL) in children with hemiparesis. Patients and A total of 20 children with hemiparesis (age, 6-12 years; 11 congenital, 9 acquired during childhood) were studied. Motor competence was assessed with the Assisting Hand Assessment, cognitive abilities with the German version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children IV, and the quality of ADL performance with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). The motor skills scale of the AMPS correlated with motor competence, and the process skills scale of the AMPS correlated with cognitive abilities. The quality of ADL performance is influenced not only by motor competence but also by the cognitive abilities of a hemiparetic child. This suggests that, in addition to motor-oriented training programs, an optimal therapy for hemiparetic children should also consider cognitive approaches. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Profiles of recreational activities of daily living (RADL) in patients with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Michael; Gehrke, G; Geiselmann, B

    2009-12-01

    Activities of daily living, play a key role in the measurement of functional health as defined by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and in prevention and treatment of mental or somatic illnesses. From a clinical context it is important to discriminate between basic "activities of daily living, ADL", "intentional activities of daily living, IADL", and "recreational activities of daily living, RADL". While ADL and IADL have gained much attention in dementia, the elderly, or severe somatic illnesses, there is a lack of research on RADL, which are important in depression, anxiety, or other neurotic disorders. 154 unselected inpatients of a department of behavioral and psychosomatic medicine filled in the "Check List of Recreational Activities" to assess the rates and profiles of RADL. Patients reported on average 19.3 (s.d. 7.0) activities (range 4 - 40), i.e. males 21.3 (s.d. 6.5, 9 - 34) and females 18.9 (s.d. 7.1, 4 - 40). Most frequent RADL were passive and unspecific activities like "watching tv" (93.4%). Least frequent were activities which need special skills or preparation like "horse back riding" (0.7%). Low rates were also found for activities which are in the centre of inpatient occupational therapy like "ceramics" (4.7%) or "silk-painting" (2.6%). There are differences between sexes but not in respect to age (18 to 60), sick leave and unemployment, or diagnostic status. When patients were asked what they would like to do in the future, the same activity profile emerged as when looking at what they had done in the last month The data give a reference profile for recreational activities, help to define what can be considered a normal frequency and spectrum of RADL, and, by this, can guide therapeutic interventions.

  19. The role of daily physical activity and nutritional status on bone turnover in cystic fibrosis: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Tejero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Nutritional status and daily physical activity (PA may be an excellent tool for the maintenance of bone health in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. Objective To evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, daily physical activity and bone turnover in cystic fibrosis patients. Method A cross-sectional study of adolescent and adult patients diagnosed with clinically stable cystic fibrosis was conducted. Total body, femoral neck, and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD were determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and bone metabolism markers ALP, P1NP, PICP, and ß-CrossLaps. PA monitoring was assessed for 5 consecutive days using a portable device. Exercise capacity was also determined. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and vitamin K were also determined in all participants. Results Fifty patients (median age: 24.4 years; range: 16-46 were included. BMI had positive correlation with all BMD parameters, with Spearman’s coefficients ranging from 0.31 to 0.47. Total hip bone mineral density and femoral neck BMD had positive correlation with the daily time spent on moderate PA (>4.8 metabolic equivalent-minutes/day; r=0.74, p7.2 metabolic equivalent-minutes/day; r=0.45 p<0.001, body mass index (r=0.44, p=0.001, and muscle mass in limbs (r=0.41, p=0.004. Levels of carboxy-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen were positively associated with the daily time spent on moderate (r=0.33 p=0.023 and vigorous PA (r=0.53, p<0.001. Conclusions BMI and the daily time spent on moderate PA were found to be correlated with femoral neck BMD in CF patients. The association between daily PA and biochemical markers of bone formation suggests that the level of daily PA may be linked to bone health in this patient group. Further research is needed to confirm these findings.

  20. Investigating Elementary School Children's Daily Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors during Weekdays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Chen, Senlin; Huang, Chaoqun; Stodden, David F.; Xiang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to quantify the contributions of physical education, exergaming (active video games that also are a type of exercise), recess, lunch break and after-school time segments to children's daily physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Methods Participants were 138 second and third graders (71 girls) who attended 20-minute recess and 75-minute lunch time daily, 25-minute regular physical education or exergaming-based classes being alternated daily. The after-school period was defined as 3:20-10:00pm. Physical activity was assessed via accelerometry and the dependent variables were children's time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Results Children's percentages of time spent in MVPA (p < .001; except for the difference between exergaming and lunch break: p = .63), light physical activity (p < .001), and sedentary behavior (p < .001) differed significantly across the time segments (i.e., physical education/exergaming, recess, lunch break, and after-school). Additionally, children accumulated significantly more MVPA (t = 10.22, p < .001) but less light physical activity (t = -3.17, p = .002) and sedentary behavior (t = -3.91, p < .001) in physical education than in exergaming. Conclusions Overall, physical education was more effective in generating MVPA than other segments over the school day. The after-school segment holds potential as an avenue for promoting children's MVPA, as this long period could be better utilized to organize structured physical activity. PMID:26950823

  1. Betel quid chewing as a source of manganese exposure: total daily intake of manganese in a Bangladeshi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W; Jenkins, Richard O; Haris, Parvez I

    2011-02-07

    A relationship between betel quid chewing in Bangladeshi populations and the development of skin lesions and tremor has been previously reported, for people exposed to high levels of arsenic (As) through drinking contaminated groundwater. Exposure to manganese (Mn) is also known to induce neurotoxicity and levels of Mn in Bangladeshi groundwater are also high. The present study evaluates betel quid chewing as an overlooked source of Mn exposure in a Bangladeshi population. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine (1) urinary Mn levels for 15 chewers and 22 non-chewers from the ethnic Bangladeshi community in the United Kingdom, and (2) Mn levels in betel quids, its individual components and other Bangladeshi foods. Betel quid chewers displayed a significantly higher (P = 0.009) mean Mn concentration in urine (1.93 μg L(-1)) compared to non-chewers (0.62 μg L(-1)). High levels of Mn were detected in Piper betel leaves with an overall average of 135 mg kg(-1) (range 26 -518 mg kg(-1)). The mean concentration of Mn in betel quid was 41 mg kg(-1) (SD 27) and the daily intake of Mn in the Bangladeshi population was estimated to be 20.3 mg/day. Chewing six betel quids could contribute up to 18% of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn. We have demonstrated that Mn in betel quids is an overlooked source of exposure to Mn in humans. Chewers display a 3.1 fold increased urinary Mn concentration compared to non-chewers. The practice of betel quid chewing contributes a high proportion of the maximum recommended daily intake of Mn, which could make chewers in Bangladesh more vulnerable to Mn neurotoxicity.

  2. The Daily Movement Pattern and Fulfilment of Physical Activity Recommendations in Swedish Middle-Aged Adults: The SCAPIS Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Ekblom-Bak

    Full Text Available Different aspects of the daily movement pattern--sitting, light intensity physical activity, and moderate- and vigorous intensity physical activity--have each independently been associated with health and longevity. Previous knowledge of the amount and distribution of these aspects in the general Swedish population, as well as the fulfilment rate of physical activity recommendations, mainly relies on self-reported data. More detailed data assessed with objective methods is needed. The aim of the study was to present descriptive data on the daily movement pattern in a middle-aged Swedish population assessed by hip-worn accelerometers. The cohort consisted of 948 participants (51% women, aged 50 to 64 years, from the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage pilot Study. In the total sample, 60.5% of accelerometer wear time was spent sitting, 35.2% in light physical activity and 3.9% in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Men and participants with high educational level spent a larger proportion of time sitting, compared to women and participants with low educational level. Men and participants with a high educational level spent more time, and the oldest age-group spent less time, in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Only 7.1% of the study population met the current national physical activity recommendations, with no gender, age or education level differences. Assessment of all three components of the daily movement pattern is of high clinical relevance and should be included in future research. As the fulfilment of national physical activity recommendations is very low and sitting time is very high in our middle-aged population, the great challenge remains to enhance the implementation of methods to increase the level of physical activity in this population.

  3. Disability, Activities of Daily Living and Self Efficacy in Dialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukadder Mollaoglu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess patients’ disability, activities of daily living and self-efficacy patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD and continuos ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD, to examine the relationship between them. Material and Methods: This study was carried with 152 patients as sample group. In this study, three instruments were used: Personal Information Form, Brief Disability Questionnaire, Katz\\'s Activity\\'s of Daily Living Index and Lawton and Brody\\'s Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Index and Self-efficacy Assessment Form. Data collected from the study was analyzed using percent, mean, Tukey test, significance test of two means, One-way variant analysis and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The study results demonstrate that while there is a correlation between self-care ability and age, education level, marital status and additional health problems, factors such as age, gender, education level, work status, income level, social insurance status and frequency of hemodialysis application determine self-efficacy. Furthermore, a negative correlation was found between patients’ disability and activities of daily living , self-efficacy. It was determined that as the level of disability increases self-efficiacy level decreases. Conclusions: Dialysis application affects patients’ disability, activities of daily living and self-efficacy levels. In view of this study’s results, it is recommended to organize education programs to increase self-efficacy levels of dialysis patients and prepare comprehensive plans including patients’ families. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 181-186

  4. Cigarette Smoking and Activities of Daily Living in Ocular Myasthenia Gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Sean M; Herro, Angela M; Feuer, William J; Lam, Byron L

    2016-03-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction, commonly affecting the ocular muscles. Cigarette smoking has been shown to influence many autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, but its effect on myasthenia gravis has not been well studied. We sought to determine whether cigarette smoking influenced disease-related symptoms in ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG). We performed a prospective, clinic-based cross-sectional study in a single academic neuro-ophthalmology practice. All patients diagnosed with OMG between November 2006 and April 2014 were included. A prospective telephone survey was administered to determine smoking status and myasthenia gravis-related symptom severity. The main outcome measure was the myasthenia gravis-specific activities of daily living (MG-ADL) score, a well-validated marker of symptoms and quality of life in myasthenia gravis. Forty-four patients were included in the analysis. Comparison of MG-ADL ocular subscores between current smokers (3.4 ± 2.6), former smokers (1.8 ± 2.1), and never smokers (1.1 ± 1.5) revealed a statistically significant relationship (P = 0.031) where current smokers had the highest MG-ADL ocular subscores and never smokers the lowest. Comparison of MG-ADL total scores revealed the same relationship (current 5.6 ± 4.5, former 2.9 ± 3.1, never 1.4 ± 2.5, P = 0.003). There were borderline significant correlations of pack years with MG-ADL ocular subscore (r = 0.27, P = 0.074) and MG-ADL total score (r = 0.30, P = 0.051). Our findings indicate an association between cigarette smoking and symptom severity in OMG. This association suggests that smoking cessation in OMG patients may lead to improved symptom-related quality of life.

  5. Domains of Daily Physical Activity in Children with Mitochondrial Disease: A 3D Accelerometry Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, S.; Dirks, I.; Mierlo, E. van; Vries, P.R. de; Janssen, A.J.W.M.; Smeitink, J.; Bergsma, A.; Essers, H.; Meijer, K.; Groot, I.J.M. de

    2017-01-01

    Feasible, sensitive and clinically relevant outcome measures are of extreme importance when designing clinical trials. For paediatric mitochondrial disease, no robust end point has been described to date. The aim of this study was to select the domains of daily physical activity, which can be

  6. Mild cognitive impairment and deficits in instrumental activities of daily living: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jekel, K.; Damian, M.; Wattmo, C.; Hausner, L.; Bullock, R.; Connelly, P.J.; Dubois, B.; Eriksdotter, M.; Ewers, M.; Graessel, E.; Kramberger, M.G.; Law, E.; Mecocci, P.; Molinuevo, J.L.; Nygard, L.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Orgogozo, J.M.; Pasquier, F.; Peres, K.; Salmon, E.; Sikkes, S.A.; Sobow, T.; Spiegel, R.; Tsolaki, M.; Winblad, B.; Frolich, L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a growing body of evidence that subtle deficits in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) may be present in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it is not clear if there are IADL domains that are consistently affected across patients with MCI. In this systematic

  7. Daily recovery from work: the role of activities, effort and pleasure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooff, M.L.M.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Beckers, D.G.J.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the cycle of work and recovery is crucial for protecting employee health and well-being and preserving working capabilities. However, the daily process of effort and recovery is not well understood. This study investigated how the time spent on activities in the work and off-job

  8. Daily dynamics of cellulase activity in arable soils depending on management practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semenov, A.M.; Zelenev, V.V.; Chzhun, Yu; Semenova, E.V.; Semenov, V.M.; Namsaraev, B.B.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2009-01-01

    The daily dynamics of cellulase activity was studied during 27 days by the cellophane membrane method on soils managed using the conventional high-input farming system (application of mineral fertilizers and pesticides) and the biological conservation farming system (application of organic

  9. Accelerometer-measured daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake ([Vdot]O(2PEAK)) is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. While a positive relationship between daily physical activity and aerobic fitness has been established in adults, the relationship appears less clear in children and adolescents...

  10. Functional decline from age 80 to 85: Influence of preceding changes in tiredness in daily activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, K.; Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Schroll, M.

    2003-01-01

    County. Tiredness in daily activities was measured at age 75 and 80 by a validated scale. Changes in tiredness from age 75 to 80: 1) Sustained no tiredness, 2) not tired-tired, 3) tired-not tired, 4) sustained tiredness. Functional decline from age 80 to 85:1) Sustained no need of help; 2) need of help...

  11. Effects of V4c-ICL Implantation on Myopic Patients’ Vision-Related Daily Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taixiang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The new type implantable Collamer lens with a central hole (V4c-ICL is widely used to treat myopia. However, halos occur in some patients after surgery. The aim is to evaluate the effect of V4c-ICL implantation on vision-related daily activities. This retrospective study included 42 patients. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, intraocular pressure (IOP, endothelial cell density (ECD, and vault were recorded and vision-related daily activities were evaluated at 3 months after operation. The average spherical equivalent was -0.12±0.33 D at 3 months after operation. UCVA equal to or better than preoperative BCVA occurred in 98% of eyes. The average BCVA at 3 months after operation was -0.03±0.07 LogMAR, which was significantly better than preoperative BCVA (0.08±0.10 LogMAR (P=0.029. Apart from one patient (2.4% who had difficulty reading computer screens, all patients had satisfactory or very satisfactory results. During the early postoperation, halos occurred in 23 patients (54.8%. However there were no significant differences in the scores of visual functions between patients with and without halos (P>0.05. Patients were very satisfied with their vision-related daily activities at 3 months after operation. The central hole of V4c-ICL does not affect patients’ vision-related daily activities.

  12. Strategies of Daily Living Rehabilitative Activities for Post Stroke Patients at Minia University Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaky, Hend Elham Mohamed; EL-Lateef Mohammad, Zienab Abd; EL-Labban, Abdou Saad Taha; Ahmed, Gahen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stroke is a leading cause of disability. Rehabilitation aims to hasten and maximize recovery from stroke by treating the disabilities caused by the stroke. Therefore, the aim of this study determine the post stroke patients' knowledge and practices in relation to disease and activities of daily living before the implementation of…

  13. Impact of spinal pain on daily living activities in postmenopausal women working in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Raczkiewicz

    2017-03-01

    The impact of spinal pain on daily life activities in postmenopausal women working in agriculture was assessed as moderate, on average, and depended mainly on spinal pain-related characteristics, such as severity, age at onset and co-existence of pain in any other spinal sections

  14. Discrepancy between functional exercise capacity and daily physical activity: a cross-sectional study in patients with mild to moderate COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastenau, Annemieke; van Schayck, Onno C P; Gosselink, Rik; Aretz, Karin C P M; Muris, Jean W M

    2013-12-01

    In patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) the six-minute walk distance reflects the functional exercise level for daily physical activity. It is unknown if this also applies to patients with mild to moderate COPD in primary care. To assess the relationship between functional exercise capacity and physical activity in patients with mild to moderate COPD. A cross-sectional study was performed in 51 patients with mild to moderate COPD in primary care. Functional exercise capacity was assessed by the six-minute walk test and physical activity was measured with an accelerometer-based activity monitor. Functional exercise capacity was close to normal values. However, the daily physical activity of the patients could be classified as 'sedentary' and 'low active'. No significant correlations were observed between six-minute walk distance (% predicted) and any of the physical activity variables (steps per day, movement intensity during walking, total active time, total walking time, physical activity level, and time spent in moderate physical activity). A discrepancy was found between functional exercise capacity and daily physical activity in patients with mild to moderate COPD recruited and assessed in primary care. We conclude that these variables represent two different concepts. Our results reinforce the importance of measuring daily physical activity in order to fine-tune treatment (i.e. focusing on enhancement of exercise capacity or behavioural change, or both).

  15. Review of revised Klamath River Total Maximum Daily Load models from Link River Dam to Keno Dam, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Sullivan, Annett B.

    2013-01-01

    Flow and water-quality models are being used to support the development of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) plans for the Klamath River downstream of Upper Klamath Lake (UKL) in south-central Oregon. For riverine reaches, the RMA-2 and RMA-11 models were used, whereas the CE-QUAL-W2 model was used to simulate pooled reaches. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was asked to review the most upstream of these models, from Link River Dam at the outlet of UKL downstream through the first pooled reach of the Klamath River from Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam. Previous versions of these models were reviewed in 2009 by USGS. Since that time, important revisions were made to correct several problems and address other issues. This review documents an assessment of the revised models, with emphasis on the model revisions and any remaining issues. The primary focus of this review is the 19.7-mile Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam reach of the Klamath River that was simulated with the CE-QUAL-W2 model. Water spends far more time in the Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam reach than in the 1-mile Link River reach that connects UKL to the Klamath River, and most of the critical reactions affecting water quality upstream of Keno Dam occur in that pooled reach. This model review includes assessments of years 2000 and 2002 current conditions scenarios, which were used to calibrate the model, as well as a natural conditions scenario that was used as the reference condition for the TMDL and was based on the 2000 flow conditions. The natural conditions scenario included the removal of Keno Dam, restoration of the Keno reef (a shallow spot that was removed when the dam was built), removal of all point-source inputs, and derivation of upstream boundary water-quality inputs from a previously developed UKL TMDL model. This review examined the details of the models, including model algorithms, parameter values, and boundary conditions; the review did not assess the draft Klamath River TMDL or the TMDL allocations

  16. Detection of Early Morning Daily Activities with Static Home and Wearable Wireless Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vanderpool

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a flexible, cost-effective, wireless in-home activity monitoring system for assisting patients with cognitive impairments due to traumatic brain injury (TBI. The system locates the subject with fixed home sensors and classifies early morning bathroom activities of daily living with a wearable wireless accelerometer. The system extracts time- and frequency-domain features from the accelerometer data and classifies these features with a hybrid classifier that combines Gaussian mixture models and a finite state machine. In particular, the paper establishes that despite similarities between early morning bathroom activities of daily living, it is possible to detect and classify these activities with high accuracy. It also discusses system training and provides data to show that with proper feature selection, accurate detection and classification are possible for any subject with no subject specific training.

  17. Association between body mass index and activities of daily living in homecare patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Guzin Zeren; Egici, Memet Taskın; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain; Toprak, Dilek

    2017-01-01

    Overweight or obesity may cause many chronic illnesses. Furthermore, several studies have shown that high body mass index is associated with mortality and morbidity among the elderly. Therefore, obesity or being overweight could adversely affect the performance of activities of daily living. In this study our aim was to investigate the association between Body Mass Index and Activity of Daily Living in Homecare Patients. The records of 2016 from the homecare unit of Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Training and Research Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. During this period, 1105 patients visited this facility. Unconscious or bedridden patients (hemiplegia, hemiparesia, and tetraparesis) and patients with incomplete data were excluded from the study. Therefore, the survey was completed with 250 files, which included all the data needed for our research. Age, gender, Body Mass Index and Barthel Index scores were recorded to the statistical program; p≤0.05 was considered as statistically significant. One hundred fifty one (60.4%) were women, and 99 (39.6%) were men. The relations between gender and age, weight, and Barthel index scores were not statistically significant. There was a significant positive correlation between weight and Barthel index scores as well as between Body Mass Index and Barthel index scores (r = 0.190; p = 0.003). The patients were divided into two groups: Group-I (underweight and normal weight) and Group-II (overweight and obese). Group-II exhibited a much higher ability to perform Activity of Daily Living than Group-I (p = 0.002). Some studies report that obesity is protective against Activity of Daily Living, but the opposite is reported in some others. Our study showed increased values of Body Mass Index and Activity of Daily Living ability, which are indicative of protective effects. The relationship between Body Mass Index and physical disability is not yet proven to be linear.

  18. Disability in instrumental activities of daily living among older adults: gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago da Silva Alexandre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze gender differences in the incidence and determinants of disability regarding instrumental activities of daily living among older adults. METHODS The data were extracted from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Wellbeing and Ageing study. In 2000, 1,034 older adults without difficulty in regarding instrumental activities of daily living were selected. The following characteristics were evaluated at the baseline: sociodemographic and behavioral variables, health status, falls, fractures, hospitalizations, depressive symptoms, cognition, strength, mobility, balance and perception of vision and hearing. Instrumental activities of daily living such as shopping and managing own money and medication, using transportation and using the telephone were reassessed in 2006, with incident cases of disability considered as the outcome. RESULTS The incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living was 44.7/1,000 person/years for women and 25.2/1,000 person/years for men. The incidence rate ratio between women and men was 1.77 (95%CI 1.75;1.80. After controlling for socioeconomic status and clinical conditions, the incidence rate ratio was 1.81 (95%CI 1.77;1.84, demonstrating that women with chronic disease and greater social vulnerability have a greater incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living. The following were determinants of the incidence of disability: age ≥ 80 and worse perception of hearing in both genders; stroke in men; and being aged 70 to 79 in women. Better cognitive performance was a protective factor in both genders and better balance was a protective factor in women. CONCLUSIONS The higher incidence density of disability in older women remained even after controlling for adverse social and clinical conditions. In addition to age, poorer cognitive performance and conditions that adversely affect communication disable both genders. Acute events

  19. Subjective memory complaints, depressive symptoms and instrumental activities of daily living in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Sang Bong; Kim, Tae Woo; Lee, Taek Jun

    2016-03-01

    The diagnostic relevance of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains to be unresolved. The aim of this study is to determine clinical correlates of SMCs in MCI. Furthermore, we examined whether there are the differences due to different aspects of complaints (i.e. prospective memory (PM) versus retrospective memory (RM) complaints). We examined the cross-sectional associations between SMCs and depressive symptoms, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and cognitive measures in sixty-six individuals with MCI (mean age: 65.7 ± 8.01 years). The criteria for MCI included SMCs, objective cognitive impairment, normal general cognitive function, largely intact functional activities, and absence of dementia. SMCs were assessed using the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), which contains 16 items describing everyday memory failure of both PM and RM. SMC severity (i.e. PRMQ total score) was associated with stronger depressive symptoms and worse IADL performance. SMCs were not related to cognitive measures. For PM and RM subscores, both depressive symptoms and IADL were related to the PRMQ-PM and -RM scores. The main contributors to these PM and RM scores were depressive symptoms and IADL impairment, respectively. This study suggests that SMCs are more associated with depressive symptoms and IADL problems than with cognitive performance in individuals with MCI. Furthermore, while PM and RM complaints are related to both depressive symptoms and IADL, the differences between these main contributors suggest that RM complaints based on IADL could be more associated with the organically driven pathological features of MCI.

  20. Relation of Depression with the Outonomy Elderly Into Activity Life of Daily Living at Timbangan Indralaya

    OpenAIRE

    Muharyani, Putri Widita

    2010-01-01

    Background : Depression is considered as dangeousr for a psychological and physical health, because it was causing for a function discharge of kognitif, emosional and productivities, especially unautonomy of elderly into fill activities life in everytime. This research is done to know the relation of depression with the autonomy into activity of daily Lliving at Kelurahan Timbangan Indralaya. Method : The method was using into this research it was from the analytic of desain Cross Sectional a...

  1. Health smart home for elders - a tool for automatic recognition of activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Xuan Hoa Binh; Di Mascolo, Maria; Gouin, Alexia; Noury, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Elders live preferently in their own home, but with aging comes the loss of autonomy and associated risks. In order to help them live longer in safe conditions, we need a tool to automatically detect their loss of autonomy by assessing the degree of performance of activities of daily living. This article presents an approach enabling the activities recognition of an elder living alone in a home equipped with noninvasive sensors.

  2. Effect of the long-term care prevention project on the motor functions and daily life activities of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihiro; Sakuraba, Keisyoku; Kubota, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of the long-term care prevention project and develop an effective program. [Subjects] A total of 81 elderly people (age, 79 ± 5.1 years; height, 149.2 ± 9.2 cm; weight, 54.2 ± 11.4 kg). [Methods] Grip, knee extension muscular strength, 10 m walking speed, and Timed Up and Go time were measured for evaluation of motor functions, and the "Locomo 25", a 25-question risk assessment questionnaire, was used as the judgment criterion for evaluation of daily life activities, with measurements being taken at the beginning of the project and after three months. [Results] In the motor functions evaluation, significant differences were observed in 10 m walking speed, Timed Up and Go time, and knee extension strength. In the daily life activities evaluation, scores for pain, rising movement, standing movement, indoor walking, outdoor walking, and fear of falling were significantly reduced. In addition, a significant correlation was also observed between motor functions and daily life activities. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicated that the long-term care prevention project is effective in maintaining or improving muscular strength and mitigating pain in the elderly and that it is an effective program for maintaining daily life activities. We were also able to show that it would be effective to develop programs with a low exercise intensity that can be performed on a continuing by the elderly.

  3. Modeling and Predicting the Daily Equatorial Plasma Bubble Activity Using the Tiegcm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. A.; Retterer, J. M.; Yizengaw, E.; Wiens, K. C.; Wing, S.; Groves, K. M.; Caton, R. G.; Bridgwood, C.; Francis, M. J.; Terkildsen, M. B.; Norman, R.; Zhang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Describing and understanding the daily variability of Equatorial Plasma Bubble (EPB) occurrence has remained a significant challenge over recent decades. In this study we use the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIEGCM), which is driven by solar (F10.7) and geomagnetic (Kp) activity indices, to study daily variations of the linear Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability growth rate in relation to the measured scintillation strength at five longitudinally distributed stations. For locations characterized by generally favorable conditions for EPB growth (i.e., within the scintillation season for that location) we find that the TIEGCM is capable of identifying days when EPB development, determined from the calculated R-T growth rate, is suppressed as a result of geomagnetic activity. Both observed and modeled upward plasma drift indicate that the pre-reversal enhancement scales linearly with Kp from several hours prior, from which it is concluded that even small Kp changes cause significant variations in daily EPB growth. This control of Kp variations on EPB growth prompted an investigation into the use of predicted Kp values from the Wing Kp model over a 2-month equinoctial campaign in 2014. It is found that both the 1-hr and 4-hr predicted Kp values can be reliably used as inputs into the TIEGCM to forecast the EPB growth conditions during scintillation season, when daily EPB variability is governed by the suppression of EPBs on days with increased, but not necessarily high, geomagnetic activity.

  4. 75 FR 43160 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Final Agency Action on One Arkansas Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... taking final agency action on the following TMDL for waters located within the State of Arkansas: Segment-reach Waterbody name Pollutant 11070208-901 Town Branch..... Total Phosphorus. EPA requested the public...

  5. Evolution of Daily Activity Patterns from 1971 to 1981: A Study of the Halifax Activity Panel Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Harvey

    2001-12-01

    similarity measures between character strings, which can be used to measure the similarity of two persons’ daily activities, to measure change over time, or to determine the relative similarity of three or more activity diaries. The results of the research showed that both pure activities and activity-settings identified broadly the same behvioural groupings: employed workers, domestic workers, and weekend activities. The similarity of activity patterns of individuals was greater over the ten-year analysis period than the average similarity of the sample in either 1971 or 1981. The average similarity of activity and activitysetting patterns rose from 1971 to 1981, which contradicts observations that daily routines are becoming more complex and diverse.

  6. Cytotoxicity, Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Annona muricata were extracted using ethanol and the extracts were evaluated for cytotoxicity using Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging assay. The crude extract showed 73.33 % mortality at 1000 μg/mL concentration and its ...

  7. Study on Total Quality Management Activities in Taiwan Tourism Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chan Chung

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As competition becomes increasingly fierce, how to integrate the concept of information technology involvement into total quality management activities and better serve the customers, thus increasing the effectiveness of their services, has become an important focus for many tourism factories in their selection of an appropriate operational strategy. With the tourism factories in Taiwan as the subjects, this study was therefore set out to investigate the impact of operational strategies, information technology involvement and motivation on the executive degree of total quality management (TQM activities, as well as the correlation between the executive degree of TQM activities and operational performance. This research was conducted from March to April 2016 using 56 effective questionnaires through a questionnaire survey method. According to the research findings, the higher the executive degree of TQM activities was, the more significant a positive impact it would have on operational performance; the execution of differentiation strategies would have a positive impact on the execution of TQM activities; the more a company was involved in information technology, the more significant a positive impact it would have on the execution of TQM activities; the higher the intrinsic motivation was, the more significant a positive impact it would have on the executive degrees of TQM activities. It is therefore advisable for tourism factories to implement TQM activities, adopt differentiation strategies, seek greater information technology involvement and become more strongly motivated toward TQM implementation in order to improve operational performance.

  8. Using Smartphones to Help People with Intellectual and Sensory Disabilities Perform Daily Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio E. Lancioni

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPeople with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability and sensory impairments often fail to take initiative in starting and carrying out daily activities, with negative consequences for their occupational condition and social status. Their failure seems due to their inability to determine the right time for the activities and to remember all the activity steps.AimThis study assessed a smartphone intervention, which was designed to help eight participants (four presenting with intellectual disability and blindness and four presenting with intellectual disability and hearing impairment to independently start and carry out daily activities at appropriate times.MethodThe intervention was introduced according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants. During the intervention, each participant was provided with a smartphone, which was fitted with the time schedule of his or her activities and the verbal or pictorial instructions for the single steps of those activities. When the time for an activity was reached, the participant was automatically reminded to start that activity and, thereafter, he or she was presented with the instructions for it.ResultsThe use of the smartphone intervention promoted great improvement over the baseline for all participants. That is, the participants managed to (a independently start the activities at the scheduled times and (b carry out those activities with high levels of accuracy.ConclusionA smartphone intervention, such as that used in this study, may help people with mild-to-moderate intellectual disability and sensory impairments to successfully engage in daily activities.

  9. Daily activities and breathing parameters for use in respiratory tract dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.; Courtay, C.

    1991-01-01

    Dosimetry of inhaled substances is based on the air volumes breathed every day by people under exposure to gases and aerosols. In order to assess modern standards for average inspired air volumes according to age and gender, information was recorded on daily activities and breathing rates both indoors and outdoors, of specific categories of the population. Economic surveys recently published provided time budgets and activities of adults, teenagers and children. The data were matched with published data on physical activities and breathing parameters in order to calculate the daily inspired volumes of air. The results were given for adults (age > 17 years), neonates, and children 1, 5, 10 and 15 years old. The values obtained are close to those published by the Internal Commission for Radiological Protection and the reports of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. (author)

  10. Robust Sounds of Activities of Daily Living Classification in Two-Channel Audio-Based Telemonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maunder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in the area of home telemonitoring, the challenge of automatically detecting the sound signatures of activities of daily living of an elderly patient using nonintrusive and reliable methods remains. This paper investigates the classification of eight typical sounds of daily life from arbitrarily positioned two-microphone sensors under realistic noisy conditions. In particular, the role of several source separation and sound activity detection methods is considered. Evaluations on a new four-microphone database collected under four realistic noise conditions reveal that effective sound activity detection can produce significant gains in classification accuracy and that further gains can be made using source separation methods based on independent component analysis. Encouragingly, the results show that recognition accuracies in the range 70%–100% can be consistently obtained using different microphone-pair positions, under all but the most severe noise conditions.

  11. Aerobic Capacity, Activity Levels and Daily Energy Expenditure in Male and Female Adolescents of the Kenyan Nandi Sub-Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R Gibson

    Full Text Available The relative importance of genetic and socio-cultural influences contributing to the success of east Africans in endurance athletics remains unknown in part because the pre-training phenotype of this population remains incompletely assessed. Here cardiopulmonary fitness, physical activity levels, distance travelled to school and daily energy expenditure in 15 habitually active male (13.9±1.6 years and 15 habitually active female (13.9±1.2 adolescents from a rural Nandi primary school are assessed. Aerobic capacity ([Formula: see text] was evaluated during two maximal discontinuous incremental exercise tests; physical activity using accelerometry combined with a global positioning system; and energy expenditure using the doubly labelled water method. The [Formula: see text] of the male and female adolescents were 73.9±5.7 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1 and 61.5±6.3 ml(. kg(-1. min(-1, respectively. Total time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous physical activities per day was 406±63 min (50% of total monitored time, 244±56 min (30%, 75±18 min (9% and 82±30 min (10%. Average total daily distance travelled to and from school was 7.5±3.0 km (0.8-13.4 km. Mean daily energy expenditure, activity-induced energy expenditure and physical activity level was 12.2±3.4 MJ(. day(-1, 5.4±3.0 MJ(. day(-1 and 2.2±0.6. 70.6% of the variation in [Formula: see text] was explained by sex (partial R(2 = 54.7% and body mass index (partial R(2 = 15.9%. Energy expenditure and physical activity variables did not predict variation in [Formula: see text] once sex had been accounted for. The highly active and energy-demanding lifestyle of rural Kenyan adolescents may account for their exceptional aerobic fitness and collectively prime them for later training and athletic success.

  12. [Functional deterioration of basic daily living activities after an emergency service consultation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Rodríguez, J; Varela Suárez, C; Alonso Alvarez, M; Solano Jaurrieta, J J

    2000-05-01

    To determine the incidence of functional decline of elderly patients discharged from an emergency department and to analized functional impairment as a risk of readmission. A prospective cohort aged 75 or older were followed up after discharge from an emergency department between 01-02-95 and 01-04-95. The study protocol included sociodemografics, clinicals, functionals and mentalsoutcomes. We studied the incidence of functional decline in basic activities of daily living, with Barthel Index, and association with the risk of readmission. The sample was composed by 125 elders (mean aged 81.9 +/- 4.6 years and 60.8% were women). The incidence of functional decline in basic activities of daily living at the visit to emergency department was 20.8% and one moth after discharge was 18.4%. Both activities with more functional impairment were bathing, dressing and movility activities. Functional decline was associated with the risk of readmission at emergency department (Odds Ratio = 4.1 [1.4-11.8]) 20% of patients who are discharged of emergency department present a new functional impairment in basics activities of daily living. Functional decline is associated with the risk of readmission one moth after discharged.

  13. Prediction of Optimal Daily Step Count Achievement from Segmented School Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D. Burns

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing physical activity in childhood is needed for prevention of disease and for healthy social and psychological development. There is limited research examining how segmented school physical activity patterns relate to a child achieving optimal physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive relationship between step counts during specific school segments and achieving optimal school (6,000 steps/day and daily (12,000 steps/day step counts in children. Participants included 1,714 school-aged children (mean age = 9.7±1.0 years recruited across six elementary schools. Physical activity was monitored for one week using pedometers. Generalized linear mixed effects models were used to determine the adjusted odds ratios (ORs of achieving both school and daily step count standards for every 1,000 steps taken during each school segment. The school segment that related in strongest way to a student achieving 6,000 steps during school hours was afternoon recess (OR = 40.03; P<0.001 and for achieving 12,000 steps for the entire day was lunch recess (OR = 5.03; P<0.001. School segments including lunch and afternoon recess play an important role for optimizing daily physical activity in children.

  14. Wrist activity in a woman: daily, weekly, menstrual, lunar, annual cycles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, S

    1992-09-01

    Wrist activity was monitored continuously for one year in a woman who went about her normal life. The year of data were analyzed for changes and rhythms--daily, weekly, menstrual, lunar, annual. For each day, average motions/5 minutes, activity onset, activity offset, alpha (duration of activity), and acrophase were measured. Periodograms and average daily wave forms were calculated. Well-defined, entrained, daily rest-activity cycles were observed throughout the year with periods close to 24 hours. There was weekend delay (0.7 hours) in onset, weekend decrease in alpha (1.0 hours), and weekend advance of acrophase (0.4 hours). Motions/5 minutes decreased 9%, onsets were 0.3 hours later, and alphas were 0.4 hours shorter on menstrual cycle days 8 through 18 which should have encompassed the time of ovulation. Lunar phase had no effect. Annual changes in onset (1.1 hours), offset (1.2 hours), and acrophase (1.1 hours) were attributed to the 1-hour change between standard and daylight savings time.

  15. Joint association of physical activity in leisure and total sitting time with metabolic syndrome amongst 15,235 Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Nielsen, Asser Jon; Bauman, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    and total daily sitting time were assessed by self-report in 15,235 men and women in the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Associations between leisure time physical activity, total sitting time and metabolic syndrome were investigated in logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Adjusted odds ratios......BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that physical inactivity as well as sitting time are associated with metabolic syndrome. Our aim was to examine joint associations of leisure time physical activity and total daily sitting time with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Leisure time physical activity...... (OR) for metabolic syndrome were 2.14 (95% CI: 1.88-2.43) amongst participants who were inactive in leisure time compared to the most active, and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.26-1.61) amongst those who sat for ≥10h/day compared to physical activity, sitting time...

  16. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  17. Physical activity and affect in elementary school children’s daily lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eKühnhausen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A positive influence of physical activity (PA on affect has been shown in numerous studies. However, this relationship has not yet been studied in the daily life of children. We present a part of the FLUX study that attempts to contribute to filling that gap. To this end, a proper way to measure PA and affect in the daily life of children is needed. In pre-studies of the FLUX study, we were able to show that affect can be measured in children with self-report items that are answered using smartphones. In the current article, we show that it is feasible to objectively measure children’s PA with accelerometers for a period of several weeks and report descriptive information on the amount of activity of 51 children from 3rd and 4th grade. Additionally, we investigate the influence of daily PA on daily affect in children. Mixed effects models show no effect of PA on any of the four measured dimensions of affect. We discuss that this might be due to effects taking place at shorter time intervals, which can be investigated in future analyses.

  18. The effects of feeding time on milk production, total-tract digestibility, and daily rhythms of feeding behavior and plasma metabolites and hormones in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, M; Ying, Y; Bartell, P A; Harvatine, K J

    2014-12-01

    The timing of feed intake entrains circadian rhythms regulated by internal clocks in many mammals. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of feeding entrains daily rhythms in dairy cows. Nine Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. An automated system recorded the timing of feed intake over the last 7 d of each period. Treatments were feeding 1×/d at 0830 h (AM) or 2030 h (PM) and feeding 2×/d in equal amounts at 0830 and 2030 h. All treatments were fed at 110% of daily intake. Cows were milked 2×/d at 0500 and 1700 h. Milk yield and composition were not changed by treatment. Daily intake did not differ, but twice-daily feeding tended to decrease total-tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). A treatment by time of day interaction was observed for feeding behavior. The amount of feed consumed in the first 2h after feeding was 70% greater for PM compared with AM feeding. A low rate of intake overnight (2400 to 0500 h; 2.2 ± 0.74% daily intake/h, mean ± SD) and a moderate rate of intake in the afternoon (1200 to 1700 h; 4.8 ± 1.1% daily intake/h) was noted for all treatments, although PM slightly reduced the rate during the afternoon period compared with AM. A treatment by time of day interaction was seen for fecal NDF and indigestible NDF (iNDF) concentration, blood urea nitrogen, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, body temperature, and lying behavior. Specifically, insulin increased and glucose decreased more after evening feeding than after morning feeding. A cosine function within a 24-h period was used to characterize daily rhythms using a random regression. Rate of feed intake during spontaneous feeding, fecal NDF and iNDF concentration, plasma glucose, insulin, NEFA, body temperature, and lying behavior fit a cosine function within a 24-h period that was modified by treatment. In conclusion, feeding time can reset the daily rhythms of feeding and

  19. Activity Monitors as Support for Older Persons' Physical Activity in Daily Life: Qualitative Study of the Users' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Maria; Eriksson, Lennie Carlén; Åkerberg, Nina; Johansson, Ann-Christin

    2018-02-01

    Falls are a major threat to the health and independence of seniors. Regular physical activity (PA) can prevent 40% of all fall injuries. The challenge is to motivate and support seniors to be physically active. Persuasive systems can constitute valuable support for persons aiming at establishing and maintaining healthy habits. However, these systems need to support effective behavior change techniques (BCTs) for increasing older adults' PA and meet the senior users' requirements and preferences. Therefore, involving users as codesigners of new systems can be fruitful. Prestudies of the user's experience with similar solutions can facilitate future user-centered design of novel persuasive systems. The aim of this study was to investigate how seniors experience using activity monitors (AMs) as support for PA in daily life. The addressed research questions are as follows: (1) What are the overall experiences of senior persons, of different age and balance function, in using wearable AMs in daily life?; (2) Which aspects did the users perceive relevant to make the measurements as meaningful and useful in the long-term perspective?; and (3) What needs and requirements did the users perceive as more relevant for the activity monitors to be useful in a long-term perspective? This qualitative interview study included 8 community-dwelling older adults (median age: 83 years). The participants' experiences in using two commercial AMs together with tablet-based apps for 9 days were investigated. Activity diaries during the usage and interviews after the usage were exploited to gather user experience. Comments in diaries were summarized, and interviews were analyzed by inductive content analysis. The users (n=8) perceived that, by using the AMs, their awareness of own PA had increased. However, the AMs' impact on the users' motivation for PA and activity behavior varied between participants. The diaries showed that self-estimated physical effort varied between participants and

  20. 75 FR 26956 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of Los Angeles Area Lakes Total Maximum Daily Loads...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9146-6] Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of Los...: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This action announces the availability of EPA proposed total maximum... nutrient, mercury, chlordane, dieldrin, DDT, PCB, and trash impairments pursuant to Clean Water Act Section...

