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Sample records for total cyanide analysis

  1. Assay development status report for total cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.C.; Jones, T.E.; Pool, K.H.

    1993-02-01

    A validated cyanide assay that is applicable to a variety of tank waste matrices is necessary to resolve certain waste tank safety issues and for purposes of overall waste characterization. The target for this effort is an assay with an applicable range of greater than 1,000 ppM (0.10 wt%) total cyanide and a confidence level greater than 80%. Figure 1 illustrates the operating regime of the proposed cyanide assay method. The Assay Development Status Report for Total Cyanide will summarize the past experience with cyanide analyses on-tank waste matrices and will rate the status of the analytical methods used to assay total cyanide (CN - ion) in the tank waste matrices as acceptable or unacceptable. This paper will also briefly describe the current efforts for improving analytical resolution of the assays and the attempts at speciation

  2. determination of free cyanide and total cyanide concentrations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bogoso Gold Limited (BGL), have adopted the use of cyanide solution in ... cyanide compounds, cyanide spillages into nearby water bodies and limitations in ..... 1. Amegbey, N.A.; Adimado, A.A. Min. Extract. Metallurgy 2003, 112, 126. 2.

  3. Chemical analysis of cyanide in cyanidation process: review of methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nova-Alonso, F.; Elorza-Rodriguez, E.; Uribe-Salas, A.; Perez-Garibay, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cyanidation, the world wide method for precious metals recovery, the chemical analysis of cyanide, is a very important, but complex operation. Cyanide can be present forming different species, each of them with different stability, toxicity, analysis method and elimination technique. For cyanide analysis, there exists a wide selection of analytical methods but most of them present difficulties because of the interference of species present in the solution. This paper presents the different available methods for chemical analysis of cyanide: titration, specific electrode and distillation, giving special emphasis on the interferences problem, with the aim of helping in the interpretation of the results. (Author)

  4. determination of free cyanide and total cyanide concentrations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    permissible levels set by US Environmental Protection Agency and the World Health Organization reveals that ... means that, the resident in and around Bogoso are at risk. ... Several methods exist for treating cyanide-contaminated solutions.

  5. Cyanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cyanide is Cyanide is a rapidly acting, potentially deadly chemical that can exist in various forms. Cyanide ... natural substances in some foods and in certain plants such as cassava, lima beans and almonds. Pits ...

  6. Application of hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation to the preparation of industrial effluent samples prior to free and total cyanide determinations by spectrophotometric flow injection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, Maria Cristina Baptista; de Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Batista; Meirelles, Francis Assis; Santiago, Vânia Maria Junqueira; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal

    2007-02-01

    A sample preparation procedure for the quantitative determination of free and total cyanides in industrial effluents has been developed that involves hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation. Hydrocyanic acid vapor was generated from free cyanides using only 5 min of irradiation time (90 W power) and a purge time of 5 min. The HCN generated was absorbed into an accepting NaOH solution using very simple glassware apparatus that was appropriate for the microwave oven cavity. After that, the cyanide concentration was determined within 90 s using a well-known spectrophotometric flow injection analysis system. Total cyanide analysis required 15 min irradiation time (90 W power), as well as chemical conditions such as the presence of EDTA-acetate buffer solution or ascorbic acid, depending on the effluent to be analyzed (petroleum refinery or electroplating effluents, respectively). The detection limit was 0.018 mg CN l(-1) (quantification limit of 0.05 mg CN l(-1)), and the measured RSD was better than 8% for ten independent analyses of effluent samples (1.4 mg l(-1) cyanide). The accuracy of the procedure was assessed via analyte spiking (with free and complex cyanides) and by performing an independent sample analysis based on the standard methodology recommended by the APHA for comparison. The sample preparation procedure takes only 10 min for free and 20 min for total cyanide, making this procedure much faster than traditional methodologies (conventional heating and distillation), which are time-consuming (they require at least 1 h). Samples from oil (sour and stripping tower bottom waters) and electroplating effluents were analyzed successfully.

  7. Determination of the Concentration of Total Cyanide in Waste Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of science, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye Nigeria. ABSTRACT: Cyanide has been listed as one of the toxic pollutants that is usually ... environment have been attributed to industrial.

  8. Determination of total cyanide in soil by isotope dilution GC/MS following pentafluorobenzyl derivatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanella, Beatrice, E-mail: beatrice.campanella@pi.iccom.cnr.it [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, via Moruzzi 13, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici, UOS di Pisa, via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Biancalana, Lorenzo [Università di Pisa, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, via Moruzzi 13, 56124 Pisa (Italy); D' Ulivo, Lucia [National Research Council of Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6 (Canada); Onor, Massimo; Bramanti, Emilia [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici, UOS di Pisa, via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Mester, Zoltan; Pagliano, Enea [National Research Council of Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2017-04-08

    The high toxicity of cyanide, along with its widespread industrial use, has fuelled interest in the development of analytical methods for its determination in complex matrices. In this study, we propose a novel approach for the measurement of total cyanide in soil samples based on single-step derivatization with pentafluorobenzyl bromide (F{sub 5}Bn−Br) followed by quantitation with gas chromatography mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionization mode. The reaction between CN{sup −} and F{sub 5}Bn−Br resulted in the identification of several derivatives such as F{sub 5}Bn−CN, (F{sub 5}Bn)(F{sub 5}Ph)CH−CN, and (F{sub 5}Bn){sub 2}(F{sub 5}Ph)C−CN. The relative proportion between such compounds was dependent on experimental conditions. When a 100 μL aliquot of an alkaline-aqueous extract was reacted with 700 μL of 1.3% F{sub 5}Bn−Br in acetone, the tri-alkylated derivative was the most abundant. In such conditions a detection limit of 0.5 ng/g of CN{sup −} was attained. Soil samples were initially spiked with an alkaline solution of K{sup 13}C{sup 15}N internal standard and suspended in 7.5% aqueous NaOH. Determination of total cyanide was achieved by digestion of the alkaline extract with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} to produce HCN which was then trapped in 0.1% NaOH in a sealed double vial system, followed by reaction with F{sub 5}Bn−Br. Isotope dilution calibration was chosen for quantitation, and the validity of the novel method was demonstrated by analysis of soil Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) and by spike recovery tests. - Highlights: • A cost-effective, fast and simple method for determination of total cyanide in soil is presented. • A new micro-distillation strategy was developed overcoming the problems of a conventional distillation. • Negative chemical ionization-mass spectrometer has been exploited to obtain a high sensitivity and specificity. • High accuracy was attained for the analysis of certified reference materials with

  9. Determination of free cyanide and total cyanide concentrations in surface and underground waters in Bogoso and its surrounding areas in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Obiri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of free cyanide and total cyanide in water samples in Bogoso and its surrounding areas in Ghana have been measured in this study. Concentrations of free cyanide and total cyanide were found to be above the maximum permissible discharge limit of effluent from mining companies into natural waters set by Environmental Protection Agency, Ghana (GEPA. A comparison of the results obtained in this study with permissible levels set by US Environmental Protection Agency and the World Health Organization reveals that surface waters in the study areas are highly polluted with cyanide and it's not safe for human consumptions. This means that, the resident in and around Bogoso are at risk.

  10. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN EXPERIMENT FOR ASSESSING CYANIDE IN GOLD MINING WASTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold mining wastes treated by heap leaching cyanidization typically contain several metallo-cyanide species. Accurate measurement of total cyanide by the most common methods in such a case may be hampered by the inadequate recoveries that occur for certain cyanide compounds (e.g....

  11. Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, W.I.; Pool, K.H.

    1994-05-01

    Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na 2-x Cs x NiFe (CN) 6 ) were produced in a scavenging process to remove 137 Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described

  12. Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, W.I. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pool, K.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na{sub 2-x}Cs{sub x}NiFe (CN){sub 6}) were produced in a scavenging process to remove {sup 137}Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described.

  13. Biochemical characteristics of a free cyanide and total nitrogen assimilating Fusarium oxysporum EKT01/02 isolate from cyanide contaminated soil

    OpenAIRE

    Akinpelu, Enoch A.; Adetunji, Adewole T.; Ntwampe, Seteno K.O.; Nchu, Felix; Mekuto, Lukhanyo

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability of nutrient requirements for microbial proliferation on a large scale is a challenge in bioremediation processes. This article presents data on biochemical properties of a free cyanide resistant and total nitrogen assimilating fungal isolate from the rhizosphere of Zea mays (maize) growing in soil contaminated with a cyanide-based pesticide. DNA extracted from this isolate were PCR amplified using universal primers; TEF1-α and ITS. The raw sequence files are available on the NC...

  14. EPA Method 3135.2I: Cyanide, Total and Amenable in Aqueous and Solid Samples Automated Colorimetric With Manual Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This method describes procedures for preparation and analysis of solid, water and wipe samples for detection and measurement of cyanide amendable to chlorination using acid digestion and spectrophotometry.

  15. Biochemical characteristics of a free cyanide and total nitrogen assimilating Fusarium oxysporum EKT01/02 isolate from cyanide contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch A. Akinpelu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of nutrient requirements for microbial proliferation on a large scale is a challenge in bioremediation processes. This article presents data on biochemical properties of a free cyanide resistant and total nitrogen assimilating fungal isolate from the rhizosphere of Zea mays (maize growing in soil contaminated with a cyanide-based pesticide. DNA extracted from this isolate were PCR amplified using universal primers; TEF1-α and ITS. The raw sequence files are available on the NCBI database. Characterisation using biochemical data was obtained using colorimetric reagents analysed with VITEK® 2 software version 7.01. The data will be informative in selection of biocatalyst for environmental engineering application.

  16. Biochemical characteristics of a free cyanide and total nitrogen assimilating Fusarium oxysporum EKT01/02 isolate from cyanide contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinpelu, Enoch A; Adetunji, Adewole T; Ntwampe, Seteno K O; Nchu, Felix; Mekuto, Lukhanyo

    2017-10-01

    Sustainability of nutrient requirements for microbial proliferation on a large scale is a challenge in bioremediation processes. This article presents data on biochemical properties of a free cyanide resistant and total nitrogen assimilating fungal isolate from the rhizosphere of Zea mays (maize) growing in soil contaminated with a cyanide-based pesticide. DNA extracted from this isolate were PCR amplified using universal primers; TEF1-α and ITS. The raw sequence files are available on the NCBI database. Characterisation using biochemical data was obtained using colorimetric reagents analysed with VITEK ® 2 software version 7.01. The data will be informative in selection of biocatalyst for environmental engineering application.

  17. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Colleen; Alexoff, David L; Kim, Dohyun; Hoque, Ruma; Schueller, Michael J; Fowler, Joanna S; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-08-01

    In this research, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([(11)C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [(11)C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of (12)C-cyanide ((12)CN¯). The [(11)C]CN¯ is produced from [(11)C]CO2, which is generated by the (14)N(p,α)(11)C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [(11)C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to (12)CN¯ mass. It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33µA for 1 and 10min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [(11)C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [(11)C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrophoretic analysis of cyanide depletion by Pseudomonas alcaligenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, S E; Davidson, R A; Walker, J C; Walker, E B

    1997-02-01

    Bacterial-facilitated depletion of cyanide is under development for remediation of heap leach operations in the gold mining industry. Capillary electrophoresis was found to be a powerful tool for quantifying cyanide depletion. Changes in cyanide concentration in aqueous suspensions of Pseudomonas alcaligenes bacteria and cyanide at elevated pH were easily monitored by capillary electrophoresis. The resulting data can be used to study rates of cyanide depletion by this strain of bacteria. Concentrations of these bacteria at 10(5) cells/mL were found to reduce cyanide from 100 ppm to less than 8 ppm in four days. In addition, other ions of interest in cyanide metabolism, such as formate, can be simultaneously analyzed. Direct UV detection of cyanide at 192 nm further simplifies the analytical method for these ions.

  19. Analysis of Cyanide in Blood by Headspace-Isotope-Dilution-GC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løbger, Lise Lotte; Petersen, Henning Willads; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2008-01-01

    An uncomplicated, rapid, automated procedure for the analysis of low cyanide concentrations in whole blood is reported. The analysis was performed by headspace gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in the (1H12C14N) and m/z 29 (1H13C15N). Carryover from cyanide adsorption onto the surface...

  20. Cyanides in the environment-analysis-problems and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaszczak, Ewa; Polkowska, Żaneta; Narkowicz, Sylwia; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2017-07-01

    Cyanide toxicity and their environmental impact are well known. Nevertheless, they are still used in the mining, galvanic and chemical industries. As a result of industrial activities, cyanides are released in various forms to all elements of the environment. In a natural environment, cyanide exists as cyanogenic glycosides in plants seeds. Too much consumption can cause unpleasant side effects. However, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the most common source of cyanide. Live organisms have the ability to convert cyanide into less toxic compounds excreted with physiological fluids. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of knowledge on the behaviour of cyanide in the environment and its impact on the health and human life.

  1. Certification of a reference material for determination of total cyanide in soil to support implementation of the International Standard ISO 11262:2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Holger; Bremser, Wolfram

    2015-04-01

    Cyanides are among the most important inorganic pollutants to be tested and monitored in environmental compartments. They can be distinguished and determined as free cyanide, weak acid dissociable cyanide or as total cyanide. However, in any case obtained, measurement results are operationally defined referring to the applied analytical method. In 2011, the International Standard ISO 11262 has been published which specifies a normative analytical method for the determination of total cyanide in soil. The objective of the project described in this paper was to provide the first soil reference material (CRM) certified for its mass fraction of total cyanide on the basis of this standard. A total of 12 German laboratories with proven experience in the determination of cyanides in environmental samples participated in the certification study. Measurement results were evaluated in full compliance with the requirements of ISO Guide 35. Taking into account the results of the inter-laboratory comparison as well as the outcome of the homogeneity and stability studies, a certified mass fraction of total cyanide of 21.1 mg/kg and an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of 1.3 mg/kg were assigned to the material. The reference material has been issued as CRM BAM-U114.

  2. Trace analysis of cyanide by ion-selective electrode indicator technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tom, R.L.; Kapauan, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    Due to the toxicity of cyanide, its analysis in water is important. The use of ion-selective electrodes for its determination was studied. The known addition method using a silver sulfide membrane electrode was studied. This involved using a silver indicator solution to determine the cyanide content of a sample. Known amounts of a standard cyanide solution were added and the potentials noted. The results were plotted and the original concentration of cyanide extrapolated. The results of the experiment indicated the method to be practical for analysis of industrial waste waters, even in the presence of metal ions. The metal ions were masked using an EDTA solution while possible sulfides were precipitated out using a Pb (N0 3 ) 2 solution. The method was tested on four actual samples and the results indicated the applicability of the method

  3. Source Attribution of Cyanides using Anionic Impurity Profiling, Stable Isotope Ratios, Trace Elemental Analysis and Chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirjankar, Nikhil S.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Carman, April J.; Moran, James J.