  1. Patient reported activities after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in rotator cuff arthropathy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcobía-Díaz, B; Lópiz, Y; García-Fernández, C; Rizo de Álvaro, B; Marco, F

    Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in rotator cuff arthropathy patients, improves anteversion and abduction, but not rotational, outcomes. The main aim of this study is to determine its repercussions on daily life activities in our patients. Between 2009 and 2011 we implanted 210 shoulder arthroplasties, 126 of them were reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in a rotator cuff arthropathy context. About 88% were women, with a mean age at time of surgery of 81 years, 95% were retired. The mean follow up was 53 months. The Constant scale, Visual Analogue Scale, Charlson Comorbidity Index, range of motion were measured for each patient and whether they could manage 40 daily life activities by means of a new questionnaire, classifying them according toshoulder functional demand. Mean normalized by sex and age Constant value was 81.2%. Mean Visual Analogue Scale and Charlson Index were 3.56 and 1.69 respectively. Improvement in anteversion and abduction, not in rotational range of motion. Limitation was found in low and high functional demand activities in 20% and 51% respectively, especially those which involved internal rotation. Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty treatment for RCA in the elderly, achieves adequate pain management and good functional outcomes. Nevertheless, an important risk of DLA limitation must be accepted in those which involve internal rotation or shoulder high functional demand. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Occupational therapy for adults with problems in activities of daily living after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Lynn A; Lewis, Sharon R; Schofield-Robinson, Oliver J; Drummond, Avril; Langhorne, Peter

    2017-07-19

    A stroke occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off. Activities of daily living (ADL) are daily home-based activities that people carry out to maintain health and well-being. ADLs include the ability to: eat and drink unassisted, move, go to the toilet, carry out personal hygiene tasks, dress unassisted, and groom. Stroke causes impairment-related functional limitations that may result in difficulties participating in ADLs independent of supervision, direction, or physical assistance.For adults with stroke, the goal of occupational therapy is to improve their ability to carry out activities of daily living. Strategies used by occupational therapists include assessment, treatment, adaptive techniques, assistive technology, and environmental adaptations. This is an update of the Cochrane review first published in 2006. To assess the effects of occupational therapy interventions on the functional ability of adults with stroke in the domain of activities of daily living, compared with no intervention or standard care/practice. For this update, we searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 30 January 2017), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library, January 2017), MEDLINE (1946 to 5 January 2017), Embase (1974 to 5 January 2017), CINAHL (1937 to January 2017), PsycINFO (1806 to 2 November 2016), AMED (1985 to 1 November 2016), and Web of Science (1900 to 6 January 2017). We also searched grey literature and clinical trials registers. We identified randomised controlled trials of an occupational therapy intervention (compared with no intervention or standard care/practice) where people with stroke practiced activities of daily living, or where performance in activities of daily living was the focus of the occupational therapy intervention. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data for prespecified outcomes. The primary outcomes were the proportion of

  3. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Cleyton Marcos de M.; Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Vieira-Junior, Gerardo Magela; Ayres, Mariane Cruz C.; Costa, Charllyton Luis S. da; Araajo, Delton Servulo; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Barros, Elcio Daniel S.; Araujo, Paulo Breitner de M.; Brandao, Marcela S.; Chaves, Mariana H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 ±8,2 to 763,63 ±13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC 50 value of 27.59 ± 0.82 μg/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC 50 = 27.80 ± 1.38) and gallic acid (EC 50 = 24.27 ± 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)

  4. Daily life activity routine discovery in hemiparetic rehabilitation patients using topic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, J; Derungs, A; Schuster-Amft, C; Amft, O; Tröster, G

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring natural behavior and activity routines of hemiparetic rehabilitation patients across the day can provide valuable progress information for therapists and patients and contribute to an optimized rehabilitation process. In particular, continuous patient monitoring could add type, frequency and duration of daily life activity routines and hence complement standard clinical scores that are assessed for particular tasks only. Machine learning methods have been applied to infer activity routines from sensor data. However, supervised methods require activity annotations to build recognition models and thus require extensive patient supervision. Discovery methods, including topic models could provide patient routine information and deal with variability in activity and movement performance across patients. Topic models have been used to discover characteristic activity routine patterns of healthy individuals using activity primitives recognized from supervised sensor data. Yet, the applicability of topic models for hemiparetic rehabilitation patients and techniques to derive activity primitives without supervision needs to be addressed. We investigate, 1) whether a topic model-based activity routine discovery framework can infer activity routines of rehabilitation patients from wearable motion sensor data. 2) We compare the performance of our topic model-based activity routine discovery using rule-based and clustering-based activity vocabulary. We analyze the activity routine discovery in a dataset recorded with 11 hemiparetic rehabilitation patients during up to ten full recording days per individual in an ambulatory daycare rehabilitation center using wearable motion sensors attached to both wrists and the non-affected thigh. We introduce and compare rule-based and clustering-based activity vocabulary to process statistical and frequency acceleration features to activity words. Activity words were used for activity routine pattern discovery using topic models

  5. Evaluation of Total Daily Dose and Glycemic Control for Patients on U-500 Insulin Admitted to the Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    regular insulin has significantly increased in recent years. These patients are severely insulin resistant requiring high doses of insulin to achieve...on U-500 Insulin Admitted to the Hospital presented at SURF Conference, San Antonio, TX 20 May 201 6 with MDWI 41-108, and has been assigned local...59th CSPG/SGVU) C.201 4 . I 52d PROTOCOL TITLE Evaluation of Total Dai ly Dose and Glycemic Control for Patients on U-500 Insulin Admitted to the

  6. Investigating elementary school children's daily physical activity and sedentary behaviours during weekdays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Chen, Senlin; Huang, Charles C; Stodden, David F; Xiang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to quantify the contributions of physical education, exergaming (active video games that also are a type of exercise), recess, lunch break and after-school time segments to children's daily physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Participants were 138 second and third graders (71 girls) who attended 20-min recess and 75-min lunch time daily, 25-min regular physical education or exergaming-based classes being alternated daily. The after-school period was defined as 3:20-10:00pm. Physical activity was assessed via accelerometry and the dependent variables were children's time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Children's percentages of time spent in MVPA (P < .001; except for the difference between exergaming and lunch break: P = .63), light physical activity (P < .001) and sedentary behaviour (P < .001) differed significantly across the time segments (i.e., physical education/exergaming, recess, lunch break and after-school). Additionally, children accumulated significantly more MVPA (t = 10.22, P < .001) but less light physical activity (t = -3.17, P = .002) and sedentary behaviour (t = -3.91, P < .001) in physical education than in exergaming. Overall, physical education was more effective in generating MVPA than other segments over the school day. The after-school segment holds potential as an avenue for promoting children's MVPA, as this long period could be better utilised to organise structured physical activity.

  7. Early prediction of outcome of activities of daily living after stroke: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Veerbeek, J.M.; Kwakkel, G.; Wegen, van, E.E.H.; Ket, J.C.F.; Heijmans, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE-Knowledge about robust and unbiased factors that predict outcome of activities of daily living (ADL) is paramount in stroke management. This review investigates the methodological quality of prognostic studies in the early poststroke phase for final ADL to identify variables that are predictive or not predictive for outcome of ADL after stroke. METHODS-PubMed, Ebsco/Cinahl and Embase were systematically searched for prognostic studies in which stroke patients were inclu...

  8. Rehabilitation of limb apraxia improves daily life activities in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smania, N; Aglioti, S M; Girardi, F; Tinazzi, M; Fiaschi, A; Cosentino, A; Corato, E

    2006-12-12

    We randomly assigned 33 patients with left hemisphere stroke, limb apraxia, and aphasia to an apraxia or a control (aphasia) treatment group. Before and after each treatment, patients underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological testing battery and a caregiver evaluation of patient's activities of daily life (ADL) independence. Apraxia severity was related with ADL independence. Control (aphasia) treatment improved patients' language and intelligence performance. Apraxia treatment specifically improved praxic function and ADL.

  9. Seasonal, daily activity, and habitat use by three sympatric pit vipers (Serpentes, Viperidae) from southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    ROCHA, MARCELO C.; HARTMANN, PAULO A.; WINCK, GISELE R.; CECHIN, SONIA Z.

    2014-01-01

    Viperid snakes are widely distributed in the South America and the greater distribution range of the family is found at the Crotalinae subfamily. Despite the abundance of this snakes along their geographic distribution, some ecological aspects remain unknown, principally at subtropical areas. In the present study, we evaluated the activity (daily and seasonal) and the use of the habitat by Bothrops diporus, B. jararaca andB. jararacussu, in an Atlantic Forest area at southern Brazil. We obser...

  10. Home Accidents and Assistance in Daily Activities of Older Women in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkal, Sibel; Sahin, Hande

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the relation between incidents of at-home accidents and the assistance in daily activities of women age of 65+ living in the area of Dikmen Akpinar Health Care Unit in Ankara-Turkey. Of the women, 49.2% had experienced a home accident in the last 12 months. More than half of these accidents were caused by falling. Women over…

  11. Influence of socioeconomic factors on daily life activities and quality of life of Thai elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratana Somrongthong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of older people is a significant issue in Thailand, resulted in growing demands of health and social welfare services. The study aim was to explore the influence of socioeconomic factors on activities of daily living and quality of life of Thai seniors. Design and methods: Using randomised cluster sampling, one province was sampled from each of the Central, North, Northeast and South regions, then one subdistrict sampled in each province, and a household survey used to identify the sample of 1678 seniors aged 60 years and over. The Mann-Whitney U-test and binary logistic regression were used to compare and determine the association of socioeconomic variables on quality of life and activities of daily living. Results: The findings showed that sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors were significantly related to functional capacity of daily living. Education levels were strongly associated with daily life activities, with 3.55 adjusted ORs for respondents with secondary school education. Gender was important, with females comprising 61% of dependent respondents but only 47% of independent respondents. Seniors with low incomes were more likely to be anxious in the past, present and future and less likely to accept death in the late stage, with 1.40 Adjusted ORs (95%CI: 1.02-1.92, and 0.72 (95%CI: 0.53-0.98, respectively. However, they were more likely to engage in social activities. Conclusions: While socioeconomic factors strongly indicated the functional capacity to live independently, a good quality of life also required other factors leading to happiness and life satisfaction.

  12. Nordic Walking improves daily physical activities in COPD: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breyer Marie-Kathrin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with COPD progressive dyspnoea leads to a sedentary lifestyle. To date, no studies exist investigating the effects of Nordic Walking in patients with COPD. Therefore, the aim was to determine the feasibility of Nordic Walking in COPD patients at different disease stages. Furthermore we aimed to determine the short- and long-term effects of Nordic Walking on COPD patients' daily physical activity pattern as well as on patients exercise capacity. Methods Sixty COPD patients were randomised to either Nordic Walking or to a control group. Patients of the Nordic Walking group (n = 30; age: 62 ± 9 years; FEV1: 48 ± 19% predicted underwent a three-month outdoor Nordic Walking exercise program consisting of one hour walking at 75% of their initial maximum heart rate three times per week, whereas controls had no exercise intervention. Primary endpoint: daily physical activities (measured by a validated tri-axial accelerometer; secondary endpoint: functional exercise capacity (measured by the six-minute walking distance; 6MWD. Assessment time points in both groups: baseline, after three, six and nine months. Results After three month training period, in the Nordic Walking group time spent walking and standing as well as intensity of walking increased (Δ walking time: +14.9 ± 1.9 min/day; Δ standing time: +129 ± 26 min/day; Δ movement intensity: +0.40 ± 0.14 m/s2 while time spent sitting decreased (Δ sitting time: -128 ± 15 min/day compared to baseline (all: p Conclusions Nordic Walking is a feasible, simple and effective physical training modality in COPD. In addition, Nordic Walking has proven to positively impact the daily physical activity pattern of COPD patients under short- and long-term observation. Clinical trial registration Nordic Walking improves daily physical activities in COPD: a randomised controlled trial - ISRCTN31525632

  13. Activity and Quality of Life after Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świtoń, Anna; Wodka-Natkaniec, Ewa; Niedźwiedzki, Łukasz; Gaździk, Tadeusz; Niedźwiedzki, Tadeusz

    2017-10-31

    Coxarthrosis is a chronic musculoskeletal condition that causes severe pain and considerable limi-tation of the patient's motor performance. Total hip arthroplasty is one of the most common and effective methods used in the treatment of advanced degenerative changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the activity and quality of life of patients after unilateral total hip arthroplasty. The study was conducted in a group of 189 patients who had undergone unilateral total hip arthroplasty. Goniometry was used to determine the range of motion of both hip joints. Patients' physical ability and pain severity were assessed based on the Harris Hip Score (HHS) questionnaire. The examination of the range of motion in the lower extremities revealed statistically significant diffe-rences in flexion (p<0.01), abduction (p=<0.01), adduction (p<0.01) and external rotation (p<0.01) between the operated and the healthy extremity. The greatest limitation of motion was demonstrated for external rotation (<14°). Approximately 14% of the patients were not able to perform this motion in their healthy hip joint, while 17.5% of them could not do so in the affected hip joint. Analysis of HHS results (mean = 79 pts) revealed that more than 50% of the patients described their functional ability and quality of life as good and excellent. It was demonstrated that 54% of patients did not suffer from pain, whereas minor or mild pain was noted in 35%. 1. A subjective clinical assessment of patients after total hip arthroplasty showed that their quality of life had improved. 2. It is necessary to perform physiotherapy after total hip arthroplasty, on both the operated and healthy side. 3. Exacerbation of pain and impaired activity in patients after total hip arthroplasty were associated with the female sex to a considerable extent.

  14. Zooming into daily life: within-person associations between physical activity and affect in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Petra; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud; Reuter, Merle; Gawrilow, Caterina

    2017-05-01

    Negative affect in daily life is linked to poorer mental and physical health. Activity could serve as an effective, low-cost intervention to improve affect. However, few prior studies have assessed physical activity and affect in everyday life, limiting the ecological validity of prior findings. This study investigates whether daily activity is associated with negative and positive evening affect in young adults. Young adults (N = 189, Mdn = 23.00) participated in an intensive longitudinal study over 10 consecutive days. Participants wore accelerometers to objectively assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity continuously throughout the day and reported their affect in time-stamped online evening diaries before going to sleep. On days when participants engaged in more activity than usual, they reported not only less depressed and angry evening affect but also more vigour and serenity in the evening. Young adults showed both less negative and more positive affect on days with more activity. Physical activity is a promising health promotion strategy for physical and mental well-being.

  15. Validity and reliability of the Arabic version of Activities of Daily Living (ADL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doumit Jacqueline

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Activity of Daily Living (ADL is an instrument that screens elderly respondents for physical functioning and assesses whether they are dependent or independent in their daily activities. This study demonstrates a translation procedure and obtains the reliability and validity of a translated, Arabic ADL. Methods The ADL was translated to Arabic through a forward translation method followed by a committee-consensual approach. The ADL and the Arabic Mini-Mental State Examination (AMMSE were administered to an opportunistic sample of 354 Lebanese elderly living in nursing homes who did not have dementia. Results Reliability split half measures, sensitivity, and negative predictive values were high across all dimensions of the ADL with the exception of feeding. There were non-significant differences on the scored ADL between the three age groups: young age, middle age and older old. In addition, a non-significant difference was found on the scored ADL between the high and low AMMSE scores. Conclusion Overall, the translated ADL was consistent and valid measure for assessing daily activities in elderly nursing home residents. As it is quick and easy to use, the ADL in Arabic could help caregivers and doctors to prescribe appropriate physical exercise for elderly Arabic speaking patients.

  16. [Smoked sausages and food additives: evaluation of total mutagenic activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, A M; Tkacheva, D L

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation of the total mutagenic activity of samples of the inorganic and organic fractions of three technology smoked sausages (boiled-smoked, semi-smoked, and raw-smoked) and some food additives used to manufacture the above sausages. Their mild and moderate mutagenic effects were recorded in a Salmonella typhimurium bacterial test system with a metabolic activation system. Physicochemical analysis of the fractions of the smoked sausages has shown that their study samples are substantially contaminated with heavy metals and representatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, partially causing the mutagenic effects observed.

  17. Exploring the daily activities associated with delayed bedtime of Japanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaoka, Shoichi; Komada, Yoko; Fukuda, Kazuhiko; Sugiura, Tatsuki; Inoue, Yuichi; Yamazaki, Katuo

    2010-07-01

    University students show delayed sleep-wake patterns, i.e., later bed- and rise-times, and this pattern is known to be associated with various malfunctions. There may be a variety of daily activities associated with their delayed sleep patterns, such as watching TV. However, it is unclear to what extent each activity possesses an impact on their sleep patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine the daily activities associated with delayed bedtime in Japanese university students who live with or without their families. Three hundred and thirty-one participants were required to record the timing and duration of their sleep and daily activities, and the data from the 275 students (160 men and 115 women; 19.01 +/- 1.66 years) who completely filled forms were used for analysis. The results of multiple regression analyses suggested that interpersonal communication late at night is one of the major factors leading to the delayed bedtime of students living away from home. Among those living with their families, indoor activities such as watching TV and using the Internet were related to their delayed bedtimes. Attending classes and having a morning meal were related to the earlier bedtimes of the students living away from home, but there were no activities associated with those of the students living with their families. These results suggest that ensuring attendance at morning classes and having appropriate mealtimes, as well as restricting the use of visual media and socializing activities at night, are necessary for preventing late bedtimes in university students.

  18. Factors affecting mobility milestones and activities of daily living after stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Masahito

    2008-01-01

    Mobility milestones are elementary movements related to activities of daily living (ADL) and have a significant influence on functional recovery after stroke. This study aimed to identify the factors affecting mobility milestones and to clarify the relationships between mobility milestones and ADL. Participants were in the acute phase after first-ever strokes (ischemic, n=77; hemorrhagic, n=84). Clinical and radiological factors within the first week were determined and their effects on mobility milestones after 4 weeks were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. After 4 weeks the patients were divided into four groups on the basis of sitting balance, standing balance, and walking ability. Then total ADL score was calculated using the Barthel index (BI), and percentage of independent patients in each 10 items of BI was transition rate of ADL for each of the four groups. Patients with ischemic stroke showed the following findings. Sitting balance was affected by severity of lower limb paralysis, consciousness level, and presence of an internal capsule lesion on computed tomography (CT) (R 2 =0.86); standing balance was influenced by severity of lower limb paralysis and consciousness level (R 2 =0.72); and walking ability was affected by severity of lower limb paralysis (R 2 =0.64). Patients with hemorrhagic stroke showed the following findings. Sitting balance was influenced by severity of lower limb paralysis, intraventricular hemorrhage on CT, blood pressure instability, and fever (R 2 =0.75); standing balance was affected by severity of lower limb paralysis, consciousness level, and presence of an internal capsule lesion (R 2 =0.58); and walking ability was influenced by severity of lower limb paralysis and presence of an internal capsule lesion (R 2 =0.70). In both types of stroke, sitting and standing balance and walking ability were directly associated with total ADL score, and sitting and standing balance became independent earlier than ADL. Severity of

  19. Improvements in knee biomechanics during walking are associated with increased physical activity after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, John B; Mackintosh, Shylie; Olds, Timothy S; Jones, Sara; Thewlis, Dominic

    2015-12-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in people with knee osteoarthritis increases knee-specific and general physical function, but it has not been established if there is a relationship between changes in these elements of functional ability. This study investigated changes and relationships between knee biomechanics during walking, physical activity, and use of time after TKA. Fifteen people awaiting TKA underwent 3D gait analysis before and six months after surgery. Physical activity and use of time were determined in free-living conditions from a high resolution 24-h activity recall. After surgery, participants displayed significant improvements in sagittal plane knee biomechanics and improved their physical activity profiles, standing for 105 more minutes (p=0.001) and performing 64 min more inside chores on average per day (p=0.008). Changes in sagittal plane knee range of motion (ROM) and peak knee flexion positively correlated with changes in total daily energy expenditure, time spent undertaking moderate to vigorous physical activity, inside chores and passive transport (r=0.52-0.66, p=0.005-0.047). Restoration of knee function occurs in parallel and is associated with improvements in physical activity and use of time after TKA. Increased functional knee ROM is required to support improvements in total and context specific physical activity. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Determination of daily intake of elements from Philippine total diet samples using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, G.C. de; Shiraishi, K.; Kawamura, H.; Igaraishi, Y.; Palattao, M.V.; Azanon, E.M.

    1990-10-01

    Total diet samples were analyzed for major elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P) and some minor trace elements (Fe, Zn, Mn, Al, Sr, Cu, Ba, Yt) using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Samples analyzed were classified into sex and age groups. Results for some elements (Na, K, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn) were compared with values from Bataan dietary survey calculated using the Philippine composition table. Exceot for Na, analytical results were similar to calculated values. Analytical results for Ca and Fe were also compared with the values from Food and Nutrition Research Institute. In general, values obtained in the study were lower than the FNRI values. Comparison of the analytical and calculated results with the Japanese and ICRP data showed that Philippine values were lower than foreign values. (Auth.). 22 refs., 9 tabs

  1. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic, and total flavonoid of extracts from stems of Jasminum nervosum Lour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei, Xiangyong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Guangxi traditional Chinese Medical University Universidad de Medicina Tradicional China de Guangxi This study evaluated the antioxidant activities of the extracts of Jasminum nervosum Lour. stems along with the effects of different extract solvents on total phenolics (TP, total flavonoids (TF, and antioxidant potential. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed using the following methods: DPPH, ABTS+ both free radicals scavenging assays, and reducing assays. TP and TF were detected by spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. In former methods, the highest amount of TP content was ethy lacetate extract (EAE, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The greatest TF content was in the n-butanol extract (BE, expressed as lutin equivalents. No significant difference was observed in the TP/TF content between these two extracts. The antioxidant activity and TP/TF content of three extracts seemed to follow the same trend. This implied that there is a good correlation between antioxidant activities and TP/TF content. But in HPLC methods, EAE contained the highest content of lutin and gallic acid, which decreased in the same order of EAE > BE > PE, the rank order of TP/TF content of EAE and BE were different according to antioxidant ability. The overall results showed that the EAE and BE were richer in phenolics and flavonoids than petroleum ether extract (PE, and may represent a good source of antioxidants.Este estudio evaluó las actividades antioxidantes de extractos de tallos de Jasminum nervosum Lour., y el efecto de diferentes disolventes de extracción en los fenoles totales (TP y flavonoides totales (TF, y su potencial antioxidante. La actividad antioxidante de los extractos fue evaluada usando los siguientes métodos: DPPH, ABTS+ y ensayos reductores. TP y TF fueron detectados por métodos espectroscópicos y por HPLC. Con el primer método, el contenido más alto de TP se obtuvo en el extracto con acetato de etilo (EAE, expresado como

  2. The promise of mHealth: daily activity monitoring and outcome assessments by wearable sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobkin, Bruce H; Dorsch, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Mobile health tools that enable clinicians and researchers to monitor the type, quantity, and quality of everyday activities of patients and trial participants have long been needed to improve daily care, design more clinically meaningful randomized trials of interventions, and establish cost-effective, evidence-based practices. Inexpensive, unobtrusive wireless sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, and pressure-sensitive textiles, combined with Internet-based communications and machine-learning algorithms trained to recognize upper- and lower-extremity movements, have begun to fulfill this need. Continuous data from ankle triaxial accelerometers, for example, can be transmitted from the home and community via WiFi or a smartphone to a remote data analysis server. Reports can include the walking speed and duration of every bout of ambulation, spatiotemporal symmetries between the legs, and the type, duration, and energy used during exercise. For daily care, this readily accessible flow of real-world information allows clinicians to monitor the amount and quality of exercise for risk factor management and compliance in the practice of skills. Feedback may motivate better self-management as well as serve home-based rehabilitation efforts. Monitoring patients with chronic diseases and after hospitalization or the start of new medications for a decline in daily activity may help detect medical complications before rehospitalization becomes necessary. For clinical trials, repeated laboratory-quality assessments of key activities in the community, rather than by clinic testing, self-report, and ordinal scales, may reduce the cost and burden of travel, improve recruitment and retention, and capture more reliable, valid, and responsive ratio-scaled outcome measures that are not mere surrogates for changes in daily impairment, disability, and functioning.

  3. The influence of alcohol consumption on sickness presenteeism and impaired daily activities. The WIRUS screening study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Randi Wågø; Haveraaen, Lise; Sagvaag, Hildegunn; Thørrisen, Mikkel Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol use is a global health issue and may influence activity performance in a variety of domains, including the occupational and domestic spheres. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of annual drinking frequency and binge drinking (≥6 units at one occasion) on activity impairments both at work (sickness presenteeism) and outside the workplace. Employees (n = 3278), recruited from 14 Norwegian private and public companies, responded to a questionnaire containing questions from the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Workplace Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire (WPAI). Multiple hierarchical regression analyses revealed that binge drinking was associated with both sickness presenteeism and impaired daily activities, even after controlling for gender, age, educational level, living status and employment sector. Annual drinking frequency was associated with impaired daily activities, but not sickness presenteeism. Binge drinking seems to have a stronger influence on activity performance both at work and outside the workplace than drinking frequency. Interventions targeting alcohol consumption should benefit from focusing on binge drinking behavior.

  4. The influence of alcohol consumption on sickness presenteeism and impaired daily activities. The WIRUS screening study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Wågø Aas

    Full Text Available Alcohol use is a global health issue and may influence activity performance in a variety of domains, including the occupational and domestic spheres. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of annual drinking frequency and binge drinking (≥6 units at one occasion on activity impairments both at work (sickness presenteeism and outside the workplace.Employees (n = 3278, recruited from 14 Norwegian private and public companies, responded to a questionnaire containing questions from the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT and the Workplace Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire (WPAI.Multiple hierarchical regression analyses revealed that binge drinking was associated with both sickness presenteeism and impaired daily activities, even after controlling for gender, age, educational level, living status and employment sector. Annual drinking frequency was associated with impaired daily activities, but not sickness presenteeism.Binge drinking seems to have a stronger influence on activity performance both at work and outside the workplace than drinking frequency. Interventions targeting alcohol consumption should benefit from focusing on binge drinking behavior.

  5. Antioxidant Activities of Total Pigment Extract from Blackberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiechao Liu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Total pigment has been extracted from blackberries and its antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation and scavenging capacities towards superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals and nitrite in different in vitro systems have been investigated. The total pigment extract from blackberries (TPEB exhibited strong antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation in a linoleic acid model system and scavenging capacities towards superoxide anion radicals, generated by a pyrogallol autoxidation system or by an illuminating riboflavin system, hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton reaction, and nitrite. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were correlated with the concentrations of the TPEB. In the test concentration range, the maximum inhibition percentage against linoleic acid peroxidation was 98.32 % after one week’s incubation, and the maximum scavenging percentages for the free radicals and nitrite inhibition in the above reactive systems reached 90.48, 96.48, 93.58 and 98.94 %, respectively. The TPEB is a natural, edible colorant with excellent antioxidant activities and health benefits and it seems to be applicable in both healthy food and medicine.

  6. Extending Agent Based Telehealth Platform with Activities of Daily Living Reasoning Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Daniel Bjerring; Hallenborg, Kasper; Demazeau, Yves

    2016-01-01

    it will influence his or her everyday live. Therefore we believe that a telehealth system shall adapt its behavior so that it will not be a burden for the patient/resident to use. To this aim we have extended an existing telehealth platform to reason about activities of daily living in a smart home scenario......In the future patients will have a more active role in strengthening and maintaining their own health. Telehealth can empower and motivate patients by giving them the chance to stay in their own homes instead of going to the hospital. A telehealth system is deployed in a patient’s home hence...

  7. Metabolic Profiling of Total Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Community-Dwelling Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Fukai

    Full Text Available Physical activity is known to be preventive against various non-communicable diseases. We investigated the relationship between daily physical activity level and plasma metabolites using a targeted metabolomics approach in a population-based study.A total of 1,193 participants (male, aged 35 to 74 years with fasting blood samples were selected from the baseline survey of a cohort study. Information on daily total physical activity, classified into four levels by quartile of metabolic equivalent scores, and sedentary behavior, defined as hours of sitting per day, was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Plasma metabolite concentrations were quantified by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry method. We performed linear regression analysis models with multivariable adjustment and corrected p-values for multiple testing in the original population (n = 808. The robustness of the results was confirmed by replication analysis in a separate population (n = 385 created by random allocation.Higher levels of total physical activity were associated with various metabolite concentrations, including lower concentrations of amino acids and their derivatives, and higher concentrations of pipecolate (FDR p <0.05 in original population. The findings persisted after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, and energy intake. Isoleucine, leucine, valine, 4-methyl-2-oxoisopentanoate, 2-oxoisopentanoate, alanine, and proline concentrations were lower with a shorter sitting time.Physical activity is related to various plasma metabolites, including known biomarkers for future insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. These metabolites might potentially play a key role in the protective effects of higher physical activity and/or less sedentary behavior on non-communicable diseases.

  8. Daily dynamics of cellulase activity in arable soils depending on management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrent'eva, E. V.; Semenov, A. M.; Zelenev, V. V.; Chzhun, Yu.; Semenova, E. V.; Semenov, V. M.; Namsaraev, B. B.; van Bruggen, A. H. C.

    2009-08-01

    The daily dynamics of cellulase activity was studied during 27 days by the cellophane membrane method on soils managed using the conventional high-input farming system (application of mineral fertilizers and pesticides) and the biological conservation farming system (application of organic fertilizers alone) in a microfield experiment. The regular oscillatory dynamics of the cellulase activity were revealed and confirmed by the harmonic (Fourier) analysis. The oscillatory dynamics of the cellulase activity had a self-oscillatory nature and was not directly caused by the disturbing impacts of both the uncontrolled (natural) changes in the temperature and moisture (rainfall) and the controlled ones (the application of different fertilizers). The disturbing impacts affected the oscillation amplitude of the cellulase activity but not the frequency (periods) of the oscillations. The periodic oscillations of the cellulase activity were more significant in the soil under the high-input management compared to the soil under the biological farming system.

  9. Moderate daily exercise activates metabolic flexibility to prevent prenatally induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jennifer L; Huber, Korinna; Thompson, Nichola M; Davison, Michael; Breier, Bernhard H

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and its associated comorbidities are of major worldwide concern. It is now recognized that there are a number of metabolically distinct pathways of obesity development. The present paper investigates the effect of moderate daily exercise on the underlying mechanisms of one such pathway to obesity, through interrogation of metabolic flexibility. Pregnant Wistar rats were either fed chow ad libitum or undernourished throughout pregnancy, generating control or intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) offspring, respectively. At 250 d of age, dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry scans and plasma analyses showed that moderate daily exercise, in the form of a measured amount of wheel running (56 m/d), prevented the development of obesity consistently observed in nonexercised IUGR offspring. Increased plasma C-peptide and hepatic atypical protein kinase Czeta levels explained increased glucose uptake and increased hepatic glycogen storage in IUGR offspring. Importantly, whereas circulating levels of retinol binding protein 4 were elevated in obese, nonexercised IUGR offspring, indicative of glucose sparing without exercise, retinol binding protein 4 levels were normalized in the exercised IUGR group. These data suggest that IUGR offspring have increased flexibility of energy storage and use and that moderate daily exercise prevents obesity development through activation of distinct pathways of energy use. Thus, despite a predisposition to develop obesity under sedentary conditions, obesity development was prevented in IUGR offspring when exercise was available. These results emphasize the importance of tailored lifestyle changes that activate distinct pathways of metabolic flexibility for obesity prevention.

  10. Deviations in daily physical activity patterns in patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome: A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evering, R.M.H.; Tönis, Thijs; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2011-01-01

    Deviations in daily physical activity patterns may play an important role in the development and maintenance of fatigue in the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The aim of this study is to gain insight into the objective daily physical activity pattern of patients with CFS in comparison with healthy

  11. Effects of temperature and photoperiod on daily activity rhythms of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Gustavo B S; de Souza, Nataly Araujo; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Bruno, Rafaela V

    2014-06-19

    Insect vectors have been established as models in Chronobiology for many decades, and recent studies have demonstrated a close relationship between the circadian clock machinery, daily rhythms of activity and vectorial capacity. Lutzomyia longipalpis, the primary vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in the New World, is reported to have crepuscular/nocturnal activity in the wild. However, most of these studies applied hourly CDC trap captures, which is a good indicative of L. longipalpis behaviour, but has limited accuracy due to the inability to record the daily activity of a single insect during consecutive days. In addition, very little is known about the activity pattern of L. longipalpis under seasonal variations of average temperature and day length in controlled laboratory conditions. We recorded the locomotor activity of L. longipalpis males under different artificial regimes of temperature and photoperiod. First, in order to test the effects of temperature on the activity, sandflies were submitted to regimes of light/dark cycles similar to the equinox photoperiod (LD 12:12) combined with different constant temperatures (20°C, 25°C and 30°C). In addition, we recorded sandfly locomotor activity under a mild constant temperature (25°C with different day length regimes: 8 hours, 12 hours and 16 hours). L. longipalpis exhibited more activity at night, initiating dusk-related activity (onset time) at higher rather than lower temperatures. In parallel, changes of photoperiod affected anticipation as well as all the patterns of activity (onset, peak and offset time). However, under LD 16:08, sandflies presented the earliest values of maximum peak and offset times, contrary to other regimes. Herein, we showed that light and temperature modulate L. longipalpis behaviour under controlled laboratory conditions, suggesting that sandflies might use environmental information to sustain their crepuscular/nocturnal activity, as well as other important aspects as

  12. Examining the Effects of Video Modeling and Prompts to Teach Activities of Daily Living Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldi, Catarina; Crigler, Alexandra; Kates-McElrath, Kelly; Long, Brian; Smith, Hillary; Rehak, Kim; Wilkinson, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Video modeling has been shown to be effective in teaching a number of skills to learners diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study, we taught two young men diagnosed with ASD three different activities of daily living skills (ADLS) using point-of-view video modeling. Results indicated that both participants met criterion for all ADLS. Participants did not maintain mastery criterion at a 1-month follow-up, but did score above baseline at maintenance with and without video modeling. • Point-of-view video models may be an effective intervention to teach daily living skills. • Video modeling with handheld portable devices (Apple iPod or iPad) can be just as effective as video modeling with stationary viewing devices (television or computer). • The use of handheld portable devices (Apple iPod and iPad) makes video modeling accessible and possible in a wide variety of environments.

  13. Effect of treatment with single total-dose intravenous iron versus daily oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose on moderate puerperal iron-deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyoke CA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,1 Fausta Chioma Emegoakor,1 Euzebus Chinonye Ezugwu,1 Lucky Osaheni Lawani,2 Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1 Jude Anazoeze Madu,3 Hyginus Uzo Ezegwui,1 Frank Okechukwu Ezugwu4 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, 3Department of Haematology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Medicine, Enugu State University, Enugu, Nigeria Background: Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional cause of anemia in pregnancy and is often responsible for puerperal anemia. Puerperal anemia can impair postpartum maternal and neonatal well-being. Objective: To determine the effect of treatment of moderate puerperal iron-deficiency anemia using a single intravenous total-dose iron dextran versus daily single dose oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose. Methodology: A randomized controlled study in which postpartum women with moderate iron-deficiency anemia were randomized into treatment with either a single total-dose intravenous iron dextran or with daily single doses of oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose tablets for 6 weeks. Effects on hemoglobin concentration using either method were compared at 6 weeks postpartum. Analysis was per protocol using SPSS version 17 for windows. P-values ≤0.05 were considered significant. Results: Two hundred eighty-four women were recruited for the study: 142 women received single total dose intravenous infusion of iron dextran while 142 received daily oral iron(III-hydroxide polymaltose tablets. Approximately 84.0% (237/282 completed the study and were analyzed including 81% (115/142 of those randomized to injectable iron therapy compared to 85.9% (122/142 of those randomized to oral treatment. The proportions of women who had attained hemoglobin concentration of at least 10 g/dL by the 6 weeks postpartum visit did not differ

  14. Motivation and intention to integrate physical activity into daily school life: the JAM World Record event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazou, Spyridoula; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P

    2014-11-01

    Research on the motivation of stakeholders to integrate physical activity into daily school life is limited. The purpose was to examine the motivation of stakeholders to participate in a world record physical activity event and whether motivation was associated with future intention to use activity breaks during the daily school life and future participation in a similar event. After the 2012 JAM (Just-a-Minute) World Record event, 686 adults (591 women; 76.1% participated for children amotivation for participation in the next event were reported. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for age, gender, and occupation, showed that intrinsic forms of motivation positively predicted, whereas amotivation negatively predicted, future intention to participate in the event and use the activity breaks. Multivariate analyses of variance revealed that school-related participants were more intrinsically motivated and intended to use the activity breaks and repeat the event more than those who were not affiliated with a school. Nonschool participants reported higher extrinsic motivation and amotivation than school-related participants. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  15. Influence of temperature on daily locomotor activity in the crab Uca pugilator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey M Mat

    Full Text Available Animals living in the intertidal zone are exposed to prominent temperature changes. To cope with the energetic demands of environmental thermal challenges, ectotherms rely mainly on behavioral responses, which may change depending on the time of the day and seasonally. Here, we analyze how temperature shapes crabs' behavior at 2 different times of the year and show that a transition from constant cold (13.5°C to constant warm (17.5°C water temperature leads to increased locomotor activity levels throughout the day in fiddler crabs (Uca pugilator collected during the summer. In contrast, the same transition in environmental temperature leads to a decrease in the amplitude of the daily locomotor activity rhythm in crabs collected during the winter. In other words, colder temperatures during the cold season favor a more prominent diurnal behavior. We interpret this winter-summer difference in the response of daily locomotor activity to temperature changes within the framework of the circadian thermoenergetics hypothesis, which predicts that a less favorable energetic balance would promote a more diurnal activity pattern. During the winter, when the energetic balance is likely less favorable, crabs would save energy by being more active during the expected high-temperature phase of the day-light phase-and less during the expected low-temperature phase of the day-dark phase. Our results suggest that endogenous rhythms in intertidal ectotherms generate adaptive behavioral programs to cope with thermoregulatory demands of the intertidal habitat.

  16. Variation in daily flight activity and foraging patterns in colonies of uruçu - Melipona scutellaris Latreille (Apidae, Meliponini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Monteiro Pierrot

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The flight activities of five colonies of Melipona (Michmelia scutellaris Latreille, 1811 kept among mixed fruit crop plantations in within fragments of Atlantic Rainforest in Pernambuco, NE-Brazil was examined. The daily deployment of foragers to collect pollen, nectar, resin and mud was observed. The colonies performed between 2,640 and 14,250 flights per day. Variations in the number of total daily flights were similar between colonies on all observation days. Proportional allocation of foragers to the different resources also among colonies showed similar variation. More than 90% of the pollen collection flights were made early in the morning. Nectar was collected in similar proportional frequencies with a reduction in activity at noon. On a single day, was observed atypical intense pollen foraging during the afternoon by all colonies. This indicates a high plasticity in foraging behaviour and efficient recruitment to resources which are presented by mass flowering trees with synchronised big bang or multiple bang flowering. Resource availability of the surrounding vegetation, therefore, seems to be the major factor in defining the forager activities on a given day.

  17. Wheel-running activity modulates circadian organization and the daily rhythm of eating behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Julie S.; Branecky, Katrina L.; Huang, Roya; Niswender, Kevin D.; Yamazaki, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of high-fat diet acutely alters the daily rhythm of eating behavior and circadian organization (the phase relationship between oscillators in central and peripheral tissues) in mice. Voluntary wheel-running activity counteracts the obesogenic effects of high-fat diet and also modulates circadian rhythms in mice. In this study, we sought to determine whether voluntary wheel-running activity could prevent the proximate effects of high-fat diet consumption on circadian organization and behavioral rhythms in mice. Mice were housed with locked or freely rotating running wheels and fed chow or high-fat diet for 1 week and rhythms of locomotor activity, eating behavior, and molecular timekeeping (PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE luminescence rhythms) in ex vivo tissues were measured. Wheel-running activity delayed the phase of the liver rhythm by 4 h in both chow- and high-fat diet-fed mice. The delayed liver phase was specific to wheel-running activity since an enriched environment without the running wheel did not alter the phase of the liver rhythm. In addition, wheel-running activity modulated the effect of high-fat diet consumption on the daily rhythm of eating behavior. While high-fat diet consumption caused eating events to be more evenly dispersed across the 24 h-day in both locked-wheel and wheel-running mice, the effect of high-fat diet was much less pronounced in wheel-running mice. Together these data demonstrate that wheel-running activity is a salient factor that modulates liver phase and eating behavior rhythms in both chow- and high-fat-diet fed mice. Wheel-running activity in mice is both a source of exercise and a self-motivating, rewarding behavior. Understanding the putative reward-related mechanisms whereby wheel-running activity alters circadian rhythms could have implications for human obesity since palatable food and exercise may modulate similar reward circuits. PMID:24624109

  18. Which indicators for measuring the daily physical activity? An overview on the challenges and technology limits for Telehealth applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliente, Irene; Solvoll, Terje; Trieste, Leopoldo; De Cecco, Carlo N; Murgia, Fabrizio; Bella, Sergio

    2016-09-14

    Obesity is one of the biggest drivers of preventable chronic diseases and healthcare costs in Worldwide. Different prevention activities are suggested. By monitoring daily energy expenditure (EE) could be possible make personalized diets and programming physical activity. In this, physical inactivity is one of the most important public health problems. Some studies refer the effort of the international community in promoting physical activities. Physical activity can be promoted only by increasing citizens' empowerment on taking care of their health, and it passes from the improving of individual information. Technology can offer solutions and metrics for monitoring and measuring daily activity by interacting with individuals, sharing information and feedbacks. In this study we review indicators of total energy expenditure and weaknesses of available devices in assessing these parameters. Literature review and technology testing EuNetHta core model. For the clinical aspects, it is fundamental to take into account all the factor that can influence the personal energy expenditure as: heart rate, blood pressure and thermoregulation (influenced by the body temperature). In this study we focused the attention on the importance of tools to encourage the physical activity. We made an analysis of the factor that can influence the right analysis of energy expenditure and at the same time the energy regime. A punctual monitoring of the exercise regime could be helpful in Telemedicine application as Telemonitorig. More study are needed to value the impact of physical activity tracker in Telemonitorig protocols. On the assessment of the energy expenditure, critical issues are related to the physiological data acquisition. Sensors connected with mobile devices could be important tools for disease prevention and interventions affecting health behaviors. New devices applications are potential useful for telemedicine assistance, but security of data and the related communication

  19. Objectively measured daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate by direct measurement the cross-sectional relationship between accelerometer-measured physical activity and peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak): ml x min(-1) x kg(-1)), in a population-based cohort of young children, since such data are scarce. The study...... analyses indicated that the various physical activity variables explained between 2 and 8% of the variance in VO(2peak) in boys. In this population-based cohort, most daily activity variables were positively related to aerobic fitness in boys, whereas less clear relationships were observed in girls. Our...... finding that physical activity was only uniformly related to aerobic fitness in boys partly contradicts previous studies in older children and adolescents....

  20. Accelerometry-based monitoring of daily physical activity in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, M; Twilt, M; Andersen, L B

    2015-01-01

    with regard to disease activity and physical variables and to compare the data with those from healthy age- and gender-matched controls.Method: Patients underwent an evaluation of disease activity, functional ability, physical capacity, and pain. Accelerometer monitoring was assessed using the GT1M Acti...... range of motion (ROM). No correlation was found between PA and pain scores, functional ability, and hypermobility. Patients with involvement of ankles or hips demonstrated significantly lower levels of PA.Conclusions: Children with JIA are less physically active and have lower physical capacity......Objectives: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) may cause functional impairment, reduced participation in physical activity (PA) and, over time, physical deconditioning. The aim of this study was to objectively monitor daily free-living PA in 10-16-year-old children with JIA using accelerometry...

  1. Daily physical activity and sports participation among children from ethnic minorities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Hermansen, Bianca; Bugge, Anna

    2013-01-01

    immigrant backgrounds were not less physically active than other children when their amounts of daily physical activity were measured by direct objective measures, despite their participation rate in organised sports being much lower. Using multiple logistic regression modelling, this study showed that lack......Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Danish children from immigrant backgrounds are less physically active than children from the ethnic majority, and to investigate the possible reasons for any differences found. Accelerometer measures of physical activity as well...... as questionnaire data about organised sports, family demography, resources and values were collected from 594 children of whom 67 had other ethnic background than Danish. Data were collected when the children were 6-7 years old and again later when the children were 9-10 years old. It was found that children from...