    2016-01-08

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) for chemical threat agents (CTAs) are being investigated to provide an evidentiary link between CTAs and specific sources to support criminal investigations and prosecutions. In a previous study, anionic impurity profiles developed using high performance ion chromatography (HPIC) were demonstrated as CAS for matching samples from eight potassium cyanide (KCN) stocks to their reported countries of origin. Herein, a larger number of solid KCN stocks (n = 13) and, for the first time, solid sodium cyanide (NaCN) stocks (n = 15) were examined to determine what additional sourcing information can be obtained through anion, carbon stable isotope, and elemental analyses of cyanide stocks by HPIC, isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), respectively. The HPIC anion data was evaluated using the variable selection methods of Fisher-ratio (F-ratio), interval partial least squares (iPLS), and genetic algorithm-based partial least squares (GAPLS) and the classification methods of partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLSDA), K nearest neighbors (KNN), and support vector machines discriminate analysis (SVMDA). In summary, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of anion impurity profiles from multiple cyanide stocks from six reported country of origins resulted in cyanide samples clustering into three groups: Czech Republic, Germany, and United States, independent of the associated alkali metal (K or Na). The three country groups were independently corroborated by HCA of cyanide elemental profiles and corresponded to countries with known solid cyanide factories. Both the anion and elemental CAS are believed to originate from the aqueous alkali hydroxides used in cyanide manufacture. Carbon stable isotope measurements resulted in two clusters: Germany and United States (the single Czech stock grouped with United States stocks). The carbon isotope CAS is believed to

  4. The determination of total cyanide in solutions containing uranium and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomons, M.; Dixon, K.

    1983-01-01

    This report gives the results of a limited investigation of three distillation procedures and their variants for the separation of cyanide. The spectrophotometric measurement, which follows the distillation, uses either a mixture of pyridine and pyrazolone, or a mixture of pyridine and barbituric acid. It was found that the method published in the South Africa Government Gazette in 1969 gives quantitative recoveries from potassium cyanide solutions but not in the presence of gold. The ligand-displacement method did not give quantitative recoveries in the presence of gold, except when zinc was added to the distilland, and it then failed to give a quantitative recovery of cyanide from ferrocyanide. These two methods were therefore rejected as unsuitable for the determination of cyanide in solutions containing small amounts of uranium and gold. The procedure of the American Public Health Association (APHA) was found to give quantitative recoveries in the presence of gold, uranium, thiocyanate, and ferrocyanide when cuprous chloride, or cuprous chloride with magnesium chloride, are added to the distilland. The spectrophotometric measurement using a mixture of pyridine and barbituric acid is preferred. The calibration range of the method is 0,5 to 6μg of cyanide, and the limit of determination is 0,04μg/cm 3 . (The relative standard deviation of the method is 0,05.) The distillation time in the APHA method is approximately two and a half hours; with 3 distillation trains, up to 9 distillations can be made per day, plus a further 2 hours for the spectrophotometric determination. The preferred laboratory method is detailed in an appendix

  5. Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Kragh Lauridsen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lung infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF patients. Due to its ready adaptation to the dehydrated mucosa of CF airways, PA infections tend to become chronic, eventually killing the patient. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN at ppb level has been reported to be a PA biomarker. For early PA detection in CF children not yet chronically lung infected a non-invasive Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS-based breath nanosensor is being developed. The triple bond between C and N in cyanide, with its characteristic band at ∼2133 cm−1, is an excellent case for the SERS-based detection due to the infrequent occurrence of triple bonds in nature. For demonstration of direct HCN detection in the gas phase, a gold-coated silicon nanopillar substrate was exposed to 5 ppm HCN in N2. Results showed that HCN adsorbed on the SERS substrate can be consistently detected under different experimental conditions and up to 9 days after exposure. For detection of lower cyanide concentrations serial dilution experiments using potassium cyanide (KCN demonstrated cyanide quantification down to 1 μM in solution (corresponding to 18 ppb. Lower KCN concentrations of 10 and 100 nM (corresponding to 0.18 and 1.8 ppb produced SERS intensities that were relatively similar to the reference signal. Since HCN concentration in the breath of PA colonized CF children is reported to be ∼13.5 ppb, the detection of cyanide is within the required range. Keywords: Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, Hydrogen cyanide, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cystic fibrosis, Breath analysis

  6. Alkaline active cyanide dihydratase of Flavobacterium indicum MTCC 6936: Growth optimization, purification, characterization and in silico analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Virender; Kumar, Vijay; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2018-05-15

    The present work explores a rare cyanide dihydratase of Flavobacterium indicum MTCC 6936 for its potential of cyanide degradation. The enzyme is purified to 12 fold with a yield of 76%. SDS and native-PAGE analysis revealed that enzyme was monomer of 40 kDa size. The enzyme works well in mesophilic range at wide array of pH. The thermostability profile of cyanide dihydratase revealed that the enzyme is quite stable at 30 °C and 35 °C with half-life of 6 h 30 min and 5 h respectively. K m and V max for cyanide dihydratase of F. indicum was measured to be 4.76 mM and 45 U mg -1 with k cat calculated to be 27.3 s -1 and specificity constant (k cat /K m ) to be around 5.67 mM -1  s -1 . MALDI-TOF analysis of purified protein revealed that the amino acid sequence has 50% and 43% sequence identity with putative amino acid sequence of F. indicum and earlier reported cyanide dihydratase of Bacillus pumilus respectively. Homology modeling studies of cyanide dihydratase of F. indicum predicted the catalytic triad of the enzyme indicating Cys at 164, Glu at 46 and Lys at 130th position. The purified enzyme has potential applications in bioremediation and analytical sector. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. DNA microarray analysis of the cyanotroph Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 in response to nitrogen starvation, cyanide and a jewelry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Almagro, V M; Escribano, M P; Manso, I; Sáez, L P; Cabello, P; Moreno-Vivián, C; Roldán, M D

    2015-11-20

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 is an alkaliphilic bacterium that can use cyanide as nitrogen source for growth, becoming a suitable candidate to be applied in biological treatment of cyanide-containing wastewaters. The assessment of the whole genome sequence of the strain CECT5344 has allowed the generation of DNA microarrays to analyze the response to different nitrogen sources. The mRNA of P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 cells grown under nitrogen limiting conditions showed considerable changes when compared against the transcripts from cells grown with ammonium; up-regulated genes were, among others, the glnK gene encoding the nitrogen regulatory protein PII, the two-component ntrBC system involved in global nitrogen regulation, and the ammonium transporter-encoding amtB gene. The protein coding transcripts of P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 cells grown with sodium cyanide or an industrial jewelry wastewater that contains high concentration of cyanide and metals like iron, copper and zinc, were also compared against the transcripts of cells grown with ammonium as nitrogen source. This analysis revealed the induction by cyanide and the cyanide-rich wastewater of four nitrilase-encoding genes, including the nitC gene that is essential for cyanide assimilation, the cyanase cynS gene involved in cyanate assimilation, the cioAB genes required for the cyanide-insensitive respiration, and the ahpC gene coding for an alkyl-hydroperoxide reductase that could be related with iron homeostasis and oxidative stress. The nitC and cynS genes were also induced in cells grown under nitrogen starvation conditions. In cells grown with the jewelry wastewater, a malate quinone:oxidoreductase mqoB gene and several genes coding for metal extrusion systems were specifically induced. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioavailability of cyanide and metal-cyanide mixtures to aquatic life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Aaron; Santore, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Cyanide can be toxic to aquatic organisms, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed ambient water-quality criteria to protect aquatic life. Recent work suggests that considering free, rather than total, cyanide provides a more accurate measure of the biological effects of cyanides and provides a basis for water-quality criteria. Aquatic organisms are sensitive to free cyanide, although certain metals can form stable complexes and reduce the amount of free cyanide. As a result, total cyanide is less toxic when complexing metals are present. Cyanide is often present in complex effluents, which requires understanding how other components within these complex effluents can affect cyanide speciation and bioavailability. The authors have developed a model to predict the aqueous speciation of cyanide and have shown that this model can predict the toxicity of metal-cyanide complexes in terms of free cyanide in solutions with varying water chemistry. Toxicity endpoints based on total cyanide ranged over several orders of magnitude for various metal-cyanide mixtures. However, predicted free cyanide concentrations among these same tests described the observed toxicity data to within a factor of 2. Aquatic toxicity can be well-described using free cyanide, and under certain conditions the toxicity was jointly described by free cyanide and elevated levels of bioavailable metals. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  9. Towards quantitative SERS detection of hydrogen cyanide at ppb level for human breath analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Rikke Kragh; Rindzevicius, Tomas; Molin, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Lung infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Due to its ready adaptation to the dehydrated mucosa of CF airways, PA infections tend to become chronic, eventually killing the patient. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN......) at ppb level has been reported to be a PA biomarker. For early PA detection in CF children not yet chronically lung infected a non-invasive Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)-based breath nanosensor is being developed. The triple bond between C and N in cyanide, with its characteristic band...... substrate can be consistently detected under different experimental conditions and up to 9 days after exposure. For detection of lower cyanide concentrations serial dilution experiments using potassium cyanide (KCN) demonstrated cyanide quantification down to 1 μM in solution (corresponding to 18 ppb...

  10. Metal cyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    From the biewpoint of general crystal T chemistry principles and on the basis of modern data the structural chemistry of metal cyanites is presented. The features of the structure of the following compounds are considered: simple ionic alkali cyanides (Li-Cs) containing CN - ions; molybdenum (4,5), tungsten (4,5), rhenium (5,6) complexes etc, where-CN group is only connected with one metal atom; covalent cyanides of cadmium and other elements in which the CN-group serves as a bridge

  11. In situ treatment of cyanide-contaminated groundwater by iron cyanide precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.; Luthy, R.G.; Smith, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Groundwater contamination with cyanide is common at many former or active industrial sites. Metal-cyanide complexes typically dominate aqueous speciation of cyanide in groundwater systems, with iron-cyanide complexes often most abundant. Typically, metal-cyanide complexes behave as nonadsorbing solutes in sand-gravel aquifer systems in the neutral pH range, rendering cyanide relatively mobile in groundwater systems. Groundwater pump-and-treat systems have often been used to manage cyanide contamination in groundwater. This study examined the feasibility of using in situ precipitation of iron cyanide in a reactive barrier to attenuate the movement of cyanide in groundwater. Laboratory column experiments were performed in which cyanide solutions were passed through mixtures of sand and elemental iron filings. Removal of dissolved cyanide was evaluated in a variety of cyanide-containing influents under various flow rates and sand-to-iron weight ratios. Long-term column tests performed with various cyanide-containing influents under both oxic and anoxic conditions, at neutral pH and at flow rates typical of sand-gravel porous media, yielded effluent concentrations of total cyanide as low as 0.5 mg/L. Effluent cyanide concentrations achieved were close to the solubilities of Turnbull's blue-hydrous ferric oxide solid solutions, indicating co-precipitation of the two solids. Maximum cyanide removal efficiency was achieved with approximately 10% by weight of iron in the sand-iron mixtures; higher iron contents did not increase removal efficiency significantly. Results obtained indicate that in situ precipitation is a promising passive treatment approach for cyanide in groundwater

  12. heavy metals and cyanide distribution in the villages surrounding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    detection limit) were higher in the wells closest to the Tailing Storage Facility ... Key Words: Heavy metals pollution, Total cyanide, ground water pollution and ..... cyanide, heavy metals and probably other hazardous substances, leakage of.

  13. Optimization of cyanide extraction from wastewater using emulsion liquid membrane system by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Juan Qin; Liu, Ni Na; Li, Guo Ping; Dang, Long Tao

    To solve the disposal problem of cyanide wastewater, removal of cyanide from wastewater using a water-in-oil emulsion type of emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) was studied in this work. Specifically, the effects of surfactant Span-80, carrier trioctylamine (TOA), stripping agent NaOH solution and the emulsion-to-external-phase-volume ratio on removal of cyanide were investigated. Removal of total cyanide was determined using the silver nitrate titration method. Regression analysis and optimization of the conditions were conducted using the Design-Expert software and response surface methodology (RSM). The actual cyanide removals and the removals predicted using RSM analysis were in close agreement, and the optimal conditions were determined to be as follows: the volume fraction of Span-80, 4% (v/v); the volume fraction of TOA, 4% (v/v); the concentration of NaOH, 1% (w/v); and the emulsion-to-external-phase volume ratio, 1:7. Under the optimum conditions, the removal of total cyanide was 95.07%, and the RSM predicted removal was 94.90%, with a small exception. The treatment of cyanide wastewater using an ELM is an effective technique for application in industry.

  14. Analysis of a MULE-cyanide hydratase gene fusion in Verticillium dahliae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome of the phytopathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae encodes numerous Class II “cut-and-paste” transposable elements, including those of a small group of MULE transposons. We have previously identified a fusion event between a MULE transposon sequence and sequence encoding a cyanide hydrata...

  15. The Analysis of Cyanide and Its Breakdown Products in Biological Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Biological sampleb Speciesc CN Minutes-hours Some in a few species Low Blood, urine, saliva, tissue, expired air, rumen Human, fish, cow, mouse, rat...higher content in the left ventricle of fire victims. Journal of Chromatography 490 (1989):319–327. 96. R. H. Cardozo and I. S. Edelman, The volume of...Hagedorn, and R. Schulz, Development of a method for determination of cyanide concentrations in serum and rumen fluid of cattle. American Journal of

  16. Cyanide speciation at four gold leach operations undergoing remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A; Grimes, David J; Leinz, Reinhard W; Rye, Robert O

    2008-02-15

    Analyses have been made of 81 effluents from four gold leach operations in various stages of remediation to identify the most -persistent cyanide species. Total cyanide and weak acid-dissociable (WAD) cyanide were measured using improved methods, and metals known to form stable cyanocomplexes were also measured. Typically, total cyanide greatly exceeded WAD indicating that cyanide was predominantly in strong cyanometallic complexes. Iron was generally too low to accommodate the strongly complexed cyanide as Fe(CN)6s3- or Fe(CN)6(4-), but cobalt was abundant enough to implicate Co(CN)6(3-) or its dissociation products (Co(CN)(6-x)(H2O)x((3-x)-)). Supporting evidenceforcobalt-cyanide complexationwas found in tight correlations between cobalt and cyanide in some sample suites. Also, abundant free cyanide was produced upon UV illumination. Iron and cobalt cyanocomplexes both photodissociate; however, the iron concentration was insufficient to have carried the liberated cyanide, while the cobalt concentration was sufficient. Cobalt cyanocomplexes have not previously been recognized in cyanidation wastes. Their identification atfour separate operations, which had treated ores that were not especially rich in cobalt, suggests that cobalt complexation may be a common source of cyanide persistence. There is a need for more information on the importance and behavior of cobalt cyanocomplexes in ore-processing wastes at gold mines.