  2. Accuracy of daily image guidance for hypofractionated liver radiotherapy with active breathing control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, Laura A.; Eccles, Cynthia; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Brock, Kristy K.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A six-fraction, high-precision radiotherapy protocol for unresectable liver cancer has been developed in which active breathing control (ABC) is used to immobilize the liver and daily megavoltage (MV) imaging and repositioning is used to decrease geometric uncertainties. We report the accuracy of setup in the first 20 patients consecutively treated using this approach. Methods and materials: After setup using conventional skin marks and lasers, orthogonal MV images were acquired with the liver immobilized using ABC. The images were aligned to reference digitally reconstructed radiographs using the diaphragm for craniocaudal (CC) alignment and the vertebral bodies for anterior-posterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) alignment. Adjustments were made for positioning errors >3 mm. Verification imaging was repeated after repositioning to assess for residual positioning error. Offline image matching was conducted to determine the setup accuracy using this approach compared with the initial setup error before repositioning. Real-time beam's-eye-view MV movies containing an air-diaphragm interface were also evaluated. Results: A total of 405 images were evaluated from 20 patients. Repositioning occurred in 109 of 120 fractions because of offsets >3 mm. Three to eight beam angles, with up to four segments per field, were used for each isocenter. Breath holds of up to 27 s were used for imaging and treatment. The average time from the initial verification image to the last treatment beam was 21 min. Image guidance and repositioning reduced the population random setup errors (σ) from 6.5 mm (CC), 4.2 mm (ML), and 4.7 mm (AP) to 2.5 mm (CC), 2.8 mm (ML), and 2.9 mm (AP). The average individual random setup errors (σ) were reduced from 4.5 mm (CC), 3.2 mm (AP), and 2.5 mm (ML) to 2.2 mm (CC), 2.0 mm (AP), and 2.0 mm (ML). The standard deviation of the distribution of systematic deviations (Σ) was also reduced from 5.1 mm (CC), 3.4 mm (ML), and 3.1 mm (AP) to 1.4 mm (CC

  3. Exercise training raises daily activity stronger than predicted from exercise capacity in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Michaela; Wewel, Alexandra R; Kirsten, Detlef; Jörres, Rudolf A; Magnussen, Helgo

    2005-06-01

    The 6-min walking (6MWD) and 6-min treadmill distance (6MTD) are often used as measures of exercise performance in patients with COPD. The aim of our study was to assess their relationship to daily activity in the course of an exercise training program. Eighty-eight patients with stable COPD (71m/17f; mean +/- SD age, 60 +/-8 year; FEV1, 43+/-14% pred) were recruited, 66 of whom performed a hospital-based 10-day walking training, whereas 22 were treated as control. On day 16MTD, and on days 8 and 10, 6MTD and 6MWD were determined. In addition, patients used an accelerometer (TriTrac-R3D) to record 24 h-activity, whereby training sessions were excluded. In both groups there was a linear relationship (r > or = 0.84 and P daily activity did not markedly vary with exercise capacity under baseline conditions. Participation in a training program increased activity significantly stronger than predicted from the gain in exercise capacity. This underlines the importance of non-physiological, patient-centered factors associated with training in COPD.

  4. Robots to assist daily activities: views of older adults with Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rosalie H; Sudhama, Aishwarya; Begum, Momotaz; Huq, Rajibul; Mihailidis, Alex

    2017-01-01

    Robots have the potential to both enable older adults with dementia to perform daily activities with greater independence, and provide support to caregivers. This study explored perspectives of older adults with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their caregivers on robots that provide stepwise prompting to complete activities in the home. Ten dyads participated: Older adults with mild-to-moderate AD and difficulty completing activity steps, and their family caregivers. Older adults were prompted by a tele-operated robot to wash their hands in the bathroom and make a cup of tea in the kitchen. Caregivers observed interactions. Semi-structured interviews were conducted individually. Transcribed interviews were thematically analyzed. Three themes summarized responses to robot interactions: contemplating a future with assistive robots, considering opportunities with assistive robots, and reflecting on implications for social relationships. Older adults expressed opportunities for robots to help in daily activities, were open to the idea of robotic assistance, but did not want a robot. Caregivers identified numerous opportunities and were more open to robots. Several wanted a robot, if available. Positive consequences of robots in caregiving scenarios could include decreased frustration, stress, and relationship strain, and increased social interaction via the robot. A negative consequence could be decreased interaction with caregivers. Few studies have investigated in-depth perspectives of older adults with dementia and their caregivers following direct interaction with an assistive prompting robot. To fulfill the potential of robots, continued dialogue between users and developers, and consideration of robot design and caregiving relationship factors are necessary.

  5. Seasonal, daily activity, and habitat use by three sympatric pit vipers (Serpentes, Viperidae) from southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Marcelo C; Hartmann, Paulo A; Winck, Gisele R; Cechin, Sonia Z

    2014-04-25

    Viperid snakes are widely distributed in the South America and the greater distribution range of the family is found at the Crotalinae subfamily. Despite the abundance of this snakes along their geographic distribution, some ecological aspects remain unknown, principally at subtropical areas. In the present study, we evaluated the activity (daily and seasonal) and the use of the habitat by Bothrops diporus, B. jararaca and B. jararacussu, in an Atlantic Forest area at southern Brazil. We observed higher incidence of viperid snakes during the months with higher temperatures, while no snakes were found during the months with lower temperatures. The data suggest the minimum temperature as environmental variable with the greatest influence on the seasonal activity of this species. Considering the daily activity, we observed a tendency of snakes to avoid the warmest hours. Bothrops jararacussu tend to avoid open areas, being registered only inside and at the edges of the forest. We compared our results with previous studies realized at tropical areas and we suggest the observed seasonal activity as an evolutive response, despite the influence of the different environmental variables, according to the occurence region.

  6. Seasonal, daily activity, and habitat use by three sympatric pit vipers (Serpentes, Viperidae from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELO C. ROCHA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Viperid snakes are widely distributed in the South America and the greater distribution range of the family is found at the Crotalinae subfamily. Despite the abundance of this snakes along their geographic distribution, some ecological aspects remain unknown, principally at subtropical areas. In the present study, we evaluated the activity (daily and seasonal and the use of the habitat by Bothrops diporus, B. jararaca andB. jararacussu, in an Atlantic Forest area at southern Brazil. We observed higher incidence of viperid snakes during the months with higher temperatures, while no snakes were found during the months with lower temperatures. The data suggest the minimum temperature as environmental variable with the greatest influence on the seasonal activity of this species. Considering the daily activity, we observed a tendency of snakes to avoid the warmest hours. Bothrops jararacussu tend to avoid open areas, being registered only inside and at the edges of the forest. We compared our results with previous studies realized at tropical areas and we suggest the observed seasonal activity as an evolutive response, despite the influence of the different environmental variables, according to the occurence region.

  7. Drive for thinness, affect regulation and physical activity in eating disorders: a daily life study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteelandt, Kristof; Rijmen, Frank; Pieters, Guido; Probst, Michel; Vanderlinden, Johan

    2007-08-01

    Using Ecological Momentary Assessment, the within patient associations between drive for thinness, emotional states, momentary urge to be physically active and physical activity were studied in 32 inpatients with an eating disorder. Participants received an electronic device and had to indicate at nine random times a day during 1 week their momentary drive for thinness, positive and negative emotional states and their urge to be physically active and physical activity. Multilevel analyses indicated that patients with higher mean levels for urge to be physically active were characterized by lower body mass index (BMI) and chronically negative affect whereas patients with higher mean levels for physical activity were characterized by lower BMI and higher dispositions for drive for thinness. In addition, within patient relations between drive for thinness and urge to be physically active were moderated by BMI and chronically negative affect whereas within patient relations between drive for thinness and physical activity were moderated by BMI. Finally, also positive emotional states were significantly associated with physical activity within patients. By using a daily process design, characteristics of physical activity were revealed that have not been identified with assessment methods that have a lower time resolution.

  8. Total body neutron activation analysis of calcium: calibration and normalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, N S.J.; Eastell, R; Ferrington, C M; Simpson, J D; Strong, J A [Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (UK); Smith, M A; Tothill, P [Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (UK)

    1982-05-01

    An irradiation system has been designed, using a neutron beam from a cyclotron, which optimises the uniformity of activation of calcium. Induced activity is measured in a scanning, shadow-shield whole-body counter. Calibration has been effected and reproducibility assessed with three different types of phantom. Corrections were derived for variations in body height, depth and fat thickness. The coefficient of variation for repeated measurements of an anthropomorphic phantom was 1.8% for an absorbed dose equivalent of 13 mSv (1.3 rem). Measurements of total body calcium in 40 normal adults were used to derive normalisation factors which predict the normal calcium in a subject of given size and age. The coefficient of variation of normalised calcium was 6.2% in men and 6.6% in women, with the demonstration of an annual loss of 1.5% after the menopause. The narrow range should make single measurements useful for diagnostic purposes.

  9. Effectiveness of Three Different Walking Prescription Durations on Total Physical Activity in Normal- and Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Schutz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: While there is a dose-response relationship between physical activity (PA and health benefit, little is known about the effectiveness of different PA prescriptions on total daily PA. Aim: To test, under real-life conditions and using an objective, non-invasive measurement technique (accelerometry, the effect of prescribing additional physical activity (walking only of different durations (30, 60 and 90 min/day on compliance (to the activity prescribed and compensation (to total daily PA. Participants in each group were prescribed 5 sessions of walking per week over 4 weeks. Methods: 55 normal-weight and overweight women (mean BMI 25 ± 5 kg/m2, height 165 ± 1 cm, weight 68 ± 2 kg and mean age 27 ± 1 years were randomly assigned to 3 prescription groups: 30, 60 or 90 min/day PA. Results: Walking duration resulted in an almost linear increase in the number of steps per day during the prescription period from an average of about 10,000 steps per day for the 30-min prescription to about 14,000 for the 90-min prescription. Compliance was excellent for the 30-min prescription but decreased significantly with 60-min and 90-min prescriptions. In parallel, degree of compensation subsequent to exercise increased progressively as length of prescription increased. Conclusion: A 30-min prescription of extra walking 5 times per week was well tolerated. However, in order to increase total PA further, much more than 60 min of walking may need to be prescribed in the majority of individuals. While total exercise ‘volume' increased with prescriptions longer than 30 min, compliance to the prescription decreased and greater compensation was evident.

  10. Children's daily activities and knowledge acquisition: A case study among the Baka from southeastern Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallois, Sandrine; Duda, Romain; Hewlett, Barry; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-12-24

    The acquisition of local knowledge occurs through complex interactions between individual and contextual characteristics: as context changes, so it changes the acquisition of knowledge. Contemporary small-scale societies facing rapid social-ecological change provide a unique opportunity to study the relation between social-ecological changes and the process of acquisition of local knowledge. In this work, we study children's involvement in subsistence related activities (i.e., hunting and gathering) in a context of social-ecological change and discuss how such involvement might condition the acquisition of local knowledge during childhood. We interviewed 98 children from a hunter-gatherer society, the Baka, living in two different villages in southeastern Cameroon and assessed their involvement in daily activities. Using interviews, we collected self-reported data on the main activities performed during the previous 24 h. We describe the frequency of occurrence of daily activities during middle childhood and adolescence and explore the variation in occurrence according to the sex, the age group, and the village of residency of the child. We also explore variation according to the season in which the activity is conducted and to the predicted potential of the activity for the acquisition of local knowledge. Baka children and adolescents engage in subsistence-related activities (i.e., hunting and gathering) and playing more frequently than in other activities (i.e., traditional tales or schooling). Gender differences in children's subsistence activities emerge at an early age. Engagement in activities also varies with age, with adolescents spending more time in agricultural activities, modern leisure (i.e., going to bars), and socializing than younger children. When conducting similar activities, adolescents use more complex techniques than younger children. Subsistence activities, which present a high potential for transmission of local knowledge, continue to be

  11. Decreases in daily physical activity predict acute decline in attention and executive function in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H; Hayes, Scott M; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Gunstad, John

    2015-04-01

    Reduced physical activity (PA) may be one factor that contributes to cognitive decline and dementia in heart failure (HF). Yet, the longitudinal relationship between PA and cognition in HF is poorly understood owing to limitations of past work, including single-time assessments of PA. This is the first study to examine changes in objectively measured PA and cognition over time in HF. At baseline and 12 weeks, 57 HF patients completed psychosocial self-report measures and a neuropsychological battery and wore an accelerometer for 7 days. At baseline, HF patients spent an average of 597.83 (SD 75.91) minutes per day sedentary. Steps per day declined from baseline to the 12-week follow-up; there was also a trend for declines in moderate-vigorous PA. Regression analyses controlling for sex, HF severity, and depressive symptoms showed that decreases in light (P = .08) and moderate-vigorous (P = .04) daily PA emerged as strong predictors of declines in attention/executive function over the 12-week period, but not of memory or language. Reductions in daily PA predicted acute decline in attention/executive function in HF, but not of memory or language. Modifications to daily PA may attenuate cognitive decline, and prospective studies are needed to test this possibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Context-Aware System Infrastructure for Monitoring Activities of Daily Living in Smart Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Ni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a three-layered context-aware architecture for monitoring activities of daily life in smart home. This architecture provides for the inclusion of functionalities that range from low-level data collection to high-level context knowledge extraction. We have also devised an upper-level ontology to model the context in which the activities take place. This enables having a common activity-related context representation, on which to infer and share knowledge. Furthermore, we have begun to implement a platform that realizes our architecture and ontology, making use of Microsoft’s Lab of Things (LoT platform, being the preliminary results on this task also described in the paper.

  13. The influence of club football on children’s daily physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the effects of organized club sports on children’s total amount of physical activity (PA) show varying results. This may be partly due to different sports having different activity levels, but also different possibilities for being played outside club settings. This study investigates ...

  14. Motor function and activities of daily living capacity of patients with fractures sustained during the Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Long; He, Hong-Chen; Lin, Hai-Dan; Luo, Qing-Lu; Xia, Lu; Li, Sha-Sha; He, Cheng-Qi

    2011-05-01

    On the afternoon of May 12, 2008, a 8.0-magnitude earthquake hit Sichuan Province, a mountainous region in Western China, killing about 70 000 people and leaving over 18 000 missing. What about the survivors motor functions and activities of daily living (ADL) capacity, especially for fractures? We need the data to guide the rehabilitation for the seismic wounded and it's important to collect the data for the future. We study the survivors to understand the motor functions and ADL capacity of patients with fractures sustained in the Wenchuan earthquake, to provide a basis for rehabilitation and treatment. We used the Manual Muscle Testing method to evaluate muscle strength, the joint angle scale to measure joint range of motion (ROM), and the Barthel index to evaluate the activities of daily living status. SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the data and the results were tested using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The number of seismic wounded amounted to 487; 81.1% of patients had fractures. Most of the injured had fractures in multiple regions (53.9% of all fracture patients), followed by fractures of the upper limb (34.0% of patients); cranial fractures were rare (2.3%). Totally 82.0% had restricted range of motion, 23.5% had decreased muscle force, and 72.2% of the patients had restricted activities of daily living capacities. With time the activities of daily living capacity of female increased (P 0.05). The difference between the patients' ages and ADL capacities did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05), nor was there a significant difference between their ages and the numbers of days in hospital (P > 0.05). Fractures were the main issue in the seismic wounded, many of them had reductions in the ROM, muscle force and ADL capacities. The physicians involved in rehabilitation should pay greater attention to muscle force exercises, joint mobilization, and occupational therapy during the early phases post disaster.

  15. A time-lagged momentary assessment study on daily life physical activity and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichers, Marieke; Peeters, Frenk; Rutten, Bart P F; Jacobs, Nele; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; Delespaul, Philippe; van Os, Jim

    2012-03-01

    Novel study designs using within-subject methodology and frequent and prospective measurements are required to unravel direction of causality and dynamic processes of behavior over time. The current study examined the effects of physical activity on affective state. A primary and within-study replication sample was derived from twin pairs. Female twins (n = 504) participated in an experience sampling method study at baseline. Positive and negative affective changes were examined before and following daily life increases in physical activity. Neuroticism was measured at baseline and depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and at each of four follow-up assessments. Diagnoses, derived by Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Health-IV axis I disorders, (A. P. A., 1994) were obtained at baseline. A significant increase in positive affect (PA) following the moment of increase in physical activity was replicated across both samples up to 180 min after physical activity. There was no effect of physical activity on negative affect (NA). Across the two samples, a history of fulfilling diagnostic criteria for depression at least once moderated the effect of physical activity on PA, in that the effect was lost more rapidly. The study supports a causal effect of physical activity on PA. However, people with past experience of clinical depression may benefit less from the PA-inducing effect of physical activity. These findings have implications for the use of physical exercise in clinical practice.

  16. Evaluation of a Smartphone-based Human Activity Recognition System in a Daily Living Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Edward D; Tundo, Marco D; Baddour, Natalie

    2015-12-11

    An evaluation method that includes continuous activities in a daily-living environment was developed for Wearable Mobility Monitoring Systems (WMMS) that attempt to recognize user activities. Participants performed a pre-determined set of daily living actions within a continuous test circuit that included mobility activities (walking, standing, sitting, lying, ascending/descending stairs), daily living tasks (combing hair, brushing teeth, preparing food, eating, washing dishes), and subtle environment changes (opening doors, using an elevator, walking on inclines, traversing staircase landings, walking outdoors). To evaluate WMMS performance on this circuit, fifteen able-bodied participants completed the tasks while wearing a smartphone at their right front pelvis. The WMMS application used smartphone accelerometer and gyroscope signals to classify activity states. A gold standard comparison data set was created by video-recording each trial and manually logging activity onset times. Gold standard and WMMS data were analyzed offline. Three classification sets were calculated for each circuit: (i) mobility or immobility, ii) sit, stand, lie, or walking, and (iii) sit, stand, lie, walking, climbing stairs, or small standing movement. Sensitivities, specificities, and F-Scores for activity categorization and changes-of-state were calculated. The mobile versus immobile classification set had a sensitivity of 86.30% ± 7.2% and specificity of 98.96% ± 0.6%, while the second prediction set had a sensitivity of 88.35% ± 7.80% and specificity of 98.51% ± 0.62%. For the third classification set, sensitivity was 84.92% ± 6.38% and specificity was 98.17 ± 0.62. F1 scores for the first, second and third classification sets were 86.17 ± 6.3, 80.19 ± 6.36, and 78.42 ± 5.96, respectively. This demonstrates that WMMS performance depends on the evaluation protocol in addition to the algorithms. The demonstrated protocol can be used and tailored for evaluating human activity

  17. Validation of Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL), a Performance- Based Measurement of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living for Patients with Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Chun-Wei; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lo, Yi-Ching; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cerebrovascular diseases often presented both cognitive and physical impairment. Disability in everyday functioning involving cognitive impairment among patients may be hard to completely rely on informants' reports, as their reports may be confounded with physical impairment. The aim of this study was to validate a performance-based measure of functional assessment, the Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL), for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) by examining its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy. Ninety-seven patients with cerebrovascular diseases, including 30 with vascular dementia (VaD), 28 with mild cognitive impairment and 39 with no cognitive impairment, and 49 healthy control adults were recruited during study period. The TPIADL, as well as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Lawton-IADL and Barthel Index (BI), were performed. The internal consistency, convergent and criteria validity of the TPIADL were examined. Cronbach's alpha of the TPIADL test was 0.84. The TPIADL scores were significantly correlated with the Lawton IADL (r = -0.587, p cognitive domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.663) than with physical domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.541). The area under the relative operating characteristic curve was 0.888 (95% CI = 0.812-0.965) to differentiate VaD from other groups. The optimal cut-off point of the TPIADL for detecting VaD was 6/7, which gives a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 84.5%. The TPIADL is a brief and sensitive tool for the detection of IADL impairment in patients with VaD.

  18. Relationship of Having Hobbies and a Purpose in Life With Mortality, Activities of Daily Living, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Elderly Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2016-07-05

    This study's aim was to clarify the relationship of having hobbies and a purpose in life (PIL; in Japanese, ikigai) with mortality and a decline in the activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) among the community-dwelling elderly. Prospective observational data from residents aged ≥65 years who were at increased risk for death (n = 1853) and developing a decline in ADL (n = 1254) and IADL (n = 1162) were analyzed. Cox proportional hazard models were used for mortality analysis of data from February 2011 to November 2014. ADL and IADL were evaluated using the Barthel Index and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, respectively. ADL and IADL were assessed at baseline and follow-up and were evaluated using logistic regression models. Fully adjusted models included terms for age, gender, BMI, income, alcohol intake, smoking history, number of chronic diseases, cognitive function, and depression. During the follow-up of eligible participants, 248 had died, 119 saw a decline in ADL, and 178 saw a decline in IADL. In fully adjusted models, having neither hobbies nor PIL was significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47-2.94), decline in ADL (odds ratio 2.74; 95% CI, 1.44-5.21), and decline in IADL (odds ratio 1.89; 95% CI, 1.01-3.55) compared to having both hobbies and PIL. Although effect modifications by cognitive functioning and depression cannot be ruled out, our findings suggest that having hobbies and PIL may extend not only longevity, but also healthy life expectancy among community-dwelling older adults.

  19. Relationship of Having Hobbies and a Purpose in Life With Mortality, Activities of Daily Living, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Elderly Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimiko Tomioka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study’s aim was to clarify the relationship of having hobbies and a purpose in life (PIL; in Japanese, ikigai with mortality and a decline in the activities of daily living (ADL and instrumental ADL (IADL among the community-dwelling elderly. Methods: Prospective observational data from residents aged ≥65 years who were at increased risk for death (n = 1853 and developing a decline in ADL (n = 1254 and IADL (n = 1162 were analyzed. Cox proportional hazard models were used for mortality analysis of data from February 2011 to November 2014. ADL and IADL were evaluated using the Barthel Index and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, respectively. ADL and IADL were assessed at baseline and follow-up and were evaluated using logistic regression models. Fully adjusted models included terms for age, gender, BMI, income, alcohol intake, smoking history, number of chronic diseases, cognitive function, and depression. Results: During the follow-up of eligible participants, 248 had died, 119 saw a decline in ADL, and 178 saw a decline in IADL. In fully adjusted models, having neither hobbies nor PIL was significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47–2.94, decline in ADL (odds ratio 2.74; 95% CI, 1.44–5.21, and decline in IADL (odds ratio 1.89; 95% CI, 1.01–3.55 compared to having both hobbies and PIL. Conclusions: Although effect modifications by cognitive functioning and depression cannot be ruled out, our findings suggest that having hobbies and PIL may extend not only longevity, but also healthy life expectancy among community-dwelling older adults.

  20. Validation of Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL, a Performance- Based Measurement of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living for Patients with Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Mei Chen

    Full Text Available Patients with cerebrovascular diseases often presented both cognitive and physical impairment. Disability in everyday functioning involving cognitive impairment among patients may be hard to completely rely on informants' reports, as their reports may be confounded with physical impairment. The aim of this study was to validate a performance-based measure of functional assessment, the Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL, for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI by examining its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy.Ninety-seven patients with cerebrovascular diseases, including 30 with vascular dementia (VaD, 28 with mild cognitive impairment and 39 with no cognitive impairment, and 49 healthy control adults were recruited during study period. The TPIADL, as well as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Lawton-IADL and Barthel Index (BI, were performed. The internal consistency, convergent and criteria validity of the TPIADL were examined.Cronbach's alpha of the TPIADL test was 0.84. The TPIADL scores were significantly correlated with the Lawton IADL (r = -0.587, p <0.01. Notably, the TPIADL had a higher correlation coefficient with the cognitive domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.663 than with physical domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.541. The area under the relative operating characteristic curve was 0.888 (95% CI = 0.812-0.965 to differentiate VaD from other groups. The optimal cut-off point of the TPIADL for detecting VaD was 6/7, which gives a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 84.5%.The TPIADL is a brief and sensitive tool for the detection of IADL impairment in patients with VaD.

  1. Extracting aerobic system dynamics during unsupervised activities of daily living using wearable sensor machine learning models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrame, Thomas; Amelard, Robert; Wong, Alexander; Hughson, Richard L

    2018-02-01

    Physical activity levels are related through algorithms to the energetic demand, with no information regarding the integrity of the multiple physiological systems involved in the energetic supply. Longitudinal analysis of the oxygen uptake (V̇o 2 ) by wearable sensors in realistic settings might permit development of a practical tool for the study of the longitudinal aerobic system dynamics (i.e., V̇o 2 kinetics). This study evaluated aerobic system dynamics based on predicted V̇o 2 data obtained from wearable sensors during unsupervised activities of daily living (μADL). Thirteen healthy men performed a laboratory-controlled moderate exercise protocol and were monitored for ≈6 h/day for 4 days (μADL data). Variables derived from hip accelerometer (ACC HIP ), heart rate monitor, and respiratory bands during μADL were extracted and processed by a validated random forest regression model to predict V̇o 2 . The aerobic system analysis was based on the frequency-domain analysis of ACC HIP and predicted V̇o 2 data obtained during μADL. Optimal samples for frequency domain analysis (constrained to ≤0.01 Hz) were selected when ACC HIP was higher than 0.05 g at a given frequency (i.e., participants were active). The temporal characteristics of predicted V̇o 2 data during μADL correlated with the temporal characteristics of measured V̇o 2 data during laboratory-controlled protocol ([Formula: see text] = 0.82, P system dynamics can be investigated during unsupervised activities of daily living by wearable sensors. Although speculative, these algorithms have the potential to be incorporated into wearable systems for early detection of changes in health status in realistic environments by detecting changes in aerobic response dynamics. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The early detection of subclinical aerobic system impairments might be indicative of impaired physiological reserves that impact the capacity for physical activity. This study is the first to use wearable

  2. Assessment of laboratory and daily energy expenditure estimates from consumer multi-sensor physical activity monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Western, Max J; Nightingale, Thomas E; Peacock, Oliver J; Thompson, Dylan

    2017-01-01

    Wearable physical activity monitors are growing in popularity and provide the opportunity for large numbers of the public to self-monitor physical activity behaviours. The latest generation of these devices feature multiple sensors, ostensibly similar or even superior to advanced research instruments. However, little is known about the accuracy of their energy expenditure estimates. Here, we assessed their performance against criterion measurements in both controlled laboratory conditions (simulated activities of daily living and structured exercise) and over a 24 hour period in free-living conditions. Thirty men (n = 15) and women (n = 15) wore three multi-sensor consumer monitors (Microsoft Band, Apple Watch and Fitbit Charge HR), an accelerometry-only device as a comparison (Jawbone UP24) and validated research-grade multi-sensor devices (BodyMedia Core and individually calibrated Actiheart™). During discrete laboratory activities when compared against indirect calorimetry, the Apple Watch performed similarly to criterion measures. The Fitbit Charge HR was less consistent at measurement of discrete activities, but produced similar free-living estimates to the Apple Watch. Both these devices underestimated free-living energy expenditure (-394 kcal/d and -405 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). The multi-sensor Microsoft Band and accelerometry-only Jawbone UP24 devices underestimated most laboratory activities and substantially underestimated free-living expenditure (-1128 kcal/d and -998 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01). None of the consumer devices were deemed equivalent to the reference method for daily energy expenditure. For all devices, there was a tendency for negative bias with greater daily energy expenditure. No consumer monitors performed as well as the research-grade devices although in some (but not all) cases, estimates were close to criterion measurements. Thus, whilst industry-led innovation has improved the accuracy of consumer monitors, these devices

  3. Assessment of laboratory and daily energy expenditure estimates from consumer multi-sensor physical activity monitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enhad A Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Wearable physical activity monitors are growing in popularity and provide the opportunity for large numbers of the public to self-monitor physical activity behaviours. The latest generation of these devices feature multiple sensors, ostensibly similar or even superior to advanced research instruments. However, little is known about the accuracy of their energy expenditure estimates. Here, we assessed their performance against criterion measurements in both controlled laboratory conditions (simulated activities of daily living and structured exercise and over a 24 hour period in free-living conditions. Thirty men (n = 15 and women (n = 15 wore three multi-sensor consumer monitors (Microsoft Band, Apple Watch and Fitbit Charge HR, an accelerometry-only device as a comparison (Jawbone UP24 and validated research-grade multi-sensor devices (BodyMedia Core and individually calibrated Actiheart™. During discrete laboratory activities when compared against indirect calorimetry, the Apple Watch performed similarly to criterion measures. The Fitbit Charge HR was less consistent at measurement of discrete activities, but produced similar free-living estimates to the Apple Watch. Both these devices underestimated free-living energy expenditure (-394 kcal/d and -405 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01. The multi-sensor Microsoft Band and accelerometry-only Jawbone UP24 devices underestimated most laboratory activities and substantially underestimated free-living expenditure (-1128 kcal/d and -998 kcal/d, respectively; P<0.01. None of the consumer devices were deemed equivalent to the reference method for daily energy expenditure. For all devices, there was a tendency for negative bias with greater daily energy expenditure. No consumer monitors performed as well as the research-grade devices although in some (but not all cases, estimates were close to criterion measurements. Thus, whilst industry-led innovation has improved the accuracy of consumer monitors

  4. [Impact of an Aspherical Aberration Correcting Monofocal Intraocular Lens on Patient Satisfaction for Daily Life Activities: The Heidelberg Daily Task Evaluation (DATE) Questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretz, F T A; Son, H; Liebing, S; Tandogan, T; Auffarth, G U

    2015-08-01

    A clinical evaluation of the functional results and its impact on daily activities of an aspherical, aberration correcting intraocular lens (IOL) was undertaken. Twenty-one patients aged from 50 to 83 years underwent cataract surgery with implantation of the aspheric IOL (Tecnis ZCB00, Abbott Medical Optics). They were evaluated 2 to 4 months after surgery for their subjective satisfaction of vision quality and its impact on performance of daily activities as well as functional results and refractive outcome. Patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire - the Heidelberg DATE (DAily Tasks Evaluation) questionnaire. Significant changes from pre- to postoperative results were found in refraction (p ≤ 0.03), with a mean prediction error of + 0.21 ± 0.43 D. UDVA and CDVA improved significantly (p < 0.01), with a postoperative CDVA of 0.0 logMAR or better in 97.1 % of eyes. All patients would recommend the procedure to a relative or a friend and 93.8 % of patients reported to be satisfied with the outcome. The implantation of the aspheric IOL Tecnis ZCB00 after cataract surgery allows the restoration of visual function, providing an optimised optical quality and a high level of patient satisfaction. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Effects of individually tailored physical and daily activities in nursing home residents on activities of daily living, physical performance and physical activity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Mette; Frändin, Kerstin; Bergland, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    , evidence for the benefit of rehabilitation in nursing home residents is conflicting and inconclusive. Objective: To evaluate the effect of an individually tailored intervention program of 3 months, for nursing home residents, on ADL, balance, physical activity level, mobility and muscle strength. Methods...

  6. Roles of RFRP-3 in the daily and seasonal regulation of reproductive activity in female Syrian hamsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Jo B.; Ancel, Caroline; Mikkelsen, Jens D.

    2017-01-01

    In females, reproductive activity relies on proper integration of daily and environmental changes as well as cyclic sex-steroid feedback. This study sought to investigate the role of the hypothalamic Arg-Phe amide-related peptide (RFRP)-3 in the daily and seasonal control of reproductive activity...... alongside kisspeptin neurons, are essential for proper synchronization of reproductive activity with the time of the day, the stage of the estrous cycle, and the seasonal changes in photoperiod....

  7. Objectively measured daily physical activity and postural changes as related to positive and negative affect using ambulatory monitoring assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Aggio, D; Wallace, K; Boreham, N; Shankar, A; Steptoe, A; Hamer, M

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The aim of the study was to determine whether objectively measured daily physical activity and posture of sitting, standing, and sit-to-stand transitions are associated with daily assessments of affect. Methods Participants (N = 51, 49% female) wore ActivPal accelerometers for 24 h/d for seven consecutive days. Time spent sitting, standing, and being physically active and sit-to-stand transitions were derived for each day. Participants also completed a mood inventory each e...

  8. Objectively Measured Daily Physical Activity and Postural Changes as Related to Positive and Negative Affect Using Ambulatory Monitoring Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Aggio, D.; Wallace, K.; Boreham, N.; Shankar, A.; Steptoe, A.; Hamer, M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine whether objectively measured daily physical activity and posture of sitting, standing, and sit-to-stand transitions are associated with daily assessments of affect. METHODS: Participants (N = 51, 49% female) wore ActivPal accelerometers for 24 h/d for seven consecutive days. Time spent sitting, standing, and being physically active and sit-to-stand transitions were derived for each day. Participants also completed a mood inventory each evening....

  9. Contextual factors related to physical activity during daily middle school physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusseau, Timothy A; Burns, Ryan D; Fu, You

    2016-09-01

    Given the importance of optimizing physical activity in adolescents, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of activity mode, environment, and semester on step counts/minute and MVPA during daily middle-school physical education (PE). A prospective and observational research design. Participants included 232 students (Mean age=13.3±0.4 years) recruited from the seventh and eighth grades from one public middle-school in the U.S. Activity modes were employed across the school year including motor skills, games, and fitness activities located in indoor and outdoor environments. Step counts/minute and MVPA were monitored across 132 PE lessons during Fall and Spring semesters using NL-1000 piezoelectric pedometers. A three-way Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) was employed to examine the effect of activity mode (skill games vs. fitness), environment (indoors vs. outdoors), and semester (Fall vs. Spring) on student step counts/minute and MVPA. MANCOVA was followed by separate ANCOVA tests. MANCOVA yielded a statistically significant three-way interaction (Wilks' Λ=0.98 F(2, 1153)=8.9, PDaily middle-school physical activity was the highest during outdoor fitness activities in the Fall and the lowest during indoor motor skill games in the Spring. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Interplay between daily rhythmic serum-mediated bacterial killing activity and immune defence factors in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazado, Carlo Cabacang; Gesto, Manuel; Madsen, Lone

    2018-01-01

    manifested variations during the LD cycle, where anti-protease (ANTI) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities exhibited significant daily oscillation. However, there were no remarkable differences in the daily changes of serum factors amongst emergence fractions. Acrophase analysis revealed that the peaks...

  11. Early Birds by Light at Night: Effects of Light Color and Intensity on Daily Activity Patterns in Blue Tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Maaike; Caro, Samuel P.; Gienapp, Phillip; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Visser, Marcel E.

    2017-01-01

    Artificial light at night disturbs the daily rhythms of many organisms. To what extent this disturbance depends on the intensity and spectral composition of light remain obscure. Here, we measured daily activity patterns of captive blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) exposed to similar intensities of

  12. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which…

  13. Daily physical activity in Finnish adolescents with long term illnesses or disabilities: psychosocial associations with participation in sports club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok Ng

    2016-09-01

    Adolescents with LTID need encouragement to be active daily. One possible way to achieve this is through sports club participation. Implementing adaptive motivating techniques in sports clubs is especially important for girls in clubs. More research is needed on the associations of daily MVPA with different educational aspirations  for adolescents with LTID.

  14. Evaluation of An Activities of Daily Living Scale for Adolescents and Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenner, Matthew J; Smith, Leann E; Hong, Jinkuk; Makuch, Renee; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2012-01-01

    Background Activity limitations are an important and useful dimension of disability, but there are few validated measures of activity limitations for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. Objective/Hypothesis To describe the development of the Waisman Activities of Daily Living (W-ADL) Scale for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities, and systematically evaluate its measurement properties according to an established set of criteria. Methods The W-ADL was administered among four longitudinally-studied groups of adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities: 406 with autism; 147 with fragile-X syndrome; 169 with Down syndrome, and 292 with intellectual disability of other or unknown origin. The W-ADL contains 17 activities and each is rated on a 3-point scale (0=“does not do at all”, 1=“does with help”, 2=“independent”), and a standard set of criteria were used to evaluate its measurement properties. Results Across the disability groups, Cronbach’s alphas ranged from 0.88 to 0.94, and a single-factor structure was most parsimonious. The W-ADL was reliable over time, with weighted kappas between 0.92 and 0.93. Criterion and construct validity were supported through substantial associations with the Vineland Screener, need for respite services, caregiving burden, and competitive employment. No floor or ceiling effects were present. There were significant group differences in W-ADL scores by maternally-reported level of intellectual disability (mild, moderate, severe, profound). Conclusions The W-ADL exceeded the recommended threshold for each quality criterion the authors evaluated. This freely-available tool is an efficient measure of activities of daily living for surveys and epidemiological research concerning adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. PMID:23260606

  15. A multi-sensor monitoring system of human physiology and daily activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Sean T; Oh, Paul

    2012-04-01

    To present the design and pilot test results of a continuous multi-sensor monitoring system of real-world physiological conditions and daily life (activities, travel, exercise, and food consumption), culminating in a Web-based graphical decision-support interface. The system includes a set of wearable sensors wirelessly connected to a "smartphone" with a continuously running software application that compresses and transmits the data to a central server. Sensors include a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, electrocardiogram (ECG), three-axis accelerometer, and continuous blood glucose monitor. A food/medicine diary and prompted recall activity diary were also used. The pilot test involved 40 type 2 diabetic patients monitored over a 72-h period. All but three subjects were successfully monitored for the full study period. Smartphones proved to be an effective hub for managing multiple streams of data but required attention to data compression and battery consumption issues. ECG, accelerometer, and blood glucose devices performed adequately as long as subjects wore them. GPS tracking for a full day was feasible, although significant efforts are needed to impute missing data. Activity detection algorithms were successful in identifying activities and trip modes but could benefit by incorporating accelerometer data. The prompted recall diary was an effective tool for augmenting algorithm results, although subjects reported some difficulties with it. The food and medicine diary was completed fully, although end times and medicine dosages were occasionally missing. The unique combination of sensors holds promise for increasing accuracy and reducing burden associated with collecting individual-level activity and physiological data under real-world conditions, but significant data processing issues remain. Such data will provide new opportunities to explore the impacts of human geography and daily lifestyle on health at a fine spatial/temporal scale.

  16. Daily physical activity and its contribution to the health-related quality of life of ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Rand, Debbie; Eng, Janice J; Tang, Pei-Fang; Hung, Chihya; Jeng, Jiann-Shing

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Participation in daily physical activity (PA) post-stroke has not previously been investigated as a possible explanatory variable of health-related quality of life (HRQL). The aims were 1) to determine the contribution of daily PA to the HRQL of individuals with chronic stroke and 2) to assess the relationship between the functional ability of these individuals to the amount of daily PA. Methods The amount of daily PA of forty adults with chronic stroke (mean age 66.5 ± 9....

  17. Ambulatory activity monitoring: Progress in measurement of activity, posture, and specific motion patterns in daily life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); U.W. Ebner-Priemer (Ulrich); J. Fahrenberg (Jochen)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBehavior is central to psychology in almost any definition. Although observable activity is a core aspect of behavior, assessment strategies have tended to focus on emotional, cognitive, or physiological responses. When physical activity is assessed, it is done so mostly with

  18. Physical activity does not attenuate the relationship between daily cortisol and metabolic syndrome in obese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseman, Emily Hill; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Carlson, Joseph J; Stansbury, Kathy; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2016-01-01

    We examined the associations among daily cortisol, physical activity (MVPA) and continuous metabolic syndrome score (cMetS) in obese youth. Fifty adolescents (mean age 14.8 ± 1.9 years) were recruited from medical clinics. Daily MVPA (min/day) was assessed by accelerometry. Saliva was sampled at prescribed times: immediately upon waking; 30 min after waking; and 3, 6 and 9 h after waking. Fasting lipids, glucose, waist circumference and blood pressure were used to calculate a continuous metabolic syndrome score (cMetS). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine associations among variables. The mean cMetS score was 4.16 ± 4.30 and did not differ by clinic or sex. No significant relationship was found between cortisol area under the curve (cAUC) and cMetS, nor did the interaction of MVPA with cAUC significantly predict cMetS. Physical activity, cortisol, and metabolic risk were not associated in this sample of obese adolescents. Future research should examine the role of insulin sensitivity in these relationships.

  19. HUBUNGAN TINGKAT PENDIDIKAN DAN ACTIVITY DAILY LIVING DENGAN DEMENSIA PADA LANJUT USIA DI PANTI WERDHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raden Siti Maryam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang: Jumlah kasus dan kejadian demensia di Indonesia pada tahun 2000 sebanyak 606.100 orang dan 191.400 orang. Pada tahun 2020 diprediksikan akan meningkat sebanyak 1.016.800 orang dan 314.100 orang (Alzheimer’s Disease International, 2006. Peningkatan jumlah kasus dan kejadian demensia menjadi tantangan bagi pemberi pelayanan kesehatan melihat dampak yang ditimbulkannya. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan gambaran tentang faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi demensia pada lansia. Metode: Jenis penelitian ini adalah non-eksperimental (observasional dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Analisis multivariat menggunakan regresi linear ganda. Populasi penelitian ini adalah seluruh lansia yang ada di Panti Sosial Tresna Werdha Wilayah DKI Jakarta dengan sampel berjumlah 120 responden. Hasil: Ada hubungan bermakna antara tingkat pendidikan dengan demensia (p=0,012 dan ada hubungan bermakna antara Activity Daily Living dengan demensia (p=0,038. Model multivariat menunjukkan nilai koefisien determinasi 0,101 artinya kedua faktor tersebut yaitu tingkat pendidikan dan Activity Daily Living dapat menjelaskan variasi variabel demensia sebesar 10,1 % dan pada uji F menunjukkan kedua variabel tersebut secara signifikan dapat memprediksi variabel demensia. Faktor yang paling besar pengaruhnya terhadap demensia adalah tingkat pendidikan (Beta = 0,258. Kesimpulan: Untuk tetap meningkatkan dan mempertahankan fungsi mental lansia dapat dilakukan kegiatan mengingat, berbicara, berpikir, berperilaku dan melakukan berbagai pekerjaan agar lansia dapat tetap mandiri dan produktif.

  20. A time series based sequence prediction algorithm to detect activities of daily living in smart home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marufuzzaman, M; Reaz, M B I; Ali, M A M; Rahman, L F

    2015-01-01

    The goal of smart homes is to create an intelligent environment adapting the inhabitants need and assisting the person who needs special care and safety in their daily life. This can be reached by collecting the ADL (activities of daily living) data and further analysis within existing computing elements. In this research, a very recent algorithm named sequence prediction via enhanced episode discovery (SPEED) is modified and in order to improve accuracy time component is included. The modified SPEED or M-SPEED is a sequence prediction algorithm, which modified the previous SPEED algorithm by using time duration of appliance's ON-OFF states to decide the next state. M-SPEED discovered periodic episodes of inhabitant behavior, trained it with learned episodes, and made decisions based on the obtained knowledge. The results showed that M-SPEED achieves 96.8% prediction accuracy, which is better than other time prediction algorithms like PUBS, ALZ with temporal rules and the previous SPEED. Since human behavior shows natural temporal patterns, duration times can be used to predict future events more accurately. This inhabitant activity prediction system will certainly improve the smart homes by ensuring safety and better care for elderly and handicapped people.

  1. Three-dimensional dynamic hip contact area and pressure distribution during activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, H; Faust, A; Wilckens, J; Kitagawa, M; Fetto, J; Chao, Edmund Y-S

    2006-01-01

    Estimation of the hip joint contact area and pressure distribution during activities of daily living is important in predicting joint degeneration mechanism, prosthetic implant wear, providing biomechanical rationales for preoperative planning and postoperative rehabilitation. These biomechanical data were estimated utilizing a generic hip model, the Discrete Element Analysis technique, and the in vivo hip joint contact force data. The three-dimensional joint potential contact area was obtained from the anteroposterior radiograph of a subject and the actual joint contact area and pressure distribution in eight activities of daily living were calculated. During fast, normal, and slow walking, the peak pressure of moderate magnitude was located at the lateral roof of the acetabulum during mid-stance. In standing up and sitting down, and during knee bending, the peak pressures were located at the edge of the posterior horn and the magnitude of the peak pressure during sitting down was 2.8 times that of normal walking. The peak pressure was found at the lateral roof in climbing up stairs which was higher than that in going down stairs. These results can be used to rationalize rehabilitation protocols, functional restrictions after complex acetabular reconstructions, and prosthetic component wear and fatigue test set up. The same model and analysis can provide further insight to soft tissue loading and pathology such as labral injury. When the pressure distribution on the acetabulum is inverted onto the femoral head, prediction of subchondral bone collapse associated with avascular necrosis can be achieved with improved accuracy.

  2. Seasonal Variation in Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Young Norwegian Talented Soccer Players: A Description of Daily Physical Activity Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sæther, Stig A; Aspvik, Nils P

    2014-12-01

    'Practise makes perfect' is a well-known expression in most sports, including top-level soccer. However, a high training and match load increases the risk for injury, overtraining and burnout. With the use of accelerometers and a self-report questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players' physical activity (PA) level. Data were collected three times during the 2011 Norwegian Football season (March, June and October). The accelerometer output, counts·min(-1) (counts per unit time registered), reports the daily PA-level for young talented soccer players. Results showed a stable PA-level across the season (March: 901.2 counts·min(-1), June: 854.9 counts·min(-1), October: 861.5 counts·min(-1)). Furthermore, comparison of five different training sessions across the season showed that the PA-level ranged from 2435.8 to 3745.4 counts·min(-1). A one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the three measured weeks during the soccer season (p≤0.814). However, the training sessions in January had a significantly higher PA-level than those in June and October (p≤0.001). Based on these results, we discuss how potential implications of PA-level affect factors such as risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. We argue that player development must be seen as part of an overall picture in which club training and match load should be regarded as one of many variables influencing players' PA-level. Key pointsIt is well established that to achieve a high performance level in sport, one must implement a high training and match load in childhood and youth.With the use of accelerometers and a self-reported questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players' total physical activity (PA) load.These results indicate that young talented soccer players must overcome large doses of PA on a weekly basis, exposing them to a high risk of injury, overtraining and burnout.

  3. Intellectual function, activities of daily living and computerized tomography of the brain in geriatric demented patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omura, Fumiaki; Ogura, Chikara; Kishimoto, Akira; Okubo, Masayo; Imamoto, Atsushi [Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). School of Medicine; Tsuchie, Harutaka; Sugihara, Kanichiro; Fujii, Shozo

    1984-09-01

    Thirty eight patients of geriatric dementia (mean age 74.9 years) were examined by computerized tomography (CT) and their intellectual functions and activities of daily living (ADL) were evaluated. CT was evaluated by both visual assessment method and direct measuring method. Intellectual function was evaluated by Jikei University dementia rating scale. ADL was evaluated by both Hasegawa's rating scale and Sengoku's rating scale. Results were as follows: significant influence by age was observed in intellectual functions and ADL of subjects above 75 years old. There were good correlations between the higher intellectual function, the better grooming and hygiene, and less needs of nursing care. The severe brain atrophy evaluated by the visual assessment method was correlated with the depressed level of intellectual function. When brain atrophy is mild despite high degree of dementia, reexamination should be made to explore somatic diseases inducing depression of mental activity. It also should be noted that sex and age difference is important in studying geriatric patients.

  4. Daily physical activity enhances resilient resources for symptom management in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Moé; Elavsky, Steriani

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the direct and indirect associations between physical activity and menopausal symptoms. Community-dwelling middle-aged women (N = 103; age range 40-60 years) completed daily Internet surveys at the end of the day and wore an accelerometer for the objective assessment of physical activity for 21-days. 1-1-1 multilevel mediation models were estimated to test whether resilient resources (i.e., positive affect and coping efficacy) mediated the association between physical activity and symptom burden at the between- and within-person level. Analyses demonstrated physical activity had an indirect effect (-0.16) on symptom burden through the enhancement of positive affect at the within-person level (p physical activity on symptom burden at the within-person level was -0.08 (p physical activity may help a woman to cope with her symptoms is through the enhancement of positive affect and coping efficacy on a day-to-day basis. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Daily life activities on smartphones and their effect on battery life for better personal information management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Khusro, S.; Ali, S.; Din, A.U.

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquity of smartphones is evident from the fact that it is present in the pocket of almost every individual. Because of the increasing computing power and the integration of other abundant resources like storage and sensors, smartphones are proving as the most common Personal Information Management (PIM) platform. Smartphones can capture a broad range of users experiences as compared to a traditional desktop computer which is evident from the numerous smartphone apps available in app markets for the purpose. These applications capture context of a user by utilizing full resources of the smartphone, especially the sensors. However, limited battery power of smart phones has proven to be the most significant bottleneck. Currently, app-based power consumption is estimated which provide only an indication of per app power usage and is of no use to researchers. This research identifies users common daily life activities on smartphones and critically analyses their effects on battery power. Our approach looks into the problem through the eyes of researchers working in the domain of intelligent and context -aware systems. An Android -based application called Smartphone Task-based Energy Monitoring System (STEMS) is developed for estimating power consumption rates of different daily life activities. The system collects activities and the power consumption data from the participants smartphones operating on cellular network with GSM/GPRS and Wi-Fi capabilities. It was found that activities requiring internet connectivity are more energy hungry than others. The results so obtained may prove useful to the stakeholders, like app designers and developers, PIM managers , and the end users. (author)

  6. Motivation of health professionals and associates to perform daily job activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvada Švrakić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Motivation is one of the most complex elements of human behavior, it is the subject of debates by which we answer to the question of why someone behaves in a certain way. The aim of this study wasto examine the factors of motivation for health workers and staff in working with diffi cult patients in intensive care units and to evaluate implementation of motivation factors by managers in their daily work with a team of health professionals.Methods: The study was designed as prospective. It was conducted on 27 employees who work in intensive care units in Clinical Center of Sarajevo University. The survey questionnaire was used with a clear andconcise questions , aimed at testing the factors of motivation for daily work with diffi cult patients, as well as implementation of motivational factors by managers in the organizational unit (OU.Results: Respondents indicated that motivates them, good organization of work - 10 of them (37%, while 26% of respondents indicated that they are motivated by fi nancial gain. In our study 21 (77% of respondentssaid that their managers infuenced the motivation for a better job. Mobbing at the workplace did not had 80% of respondents, while 8% of respondents stated that they had some form of mobbing, and 12% of respondents give partial response.Conclusions: The survey showed that most respondents have a good motivation factors for the performance of daily activities to work with diffi cult patients. As the main motivating factors respondents reportedgood organization of work, as well as positive examples of their managers.

  7. On the influence of the alternation of two different cooling systems on dairy cow daily activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona M.C. Porto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the causes that influence cow welfare, heat stress induced by microclimatic conditions is one of the most relevant and many studies have investigated the efficacy of different cooling systems on animal health status. Nevertheless, the direct influence of the cooling systems on possible modifications of dairy cow behaviour has been addressed in a few studies and the related results were affected by the presence of a paddock, which gave a refuge from hot temperature. Since an alteration of the daily time budget spent by dairy cows in their usual activities can be associated with changes in their health status, this study investigated the effects of the alternation of two different cooling systems on lying, standing, and feeding behaviour of a group of dairy cows bred in a free-stall dairy house where animals had no access to a paddock. The barn was equipped with a fogging system associated with forced ventilation installed in the resting area and a sprinkler system associated with forced ventilation installed in the feeding area. The two systems were activated alternately. The results demonstrated that the management of the two cooling systems affected the analysed behaviours. Though the activation of the cooling system installed in the resting area encouraged the decubitus of animals in the stalls, the activation of that one of the feeding alley could not be able to influence the standing behaviour and had only a moderate positive influence on the feeding activity.

  8. Daily physical activity and sports participation among children from ethnic minorities in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Glen; Hermansen, Bianca; Bugge, Anna; Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Danish children from immigrant backgrounds are less physically active than children from the ethnic majority, and to investigate the possible reasons for any differences found. Accelerometer measures of physical activity as well as questionnaire data about organised sports, family demography, resources and values were collected from 594 children of whom 67 had other ethnic background than Danish. Data were collected when the children were 6-7 years old and again later when the children were 9-10 years old. It was found that children from immigrant backgrounds were not less physically active than other children when their amounts of daily physical activity were measured by direct objective measures, despite their participation rate in organised sports being much lower. Using multiple logistic regression modelling, this study showed that lack of parental experience with organised sports and lack of economic/material resources explained much of the difference in sports participation. Children of immigrant background had significant lower participation in club sports but this did not affect their overall physical activity level.

  9. Level of daily physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients according to GOLD classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodó-Pin, Anna; Balañá, Ana; Molina, Lluís; Gea, Joaquim; Rodríguez, Diego A

    2017-02-09

    The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guideline) for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease does not adequately reflect the impact of the disease because does not take into account daily physical activity (DPA). Forty eight patients (12 in each GOLD group) were prospectively recruited. DPA was evaluated by accelerometer. Patients were classified into 3 levels of activity (very inactive, sedentary, active). No significant differences in levels of physical activity among GOLD groups (P=.361) were observed. The percentages of very inactive patients were 33% in group A, 42% in group B, 42% in group C and 59% in group D. In addition, high percentage of sedentary patients were observed through 4 groups, in group A (50%), B and C (42%, each), and group D (41%). COPD patients has very low levels of physical activity at all stages of GOLD classification even those defined as low impact (such as GOLD A). Is necessary to detect patients at risk who might benefit from specific interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence on intraocular pressure of the postural change and daily activities in the early morning in suspected glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the influence on intraocular pressure(IOPof the postural change and daily activities in the early morning in suspected glaucoma patients.METHODS:The supine and sitting IOP were measured and analyzed on 51 suspected glaucoma patients(100 eyeswith Icare rebound tonometer before and after getting up and daily activities in the early morning. RESULTS: The mean of sitting IOP of 51 patients was 17.12±4.53mmHg, which was significantly lower than the mean of supine IOP(19.14±5.51mmHg. The mean of IOP before and after daily activity of 51 patients were 17.12±4.53mmHg and 14.44±3.90mmHg respectively, which showed significantly difference. CONCLUSION:Postural change and daily activities can result in significant changes of IOP in suspected glaucoma patients.

  11. Cardiac Events During Competitive, Recreational, and Daily Activities in Children and Adolescents With Long QT Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Kristina D; Beausejour Ladouceur, Virginie; Alexander, Mark E; Hylind, Robyn J; Bevilacqua, Laura; Mah, Douglas Y; Bezzerides, Vassilios; Triedman, John K; Walsh, Edward P; Abrams, Dominic J

    2017-09-21

    The 2005 Bethesda Conference Guidelines advise patients with long QT syndrome against competitive sports. We assessed cardiac event rates during competitive and recreational sports, and daily activities among treated long QT syndrome patients. Long QT syndrome patients aged ≥4 years treated with anti-adrenergic therapy were included. Demographics included mechanism of presentation, corrected QT interval pretreatment, symptom history, medication compliance, and administration of QT-prolonging medications. Corrected QT interval ≥550 ms or prior cardiac arrest defined high risk. Sports were categorized by cardiovascular demand per the 2005 Bethesda Conference Guidelines. Each was classified as recreational or competitive. One hundred seventy-two patients (90; 52% female) with median age 15.2 years (interquartile range 11.4, 19.4) were included. Evaluation was performed for family history (102; 59%), incidental finding (34; 20%), and symptoms (36; 21%). Median corrected QT interval was 474 ms (interquartile range 446, 496) and 14 patients (8%) were deemed high risk. Treatment included β-blockers (171; 99%), implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (27; 16%), left cardiac sympathetic denervation (7; 4%), and pacemaker (3; 2%). Sports participation was recreational (66; 38%) or competitive (106; 62%), with 92 (53%) exercising against the Bethesda Conference Guidelines. There were no cardiac events in competitive athletes and no deaths. There were 13 cardiac events in 9 previously symptomatic patients during either recreational exercise or activities of daily life. In this cohort of appropriately managed children with long QT syndrome, cardiac event rates were low and occurred during recreational but not competitive activities. This study further supports the need for increased assessment of arrhythmia risk during exercise in this patient population. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  12. Improving activities of daily living in danish centenarians--but only in women: A comparative study of two birth cohorts born in 1895 and 1905

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Henriette; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2008-01-01

    ) and Physical Activities of Daily Living (PADLs) were assessed in both cohorts. RESULTS: The 1905 cohort displayed better self-reported ADLs than the 1895 cohort did. Stratified by gender, this apparent cohort advantage was due to women in the 1905 cohort performing significantly better than their female......BACKGROUND: The number of centenarians has increased rapidly since the 1950s. In Denmark, 42% more of the 1905 birth cohort made it to 100 years of age compared to the 1895 cohort. We tested whether this increased survival proportion has resulted in an increased disability level in the more recent...... included all individuals born in Denmark in 1905. At baseline in 1998, a total of 2262 persons participated in the intake survey (63%). In total, 225 of 364 persons (62%) who reached their 100th birthday in the cohort participated in the most recent 2005 wave. Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADLs...

  13. Carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio is estimated from 300-400 divided by total daily insulin dose in type 1 diabetes patients who use the insulin pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Akio; Yasuda, Tetsuyuki; Takahara, Mitsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Fumie; Kasami, Ryuichi; Miyashita, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Sumiko; Kondo, Eri; Aihara, Ken-ichi; Endo, Itsuro; Matsuoka, Taka-aki; Kaneto, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Toshio; Shimomura, Iichiro; Matsuhisa, Munehide

    2012-11-01

    To optimize insulin dose using insulin pump, basal and bolus insulin doses are widely calculated from total daily insulin dose (TDD). It is recommended that total daily basal insulin dose (TBD) is 50% of TDD and that the carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio (CIR) equals 500 divided by TDD. We recently reported that basal insulin requirement is approximately 30% of TDD. We therefore investigated CIR after adjustment of the proper basal insulin rate. Forty-five Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes were investigated during several weeks of hospitalization. The patients were served standard diabetes meals (25-30 kcal/kg of ideal body weight). Each meal omission was done to confirm basal insulin rate. Target blood glucose level was set at 100 and 150 mg/dL before and 2 h after each meal, respectively. After the basal insulin rate was fixed and target blood glucose levels were achieved, TBD, CIR, TDD, and their products were determined. Mean (±SD) blood glucose levels before and 2 h after meals were 121±47 and 150±61 mg/dL, respectively. TDD was 31.5±9.0 U, and TBD was 27.0±6.5% of TDD. CIR×TDD of breakfast was significantly lower than those of lunch and supper (288±73 vs. 408±92 and 387±83, respectively; Plunch and supper in type 1 diabetes patients. These results indicate that the insulin dose has been underestimated by using previously established calculations.

  14. Self-Reported Versus Accelerometer-Assessed Daily Physical Activity in Childhood Obesity Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnurr, Theresia Maria; Bech, Bianca; Haarmark Nielsen, Tenna Ruest

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between interview-based subjective ratings of physical activity (PA) engagement and accelerometer-assessed objective measured PA in children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. A total of 92 children and adolescents (40 males, 52 females) with BMI ≥ 90th p...

  15. Daily physical activity patterns from hip- and wrist-worn accelerometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiroma, Eric J; Schepps, M A; Harezlak, J

    2016-01-01

    Accelerometer wear location may influence physical activity estimates. This study investigates this relationship through the examination of activity patterns throughout the day. Participants from the aging research evaluating accelerometry (AREA) study (n men = 37, n women = 47, mean age (SD) = 78...... activity accrual provide support that each location is capable of estimating total physical activity volume. The examination of activity patterns over time may provide a more detailed way to examine differences in wear location and different subpopulations. © 2016 Institute of Physics and Engineering.......9 (5.5) years) were asked to wear accelerometers in a free-living environment for 7 d at three different wear locations; one on each wrist and one on the right hip. During waking hours, wrist-worn accelerometers consistently produced higher median activity counts, about 5 × higher, as well as wider...

  16. Raltegravir once daily or twice daily in previously untreated patients with HIV-1: a randomised, active-controlled, phase 3 non-inferiority trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eron, Joseph J.; Rockstroh, Jürgen K.; Reynes, Jacques; Andrade-Villanueva, Jaime; Ramalho-Madruga, Jose Valdez; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Young, Benjamin; Katlama, Christine; Gatell-Artigas, Jose Maria; Arribas, Jose R.; Nelson, Mark; Campbell, Havilland; Zhao, Jing; Rodgers, Anthony J.; Rizk, Matthew L.; Wenning, Larissa; Miller, Michael D.; Hazuda, Daria; DiNubile, Mark J.; Leavitt, Randi; Isaacs, Robin; Robertson, Michael N.; Sklar, Peter; Nguyen, Bach-Yen; Bloch, M. T.; Hoy, J.; Workman, C.; Madruga, J. V.; Souza, T.; Telles, F. Q.; Zajdenverg, R.; Angel, J.; Montaner, J. S.; Smith, G. H. R.; Trottier, B.; Tamara, J. R.; Velez, J. D.; Gerstoft, J.; Laursen, A. L.; Mathiesen, L.; Katlama, C.; Molina, J. M.; Raffi, F.; Reynes, J.; Yazdanpanah, Y.; Bogner, J. R.; Fatkenheuer, G.; Hartl, H.; Jaeger, H.; Geerlings, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    Twice-daily raltegravir with once-daily tenofovir-emtricitabine is an effective initial antiretroviral regimen for patients with HIV-1. On the basis of pharmacokinetic data suggesting efficacy of once-daily raltegravir and because adherence is often improved with once-daily dosing, we aimed to

  17. Prediction of motor outcomes and activities of daily living function using diffusion tensor tractography in acute hemiparetic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imura, Takeshi; Nagasawa, Yuki; Inagawa, Tetsuji; Imada, Naoki; Izumi, Hiroaki; Emoto, Katsuya; Tani, Itaru; Yamasaki, Hiroyuki; Ota, Yuichiro; Oki, Shuichi; Maeda, Tadanori; Araki, Osamu

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The efficacy of diffusion tensor imaging in the prediction of motor outcomes and activities of daily living function remains unclear. We evaluated the most appropriate diffusion tensor parameters and methodology to determine whether the region of interest- or tractography-based method was more useful for predicting motor outcomes and activities of daily living function in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Diffusion tensor imaging data within 10 days after stroke onset were collected and analyzed for 25 patients. The corticospinal tract was analyzed. Fractional anisotropy, number of fibers, and apparent diffusion coefficient were used as diffusion tensor parameters. Motor outcomes and activities of daily living function were evaluated on the same day as diffusion tensor imaging and at 1 month post-onset. [Results] The fractional anisotropy value of the affected corticospinal tract significantly correlated with the motor outcome and activities of daily living function within 10 days post-onset and at 1 month post-onset. Tthere were no significant correlations between other diffusion tensor parameters and motor outcomes or activities of daily living function. [Conclusion] The fractional anisotropy value of the affected corticospinal tract obtained using the tractography-based method was useful for predicting motor outcomes and activities of daily living function in stroke patients.

  18. Relationship Between Functional Mobility and Balance and Dependency in Activity of Daily Living in Elderly After “Hip Arthroplasty”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hassan Mirzaie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate correlation between functional mobility with balance and dependency in activity of daily living in elderly after “hip arthroplasty” (HA and its comparison with healthy subjects. Methods & Materials: The current cross-sectional study was done on 15 patients with age mean and standard deviation (72±9.6 with hip osteoarthritis 6 months after “hip arthroplasty” (HA and 15 healthy subjects with age mean and standard deviation (72.7±1.4 as control group. Patient group was assigned with non- probability convenient sampling and control group selected with matched assignment. Functional mobility measured with Timed Up & Go Test (TUG, functional balance with Functional Reach (FR and Berg Balance Scale (BBS and dependency in activity of daily living measured with Modified Barthel Index (MBI. Pearsons correlation coefficient used for stastistical analysis. Results: Results of this study indicated significantly and stronge correlation between functional mobility and balance and dependency in activity of daily living in patient group (r>0.50. Also medium correlation existed between functional mobility and balance with dependency in activity of daily living in control group (r>0.30. Conclusion: Functional mobility and balance and dependency in activity of daily living in the elderly who had HA showed significant positive correlation. In addition correlation between functional mobility and balance and dependency in activity of daily living in patient group is better and higher than healthy group.

  19. Synchronization to light and mealtime of daily rhythms of locomotor activity, plasma glucose and digestive enzymes in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Santos, Bartira; López-Olmeda, José Fernando; de Mattos, Bruno Olivetti; Baião, Alice Borba; Pereira, Denise Soledade Peixoto; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco Javier; Cerqueira, Robson Bahia; Albinati, Ricardo Castelo Branco; Fortes-Silva, Rodrigo

    2017-02-01

    The light-dark cycle and feeding can be the most important factors acting as synchronizers of biological rhythms. In this research we aimed to evaluate synchronization to feeding schedule of daily rhythms of locomotor activity and digestive enzymes of tilapia. For that purpose, 120 tilapias (65.0±0.6g) were distributed in 12 tanks (10 fish per tank) and divided into two groups. One group was fed once a day at 11:00h (zeitgeber time, ZT6) (ML group) and the other group was fed at 23:00h (ZT18) (MD group). The fish were anesthetized to collect samples of blood, stomach and midgut at 4-hour intervals over a period of 24h. Fish fed at ML showed a diurnal locomotor activity (74% of the total daily activity occurring during the light phase) and synchronization to the feeding schedule, as this group showed anticipation to the feeding time. Fish fed at MD showed a disruption in the pattern of locomotor activity and became less diurnal (59%). Alkaline protease activity in the midgut showed daily rhythm with the achrophase at the beginning of the dark phase in both ML and MD groups. Acid protease and amylase did not show significant daily rhythms. Plasma glucose showed a daily rhythm with the achrophase shifted by 12h in the ML and MD groups. These results revealed that the feeding time and light cycle synchronize differently the daily rhythms of behavior, digestive physiology and plasma metabolites in the Nile tilapia, which indicate the plasticity of the circadian system and its synchronizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Teen at work: the burden of a double shift on daily activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Liliane Reis; Fischer, Frida Marina; Nagai, Roberta; Turte, Samantha Lemos

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to the evaluate time spent by working and nonworking adolescents on daily activities (work, home duties, school, transportation, other activities, leisure, sleep, and naps). Twenty-seven students, 8 male workers, 8 female workers, 5 male nonworkers, and 6 female nonworkers, ages 14-18 yrs participated in the study. They attended evening classes Monday-Friday (19:00-22:30h) in a public school in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The students answered a comprehensive questionnaire on the characterization of their life, work, and health conditions. Simultaneously, they wore actigraphs (Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc.) and completed a diary of their daily activities (time spent at work, on home duties, commuting, leisure, other activities) for a minimum of 10 to a maximum of 17 consecutive days. The means of the variables were tested for differences by a two-factor (work and sex) ANOVA and Student-t test applied to pair-wise samples (weekdays and weekends). The average duration during weekdays of working time was 7 h 09 min and home duties 0 h 48 min. As for commuting time, there was a work effect [F(1,23) = 4.9; p = 0.04]; mean commuting time was 2 h 22 min for workers (males and females) and 1 h 25 min for nonworkers. There was a significant difference between workers and nonworkers [F(1,23) = 4.6; p = 0.04] regarding extra-cirricular class activities; workers spent a mean of 3 min/day on them as opposed to 1 h 14 min by nonworkers. The average daily time spent on leisure activities by workers was 6h 31 min; whereas, for nonworkers it was 7h 38min. Time spent in school amounted to 2h 47min for workers in comparison to 3h 22min by nonworkers. There was a significant work effect upon sleep [F(1,23)= 10.0; p sleep duration was significant [F(1,23)= 16.7; p sleep of 6 h 57 min and female workers 07h 15min. The average nighttime sleep duration for nonworkers was 9 h 06 min. There was a significant interactive effect between work and sex [F(1,23)= 5

  1. Synchronization by food access modifies the daily variations in expression and activity of liver GABA transaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ita-Pérez, Dalia; Méndez, Isabel; Vázquez-Martínez, Olivia; Villalobos-Leal, Mónica; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Daytime restricted feeding (DRF) is an experimental protocol that influences the circadian timing system and underlies the expression of a biological clock known as the food entrained oscillator (FEO). Liver is the organ that reacts most rapidly to food restriction by adjusting the functional relationship between the molecular circadian clock and the metabolic networks. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a signaling molecule in the liver, and able to modulate the cell cycle and apoptosis. This study was aimed at characterizing the expression and activity of the mostly mitochondrial enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T) during DRF/FEO expression. We found that DRF promotes a sustained increase of GABA-T in the liver homogenate and mitochondrial fraction throughout the entire day-night cycle. The higher amount of GABA-T promoted by DRF was not associated to changes in GABA-T mRNA or GABA-T activity. The GABA-T activity in the mitochondrial fraction even tended to decrease during the light period. We concluded that DRF influences the daily variations of GABA-T mRNA levels, stability, and catalytic activity of GABA-T. These data suggest that the liver GABAergic system responds to a metabolic challenge such as DRF and the concomitant appearance of the FEO.

  2. Synchronization by Food Access Modifies the Daily Variations in Expression and Activity of Liver GABA Transaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia De Ita-Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Daytime restricted feeding (DRF is an experimental protocol that influences the circadian timing system and underlies the expression of a biological clock known as the food entrained oscillator (FEO. Liver is the organ that reacts most rapidly to food restriction by adjusting the functional relationship between the molecular circadian clock and the metabolic networks. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA is a signaling molecule in the liver, and able to modulate the cell cycle and apoptosis. This study was aimed at characterizing the expression and activity of the mostly mitochondrial enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T during DRF/FEO expression. We found that DRF promotes a sustained increase of GABA-T in the liver homogenate and mitochondrial fraction throughout the entire day-night cycle. The higher amount of GABA-T promoted by DRF was not associated to changes in GABA-T mRNA or GABA-T activity. The GABA-T activity in the mitochondrial fraction even tended to decrease during the light period. We concluded that DRF influences the daily variations of GABA-T mRNA levels, stability, and catalytic activity of GABA-T. These data suggest that the liver GABAergic system responds to a metabolic challenge such as DRF and the concomitant appearance of the FEO.

  3. Hypotensive responses to common daily activities in institutionalized elderly. A potential risk for recurrent falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, P V; Lipsitz, L A; Kelley, M; Koestner, J

    1990-07-01

    Transient hypotension may be one of many factors contributing to the high prevalence of falls among elderly people. To determine the frequency and magnitude of hypotensive responses to common daily activities, and their potential relationship to falls in the elderly, we examined blood pressure (BP) and heart rate during a standardized series of activities in 38 institutionalized recurrent fallers (age, 87 +/- 6 years), 20 institutionalized nonfallers (age, 85 +/- 5 years), and 10 healthy young control subjects (age, 24 +/- 3 years). The coefficient of variation for systolic BP during all activities was higher in elderly subjects (fallers, 14% +/- 5%; nonfallers, 12% +/- 3%) than in young control subjects (8% +/- 1%). In contrast, the coefficient of variation for heart rate during all activities was higher in young subjects than in the elderly subjects. Elderly subjects had marked BP reduction following meals and nitroglycerin, which was significantly greater in fallers than in nonfallers, independent of the cause of the fall. Thus, institutionalized elderly have marked BP variability and hypotensive responses to meals and nitroglycerin. A decline in BP during common preload-reducing stresses may predispose some elderly people to falls.

  4. Ethnic variation in the correlation between waist to height ratio and total daily insulin requirement in children with type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uday, Suma; Gorman, Shaun; Feltbower, Richard G; Mathai, Mathew

    2017-03-01

    Total daily insulin required to achieve glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes (T1D) depends on numerous factors. Correlation of insulin requirement to body mass index and waist circumference has been variably reported in the literature and that of waist-to-height ratio has not been studied. To study the correlation between daily insulin requirement [total daily dose (TDD)] and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) in a multiethnic population. A cross-sectional study of children (5-18 years) with T1D attending a diabetes clinic in a multiethnic population in Bradford, UK was conducted. Physical measurements were undertaken in the clinic setting and data collected from case notes and patients/carers. Sixty nine patients with mean age 12.7(±3.1) yr, duration of diabetes 5.4(±3.5) yr and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 80(±18)mmol/mol(9.5 ± 1.6%) were recruited. Nearly 54% (n = 37) were white and 46% were non-white (29 Asian Pakistani; 1 Indian; 2 mixed White Afro-Caribbean). The two groups had similar demographics and disease profiles. Non-whites compared with whites had a higher prevalence of obesity (15 vs 5%, p 1), family history of type 2 diabetes (T2D) (49% vs. 33%), microalbuminuria (22% vs. 11%, p 1). WHtR and TDD were poorly correlated in the whole group. There was however a significant positive correlation in Caucasians (r = 0.583, N = 37, p 1) and a negative correlation in Asian Pakistanis (r = -0.472, N = 32, p 1); with a significant negative correlation seen in subjects with relatives with T2D (r = -0.86, N = 6, p = 0.02). The variation in correlations highlights that the two ethnic groups behave differently and should therefore be studied separately with regards to factors influencing insulin requirements with careful consideration to the presence of parental IR. Further prospective studies are required to explore the reasons for these differences. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Smart adaptable system for older adults' Daily Life Activities Management - The ABLE platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giokas, Kostas; Anastasiou, Athanasios; Tsirmpas, Charalampos; Koutsouri, Georgia; Koutsouris, Dimitris; Iliopoulou, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a system (ABLE) that will act as the main platform for a number of low-cost, mature technologies that will be integrated in order to create a dynamically adaptive Daily Life Activities Management environment in order to facilitate the everyday life of senior (but not exclusively) citizens at home. While the main target group of ABLE's users is the ageing population its use can be extended to all people that are vulnerable or atypical in body, intellect or emotions and are categorized by society as disabled. The classes of assistive products that are well defined in the international standard, ISO9999 such as assistive products for personal medical treatment, personal care and protection, communication, information and reaction and for personal mobility, will be easily incorporated in our proposed platform. Furthermore, our platform could integrate and implement the above classes under several service models that will be analyzed further.

  6. Living with psoriasis: prevalence of shame, anger, worry, and problems in daily activities and social life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampogna, Francesca; Tabolli, Stefano; Abeni, Damiano

    2012-05-01

    Psychosocial problems are frequent among patients with psoriasis. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of some specific psychosocial issues. These were evaluated in 936 patients using the emotions and functioning scales of the Skindex-29 questionnaire. The problems most frequently experienced were: shame, anger, worry, difficulties in daily activities and social life. All problems were associated with the severity of psoriasis and with depression or anxiety. Shame, worry and annoyance were more frequent in women than in men, and shame and anger were associated with a low level of education. Impairment in work/hobbies was significantly higher in patients with palmoplantar psoriasis and those with arthro-pathic psoriasis. In conclusion, clinicians could gain important insights about their patients by looking at the single items of a quality of life instrument, to identify patients with high levels of emotional and social problems, in order to improve quality of care.

  7. A "client-centred activities of daily living" intervention for persons with stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guidetti, Susanne; Ranner, Maria; Tham, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare changes regarding perceived participation, independence in activities of daily living (ADL) and life satisfaction between 3, 6 and 12 months after inclusion in a study of a client-centred ADL intervention and usual ADL intervention after stroke. DESIGN: A multicentre...... diagnosed with dementia, and were able to understand instructions. Data collection was performed by blinded assessors. The primary outcome, perceived participation, was assessed with the Stroke Impact Scale 3.0, domain 8. The secondary outcomes, participation, independence in ADL, and life satisfaction......, were assessed with validated instruments. For statistical power, 280 participants were required. Statistical analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. RESULTS: There were no differences between the groups regarding changes in perceived participation, independence in ADL, or life...

  8. Intercountry assessment of the impact of severe premenstrual disorders on work and daily activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Lothar A J; Minh, Thai Do; Heinemann, Klaas; Lindemann, Marion; Filonenko, Anna

    2012-01-01

    We explored the effects of premenstrual symptoms in women suffering from moderate-to-severe premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMS/PMDD) on work productivity, absenteeism, and daily life activities in a large, worldwide exploratory study. Women aged 15-45 years from 19 countries in North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia, and Australia were screened for suspected PMS and PMDD and invited to participate in this 2-month web-based survey. Overall, 4,032 women completed all administered questionnaires and represent the analysis set. Women suffering from moderate-to-severe PMS/PMDD had increased work absenteeism and work productivity impairment due to premenstrual symptoms relative to those with mild PMS/no perceived symptoms.

  9. Mapping the Daily Progression of Large Wildland Fires Using MODIS Active Fire Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraverbeke, Sander; Sedano, Fernando; Hook, Simon J.; Randerson, James T.; Jin, Yufang; Rogers, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    High temporal resolution information on burned area is a prerequisite for incorporating bottom-up estimates of wildland fire emissions in regional air transport models and for improving models of fire behavior. We used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire product (MO(Y)D14) as input to a kriging interpolation to derive continuous maps of the evolution of nine large wildland fires. For each fire, local input parameters for the kriging model were defined using variogram analysis. The accuracy of the kriging model was assessed using high resolution daily fire perimeter data available from the U.S. Forest Service. We also assessed the temporal reporting accuracy of the MODIS burned area products (MCD45A1 and MCD64A1). Averaged over the nine fires, the kriging method correctly mapped 73% of the pixels within the accuracy of a single day, compared to 33% for MCD45A1 and 53% for MCD64A1.

  10. Association Between Social Participation and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2016-10-05

    Population-based data examining the relationship between social participation (SP) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) are scarce. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship between SP and IADL in community-dwelling elderly persons. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 23 710 residents aged ≥65 years in Nara, Japan (response rate: 74.2%). Data from 14 956 respondents (6935 males and 8021 females) without dependency in basic activities of daily living (ADL) were analyzed. The number, type, and frequency of participation in social groups (SGs) were used to measure SP. SGs included volunteer groups, sports groups, hobby groups, senior citizens' clubs, neighborhood community associations, and cultural groups. IADL was evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Logistic regression models stratified by gender were used. After adjustment for putative confounding factors, including demographics, health status, life-style habits, ADL, depression, cognitive function, social networks, social support, and social roles, participation in various SGs among both genders was inversely associated with poor IADL, showing a significant dose-response relationship between an increasing number of SGs and a lower proportion of those with poor IADL (P for trend <0.001). A significant inverse association between frequent participation and poor IADL was observed for all types of SGs among females, whereas the association was limited to sports groups and senior citizens' clubs among males. Our results show that participation in a variety of SGs is associated with independent IADL among the community-dwelling elderly, regardless of gender. However, the beneficial effects of frequent participation on IADL may be stronger for females than for males.

  11. Association Between Social Participation and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimiko Tomioka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population-based data examining the relationship between social participation (SP and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL are scarce. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship between SP and IADL in community-dwelling elderly persons. Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 23 710 residents aged ≥65 years in Nara, Japan (response rate: 74.2%. Data from 14 956 respondents (6935 males and 8021 females without dependency in basic activities of daily living (ADL were analyzed. The number, type, and frequency of participation in social groups (SGs were used to measure SP. SGs included volunteer groups, sports groups, hobby groups, senior citizens’ clubs, neighborhood community associations, and cultural groups. IADL was evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Logistic regression models stratified by gender were used. Results: After adjustment for putative confounding factors, including demographics, health status, life-style habits, ADL, depression, cognitive function, social networks, social support, and social roles, participation in various SGs among both genders was inversely associated with poor IADL, showing a significant dose-response relationship between an increasing number of SGs and a lower proportion of those with poor IADL (P for trend <0.001. A significant inverse association between frequent participation and poor IADL was observed for all types of SGs among females, whereas the association was limited to sports groups and senior citizens’ clubs among males. Conclusions: Our results show that participation in a variety of SGs is associated with independent IADL among the community-dwelling elderly, regardless of gender. However, the beneficial effects of frequent participation on IADL may be stronger for females than for males.

  12. Rehabilitation of activities of daily living in virtual environments with intuitive user interface and force feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Vico Chung-Lim; Lo, King-Hung; Choi, Kup-Sze

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using a virtual rehabilitation system with intuitive user interface and force feedback to improve the skills in activities of daily living (ADL). A virtual training system equipped with haptic devices was developed for the rehabilitation of three ADL tasks - door unlocking, water pouring and meat cutting. Twenty subjects with upper limb disabilities, supervised by two occupational therapists, received a four-session training using the system. The task completion time and the amount of water poured into a virtual glass were recorded. The performance of the three tasks in reality was assessed before and after the virtual training. Feedback of the participants was collected with questionnaires after the study. The completion time of the virtual tasks decreased during the training (p water successfully poured increased (p = 0.051). The score of the Borg scale of perceived exertion was 1.05 (SD = 1.85; 95% CI =  0.18-1.92) and that of the task specific feedback questionnaire was 31 (SD =  4.85; 95% CI =  28.66-33.34). The feedback of the therapists suggested a positive rehabilitation effect. The participants had positive perception towards the system. The system can potentially be used as a tool to complement conventional rehabilitation approaches of ADL. Implications for rehabilitation Rehabilitation of activities of daily living can be facilitated using computer-assisted approaches. The existing approaches focus on cognitive training rather than the manual skills. A virtual training system with intuitive user interface and force feedback was designed to improve the learning of the manual skills. The study shows that system could be used as a training tool to complement conventional rehabilitation approaches.

  13. Characteristics of seasonal variation and solar activity dependence of the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.

    2017-12-01

    Characteristics of seasonal variation and solar activity dependence of the X- and Y-components of the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation at Memanbetsu in mid-latitudes and Guam near the equator have been investigated using long-term geomagnetic field data with 1-h time resolution from 1957 to 2016. In this analysis, we defined the quiet day when the maximum value of the Kp index is less than 3 for that day. In this analysis, we used the monthly average of the adjusted daily F10.7 corresponding to geomagnetically quiet days. For identification of the monthly mean Sq variation in the X and Y components (Sq-X and Sq-Y), we first determined the baseline of the X and Y components from the average value from 22 to 2 h (LT: local time) for each quiet day. Next, we calculated a deviation from the baseline of the X- and Y-components of the geomagnetic field for each quiet day, and computed the monthly mean value of the deviation for each local time. As a result, Sq-X and Sq-Y shows a clear seasonal variation and solar activity dependence. The amplitude of seasonal variation increases significantly during high solar activities, and is proportional to the solar F10.7 index. The pattern of the seasonal variation is quite different between Sq-X and Sq-Y. The result of the correlation analysis between the solar F10.7 index and Sq-X and Sq-Y shows almost the linear relationship, but the slope and intercept of the linear fitted line varies as function of local time and month. This implies that the sensitivity of Sq-X and Sq-Y to the solar activity is different for different local times and seasons. The local time dependence of the offset value of Sq-Y at Guam and its seasonal variation suggest a magnetic field produced by inter-hemispheric field-aligned currents (FACs). From the sign of the offset value of Sq-Y, it is infer that the inter-hemispheric FACs flow from the summer to winter hemispheres in the dawn and dusk sectors and from the winter to summer hemispheres in

  14. The contribution of dance to daily physical activity among adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooker Steven P

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structured physical activity (PA programs are well positioned to promote PA among youth, however, little is known about these programs, particularly dance classes. The aims of this study were to: 1 describe PA levels of girls enrolled in dance classes, 2 determine the contribution of dance classes to total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and 3 compare PA between days with a dance class (program days and days without a dance class (non-program days. Methods Participants were 149 girls (11-18 years enrolled in dance classes in 11 dance studios. Overall PA was assessed with accelerometry for 8 consecutive days, and girls reported when they attended dance classes during those days. The percent contribution of dance classes to total MVPA was calculated, and data were reduced to compare PA on program days to non-program days. Data were analyzed using mixed models, adjusting for total monitoring time. Results Girls engaged in 25.0 ± 0.9 minutes/day of MVPA. Dance classes contributed 28.7% (95% CI: 25.9%-31.6% to girls' total MVPA. Girls accumulated more MVPA on program (28.7 ± 1.4 minutes/day than non-program days (16.4 ± 1.5 minutes/day (p Conclusions Dance classes contributed a substantial proportion (29% to girls' total MVPA, and girls accumulated 70% more MVPA and 8% less sedentary behavior on program days than on non-program days. Dance classes can make an important contribution to girls' total physical activity.

  15. Determination of total vanadium and vanadium(V) in groundwater from Mt. Etna and estimate of daily intake of vanadium(V) through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Giovanni; Copat, Chiara; Dimartino, Angela; Grasso, Alfina; Fallico, Roberto; Sciacca, Salvatore; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-06-01

    Vanadium(V) can be found in natural waters in the form of V(IV) and V(V) species, which have different biological properties and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of total V and V(V) in groundwater from the area of Mt. Etna and to assess the estimated daily intake (EDI) of V(V) of adults and children through drinking water. Water was sampled monthly at 21 sites in 2011. Total vanadium was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and speciation by ion chromatography-ICP-MS (IC-ICP-MS). The concentration of V(V) species ranged from 62.8 to 98.9% of total V, with significantly higher concentrations in samples from the S/SW slope of Mt. Etna. The annual mean concentrations of total V exceeded the Italian legal limit of 140 μg/L at four sites on the S/SW slope. In the absence of thresholds for V(V) intake, only the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has calculated a reference dose. Children's EDI of V(V) at the sites with the higher V concentrations exceeded EPA thresholds (9 μg/kg/day). In particular, we found in Camporotondo, Mascalucia, Ragalna and San Pietro Clarenza sites children's EDIs of 11, 9.3, 11 and 9.9, respectively. The EDI of V(V) was significantly higher than the literature range (0.09-0.34 μg/kg/day).

  16. Effectiveness of Three Therapeutic Modalities of Bobath, Conductive Education to Parents Regarding to Activity of Daily Living in Cerebral Palcied Children

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    Hamid Dalvand

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The goal of this study was to determine effectiveness of Bobath, conductive education (CE and education to parents on activity daily living (ADL in educable children with cerebral palsy, 3-5 years old. Materials & Methods: This research was a Quasi-experimental and interventional with pre - post study design that performed on 45 children with cerebral palsy from Valyasr rehabilitation foundation clinics. They were selected by simple sampling and matched from sex, age, IQ and disorder type and were assigned to three groups by simple randomize method (15 Bobath, 15 CE, 15 education to parents. Clinical tests were goodenough and client development evaluation report (CDER. The data were analyzed by statistical tests such as Wilcoxon signed, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-whitney U. Results: Three groups had significant improved in activity of daily living (ADL after treatment (P<0/001. There was significant difference in total function of activity of daily living between three groups after treatment (P<0/001. The most effective approach was conductive education (CE, then education to parent and Bobath There were significant relations between function difference of three groups in 13 sub tasks of 17 ADL subtasks (P<0/05. Conclusion: Bobath, conductive education (CE and education to parent’s approaches improve skills of activity of daily living, but in CE approach, group educations causes better improvement in social communication and practical educations and programs increase improvement of ADL skills.