  17. Derivatization method of free cyanide including cyanogen chloride for the sensitive analysis of cyanide in chlorinated drinking water by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye-In; Shin, Ho-Sang

    2015-01-20

    A novel derivatization method of free cyanide (HCN + CN(-)) including cyanogen chloride in chlorinated drinking water was developed with d-cysteine and hypochlorite. The optimum conditions (0.5 mM D-cysteine, 0.5 mM hypochlorite, pH 4.5, and a reaction time of 10 min at room temperature) were established by the variation of parameters. Cyanide (C(13)N(15)) was chosen as an internal standard. The formed β-thiocyanoalanine was directly injected into a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer without any additional extraction or purification procedures. Under the established conditions, the limits of detection and the limits of quantification were 0.07 and 0.2 μg/L, respectively, and the interday relative standard deviation was less than 4% at concentrations of 4.0, 20.0, and 100.0 μg/L. The method was successfully applied to determine CN(-) in chlorinated water samples. The detected concentration range and detection frequency of CN(-) were 0.20-8.42 μg/L (14/24) in source drinking water and 0.21-1.03 μg/L (18/24) in chlorinated drinking water.

  18. Use of ion selective electrodes for potentiometric analysis of solutions containing cadmium and cyanide ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, V.V.; Glazkova, E.N.; Izmajlova, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Technique for cadmium potentiometric determination in the cadmium-plating cyanide electrolyte, which countains Cd(CN) n 2-n (n=1,2,3,4) complexes, is developed. Reactions of cadmium precipitation in the form of diethyldithiocarbamate serve as the ground for determination technique. Polycrystalline membrane electrodes with hard contact are used as indicator electrodes. Pd, Ni, Cu, Ag do not interfere with cadmium determination, Fe, Zn, Bi may coprecipitate with cadmium. Determination limit of cadmium ions is 5x10 -3 M

  19. Alkali cyanides; destructive distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clancy, J C

    1925-12-02

    The destructive distillation of carbonaceous substances can be accomplished by heating them in a bath of molten alkali and cyanide. Liquid hydrocarbons are produced. The separation of the cyanide from the coke or carbonaceous residues by filtration leaves a substantial quantity of cyanide absorbed by the carbon. A feasible method for removal has been developed by mixing the mixture of cyanide and coke with sodium carbonate or other alkali in the molten state, then treating this substance with nitrogen with or without ammonia to convert most of the carbon to cyanide. The carbonaceous material may be mixed with a liquid hydrocarbon such as petroleum, shale oil, or heavy tar oil, heated, and introduced below the surface of the liquid cyanide which partially decomposes and hydrogenates the coal to increase the yield of hydrocarbons. Dry ammonia may be bubbled through the reaction mixture to effect agitation and to form more cyanide.

  20. EPR analysis of cyanide complexes of wild-type human neuroglobin and mutants in comparison to horse heart myoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Trandafir, Florin; Harmer, Jeffrey R; Moens, Luc; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2014-06-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data reveal large differences between the ferric ((13)C-)cyanide complexes of wild-type human neuroglobin (NGB) and its H64Q and F28L point mutants and the cyanide complexes of mammalian myo- and haemoglobin. The point mutations, which involve residues comprising the distal haem pocket in NGB, induce smaller, but still significant changes, related to changes in the stabilization of the cyanide ligand. Furthermore, for the first time, the full (13)C hyperfine tensor of the cyanide carbon of cyanide-ligated horse heart myoglobin (hhMb) was determined using Davies ENDOR (electron nuclear double resonance). Disagreement of these experimental data with earlier predictions based on (13)C NMR data and a theoretical model reveal significant flaws in the model assumptions. The same ENDOR procedure allowed also partial determination of the corresponding (13)C hyperfine tensor of cyanide-ligated NGB and H64QNGB. These (13)C parameters differ significantly from those of cyanide-ligated hhMb and challenge our current theoretical understanding of how the haem environment influences the magnetic parameters obtained by EPR and NMR in cyanide-ligated haem proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Physiologically available cyanide (PAC) in manufactured gas plant waste and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magee, B.; Taft, A.; Ratliff, W.; Kelley, J.; Sullivan, J.; Pancorbo, O.

    1995-01-01

    Iron-complexed cyanide compounds, such as ferri-ferrocyanide (Prussian Blue), are wastes associated with former manufactured gas plant (MGP) facilities. When tested for total cyanide, these wastes often show a high total cyanide content. Because simple cyanide salts are acutely toxic, cyanide compounds can be the subject of concern. However, Prussian Blue and related species are known to have a low order of human and animal toxicity. Toxicology data on complexed cyanides will be presented. Another issue regarding Prussian Blue and related species is that the total cyanide method does not accurately represent the amount of free cyanide released from these cyanide species. The method involves boiling the sample in an acidic solution under vacuum to force the formation of HCN gas. Thus, Prussian Blue, which is known to be low in toxicity, cannot be properly evaluated with current methods. The Massachusetts Natural Gas Council initiated a program with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection to develop a method that would define the amount of cyanide that is able to be converted into hydrogen cyanide under the pH conditions of the stomach. It is demonstrated that less than 1% of the cyanide present in Prussian Blue samples and soils from MGP sites can be converted to HCN under the conditions of the human stomach. The physiologically available cyanide method has been designed to be executed at a higher temperature for one hour. It is shown that physiologically available cyanide in MGP samples is < 5--15% of total cyanide

  2. Modification of the SERS spectrum of cyanide traces due to complex formation between cyanide and silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao Dao, Tran; Kieu, Ngoc Minh; Quynh Ngan Luong, Truc; Cao, Tuan Anh; Hai Nguyen, Ngoc; Le, Van Vu

    2018-06-01

    It is well known that cyanide is an extremely toxic lethal poison with human death within minutes after exposure to only 300 ppm cyanide. On the other hand, cyanide is released into the environment (mainly through waste water) every day from various human activities. Therefore, rapid, sensitive and cost-effective cyanide trace detection is an urgent need. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a method that meets these requirements. It should be noted, however, that in this technique SERS substrates, which are usually made of gold or silver, will be leached with aqueous cyanide by the formation of complexes between gold or silver with cyanide. This will cause the SERS spectrum of cyanide to be modified. When determining cyanide concentrations by SERS analysis, this spectral modification should be taken into account. This report presents the SERS spectral modification of aqueous cyanide traces (in ppm and lower concentration range) when the SERS substrates used are flower-like silver micro-structures.

  3. Dietary resources shape the adaptive changes of cyanide detoxification function in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Yie, Shangmian; Liu, Yuliang; Wang, Chengdong; Cai, Zhigang; Zhang, Wenping; Lan, Jingchao; Huang, Xiangming; Luo, Li; Cai, Kailai; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Zhihe

    2016-10-05

    The functional adaptive changes in cyanide detoxification in giant panda appear to be response to dietary transition from typical carnivore to herbivorous bear. We tested the absorption of cyanide contained in bamboo/bamboo shoots with a feeding trial in 20 adult giant pandas. We determined total cyanide content in bamboo shoots and giant panda's feces, levels of urinary thiocyanate and tissue rhodanese activity using color reactions with a spectrophotometer. Rhodanese expression in liver and kidney at transcription and translation levels were measured using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. We compared differences of rhodanese activity and gene expressions among giant panda, rabbit (herbivore) and cat (carnivore), and between newborn and adult giant pandas. Bamboo shoots contained 3.2 mg/kg of cyanide and giant pandas absorbed more than 65% of cyanide. However, approximately 80% of absorbed cyanide was metabolized to less toxic thiocyanate that was discharged in urine. Rhodanese expression and activity in liver and kidney of giant panda were significantly higher than in cat, but lower than in rabbit (all P pandas were higher than that in newborn cub. Phylogenetic analysis of both nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the rhodanese gene supported a closer relationship of giant panda with carnivores than with herbivores.

  4. Analysis of Hydrogen Cyanide Hyperfine Spectral Components towards Star Forming Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loughnane R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Although hydrogen cyanide has become quite a common molecular tracing species for a variety of astrophysical sources, it, however, exhibits dramatic non-LTE behaviour in its hyperfine line structure. Individual hyperfine components can be strongly boosted or suppressed. If these so-called hyperfine line anomalies are present in the HCN rotational spectra towards low or high mass cores, this will affect the interpretation of various physical properties such as the line opacity and excitation temperature in the case of low mass objects and infall velocities in the case of their higher mass counterparts. Anomalous line ratios are present either through the relative strengths of neighboring hyperfine lines or through the varying widths of hyperfine lines belonging to a particular rotational line. This work involves the first observational investigation of these anomalies in two HCN rotational transitions, J=1→0 and J=3→2, towards both low mass starless cores and high mass protostellar objects. The degree of anomaly in these two rotational transitions is considered by computing the ratios of neighboring hyperfine lines in individual spectra. Results indicate some degree of anomaly is present in all cores considered in our survey, the most likely cause being line overlap effects among hyperfine components in higher rotational transitions.

  5. Refractory concentrate gold leaching: Cyanide vs. bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadgar, Ahmad

    1989-12-01

    Gold extraction, recovery and economics for two refractory concentrates were investigated using cyanide and bromine reagents. Gold extractions for cyanide leaching (24-48 hours) and bromine leaching (six hours) were the same and ranged from 94 to 96%. Gold recoveries from bromine pregnant solutions using carbon adsorption, ion exchange, solvent extraction, and zinc and aluminum precipitation methods were better than 99.9%. A preliminary economic analysis indicates that chemical costs for cyanidation and bromine process are 11.70 and 11.60 respectively, per tonne of calcine processed.

  6. A critical evaluation of methods applicable to the determination of cyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlandt, C.; Jones, E.A.; Lee, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    A literature survey of methods suitable for the determination of cyanides in process streams and effluents is presented. Of the large number of methods published, 92 are examined in detail, emphasis being placed on the selectivity of the methods, i.e. the extent to which they enable one to distinguish between ionic cyanide and metal-cyanide complexes. Methods designed for the determination of 'total cyanide' (i.e. ionic cyanide as well as coordinated cyanide) are evaluated critically. Other aspects of the methods are also considered, such as sensitivity, accuracy, speed, and freedom from interferences

  7. Excretion of 14C-labeled cyanide in rats exposed to chronic intake of potassium cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoh, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    The excretion of an acute dose of 14C-labeled cyanide in urine, feces, and expired air was studied in rats exposed to daily intake of unlabeled KCN in the diet for 6 weeks. Urinary excretion was the main route of elimination of cyanide carbon in these rats, accounting for 83% of the total excreted radioactivity in 12 hr and 89% of the total excreted radioactivity in 24 hr. The major excretion metabolite of cyanide in urine was thiocyanate, and this metabolite accounted for 71 and 79% of the total urinary activity in 12 hr and 24 hr, respectively. The mean total activity excreted in expired air after 12 hr was only 4%, and this value did not change after 24 hr. Of the total activity in expired air in 24 hr, 90% was present as carbon dioxide and 9% as cyanide. When these results were compared with those observed for control rats, it was clear that the mode of elimination of cyanide carbon in both urine and breath was not altered by the chronic intake of cyanide

  8. Identification and expression analysis of CYS-A1, CYS-C1, NIT4 genes in rice seedlings exposed to cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Lin, Yu-Juan; Lu, Chun-Jiao; Zhang, Xue-Hong

    2017-09-01

    Involvement of genes (CYS-A1, CYS-C1 and NIT4) encoded with cysteine synthase, β-cyanoalanine synthase, nitrilase and cyanide metabolisms are evident in Arabidopsis. In the present study, identifications of CYS-A1, CYS-C1 and NIT4, predictions of conserved motifs, and constructions of phylogenetic relationships, based on their amino acid sequences in rice, were conducted. In order to elucidate the transcriptional responses of these cyanide-degrading genes, two candidate homologues were selected for each gene to test their expression changes upon exposure to exogenous KCN in rice seedlings using RT-PCR. Results showed that all selected candidate homologous genes were differentially expressed at different exposure points in roots and shoots of rice seedlings, suggesting their distinct roles during cyanide assimilation. Both candidate homologues for CYS-A1 constantly exhibited more abundant transcripts in comparison to control. However, only one candidate homologue for CYS-C1 and NIT4 showed a remarkable up-regulation during KCN exposure. Analysis of both tissue and solution cyanide indicated that rice seedlings were quickly able to metabolize exogenous KCN with minor accumulation in plant tissues. In conclusion, significant up-regulation of CYS-A1 suggested that the endogenous pool of cysteine catalyzed by cysteine synthase does not restrict the conversion of exogenous KCN into cyanoalanine through the β-cyanoalanine pathway. However, insufficient responses of the transcription level of NIT4 suggested that NIT enzyme may be a limiting factor for cyanoalanine assimilation by rice seedlings.

  9. Recovery of cyanide in gold leach waste solution by volatilization and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönen, N; Kabasakal, O S; Ozdil, G

    2004-09-10

    In this study, the effects of pH, time and temperature in regeneration of cyanide in the leaching waste solution of gold production from disseminated gold ore by cyanidation process were investigated and the optimum conditions, consumptions and cyanide recovery values were determined. The sample of waste solution containing 156 mg/l free CN- and 358 mg/l total CN-, that was obtained from Gümüşhane-Mastra/Turkey disseminated gold ores by cyanidation and carbon-in-pulp (CIP) process under laboratory conditions was used in the experiments. Acidification with H2SO4, volatilization of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) with air stripping and absorption of HCN in a basic solution stages were applied and under optimum conditions, 100% of free cyanide and 48% of complex cyanide and consequently 70% of the total cyanide in the liquid phase of gold leach effluent are recovered.

  10. Cyanides: decomposition and determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilath, I.; Cohen, L.

    1977-08-01

    Different cyanide destruction methods such as electrolysis (with and without the addition of salt), hypochlorite treatment and ion exchange detoxication were evaluated on a laboratory scale using model solutions. Parameters were determined for the optimal operation of the investigated processes. Analytical methods were adapted for concentrations and compositions of interest. An easy and rapid method of complex cyanide breakdown by ion exchange treatment was developed for analytical purposes. (author)

  11. Antidotes for Cyanide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    treatment, six task forces formulated recom- mendations for a national structure of prehospital EM by family physicians, ambulance nurses , and hospital...competencies between ambulance nurses and prehospital physicians. Eur J Emerg Med 2011; 18:322 327. Antidotes for cyanide poisoning Vikhyat S. Bebarta...the study model (limited to 60 min after the start of cyanide infusion) and the hemodynamic parameters as end points, instead of long-term sequelae

  12. RAPID MULTICOMPONENT ANALYSIS OF HEMOGLOBIN DERIVATIVES FOR CONTROLLED ANTIDOTAL USE OF METHEMOGLOBIN-FORMING AGENTS IN CYANIDE POISONING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, WG

    When cyanide poisoning is treated with a methemoglobin-forming agent, oxidative metabolism is protected at the expense of the oxygen capacity of the blood.The affinity of methemoglobin for CN- is high enough to compete with cytochrome oxidase, which protects the latter from becoming blocked, but all

  13. Total Analysis System for Ship Structural Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Takuya, Yoneya; Hiroyuki, Kobayashi; Abdul M., Rahim; Yoshimichi, Sasaki; Masaki, Irisawa; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Singapore Office; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center; Technical Investigation and Information Department, Research Center

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a total analysis system for ship hull structures, which integrates a wide variety of analysis functions to realise practical applications of rational methods for assessing ship structural strength. It is based on direct calculation of wave-induced loads as well as three-dimensional structural analysis of an entire-ship or hold structure. Three major analysis functions of the total system are ship motion and wave load analysis, ship structural analysis and statistical analy...