  17. Adjustment of Daily Activities: the Influence of Smartphone Adoption on the Travel Pattern of Mobile Professionals in the Greater Jakarta Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloriani Novita Christin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The swift augmentation in the adoption of smartphones, the gadget that resulted from the convergence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT, potentially transforms people's life in myriad dimensions. One potential change induced by smartphones, is how people restructure their daily agenda and consecutively influence their travel pattern. To understand it, this study theoretically reviews mobile professional work, smartphone adoption, and how people conduct their mobile interaction, planning and execution of daily activities. Mobile professionals, the cohort of professionals that spend more than 20% of their total working time moving around out of their work environment; they are important beneficiaries of smartphones and have been chosen as the target of this study. Empirical results of mobile professionals´ experiences in the Greater Jakarta Area are presented at this juncture. Furthermore, their adjustment of activities as a dynamic response to receiving extensive information via smartphones is also analysed. The results indicate that there is a strong adjustment of daily activities by mobile professionals. Through those changes, the transformation of daily travel patterns related to the activity is also brought about by the use of this high-end ICT contrivance.

  18. A daily living activity remote monitoring system for solitary elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Matsuoka, Shingo; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Caldwell, W Morton

    2011-01-01

    A daily living activity remote monitoring system has been developed for supporting solitary elderly people. The monitoring system consists of a tri-axis accelerometer, six low-power active filters, a low-power 8-bit microcontroller (MC), a 1GB SD memory card (SDMC) and a 2.4 GHz low transmitting power mobile phone (PHS). The tri-axis accelerometer attached to the subject's chest can simultaneously measure dynamic and static acceleration forces produced by heart sound, respiration, posture and behavior. The heart rate, respiration rate, activity, posture and behavior are detected from the dynamic and static acceleration forces. These data are stored in the SD. The MC sends the data to the server computer every hour. The server computer stores the data and makes a graphic chart from the data. When the caregiver calls from his/her mobile phone to the server computer, the server computer sends the graphical chart via the PHS. The caregiver's mobile phone displays the chart to the monitor graphically.

  19. Pain-related impairment of daily activities after thoracic surgery: a questionnaire validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringsted, Thomas K; Wildgaard, Kim; Kreiner, Svend; Kehlet, Henrik

    2013-09-01

    Persistent postoperative pain is an acknowledged entity that reduces daily activities. Evaluation of the post-thoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS) is often measured using traditional pain scales without in-depth questions on pain impairment. Thus, the purpose was to create a procedure-specific questionnaire for assessment of functional impairment due to PTPS. Activities were obtained from the literature supplemented by interviews with patients and surgeons. The questionnaire was validated using the Rasch model in order to describe an underlying pain impairment scale. Four of 17 questions were redundant. The remaining 13 questions from low to intensive activity described functional impairment following persistent pain from thoracotomy and video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). No evidence for differential item functioning for gender, age or differences between open or VATS, were found. A generalized log-linear Rasch model including local dependence was constructed. Though local dependence influenced reliability, the test-retest reliability estimated under the log-linear Rasch model was high (0.88-0.96). Correlation with items from the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (quick) questionnaire supported validity (γ = 0.46, P impairment questionnaire measured 2 qualitatively different pain dimensions although highly correlated (γ = 0.76). This study presents method, results and validation of a new unidimensional scale measuring procedure specific functional impairment due to PTPS following open surgery and VATS. Procedure specific tools such as this could provide important outcomes measures for future trials on persistent postsurgical pain states allowing better assessment of interventions (250).

  20. Garment-based detection of falls and activities of daily living using 3-axis MEMS accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyan, M N; Tay, Francis E H; Manimaran, M; Seah, K H W

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied the detection of falls and activities of daily living (ADL) with two objectives: (1) minimum number of sensors for a broad range of activities and (2) maximize the comfort of the wearer for long term use. We used a garment to provide long term comfort for the wearer, with a 3-axis MEMS accelerometer on the shoulder position, as a wearable platform. ADL were detected in time-frequency domain and summation of absolute peak values of 3-D acceleration signals was used as feature in fall detection. 6 male and female subjects performed approximately five-hour long experiment. Sensitivity of 94.98% and specificity of 98.83% for altogether 1495 activities were achieved. Our garment-based detection system fulfilled the objective of providing the comfort of the wearer in long term monitoring of falls and ADL with high sensitivity. In fall detection, our device can summon medical assistances via SMS (Short Message Service). This detection system can raise fall alarm (fall SMS) automatically to individuals to get a shortened interval of the arrival of assistance

  1. Relationship Between Difficulties in Daily Activities and Falling: Loco-Check as a Self-Assessment of Fall Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akahane, Manabu; Maeyashiki, Akie; Yoshihara, Shingo; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2016-06-20

    People aged 65 years or older accounted for 25.1% of the Japanese population in 2013, and this characterizes the country as a "super-aging society." With increased aging, fall-related injuries are becoming important in Japan, because such injuries underlie the necessity for nursing care services. If people could evaluate their risk of falling using a simple self-check test, they would be able to take preventive measures such as exercise, muscle training, walking with a cane, or renovation of their surroundings to remove impediments. Loco-check is a checklist measure of early locomotive syndrome (circumstances in which elderly people need nursing care service or are at high risk of requiring the service within a short time), prepared by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) in 2007, but it is unclear if there is any association between this measure and falls. To investigate the association between falls during the previous year and the 7 "loco-check" daily activity items and the total number of items endorsed, and sleep duration. We conducted an Internet panel survey. Subjects were 624 persons aged between 30 and 90 years. The general health condition of the participants, including their experience of falling, daily activities, and sleep duration, was investigated. A multivariate analysis was carried out using logistic regression to investigate the relationship between falls in the previous year and difficulties with specific daily activities and total number of difficulties (loco-check) endorsed, and sleep duration, adjusting for sex and age. One-fourth of participants (157 persons) experienced at least one fall during the previous year. Fall rate of females (94/312: 30.1%) was significantly higher than that of males (63/312: 20.2%). Fall rate of persons aged more than 65 years (80/242: 33.1%) was significantly higher than that of younger persons (77/382: 20.2%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that daily activities such as "impossibility of getting

  2. The hierarchy of the activities of daily living in the Katz index in residents of skilled nursing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Nursing facility patients are a population that has not been well studied with regard to functional status and independence previously. As such, the manner in which activities of daily living (ADL) relate to one another is not well understood in this population. An understanding of ADL difficulty ordering has helped to devise systems of functional independence grading in other populations, which have value in understanding patients' global levels of independence and providing expectations regarding changes in function. This study seeks to examine the hierarchy of ADL in the nursing facility population. Data were analyzed from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey, a cross-sectional data set of 13 507 skilled nursing facility subjects with functional independence items. The ADL difficulty hierarchy was determined using Rasch analysis. Item fit values for the Rasch model using Mean-Square infit statistics were also determined. The robustness of the hierarchy was tested for each ADL. Two grading systems were devised from the results of the item difficulty ordering. One was based on the most difficult item that he or she could perform, and the other assigned a grade based on the least difficult item that a subject could not perform. A total of 13 113 patients were included in this analysis, the majority of whom were female and white. They had an average age of 81 years. An ordered hierarchy of ADL was found with eating being the easiest and bathing the most difficult. All items in the Katz index fit the Rasch model adequately well. The majority of patients able to perform any particular ADL were also able to perform all easier ADL. Cohen's κ for the 2 grading systems was 0.73. This study is the first to show the expected hierarchy of difficulty of the 6 activities of daily proposed in the Katz index in the nursing facility population. The hierarchy found in this population matches the original hierarchy found in older adults in the community and acute care settings

  3. Determination of Total Arsenic in Seaweed Products by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, N.; Santoso, M.; Yanuar, A.; Damayanti; Kartawinata, T.G.

    2013-01-01

    Seaweed products are widely consumed as food nowadays. Seaweeds are known to contain arsenic due to their capability to accumulate arsenic from the environment. Arsenic is a known toxic element which naturally occurs in the environment. Ingestion of high levels of arsenic will cause several adverse health effects. Arsenic in food occurs at trace concentrations which require sensitive and selective analysis methods to perform elemental analysis on. Validated neutron activation analysis was used to determine the arsenic contents in seaweed products namely catoni from domestic product and nori from foreign products. The total arsenic concentration in the samples analyzed ranges from 0.79 mg/kg to 30.14 mg/kg with mean concentration 14.39 mg/kg. The estimated exposure to arsenic contributed by the analyzed products is from 0.07% up to 8.54% of the established provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) which is still far below the maximum tolerable level. (author)

  4. Determination of Total Arsenic in Seaweed Products by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed products are widely consumed as food nowadays. Seaweeds are known to contain arsenic due to their capability to accumulate arsenic from the environment. Arsenic is a known toxic element which naturally occurs in the environment. Ingestion of high levels of arsenic will cause several adverse health effects. Arsenic in food occurs at trace concentrations which require sensitive and selective analysis methods to perform elemental analysis on. Validated neutron activation analysis was used to determine the arsenic contents in seaweed products namely catoni from domestic product and nori from foreign products. The total arsenic concentration in the samples analyzed ranges from 0.79 mg/kg to 30.14 mg/kg with mean concentration 14.39 mg/kg. The estimated exposure to arsenic contributed by the analyzed products is from 0.07% up to 8.54% of the established provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI which is still far below the maximum tolerable level

  5. Impact of estradiol valerate/dienogest on work productivity and activities of daily living in women with heavy menstrual bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiak, Radoslaw; Filonenko, Anna; Vanness, David J; Law, Amy; Jeddi, Mark; Wittrup-Jensen, Kim U; Stull, Donald E; Siak, Steven; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2013-04-01

    To quantify the change in work productivity and activities of daily living in North American women with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) treated with estradiol valerate/dienogest (E2V/DNG; Qlaira(®)/Natazia(®)) compared to placebo. Women in the United States and Canada, aged 20-53 years with an objective diagnosis of HMB and no recognizable anatomical pathology, were treated with E2V/DNG or placebo for seven cycles (196 days). Main outcome measures included work productivity (i.e., productivity while at work) and activities of daily living measured using a modified Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (mWPAI) on a Likert scale from 0 to 10 (higher values denote higher impairment levels). In both countries, significant improvement was observed between baseline and end of treatment in work productivity and activities of daily living impairment. The improvements in work productivity and activities of daily living with E2V/DNG treatment relative to placebo ranged from 37.2% to 39.2% across both countries. Monthly gains due to E2V/DNG treatment (net of placebo improvement) associated with improvement in work productivity were estimated to be US$80.2 and Can$70.8 (US$58.5) and those associated with improvement in activities of daily living were estimated to be US$84.9 and Can$73.5 (US$60.7). E2V/DNG was shown to have a consistent positive impact on work productivity and activities of daily living in U.S. and Canadian women with HMB. In addition, these improvements in work productivity and activities of daily living were associated with a reduction in HMB-related monetary burden compared to the placebo group.

  6. ACRIM III Level 2 Daily Mean Data V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) III Level 2 Daily Mean Data product consists of Level 2 total solar irradiance in the form of daily means...

  7. Objectively Measured Daily Physical Activity and Postural Changes as Related to Positive and Negative Affect Using Ambulatory Monitoring Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggio, Daniel; Wallace, Karen; Boreham, Nicola; Shankar, Aparna; Steptoe, Andrew; Hamer, Mark

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether objectively measured daily physical activity and posture of sitting, standing, and sit-to-stand transitions are associated with daily assessments of affect. Participants (N = 51, 49% female) wore ActivPal accelerometers for 24 h/d for seven consecutive days. Time spent sitting, standing, and being physically active and sit-to-stand transitions were derived for each day. Participants also completed a mood inventory each evening. Multilevel models examined within- and between-person associations of daily physical activity with positive and negative affect, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, education, and sleep duration. Within-person associations showed that a 1-hour increase in daily physical activity was associated with a decrease in negative affect over the same day (B = -0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.21 to -0.01). Between-person associations indicated a borderline significant association between higher average daily physical activity levels and higher positive affect (B = 1.85, 95% CI = -0.25 to 3.94). There were no between- or within-person associations between sitting, standing, and sit-to-stand transitions with affect. Promoting physical activity may be a potential intervention strategy to acutely suppress negative affective states.

  8. Effect of modified constraint-induced movement therapy on the activities of daily living of patients with acute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-ming ZHANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the rehabilitation effect of modified constraint-induced movement therapy (mCIMT on activities of daily living (ADL in patients with acute ischemic stroke.  Methods A total of 60 patients in acute stage of cerebral stroke with limb dysfunction admitted in Ruijin Hospital from December 2012 to May 2013, were randomly divided into routine rehabilitation treatment group (control group, N = 30 and mCIMT group (N = 30. Control group was given routine rehabilitation training, 60 min each time, twice per day, 5 d per week; mCIMT group received mCIMT treatment with the similar frequency. After 2-week training, all patients were transferred to rehabilitation center for 4-week continous training. The total treatment period was 6 weeks. All of those patients received assessment before treatment and 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 12 weeks after treatment on the ability of daily living and motor function, including the modified Barthel Index (mBI, Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA and Berg Balance Scale (BBS.  Results Patients in both groups got increased mBI (P = 0.004, 0.000, 0.000, FMA (upper limb: P = 0.000, for all and BBS scores (P = 0.005, 0.000, 0.000 2, 6, 12 weeks after treatment. FMA (lower limb score was increased 6 and 12 weeks after treatment (P = 0.000, for all. Compared to the control group, patients in mCIMT group got increased mBI (P = 0.000, for all, FMA (upper limb: P = 0.000, for all; lower limb: P = 0.000, for all and BBS scores (P = 0.000, for all 2, 6, 12 weeks after treatment.  Conclusions mCIMT has positive therapeutic effects on the motor function of limbs in hemiplegic patients with stroke in acute stage, which can improve the balance ability and the ability of daily life, so as to raise the quality of life of patients. The efficacy of mCIMT is superior to general routine rehabilitation treatment. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.04.006

  9. Method to determine the activity concentration and total activity of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.

    2001-02-01

    A characteristic system of radioactive waste is described to determine the concentration of radionuclides activity and the total activity of bundles of radioactive waste. The system this integrated by three subsystems: - Elevator of drums. - Electromechanics. - Gamma spectroscopy. In the system it is analyzed waste of issuing gamma specifically, and this designed for materials of relative low density and it analyzes materials of cylindrical recipients

  10. Yoga Training Has Positive Effects on Postural Balance and Its Influence on Activities of Daily Living in People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Gerson; Tavares, Maria da Consolação Cunha Gomes Fernandes; de Faria Oliveira, Jane Domingues; Rodrigues, Marcos Rojo; Santaella, Danilo Forghieri

    2016-01-01

    There is a little evidence about the influence of yoga as a complementary therapy for postural balance and its influence on activities of daily living in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. To evaluate the influence of a six-month yoga program on postural balance and subjective impact of postural balance impairment on activities of daily living in people with MS. Randomized controlled pilot study. Protocol developed at the Adaptive Physical Activity Study Department, College of Physical Education, State University of Campinas, Brazil. A total of 12 (11 women) yoga naive people with MS randomly divided into two groups as follows: Control (C-waiting list, n = 6) and Yoga (Y-Yoga training, n = 6). Yoga group practiced postures, breathing exercises, meditation, and relaxation on weekly 60-min classes for a six-month period. The following evaluations were performed at study entry (baseline), and after six months (six months): Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and self-reported postural balance quality and influence of postural balance on activities of daily living. There was a significant improvement in BBS score from baseline to six months only in the Yoga group, especially in subjects with higher EDSS score, with increased quality of self-reported postural balance, and decreased influence of postural balance impairment on activities of daily living. In conclusion, a six-month yoga training is beneficial for people with MS, since it improves postural balance and decreases the influence of postural balance impairment on activities of daily living. A greater sample size is necessary to increase generalization, but it seems that yoga could be included as a feasible complementary therapy for people with MS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics of the activity-affect association in inactive people: an ambulatory assessment study in daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte eVon Haaren

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute and regular exercise as well as physical activity is related to wellbeing and positive affect. Recent studies have shown that even daily, unstructured physical activities increase positive affect. However, the attempt to achieve adherence to physical activity or exercise in inactive people through public health interventions has often been unsuccessful. Most studies analyzing the activity-affect association in daily life, did not report participants´ habitual activity behavior. Thus, samples included active and inactive people, but they did not necessarily exhibit the same affective reactions to physical activity in daily life. Therefore the present study investigated whether the association between physical activity and subsequent affective state in daily life can also be observed in inactive individuals. We conducted a pilot study with 29 inactive university students (mean age 21.3 yrs ± 1.7 using the method of ambulatory assessment. Affect was assessed via electronic diary and physical activity was measured with accelerometers. Participants had to rate affect every two hours on a six item bipolar scale reflecting the three basic mood dimensions energetic arousal, valence and calmness. We calculated activity intensity level (mean Metabolic Equivalent (MET value and the amount of time spent in light activity over the last 15 minutes before every diary prompt and conducted within-subject correlations. We did not find significant associations between activity intensity and the three mood dimensions. Due to the high variability in within-subject correlations we conclude that not all inactive people show the same affective reactions to physical activity in daily life. Analyzing the physical activity-affect association of inactive people was difficult due to little variance and distribution of the assessed variables. Interactive assessment and randomized controlled trials might help solving these problems. Future studies should examine

  12. Assessing upper extremity motor function in practice of virtual activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard J; Lichter, Matthew D; Krepkovich, Eileen T; Ellington, Allison; White, Marga; Diamond, Paul T

    2015-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the criterion validity of measures of upper extremity (UE) motor function derived during practice of virtual activities of daily living (ADLs). Fourteen hemiparetic stroke patients employed a Virtual Occupational Therapy Assistant (VOTA), consisting of a high-fidelity virtual world and a Kinect™ sensor, in four sessions of approximately one hour in duration. An unscented Kalman Filter-based human motion tracking algorithm estimated UE joint kinematics in real-time during performance of virtual ADL activities, enabling both animation of the user's avatar and automated generation of metrics related to speed and smoothness of motion. These metrics, aggregated over discrete sub-task elements during performance of virtual ADLs, were compared to scores from an established assessment of UE motor performance, the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicates a moderate correlation between VOTA-derived metrics and the time-based WMFT assessments, supporting the criterion validity of VOTA measures as a means of tracking patient progress during an UE rehabilitation program that includes practice of virtual ADLs.

  13. Intellectual function, activities of daily living and computerized tomography of the brain in geriatric demented patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Fumiaki; Ogura, Chikara; Kishimoto, Akira; Okubo, Masayo; Imamoto, Atsushi; Tsuchie, Harutaka; Sugihara, Kanichiro; Fujii, Shozo.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty eight patients of geriatric dementia (mean age 74.9 years) were examined by computerized tomography (CT) and their intellectual functions and activities of daily living (ADL) were evaluated. CT was evaluated by both visual assessment method and direct measuring method. Intellectual function was evaluated by Jikei University dementia rating scale. ADL was evaluated by both Hasegawa's rating scale and Sengoku's rating scale. Results were as follows: significant influence by age was observed in intellectual functions and ADL of subjects above 75 years old. There were good correlations between the higher intellectual function, the better grooming and hygiene, and less needs of nursing care. The severe brain atrophy evaluated by the visual assessment method was correlated with the depressed level of intellectual function. When brain atrophy is mild despite high degree of dementia, reexamination should be made to explore somatic diseases inducing depression of mental activity. It also should be noted that sex and age difference is important in studying geriatric patients. (author)

  14. Daily Parental Knowledge of Youth Activities Is Linked to Youth Physical Symptoms and HPA functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A.; Davis, Kelly D.; McHale, Susan M.; Almeida, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable evidence documents linkages between parental knowledge of youth activities and youth risky behavior. We extended this research to determine whether parental knowledge was associated with youth physical health, including reports of physical symptoms (e.g., headaches, stomachaches) and a biomarker of hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning (i.e., salivary cortisol levels). Participants were children of employees in the Information Technology division of a Fortune 500 company (N = 132, Mean Age Youth = 13.39 years, 55% female) who participated in a daily diary study. Data were collected via telephone calls on eight consecutive evenings. On four study days, cortisol samples were collected at 4 time points (waking, 30 min after waking, before dinner, bedtime). Multi-level models revealed that, at the between-person level, youth whose parents had higher average knowledge about their activities, exhibited lower bedtime cortisol levels. Furthermore, at the within-person level, on days when parents displayed more knowledge than usual (relative to their own eight-day average), youth had lower before-dinner cortisol than usual. Linkages between average parental knowledge and physical health symptoms were moderated by youth age: Younger but not older adolescents whose parents were more knowledgeable had fewer physical health symptoms, on average. A next step is to identify the processes that underlie these associations. PMID:26751757

  15. Traditional chinese medicine improves activities of daily living in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Weidong; Kwak, Shin; Liu, Yun; Sun, Yan; Fang, Zhenglong; Qin, Baofeng; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), named Zeng-xiao An-shen Zhi-chan 2 (ZAZ2), on patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Among 115 patients with idiopathic PD enrolled (mean age, 64.7 ± 10.2 years old), 110 patients (M = 65, F = 45; mean age, 64.9 ± 10.7 years old) completed the study. Patients took either ZAZ2 (n = 59) or placebo granule (n = 56) in a blind manner for 13 weeks while maintaining other anti-Parkinson medications unchanged. All participants wore a motion logger, and we analyzed the power-law temporal autocorrelation of the motion logger records taken on 3 occasions (before, one week, and 13 weeks after the drug administration). Drug efficacy was evaluated with the conventional Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), as well as the power-law exponent α, which corresponds to the level of physical activity of the patients. ZAZ2 but not placebo granule improved the awake-sleep rhythm, the UPDRS Part II, Part II + III, and Part IV scores, and the α values. The results indicate that ZAZ2 improved activities of daily living (ADL) of parkinsonism and, thus, is a potentially suitable drug for long-term use.

  16. Traditional Chinese Medicine Improves Activities of Daily Living in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, named Zeng-xiao An-shen Zhi-chan 2 (ZAZ2, on patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Among 115 patients with idiopathic PD enrolled (mean age, 64.7 ± 10.2 years old, 110 patients (M = 65, F = 45; mean age, 64.9 ± 10.7 years old completed the study. Patients took either ZAZ2 (=59 or placebo granule (=56 in a blind manner for 13 weeks while maintaining other anti-Parkinson medications unchanged. All participants wore a motion logger, and we analyzed the power-law temporal autocorrelation of the motion logger records taken on 3 occasions (before, one week, and 13 weeks after the drug administration. Drug efficacy was evaluated with the conventional Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, as well as the power-law exponent α, which corresponds to the level of physical activity of the patients. ZAZ2 but not placebo granule improved the awake-sleep rhythm, the UPDRS Part II, Part II + III, and Part IV scores, and the α values. The results indicate that ZAZ2 improved activities of daily living (ADL of parkinsonism and, thus, is a potentially suitable drug for long-term use.

  17. Do elderly people at more severe activity of daily living limitation stages fall more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Sánchez, John T; Kurichi, Jibby E; Xie, Dawei; Pan, Qiang; Stineman, Margaret G

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how activity of daily living (ADL) stages and the perception of unmet needs for home accessibility features associate with a history of falling. Participants were from a nationally representative sample from the Second Longitudinal Survey of Aging conducted in 1994. The sample included 9250 community-dwelling persons 70 yrs or older. The associations of ADL stage and perception of unmet needs for home accessibility features with a history of falling within the past year (none, once, or multiple times) were explored after accounting for sociodemographic characteristics and comorbidities using a multinomial logistic regression model. The adjusted relative risk of falling more than once peaked at 4.30 (95% confidence interval, 3.29-5.61) for persons with severe limitation (ADL-III) compared those with no limitation (ADL-0) then declined for those at complete limitation (ADL-IV). The adjusted relative risks of falling once and multiple times were 1.42 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.87) and 1.85 (95% confidence interval, 1.44-2.36), respectively, for those lacking home accessibility features. Risk of falling appeared greatest for those whose homes lacked accessibility features and peaked at intermediate ADL limitation stages, presumably at a point when people have significant disabilities but sufficient function to remain partially active.

  18. Daily parental knowledge of youth activities is linked to youth physical symptoms and HPA functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A; Davis, Kelly D; McHale, Susan M; Almeida, David M

    2016-03-01

    Considerable evidence documents linkages between parental knowledge of youth activities and youth risky behavior. We extended this research to determine whether parental knowledge was associated with youth physical health, including reports of physical symptoms (e.g., headaches, stomachaches) and a biomarker of hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning (i.e., salivary cortisol levels). Participants were children of employees in the Information Technology division of a Fortune 500 company (N = 132, mean age youth = 13.39 years, 55% female) who participated in a daily diary study. Data were collected via telephone calls on 8 consecutive evenings. On 4 study days, cortisol samples were collected at 4 time points (waking, 30 min after waking, before dinner, bedtime). Multilevel models revealed that, at the between-person level, youth whose parents had higher average knowledge about their activities, exhibited lower bedtime cortisol levels. Furthermore, at the within-person level, on days when parents displayed more knowledge than usual (relative to their own 8-day average), youth had lower before-dinner cortisol than usual. Linkages between average parental knowledge and physical health symptoms were moderated by youth age: Younger but not older adolescents whose parents were more knowledgeable had fewer physical health symptoms, on average. A next step is to identify the processes that underlie these associations. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Caregivers' reported functional limitations in activities of daily living among middle-aged adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsia, Yi-Chen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to describe the functioning of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and to examine socio-economic effects on ADL functioning among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) aged 45 years and older (N=480) in Taiwan. The Barthel Index (BI) was used to determine a baseline level of ADL functioning in the study participants. There are five categories of functional impairment using the following cut-off values in Taiwan: total dependence (BI score 0-20), severe (BI score 21-60), moderate (BI score 61-90), mild (BI score 91-99), and total independence (BI score 100) (Taiwan Department of Health, 2012). The results revealed that 2.3% of adults with ID were in total dependence, 11.9% were in severe dependence, 27.9% were in moderate dependence, 8.1% had a mild dependence, and 49.8% were totally independent. In the multiple linear regression model of the ADL score, we determined that educational level, comorbid Down's syndrome, and disability level are the variables able to significantly predict ADL score (R(2)=0.190) after controlling for the factors of age, marital status, and other comorbidity conditions. Those ID adults with a lower education level (primary vs. literate, β=4.780, p=0.031; intermediate vs. literate, β=6.642, p=0.030), with comorbid Down's syndrome (β=-7.135, p=0.063), and with a more severe disability condition (severe vs. mild, β=-7.650, p=0.007; profound vs. mild, β=-19.169, p<0.001) had significantly lower ADL scores. The present study highlights the need to support mobility in older adults with ID as much as possible to optimize independence in this group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CR TKA UHMWPE Wear Tested after Artificial Aging of the Vitamin E Treated Gliding Component by Simulating Daily Patient Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Schwiesau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The wear behaviour of total knee arthroplasty (TKA is dominated by two wear mechanisms: the abrasive wear and the delamination of the gliding components, where the second is strongly linked to aging processes and stress concentration in the material. The addition of vitamin E to the bulk material is a potential way to reduce the aging processes. This study evaluates the wear behaviour and delamination susceptibility of the gliding components of a vitamin E blended, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE cruciate retaining (CR total knee arthroplasty. Daily activities such as level walking, ascending and descending stairs, bending of the knee, and sitting and rising from a chair were simulated with a data set received from an instrumented knee prosthesis. After 5 million test cycles no structural failure of the gliding components was observed. The wear rate was with 5.62±0.53 mg/million cycles falling within the limit of previous reports for established wear test methods.

  1. CR TKA UHMWPE wear tested after artificial aging of the vitamin E treated gliding component by simulating daily patient activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwiesau, Jens; Fritz, Bernhard; Kutzner, Ines; Bergmann, Georg; Grupp, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    The wear behaviour of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is dominated by two wear mechanisms: the abrasive wear and the delamination of the gliding components, where the second is strongly linked to aging processes and stress concentration in the material. The addition of vitamin E to the bulk material is a potential way to reduce the aging processes. This study evaluates the wear behaviour and delamination susceptibility of the gliding components of a vitamin E blended, ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) cruciate retaining (CR) total knee arthroplasty. Daily activities such as level walking, ascending and descending stairs, bending of the knee, and sitting and rising from a chair were simulated with a data set received from an instrumented knee prosthesis. After 5 million test cycles no structural failure of the gliding components was observed. The wear rate was with 5.62 ± 0.53 mg/million cycles falling within the limit of previous reports for established wear test methods.

  2. Evaluation of properties of the Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (Brazilian version in an elderly population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Ricci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL is considered an important subjective assessment to evaluate patients suffering from dizziness and imbalance. Although frequently used, its metric characteristics still require further investigation. Objective: This paper aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the VADL in an elderly population. Method: The sample comprises patients (≥65 years old with chronic dizziness resulting from vestibular disorders. For discriminant analysis, patients were compared to healthy subjects. All subjects answered the VADL-Brazil by interview. To examine the VADL validity, patients filled out the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI and the ABC scale and were tested on the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI. To evaluate the VADL responsiveness, 20 patients were submitted to rehabilitation. Results: Patients (n=140 had a VADL total score of 4.1±1.6 points. Healthy subjects scored significantly less than patients in all the subscales and in the VADL total score. The VADL-Brazil was weakly correlated with the DHI and moderately to the ABC scale and the DGI. Instead of the original 3 subscales, factor analysis resulted in 6 factors. The VADL was capable of detecting changes after rehabilitation, which means that the instrument has responsiveness. Conclusions: This study provided more data about the psychometric properties and usefulness of the VADL-Brazil. The use of such a reliable and valid instrument increases the knowledge about disability in patients with vestibular disorders.

  3. Graph-based representation of behavior in detection and prediction of daily living activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Piotr; Ślusarczyk, Grażyna

    2018-04-01

    Various surveillance systems capture signs of human activities of daily living (ADLs) and store multimodal information as time line behavioral records. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the analysis of a behavioral record used in a surveillance system designed for use in elderly smart homes. The description of a subject's activity is first decomposed into elementary poses - easily detectable by dedicated intelligent sensors - and represented by the share coefficients. Then, the activity is represented in the form of an attributed graph, where nodes correspond to elementary poses. As share coefficients of poses are expressed as attributes assigned to graph nodes, their change corresponding to a subject's action is represented by flow in graph edges. The behavioral record is thus a time series of graphs, which tiny size facilitates storage and management of long-term monitoring results. At the system learning stage, the contribution of elementary poses is accumulated, discretized and probability-ordered leading to a finite list representing the possible transitions between states. Such a list is independently built for each room in the supervised residence, and employed for assessment of the current action in the context of subject's habits and a room purpose. The proposed format of a behavioral record, applied to an adaptive surveillance system, is particularly advantageous for representing new activities not known at the setup stage, for providing a quantitative measure of transitions between poses and for expressing the difference between a predicted and actual action in a numerical way. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact Of Total Quality Management (TQM), Activity Based Costing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Time (JIT), and Total Quality Management (TQM) as strategic initiatives lead to improved financial performance in the Turkish textile industry. Strong evidence emerged that there is a strong positive association between using ABC, JIT or TQM ...

  5. Relationship Between Visual Constructive Abilities and Activity of Daily Living in Home Dwelling Elderly Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Chehrehnegar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Increasing life expectancy and decreasing birthrates have significantly contributed to an increased aging population throughout the world. This sudden change is a global phenomenon often resulting in biological changes that may have various consequences, such as reduced life power and coping skills in the elderly population. Cognitive deficits are one of the most severe impairments in the elderly people. Deficits in cognitive abilities, especially visual constructive skills, can have a considerable impact on the independency of the daily living skills of the elderly people. Self-care by individuals to maintain their life and wellbeing is a key element for their independency. The activity of daily living (ADL can support personal life independency, and is considered as a morbidity index. In the present cross-sectional study, we assessed the visual abilities and ADL in older subjects to determine whether cognitive impairment is associated with changes in self-care behavior. Methods & Materials: This study employed random sampling technique to select and recruit forty seven individuals aged between 60 to 80 years from Jahandidegan club in Shiraz, Iran. They were evaluated through "visual constructive ability" sub-scale from Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA battery and "Katz Index", which were used to assess their associated skill and ADL, respectively. Data was collected through observation and interviews. Data analysis was performed through Pearson's correlation test using SPSS. Results: The mean age of the participants (9 women and 38 men was 69.94±4.66 years. Lower scores in cognitive domains predicted functional decline in some scales. There was a significant correlation between visual constructive ability and eating; however, no significant correlation was found between this sub-scale with bathing, moving, toileting, and bowel control. Conclusion: In summary, a significant correlation was noted

  6. Effect of the cooling suit method applied to individuals with multiple sclerosis on fatigue and activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan Tuncay, Fatma; Mollaoğlu, Mukadder

    2017-12-01

    To determine the effects of cooling suit on fatigue and activities of daily living of individuals with multiple sclerosis. Fatigue is one of the most common symptoms in people with multiple sclerosis and adversely affects their activities of daily living. Studies evaluating fatigue associated with multiple sclerosis have reported that most of the fatigue cases are related to the increase in body temperature and that cooling therapy is effective in coping with fatigue. This study used a two sample, control group design. The study sample comprised 75 individuals who met the inclusion criteria. Data were collected with study forms. After the study data were collected, cooling suit treatment was administered to the experimental group. During home visits paid at the fourth and eighth weeks after the intervention, the aforementioned scales were re-administered to the participants in the experimental and control groups. The analyses performed demonstrated that the severity levels of fatigue experienced by the participants in the experimental group wearing cooling suit decreased. The experimental group also exhibited a significant improvement in the participants' levels of independence in activities of daily living. The cooling suit worn by individuals with multiple sclerosis was determined to significantly improve the participants' levels of fatigue and independence in activities of daily living. The cooling suit therapy was found to be an effective intervention for the debilitating fatigue suffered by many multiple sclerosis patients, thus significantly improving their level of independence in activities of daily living. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Cognitive and Physical Demands of Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults: Validation of Expert Panel Ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fong, Tamara G.; Gleason, Lauren J.; Wong, Bonnie; Habtemariam, Daniel; Jones, Richard N.; Schmitt, Eva M.; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Saczynski, Jane S.; Gross, Alden L.; Bean, Jonathan F.; Brown, Cynthia J.; Fick, Donna M.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; O'Connor, Margaret; Tabloski, Patrica A.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Inouye, Sharon K.

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties with performance of functional activities may result from cognitive and/or physical impairments. To date, there has not been a clear delineation of the physical and cognitive demands of activities of daily living. To quantify the relative physical and cognitive demands required to

  8. Technology-Aided Verbal Instructions to Help Persons with Mild or Moderate Alzheimer's Disease Perform Daily Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Tatulli, Emanuela; Rigante, Valeria; Zonno, Nadia; Perilli, Viviana; Pinto, Katia; Minervini, Mauro G.

    2010-01-01

    These two studies extended previous research on the use of verbal instructions and support technology for helping persons with mild or moderate Alzheimer's disease perform daily activities. Study I included seven participants who were to carry out one of two previously targeted activities (i.e., either coffee preparation or table setting). Study…

  9. Activities of daily living measured by the Harvard Automated Phone Task track with cognitive decline over time in non-demented elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gad A.; Aghjayan, Sarah L.; Dekhtyar, Maria; Locascio, Joseph J.; Jethwani, Kamal; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden to both patients and caregivers. Mild impairment in instrumental activities of daily living is often seen at the stage of mild cognitive impairment. The field of Alzheimer’s disease is moving toward earlier diagnosis and intervention and more sensitive and ecologically valid assessments of instrumental or complex activities of daily living are needed. The Harvard Automated Phone Task, a novel performance-based activities of daily living instrument, has the potential to fill this gap. Objective To further validate the Harvard Automated Phone Task by assessing its longitudinal relationship to global cognition and specific cognitive domains in clinically normal elderly and individuals with mild cognitive impairment. Design In a longitudinal study, the Harvard Automated Phone Task was associated with cognitive measures using mixed effects models. The Harvard Automated Phone Task’s ability to discriminate across diagnostic groups at baseline was also assessed. Setting Academic clinical research center. Participants Two hundred and seven participants (45 young normal, 141 clinically normal elderly, and 21 mild cognitive impairment) were recruited from the community and the memory disorders clinics at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital. Measurements Participants performed the three tasks of the Harvard Automated Phone Task, which consist of navigating an interactive voice response system to refill a prescription (APT-Script), select a new primary care physician (APT-PCP), and make a bank account transfer and payment (APT-Bank). The 3 tasks were scored based on time, errors, repetitions, and correct completion of the task. The primary outcome measure used for each of the tasks was total time adjusted for correct completion. Results The Harvard Automated Phone Task discriminated well between young normal, clinically normal elderly, and mild cognitive impairment

  10. Effect of total mixed ration composition and daily grazing pattern on milk production, composition and fatty acids profile of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Martha; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; González, Amelia; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M; Argamentería, Alejandro; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña; Vicente, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    The possibilities of using high quality pastures in conjunction with total mixed ration (TMR) during the grazing season have been examined. An experiment with sixteen Holstein cows blocked and randomly assigned to four treatments in a factorial arrangement was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of grazing time of day (day or night) and type of silage (maize or Italian ryegrass) included in the TMR of dairy cows grazing 12 h daily on milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile. The silage type had no effect on the dry matter intake, milk yield and fat and protein proportions. However, cows grazing during the night ate more grass than cows grazing during the day (8·53 vs. 5·65 kg DM/d; Pdairy cows grazing at night-time than grazing at day-time, especially 18:2n-6 (2·37 vs. 2·12 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05) and 18:2cis9trans11 (2·08 vs. 1·74 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05).

  11. Factors that influence physical activity in the daily life of male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, S; Rodrigues, F; Bárbara, C

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease with great impact on the ability to carry out physical activity. To identify the main factors that affect physical activity in the daily life of patients with COPD. Physical activity in daily routine has been evaluated according to the London Chest Activity of Daily Living scale (LCADL) and the pedometer counting the number of steps per day, for a period of three days. Fifty-five male patients with a diagnosis of moderate to very severe COPD were included (aged 67±9.6 years; FEV1 50.8±14.7% predicted). Patients walked on average 4972 steps per day. Very severe COPD patients (n=12) walked much less than severe (n=21) and moderate (n=22) patients (respectively 3079.8 versus 4853.5 and 6118.1 steps per day, ppositive correlation with the distance covered in the six-minute walk test (6MWT), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO), arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and body mass index (BMI). The main factors that correlated with limited physical activity in daily life routine of this group of COPD patients were dyspnea and 6 min walking distance. These patients form a sedentary group, with a low rate of daily physical activity, which is more evident in patients with GOLD spirometry stage IV. Although pedometer is simpler and less accurate than other devices, it can be used to detect significant restraints daily life physical activity of COPD patients. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. A field studies and modeling approach to develop organochlorine pesticide and PCB total maximum daily load calculations: Case study for Echo Park Lake, Los Angeles, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, V.R., E-mail: vrvasquez@ucla.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Curren, J., E-mail: janecurren@yahoo.com [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Lau, S.-L., E-mail: simlin@ucla.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Stenstrom, M.K., E-mail: stenstro@seas.ucla.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Suffet, I.H., E-mail: msuffet@ucla.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Echo Park Lake is a small lake in Los Angeles, CA listed on the USA Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list of impaired water bodies for elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissue. A lake water and sediment sampling program was completed to support the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDL) to address the lake impairment. The field data indicated quantifiable levels of OCPs and PCBs in the sediments, but lake water data were all below detection levels. The field sediment data obtained may explain the contaminant levels in fish tissue using appropriate sediment-water partitioning coefficients and bioaccumulation factors. A partition-equilibrium fugacity model of the whole lake system was used to interpret the field data and indicated that half of the total mass of the pollutants in the system are in the sediments and the other half is in soil; therefore, soil erosion could be a significant pollutant transport mode into the lake. Modeling also indicated that developing and quantifying the TMDL depends significantly on the analytical detection level for the pollutants in field samples and on the choice of octanol-water partitioning coefficient and bioaccumulation factors for the model. - Research highlights: {yields} Fugacity model using new OCP and PCB field data supports lake TMDL calculations. {yields} OCP and PCB levels in lake sediment were found above levels for impairment. {yields} Relationship between sediment data and available fish tissue data evaluated. {yields} Model provides approximation of contaminant sources and sinks for a lake system. {yields} Model results were sensitive to analytical detection and quantification levels.

  13. New England SPARROW Water-Quality Modeling to Assist with the Development of Total Maximum Daily Loads in the Connecticut River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. B.; Robinson, K. W.; Simcox, A. C.; Johnston, C. M.

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission (NEWIPCC), is currently preparing a water-quality model, called SPARROW, to assist in the regional total maximum daily load (TMDL) studies in New England. A model is required to provide estimates of nutrient loads and confidence intervals at unmonitored stream reaches. SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes) is a spatially detailed, statistical model that uses regression equations to relate total phosphorus and nitrogen (nutrient) stream loads to pollution sources and watershed characteristics. These statistical relations are then used to predict nutrient loads in unmonitored streams. The New England SPARROW model is based on a hydrologic network of 42,000 stream reaches and associated watersheds. Point source data are derived from USEPA's Permit Compliance System (PCS). Information about nonpoint sources is derived from data such as fertilizer use, livestock wastes, and atmospheric deposition. Watershed characteristics include land use, streamflow, time-of-travel, stream density, percent wetlands, slope of the land surface, and soil permeability. Preliminary SPARROW results are expected in Spring 2002. The New England SPARROW model is proposed for use in the TMDL determination for nutrients in the Connecticut River Basin, upstream of Connecticut. The model will be used to estimate nitrogen loads from each of the upstream states to Long Island Sound. It will provide estimates and confidence intervals of phosphorus and nitrogen loads, area-weighted yields of nutrients by watershed, sources of nutrients, and the downstream movement of nutrients. This information will be used to (1) understand ranges in nutrient levels in surface waters, (2) identify the environmental factors that affect nutrient levels in streams, (3) evaluate monitoring efforts for better determination of

  14. Forecast daily indices of solar activity, F10.7, using support vector regression method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Cong; Liu Dandan; Wang Jingsong

    2009-01-01

    The 10.7 cm solar radio flux (F10.7), the value of the solar radio emission flux density at a wavelength of 10.7 cm, is a useful index of solar activity as a proxy for solar extreme ultraviolet radiation. It is meaningful and important to predict F10.7 values accurately for both long-term (months-years) and short-term (days) forecasting, which are often used as inputs in space weather models. This study applies a novel neural network technique, support vector regression (SVR), to forecasting daily values of F10.7. The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of SVR in short-term F10.7 forecasting. The approach, based on SVR, reduces the dimension of feature space in the training process by using a kernel-based learning algorithm. Thus, the complexity of the calculation becomes lower and a small amount of training data will be sufficient. The time series of F10.7 from 2002 to 2006 are employed as the data sets. The performance of the approach is estimated by calculating the norm mean square error and mean absolute percentage error. It is shown that our approach can perform well by using fewer training data points than the traditional neural network. (research paper)

  15. Impairments in Activities of Daily Living in Older Japanese Men in Hawaii and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Abbott

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hypertension and cigarette smoking are dominant risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Japan while in westernized countries, broader effects encompass obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. This paper examines whether different associations also appear important in the manifestation of activities of daily living (ADL in older Japanese men in Hawaii and Japan. Methods. Measures of ADL (feeding, toileting, dressing, bathing, and walking around the house were assessed from 1995 to 1999 in 1,893 men in Hawaii and 543 men in Japan. Concomitant risk factors were measured from 1990 to 1993. Results. In Hawaii, diabetes increased the odds of ≥1 ADL impairment nearly 1.5-fold (P=.020. A similar association was absent in Japan. In contrast, the odds of an ADL impairment in Japan was increased more than 5-fold in the presence of stroke (P<.001. The association in Hawaii was significantly weaker (P=.007. In both cohorts, past alcohol use was associated with a greater likelihood of ADL impairment. Conclusion. In this comparison of genetically similar samples, findings suggest that different strengths in risk factor associations with cardiovascular disease in Japan and westernized countries may also include different strengths in associations with impaired ADL.

  16. Human grasping database for activities of daily living with depth, color and kinematic data streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saudabayev, Artur; Rysbek, Zhanibek; Khassenova, Raykhan; Varol, Huseyin Atakan

    2018-05-29

    This paper presents a grasping database collected from multiple human subjects for activities of daily living in unstructured environments. The main strength of this database is the use of three different sensing modalities: color images from a head-mounted action camera, distance data from a depth sensor on the dominant arm and upper body kinematic data acquired from an inertial motion capture suit. 3826 grasps were identified in the data collected during 9-hours of experiments. The grasps were grouped according to a hierarchical taxonomy into 35 different grasp types. The database contains information related to each grasp and associated sensor data acquired from the three sensor modalities. We also provide our data annotation software written in Matlab as an open-source tool. The size of the database is 172 GB. We believe this database can be used as a stepping stone to develop big data and machine learning techniques for grasping and manipulation with potential applications in rehabilitation robotics and intelligent automation.

  17. A multi-environment dataset for activity of daily living recognition in video streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreo, Alessandro; Onofri, Leonardo; Soda, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    Public datasets played a key role in the increasing level of interest that vision-based human action recognition has attracted in last years. While the production of such datasets has been influenced by the variability introduced by various actors performing the actions, the different modalities of interactions with the environment introduced by the variation of the scenes around the actors has been scarcely took into account. As a consequence, public datasets do not provide a proper test-bed for recognition algorithms that aim at achieving high accuracy, irrespective of the environment where actions are performed. This is all the more so, when systems are designed to recognize activities of daily living (ADL), which are characterized by a high level of human-environment interaction. For that reason, we present in this manuscript the MEA dataset, a new multi-environment ADL dataset, which permitted us to show how the change of scenario can affect the performances of state-of-the-art approaches for action recognition.

  18. Linking Existing Instruments to Develop an Activity of Daily Living Item Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chih-Ying; Romero, Sergio; Bonilha, Heather S; Simpson, Kit N; Simpson, Annie N; Hong, Ickpyo; Velozo, Craig A

    2018-03-01

    This study examined dimensionality and item-level psychometric properties of an item bank measuring activities of daily living (ADL) across inpatient rehabilitation facilities and community living centers. Common person equating method was used in the retrospective veterans data set. This study examined dimensionality, model fit, local independence, and monotonicity using factor analyses and fit statistics, principal component analysis (PCA), and differential item functioning (DIF) using Rasch analysis. Following the elimination of invalid data, 371 veterans who completed both the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and minimum data set (MDS) within 6 days were retained. The FIM-MDS item bank demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .98) and met three rating scale diagnostic criteria and three of the four model fit statistics (comparative fit index/Tucker-Lewis index = 0.98, root mean square error of approximation = 0.14, and standardized root mean residual = 0.07). PCA of Rasch residuals showed the item bank explained 94.2% variance. The item bank covered the range of θ from -1.50 to 1.26 (item), -3.57 to 4.21 (person) with person strata of 6.3. The findings indicated the ADL physical function item bank constructed from FIM and MDS measured a single latent trait with overall acceptable item-level psychometric properties, suggesting that it is an appropriate source for developing efficient test forms such as short forms and computerized adaptive tests.

  19. Activities of daily living, depression, and quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake J Lawrence

    Full Text Available This study examined whether activities of daily living (ADL mediate the relationship between depression and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL in people with Parkinson's disease (PD. A cross-sectional, correlational research design examined data from 174 participants who completed the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-section 2 (UPDRS-section 2 [ADL]. Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA was used to examine the mediator model. Depression and ADL significantly (p<.001 predicted HR-QOL, and depression significantly (p<.001 predicted ADL. Whilst ADL did not impact on the relationship between depression and HR-QOL, there was a significant (p<.001 indirect effect of depression on HR-QOL via ADL, suggesting both direct and indirect (via ADL effects of depression on HR-QOL. The magnitude of this effect was moderate (R2 = .13. People with PD who report depression also experience greater difficulty completing ADL, which impacts upon their HR-QOL. It is recommended that clinicians adopt a multidisciplinary approach to care by combining pharmacological treatments with psycho/occupational therapy, thereby alleviating the heterogeneous impact of motor and non-motor symptoms on HR-QOL in people with PD.

  20. Objective Analysis of Performance of Activities of Daily Living in People With Central Field Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardhan, Shahina; Latham, Keziah; Tabrett, Daryl; Timmis, Matthew A

    2015-11-01

    People with central visual field loss (CFL) adopt various strategies to complete activities of daily living (ADL). Using objective movement analysis, we compared how three ADLs were completed by people with CFL compared with age-matched, visually healthy individuals. Fourteen participants with CFL (age 81 ± 10 years) and 10 age-matched, visually healthy (age 75 ± 5 years) participated. Three ADLs were assessed: pick up food from a plate, pour liquid from a bottle, and insert a key in a lock. Participants with CFL completed each ADL habitually (as they would in their home). Data were compared with visually healthy participants who were asked to complete the tasks as they would normally, but under specified experimental conditions. Movement kinematics were compared using three-dimension motion analysis (Vicon). Visual functions (distance and near acuities, contrast sensitivity, visual fields) were recorded. All CFL participants were able to complete each ADL. However, participants with CFL demonstrated significantly (P approach. Various kinematic indices correlated significantly to visual function parameters including visual acuity and midperipheral visual field loss.

  1. Dual Sensory Loss and Depressive Symptoms: The Importance of Hearing, Daily Functioning and Activity Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Matthew Kiely

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between dual sensory loss (DSL and mental health has been well established. However, most studies have relied on self-report data and lacked measures that would enable researchers to examine causal pathways between DSL and depression. This study seeks to extend this research by examining the effects of DSL on mental health, and identify factors that explain the longitudinal associations between sensory loss and depressive symptoms. Methods: Piecewise linear-mixed models were used to analyse 16-years of longitudinal data collected on up to five occasions from 1611 adults (51% men aged between 65 and 103 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D. Vision loss (VL was defined by corrected visual acuity greater than 0.3 logMAR in the better eye, blindness or glaucoma. Hearing loss (HL was defined by pure tone average (PTA greater than 25 dB in the better hearing ear. Analyses were adjusted for socio-demographics, medical conditions, lifestyle behaviours, Activities of Daily Living (ADLs, cognitive function, and social engagement. Results: Unadjusted models indicated that higher levels of depressive symptoms were associated with HL (B=1.16, SE=0.33 and DSL (B=2.15, SE=0.39 but not VL. Greater rates of change in depressive symptoms were also evident after the onset of HL (B=0.16, SE=0.06, p

  2. Participation after acquired brain injury: Associations with everyday technology and activities in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahpour, Mandana; Kottorp, Anders; Nygård, Louise; Lund, Maria Larsson

    2015-01-01

    The development of the information society has led to increased use of everyday technology and changed the conditions for participation. Enabling participation in everyday life situations is an important rehabilitation goal after acquired brain injury (ABI). Identifying factors associated with individuals' experienced participation and problems therein is therefore essential. This study aimed at exploring the relationship between perceived difficulty in everyday technology use, perceived ability in the activities of daily living (ADL), and perceived participation, and participation problems in persons with ABI. Eighty-one persons with ABI participated in the study and were assessed by the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire, the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire, and the ADL taxonomy. Findings showed that the combined model of difficulty in everyday technology (ET) use, ADL ability, and the interaction between them explained both participation in various domains of everyday life, and also overall level of perceived participation and the perceived problems. The findings underscore the importance of evaluating individuals' ability in both ET use and ADL after ABI to increase the probability of explaining these persons' participation in desired everyday life situations and, also, for rehabilitation design.

  3. rich extract on total polyphenols and antioxidant activity obtained

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Z. Ghouila

    USTHB, Organic Functional Analysis Laboratory, 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Algiers, ... Keywords: Ahmeur Bouamer, extraction, grape seeds, total polyphenols, ... These compounds are known as good natural antioxidant agents arising from natural ... surface between solid and liquid phases; this is mainly due to the dispersion of ...

  4. Antioxidant, Phytotoxic and Antiurease Activities, and Total Phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antioxidant, phytotoxic and anti-urease properties of dichloromethane and methanol extracts of Conocarpus lancifolius in correlation with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Methods: The whole plant (dried aerial parts and root) of Conocarpus lancifolius was extracted successively with ...

  5. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Figure 3. Antioxidant activity of A. squarrosus extract by FTC method. A low absorbance value represents a high level of antioxidant activity. lipid peroxides. The Fe3+-thiocyanate complex produces a deep red color, which is detectable at 500 nm. The advantage of using ammonium thiocyanate over other.

  6. Repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation for activities of daily living and functional ability in people after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momosaki, Ryo; Yamada, Naoki; Ota, Erika; Abo, Masahiro

    2017-06-23

    Repetitive peripheral magnetic stimulation (rPMS) is a form of therapy that creates painless stimulation of deep muscle structures to improve motor function in people with physical impairment from brain or nerve disorders. Use of rPMS for people after stroke has been identified as a feasible approach to improve activities of daily living and functional ability. However, no systematic reviews have assessed the findings of available trials. The effect and safety of this intervention for people after stroke currently remain uncertain. To assess the effect of rPMS for improving activities of daily living and functional ability in people after stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (August 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 8) in the Cochrane Library (August 2016), MEDLINE Ovid (November 2016), Embase Ovid (August 2016), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) in Ebsco (August 2016), PsycINFO Ovid (August 2016), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) Ovid (August 2016), Occupational Therapy Systematic Evaluation of Evidence (OTseeker) (August 2016), the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) (October 2016), and ICHUSHI Web (October 2016). We also searched five ongoing trial registries, screened reference lists, and contacted experts in the field. We placed no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted to assess the therapeutic effect of rPMS for people after stroke. Comparisons eligible for inclusion were (1) active rPMS only compared with 'sham' rPMS (a very weak form of stimulation or a sound only); (2) active rPMS only compared with no intervention; (3) active rPMS plus rehabilitation compared with sham rPMS plus rehabilitation; and (4) active rPMS plus rehabilitation compared with rehabilitation only. Two review authors independently assessed

  7. Survival, disabilities in activities of daily living, and physical and cognitive functioning among the oldest-old in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Feng, Qiushi; Hesketh, Therese

    2017-01-01

    age at the time of the assessment in the 1998 and 2008 surveys. Four health outcomes were investigated: annual death rate, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), physical performance in three tests and cognitive function measured by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We used different tests......BACKGROUND: The oldest-old (those aged ≥80 years) are the most rapidly growing age group globally, and are most in need of health care and assistance. We aimed to assess changes in mortality, disability in activities of daily living, and physical and cognitive functioning among oldest......, and that disability according to activities of daily living had significantly reduced annually between 0·8% and 2·8%. However, cognitive impairment in the later cohorts increased annually between 0·7% and 2·2% and objective physical performance capacity (standing up from a chair, picking up a book from the floor...

  8. National youth sedentary behavior and physical activity daily patterns using latent class analysis applied to accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R; Wen, Fang; Hales, Derek; Herring, Amy H

    2016-05-03

    Applying latent class analysis (LCA) to accelerometry can help elucidated underlying patterns. This study described the patterns of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity among youth by applying LCA to a nationally representative United States (US) sample. Using 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 3998 youths 6-17 years wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer for one week, providing > =3 days of wear for > =8 h/day from 6:00 am-midnight. Cutpoints defined sedentary behavior ( = 2296 counts/minute), and vigorous activity (> = 4012 counts/minute). To account for wear time differences, outcomes were expressed as percent of day in a given intensity. LCA was used to classify daily (Monday through Sunday) patterns of average counts/minute, sedentary behavior, light activity, MVPA, and vigorous activity separately. The latent classes were explored overall and by age (6-11, 12-14, 15-17 years), gender, and whether or not youth attended school during measurement. Estimates were weighted to account for the sampling frame. For average counts/minute/day, four classes emerged from least to most active: 40.9% of population (mean 323.5 counts/minute/day), 40.3% (559.6 counts/minute/day), 16.5% (810.0 counts/minute/day), and 2.3% (1132.9 counts/minute/day). For percent of sedentary behavior, four classes emerged: 13.5% of population (mean 544.6 min/day), 30.1% (455.1 min/day), 38.5% (357.7 min/day), and 18.0% (259.2 min/day). For percent of light activity, four classes emerged: 12.3% of population (mean 222.6 min/day), 29.3% (301.7 min/day), 41.8% (384.0 min/day), and 16.6% (455.5 min/day). For percent of MVPA, four classes emerged: 59.9% of population (mean 25.0 min/day), 33.3% (60.9 min/day), 3.1% (89.0 min/day), and 3.6% (109.3 min/day). For percent of vigorous activity, three classes emerged: 76.8% of population (mean 7.1 min/day), 18.5% (23.9 min/day), and 4.7% (47.4 min/day). Classes were developed by age

  9. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil, Total Phenolics, Total Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Satureja montana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avni Hajdari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerial parts of Satureja montana L. (Lamiaceae were collected from seven growing wild populations (four populations in Kosovo, two in Albania and one in Montenegro in 2013 with the aim of assessing the natural variation in the chemical composition of the essential oils, total flavonoids, total phenolics and the antioxidant activity of their methanolic extracts. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analysed using GC-FID and GC-MS, whereas total flavonoids, total phenolics and antioxidant activities were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Sixty-one volatile constituents were identified. The main constituents were myrcene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, linalool, thymol, carvacrol and viridiflorol. Total phenolics ranged from 68.1 to 102.6 mg/g dry mass, the total flavonoid content ranged from 38.3 to 67.0 mg/g dm, and the antioxidant activity according to the DPPH assay ranged from 253.3 to 342.9 mg TE/g dm and according to the FRAP assay ranged from 8.9 to 11.4 mg TE/g dm. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analyses were used to assess the geographical variations in the essential oil composition. Statistical analysis revealed that the analysed populations are grouped into four main clusters that appear to reflect the environmental impact on the chemical composition, which is influenced by differences in habitat composition, altitude and microclimatic conditions.

  10. A web-based non-intrusive ambient system to measure and classify activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Reto A; Urwyler, Prabitha; Rampa, Luca; Müri, René; Mosimann, Urs P; Nef, Tobias

    2014-07-21

    , 4 men; mean age 48.8 years; SD 20.0 years; age range 28-79 years) were included. For explorative purposes, one female Alzheimer patient (Montreal Cognitive Assessment score=23, Timed Up and Go=19.8 seconds, Trail Making Test A=84.3 seconds, Trail Making Test B=146 seconds) was measured in parallel with the healthy subjects. In total, 1317 ADL were performed by the participants, 1211 ADL were classified correctly, and 106 ADL were missed. This led to an overall sensitivity of 91.27% and a specificity of 92.52%. Each subject performed an average of 134.8 ADL (SD 75). The non-intrusive wireless sensor system can acquire environmental data essential for the classification of activities of daily living. By analyzing retrieved data, it is possible to distinguish and assign data patterns to subjects' specific activities and to identify eight different activities in daily living. The Web-based technology allows the system to improve care and provides valuable information about the patient in real-time.

  11. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which children spent a majority of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings combined with relatively low amounts of teacher-directed activity, and a Structured-Balanced pattern in which children spent relatively equal proportions of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings and teacher-directed small- and whole-group activities. Daily routine profiles were associated with program type and curriculum use but not with measures of process quality. Children in Structured-Balanced classrooms had more opportunities to engage in language and literacy and math activities, whereas children in High Free-Choice classrooms had more opportunities for gross motor and fantasy play. Being in a Structured-Balanced classroom was associated with children's language scores but profiles were not associated with measures of children's math reasoning or socio-emotional behavior. Consideration of teachers' structuring of daily routines represents a valuable way to understand nuances in the provision of learning experiences for young children in the context of current views about developmentally appropriate practice and school readiness.

  12. Comparative study of active and inactive elderly persons through the assessment of activities of daily living and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Caporicci

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the activities of daily living and quality of active and inactive seniors’ life. This is a descriptive research of a quantitative nature. Participants were 24 seniors, 12 physical activity practitioners (PPA and 12 non-practitioners (NPPA. The instrument was a demographic questionnaire and SF-36 for measuring the quality of life and tests proposed by GDLAM. SPSS 15.0 was used for data analysis. The results obtained by the sociodemographic questionnaire for PPA and NPPA groups were, respectively: age − 69.5 and 70.0 years, marital status − 50.0% widower and 41.7% were married; education − 50.0% with complete elementary school and 58.3% with incomplete elementary school; health problems − 25.0% and 58.33% hypertension. In functional autonomy tests, the PPA group had shorter execution time when compared with the NPPA group; however, both groups found themselves in the rating of "weak" according to the protocol GDLAM. We concluded that there was no statistical difference between groups.

  13. Comparative study of active and inactive elderly persons through the assessment of activities of daily living and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Caporicci

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the activities of daily living and quality of active and inactive seniors’ life. This is a descriptive research of a quantitative nature. Participants were 24 seniors, 12 physical activity practitioners (PPA and 12 non-practitioners (NPPA. The instrument was a demographic questionnaire and SF-36 for measuring the quality of life and tests proposed by GDLAM. SPSS 15.0 was used for data analysis. The results obtained by the sociodemographic questionnaire for PPA and NPPA groups were, respectively: age − 69.5 and 70.0 years, marital status − 50.0% widower and 41.7% were married; education − 50.0% with complete elementary school and 58.3% with incomplete elementary school; health problems − 25.0% and 58.33% hypertension. In functional autonomy tests, the PPA group had shorter execution time when compared with the NPPA group; however, both groups found themselves in the rating of "weak" according to the protocol GDLAM. We concluded that there was no statistical difference between groups.

  14. Daily energy expenditure and physical activity measured in Parkinson's disease patients with and without weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss, which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated resting energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REF) and physical activit...

  15. Total Lightning Flash Activity Response to Aerosol over China Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengguo Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve years of measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD, cloud fraction, cloud top height, ice cloud optical thickness and lightning flash density from 2001 to 2012 have been analyzed to investigate the effect of aerosols on electrical activity over an area of China. The results show that increasing aerosol loading inspires the convective intensity, and then increases the lightning flash density. The spatial distribution of the correlation between aerosol loading and electrical activity shows a remarkable regional difference over China. The high-correlation regions embody the positive aerosol microphysical effect on the intensity of the electrical activity, while the large-scale processes may play the main role in convection development and producing lightning in low-correlation regions.

  16. Duration and frequency of every day activities in total hip patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlock, M; Schneider, E; Bluhm, A; Vollmer, M; Bergmann, G; Müller, V; Honl, M

    2001-07-01

    Little knowledge about frequency and duration of daily activities in patients after total hip arthroplasty is available. Such information is required for the definition of realistic load collectives for pre-clinical testing of prostheses. It could also be helpful for the quantitative evaluation of surgery outcome with different prosthesis types. The purpose of this study was to develop and apply a system for the determination of frequency and duration of patient activities in their habitual environment and to compare the results to a clinical outcome score (Harris hip score).A portable activity monitoring system (weight 1.6 kg including batteries) was designed using a Palm top computer, 2 inclination sensors for the thigh and calf and one goniometer positioned at the knee joint. An algorithm was developed to identify frequency and duration of the activities lying, sitting, standing, walking and stair climbing from the signals of the 3 sensors. 42 patients participated in the study and were equipped with the system in the morning at their home. Datasets of 31 patients (age 62.5+/-11.5 y) covered more than 6h (9.8 +/- 1.6 h) and were included in the analysis. Prosthesis specific data as well as the Harris hip score were collected. The most frequent patient activity was sitting (44.3% of the time), followed by standing (24.5%), walking (10.2%), lying (5.8%) and stair climbing (0.4%). The median number of steps/stairs was 6048/164. The number of step cycles representing one year in vivo use should, consequently, be increased to 1.1 million. The Harris hip score (91.4 +/- 9.8) correlated significantly with the number of stairs (r(2) = 0.26, p = 0.003) and showed a positive tendency with the number of steps per day. No differences in activity levels between prosthesis specific factors were found.

  17. Performance on cognitive tests, instrumental activities of daily living and depressive symptoms of a community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Christina Martins Borges; Alves, Heloisa Veiga Dias; Mograbi, Daniel Correa; Pereira, Flávia Furtado; Fernandez, Jesus Landeira; Charchat-Fichman, Helenice

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the performance on basic cognitive tasks, instrumental activities of daily living, and depressive symptoms of a community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) who participated in multiple physical, social, and cognitive activities at government-run community centers. Methods A total of 264 educated older adults (> 60 years of age of both genders) were evaluated by the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB), Lawton's and Pfeffer's activities of daily living indexes, and the Geriatric Depressive Scale (GDS). Results The mean age of the sample was 75.7 years. The participants had a mean of 9.3 years of formal education. With the exception of the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), mean scores on the cognitive tests were consistent with the values in the literature. Only 6.4% of the sample had some kind of dependence for activities of daily living. The results of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) indicated mild symptoms of depression in 16.8% of the sample Conclusion This study provided important demographic, cognitive, and functional characteristics of a specific community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:29213494

  18. Performance on cognitive tests, instrumental activities of daily living and depressive symptoms of a community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Martins Borges Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the performance on basic cognitive tasks, instrumental activities of daily living, and depressive symptoms of a community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil who participated in multiple physical, social, and cognitive activities at government-run community centers. Methods: A total of 264 educated older adults (> 60 years of age of both genders were evaluated by the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB, Lawton's and Pfeffer's activities of daily living indexes, and the Geriatric Depressive Scale (GDS . Results: The mean age of the sample was 75.7 years. The participants had a mean of 9.3 years of formal education. With the exception of the Clock Drawing Test (CDT, mean scores on the cognitive tests were consistent with the values in the literature. Only 6.4% of the sample had some kind of dependence for activities of daily living. The results of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15 indicated mild symptoms of depression in 16.8% of the sample. Conclusion: This study provided important demographic, cognitive, and functional characteristics of a specific community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  19. Total synthesis and allelopathic activity of cytosporones A-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamberlam, Charles E.M.; Meza, Alisson; Lima, Denis P. de; Beatriz, Adilson [Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Leite, Carla Braga; Marques, Maria Rita [Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The search for efficient, environmentally friendly herbicides has been the focus of numerous studies on the organic synthesis of compounds isolated from natural sources. Cytosporones, which are phenolic lipids isolated from fungi, exhibit noteworthy biological properties. This paper reports the preparation of cytosporones A-C from the same starting material through a short synthetic route, with good yields. All compounds were tested for allelopathic activity on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) seeds. Cytosporone A and its methylated precursor showed remarkable allelopathic activity, inhibiting seed germination and plantule growth. (author)

  20. Total synthesis and allelopathic activity of cytosporones A-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamberlam, Charles E.M.; Meza, Alisson; Lima, Denis P. de; Beatriz, Adilson; Leite, Carla Braga; Marques, Maria Rita

    2012-01-01

    The search for efficient, environmentally friendly herbicides has been the focus of numerous studies on the organic synthesis of compounds isolated from natural sources. Cytosporones, which are phenolic lipids isolated from fungi, exhibit noteworthy biological properties. This paper reports the preparation of cytosporones A-C from the same starting material through a short synthetic route, with good yields. All compounds were tested for allelopathic activity on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) seeds. Cytosporone A and its methylated precursor showed remarkable allelopathic activity, inhibiting seed germination and plantule growth. (author)

  1. Haemoglobin and Lung Total and Lysosomal Phosphatase Activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smoking of ordinary cigarette exposes its active smokers to health hazards and the filter-tipped cigarette, is said to reduce the hazards. However, it is not certain if the filter-tipped cigarette reduces the hazards in passive smokers since they inhail the cigarette smoke through their nostrils regardless of whether the cigarette is ...

  2. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant capacity of the flowering aerial parts of Astragalus squarrosus was determined by 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferric thiocyanate methods. The phenolic and flavonoid content was also measured. A. squarrosus showed weak free radical scavenging activity with the DPPH ...

  3. How do academic stress and leisure activities influence college students' emotional well-being? A daily diary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jieting; Zheng, Yao

    2017-10-01

    China has one of the largest bodies of college students who face growing academic stress that influences their well-being. Using a daily diary method in a group of Chinese college students (n = 139, mean age = 19.50 years, 27% males) who reported their daily positive and negative emotion consecutively for two weeks, this study investigated the dynamic relations between daily academic stress, leisure activities engagement, and emotion, and further examined the moderation of sex on these links. The results showed that at both between- and within-person level, academic stress was positively associated with negative emotion, and leisure activities engagement was positively associated with positive emotion. The association between leisure activities engagement and positive emotion were stronger among female students than among male students. These results suggest that effectively reducing academic stress and actively engaging in leisure activities are both important in promoting and enhancing daily emotional well-being. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Recognition of Activities of Daily Living Based on Environmental Analyses Using Audio Fingerprinting Techniques: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Miguel Pires

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in the accuracy of identification of Activities of Daily Living (ADL is very important for different goals of Enhanced Living Environments and for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL tasks. This increase may be achieved through identification of the surrounding environment. Although this is usually used to identify the location, ADL recognition can be improved with the identification of the sound in that particular environment. This paper reviews audio fingerprinting techniques that can be used with the acoustic data acquired from mobile devices. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in order to identify relevant English language works aimed at the identification of the environment of ADLs using data acquired with mobile devices, published between 2002 and 2017. In total, 40 studies were analyzed and selected from 115 citations. The results highlight several audio fingerprinting techniques, including Modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT, Mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients (MFCC, Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, Gaussian mixture models (GMM, likelihood estimation, logarithmic moduled complex lapped transform (LMCLT, support vector machine (SVM, constant Q transform (CQT, symmetric pairwise boosting (SPB, Philips robust hash (PRH, linear discriminant analysis (LDA and discrete cosine transform (DCT.

  5. Recovery of activity of daily living in cases of cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, Kimihiro (St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1983-11-01

    In 96 patients with supratentorial cerebral infarction, the recovery of activity of daily living (ADL) was studied in relation to computerized tomography (CT) findings in the acute stage. The average age was 64 and 78 out of 96 were first attack cases. The cases were divided into 3 groups on the basis of the CT findings. The N group had no low density area on CT. The S group had a small deep infarct around the basal ganglia and the L group showed a large infarct with a damaged cerebral cortex. Dilatation of the ventricles was measured by the methods of Meese and Huckman. Cortical atrophy estimated by summation of width of Sylvian fissures or parietal cortical sulci, expressed in percentages. Measurements for CT were performed in the subacute stage to exclude the effects of cerebral edema. ADL was categorized in five stages using Rankin's criteria in the first week and after the eighth week. Among the 3 groups, the L group had the worst ADL when examined eight weeks later. On the contrary, the N group showed the greatest improvement. Patients under 60 years old showed better recovery at the eight week, while in most patients aged 70 or more the improvement was less evident. Dilatation of ventricles and severity of cortical atrophy increased in proportion to age, especially in cases of cerebral infarcts. In patients with ventricular dilatation or severe cerebral atrophy. ADL improvement was lower. Recovery was low in cases with narrow cortical sulci. Recovery of ADL in reattack patients was lowest and larger dilatation of the ventricles than first attack cases was recognized. The size of cerebral infarction, ADL in the first week, the dilatation of lateral ventricles, the severity of cortical atrophy and age were found to be important factors in functional recovery.

  6. Predicting activities of daily living for cancer patients using an ontology-guided machine learning methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hua; Mobahi, Hedyeh; Irvin, Katherine; Avramovic, Sanja; Wojtusiak, Janusz

    2017-09-16

    Bio-ontologies are becoming increasingly important in knowledge representation and in the machine learning (ML) fields. This paper presents a ML approach that incorporates bio-ontologies and its application to the SEER-MHOS dataset to discover patterns of patient characteristics that impact the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). Bio-ontologies are used to provide computable knowledge for ML methods to "understand" biomedical data. This retrospective study included 723 cancer patients from the SEER-MHOS dataset. Two ML methods were applied to create predictive models for ADL disabilities for the first year after a patient's cancer diagnosis. The first method is a standard rule learning algorithm; the second is that same algorithm additionally equipped with methods for reasoning with ontologies. The models showed that a patient's race, ethnicity, smoking preference, treatment plan and tumor characteristics including histology, staging, cancer site, and morphology were predictors for ADL performance levels one year after cancer diagnosis. The ontology-guided ML method was more accurate at predicting ADL performance levels (P ontologies. This study demonstrated that bio-ontologies can be harnessed to provide medical knowledge for ML algorithms. The presented method demonstrates that encoding specific types of hierarchical relationships to guide rule learning is possible, and can be extended to other types of semantic relationships present in biomedical ontologies. The ontology-guided ML method achieved better performance than the method without ontologies. The presented method can also be used to promote the effectiveness and efficiency of ML in healthcare, in which use of background knowledge and consistency with existing clinical expertise is critical.

  7. Daily supplementation with fresh pomegranate juice increases paraoxonase 1 expression and activity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Luna, D; Martínez-Hinojosa, E; Cancino-Diaz, J C; Belefant-Miller, H; López-Rodríguez, G; Betanzos-Cabrera, G

    2018-02-01

    Studies have found that pomegranate juice (PJ) consumption increases the binding of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to paraoxonase 1 (PON1), thus increasing the catalytic activity of this enzyme. PON1 is an antioxidant arylesterase synthesized in the liver and transported in plasma in association with HDL. Decreased levels of PON1 are associated with higher levels of cholesterol. We determined the effects of PJ on body weight, cholesterol, and triacylglycerols through 5 months of supplementation. In addition, the effect of PJ on pon1 gene expression in the liver was also measured by RT-qPCR as well as the activity in serum by a semiautomated method using paraoxon as a substrate. CD-1 mice were either fed a control diet or were fed a high-fat diet 1.25% (wt/wt) cholesterol, 0.5% (wt/wt) sodium cholate, and 15% (wt/wt) saturated fat. 300 μL of PJ containing 0.35 mmol total polyphenols was administered by oral gavage to half of the high fat mice daily. The rest of the high fat mice and the control mice were administered with 300 μL of water. PJ-supplemented animals had significantly higher levels of expression of pon1 compared to the unsupplemented group. PJ-supplemented animals had twice the PON1 activity of the unsupplemented group. In addition, PJ-supplemented animals had the lowest body weight and significantly reduced cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, although the tricylglycerol levels were not consistently decreased. These results suggest that PJ protects against the effects of a high-fat diet in body weight, and cholesterol levels.

  8. PRIDE FOR PLAY: PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY IN DAILY EFFORT FOR PARTICIPATION IN LIFELONG ACTIVITY FOR YOUTHS. A SINGAPOREAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Chia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Singapore, a developed city state of four million people is experiencing the pitfalls that come with rapid modernisation and economic progress- elevated disease risk factors among adults and young people. Weekly compulsory physical education classes of 70 minutes in schools and the associated sports activities after classes are inadequate to meet emergent physical activity guidelines of a daily accumulation of at least 90 minutes of physical activity of at least moderate intensity. Daily play sessions that are exclusive of an active daily recess, physical education classes taught by trained specialists and after-school sport sessions, can provide many developmental and holistic health benefits that may carry over into adulthood. A school environment that is play-encouraging, play-enabling and play-inviting can be a useful, innovative and natural way of inculcating a love for movement and help redress a serious trend of physical activity insufficiency while youngsters engage electronic gaming activities. Pilot initiatives for the PRIDE (personal responsibility in daily effort for PLAY (participation in lifelong activity for youths programme is a radicalised approach in a number of primary schools in Singapore to infuse daily physical play of between 20 to 45 minutes during curriculum hours. The hope is that PRIDE for PLAY will reap benefits of improved holistic health of youngsters- better physical, social, emotional and mental attributes. While PRIDE for PLAY is no panacea to all of the ills of modernisation, it will go some way in helping the students of tomorrow to be physically healthy, socially more engaged and tolerant of others, mentally more apt to problem-solve and emotionally more proficient to embrace working life in adulthood

  9. The reciprocal relationship between daily fatigue and catastrophizing following cancer treatment: Affect and physical activity as potential mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Fabiola; Stephenson, Ellen; DeLongis, Anita; Smink, Ans; Van Ginkel, Robert J; Tuinman, Marrit A; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2018-03-01

    Fatigue is a distressing symptom many cancer patients experience even after completion of treatment. Although theory and empirical evidence indicate that negative cognitions perpetuate fatigue after completion of treatment, insight into how this process unfolds in daily life is limited. This study used an intensive longitudinal design to investigate the reciprocal relationship between catastrophizing and fatigue in daily life and whether affective and behavioral processes mediate these relationships. Post-treatment colorectal cancer patients (n = 101) completed daily diaries (14 days, 3 times daily) regarding their fatigue, catastrophizing, positive and negative affect, and physical activity. Multilevel modeling was applied to investigate within-person associations within days. Analyses revealed a positive reciprocal relationship between fatigue and catastrophizing throughout the day. That is, high levels of catastrophizing were associated with increases in fatigue within patients. In turn, but to a lesser extent, high levels of fatigue predicted increases in catastrophizing at the next assessment. Low positive affect and high negative affect mediated the effect of catastrophizing on increases in fatigue. Only negative affect mediated the reverse relationship. Physical activity did not mediate either relationship. This study provides evidence for a mutually reinforcing relationship between catastrophizing and fatigue in daily life, which might explain the perpetuation of fatigue after completion of cancer treatment. Fatigue-specific cognitive behavior therapy could be improved by educating patients about this daily reciprocal relationship, train them to quickly replace catastrophizing thoughts in daily life, and help them to cope with affective changes induced by fatigue. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Whole-body dose meters. Measurements of total activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, P.; Klinikum Steglitz, Berlin

    1990-01-01

    By means of measurements using a whole-body dose meter, the course of the incorporation of radionuclides was established between April 1986 and May 1989 for unchanged conditions of alimentation, activity-conscious alimentation, and uniquely increased incorporation. Monitoring covered persons from the most different spheres of life. The incorporation is compared with the one resulting from nuclear weapons explosions in the atmosphere. (DG) [de

  11. Associations Between Daily Mood States and Brain Gray Matter Volume, Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Task-Based Activity in Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmira Ismaylova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown differences in the functioning in the areas of the frontal-limbic circuitry between depressed patients and controls. However, current knowledge on frontal-limbic neural substrates of individual differences in mood states in everyday life in healthy individuals is scarce. The present study investigates anatomical, resting-state, and functional neural correlates of daily mood states in healthy individuals. We expected to observe associations between mood and the frontal-limbic circuitry and the default-mode network (DMN. A total of 42 healthy adults (19 men, 23 women; 34 ± 1.2 years regularly followed for behavior and psychosocial functioning since age of 6, underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, and completed a daily diary of mood states and related cognitions for 5 consecutive days. Results showed that individuals with smaller left hippocampal gray matter volumes experienced more negative mood and rumination in their daily life. Greater resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC within the DMN, namely between posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and medial prefrontal cortex regions as well as between PCC and precuneus, was associated with both greater negative and positive mood states in daily life. These rsFC results could be indicative of the role of the DMN regional functioning in emotional arousal, irrespective of valence. Lastly, greater daily positive mood was associated with greater activation in response to negative emotional stimuli in the precentral gyri, previously linked to emotional interference on cognitive control. Altogether, present findings might reflect neural mechanisms underlying daily affect and cognition among healthy individuals.

  12. The nature of delayed dream incorporation ('dream-lag effect'): Personally significant events persist, but not major daily activities or concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; van Rijn, Elaine; Phelan, Mairéad; Ryder, Larnia; Gaskell, M Gareth; Lewis, Penelope A; P Walker, Matthew; Blagrove, Mark

    2018-04-22

    Incorporation of details from waking life events into rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreams has been found to be highest on the 2 nights after, and then 5-7 nights after, the event. These are termed, respectively, the day-residue and dream-lag effects. This study is the first to categorize types of waking life experiences and compare their incorporation into dreams across multiple successive nights. Thirty-eight participants completed a daily diary each evening and a dream diary each morning for 14 days. In the daily diary, three categories of experiences were reported: major daily activities (MDAs), personally significant events (PSEs) and major concerns (MCs). After the 14-day period each participant identified the correspondence between items in their daily diaries and subsequent dream reports. The day-residue and dream-lag effects were found for the incorporation of PSEs into dreams (effect sizes of .33 and .27, respectively), but only for participants (n = 19) who had a below-median total number of correspondences between daily diary items and dream reports (termed "low-incorporators" as opposed to "high-incorporators"). Neither the day-residue or dream-lag effects were found for MDAs or MCs. This U-shaped timescale of incorporation of events from daily life into dreams has been proposed to reflect REM sleep-dependent memory consolidation, possibly related to emotional memory processing. This study had a larger sample size of dreams than any dream-lag study hitherto with trained participants. Coupled with previous successful replications, there is thus substantial evidence supporting the dream-lag effect and further explorations of its mechanism, including its neural underpinnings, are warranted. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  13. Associations Between Daily Mood States and Brain Gray Matter Volume, Resting-State Functional Connectivity and Task-Based Activity in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaylova, Elmira; Di Sante, Jessica; Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Pomares, Florence B; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Booij, Linda

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown differences in the functioning in the areas of the frontal-limbic circuitry between depressed patients and controls. However, current knowledge on frontal-limbic neural substrates of individual differences in mood states in everyday life in healthy individuals is scarce. The present study investigates anatomical, resting-state, and functional neural correlates of daily mood states in healthy individuals. We expected to observe associations between mood and the frontal-limbic circuitry and the default-mode network (DMN). A total of 42 healthy adults (19 men, 23 women; 34 ± 1.2 years) regularly followed for behavior and psychosocial functioning since age of 6, underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, and completed a daily diary of mood states and related cognitions for 5 consecutive days. Results showed that individuals with smaller left hippocampal gray matter volumes experienced more negative mood and rumination in their daily life. Greater resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) within the DMN, namely between posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and medial prefrontal cortex regions as well as between PCC and precuneus, was associated with both greater negative and positive mood states in daily life. These rsFC results could be indicative of the role of the DMN regional functioning in emotional arousal, irrespective of valence. Lastly, greater daily positive mood was associated with greater activation in response to negative emotional stimuli in the precentral gyri, previously linked to emotional interference on cognitive control. Altogether, present findings might reflect neural mechanisms underlying daily affect and cognition among healthy individuals.

  14. Monitoring to assess progress toward meeting the Assabet River, Massachusetts, phosphorus total maximum daily load - Aquatic macrophyte biomass and sediment-phosphorus flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Qian, Yu; Yong Q., Tian

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for Total Phosphorus in the Assabet River, Massachusetts, was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The goal of the TMDL was to decrease the concentrations of the nutrient phosphorus to mitigate some of the instream ecological effects of eutrophication on the river; these effects were, for the most part, direct consequences of the excessive growth of aquatic macrophytes. The primary instrument effecting lower concentrations of phosphorus was to be strict control of phosphorus releases from four major wastewatertreatment plants in Westborough, Marlborough, Hudson, and Maynard, Massachusetts. The improvements to be achieved from implementing this control were lower concentrations of total and dissolved phosphorus in the river, a 50-percent reduction in aquatic-plant biomass, a 30-percent reduction in episodes of dissolved oxygen supersaturation, no low-flow dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 5.0 milligrams per liter, and a 90-percent reduction in sediment releases of phosphorus to the overlying water. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, initiated studies to evaluate conditions in the Assabet River prior to the upgrading of wastewater-treatment plants to remove more phosphorus from their effluents. The studies, completed in 2008, implemented a visual monitoring plan to evaluate the extent and biomass of the floating macrophyte Lemna minor (commonly known as lesser duckweed) in five impoundments and evaluated the potential for phosphorus flux from sediments in impounded and free-flowing reaches of the river. Hydrologically, the two study years 2007 and 2008 were quite different. In 2007, summer streamflows, although low, were higher than average, and in 2008, the flows were generally higher than in 2007. Visually, the effects of these streamflow differences on the distribution of Lemna were obvious. In 2007, large amounts of

  15. Improving activities of daily living for nursing home elder persons in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Su-Hsien; Wung, Shu-Fen; Crogan, Neva L

    2008-01-01

    Excess disability among nursing home elder persons can be prevented or remediated. Because of self-selected disuse and caregiver support of dependency, nursing home residents are likely to develop excess disability. No study was found to test a theory-based program aimed at improving elder persons' self-care abilities for Taiwanese nursing home elder persons who are at risk for developing excess disability. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention program on self-care, specifically on activities of daily living (ADLs) performance among nursing home elder persons in Taiwan. A secondary aim was to determine the correlation between ADLs performance and three bliss concepts: life satisfaction, self-esteem, and motivation in health behavior. This study used a quasi-experimental, two-group, pretest-posttest design. Forty-two qualified participants were recruited from two nursing homes located in southern Taiwan and assigned to either the experimental group (n = 21) or the comparison group (n = 21). Participants in the experimental group received the Self-Care Self-Efficacy Enhancement Program (SCSEEP), and those in the comparison group received biweekly social visits for 6 weeks. Levels of ADLs performance were measured by Tappen's Refined ADL Assessment Scale. Life satisfaction was measured by Adams' Life Satisfaction Index A. Self-esteem was measured by Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. Motivation in health behavior was measured by Cox's Health Self-Determinism Index. Elder persons receiving the SCSEEP had significant improvement in feeding, dressing, grooming, and washing activities. Self-esteem (p = .011) and life satisfaction (p = .033) but not motivation in health behavior (p = .282) were positively correlated with levels of ADLs performance. The SCSEEP provides a theory-based intervention model for Taiwanese nursing home elder persons aimed at improving ADLs performance. Further research with a larger sample size is

  16. The effect of group exercise program on the self-efficacy and activities of daily living in adults with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Jo; Kim, Soo-Min; Kwon, Hae-Yeon

    2017-12-01

    [Purpose] This study was carried out to examine the effect of the application of group exercise program composed to induce interests and assertive participation of adults with cerebral palsy on the self-efficacy and activities of daily living, as well as to provide basic clinical data that are effective and trustworthy in enhancing the physical and emotional interaction in the future. [Subjects and Methods] Those among the 23 adult with cerebral palsy who are the subjects of research and able to participate only in the evaluation of measurement tools prior to and after the experiment were allocated to the control group while only those who can participate in the group exercise program implemented over 12 sessions were allocated to the experimental group. For the control group, a range of motion of joint exercise and stretching exercise were executed on the arms, legs and trunk, while for the experimental group, group exercise that is implemented with participation of several subjects simultaneously was executed 2 times a week with 40 minutes for each session over a period of 6 weeks for the total of 12 sessions. [Results] In both the experimental group and the control group, there were statistically significant changes in the average scores of self-efficacy and activities of daily living after the exercise in comparison to that prior to the exercise. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences in self-efficacy and activities of daily living in terms of quantity of change prior to and after the exercise between the two groups. [Conclusion] Therefore, group exercise program composed to induce physical and emotional interaction, and active participation of adults with cerebral palsy can be considered as an effective intervention method in improving their self-efficacy and activities of daily living.