  14. Cyanide toxicokinetics: the behavior of cyanide, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid in multiple animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Raj K; Oda, Robert P; Petrikovics, Ilona; Thompson, David E; Brenner, Matthew; Mahon, Sari B; Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-05-01

    Cyanide causes toxic effects by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cellular hypoxia and cytotoxic anoxia, and can eventually lead to death. Cyanide exposure can be verified by direct analysis of cyanide concentrations or analyzing its metabolites, including thiocyanate (SCN(-)) and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) in blood. To determine the behavior of these markers following cyanide exposure, a toxicokinetics study was performed in three animal models: (i) rats (250-300 g), (ii) rabbits (3.5-4.2 kg) and (iii) swine (47-54 kg). Cyanide reached a maximum in blood and declined rapidly in each animal model as it was absorbed, distributed, metabolized and eliminated. Thiocyanate concentrations rose more slowly as cyanide was enzymatically converted to SCN(-). Concentrations of ATCA did not rise significantly above the baseline in the rat model, but rose quickly in rabbits (up to a 40-fold increase) and swine (up to a 3-fold increase) and then fell rapidly, generally following the relative behavior of cyanide. Rats were administered cyanide subcutaneously and the apparent half-life (t1/2) was determined to be 1,510 min. Rabbits were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 177 min. Swine were administered cyanide intravenously and the t1/2 was determined to be 26.9 min. The SCN(-) t1/2 in rats was 3,010 min, but was not calculated in rabbits and swine because SCN(-) concentrations did not reach a maximum. The t1/2 of ATCA was 40.7 and 13.9 min in rabbits and swine, respectively, while it could not be determined in rats with confidence. The current study suggests that cyanide exposure may be verified shortly after exposure by determining significantly elevated cyanide and SCN(-) in each animal model and ATCA may be used when the ATCA detoxification pathway is significant.

  15. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of sodium and potassium cyanide as a forensic signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, Helen W; Horita, Juske; Moran, James J; Tomkins, Bruce A; Janszen, Derek B; Carman, April

    2012-01-01

    Sodium and potassium cyanide are highly toxic, produced in large amounts by the chemical industry, and linked to numerous high-profile crimes. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified cyanide as one of the most probable agents to be used in a chemical terrorism event. We investigated whether stable C and N isotopic content of sodium and potassium cyanide could serve as a forensic signature for sample matching, using a collection of 65 cyanide samples. Upon analysis, a few of the cyanide samples displayed nonhomogeneous isotopic content associated with degradation to a carbonate salt and loss of hydrogen cyanide. Most samples had highly reproducible isotope content. Of the 65 cyanide samples, >95% could be properly matched based on C and N isotope ratios, with a false match rate <3%. These results suggest that stable C and N isotope ratios are a useful forensic signature for matching cyanide samples. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. The first actinyl cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthet, J.C.; Thuery, P.; Ephritikhine, M.

    2007-01-01

    Reaction of UO 2 (OTf) 2 with 5 molar equivalents of NEt 4 CN in acetonitrile led to the formation of the penta-cyano uranyl complex [NEt 4 ] 3 [UO 2 (CN) 5 ] which is monomeric in the solid state with the five C-coordinated cyanide ions lying in the equatorial plane perpendicular to the linear { UO 2 } axis. (authors)

  17. Electroplating and Cyanide Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpy, Michael F.; Runke, Henry M.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from electroplating industry, covering publications of 1977. This review covers studies such as: (1) ion exchange treatment process; (2) use of reverse osmosis; and (3) cyanide removal and detection. A list of 75 references is also presented. (HM)

  18. Quantum chemical analysis of the electronic structure and Moessbauer spectra parameters for low spin cyanide- and pyridine-hemichromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khleskov, V.I.; Kolpakov, E.V.; Smirnov, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    The work contains results of quantum-chemical calculations of electronic structure and Moessbauer spectra parameters for low spin S=1/2 hexa-coordinated ferri-porphyrin complexes with cyanide (CN) and pyridine (Py) as axial ligands. Theoretical results made it possible to explain experimentally observed regularity of anomalous quadrupole splitting decrease after substitution of Py-ligands by CN. Comparison of theoretical and experimental data indicated that 2 E g must be the ground state of investigated hemichromes. In this state unpaired electron symmetrically occupies d π -orbitals of Fe-ion. (orig.)

  19. Synthesis and x-ray crystallographic analysis of 4,6-di-O-acetyl-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-threo-hexopyranosyl cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotella, Madeline; Giovine, Matthew; Dougherty, William; Boyko, Walter; Kassel, Scott; Giuliano, Robert

    2016-04-29

    The glycopyranosyl cyanide 4,6-di-O-acetyl-2,3-dideoxy-α-D-threo-hexopyranosyl cyanide has been synthesized from tri-O-acetyl-D-galactal by reaction with trimethylsilyl cyanide in the presence of boron trifluoride diethyl etherate followed by catalytic hydrogenation. The synthesis provides the α-anomer stereoselectively, the structure of which was assigned based on 2D NMR techniques and x-ray crystallography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ANALYSIS AND ACCOUNTING OF TOTAL CASH FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MELANIA ELENA MICULEAC

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reach the objective of supplying some relevant information regarding the liquidity inflows and outflows during a financial exercise, the total cash flow analysis must include the analysis of result cashable from operation, of payments and receipts related to the investment and of financing decisions of the last exercise, as well as the analysis of treasury variation (of cash items. The management of total cash flows ensures the correlation of current liquidness flows as consequence of receipts with the payments ’flows, in order to provide payment continuity of mature obligations.

  1. Bepaling van vrij- en totaal-cyanide in grond en water met een doorstroomanalysesysteem: evaluatie van ontwerp NEN-6655

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staden JJ van; Moayeri-Mirck MWG; Cleven RFMJ; Wiel HJ van de; LAC; LBA

    1994-01-01

    De ontwerp-methode voor de fotometrische bepaling van het totale gehalte aan cyanide (totaal-cyanide) en het gehalte aan vrij-cyanide in water en bodem met een doorstroomanalysesysteem (Ontwerp NEN 6655) is onderzocht en zonodig gewijzigd. De ontwerp-methode is gemodificeerd om de

  2. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, W.; Prange, A.

    1987-01-01

    In the past few years, total reflection X-ray flourescence analysis (TXRF) has found an increasing number of assignments and applications. Experience of trace element analysis using TXRF and examples of applications are already widespread. Therefore, users of TXRF had the opportunity of an intensive exchange of their experience at the 1st workshop on total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis which took place on May 27th and 28th 1986 at the GKSS Research Centre at Geesthacht. In a series of lectures and discussions dealing with the analytical principle itself, sample preparation techniques and applications as well as comuter programs for spectrum evaluation, the present state of development and the range of applications were outlined. 3 studies out of a total of 14 were included separately in the INIS and ENERGY databases. With 61 figs., 12 tabs [de

  3. An enzymatic method for determination of azide and cyanide in aqueous phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Nan-Wei; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Xue, Feng; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2015-11-20

    A halohydrin dehalogenase (HHDH-PL) from Parvibaculum lavamentivorans DS-1 was characterized and applied to determine azide and cyanide in the water. In this methodology, HHDH-PL catalysed azide and cyanide to react with butylene oxide and form corresponding β-substituted alcohols 1-azidobutan-2-ol (ABO) and 3-hydroxypentanenitrile (HPN) that could be quantitatively detected by gas chromatograph. The detection calibration curves for azide (R(2)=0.997) and cyanide (R(2)=0.995) were linear and the lower limits of detection for azide and cyanide were 0.1 and 0.3mM, respectively. Several other nucleophiles were identified having no effect on the analysis of azide and cyanide, excepting nitrite which influenced the detection of cyanide. This was the first report of a biological method to determine the inorganic azide and cyanide by converting them to the measurable organics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Flow injection analysis-flame atomic absorption spectrometry system for indirect determination of cyanide using cadmium carbonate as a new solid-phase reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noroozifar, M.; Khorasani-Motlagh, M.; Hosseini, S.-N.

    2005-01-01

    A new and simple flow injection system procedure has been developed for the indirect determination of cyanide. The method is based on insertion of aqueous cyanide solutions into an on-line cadmium carbonate packed column (25% m/m suspended on silica gel beads) and a sodium hydroxide with pH 10 is used as the carrier stream. The eluent containing the analyte as cadmiumcyanide complexes, produced from reaction between cadmium carbonate and cyanide, measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The absorbance is proportional to the concentration of cyanide in the sample. The linear range of the system is up to 15 mg L -1 with a detection limit 0.2 mg L -1 and sampling rate 72 h -1 . The method is suitable for determination of cyanide in industrial waste waters with a relative standard deviation better than 1.22%

  5. Development of a fluorescence-based sensor for rapid diagnosis of cyanide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Randy; Oda, Robert P; Bhandari, Raj K; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-02-04

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating, and synthetic fiber production. The "heavy" use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Because the onset of cyanide toxicity is fast, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure is necessary. Therefore, a field sensor for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure was developed based on the reaction of naphthalene dialdehyde, taurine, and cyanide, yielding a fluorescent β-isoindole. An integrated cyanide capture "apparatus", consisting of sample and cyanide capture chambers, allowed rapid separation of cyanide from blood samples. Rabbit whole blood was added to the sample chamber, acidified, and the HCN gas evolved was actively transferred through a stainless steel channel to the capture chamber containing a basic solution of naphthalene dialdehyde (NDA) and taurine. The overall analysis time (including the addition of the sample) was cyanide exposure. Most importantly, the sensor was 100% accurate in diagnosing cyanide poisoning for acutely exposed rabbits.

  6. The aquatic toxicity and chemical forms of coke plant effluent cyanide -- Implications for discharge limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibay, R.; Rupnow, M.; Godwin-Saad, E.; Hall, S.

    1995-01-01

    Cyanide is present in treated cokemaking process waters at concentrations as high as 8.0 mg/L. In assessing options for managing the discharge of a treated effluent, the development and implementation of discharge limits for cyanide became a critical issue. A study was initiated to evaluate possible alternatives to cyanide permit limits at the US Steel Gary Works Facility. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluation the forms of cyanide present in coke plant effluent; (2) determine whether these forms of cyanide are toxic to selected aquatic organisms; (3) compare the aquatic toxicity of various chemical forms of cyanide; (4) identify if the receiving water modifies cyanide bioavailability; and (5) confirm, with respect to water quality-based effluent limits, an appropriate analytical method for monitoring cyanide in a coke plant effluent. The results of aquatic toxicity tests and corresponding analytical data are presented. Toxicity tests were conducted with various pure chemical forms of cyanide as well as whole coke plant effluent (generated from a pilot-scale treatment system). Test species included the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) and Daphnia magna (D. magna). Analytical measurements for cyanide included total, weak acid dissociable, diffusible cyanide and selected metal species of cyanide. The findings presented by the paper are relevant with respect to the application of cyanide water quality criteria for a coke plant effluent discharge, the translation of these water quality-based effluent limits to permit limits, and methods for compliance monitoring for cyanide

  7. Investigation of alkaline-cyanide electrolytes of zinc plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaburova, V.P.; Kolotij, O.Yu.

    1993-01-01

    Current values in their maxima on anodic potential curves of Cd, Sn and Zn in galvanizing electrolytes with equilibrium concentrations of free cyanide and hydroxide ions were compared. Anode signal of Cd in the presence of Zn complexes intensifies due to their lability and, therefore, it reflects not only the presence of free cyanide, but zinc complex ions, as well, in the solution mentioned. This is one of the reasons for a high information content of the signal in case of multicomponent analysis of cyanide galvanizing electrolytes

  8. A new PANI biosensor based on catalase for cyanide determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Hakkı Mevlüt; Aydin, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Cyanide is one of the most widespread of compounds measured in environmental analysis due to their toxic effects on environment and health. We report a highly sensitive, reliable, selective amperometric sensor for determination of cyanide, using a polyaniline conductive polymer. The enzyme catalase was immobilized by electropolymerization. The steps during the immobilization were controlled by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Optimum pH, temperature, aniline concentration, enzyme concentration, and the number of scans obtained during electropolymerization, were investigated. In addition, the cyanide present in artificial waste water samples was determined. In the characterization studies of the biosensor, some parameters such as reproducibility and storage stability, were analyzed.

  9. Simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) analysis of cyanide and thiocyanate from swine plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Raj K; Manandhar, Erica; Oda, Robert P; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    An analytical procedure for the simultaneous determination of cyanide and thiocyanate in swine plasma was developed and validated. Cyanide and thiocyanate were simultaneously analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in negative ionization mode after rapid and simple sample preparation. Isotopically labeled internal standards, Na(13)C(15)N and NaS(13)C(15)N, were mixed with swine plasma (spiked and nonspiked), proteins were precipitated with acetone, the samples were centrifuged, and the supernatant was removed and dried. The dried samples were reconstituted in 10 mM ammonium formate. Cyanide was reacted with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde and taurine to form N-substituted 1-cyano[f]benzoisoindole, while thiocyanate was chemically modified with monobromobimane to form an SCN-bimane product. The method produced dynamic ranges of 0.1-50 and 0.2-50 μM for cyanide and thiocyanate, respectively, with limits of detection of 10 nM for cyanide and 50 nM for thiocyanate. For quality control standards, the precision, as measured by percent relative standard deviation, was below 8 %, and the accuracy was within ±10 % of the nominal concentration. Following validation, the analytical procedure successfully detected cyanide and thiocyanate simultaneously from the plasma of cyanide-exposed swine.

  10. Deformation analysis with Total Least Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Acar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation analysis is one of the main research fields in geodesy. Deformation analysis process comprises measurement and analysis phases. Measurements can be collected using several techniques. The output of the evaluation of the measurements is mainly point positions. In the deformation analysis phase, the coordinate changes in the point positions are investigated. Several models or approaches can be employed for the analysis. One approach is based on a Helmert or similarity coordinate transformation where the displacements and the respective covariance matrix are transformed into a unique datum. Traditionally a Least Squares (LS technique is used for the transformation procedure. Another approach that could be introduced as an alternative methodology is the Total Least Squares (TLS that is considerably a new approach in geodetic applications. In this study, in order to determine point displacements, 3-D coordinate transformations based on the Helmert transformation model were carried out individually by the Least Squares (LS and the Total Least Squares (TLS, respectively. The data used in this study was collected by GPS technique in a landslide area located nearby Istanbul. The results obtained from these two approaches have been compared.

  11. Aufnahme von Cyanid in Pflanzen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan; Koch, Ines; Christiansen, Helle

    2001-01-01

    Cyanides are waste products from the pyrolysis of coal and are frequent soil pollutants in cities nowadays. Prussic acid (HCN) is a fast acting, highly toxic poison, but iron-complexed cyanides in soil are far less toxic. The phytotoxicity of free CN to basket willows (Salix viminalis) was determ...

  12. Dietary resources shape the adaptive changes of cyanide detoxification function in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

    OpenAIRE

    He Huang; Shangmian Yie; Yuliang Liu; Chengdong Wang; Zhigang Cai; Wenping Zhang; Jingchao Lan; Xiangming Huang; Li Luo; Kailai Cai; Rong Hou; Zhihe Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The functional adaptive changes in cyanide detoxification in giant panda appear to be response to dietary transition from typical carnivore to herbivorous bear. We tested the absorption of cyanide contained in bamboo/bamboo shoots with a feeding trial in 20 adult giant pandas. We determined total cyanide content in bamboo shoots and giant panda?s feces, levels of urinary thiocyanate and tissue rhodanese activity using color reactions with a spectrophotometer. Rhodanese expression in liver and...

  13. Cyanide hydratases and cyanide dihydratases: emerging tools in the biodegradation and biodetection of cyanide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínková, Ludmila; Veselá, Alicja Barbara; Rinágelová, Anna; Chmátal, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 21 (2015), s. 8875-8882 ISSN 0175-7598 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01021368; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0394 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Cyanide hydratase * Cyanide dihydratase * Enzyme production Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.376, year: 2015

  14. Synchrotron radiation total reflection for rainwater analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simabuco, Silvana M.; Matsumoto, Edson

    1999-01-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis excited with synchrotron radiation (SR-TXRF) has been used for rainwater trace element analysis. The samples were collected in four different sites at Campinas City, SP. Standard solutions with gallium as internal standard were prepared for the calibration system. Rainwater samples of 10 μl were putted onto Perspex reflector disk, dried on vacuum and analyzed for 100 s measuring time. The detection limits obtained for K-shell varied from 29 ng.ml -1 for sulfur to 1.3 ng.ml -1 for zinc and copper, while for L-shell the values were 4.5 ng.ml -1 for mercury and 7.0 ng.ml -1 for lead. (author)

  15. Quantitative measurement of cyanide complexes in simulated and actual Hanford ferrocyanide wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Sell, R.L.; Bryan, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    Cyanide-containing radioactive waste from radiocesium scavenging processes conducted during the 1950's at Hanford is currently stored in 24 single shell tanks. As part of ongoing tank characterization efforts, the quantity and chemical form of cyanide in these tanks need to be determined. This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract to Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to develop methods for the quantification of total cyanide and identification of major cyanide-containing species in Ferrocyanide Tank Waste. Results from the application of FTIR, IC, and microdistillation procedures to simulated and actual Hanford waste are presented and compared where applicable

  16. Behaviour of cyanides in soil and groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, P.

    1999-01-01

    contamination in soils and groundwater are discussed. Toxicological and analytical aspects of cyanide containing compounds are briefly touched. The behaviour of cyanide compounds in soil and groundwater is governed by many interacting chemical and microbial processes. Redox conditions and pH are of importance...... is evaluated. At gas work sites, where cyanide is mainly present as iron cyanide complexes, the risk for effects on humans from exposure to cyanide compounds seems to be of minor relevance....

  17. Single tag for total carbohydrate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumula, Kalyan Rao

    2014-07-15

    Anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-AA) has the remarkable property of reacting rapidly with every type of reducing carbohydrate. Reactivity of 2-AA with carbohydrates in aqueous solutions surpasses all other tags reported to date. This unique capability is attributed to the strategically located -COOH which accelerates Schiff base formation. Monosaccharides, oligosaccharides (N-, O-, and lipid linked and glycans in secretory fluids), glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides can be easily labeled with 2-AA. With 2-AA, labeling is simple in aqueous solutions containing proteins, peptides, buffer salts, and other ingredients (e.g., PNGase F, glycosidase, and transferase reaction mixtures). In contrast, other tags require relatively pure glycans for labeling in anhydrous dimethyl sulfoxide-acetic acid medium. Acidic conditions are known to cause desialylation, thus requiring a great deal of attention to sample preparation. Simpler labeling is achieved with 2-AA within 30-60 min in mild acetate-borate buffered solution. 2-AA provides the highest sensitivity and resolution in chromatographic methods for carbohydrate analysis in a simple manner. Additionally, 2-AA is uniquely qualified for quantitative analysis by mass spectrometry in the negative mode. Analyses of 2-AA-labeled carbohydrates by electrophoresis and other techniques have been reported. Examples cited here demonstrate that 2-AA is the universal tag for total carbohydrate analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Catalytic oxidation of cyanides in an aqueous phase over individual and manganese-modified cobalt oxide systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoskova, St.; Stoyanova, M.

    2009-01-01

    The possibility for purification of wastewaters containing free cyanides by applying of a new method based on cyanides catalytic oxidation with air to CO 2 and N 2 at low temperature and atmospheric pressure was investigated. On this purpose, individual and modified with manganese Co-oxide systems as active phase of environmental catalysts were synthesized. The applied method of synthesis favours the preparation of oxide catalytic systems with high active oxygen content (total-O* and surface-O* s ) possessing high mobility, and the metal ions being in a high oxidation state and in an octahedral coordination-factors determining high activity in reactions of complete oxidation. The catalysts employed were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy, and chemical analysis. The effect of pH of the medium and catalyst loading on the effectiveness of the cyanide oxidation process, expressed by the degree of conversion (α, %), by the rate constant (k, min -1 ), and COD was studied. The results obtained reveal that using catalysts investigated a high cyanide removal efficiency could be achieved even in strong alkaline medium. The higher activity of the manganese promoted catalytic sample could be explained on the basis of higher total active oxygen content and its higher mobility both depending on the conditions, under which the synthesis of catalyst is being carried out.

  19. Intensification Behavior of Mercury Ions on Gold Cyanide Leaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanidation is the main method used to extract gold from gold raw materials; however, a serious problem with this method is the low leaching rate. In order to improve gold leaching, the intensification behavior of mercury ions on gold cyanide leaching, for two types of materials, sulphide gold concentrate and oxide gold ore, was investigated. The results showed that mercury ions, with only a 10−5 M dosage, could significantly intensify leaching and gold recovery. The dissolution behavior of gold plate was also intensified by 10−5 M mercury ions. Microstructure analysis showed that mercury ions intensified the cyanidation corrosion of the gold surface, resulting in a loose structure, where a large number of deep ravines and raised particles were evident across the whole gold surface. The loose structure added contact surface between the gold and cyanide, and accelerated gold dissolution. Moreover, mercury ions obstructed the formation of insoluble products, such as AuCN, Au(OHCN, and Au(OHx, that lead to a passivation membrane on the gold surface, reducing contact between the gold and cyanide. These effects, brought about by mercury ions, change the structure and product of the gold surface during gold cyanidation and promote gold leaching.

  20. Muonium addition to cyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadlbauer, J.M.; Ng, B.W.; Jean, Y.C.; Walker, D.C.

    1982-10-01

    Muonium, the light radioactive isotope of hydrogen, was found to add to the CN triple bond of acetonitrile, cyanoacetate, cyanide and tetracyanocadmate(II) with room temperature rate constants, K sub(M), of 5.1 x 10 7 , 7.7 x l0 7 , 3.0 x 10 9 , and 1.7 x 10 10 (all M -1 s -1 ), respectively. While Cd(CN) 4 -2 is diffusion controlled with an activation energy of approximately 15 kJ/mole the others appear to be activation controlled as with cyanoacetate's activation barrier of approximately 35 kJ/mole. Kinetic isotope effects range from 0.7 to 24

  1. Biodegradation of cyanide using Serratia sp. isolated from contaminated soil of gold mine in Takab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mohseni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : Cyanide is a toxic and hazardous compound for all organisms which is produced enormously by human being and causes the environment pollution. Biodegradation is the best method for cyanide elimination in industrial wastewater. The aims of this study were isolation of cyanide degrading bacteria from contaminated soil and investigation of their ability for cyanide degradation.   Materials and methods: After soil samples collection, enrichment of cyanide degrading bacteria was performed in a minimal medium containing 0.5 mM potassium cyanide. The ability of isolated bacterium to utilize the cyanide as sole carbon and nitrogen source was investigated. Cyanide degradation and ammonium production was determined in growth medium using picric acid and Nessler’s regent methods. Toxicity effect of different cyanide compounds on bacterial growth was determined using minimum inhibitory concentration. In addition, the ability of the isolated bacterium to utilize different cyanide compounds was investigated . Identification of the isolate was undertaken using morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and molecular analysis .   Results : A bacterium with ability to degrade cyanide as sole carbon and nitrogen source was isolated from soil. This bacterium named as isolate MF1. MF1 degraded cyanide in growth medium in alkaline condition after 40 hours. Moreover this isolate tolerated more than 7 mM potassium cyanide. The results showed that there was a direct relation between decreasing of cyanide concentration, increasing of ammonia concentration and growth of MF1. In addition, the isolated bacterium demonstrated the ability to utilize different cyanide compounds as sole carbon and nitrogen source. The results of morphological and physiological characteristics showed that this bacterium belonged to the Serratia sp. Moreover, 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses exhibited that MF1 strain was similar to Serratia

  2. Subsurface fate and transport of cyanide species at a manufactured-gas plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.; Luthy, R.G.; Nakles, D.V.

    1999-01-01

    Cyanide is present at manufactured-gas plant (MGP) sites in oxide-box residuals, which were often managed on-site as fill during active operations. Cyanide can leach from these materials, causing groundwater contamination. Speciation, fate, and transport of cyanide in a sand-gravel aquifer underlying an MGP site in the upper Midwest region of the US were studied through characterization, monitoring, and modeling of a plume of cyanide-contaminated groundwater emanating from the site. Results indicate that cyanide in the groundwater is primarily in the form of iron-cyanide complexes (>98%), that these complexes are stable under the conditions of the aquifer, and that they are transported as nonreactive solutes in the sand-gravel aquifer material. Weak-acid-dissociable cyanide, which represents a minute fraction of total cyanide in the site groundwater, may undergo chemical-biological degradation in the sand-gravel aquifer. It seems that dilution may be the only natural attenuation mechanism for iron-cyanide complexes in sand-gravel aquifers at MGP sites

  3. Cyanide Degradation by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes Strain W_2 Isolated from Mining Effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinda Tiong; Zaratulnur Mohd Bahari; Nor Sahslin Irwan Shah Lee; Jafariah Jaafar; Zaharah Ibrahim; Shafinaz Shahir

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide is highly toxic to the living organisms as it inhibits respiration system in the cell mitochondria. Cyanide is commonly used in gold extraction process and its discharge into the environment not only causes pollution but it also brings harm to the surrounding population. Chemical treatment is expensive and the use of hazardous compound can exacerbate the problem. Biodegradation offers cheap and safe alternative as it overcomes the problems faced by chemical treatment. In this study, indigenous bacteria from mining wastewater were isolated. Cyanide degradation was done via shake flask method. A bacterium, designated W2 was found able to grow in the mining wastewater. 16S rRNA analysis identified the strain as Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes which could tolerate up to 39 mg/L cyanide concentration and growth was depleted at 52 mg/L. 60 % cyanide degradation was achieved in wastewater containing medium. End-product analysis from high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) detected formamide implicating the role of cyanide hydratase in cyanide degradation. It can be concluded that P. pseudoalcaligenes is capable of biodegrading cyanide and its potential in wastewater treatment containing cyanide is feasible. (author)

  4. Cyanide utilization and degradation by microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, C J

    1988-01-01

    Various microorganisms can produce (cyanogenesis) or degrade cyanide. They degrade cyanide either to detoxify it, or to use it as a source of nitrogen for growth. Significant amounts of cyanide are formed as a secondary metabolite by a wide range of fungi and a few bacteria by decarboxylation of glycine. When cyanide has been formed by the snow mould fungus it is degraded by conversion to carbon dioxide and ammonia via an unknown pathway. In contrast, cyanogenic bacteria either do not further catabolize cyanide or they convert it into beta-cyanoalanine by addition to cysteine or O-acetylserine. Several non-cyanogenic fungi that are pathogens of cyanogenic plants are known to degrade cyanide by hydration to formamide by the enzyme cyanide hydratase. Such fungi can be immobilized and used in packed-cell columns to continuously detoxify cyanide. ICI Biological Products Business market a preparation of spray-dried fungal mycelia, 'CYCLEAR', to detoxify industrial wastes. Novo Industri have also introduced a cyanidase preparation to convert cyanide directly into formate and ammonia. Bacteria have been isolated that use cyanide as a source of nitrogen for growth. Because cyanide, as KCN or NaCN, is toxic for growth, the bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) have to be grown in fed-batch culture with cyanide as the limiting nutrient. Cyanide is converted to carbon dioxide and ammonia (which is then assimilated) by an NADH-linked cyanide oxygenase system.