  17. Examining Success of Communication Strategies Used by Formal Caregivers Assisting Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease during an Activity of Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rozanne; Rochon, Elizabeth; Mihailidis, Alex; Leonard, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how formal (i.e., employed) caregivers' use verbal and nonverbal communication strategies while assisting individuals with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) during the successful completion of an activity of daily living (ADL). Based on the literature, the authors hypothesized that caregivers' use of 1 proposition,…

  18. Enhancement of daily physical activity increases physical fitness of outclinic COPD patients : Results of an exercise counseling program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospes, Gieneke; Bossenbroek, Linda; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; van Hengel, Peter; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.

    Objective: To investigate whether a 12-week pedometer-based exercise counseling strategy is feasible and effectively enhances daily physical activity in outclinic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients who do not participate in a rehabilitation program in a controlled way. Methods: 35

  19. Performance-based assessment of activities of daily living (ADL) ability among women with chronic widespread pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen; Amris, Kirstine; Fisher, Anne G

    2010-01-01

    Functional ability, including the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), is considered a core outcome domain in chronic pain clinical trials and is usually assessed through generic or disease-specific self-report questionnaires. Research, however, indicates that self...

  20. Promoting Daily Physical Activity by Means of Mobile Gaming: A Review of the State of the Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabak, Monique; van Weering, Marit; van Dijk, H.W.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To review mobile games and gaming applications that claim to improve physical activity behavior in daily life. Search Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and the ACM Digital Library and performed a manual search of relevant journals and reference lists. Studies that reported on

  1. Correlates of daily leisure-time physical activity in a community sample : Narrow personality traits and practical barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, P.; Yancy, W.S.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Kühnel, A.; Voils, C.I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies examining correlates of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) have identified personality factors that are correlated with LTPA and practical factors that impede LTPA. The purpose of the present study was to test how several narrow traits predict daily reports of LTPA and

  2. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF THE NECESSITIES FOR THE DAILY CARE AND PRODUCTIVE ACTIVITY OF THE MODERATE AND SEVERED MENTALLY RETARDED PERSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunchica DIMITRIJOSKA

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessities for the daily care and productive activity of the moderate and severed mentally retarded persons are determinate by many cultural, traditional and social environments. In this context the part-time institutional treatment is very important for this persons.

  3. Variable-Intensity Simulated Team-Sport Exercise Increases Daily Protein Requirements in Active Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Jeffrey E; Wooding, Denise J; Kato, Hiroyuki; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Pencharz, Paul B; Moore, Daniel R

    2017-01-01

    Protein requirements are generally increased in strength and endurance trained athletes relative to their sedentary peers. However, less is known about the daily requirement for this important macronutrient in individuals performing variable intensity, stop-and-go type exercise that is typical for team sport athletes. The objective of the present study was to determine protein requirements in active, trained adult males performing a simulated soccer match using the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method. After 2 days of controlled diet (1.2 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 protein), seven trained males (23 ± 1 years; 177.5 ± 6.7 cm; 82.3 ± 6.1 kg; 13.5% ± 4.7% body fat; 52.3 ± 5.9 ml O 2 ⋅kg -1 ⋅min -1 ; mean ± SD) performed an acute bout of variable intensity exercise in the form of a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (4 × 15 min of exercise over 75 min). Immediately after exercise, hourly meals were consumed providing a variable amount of protein (0.2-2.6 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 ) and sufficient energy and carbohydrate (6 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 ). Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acids modeled after egg protein with the exception of phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were provided in excess to ensure the metabolic partitioning of the indicator amino acid (i.e., [1- 13 C]phenylalanine included within the phenylalanine intake) was directed toward oxidation when protein intake was limiting. Whole body phenylalanine flux and 13 CO 2 excretion (F 13 CO 2 ) were determined at metabolic and isotopic steady state from urine and breath samples, respectively. Biphasic linear regression analysis was performed on F 13 CO 2 to determine the estimated average requirement (EAR) for protein with a safe intake defined as the upper 95% confidence interval. Phenylalanine flux was not impacted by protein intake ( P  = 0.45). Bi-phase linear regression ( R 2  = 0.64) of F 13 CO 2 resulted

  4. Variable-Intensity Simulated Team-Sport Exercise Increases Daily Protein Requirements in Active Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E. Packer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein requirements are generally increased in strength and endurance trained athletes relative to their sedentary peers. However, less is known about the daily requirement for this important macronutrient in individuals performing variable intensity, stop-and-go type exercise that is typical for team sport athletes. The objective of the present study was to determine protein requirements in active, trained adult males performing a simulated soccer match using the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO method. After 2 days of controlled diet (1.2 g⋅kg−1⋅day−1 protein, seven trained males (23 ± 1 years; 177.5 ± 6.7 cm; 82.3 ± 6.1 kg; 13.5% ± 4.7% body fat; 52.3 ± 5.9 ml O2⋅kg−1⋅min-1; mean ± SD performed an acute bout of variable intensity exercise in the form of a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (4 × 15 min of exercise over 75 min. Immediately after exercise, hourly meals were consumed providing a variable amount of protein (0.2–2.6 g⋅kg−1⋅day−1 and sufficient energy and carbohydrate (6 g⋅kg−1⋅day−1. Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acids modeled after egg protein with the exception of phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were provided in excess to ensure the metabolic partitioning of the indicator amino acid (i.e., [1-13C]phenylalanine included within the phenylalanine intake was directed toward oxidation when protein intake was limiting. Whole body phenylalanine flux and 13CO2 excretion (F13CO2 were determined at metabolic and isotopic steady state from urine and breath samples, respectively. Biphasic linear regression analysis was performed on F13CO2 to determine the estimated average requirement (EAR for protein with a safe intake defined as the upper 95% confidence interval. Phenylalanine flux was not impacted by protein intake (P = 0.45. Bi-phase linear regression (R2 = 0.64 of F13CO2 resulted in an EAR

  5. Feasibility of a dynamic web guidance approach for personalized physical activity prescription based on daily information from wearable technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolbaugh, Crystal L; Raymond, Stephen C; Hawkins, David A

    2015-06-04

    Computer tailored, Web-based interventions have emerged as an effective approach to promote physical activity. Existing programs, however, do not adjust activities according to the participant's compliance or physiologic adaptations, which may increase risk of injury and program attrition in sedentary adults. To address this limitation, objective activity monitor (AM) and heart rate data could be used to guide personalization of physical activity, but improved Web-based frameworks are needed to test such interventions. The objective of this study is to (1) develop a personalized physical activity prescription (PPAP) app that combines dynamic Web-based guidance with multi-sensor AM data to promote physical activity and (2) to assess the feasibility of using this system in the field. The PPAP app was constructed using an open-source software platform and a custom, multi-sensor AM capable of accurately measuring heart rate and physical activity. A novel algorithm was written to use a participant's compliance and physiologic response to aerobic training (ie, changes in daily resting heart rate) recorded by the AM to create daily, personalized physical activity prescriptions. In addition, the PPAP app was designed to (1) manage the transfer of files from the AM to data processing software and a relational database, (2) provide interactive visualization features such as calendars and training tables to encourage physical activity, and (3) enable remote administrative monitoring of data quality and participant compliance. A 12-week feasibility study was performed to assess the utility and limitations of the PPAP app used by sedentary adults in the field. Changes in physical activity level and resting heart rate were monitored throughout the intervention. The PPAP app successfully created daily, personalized physical activity prescriptions and an interactive Web environment to guide and promote physical activity by the participants. The varied compliance of the

  6. Rhodium in car exhaust tips by total automatic activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.; Westphal, G.P.; Lemmel, H.; Sterba, J.

    2007-01-01

    Exhaust systems of modern cars contain catalysts for the reduction of CO, NO x and hydrocarbons. These catalysts are made of ceramic materials with a large surface on which platinum metals catalyse the oxidation. The catalysts contain approximately 2 g of platinum and 0.4 g of rhodium. Recently platinum is being replaced by palladium. During driving the platinum-group elements (PGEs) are expelled from the tip in fine particles and are deposited in the environment. For a projected study of emissions from cars driven on streets and highways it is important to know which elements can be measured by short time activation analysis without any chemical procedure. (author)

  7. The Healthy Lifestyle and Personal Control Questionnaire (HLPCQ): a novel tool for assessing self-empowerment through a constellation of daily activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darviri, Christina; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Artemiadis, Artemios K; Tigani, Xanthi; Kraniotou, Christina; Darvyri, Panagiota; Chrousos, George P

    2014-09-24

    The main goal of stress management and health promotion programs is to improve health by empowering people to take control over their lives. Daily health-related lifestyle choices are integral targets of these interventions and critical to evaluating their efficacy. To date, concepts such as self-efficacy, self-control and empowerment are assessed by tools that only partially address daily lifestyle choices. The aim of this study is to validate a novel measurement tool, the Healthy Lifestyle and Personal Control Questionnaire (HLPCQ), which aims to assess the concept of empowerment through a constellation of daily activities. Therefore, we performed principal component analysis (PCA) of 26 items that were derived from the qualitative data of several stress management programs conducted by our research team. The PCA resulted in the following five-factor solution: 1) Dietary Healthy Choices, 2) Dietary Harm Avoidance, 3) Daily Routine, 4) Organized Physical Exercise and 5) Social and Mental Balance. All subscales showed satisfactory internal consistency and variance, relative to theoretical score ranges. Subscale scores and the total score were significantly correlated with perceived stress and health locus of control, implying good criterion validity. Associations with sociodemographic data and other variables, such as sleep quality and health assessments, were also found. The HLPCQ is a good tool for assessing the efficacy of future health-promoting interventions to improve individuals' lifestyle and wellbeing.

  8. Daily physical activity and screen time, but not other sedentary activities, are associated with measures of obesity during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2014-12-23

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours.

  9. Daily Physical Activity and Screen Time, but Not Other Sedentary Activities, Are Associated with Measures of Obesity during Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Nik Shanita, Safii; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours. PMID:25546277

  10. Daily Physical Activity and Screen Time, but Not Other Sedentary Activities, Are Associated with Measures of Obesity during Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoo Thien Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI, BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ, body fatness (%BF and waist circumference (WC. A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514. PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours.

  11. Effects of Physical Limitations on Daily Activities Among Adults With Mental Health Disorders: Opportunities for Nursing and Occupational Therapy Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jennifer; Swarbrick, Margaret; Ackerman, Ariane; Church, Theodora; Rios, Vanessa; Valente, Laura; Rutledge, John

    2017-10-01

    Individuals living with mental health disorders served by the public mental health system often face comorbid medical conditions that affect their quality of life and lifespan. The effect of physical limitations on the engagement in daily activities among individuals living with mental health disorders has not been extensively researched. Adults attending community wellness centers (N = 53) in a northeastern United State were included in a descriptive study exploring the impact of physical limitations on daily activities. The activities most frequently affected were: walking or moving around, sleeping, and finding a job. The physical limitations affecting these three activities were lack of energy and pain. Health care professionals, including mental health nurses and occupational therapy practitioners, are in an ideal position to collaborate by evaluating and offering treatment interventions that address physical limitations to positively affect occupational functioning and recovery. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(10), 45-51.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Effects of Nintendo Wii™ Training on Occupational Performance, Balance, and Daily Living Activities in Children with Spastic Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy: A Single-Blind and Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasavun Uysal, Songül; Baltaci, Gül

    2016-10-05

    This study aimed at assessing how the addition of Nintendo Wii ™ (NW) system to the traditional therapy influences occupational performance, balance, and daily living activities in children with spastic hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy (CP). The present study is a single-blind and randomized trial involving 24 children aged 6-14 years, classified as level I or II on the Gross Motor Function Classification System. The children were allocated into two groups: an intervention and a control group, and their families participated in the study. The activity performance analysis of the children was undertaken by using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), functional balance was measured with the Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS), and activities of daily living were assessed with Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI). Twenty-four children with CP were randomly divided into two groups: intervention (n = 12) and control group (n = 12). All children in both groups continued their traditional physiotherapy program twice a week, 45 minutes per session, whereas the participants in the intervention group, additionally, were trained with NW, two other days of the week for 12 weeks, with each session lasting for 30 minutes. Self-care, mobility, PEDI total, PBS, and performance of COPM scores increased in the NW group after intervention. Self-care, mobility, and total PEDI increased in the control group as well. However, there was no statistically significant difference found between the groups, except for PBS (P < 0.05). NW contributed to the implementation of occupational performance, daily living activities, and functional balance. We recommend that NW could be used in the rehabilitation program to engage play-based activities with fun.

  13. Physical education in schools, sport activity and total physical activity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Missaki Nakamura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Less than half of adolescents reach the recommended300 minutes per week of physical activity (PA. Physical educationclasses and sports participation provideopportunities for adolescents to accumulate moretime for PA practice; however, littleis known about the influence of these variables onthe level of total physical activity ofadolescents. The aim of this study was toinvestigate the association between the practiceof physical education (PE in schools and sportsactivities (SA with the practice oftotal PA of adolescents. The study wascross-sectional and involved 467 adolescents ofhigh school (15.8 ± 0.9 years-old from the city ofRio Claro, in the State of São Paulo. Participants completed the Physical ActivityQuestionnaire to Older Children (PAQ-Cand questions related to the practice of PE and SAin schools. We performed a logisticregression with p<0.05 using SPSS. Girls hadlower prevalence of PA than boys, 9.4% and26.8%, respectively. Boys who did not participateof PE classes (OR=0.25, CI95%=0.09-0.66 and SA in schools (OR=0.34, CI95%=0.12-0.95were less likely to be active in PAthan boys who practiced these activities. Theparticipation in PE classes or engagementin some SA were positively associated with thepractice of total PA in boys.

  14. Physical education in schools, sport activity and total physical activity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Missaki Nakamura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n5p517 Less than half of adolescents reach the recommended300 minutes per week of physical activity (PA. Physical educationclasses and sports participation provideopportunities for adolescents to accumulate moretime for PA practice; however, littleis known about the influence of these variables onthe level of total physical activity ofadolescents. The aim of this study was toinvestigate the association between the practiceof physical education (PE in schools and sportsactivities (SA with the practice oftotal PA of adolescents. The study wascross-sectional and involved 467 adolescents ofhigh school (15.8 ± 0.9 years-old from the city ofRio Claro, in the State of São Paulo. Participants completed the Physical ActivityQuestionnaire to Older Children (PAQ-Cand questions related to the practice of PE and SAin schools. We performed a logisticregression with p<0.05 using SPSS. Girls hadlower prevalence of PA than boys, 9.4% and26.8%, respectively. Boys who did not participateof PE classes (OR=0.25, CI95%=0.09-0.66 and SA in schools (OR=0.34, CI95%=0.12-0.95were less likely to be active in PAthan boys who practiced these activities. Theparticipation in PE classes or engagementin some SA were positively associated with thepractice of total PA in boys.

  15. Environmental physiology: effects of energy-related pollutants on daily cycles of energy metabolism, motor activity, and thermoregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacher, G.A.; Rosenberg, R.S.; Duffy, P.H.; Obermeyer, W.; Russell, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    This section contains a summary of research on the effects of energy-related pollutants on daily cycles of energy metabolism, motor activity, and thermoregulation. So far, mice have been exposed to fast neutron-gamma radiation or to the chemical effluents of an atmospheric pressure experimental fluidized-bed combustor. The physiological parameters measured included: O 2 consumption; CO 2 production; motor activity; and deep body temperatures

  16. Mild cognitive impairment and deficits in instrumental activities of daily living: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekel, Katrin; Damian, Marinella; Wattmo, Carina; Hausner, Lucrezia; Bullock, Roger; Connelly, Peter J; Dubois, Bruno; Eriksdotter, Maria; Ewers, Michael; Graessel, Elmar; Kramberger, Milica G; Law, Emma; Mecocci, Patrizia; Molinuevo, José L; Nygård, Louise; Olde-Rikkert, Marcel Gm; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Pasquier, Florence; Peres, Karine; Salmon, Eric; Sikkes, Sietske Am; Sobow, Tomasz; Spiegel, René; Tsolaki, Magda; Winblad, Bengt; Frölich, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that subtle deficits in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) may be present in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, it is not clear if there are IADL domains that are consistently affected across patients with MCI. In this systematic review, therefore, we aimed to summarize research results regarding the performance of MCI patients in specific IADL (sub)domains compared with persons who are cognitively normal and/or patients with dementia. The databases PsycINFO, PubMed and Web of Science were searched for relevant literature in December 2013. Publications from 1999 onward were considered for inclusion. Altogether, 497 articles were retrieved. Reference lists of selected articles were searched for potentially relevant articles. After screening the abstracts of these 497 articles, 37 articles were included in this review. In 35 studies, IADL deficits (such as problems with medication intake, telephone use, keeping appointments, finding things at home and using everyday technology) were documented in patients with MCI. Financial capacity in patients with MCI was affected in the majority of studies. Effect sizes for group differences between patients with MCI and healthy controls were predominantly moderate to large. Performance-based instruments showed slight advantages (in terms of effect sizes) in detecting group differences in IADL functioning between patients with MCI, patients with Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls. IADL requiring higher neuropsychological functioning seem to be most severely affected in patients with MCI. A reliable identification of such deficits is necessary, as patients with MCI with IADL deficits seem to have a higher risk of converting to dementia than patients with MCI without IADL deficits. The use of assessment tools specifically designed and validated for patients with MCI is therefore strongly recommended. Furthermore, the development of performance-based assessment instruments

  17. A lightweight shoulder prosthesis with antagonistic impact-absorbing hybrid actuation for bimanual activities of daily living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Sekine

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In developing a shoulder prosthesis, in addition to appropriate payload and range of motion under the constraints of weight and shape, impact absorption is very important for safe use. Hybridization of two different actuators (pneumatic elastic actuators with the features of lightness and intrinsic visco-elasticity, and servo motors that have stable torque and a large range of motion in combination with an antagonistic mechanism was employed to achieve the development of the shoulder prosthesis. A two-link, two-degree-of-freedom arm was used to test the different hybridization configurations in order to investigate the impact absorption. A dynamic simulation platform based on four bimanual activities of daily living was established to obtain the required range of motion and torque for joints of a two-link, four-degree-of-freedom arm. The number of pneumatic elastic actuators required and the dimension of the antagonistic mechanism mechanical structures were optimized using the dynamic simulation platform. The best configuration of the two types of actuators was determined using the dynamic simulation based on the impact absorption results and other criteria. Moreover, a simplified prototype driven by hybrid actuation was made. It was shown that the pneumatic elastic actuator joint could improve impact absorption, and the actuator configuration of shoulder prostheses is activity of daily living dependent. The prototype could reproduce a certain activity of daily living motion, indicating its feasibility in daily living.

  18. Lab mice in the field : Unorthodox daily activity and effects of a dysfunctional circadian clock allele

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Albrecht, Urs; Schmutz, Isabelle; Daan, Moritz; Daan, Berte; Rienks, Froukje; Poletaeva, Inga; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Vyssotski, Alexei; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Omo, Giacomo Dell’

    Daily patterns of animal behavior are potentially of vast functional importance. Fitness benefits have been identified in nature by the association between individual timing and survival or by the fate of individuals after experimental deletion of their circadian pacemaker. The recent advances in

  19. Lab mice in the field: unorthodox daily activity and effects of a dysfunctional circadian clock allele

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, S.; Spoelstra, K.; Albrecht, U.; Schmutz, I.; Daan, M.; Daan, B.; Rienks, F.; Poletaeva, I.; Dell'Omo, G.; Vyssotski, A.; Lipp, H.P.

    2011-01-01

    Daily patterns of animal behavior are potentially of vast functional importance. Fitness benefits have been identified in nature by the association between individual timing and survival or by the fate of individuals after experimental deletion of their circadian pacemaker. The recent advances in

  20. Out-of-home activities, daily travel, and subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.; Gärling, T.; Olsson, L.E.; Friman, M.

    2010-01-01

    It is argued that utility theory that underpins current cost-benefit analyses of daily travel needs to be complemented. An alternative theoretical framework is to this end proposed which applies subjective well-being (SWB) to travel behaviour analysis. It is posited in this theoretical framework

  1. Separating movement and gravity components in an acceleration signal and implications for the assessment of human daily physical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent T van Hees

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human body acceleration is often used as an indicator of daily physical activity in epidemiological research. Raw acceleration signals contain three basic components: movement, gravity, and noise. Separation of these becomes increasingly difficult during rotational movements. We aimed to evaluate five different methods (metrics of processing acceleration signals on their ability to remove the gravitational component of acceleration during standardised mechanical movements and the implications for human daily physical activity assessment. METHODS: An industrial robot rotated accelerometers in the vertical plane. Radius, frequency, and angular range of motion were systematically varied. Three metrics (Euclidian norm minus one [ENMO], Euclidian norm of the high-pass filtered signals [HFEN], and HFEN plus Euclidean norm of low-pass filtered signals minus 1 g [HFEN+] were derived for each experimental condition and compared against the reference acceleration (forward kinematics of the robot arm. We then compared metrics derived from human acceleration signals from the wrist and hip in 97 adults (22-65 yr, and wrist in 63 women (20-35 yr in whom daily activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE was available. RESULTS: In the robot experiment, HFEN+ had lowest error during (vertical plane rotations at an oscillating frequency higher than the filter cut-off frequency while for lower frequencies ENMO performed better. In the human experiments, metrics HFEN and ENMO on hip were most discrepant (within- and between-individual explained variance of 0.90 and 0.46, respectively. ENMO, HFEN and HFEN+ explained 34%, 30% and 36% of the variance in daily PAEE, respectively, compared to 26% for a metric which did not attempt to remove the gravitational component (metric EN. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, none of the metrics as evaluated systematically outperformed all other metrics across a wide range of standardised kinematic conditions. However, choice

  2. Separating movement and gravity components in an acceleration signal and implications for the assessment of human daily physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hees, Vincent T; Gorzelniak, Lukas; Dean León, Emmanuel Carlos; Eder, Martin; Pias, Marcelo; Taherian, Salman; Ekelund, Ulf; Renström, Frida; Franks, Paul W; Horsch, Alexander; Brage, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Human body acceleration is often used as an indicator of daily physical activity in epidemiological research. Raw acceleration signals contain three basic components: movement, gravity, and noise. Separation of these becomes increasingly difficult during rotational movements. We aimed to evaluate five different methods (metrics) of processing acceleration signals on their ability to remove the gravitational component of acceleration during standardised mechanical movements and the implications for human daily physical activity assessment. An industrial robot rotated accelerometers in the vertical plane. Radius, frequency, and angular range of motion were systematically varied. Three metrics (Euclidian norm minus one [ENMO], Euclidian norm of the high-pass filtered signals [HFEN], and HFEN plus Euclidean norm of low-pass filtered signals minus 1 g [HFEN+]) were derived for each experimental condition and compared against the reference acceleration (forward kinematics) of the robot arm. We then compared metrics derived from human acceleration signals from the wrist and hip in 97 adults (22-65 yr), and wrist in 63 women (20-35 yr) in whom daily activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) was available. In the robot experiment, HFEN+ had lowest error during (vertical plane) rotations at an oscillating frequency higher than the filter cut-off frequency while for lower frequencies ENMO performed better. In the human experiments, metrics HFEN and ENMO on hip were most discrepant (within- and between-individual explained variance of 0.90 and 0.46, respectively). ENMO, HFEN and HFEN+ explained 34%, 30% and 36% of the variance in daily PAEE, respectively, compared to 26% for a metric which did not attempt to remove the gravitational component (metric EN). In conclusion, none of the metrics as evaluated systematically outperformed all other metrics across a wide range of standardised kinematic conditions. However, choice of metric explains different degrees of variance in

  3. Physical Activity Attenuates Total and Cardiovascular Mortality Associated With Physical Disability: A National Cohort of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gomez, David; Guallar-Castillon, Pilar; Higueras-Fresnillo, Sara; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Lopez-Garcia, Esther; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2018-01-16

    Regular physical activity (PA) has been shown to protect against disability onset but, once the disability is present, it is unclear if PA might attenuate its harmful health consequences. Thus, we examined if mortality risk associated with physical disability can be offset by PA among older adults. We used data from a cohort of 3,752 individuals representative of the noninstitutionalized population aged 60 years and older in Spain. In 2000-2001, participants self-reported both PA levels (inactive, occasionally, monthly, weekly) and five physical disabilities (agility, mobility, global daily activities, instrumental activities of daily living, and self-care). Individuals were prospectively followed through 2014 to assess incident deaths. The mean follow-up was 10.8 years, with a total of 1,727 deaths, 638 of them due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). All disability types were associated with higher total and CVD mortality. Being physically active (ie, doing any PA) was associated with a statistically significant 26%-37% and 35%-50% lower risk of total and CVD death, respectively, across types of disability. As compared with those being physically active and without disability, those who were inactive and had a disability showed the highest mortality risk from total (hazard ratios from 1.52 to 1.90 across disabilities, all p disability. In older adults, PA could attenuate the increased risk of mortality associated with physical disability. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Health Promotion Behaviours and Level of Activities of Daily Living and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Elderly People in West Region of Tehran: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghil Habibi Sola

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: As individuals live longer, health promotion behaviors get even more important, particularly with regard to maintaining functional independence and improving quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between health promotion behaviors and level of Activities of Daily Living (ADL and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL among elderly people in west region of Tehran. Methods & Materials: This was a descriptive-correlational study. A multi-stage sample of 410 community residents who were over 60 years old were selected from west region of Tehran. Participants who consented to participate in the study were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 2-part; Health Promotion Behavior Checklist and questions related to status of physical functioning, which includes activities of daily living (ADLs and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs. Descriptive statistics and T-test were used to data analysis. Results: The results of the study showed that there were significant relations between ADLs and ' exercise or walking', 'drinking milk, eating dairy and meat', 'eating vegetables and fruits', 'low salt diet' and 'low fat diet' (P<0.05. Furthermore there were significant relations between the IADLs and 'smoking cessation', 'alcohol abstinence', 'exercise or walking', 'drinking milk, eating dairy and meat', 'eating vegetables and fruits', 'low salt diet' and 'low fat diet' (P<0.05. Conclusion: Study showed, health promotion behaviors and level of ADL and IADL are related meaningfully. Health care professionals should enhance the physical functioning in elderly people by facilitating health promotion behaviors through formal health promotion programs which focus on regular diet, exercise, and regular physical check-ups which will maintain and increase a healthy and active life.

  5. Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica

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    Quy Diem Do

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Limnophila aromatica is commonly used as a spice and a medicinal herb in Southeast Asia. In this study, water and various concentrations (50%, 75%, and 100% of methanol, ethanol, and acetone in water were used as solvent in the extraction of L. aromatica. The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and total flavonoid content of the freeze-dried L. aromatica extracts were investigated using various in vitro assays. The extract obtained by 100% ethanol showed the highest total antioxidant activity, reducing power and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The same extract also exhibited the highest phenolic content (40.5 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of defatted L. aromatica and the highest flavonoid content (31.11 mg quercetin equivalent/g of defatted L. aromatica. The highest extraction yield was obtained by using 50% aqueous acetone. These results indicate that L. aromatica can be used in dietary applications with a potential to reduce oxidative stress.

  6. Ecological validity of virtual reality daily living activities screening for early dementia: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnanas, Ioannis; Schlee, Winfried; Tsolaki, Magda; Müri, René; Mosimann, Urs; Nef, Tobias

    2013-08-06

    while performing VR-DOTs in order to correlate performance in these measures with VR-DOTs because performance while navigating a virtual environment is a valid and reliable indicator of cognitive decline in elderly persons. The mild AD group was more impaired than the amnestic MCI group, and both were more impaired than healthy controls. The novel VR-DOT functional index correlated strongly with standard cognitive and functional measurements, such as mini-mental state examination (MMSE; rho=0.26, P=.01) and Bristol Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale scores (rho=0.32, P=.001). Functional impairment is a defining characteristic of predementia and is partly dependent on the degree of cognitive impairment. The novel virtual reality measures of functional ability seem more sensitive to functional impairment than qualitative measures in predementia, thus accurately differentiating from healthy controls. We conclude that VR-DOT is an effective tool for discriminating predementia and mild AD from controls by detecting differences in terms of errors, omissions, and perseverations while measuring ADL functional ability.

  7. Responsiveness, minimal detectable change, and minimal clinically important difference of the Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Scale in patients with improved performance after stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-yi; Chuang, Li-ling; Lin, Keh-chung; Lee, Shin-da; Hong, Wei-hsien

    2011-08-01

    To determine the responsiveness, minimal detectable change (MDC), and minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) of the Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) scale and to assess percentages of patients' change scores exceeding the MDC and MCID after stroke rehabilitation. Secondary analyses of patients who received stroke rehabilitation therapy. Medical centers. Patients with stroke (N=78). Secondary analyses of patients who received 1 of 4 rehabilitation interventions. Responsiveness (standardized response mean [SRM]), 90% confidence that a change score at this threshold or higher is true and reliable rather than measurement error (MDC(90)), and MCID on the NEADL score and percentages of patients exceeding the MDC(90) and MCID. The SRM of the total NEADL scale was 1.3. The MDC(90) value for the total NEADL scale was 4.9, whereas minima and maxima of the MCID for total NEADL score were 2.4 and 6.1 points, respectively. Percentages of patients exceeding the MDC(90) and MCID of the total NEADL score were 50.0%, 73.1%, and 32.1%, respectively. The NEADL is a responsive instrument relevant for measuring change in instrumental activities of daily living after stroke rehabilitation. A patient's change score has to reach 4.9 points on the total to indicate a true change. The mean change score of a stroke group on the total NEADL scale should achieve 6.1 points to be regarded as clinically important. Our findings are based on patients with improved NEADL performance after they received specific interventions. Future research with larger sample sizes is warranted to validate these estimates. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Development of social activities-related daily life satisfaction scale for the elderly and evaluation of its reliability and validity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hideaki

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Social Activities-Related Daily Life Satisfaction Scale specifically applicable to elderly people in communities and to evaluate its reliability and validity. Sixteen items were extracted from an initial pool and assessed for inclusion in the scale by correlation and exploratory factor analyses. To confirm validity, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted and correlation coefficients were calculated. In addition, t-tests were performed in order to generate scores of the subscale related to activity. To prove reliability, Cronbach's coefficient alpha values were calculated. Data for 755 older adults aged 65 to 84 years were obtained from a mail survey in Ichikawa City, Chiba Prefecture. Exploratory factor analyses indicated that four factors, "satisfaction with learning" (four items), "satisfaction with usefulness to others and society" (four items), "satisfaction with health and physical strength" (three items), and "satisfaction with friends" (three items) should be extracted. Confirmatory factor analysis for assessing the 14-item four-factor model showed high goodness of fit indices (GFI = 0.943, AGFI = 0.915, RMSEA = 0.068). Concurrent validity was established by comparing the score of the scale with five external variables (Activity and Daily Life Satisfaction Scale for the Elderly, Life Satisfaction Index K, etc). Student's t-tests revealed that each score of the subscale was positively associated with activity variable. The overall Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the scale was 0.919 and for its four subscales values ranged from 0.814 to 0.887. A Social Activities-Related Daily Life Satisfaction Scale was derived consisting of four subscales, "satisfaction with learning", "satisfaction with usefulness to others and society", "satisfaction with health and physical strength", and "satisfaction with friends". The results of the present study suggested that the Social Activities-Related Daily Life Satisfaction Scale

  9. Melatonin signaling affects the timing in the daily rhythm of phagocytic activity by the retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Virgine; Sengupta, Anamika; Sánchez-Bretaño, Aída; Hicks, David; Tosini, Gianluca

    2017-12-01

    Earlier studies in Xenopus have indicated a role for melatonin in the regulation of retinal disk shedding, but the role of melatonin in the regulation of daily rhythm in mammalian disk shedding and phagocytosis is still unclear. We recently produced a series of transgenic mice lacking melatonin receptor type 1 (MT 1 ) or type 2 (MT 2 ) in a melatonin-proficient background and have shown that removal of MT 1 and MT 2 receptors induces significant effects on daily and circadian regulation of the electroretinogram as well as on the viability of photoreceptor cells during aging. In this study we investigated the daily rhythm of phagocytic activity by the retinal pigment epithelium in MT 1 and MT 2 knock-out mice. Our data indicate that in MT 1 and MT 2 knock-out mice the peak of phagocytosis is advanced by 3 h with respect to wild-type mice and occurred in dark rather than after the onset of light, albeit the mean phagocytic activity over the 24-h period did not change among the three genotypes. Nevertheless, this small change in the profile of daily phagocytic rhythms may produce a significant effect on retinal health since MT 1 and MT 2 knock-out mice showed a significant increase in lipofuscin accumulation in the retinal pigment epithelium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Depression is associated with poor functioning in activities of daily living among nursing home residents without cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drageset, Jorunn; Eide, Geir E; Ranhoff, Anette H

    2011-11-01

    To explore depressive symptoms among nursing home residents without cognitive impairment and the relationship between their depressive symptoms and dependence on activities of daily living, comorbidity and sociodemographic variables. Depression has become a major health care concern among older people, but depression and its association with functioning in activities of daily living among nursing home residents without cognitive impairment has previously not been studied in Norway. A cross-sectional comparative design. The sample comprised older residents (age 65-102 years; n = 227) from 30 nursing homes with at least six months of residence. All nursing home residents had a Clinical Dementia Rating scale score ≤0·5 and were capable of conversation. Scores on the Geriatric Depression Scale (15 items) and demographic variables were collected during face-to-face interviews. The activities of daily living were assessed using the Katz Index based on nurses' observation, and medical diagnoses were obtained from the patient records. Pearson's chi-square test and ordinal logistic regression were used to identify possible associations between activities of daily living and depression. After adjustment for age, sex, marital status, length of stay per year and education, more dependence on activities of daily living was associated with depression [odds ratio (OR): 1·18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1·04-1·37; p = 0·02]. Higher age was associated with less depression (OR: 0·64; 95% CI: 0·43-0·94; p = 0·02), that is, the odds of depression declined by 36% for each 10-year increase in age. Our results suggest that depression symptoms are a major health problem among nursing home residents without cognitive impairment and that younger residents are more prone to having depressive symptoms. Nursing home staff should communicate with and observe residents closely for signs of depression, especially younger residents with high dependence on activities of daily living

  11. Survival, disabilities in activities of daily living, and physical and cognitive functioning among the oldest-old in China: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Feng, Qiushi; Hesketh, Therese; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W

    2017-04-22

    The oldest-old (those aged ≥80 years) are the most rapidly growing age group globally, and are most in need of health care and assistance. We aimed to assess changes in mortality, disability in activities of daily living, and physical and cognitive functioning among oldest-old individuals between 1998 and 2008. We used data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Study. Three pairs of cohorts aged 80-89 years, 90-99 years, and 100-105 years (in total, 19 528 oldest-old participants) were examined; the two cohorts in each pair were born 10 years apart, with the same age at the time of the assessment in the 1998 and 2008 surveys. Four health outcomes were investigated: annual death rate, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), physical performance in three tests and cognitive function measured by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We used different tests and multivariate regression analyses to examine the cohort differences. Controlling for various confounding factors, we noted that annual mortality among oldest-old individuals was substantially reduced between 0·2% and 1·3% in 1998-2008 compared with individuals of the same age born 10 years previously, and that disability according to activities of daily living had significantly reduced annually between 0·8% and 2·8%. However, cognitive impairment in the later cohorts increased annually between 0·7% and 2·2% and objective physical performance capacity (standing up from a chair, picking up a book from the floor, and turning around 360°) decreased anually between 0·4% and 3·8%. We also noted that female mortality was substantially lower than male mortality among the oldest-old, but that women's functional capacities in activities of daily living, cognition, and physical performance were worse than their male counterparts. Advances in medications, lifestyle, and socioeconomics might compress activities of daily living disability, that is, benefits of success, but lifespan extension might expand

  12. Physical activity advertisements that feature daily well-being improve autonomy and body image in overweight women but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segar, Michelle L; Updegraff, John A; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Richardson, Caroline R

    2012-01-01

    The reasons for exercising that are featured in health communications brand exercise and socialize individuals about why they should be physically active. Discovering which reasons for exercising are associated with high-quality motivation and behavioral regulation is essential to promoting physical activity and weight control that can be sustained over time. This study investigates whether framing physical activity in advertisements featuring distinct types of goals differentially influences body image and behavioral regulations based on self-determination theory among overweight and obese individuals. Using a three-arm randomized trial, overweight and obese women and men (aged 40-60 yr, n = 1690) read one of three ads framing physical activity as a way to achieve (1) better health, (2) weight loss, or (3) daily well-being. Framing effects were estimated in an ANOVA model with pairwise comparisons using the Bonferroni correction. This study showed that there are immediate framing effects on physical activity behavioral regulations and body image from reading a one-page advertisement about physical activity and that gender and BMI moderate these effects. Framing physical activity as a way to enhance daily well-being positively influenced participants' perceptions about the experience of being physically active and enhanced body image among overweight women, but not men. The experiment had less impact among the obese study participants compared to those who were overweight. These findings support a growing body of research suggesting that, compared to weight loss, framing physical activity for daily well-being is a better gain-frame message for overweight women in midlife.

  13. Correlates of daily leisure-time physical activity in a community sample: Narrow personality traits and practical barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Patrick; Yancy, William S; Denissen, Jaap J A; Kühnel, Anja; Voils, Corrine I

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies examining correlates of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) have identified personality factors that are correlated with LTPA and practical factors that impede LTPA. The purpose of the present study was to test how several narrow traits predict daily reports of LTPA and to test whether traits that predict LTPA moderate the effects of practical barriers. 1192 participants completed baseline measures of personality, then reported their LTPA and several situational and environmental factors daily for 25 days. We used generalized estimating equations to measure how personality traits, practical barriers, and interactions between these factors affected (1) the odds of engaging in LTPA and (2) the duration of daily LTPA. Higher standing on Activity and Discipline and lower standing on Assertiveness predicted greater odds of engaging in LTPA and longer duration of LTPA, and higher standing on Aesthetics predicted shorter duration of LTPA. Poor weather conditions and less leisure time were associated with less LTPA, and effects of these barriers were generally greater among participants 30 and older. In participants older than 30, poor weather was associated with less LTPA among those with lower standing on Activity but was not associated with LTPA among those high in Activity. Despite Discipline's overall positive association with LTPA, less leisure time and less routineness were greater barriers for those high in Discipline. Assessing narrow personality traits could help target LTPA interventions to individual patients' needs and could help identify important new personality dynamics that affect LTPA.

  14. Arabic translation, cultural adaptation, and validation study of Knee Outcome Survey: Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarni, Abdulrahman D; Alrabai, Hamza M; Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Kachanathu, Shaji John; AlShammari, Sulaiman A

    2017-09-01

    Knee complaints and their accompanying functional impairments are frequent problems encountered by healthcare practitioners worldwide. Plenty of functional scoring systems were developed and validated to give a relative estimation about the knee function. Despite the wide geographic distribution of Arabic language in the Middle East and North Africa, it is rare to find a validated knee function scale in Arabic. The present study is aimed to translate, validate, and culturally adjust the Knee Outcome Survey: Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADLS) into Arabic language for future use among Arabic-speaking patients. Permission for translation was obtained from the copyrights holder. Two different teams of high-level clinical and linguistic expertise conducted translation process blindly. Forward-backward translation technique was implemented to ensure preservation of the main conceptual content. Main study consisted of 280 subjects. Reliability was examined by test-retest pilot study. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Get Up and Go (GUG) Test, Ascending/Descending Stairs (A/D Stairs), and Subjective Assessment of Function (SAF) were conducted concurrently to show the validity of Arabic KOS-ADLS statistically in relation to these scales. Final translated version showed no significant discrepancies. Minor adaptive adjustment was required to fit Arabian cultural background. Internal consistency was favourable (Cronbach's alpha 0.90). Patients' scoring on Arabic KOS-ADLS appeared relatively consistent with their scoring on VAS, GUG, A/D Stairs, and SAF. A significant linear relationship was demonstrated between SAF and total KOS-ADLS scores on regression analysis (adj. R 2  = 0.548). Arabic KOS-ADLS, as its English counterpart, was found to be a simple, valid, and useful instrument for knee function evaluation. Arabic version of KOS-ADLS represents a promising candidate for unconditional use among Arabic-speaking patients with knee complaints.

  15. Trends in disability of instrumental activities of daily living among older Chinese adults, 1997-2006: population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yajun; Welmer, Anna-Karin; Möller, Jette; Qiu, Chengxuan

    2017-08-28

    Data on trends for disability in instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) are sparse in older Chinese adults. To assess trends in prevalence and incidence of IADL disability among older Chinese adults and to explore contributing factors. Population based study. 15 provinces and municipalities in China. Participants (age ≥60) were from four waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, conducted in 1997 (n=1533), 2000 (n=1581), 2004 (n=2028) and 2006 (n=2256), and from two cohorts constructed within the national survey: cohort 1997-2004 (n=712) and cohort 2000-2006 (n=823). IADL disability was defined as inability to perform one or more of the following: shopping, cooking, using transportation, financing and telephoning. Data were analysed with logistic regression and generalised estimating equation models. The prevalence of IADL disability significantly decreased from 1997 to 2006 in the total sample and in all of the subgroups by age, sex, living region and IADL items (all p trend 0.10). The recovery rate from IADL disability significantly increased over time in those aged 60-69 years (p=0.03). Living in a rural area or access to local clinics for healthcare was less disabling over time (p trend <0.02). The prevalence of IADL disability decreased among older Chinese adults during 1997-2006, whereas the incidence remained stable. The declining prevalence of IADL disability might be partly due to the decreased duration of IADL disability, and to improvements in living conditions and healthcare facilities over time. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Seasonal Variation in Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Young Norwegian Talented Soccer Players: A Description of Daily Physical Activity Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig A. Sæther, Nils P. Aspvik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘Practise makes perfect’ is a well-known expression in most sports, including top-level soccer. However, a high training and match load increases the risk for injury, overtraining and burnout. With the use of accelerometers and a self-report questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players’ physical activity (PA level. Data were collected three times during the 2011 Norwegian Football season (March, June and October. The accelerometer output, counts·min–1 (counts per unit time registered, reports the daily PA-level for young talented soccer players. Results showed a stable PA-level across the season (March: 901.2 counts·min–1, June: 854.9 counts·min–1, October: 861.5 counts·min–1. Furthermore, comparison of five different training sessions across the season showed that the PA-level ranged from 2435.8 to 3745.4 counts·min–1. A one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the three measured weeks during the soccer season (p≤0.814. However, the training sessions in January had a significantly higher PA-level than those in June and October (p≤0.001. Based on these results, we discuss how potential implications of PA-level affect factors such as risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. We argue that player development must be seen as part of an overall picture in which club training and match load should be regarded as one of many variables influencing players’ PA-level.