  5. Cyanide wastes treatment by bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deloya Martinez, Alma

    2012-01-01

    The results of the development of an autochthonous consortium of degrader microorganisms of the cyanide for the application in the biological treatment of the dangerous wastes of cyanide, were presented. The autochthonous microorganisms obtained were lyophilized in different protective environments, such as gelatin and lactose broth at different temperatures (-35, -45, -55 and -65). A pretreatment method in slurry was applied for the preliminary treatment of the cyanide wastes: for the preliminary leaching of the waste, with periods between 3 and 5 days and a posterior treatment, by aerated lagoons, applying the consortium of lyophilized microorganisms. Eight different lyophilized were obtained in different temperature conditions and with two lyophilization protective media that have presented excellent recovery at six months of lyophilization. The consortium of lyophilized microorganisms has presented 70 to 80 percent of viability, with cyanide removal percentages higher than 95% and it can be conserved active for a prolonged time (for years). The lyophilized microorganisms can be applied in the biodegradation of the cyanide wastes from the gold mines or any other cyanide waste such as metal electroplanting baths, as well as from jewelry manufacturing. (author) [es

  6. Cyanide poisoning in Thailand before and after establishment of the National Antidote Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuma, Sahaphume; Pradoo, Aimon; Rittilert, Panee; Wongvisavakorn, Sunun; Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Krairojananan, Wannapa; Suchonwanich, Netnapis; Khomvilai, Sumana; Wananukul, Winai

    2018-04-01

    Antidote shortage is a global problem. In Thailand, the National Antidote Project (NAP) has operated since November 2010 to manage the national antidote stockpile, educate the healthcare providers on appropriate antidote use, and evaluate antidote usage. To evaluate the effect of NAP implementation on mortality rate and antidote use in cyanide poisoning cases arising from ingestion of cyanide or cyanogenic glycoside. This is a retrospective cohort of poisoning cases involving cyanide or cyanogenic glycoside ingestion reported to Ramathibodi Poison Center from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2015. Mortality rate, antidote use, and appropriateness of antidote use (defined as correct indication, proper dosing regimen, and administration within 90 min) before and after NAP implementation were compared. Association between parameters and fatal outcomes was analyzed. A total of 343 cases involving cyanide or cyanogenic glycoside ingestion were reported to Ramathibodi Poison Center. There were 213 cases (62.1%) during NAP (Project group) and 130 cases (37.9%) pre-NAP implementation (Before group). Implementation of NAP led to increased antidote use (39.9% in Project group versus 24.6% in Before group) and a higher rate of appropriate antidote use (74.1% in Project group versus 50.0% in Before group). All 30 deaths were presented with initial severe symptoms. Cyanide chemical source and self-harm intent were associated with death (OR: 12.919, 95% CI: 4.863-39.761 and OR: 10.747, 95% CI: 3.884-28.514, respectively). No difference in overall mortality rate (13 [10.0%] deaths before versus 17 [8.0%] deaths after NAP) was found. In subgroup analysis of 80 cases with initial severe symptoms, NAP and appropriate antidote use reduced mortality (OR: 0.327, 95% CI: 0.106-0.997 and OR: 0.024, 95% CI: 0.004-0.122, respectively). In the multivariate analysis of the cases with initial severe symptoms, presence of the NAP and appropriate antidote use independently reduced the risk of

  7. Improving the cyanide toxicity tolerance of anaerobic reactor: Microbial interactions and toxin reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Pragya; Ahammad, S.Z.; Sreekrishnan, T.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic batch study of 110 days. • Acclimatization for cyanide biodegradation. • Understanding inhibitory effects of cyanide on methane generation and VFA production. • Identification of microorganisms tolerant to cyanide. • Community analysis using DGGE and qPCR analyses. - Abstract: Anaerobic biological treatment of high organics containing wastewater is amongst the preferred treatment options but poor tolerance to toxins makes its use prohibitive. In this study, efforts have been made to understand the key parameters for developing anaerobic reactor, resilient to cyanide toxicity. A laboratory scale anaerobic batch reactor was set up to treat cyanide containing wastewater. The reactor was inoculated with anaerobic sludge obtained from a wastewater treatment plant and fresh cow dung in the ratio of 3:1. The focus was on acclimatization and development of cyanide-degrading biomass and to understand the toxic effects of cyanide on the dynamic equilibrium between various microbial groups. The sludge exposed to cyanide was found to have higher bacterial diversity than the control. It was observed that certain hydrogenotrophic methanogens and bacterial groups were able to grow and produce methane in the presence of cyanide. Also, it was found that hydrogen utilizing methanogens were more cyanide tolerant than acetate utilizing methanogens. So, effluents from various industries like electroplating, coke oven plant, petroleum refining, explosive manufacturing, and pesticides industries which are having high concentrations of cyanide can be treated by favoring the growth of the tolerant microbes in the reactors. It will provide much better treatment efficiency by overcoming the inhibitory effects of cyanide to certain extent.

  8. Improving the cyanide toxicity tolerance of anaerobic reactor: Microbial interactions and toxin reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Pragya; Ahammad, S.Z.; Sreekrishnan, T.R., E-mail: sree@iitd.ac.in

    2016-09-05

    Highlights: • Anaerobic batch study of 110 days. • Acclimatization for cyanide biodegradation. • Understanding inhibitory effects of cyanide on methane generation and VFA production. • Identification of microorganisms tolerant to cyanide. • Community analysis using DGGE and qPCR analyses. - Abstract: Anaerobic biological treatment of high organics containing wastewater is amongst the preferred treatment options but poor tolerance to toxins makes its use prohibitive. In this study, efforts have been made to understand the key parameters for developing anaerobic reactor, resilient to cyanide toxicity. A laboratory scale anaerobic batch reactor was set up to treat cyanide containing wastewater. The reactor was inoculated with anaerobic sludge obtained from a wastewater treatment plant and fresh cow dung in the ratio of 3:1. The focus was on acclimatization and development of cyanide-degrading biomass and to understand the toxic effects of cyanide on the dynamic equilibrium between various microbial groups. The sludge exposed to cyanide was found to have higher bacterial diversity than the control. It was observed that certain hydrogenotrophic methanogens and bacterial groups were able to grow and produce methane in the presence of cyanide. Also, it was found that hydrogen utilizing methanogens were more cyanide tolerant than acetate utilizing methanogens. So, effluents from various industries like electroplating, coke oven plant, petroleum refining, explosive manufacturing, and pesticides industries which are having high concentrations of cyanide can be treated by favoring the growth of the tolerant microbes in the reactors. It will provide much better treatment efficiency by overcoming the inhibitory effects of cyanide to certain extent.

  9. Code development for eigenvalue total sensitivity analysis and total uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Chenghui; Cao, Liangzhi; Wu, Hongchun; Zu, Tiejun; Shen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a new code for total sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. • The implicit effects of cross sections can be considered. • The results of our code agree well with TSUNAMI-1D. • Detailed analysis for origins of implicit effects is performed. - Abstract: The uncertainties of multigroup cross sections notably impact eigenvalue of neutron-transport equation. We report on a total sensitivity analysis and total uncertainty analysis code named UNICORN that has been developed by applying the direct numerical perturbation method and statistical sampling method. In order to consider the contributions of various basic cross sections and the implicit effects which are indirect results of multigroup cross sections through resonance self-shielding calculation, an improved multigroup cross-section perturbation model is developed. The DRAGON 4.0 code, with application of WIMSD-4 format library, is used by UNICORN to carry out the resonance self-shielding and neutron-transport calculations. In addition, the bootstrap technique has been applied to the statistical sampling method in UNICORN to obtain much steadier and more reliable uncertainty results. The UNICORN code has been verified against TSUNAMI-1D by analyzing the case of TMI-1 pin-cell. The numerical results show that the total uncertainty of eigenvalue caused by cross sections can reach up to be about 0.72%. Therefore the contributions of the basic cross sections and their implicit effects are not negligible

  10. The Effect of Storage Longtime on Cyanide Production in Postmortem Stored Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeeid Gholamzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Acute cyanide poisoning happens intentionally as suicide attempt or in accidental use. Interpretation of cyanide analysis results in postmortem samples is important in forensic medicine. Material & Methods: In this case-control study, the liver and the lung of 100 autopsy cases were collected during six months in Shiraz Forensic Medicine Department. Samples were divided into three parts and were examined as follow: one part of the liver and the lung was analyzed qualitatively to detect cyanide with Prussian blue test at first day of admission, the second and the third parts of the samples were stored at 0-4°C for one and two months, respectively. Then, liver and lung samples were analyzed to measure the amount of cyanide. Results: Cyanide was detected in only six cases in all three parts of the liver samples. Screening results for cyanide were negative for the remaining 94 liver samples. Conclusion: Endogenous cyanide production was not detected in liver and lung samples in this study. Therefore, cyanide detection was not affected by the time of the storage of the samples. The cyanide level changes in mentioned tissues were not significant. More importantly, our results would be more advantageous if we studied quantitatively on more samples to pave the way for future studies.

  11. Cyanide hydratases and cyanide dihydratases: emerging tools in the biodegradation and biodetection of cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínková, Ludmila; Veselá, Alicja Barbara; Rinágelová, Anna; Chmátal, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to summarize the current knowledge of the enzymes which are involved in the hydrolysis of cyanide, i.e., cyanide hydratases (CHTs; EC 4.2.1.66) and cyanide dihydratases (CynD; EC 3.5.5.1). CHTs are probably exclusively produced by filamentous fungi and widely occur in these organisms; in contrast, CynDs were only found in a few bacterial genera. CHTs differ from CynDs in their reaction products (formamide vs. formic acid and ammonia, respectively). Several CHTs were also found to transform nitriles but with lower relative activities compared to HCN. Mutants of CynDs and CHTs were constructed to study the structure-activity relationships in these enzymes or to improve their catalytic properties. The effect of the C-terminal part of the protein on the enzyme activity was determined by constructing the corresponding deletion mutants. CynDs are less active at alkaline pH than CHTs. To improve its bioremediation potential, CynD from Bacillus pumilus was engineered by directed evolution combined with site-directed mutagenesis, and its operation at pH 10 was thus enabled. Some of the enzymes have been tested for their potential to eliminate cyanide from cyanide-containing wastewaters. CynDs were also used to construct cyanide biosensors.

  12. Selective determination of cyanide complexes of copper, zinc and cadmium in electrolytes by spectrophotometric titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.V.; Korchagina, O.A.; Samorukova, O.L.

    1986-01-01

    Selective, sensitive and rapid method for determining Cd, Zn, Cu and their mixtures in cyanide electrolytes of galvanic bathes has been developed. Analysis is performed by means of indicator spectrophotometric titration with barium and strontium salts of cadmium cyanide complexes in organic-aqueous solvents

  13. CYANIDE HEAP BILOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many active mine sites, mines in closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, soluble...

  14. Sulfanegen sodium treatment in a rabbit model of sub-lethal cyanide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Lemor, Daniel; Ahdout, Rebecca; Boss, Gerry R.; Blackledge, William; Jann, Lauren; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Patterson, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment to reverse cyanide effects in a rabbit model as a potential treatment for mass casualty resulting from cyanide exposure. Cyanide poisoning is a serious chemical threat from accidental or intentional exposures. Current cyanide exposure treatments, including direct binding agents, methemoglobin donors, and sulfur donors, have several limitations. Non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways, including 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MPST) catalyze the transfer of sulfur from 3-MP to cyanide, forming pyruvate and less toxic thiocyanate. We developed a water-soluble 3-MP prodrug, 3-mercaptopyruvatedithiane (sulfanegen sodium), with the potential to provide a continuous supply of substrate for CN detoxification. In addition to developing a mass casualty cyanide reversal agent, methods are needed to rapidly and reliably diagnose and monitor cyanide poisoning and reversal. We use non-invasive technology, diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (CWNIRS) to monitor physiologic changes associated with cyanide exposure and reversal. A total of 35 animals were studied. Sulfanegen sodium was shown to reverse the effects of cyanide exposure on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin rapidly, significantly faster than control animals when administered by intravenous or intramuscular routes. RBC cyanide levels also returned to normal faster following both intramuscular and intravenous sulfanegen sodium treatment than controls. These studies demonstrate the clinical potential for the novel approach of supplying substrate for non-rhodanese mediated sulfur transferase pathways for cyanide detoxification. DOS and CWNIRS demonstrated their usefulness in optimizing the dose of sulfanegen sodium treatment.

  15. Biological Remediation of Cyanide: a Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Karamba Kabiru; Syed, Mohd Arif; Shukor, Mohd Yunus; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide and its complexes are produced by industries all over the world as waste or effluents. Biodegradation is considered to be the cheapest and the most effective method to get rid of cyanide in the environment. Several studies on different types of microorganisms that can degrade cyanide in the environment have been carried out. Hydrolytic, oxidative, reductive, and substitutive/transfer reactions are some of the common pathways used by microorganisms in cyanide degradation. Biodegradatio...

  16. Nitrocobinamide, a New Cyanide Antidote That Can Be Administered by Intramuscular Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Adriano; Jiang, Jingjing; Fridman, Alla; Guo, Ling T.; Shelton, G. Diane; Liu, Ming-Tao; Green, Carol; Haushalter, Kristofer J.; Patel, Hemal H.; Lee, Jangwoen; Yoon, David; Burney, Tanya; Mukai, David; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2015-01-01

    Currently available cyanide antidotes must be given by intravenous injection over 5–10 min, making them illsuited for treating many people in the field, as could occur in a major fire, an industrial accident, or a terrorist attack. These scenarios call for a drug that can be given quickly, e.g., by intramuscular injection. We have shown that aquohydroxocobinamide is a potent cyanide antidote in animal models of cyanide poisoning, but it is unstable in solution and poorly absorbed after intramuscular injection. Here we show that adding sodium nitrite to cobinamide yields a stable derivative (referred to as nitrocobinamide) that rescues cyanide-poisoned mice and rabbits when given by intramuscular injection. We also show that the efficacy of nitrocobinamide is markedly enhanced by coadministering sodium thiosulfate (reducing the total injected volume), and we calculate that ∼1.4 mL each of nitrocobinamide and sodium thiosulfate should rescue a human from a lethal cyanide exposure. PMID:25650735

  17. The determination of cyanide in hydrometallurgical process solutions and effluents by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlandt, C.

    1984-01-01

    Three methods are described for the determination of cyanide species in hydrometallurgical process solutions and in effluents. The determination of excess cyanide in the presence of weak metal cyanide complexes was achieved by the use of a flow-injection system with 0,05mM sodium chloride as the carrier stream. The procedure was found to be fast, precise (S(sub r)0,0142), and reasonably accurate. Free cyanide and cyanide derived from weak metal cyanide complexes were determined by ion chromatography. This method is free from interferences and precise (s(sub r)0,0112), and has a limit of determination of 10μg0l. The 'total' cyanide content of solutions was determined by ion chromatography after the strong metal cyanide complexes had been dissociated in hypophosphorous acid by ultraviolet irradiation. The procedure (of 10 minutes duration) is faster than conventional distillation methods, and is accurate and precise (S(sub r)0,027)

  18. Predicting Cyanide Consumption in Gold Leaching: A Kinetic and Thermodynamic Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Kianinia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of cyanide during processing operations is a major economic cost in the extraction of gold from its ores, while the discharge of cyanide wastes may result in significant environmental pollution. Many factors influence the levels of consumption and discharge of cyanide, including ore mineralogy and lixiviant solution chemistry. This paper proposes a robust methodology to estimate leaching cyanide consumption due to oxidation and reactions with gold, chalcopyrite and pyrite minerals forming various cyanide complexes, cyanate, thiocyanate and hydroxide precipitates of copper and iron. The method involves concurrent modelling of both the oxidation and leaching kinetics of minerals and the chemical speciation of the lixiviant solutions. The model was calibrated by conducting cyanide leaching experiments on pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrite + chalcopyrite, pyrite + chalcopyrite + gold and pyrite + chalcopyrite + gold + quartz systems and determining the total Cu, Fe, Au and CN− concentrations in solution. We show that this model can successfully estimate the formation of cyanide complexes and, hence, the consumption of cyanide.

  19. Investigation of Cyanide Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Precipitation Process (FeCl3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jonidi Jafari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cyanide is a toxic pollutant that is can be discharged from different industries such as iron and steel industry, coal mining and metal plating. Presence of this toxin in water and wastewater is a serious hazard and lead to undesirable effects on both the environment and human. Thus, its concentration control is essential for human health. The aim of this study was investigation of Cyanide Removal from aqueous solution using precipitation process (FeCl3. Material and Methods: This study is an experimental study in lab scale that was carried out in a batch system by jartest. Variations of this study including pH, FeCl3 concentration, reaction time and desired concentration of cyanide were investigated. Data were analyzed using Excel (version 2007 software. Results: The results of this research were showed that Cyanide with initial concentration of 10 mg/l in precipitation process was removed by 40% (conditions pH=90, FeCl3=0.4 g/l and the time 60 minutes. Also, the precipitation process efficiency to cyanide removal decreased of 40 to 23%, by increasing of the initial cyanide concentration of 10 to 15 mg/l. Conclusion: Precipitation process can be considered as a suitable alternative for recovery of cyanide to be re-used. Although, this process has limitations for treat total cyanide to environmental standards level. So, it is better be used in combination with other processes of these contaminants removal.

  20. Biodegradation of cyanide in groundwater and soils from gasworks sites in south-eastern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, S.M.E.; Weaver, T.R.; Lawrence, C.R. [University of Melbourne, Parkvills, Vic. (Australia). School of Earth Sciences

    1999-07-01

    Groundwater from a gasworks site in south-eastern Australia has been found to contain high concentrations of cyanide (total), sulphate, and ammonia (1400 mg L{sup -1}, 6500 mg L{sup -1}, and 580 mg L{sup -1} respectively). Soil from another gasworks site has been found to contain 587 mg kg{sup -1} of cyanide (total), with concentrations of cyanide in the groundwater at this site being relatively low ({lt} 21 mgL{sup -1} CN(Total)). Experiments were conducted to determine the biodegradation rates of cyanide in groundwater and soils using samples from both sites. Column experiments and bioreactors were constructed to produce both aerobic and anaerobic conditions for the groundwater containing high concentrations of cyanide. Samples of water were taken periodically to analyse the pH, redox potential, temperature, and concentrations of cyanide (free and total), sulphate, ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Initial results indicate that concentrations of cyanide are declining in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, with biodegradation one process producing degradation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Effects of cyanide on selenium metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beilstein, M.A.; Whanger, P.D.

    1984-01-01

    Adult male rats were given drinking water containing either 0 or 150 ppm cyanide for 2 weeks. They were then injected with 5 microCi 75 Se-selenite, and excretion of radioactivity in urine and feces was determined. No difference in excretion of 75 Se occurred during the rapid phase, but the cyanide-treated rats (T1/2 28 days) excreted significantly more 75 Se in urine than control (T1/2 38 days) rats. Cyanide had no effect on excretion of 75 Se in feces or on the distribution of 75 Se in cytosolic proteins in liver, kidney, muscle or testes. In a second experiment weanling male rats were given water with either 0 or 150 ppm cyanide and were killed for glutathione peroxidase assay and selenium analysis in blood, kidney, liver, muscle and testes after 3, 6 or 9 weeks of treatment. Glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium concentrations were significantly reduced by cyanide in all tissues except testes

  2. Transport of complexed cyanide in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeussen, J.C.L.; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Bosma, W.J.P.; Keizer, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    Contamination of the soil with cyanide is common at sites of several types of industries. Risks for adverse effects of this cyanide for human health or for the environment are largely determined by the behaviour of this cyanide in soil. In acidic soils this behaviour is probably dominated by precipitation and dissolution of prussian blue, Fe 4 (Fe(CN) 6 ) 3 (s), an iron cyanide precipitate. Calculations of multi-component cyanide transport, including equilibrium with this solid phase, iron hydroxide and several redox reactions, are compared with cyanide concentrations observed in contaminated soils. The calculated cyanide concentrations, as well as the pH and redox potentials, agree well with the field situations

  3. Cyanide and the human brain: perspectives from a model of food (cassava) poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshala-Katumbay, Desire D; Ngombe, Nadege N; Okitundu, Daniel; David, Larry; Westaway, Shawn K; Boivin, Michael J; Mumba, Ngoyi D; Banea, Jean-Pierre

    2016-08-01

    Threats by fundamentalist leaders to use chemical weapons have resulted in renewed interest in cyanide toxicity. Relevant insights may be gained from studies on cyanide mass intoxication in populations relying on cyanogenic cassava as the main source of food. In these populations, sublethal concentrations (up to 80 μmol/l) of cyanide in the blood are commonplace and lead to signs of acute toxicity. Long-term toxicity signs include a distinct and irreversible spastic paralysis, known as konzo, and cognition deficits, mainly in sequential processing (visual-spatial analysis) domains. Toxic culprits include cyanide (mitochondrial toxicant), thiocyanate (AMPA-receptor chaotropic cyanide metabolite), cyanate (protein-carbamoylating cyanide metabolite), and 2-iminothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (seizure inducer). Factors of susceptibility include younger age, female gender, protein-deficient diet, and, possibly, the gut functional metagenome. The existence of uniquely exposed and neurologically affected populations offers invaluable research opportunities to develop a comprehensive understanding of cyanide toxicity and test or validate point-of-care diagnostic tools and treatment options to be included in preparedness kits in response to cyanide-related threats. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Hydroxocobalamin as a Cyanide Antidote: Empirical use , Safety, Efficacy, and Considerations for Stockpiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, A. H.

    2007-01-01

    Cyanide is a well-known toxic terrorism agent and is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in smoke inhalation victims. Terrorist attacks could start enclosed-space fires with cyanide-poisoned victims, even if cyanide itself was not utilized. Cyanide poisoning cannot be emergent confirmed by laboratory analysis and treatment with safe and efficacious antidotes must be administered empirically. Hydroxocobalamin has been recently approved by the US FDA and is a safe and efficacious antidote. Its efficacy is comparable to that of other, more toxic, cyanide antidotes. Its mechanism of action involves both direct cyanide chelation (forming non-toxic cyanocobalamin which is excreted in the urine) and nitric oxide scavenging. Adverse effects are usually limited to transient dark red-brown discoloration of urine, skin, sclera, and mucous membranes. Antidotal doses have not caused allergic reactions in cyanide-poisoned patients and only minor and easily-treated allergic reactions occurred in 2 of 136 normal volunteers. Transient, asymptomatic hypertension and reflex bradycardia have occurred in some normal volunteers, but not in seriously ill smoke inhalation victims not having significant cyanide poisoning. Hydroxocobalamin is a safe and efficacious antidote and can be empirically administered in pre-hospital or emergency department settings. It is therefore suitable for inclusion in national or multinational medication stockpiles and is already included in some national programs in the European Union.(author)

  5. Mineral-like clathrate of cadmium cyanide with benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazava, T.; Nishimura, A.

    1999-01-01

    A new mineral-like clathrate of cadmium cyanide with benzene Cd(CN) 2 ·C 6 H 6 is prepared. Data of x-ray diffraction analysis show that benzene molecule is incorporated in cadmium cyanide lattice and a new mineral-like lattice of Cd(CN) 2 belongs to structures of cristobalite type. Clathrate Cd(CN) 2 ·C 6 H 6 crystallizes in trigonal space group R3m, a=8.953(4), c=21929(6) A [ru

  6. Gold-copper ores processing-Case study: optimization of flotation residue cyanidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullen, J.; Pelletier, P.; Breau, Y.; Pelletier, D.

    1999-01-01

    Typically, economic optimization of Gold-Copper ore processing presents challenges. Barrick's Bousquet II ore is a good example where many processing units such as gravity, flotation and cyanidation are required to efficiently recover the metals from the ore. Flowsheet criterion, operating strategy selections, cyanidation process optimization and its inter-dependence with flotation are discussed in detail. Real-time conservation integration of the cyanide control strategy has allowed a reduction of cyanide consumption of over 40% since 1994, while maintaining or improving metals recovery. A detailed analysis of the cyanidation control strategy such as key process sensor reliability and accuracy, process monitoring and fault detection is presented. This robust and efficient control strategy is a key building block that enhances the overall economic return of the process plant. (author)

  7. Exciton emissions in alkali cyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weid, J.P. von der.

    1979-10-01

    The emissions of Alkali Cyanides X irradiated at low temperature were measured. In addition to the molecular (Frenkel Type) exciton emissions, another emitting centre was found and tentatively assigned to a charge transfer self trapped exciton. The nature of the molecular exciton emitting state is discussed. (Author) [pt

  8. Therapeutic problems in cyanide poisoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijst, A. N.; Douze, J. M.; van Kesteren, R. G.; van Bergen, J. E.; van Dijk, A.

    1987-01-01

    In three patients with severe acute cyanide poisoning, a cyanosis was observed instead of the bright pink skin coloration often mentioned as a sign in textbooks. Treatment of cardiopulmonary insufficiency is as essential as antidotal therapy and the use of sodium nitrite and 4-DMAP is not without

  9. The visual pigment cyanide effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescitelli, F; Karvaly, B

    1989-12-01

    The visual pigment of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) with its in situ absorption maximum at 521 nm has its spectral position at 500 to 505 nm when chloride-deficient digitonin is used for the extraction. In this case the addition of chloride or bromide to the extract restores the maximum to 521 nm. This property, characteristic of gecko pigments in general, does not occur with any of the rhodopsins that have been tested. Simple salts of cyanide, a pseudohalogenoid with an ionic radius close to those of chloride and bromide and/or its hydrolysis product attacks both this gecko pigment and rhodopsins in the dark. This is seen as a slow thermal loss of photopigment if (sodium) cyanide is present at concentrations above 40 mM for the gecko pigment and 150 mM for the rhodopsins of the midshipman (Porichthys notatus) and of the frog (Rana pipiens). In all cases the loss of the photopigment is accompanied by the appearance of a spectral product with maximum absorption at about 340 nm. Cyanide addition has no effect on the photosensitivity of the native pigments and neither does it alter, as do chloride, bromide and other anions, the spectral absorbance curve. The spectral product at 340 nm also appears when the visual pigments are photolyzed in the presence of cyanide salts below the threshold concentrations given above. Incubation of digitonin-solubilized all-trans-retinal with (sodium) cyanide leads to a reaction product with absorption spectrum similar to that obtained with visual pigments under comparable conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Transport and Fate of Cyanide in Soil : Case Study of Mooteh Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Taebi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide, a generic term referring to all compounds containing the cyanide group –CN, is a highly potent and fast-acting poison to humans and other living organisms when exposed to high levels. Cyanide is a widely and essential chemical used in mining and minerals processing industries and many other industries such as metal processing and production of organic chemicals. While some industrial cyanide-containing wastes are treated or recovered, there are cases such as certain gold extraction plants where wastes are released in the environment. The objective of this research is to study the transport and fate of cyanide in soil in vicinity of a specific pollution source. For the purpose of this study, Mooteh valley, in the vicinity of Mooteh gold mine and factory, in the north of Isfahan province, Iran, was investigated. In Mooteh's Plant, the cyanide-containing waste (slurry tailings is discharged to tailings ponds and there is potential for cyanide to migrate from them. Eight boreholes with 6 m depth were dug and from every 0.5 m a soil sample was taken. Statistical analysis of the results show that soil cyanide concentration decreases with distance from the tailings ponds (as a pollution source and increases with depth. A regression model consisting of a power term for distance and an exponential term for soil depth can appropriately predict the soil cyanide concentration in the vicinity of a pollution source. As soil depth decreases, the rate of natural cyanide fate processes considerably increases. So, soil turn over practices is recommended to improve remediation of polluted sites

  11. Ultraviolet optical absorption of alkali cyanides and alkali halide cyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza Camargo Junior, S.A. de.

    1982-09-01

    The ultraviolet absorption spectra of alkali cyanide and mixed alkali halide cyanide crystals were measured at temperatures ranging from 300K down to 4.2K. A set of small absorption peaks was observed at energies near 6 eV and assigned to parity forbidden X 1 Σ + →a' 3 Σ + transitions of the CN - molecular ions. It was observed that the peak position depends on the alkali atom while the absorption cross section strongly depends on the halogen and on the CN - concentration of the mixed crystals. These effects are explained in terms of an interaction between the triplet molecular excitons and charge transfer excitons. The experimental data were fit with a coupling energy of a few meV. The coupling mechanism is discussed and it is found to be due to the overlap between the wave functions of the two excitations. (Author) [pt

  12. Total quality management analysis in printing industry | Ching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total quality management analysis in printing industry. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... The organization is suggested to implement Total Quality Management (TQM) in order to improve the quality of the products and hence ...

  13. Evaluation of non cyanide methods for hemoglobin estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinaya B Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hemoglobincyanide method (HiCN method for measuring hemoglobin is used extensively worldwide; its advantages are the ready availability of a stable and internationally accepted reference standard calibrator. However, its use may create a problem, as the waste disposal of large volumes of reagent containing cyanide constitutes a potential toxic hazard. Aims and Objective: As an alternative to drabkin`s method of Hb estimation, we attempted to estimate hemoglobin by other non-cyanide methods: alkaline hematin detergent (AHD-575 using Triton X-100 as lyser and alkaline- borax method using quarternary ammonium detergents as lyser. Materials and Methods: The hemoglobin (Hb results on 200 samples of varying Hb concentrations obtained by these two cyanide free methods were compared with a cyanmethemoglobin method on a colorimeter which is light emitting diode (LED based. Hemoglobin was also estimated in one hundred blood donors and 25 blood samples of infants and compared by these methods. Statistical analysis used was Pearson`s correlation coefficient. Results: The response of the non cyanide method is linear for serially diluted blood samples over the Hb concentration range from 3gm/dl -20 gm/dl. The non cyanide methods has a precision of + 0.25g/dl (coefficient of variation= (2.34% and is suitable for use with fixed wavelength or with colorimeters at wavelength- 530 nm and 580 nm. Correlation of these two methods was excellent (r=0.98. The evaluation has shown it to be as reliable and reproducible as HiCN for measuring hemoglobin at all concentrations. The reagents used in non cyanide methods are non-biohazardous and did not affect the reliability of data determination and also the cost was less than HiCN method. Conclusions: Thus, non cyanide methods of Hb estimation offer possibility of safe and quality Hb estimation and should prove useful for routine laboratory use. Non cyanide methods is easily incorporated in hemobloginometers

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) and Cyanide Salts, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS As...

  15. Cyanide bioremediation: the potential of engineered nitrilases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jason M; Trevor Sewell, B; Benedik, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    The cyanide-degrading nitrilases are of notable interest for their potential to remediate cyanide contaminated waste streams, especially as generated in the gold mining, pharmaceutical, and electroplating industries. This review provides a brief overview of cyanide remediation in general but with a particular focus on the cyanide-degrading nitrilases. These are of special interest as the hydrolysis reaction does not require secondary substrates or cofactors, making these enzymes particularly good candidates for industrial remediation processes. The genetic approaches that have been used to date for engineering improved enzymes are described; however, recent structural insights provide a promising new approach.