  17. Research on the daily activity of the stone marten (Martes foina erxl. in anthropogenically influenced habitats in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi S. Dudin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was done on a kind of a small predator by digital photo cameras in three remote geographic areas. There have been 709 photos of stone marten (Martes foina, of which 518 in Sinite Kamani Nature Park, 118 in State Hunting Department "Chepino" and 75 in anthropogenically influenced habitats in the villages of Byga and Isperihovo. By analyzing the daily activity of the species is recorded night or twilight activity between 17 and 7:00 hours (morning, evening or night. In the time interval between 07-17 during the day, the activity of the type is not registered.

  18. Effects of Resveratrol on Daily Rhythms of Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature in Young and Aged Grey Mouse Lemurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Pifferi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In several species, resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound, activates sirtuin proteins implicated in the regulation of energy balance and biological clock processes. To demonstrate the effect of resveratrol on clock function in an aged primate, young and aged mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus were studied over a 4-week dietary supplementation with resveratrol. Spontaneous locomotor activity and daily variations in body temperature were continuously recorded. Reduction in locomotor activity onset and changes in body temperature rhythm in resveratrol-supplemented aged animals suggest an improved synchronisation on the light-dark cycle. Resveratrol could be a good candidate to restore the circadian rhythms in the elderly.

  19. Usefulness of the University of California San Diego Performance-Based Skills Assessment for the evaluation of cognitive function and activities of daily living function in patients with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Dong-Wook; Ju, Hyun-Bin; Jung, Do-Un; Kim, Sung-Jin; Shim, Joo-Cheol; Moon, Jung-Joon; Kim, You-Na

    2017-10-25

    To assess the usefulness of the University of California San Diego Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA) as a new diagnostic method and tool for the assessment of cognitive function and activities of daily living function in patients with cognitive impairment. In total, 35 patients with cognitive impairment and 35 healthy controls were recruited for this study. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), and Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) were used for the evaluation of cognitive function, while the Barthel Activities of Daily Living Index (BADL), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Index (IADL), and UPSA were used for the evaluation of activities of daily living function. UPSA scores were significantly lower in patients with cognitive impairment than in controls. The UPSA total score was significantly correlated with MMSE, CDR, GDS, and IADL scores. With regard to the detection of cognitive impairment, UPSA exhibited a greater determination power (R 2 = 0.593) compared with BADL (R 2 = 0.149) and IADL (R 2 = 0.423) and higher sensitivity and specificity compared with IADL. Our results suggest that UPSA is a useful tool for the evaluation of cognitive function and activities of daily living function in patients with cognitive impairment.

  20. Effects of hippotherapy on the thickness of deep abdominal muscles and activity of daily living in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JiHyun; Yun, Chang-Kyo

    2017-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of hippotherapy exercise on the thickness of deep abdominal muscles and daily activities of children with intellectual disabilities. [Subjects and Methods] Seven children with intellectual disabilities were treated with hippotherapy for 30 minutes twice a week for 6 weeks. The thickness of deep abdominal muscles and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) of the subjects were measured by ultrasonography before and after the experiment. [Results] There was no significant change in the thickness of the External Oblique and Internal Oblique muscles, but there was a statistically significant change in Transverse Adbominis thickness and FIM score after treatment compared to before treatment. [Conclusion] Hippotherapy exercise has a positive effect on the improvement of Transverse Abdominis (TrA) and activity of daily livings of children with intellectual disabilities.

  1. Harnessing different motivational frames via mobile phones to promote daily physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in aging adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby C King

    Full Text Available Mobile devices are a promising channel for delivering just-in-time guidance and support for improving key daily health behaviors. Despite an explosion of mobile phone applications aimed at physical activity and other health behaviors, few have been based on theoretically derived constructs and empirical evidence. Eighty adults ages 45 years and older who were insufficiently physically active, engaged in prolonged daily sitting, and were new to smartphone technology, participated in iterative design development and feasibility testing of three daily activity smartphone applications based on motivational frames drawn from behavioral science theory and evidence. An "analytically" framed custom application focused on personalized goal setting, self-monitoring, and active problem solving around barriers to behavior change. A "socially" framed custom application focused on social comparisons, norms, and support. An "affectively" framed custom application focused on operant conditioning principles of reinforcement scheduling and emotional transference to an avatar, whose movements and behaviors reflected the physical activity and sedentary levels of the user. To explore the applications' initial efficacy in changing regular physical activity and leisure-time sitting, behavioral changes were assessed across eight weeks in 68 participants using the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire and the Australian sedentary behavior questionnaire. User acceptability of and satisfaction with the applications was explored via a post-intervention user survey. The results indicated that the three applications were sufficiently robust to significantly improve regular moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity and decrease leisure-time sitting during the 8-week behavioral adoption period. Acceptability of the applications was confirmed in the post-intervention surveys for this sample of midlife and older adults new to smartphone technology. Preliminary data

  2. Method to determine the activity concentration and total activity of radioactive waste; Metodo para determinar la concentracion de actividad y actividad total de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A

    2001-02-15

    A characteristic system of radioactive waste is described to determine the concentration of radionuclides activity and the total activity of bundles of radioactive waste. The system this integrated by three subsystems: - Elevator of drums. - Electromechanics. - Gamma spectroscopy. In the system it is analyzed waste of issuing gamma specifically, and this designed for materials of relative low density and it analyzes materials of cylindrical recipients.

  3. Relationships between Age, Daily Physical Activity, Antioxidant Capacity and Oxidative Stress among Middle-aged and Elderly People

    OpenAIRE

    Tanabe, Kai; Masuda, Kazumi; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Matsuda, Mitsuo; Hirayama, Aki; Nagase, Shoji; Kono, Ichiro; Kuno, Shinya

    2006-01-01

    The effects of age and daily physical activity (PA) on antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress remains unclear, especially among advanced age population. Thus the present study evaluated antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress status, taking into account age and PA in healthy middle-aged and elderly people (45-92 years, n=436; 166 males and 270 females). The advanced age subjects were classified in groups according to their age. Data collected from young male subjects (18-26 years, n=36) ...

  4. Association of sarcopenia with swallowing problems, related to nutrition and activities of daily living of elderly individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Shiozu, Hiroyasu; Higashijima, Misako; Koga, Tomoshige

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to clarify problems associated with swallowing, related to nutrition and activities of daily living (ADL), in elderly individuals with sarcopenia. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-seven subjects were assigned to a sarcopenia or a non-sarcopenia group according to a definition used by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Analyses were conducted including and excluding subjects with a central nervous system disorders in order to ...

  5. Effects of Stroke on Ipsilesional End-Effector Kinematics in a Multi-Step Activity of Daily Living

    OpenAIRE

    Gulde, Philipp; Hughes, Charmayne Mary Lee; Hermsdörfer, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Background: Stroke frequently impairs activities of daily living (ADL) and deteriorates the function of the contra- as well as the ipsilesional limbs. In order to analyze alterations of higher motor control unaffected by paresis or sensory loss, the kinematics of ipsilesional upper limb movements in patients with stroke has previously been analyzed during prehensile movements and simple tool use actions. By contrast, motion recording of multi-step ADL is rare and patient-control comparisons f...

  6. Daily fluctuation of hepatic P450 monooxygenase activities in male rats is controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus but remains unaffected by adrenal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, T; Manabe, S; Watanabe, T; Sehata, S; Sharyo, S; Okada, T; Mori, Y

    1999-09-01

    Hepatic P450 monooxygenase activities, which strongly influence the efficacy and/or toxicity of drugs, are known to fluctuate daily. We also know that the P450 activities assessed by measurement of 7-alkoxycoumarin O-dealkylase (ACD) activities fluctuate daily, with apparently high values during the dark period in male rats. However, there is little knowledge about the factors that regulate daily fluctuation of P450 monooxygenase activities. In the present study using rats, we induced lesions in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, the known site of the body's internal clock, and examined the effects on the daily fluctuation of the ACD activities to clarify the relationship between the SCN and the daily fluctuation of P450 monooxygenase activities. In addition, adrenalectomy was performed to re-evaluate the influence of adrenal hormones on the P450 activities. Our results indicated that daily fluctuations of the hepatic ACD activities were completely eliminated in the SCN-lesioned rats. However, the ACD activities in the adrenalectomized rats showed apparent daily fluctuations with high values during the dark period and low values during the light period. Therefore, this study demonstrated that the daily fluctuation of the hepatic P450 monooxygenase activities in male rats is controlled by the SCN but remains unaffected by the adrenal hormones.

  7. Effect of Gait Retraining on Balance, Activities of Daily Living, Quality of Life and Depression in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Farhadian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Stroke is one of the most common neurological disease and it is the main cause of physical and mental disability and staying in house. Gait difficulties have high incidence in patients with stroke. So the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gait retraining on balance, activities of daily living, quality of life and depressionin stroke patients. Methods: This study was a clinical trial without control group. Sampling was performed by convenience sampling method and 18 patients participated. After recording demographic data, Berg Balance Scale, Barthel Index, SF36 questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory-II used in pre-test and post-test to assess balance, activities of daily living, quality of life and depression, respectively .Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and paired T-test. Results: The results showed statistically significant correlation in pre-test and difference between mean score of the all instruments before and after the intervention. Discussion: According to high prevalence of gait difficulties in stroke patients, it seems interventions in this area is necessary. Statistical results showed that the gait retraining intervention may have a positive effect on improving balance, activities of daily living, quality of life and depression of these patients. According to lack of information in this area, further research is needed.

  8. A Count Model to Study the Correlates of 60 Min of Daily Physical Activity in Portuguese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alessandra; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to present data on Portuguese children (aged 9–11 years) complying with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines, and to identify the importance of correlates from multiple domains associated with meeting the guidelines. Physical activity (PA) was objectively assessed by accelerometry throughout seven days on 777 children. A count model using Poisson regression was used to identify the best set of correlates that predicts the variability in meeting the guidelines. Only 3.1% of children met the recommended daily 60 min of MVPA for all seven days of the week. Further, the Cochrane–Armitage chi-square test indicated a linear and negative trend (p < 0.001) from none to all seven days of children complying with the guidelines. The count model explained 22% of the variance in meeting MVPA guidelines daily. Being a girl, having a higher BMI, belonging to families with higher income, sleeping more and taking greater time walking from home to a sporting venue significantly reduced the probability of meeting daily recommended MVPA across the seven days. Furthermore, compared to girls, increasing sleep time in boys increased their chances of compliance with the MVPA recommendations. These results reinforce the relevance of considering different covariates’ roles on PA compliance when designing efficient intervention strategies to promote healthy and active lifestyles in children. PMID:25730296

  9. A Count Model to Study the Correlates of 60 Min of Daily Physical Activity in Portuguese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Borges

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to present data on Portuguese children (aged 9–11 years complying with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA guidelines, and to identify the importance of correlates from multiple domains associated with meeting the guidelines. Physical activity (PA was objectively assessed by accelerometry throughout seven days on 777 children. A count model using Poisson regression was used to identify the best set of correlates that predicts the variability in meeting the guidelines. Only 3.1% of children met the recommended daily 60 min of MVPA for all seven days of the week. Further, the Cochrane–Armitage chi-square test indicated a linear and negative trend (p < 0.001 from none to all seven days of children complying with the guidelines. The count model explained 22% of the variance in meeting MVPA guidelines daily. Being a girl, having a higher BMI, belonging to families with higher income, sleeping more and taking greater time walking from home to a sporting venue significantly reduced the probability of meeting daily recommended MVPA across the seven days. Furthermore, compared to girls, increasing sleep time in boys increased their chances of compliance with the MVPA recommendations. These results reinforce the relevance of considering different covariates’ roles on PA compliance when designing efficient intervention strategies to promote healthy and active lifestyles in children.

  10. Lifestyle predictors of oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities and total antioxidant capacity in healthy women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Amjad A; Zhang, Yali; Zhao, Hua; Ambrosone, Christine B; Hong, Chi-Chen

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify demographic and modifiable lifestyle factors that may be related to endogenous oxidant and antioxidant activity measured in blood specimens from putatively healthy women recruited at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute (Buffalo, NY, USA). Total glutathione (TGSH), catalase (CAT), CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured in 124 healthy women, and associations with epidemiological factors were tested using general linear models. There were significant differences in oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities according to lifestyle factors, after adjusting for duration of blood storage and season of blood draw. Compared to women who consumed ≤2.8 servings of fruits and vegetables daily, those consuming >5.3 servings had on average 31 % lower MPO activity (p-trend = 0.02), as a marker of oxidative stress, 16 % higher antioxidant GPx activity (p-trend = 0.08), and 9 % higher TAC (p-trend = 0.05). Obese women (body mass index, BMI ≥ 30) in contrast showed 17 % lower antioxidant GPx activity, 44 % higher MPO activity (p-trend = 0.03), and 10 % higher TAC (p-trend = 0.03) compared to women with normal BMI lifestyle factors and, therefore, may be potentially modifiable, with implications for risk reduction of chronic conditions related to oxidative stress.

  11. Assessment of uranium exposure from total activity and 234U:238U activity ratios in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholas, T.; Bingham, D.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation workers at Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) are monitored for uranium exposure by routine bioassay sampling (primarily urine sampling). However, the interpretation of uranium in urine and faecal results in terms of occupational intakes is difficult because of the presence of uranium due to intakes from environmental (dietary) sources. For uranium in urine data obtained using current analytical techniques at AWE, the mean, median and standard deviation of excreted uranium concentrations were 0.006, 0.002 and 0.012 μg per g creatinine, respectively. These values are consistent with what might be expected from local dietary intakes and the knowledge that occupational exposures at AWE are likely to be very low. However, some samples do exceed derived investigation levels (DILs), which have been set up taking account of the likely contribution from environmental sources. We investigate how the activity and isotopic composition of uranium in the diet affects the sensitivity of uranium in urine monitoring for occupational exposures. We conclude that DILs based on both total uranium in urine activity and also 234 U: 238 U ratios are useful given the likely variation in dietary contribution for AWE workers. Assuming a background excretion rate and that the enrichment of the likely exposure is known, it is possible to assess exposures using 234 U: 238 U ratios and/or total uranium activity. The health implications of internalised uranium, enriched to 235 U, centre on its nephrotoxicity; the DILs for bioassay samples at AWE are an order of magnitude below the conservative recommendations made by the literature. (authors)

  12. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for improving function and activities of daily living in patients after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Bernhard; Kugler, Joachim; Pohl, Marcus; Mehrholz, Jan

    2013-11-15

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Functional impairment resulting in poor performance in activities of daily living (ADLs) among stroke survivors is common. Current rehabilitation approaches have limited effectiveness in improving ADL performance and function after stroke, but a possible adjunct to stroke rehabilitation might be non-invasive brain stimulation by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to modulate cortical excitability and hence to improve ADL performance and function. To assess the effects of tDCS on generic activities of daily living (ADLs) and motor function in people with stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (March 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, May 2013), MEDLINE (1948 to May 2013), EMBASE (1980 to May 2013), CINAHL (1982 to May 2013), AMED (1985 to May 2013), Science Citation Index (1899 to May 2013) and four additional databases. In an effort to identify further published, unpublished and ongoing trials, we searched trials registers and reference lists, handsearched conference proceedings and contacted authors and equipment manufacturers. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and randomised controlled cross-over trials (from which we analysed only the first period as a parallel-group design) that compared tDCS versus control in adults with stroke for improving ADL performance and function. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality (JM and MP) and extracted data (BE and JM). If necessary, we contacted study authors to ask for additional information. We collected information on dropouts and adverse events from the trial reports. We included 15 studies involving a total of 455 participants. Analysis of six studies involving 326 participants regarding our primary outcome, ADL, showed no evidence of an effect in favour of tDCS at the end of the intervention phase (mean difference (MD) 5.31 Barthel

  13. Using activity triggered e-diaries to reveal the associations between physical activity and affective states in older adult's daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanning, Martina; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Schlicht, Wolfgang

    2015-09-17

    Evidence suggests that older adults show positive affects after participating in exercise bouts. However, it is less clear, if and how physical activities in daily living enhance affective states, too. This is dissatisfying, as most of older adults' physical activities are part of their daily living. To answer these questions we used activity-triggered e-diaries to investigate the within-subject effects of physical activity on three dimensions of affective states (valence, energetic arousal, calmness) during everyday life. Older adults (N = 74) between 50 and 70 years took part in the study during three consecutive days. Physical activity in daily living was objectively assessed using accelerometers. Affects were measured 10 min after a study participant surpassed a predefined threshold for activity or inactivity. The participants were prompted by an acoustic signal to assess their momentary affective states on an e-diary. Data were analyzed with hierarchical multilevel analyses. Whenever older individuals were more physically active, they felt more energized (energetic arousal) and agitated (calmness). However, they did not feel better (valence). Interestingly, body mass index (BMI) and valence were associated in a significant cross-level interaction. BMI acts as a moderating variable in the way that lower BMI scores were associated with higher levels of valence scores after being physically active. The innovative ambulatory assessment used here affords an interesting insight to the affective effects of daily activity of older adults. These effects are no simple and no linear ones, i.e. physical activity is not associated with positive affects per se as shown several times in experimental studies with single activity bouts. Rather there is a differentiating association seen as an enhanced feeling of energy and agitation, which is not accompanied by a better feeling. Socio-emotional selectivity theory may support the finding that older individuals are

  14. The Harvard Automated Phone Task: new performance-based activities of daily living tests for early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gad A; Dekhtyar, Maria; Bruno, Jonathan M; Jethwani, Kamal; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Rentz, Dorene M

    2015-12-01

    Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden for Alzheimer's disease dementia patients and caregivers. Multiple subjective scales and a few performance-based instruments have been validated and proven to be reliable in measuring instrumental activities of daily living in Alzheimer's disease dementia but less so in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and preclinical Alzheimer's disease. To validate the Harvard Automated Phone Task, a new performance-based activities of daily living test for early Alzheimer's disease, which assesses high level tasks that challenge seniors in daily life. In a cross-sectional study, the Harvard Automated Phone Task was associated with demographics and cognitive measures through univariate and multivariate analyses; ability to discriminate across diagnostic groups was assessed; test-retest reliability with the same and alternate versions was assessed in a subset of participants; and the relationship with regional cortical thickness was assessed in a subset of participants. Academic clinical research center. One hundred and eighty two participants were recruited from the community (127 clinically normal elderly and 45 young normal participants) and memory disorders clinics at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital (10 participants with mild cognitive impairment). As part of the Harvard Automated Phone Task, participants navigated an interactive voice response system to refill a prescription (APT-Script), select a new primary care physician (APT-PCP), and make a bank account transfer and payment (APT-Bank). The 3 tasks were scored based on time, errors, and repetitions from which composite z-scores were derived, as well as a separate report of correct completion of the task. We found that the Harvard Automated Phone Task discriminated well between diagnostic groups (APT-Script: p=0.002; APT-PCP: pHarvard Automated Phone Task and executive function (APT-PCP: pHarvard Automated Phone Task, which

  15. The Harvard Automated Phone Task: new performance-based activities of daily living tests for early Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gad A.; Dekhtyar, Maria; Bruno, Jonathan M.; Jethwani, Kamal; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden for Alzheimer’s disease dementia patients and caregivers. Multiple subjective scales and a few performance-based instruments have been validated and proven to be reliable in measuring instrumental activities of daily living in Alzheimer’s disease dementia but less so in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. Objective To validate the Harvard Automated Phone Task, a new performance-based activities of daily living test for early Alzheimer’s disease, which assesses high level tasks that challenge seniors in daily life. Design In a cross-sectional study, the Harvard Automated Phone Task was associated with demographics and cognitive measures through univariate and multivariate analyses; ability to discriminate across diagnostic groups was assessed; test-retest reliability with the same and alternate versions was assessed in a subset of participants; and the relationship with regional cortical thickness was assessed in a subset of participants. Setting Academic clinical research center. Participants One hundred and eighty two participants were recruited from the community (127 clinically normal elderly and 45 young normal participants) and memory disorders clinics at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital (10 participants with mild cognitive impairment). Measurements As part of the Harvard Automated Phone Task, participants navigated an interactive voice response system to refill a prescription (APT-Script), select a new primary care physician (APT-PCP), and make a bank account transfer and payment (APT-Bank). The 3 tasks were scored based on time, errors, and repetitions from which composite z-scores were derived, as well as a separate report of correct completion of the task. Results We found that the Harvard Automated Phone Task discriminated well between diagnostic groups (APT-Script: p=0.002; APT-PCP: pHarvard Automated Phone

  16. Gaze-based assistive technology in daily activities in children with severe physical impairments-An intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgestig, Maria; Sandqvist, Jan; Ahlsten, Gunnar; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Hemmingsson, Helena

    2017-04-01

    To establish the impact of a gaze-based assistive technology (AT) intervention on activity repertoire, autonomous use, and goal attainment in children with severe physical impairments, and to examine parents' satisfaction with the gaze-based AT and with services related to the gaze-based AT intervention. Non-experimental multiple case study with before, after, and follow-up design. Ten children with severe physical impairments without speaking ability (aged 1-15 years) participated in gaze-based AT intervention for 9-10 months, during which period the gaze-based AT was implemented in daily activities. Repertoire of computer activities increased for seven children. All children had sustained usage of gaze-based AT in daily activities at follow-up, all had attained goals, and parents' satisfaction with the AT and with services was high. The gaze-based AT intervention was effective in guiding parents and teachers to continue supporting the children to perform activities with the AT after the intervention program.

  17. Changes in acyl and total ghrelin concentrations and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency of finishing beef steers and heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced in the gut that is implicated in signaling appetite and regulating DMI. The objective of this experiment was to determine the change in acyl ghrelin, total ghrelin, and the ghrelin ratio (acyl ghrelin/total ghrelin) over an 84-d DMI and ADG measurement period a...

  18. The relationship between fundamental movement skills and the extent of daily physical activity in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    佐々木, 玲子; 石沢, 順子; 楠原, 慶子; 奥山, 靜代

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental movement skills are significantly associated with habitual physical activity. Recently, it has become clear that children have become less physically active than in the past, and some studies have shown that children's fundamental movement skills have been declining in recent decades. Human movements have various characteristics, and not all movement skills are associated with physical activity level. In this study, we investigated the relationship between 5 fundamental movements ...

  19. Effects of a predefined mini-trampoline training programme on balance, mobility and activities of daily living after stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklitsch, Claudia; Krewer, Carmen; Freivogel, Susanna; Steube, Diethard

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the effects of a predefined mini-trampoline therapy programme for increasing postural control, mobility and the ability to perform activities of daily living after stroke. Randomized non-blinded controlled pilot study. Neurological rehabilitation hospital. First-time stroke; age 18-80 years; independent standing ability for a minimum of 2 minutes. Patients were randomized into two groups: the mini-trampoline group (n = 20) received 10 sessions of balance training using the mini-trampoline over three weeks. The patients of the control group (n =20) participated 10 times in a group balance training also over three weeks. Postural control (Berg Balance Scale, BBS), mobility and gait endurance (timed 'up and go' test, TUG; 6-minute walk test, 6MWT) and the ability to perform activities of daily living (Barthel Index, BI). Measurements were undertaken prior to and after the intervention period. Both groups were comparable before the study. The mini-trampoline group improved significantly more in the BBS (P = 0.003) compared to the control group. Mean or median differences of both groups showed improvements in the TUG 10.12 seconds/7.23 seconds, the 6MWT 135 m/75 m and the BI 20 points/13 points for the mini-trampoline and control group, respectively. These outcome measurements did not differ significantly between the two groups. A predefined mini-trampoline training programme resulted in significantly increased postural control in stroke patients compared to balance training in a group. Although not statistically significant, the mini-trampoline training group showed increased improvement in mobility and activities of daily living. These differences could have been statistically significant if we had investigated more patients (i.e. a total sample of 84 patients for the TUG, 98 patients for the 6MWT, and 186 patients for the BI).

  20. Beneficial Effect of Brewers' Yeast Extract on Daily Activity in a Murine Model of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Takahashi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Brewers' yeast extract (BYE on daily activity in a mouse model of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. CFS was induced by repeated injection of Brucella abortus (BA antigen every 2 weeks. BYE was orally administered to mice in a dose of 2 g per kg per day for 2 weeks before injecting BA and for 4 weeks thereafter. We evaluated daily running activity in mice receiving BYE as compared with that in untreated mice. Weekly variation of body weight (BW and survival in both groups was monitored during the observation period. Spleen weight (SW, SW/BW ratio, percent splenic follicular area and expression levels of interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-10 (IL-10 mRNA in spleen were determined in both groups at the time of sacrifice. The daily activity during 2 weeks after the second BA injection was significantly higher in the treated group than in the control. There was no difference in BW between both groups through the experimental course. Two mice in the control died 2 and 7 days after the second injection, whereas no mice in the treated group died. Significantly decreased SW and SW/BW ratio were observed in the treated mice together with elevation of splenic follicular area. There were suppressed IFN-γ and IL-10 mRNA levels in spleens from the treated mice. Our results suggest that BYE might have a protective effect on the marked reduction in activity following repeated BA injection via normalization of host immune responses.

  1. The content of nurse unit managers' work: a descriptive study using daily activity diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsdóttir, Herdís; Blöndal, Katrín; Jónsdóttir, Heiður Hrund; Bragadóttir, Helga

    2017-09-07

    NUMs' job description in Icelandic hospitals has been revised and now also includes managerial and financial responsibilities. To describe the actual work activities of nurse unit managers (NUMs) in surgical and internal medicine services as self-documented and reflected in their job description. Prospective exploratory study. The study's setting was the largest hospital in Iceland. Data were collected over 7 days from NUMs working on surgical and medical units with an activity diary listing five domains and 41 activities: 'management and planning' (seven activities), 'staff responsibility (seven activities), 'direct clinical work' (five activities), 'service' (12 activities) and 'other' (nine activities). The managers' spent most of their time within the 'other' domain (32% of their time), then the next significant amount of time on 'management and planning' and 'clinical nursing' (19%), and the least amount of time on 'service' (14%). All reported working on two or more activities simultaneously. NUMs made erroneous estimations approximately half of the time about the domain they spent most of their time in and their satisfaction with their work each day varied greatly. The work of NUMs is highly diverse, including undefined miscellaneous tasks and clinical work beyond their job description. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  2. A Study of the Effects of Daily Physical Activity on Memory and Attention Capacities in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinh-Van Phan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the relationship between daily physical activity (DPA and memory capacity, as well as the association between daily activity and attention capacity, in college students in Taiwan. Participants (mean age = 20.79 wore wearable trackers for 106 days in order to collect DPA. These data were analyzed in association with their memory and attention capacities, as assessed using the spatial span test (SST and the trail making test (TMT. The study showed significant negative correlations between memory capacity, time spent on the attention test (TSAT, calories burnt, and very active time duration (VATD on the day before testing (r=−0.272, r=−0.176, r=0.289, r=0.254, resp. and during the week prior to testing (r=−0.364, r=−0.395, r=0.268, r=0.241, resp.. The calories burnt and the VATD per day thresholds, which at best discriminated between normal-to-good and low attention capacity, were ≥2283 calories day−1, ≥20 minutes day−1 of very high activity (VHA on the day before testing, or ≥13,640 calories week−1, ≥76 minutes week−1 of VHA during the week prior to testing. Findings indicated the short-term effects that VATD and calories burnt on the day before or during the week before testing significantly and negatively associated with memory and attention capacities of college students.

  3. Participation in Daily Activities of Young Adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…

  4. Why do children think they get discomfort related to daily activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jemma; Straker, Leon; Ciccarelli, Marina

    2009-01-01

    Children commonly report musculoskeletal discomfort related to different activities such as computer use, playing electronic games, watching TV, reading, and performing physical and hand intensive activities. Discomfort can result in disability and is a strong predictor of future discomfort in adulthood. Adult beliefs regarding discomfort can affect the level of disability and are modifiable. Children's beliefs regarding discomfort could potentially be modified to minimise disability related to musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to describe children's beliefs about why they experience musculoskeletal discomfort, both in general and related to specific activities. Eighty eight school children completed questionnaires on frequency and usual duration of nine activities, whether they had felt discomfort and what they believed was the cause of any discomfort in relation to those activities. The most common activity was TV watching, and most activities were performed for 1 hour or shorter. Bad posture and doing too much of a certain activity were the most common beliefs regarding reasons for discomfort. This study shows that children are developing beliefs that tend to reflect scientific knowledge about risk factors. These beliefs could be incorporated into preventative health interventions.

  5. BRIDGE - Behavioural reaching interfaces during daily antigravity activities through upper limb exoskeleton: Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolla, Marta; Costa, Andrea; Aquilante, Lorenzo; Gfoehler, Margit; Puchinger, Markus; Braghin, Francesco; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2017-07-01

    People with neuromuscular diseases such as muscular dystrophy experience a distributed and evolutive weakness in the whole body. Recent technological developments have changed the daily life of disabled people strongly improving the perceived quality of life, mostly concentrating on powered wheelchairs, so to assure autonomous mobility and respiratory assistance, essential for survival. The key concept of the BRIDGE project is to contrast the everyday experience of losing functions by providing them of a system able to exploit the best their own residual capabilities in arm movements so to keep them functional and autonomous as much as possible. BRIDGE is composed by a light, wearable and powered five degrees of freedom upper limb exoskeleton under the direct control of the user through a joystick or gaze control. An inverse kinematic model allows to determine joints position so to track patient desired hand position. BRIDGE prototype has been successfully tested in simulation environment, and by a small group of healthy volunteers. Preliminary results show a good tracking performance of the implemented control scheme. The interaction procedure was easy to understand, and the interaction with the system was successful.

  6. Geographic Variation in Daily Temporal Activity Patterns of a Neotropical Marsupial (Gracilinanus agilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson M Vieira

    Full Text Available The temporal activity of animals is an outcome of both biotic and abiotic factors, which may vary along the geographic range of the species. Therefore, studies conducted with a species in different localities with distinct features could elucidate how animals deal with such factors. In this study, we used live traps equipped with timing devices to investigate the temporal activity patterns of the didelphid Gracilinanus agilis in two dry-woodland areas of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado. These areas were located about 660 km apart, one in Central Brazil and the other in Southeastern Brazil. We compared such patterns considering both reproductive and non-reproductive periods, and how it varies as a function of temperature on a seasonal basis. In Central Brazil, we found a constant, and temperature-independent activity during the night in both reproductive and non-reproductive periods. On the other hand, in Southeastern Brazil, we detected a constant activity during the reproductive period, but in the non-reproductive period G. agilis presented a peak of activity between two and four hours after sunset. Moreover, in this latter we found a relation between temporal activity and temperature during the autumn and spring. These differences in temporal activity between areas, observed during the non-reproductive period, might be associated with the higher seasonal variability in temperature, and lower mean temperatures in the Southeastern site in comparison to the Central one. In Southeastern Brazil, the decrease in temperature during the non-reproductive season possibly forced G. agilis to be active only at certain hours of the night. However, likely due to the reproductive activities (intensive foraging and searching for mates this marsupial showed constant, temperature-independent activity during the night in the reproductive period at both sites.

  7. Prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with activities of daily living and dysphagia in convalescent rehabilitation ward inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yoshihiro; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Bise, Takahiro; Tanoue, Maiko

    2017-09-23

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia following stroke, musculoskeletal disease, or hospital-associated deconditioning in convalescent rehabilitation ward inpatients. The association between the activities of daily living (ADLs), dysphagia, and sarcopenia was also assessed. A cross-sectional study was performed in consecutive patients admitted to convalescent rehabilitation wards. Sarcopenia was defined as a loss of skeletal muscle mass and decreased muscle strength. The primary outcome was the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score. Body mass index, Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form score, Food Intake Level Scale (FILS) score, Charlson Comorbidity Index, premorbid modified Rankin scale, time from onset, reason for admission, bioelectrical impedance analysis for skeletal muscle mass and fat mass, and handgrip strength were also assessed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine whether ADLs and dysphagia were associated with sarcopenia. The study included 637 patients (mean age: 74 years; 271 men and 366 women). Sarcopenia was diagnosed in 343 (53.0%) patients (141 men and 202 women). Sarcopenia was identified in 53.6% (125/233) of stroke patients (59.8%, 50.0%, and 34.6% of patients with brain infarctions, brain hemorrhages, and subarachnoid hemorrhages, respectively). Sarcopenia was found in 51.3% (154/300) of patients with musculoskeletal diseases (59.5%, 53.6%, and 36.5% of patients with hip fractures, vertebral compression fractures, and total knee arthroplasty, respectively). Of patients with hospital-associated deconditioning, 61.5% (64/104) had sarcopenia (95.1% and 39.7% of patients with pneumonia and other acute diseases, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that FIM motor domain and FILS scores were independently associated with skeletal muscle mass loss and decreased muscle strength. The prevalence of sarcopenia in convalescent rehabilitation ward inpatients was 53.0%. ADLs and

  8. Preliminary assessment of a water-quality monitoring program for total maximum daily loads in Johnson County, Kansas, January 2015 through June 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Paxson, Chelsea R.

    2017-08-25

    data. Base flow samples indicated that point sources are likely affecting nutrient concentrations and E. coli bacteria densities at several sites. Concentrations of all analytes in storm runoff samples were characterized by substantial variability among sites and samples. About one-half of the sites, representing different watersheds, had storm runoff samples with nitrogen concentrations greater than 10 milligrams per liter. About one-third of the sites, representing different watersheds, had storm runoff samples with total phosphorus concentrations greater than 3 milligrams per liter. Six sites had samples with E. coli densities greater than 100,000 colonies per 100 milliliters of water. Total suspended solids concentrations of about 12,000 milligrams per liter or greater occurred in samples from three sites.Data collected for this monitoring program may be useful for some general assessment purposes but may also be limited in potential to fully inform stormwater management activities. Valuable attributes of the monitoring program design included incorporating many sites across the county for comparisons among watersheds and municipalities, using fixed-stage samplers to collect multiple samples during single events, collection of base flow samples in addition to storm samples to isolate possible point sources from stormwater sources, and use of continuous monitors to characterize variability. Limiting attributes of the monitoring program design included location of monitoring sites along municipal boundaries to satisfy permit requirements rather than using watershed-based criteria such as locations of tributaries, potential pollutant sources, and implemented management practices. Additional limiting attributes include having a large number of widespread sampling locations, which presented logistical challenges for predicting localized rainfall and collecting and analyzing samples during short timeframes associated with storms, and collecting storm samples at fixed

  9. Does feedback on daily activity level from a Smart watch during inpatient stroke rehabilitation increase physical activity levels? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yun; Steins, Dax; Sun, Shanbin; Li, Fei; Amor, James D; James, Christopher J; Xia, Zhidao; Dawes, Helen; Izadi, Hooshang; Cao, Yi; Wade, Derick T

    2018-03-09

    Practicing activities improves recovery after stroke, but many people in hospital do little activity. Feedback on activity using an accelerometer is a potential method to increase activity in hospital inpatients. This study's goal is to investigate the effect of feedback, enabled by a Smart watch, on daily physical activity levels during inpatient stroke rehabilitation and the short-term effects on simple functional activities, primarily mobility. A randomized controlled trial will be undertaken within the stroke rehabilitation wards of the Second Affiliated hospital of Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hefei, China. The study participants will be stroke survivors who meet inclusion criteria for the study, primarily: able to participate, no more than 4 months after stroke and walking independently before stroke. Participants will all receive standard local rehabilitation and will be randomly assigned either to receive regular feedback about activity levels, relative to a daily goal tailored by the smart watch over five time periods throughout a working day, or to no feedback, but still wearing the Smart watch. The intervention will last up to 3 weeks, ending sooner if discharged. The data to be collected in all participants include measures of daily activity (Smart watch measure); mobility (Rivermead Mobility Index and 10-metre walking time); independence in personal care (Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Index); overall activities (the World Health Organization (WHO) Disability Assessment Scale, 12-item version); and quality of life (the Euro-Qol 5L5D). Data will be collected by assessors blinded to allocation of the intervention at baseline, 3 weeks or at discharge (whichever is the sooner); and a reduced data set will be collected at 12 weeks by telephone interview. The primary outcome will be change in daily accelerometer activity scores. Secondary outcomes are compliance and adherence to wearing the watch, and changes in mobility

  10. Objective measurements of daily physical activity patterns and sedentary behaviour in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Koster, Annemarie; Van Domelen, Dane R

    2013-01-01

    objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer.......objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer....

  11. Prevalence and characteristics of migraine in medical students and its impact on their daily activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Menon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a common neurological disorder with significant impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of migraine headaches in medical students, to measure its impact on their life, and to assess their knowledge about the ailment. Information about lifestyle variables was also collected. Materials and Methods: All medical students who confirmed of having headache for more than 1 year formed the study group. Students filled a detailed questionnaire focusing on demographics, pain characteristics, accompanying factors, triggers, and family history of migraine. Lifestyle variables were enquired and migraine associated disability was assessed by MIDAS (Migraine Disability Assessment. The diagnosis of migraine was made according to the International Headache Society criteria. Results are expressed in n = numbers and percentage. Results: Sixty-eight percent of medical students had headache. The prevalence of migraine in the whole cohort was 28%; however, of the headache group, migraine constituted 42%. There was a female preponderance. One-fourth of the students had weekly or daily attacks with 31% students reporting increase in their headache intensity and frequency. Forty-four percent of students had severe headaches. Dizziness, allodynia, and neck stiffness were reported as accompanying symptoms. Trigger factors were identified in 99% students, predominant of which were poor sleep hygiene, environmental changes, head movements, and mental stress. Only 4% of students did regular exercise. Twenty-seven percent of students reported self-medication use of analgesics. One-fourth of the students had migraine-associated disability but only 6% realized that they had migraine. Conclusion: Our study found a high prevalence of headache with migraine in medical students. The students′ awareness of the disease was very low with one-fourth of the students resorting to self-medication. Our

  12. [Gender-specific manifestations of daily physical activity and sedentary behaviour in elderly people of Surgut].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginov, S I; Malkov, M N; Nikolayev, A Yu

    2017-01-01

    Objective of the study was to establish gender-specific characteristics of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior in elderly people living in Yugra North. 295 residents of Surgut (102 men aged 62,9±5,3 years, 35%; 193 women aged 61,9±3,8 years, 65%) were subject to a IPAQ-RU questionnaire. The study revealed the gender-specific differences in body length and mass, body mass and body fat indices. It was detected that more energy is spent on the housework and physical activity in the country (moderate-intensity physical activity for women and high-intensity one for men). The study data showed no statistically significant gender-specific differences in general physical activity. Sedentary behavior is more popular among men rather than women (2543 vs 2441 min/week). 47% of low-active men and 56% of women reported the sitting times of 6-9 hours per day, 42% - 9-12 hours per day. Actions need to be taken to increase physical activity which is low at the moment and decrease sedentary behavior which is currently on the high level.

  13. Oral temperatures of the elderly in nursing homes in summer and winter in relation to activities of daily living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K.; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Motohashi, Yutaka; Maeda, Akira

    This study was conducted to clarify the seasonal difference in body temperature in summer and winter, and to document the thermal environment of the elderly living in nursing homes. The subjects were 57 healthy elderly people aged >=63 years living in two nursing homes in Japan. One of the homes was characterized by subjects with low levels of activities of daily living (ADL). Oral temperatures were measured in the morning and afternoon, with simultaneous recording of ambient temperature and relative humidity. Oral temperatures in summer were higher than in winter, with statistically significant differences (Pchanges in ambient temperature.

  14. The mouse liver displays daily rhythms in the metabolism of phospholipids and in the activity of lipid synthesizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorné, Lucas D; Acosta-Rodríguez, Victoria A; Pasquaré, Susana J; Salvador, Gabriela A; Giusto, Norma M; Guido, Mario Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    The circadian system involves central and peripheral oscillators regulating temporally biochemical processes including lipid metabolism; their disruption leads to severe metabolic diseases (obesity, diabetes, etc). Here, we investigated the temporal regulation of glycerophospholipid (GPL) synthesis in mouse liver, a well-known peripheral oscillator. Mice were synchronized to a 12:12 h light-dark (LD) cycle and then released to constant darkness with food ad libitum. Livers collected at different times exhibited a daily rhythmicity in some individual GPL content with highest levels during the subjective day. The activity of GPL-synthesizing/remodeling enzymes: phosphatidate phosphohydrolase 1 (PAP-1/lipin) and lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs) also displayed significant variations, with higher levels during the subjective day and at dusk. We evaluated the temporal regulation of expression and activity of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesizing enzymes. PC is mainly synthesized through the Kennedy pathway with Choline Kinase (ChoK) as a key regulatory enzyme or through the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathway. The PC/PE content ratio exhibited a daily variation with lowest levels at night, while ChoKα and PEMT mRNA expression displayed maximal levels at nocturnal phases. Our results demonstrate that mouse liver GPL metabolism oscillates rhythmically with a precise temporal control in the expression and/or activity of specific enzymes.

  15. Method to support Total Maximum Daily Load development using hydrologic alteration as a surrogate to address aquatic life impairment in New Jersey streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennen, Jonathan G.; Riskin, Melissa L.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Colarullo, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    More than 300 ambient monitoring sites in New Jersey have been identified by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) in its integrated water-quality monitoring and assessment report (that is, the 305(b) Report on general water quality and 303(d) List of waters that do not support their designated uses) as being impaired with respect to aquatic life; however, no unambiguous stressors (for example, nutrients or bacteria) have been identified. Because of the indeterminate nature of the broad range of possible impairments, surrogate measures that more holistically encapsulate the full suite of potential environmental stressors need to be developed. Streamflow alteration resulting from anthropogenic changes in the landscape is one such surrogate. For example, increases in impervious surface cover (ISC) commonly cause increases in surface runoff, which can result in “flashy” hydrology and other changes in the stream corridor that are associated with streamflow alteration. The NJDEP has indicated that methodologies to support a hydrologically based Total Maximum Daily Load (hydro-TMDL) need to be developed in order to identify hydrologic targets that represent a minimal percent deviation from a baseline condition (“minimally altered”) as a surrogate measure to meet criteria in support of designated uses. The primary objective of this study was to develop an applicable hydro-TMDL approach to address aquatic-life impairments associated with hydrologic alteration for New Jersey streams. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the NJDEP, identified 51 non- to moderately impaired gaged streamflow sites in the Raritan River Basin for evaluation. Quantile regression (QR) analysis was used to compare flow and precipitation records and identify baseline hydrographs at 37 of these sites. At sites without an appropriately long period of record (POR) or where a baseline hydrograph could not be identified with QR, a rainfall-runoff model was used

  16. Influence of tourism and traffic on the Eurasian lynx hunting activity and daily movements

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