  16. Enzymatic cyanide degradation by cell-free extract of Rhodococcus UKMP-5M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallapan Maniyam, Maegala; Sjahrir, Fridelina; Latif Ibrahim, Abdul; Cass, Anthony E G

    2015-01-01

    The cell-free extract of locally isolated Rhodococcus UKMP-5M strain was used as an alternative to develop greener and cost effective cyanide removal technology. The present study aims to assess the viability of the cell-free extract to detoxify high concentrations of cyanide which is measured through the monitoring of protein concentration and specific cyanide-degrading activity. When cyanide-grown cells were subjected to grinding in liquid nitrogen which is relatively an inexpressive and fast cell disruption method, highest cyanide-degrading activity of 0.63 mM min(-1) mg(-1) protein was obtained in comparison to enzymatic lysis and agitation with fine glass beads. The cell-free extracts managed to degrade 80% of 20 mM KCN within 80 min and the rate of cyanide consumption increased linearly as the concentration of protein was raised. In both cases, the addition of co-factor was not required which proved to be advantageous economically. The successful formation of ammonia and formate as endproducts indicated that the degradation of cyanide by Rhodococcus UKMP-5M proceeded via the activity of cyanidase and the resulting non-toxic products are safe for disposal into the environment. Further verification with SDS-PAGE revealed that the molecular weight of the active enzyme was estimated to be 38 kDa, which is consistent with previously reported cyanidases. Thus, the utilization of cell-free extracts as an alternative to live microbial in cyanide degradation offers numerous advantageous such as the potential to tolerate and degrade higher concentration of cyanide and total reduction in the overall cost of operation since the requirement for nutrient support is irrelevant.

  17. Cerebral energy metabolism during mitochondrial dysfunction induced by cyanide in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Olsen, N.V.; Toft, P

    2013-01-01

    and immediate enzymatic analysis. Mitochondrial function was blocked by unilateral infusion of NaCN/KCN (0.5 mol/L) through the microdialysis catheter (N = 5). As a reference, NaCl (0.5 mol/L) was infused by intracerebral microdialysis in one group of animals (N = 3). RESULTS: PbtO2 increased during cyanide...... infusion and returned to baseline afterwards. The lactate/pyruvate (LP) ratio increased significantly following cyanide infusion because of a marked increase in lactate level while pyruvate remained within normal limits. Glutamate and glycerol increased after cyanide infusion indicating insufficient energy...

  18. Aposematism in Archips cerasivoranus not linked to the sequestration of host-derived cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, T D; Stevens, M A; Miller, S; Jeffers, P

    2008-10-01

    This study addressed the question of how caterpillars of Archips cerasivoranus feeding upon Prunus virginiana cope with the cyanogenic compounds of their food. Analysis by ion chromatography showed that young and aged leaves of P. virginiana consumed by the caterpillars during spring have hydrogen cyanide potentials (HCN-ps) of 2,473 +/- 130 ppm and 1,058 +/- 98 ppm, respectively. Although less than 3% of the cyanide released as the caterpillars feed escapes into the atmosphere, the larva's bright-yellow aposematic coloration and conspicuous activity can not be attributed to the sequestration of cyanide. Only six of 25 samples of the caterpillars' defensive regurgitants collected from 12 field colonies contained cyanide (17.6 +/- 6.54 ppm), less than 5% of the quantity previously reported to occur in the regurgitant of the tent caterpillar M. americanum. Only seven of 13 caterpillars assayed had detectable quantities of cyanide in their bodies (3.9 +/- 0.9 ppm). The fecal pellets that encase the cocoon contained no cyanide, nor did the frass that litters the leaf shelters. The small quantities of cyanide that occur in the caterpillar compared to the HCN-p of ingested plant material appear attributable to paced bouts of feeding and the maintenance of a highly alkaline foregut that inhibits cyanogenesis.

  19. Paper Strip-based Fluorometric Determination of Cyanide with an Internal Reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Nam; Hong, Jong-In [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyejin; Shin, Ik-Soo [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    The rapid, selective, and sensitive determination of cyanide anion (CN{sup -}) using a simple paper strip is highly attractive because cyanide is acutely lethal to living organisms via all routes of administration, including alcohol consumption and inhaling cigarette smoke. Here, a synthetic probe (1) was designed for the selective determination of cyanide. The probe displays rapid and large blue spectral change (Δλ{sub abs}=148 nm, Δλ{sub em}= 165 nm) with respect to target recognition. Probe 1 exhibits a strong push-pull electronic effect and comprises a dimethylaminoaryl group as a donor and malononitrile as an acceptor; the π-conjugation system can be destroyed by the Michael-type addition of cyanide at the electrophilic β-positions of the nitrile groups, resulting in the marked emergence of a peak at λ{sub em}= 515 nm. The developed probe was successfully applied to a paper test strip because of its noticeable optical changes upon reaction with cyanide. The fabricated dumbbell-shaped paper strip with an internal reference allowed the cyanide detection, which is indispensable for quantitative analysis in point-of-care testing. The paper strip test showed selective response to cyanide, with a linear correlation in the range of 0-25 mM in a simple and cost-effective manner.

  20. Paper Strip-based Fluorometric Determination of Cyanide with an Internal Reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong-Nam; Hong, Jong-In; Seo, Hyejin; Shin, Ik-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The rapid, selective, and sensitive determination of cyanide anion (CN"-) using a simple paper strip is highly attractive because cyanide is acutely lethal to living organisms via all routes of administration, including alcohol consumption and inhaling cigarette smoke. Here, a synthetic probe (1) was designed for the selective determination of cyanide. The probe displays rapid and large blue spectral change (Δλ_a_b_s=148 nm, Δλ_e_m= 165 nm) with respect to target recognition. Probe 1 exhibits a strong push-pull electronic effect and comprises a dimethylaminoaryl group as a donor and malononitrile as an acceptor; the π-conjugation system can be destroyed by the Michael-type addition of cyanide at the electrophilic β-positions of the nitrile groups, resulting in the marked emergence of a peak at λ_e_m= 515 nm. The developed probe was successfully applied to a paper test strip because of its noticeable optical changes upon reaction with cyanide. The fabricated dumbbell-shaped paper strip with an internal reference allowed the cyanide detection, which is indispensable for quantitative analysis in point-of-care testing. The paper strip test showed selective response to cyanide, with a linear correlation in the range of 0-25 mM in a simple and cost-effective manner.

  1. Cyanide, gold and environment in the mining of antioqueno northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya Ochoa, Carlos Arturo

    2001-01-01

    For 50 years cyanide of sodium has been used in the process of extraction of gold associated to minerals exploited in the Municipality of Segovia, Department of Antioquia. The extraction of the gold is made by leaching percolation in 72 of the 76 plants, and for agitation in 4. The sands are discharged to the floor in urban areas or to the gulches directly, with contents of sodium cyanide (NaCN) that overcome up to one thousand (1.000) times the quantity settled down by law of one (I) part by million (ppm); without any previous treatment, this generates a problem of contamination of the floor and the gulches. In this article an analysis of the problem is made, the methods are presented to determine content of cyanide of sodium (NaCN) in the sands, differentiating the three cyanide forms that are presented, a summary of the toxicity study in aquatic species and a proposal of detoxification of the sands by chemical and biological methods, is presented and a summary of a biological application

  2. Cyanide Removal Efficiency of Photocatalytic Nanoparticles Stabilized on Glass Microbeads Under Sun Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Masoudipour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates cyanide photodestruction (at pH 9 using the S, N-TiO2 photocatalyst synthesized by the sol-gel method and stabilized on glass microbeads. The main raw materials were thiourea, as a source of N and S, and tetra butyl ortho titanate. The effects of S and N doses, visible light (a 400W light, sunlight, irradiation time, and different initial cyanide concentrations (50, 100, 200, and 300 ppm were studied on cyanide photodestruction. Cyanide concentration was measured by the titration method and the photocatalyst film was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, UV-Vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis. XRD patterns and SEM images were used to determine the nanoparticle size of the photocatalyst on glass microbeads. EDX and DRS analyses confirmed the presence of S and N as well as the activity of the photocatalyst in the visible region, respectively. The S, N-TiO2 film with 0.25 g Thiuourea proved to be the best cyanide photodestruction agent in the visible light. Based on the results obtained, S, N-TiO2/ glass microbead was capable of destroying cyanide (50 ppm by up to 94% in the visible light and by approximately 100% in the sunlight. The results also indicated that S, N-Tio2/scoria stone was capable of destroying cyanide by 85% in the visible light and by 94% in the sunlight within 4 h.  The reaction kinetic for all cyanide concentrations and two photocatalyst substrates were described by a first order equation. Finally, it was concluded that the S, N-TiO2 stabilized on glass microbeads could be effectively used as a new method for treating wastewater containing free cyanide under the sunlight.

  3. Deciphering Cyanide-Degrading Potential of Bacterial Community Associated with the Coking Wastewater Treatment Plant with a Novel Draft Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiping; Liu, Lili; Guo, Feng; Zhang, Tong

    2015-10-01

    Biotreatment processes fed with coking wastewater often encounter insufficient removal of pollutants, such as ammonia, phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), especially for cyanides. However, only a limited number of bacterial species in pure cultures have been confirmed to metabolize cyanides, which hinders the improvement of these processes. In this study, a microbial community of activated sludge enriched in a coking wastewater treatment plant was analyzed using 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina sequencing to characterize the potential cyanide-degrading bacteria. According to the classification of these pyro-tags, targeting V3/V4 regions of 16S rRNA gene, half of them were assigned to the family Xanthomonadaceae, implying that Xanthomonadaceae bacteria are well-adapted to coking wastewater. A nearly complete draft genome of the dominant bacterium was reconstructed from metagenome of this community to explore cyanide metabolism based on analysis of the genome. The assembled 16S rRNA gene from this draft genome showed that this bacterium was a novel species of Thermomonas within Xanthomonadaceae, which was further verified by comparative genomics. The annotation using KEGG and Pfam identified genes related to cyanide metabolism, including genes responsible for the iron-harvesting system, cyanide-insensitive terminal oxidase, cyanide hydrolase/nitrilase, and thiosulfate:cyanide transferase. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these genes had homologs in previously identified genomes of bacteria within Xanthomonadaceae and even presented similar gene cassettes, thus implying an inherent cyanide-decomposing potential. The findings of this study expand our knowledge about the bacterial degradation of cyanide compounds and will be helpful in the remediation of cyanides contamination.

  4. CYANIDE HEAP BIOLOGICAL DETOXIFICATION - PHASE II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many active mine sites, mines in the closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, solu...

  5. Quantitative genetic analysis of total glucosinolate, oil and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative genetic analysis of total glucosinolate, oil and protein contents in Ethiopian mustard ( Brassica carinata A. Braun) ... Seeds were analyzed using HPLC (glucosinolates), NMR (oil) and NIRS (protein). Analyses of variance, Hayman's method of diallel analysis and a mixed linear model of genetic analysis were ...

  6. Anaerobic biodegradation of cyanide under methanogenic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, R D; Cooper, D A; Speece, R; Henson, M

    1991-01-01

    Upflow, anaerobic, fixed-bed, activated charcoal biotreatment columns capable of operating at free cyanide concentrations of greater than 100 mg liter-1 with a hydraulic retention time of less than 48 h were developed. Methanogenesis was maintained under a variety of feed medium conditions which included ethanol, phenol, or methanol as the primary reduced carbon source. Under optimal conditions, greater than 70% of the inflow free cyanide was removed in the first 30% of the column height. Strongly complexed cyanides were resistant to removal. Ammonia was the nitrogen end product of cyanide transformation. In cell material removed from the charcoal columns, [14C]bicarbonate was the major carbon end product of [14C]cyanide transformation. PMID:1872600

  7. Non-cyanide silver plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Technic, Inc. have entered into a CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) with the goal of providing industry with an environmentally benign alternative to the presently used silver cyanide plating process. This project has been in place for about six months and results are quite promising. The main objective, that of deposition of deposits as thick as 125 um (5 mils), has been met. Property data such as stress and hardness have been obtained and the structure of the deposit has been analyzed via metallography and x-ray diffraction. These results will be presented in this paper, along with plans for future work

  8. Supercritical Water Oxidation Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The work presented here is the evaluation of the modified wet‐oxidation method described as Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) for the analysis of total organic carbon (TOC) in very difficult oil/gas produced water sample matrices.

  9. 40 CFR 180.130 - Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for... § 180.130 Hydrogen Cyanide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. A tolerance for residues of the insecticide hydrogen cyanide from postharvest fumigation as a result of application of sodium cyanide is...

  10. Determination of boron, silica, fluoride, MBAS, phenols, cyanide and sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.

    1982-01-01

    This study forms part of the NIWR's series of interlaboratory comparison studies involving southern African laboratories engaged in water and wastewater analysis, and is concerned with the analysis of synthetic water samples by 31 laboratories for boron, silica, fluoride, methylene blue active substances (MBAS), phenols, cyanide and sulphide. The results obtained are evaluated and discussed. Recognised standard methods, or modifications of these methods, were used for most of the determinations. Results from the boron, silica and fluoride determinations showed, in general, acceptable accuracy and precision. Results from the MBAS, phenols, cyanide and sulphide determinations were, however, somewhat widespread, and illustrated the difficulty in obtaining reliable results from the measurement of relatively low levels of these determinands

  11. Prophylaxis and Treatment of Cyanide Intoxication Cyanide - Mechanism of Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-15

    concentrations of cyanide (C ) and plasma concentrations of thiocyanate (Ce) to obtain esti- mates of K1 3, K3 1 , K3 0 , and V3: dCCN K 2 1 CON(4)C - (K12 + K...the following equations were used for this model: LdyN - K31CcC N - ( K3 1 + KI0)CpCN (7) dt dCcCN .K21CON(4)CC + CpCNK13 - (K12 + K13)CcCN (8) dt V2...manifestation of vitamin -Bl2 deficiency. Lancet. 2, 286-290. Herrington, M. D., Elliott, R. C. and Brown, J. E. (1971). Diagnosis and treatment of

  12. A novel cyanide ion sensing approach based on Raman scattering for the detection of environmental cyanides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Gopal Reddy, C V; Zhang, Yan; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes a direct optical approach based on Raman scattering for selective and sensitive detection of cyanide ions in aqueous environment without requiring time-consuming sample pretreatment and the formation of hydrogen cyanide. Due to the strong affinity between copper (I) and cyanide ion, evaporated copper (I) iodide (CuI) thin films are shown to be excellent substrates for selective recognition of free cyanide ions in aqueous matrices. The amount of cyanide ion retained by the copper (I) in the CuI thin films reflects its actual concentration in tested samples, and the subsequent Raman measurements of the substrate are shown to be capable of detecting toxic cyanide content at levels under international drinking water standard and environmental regulatory concentrations. Measurements obtained from the same batch of evaporated CuI thin films (approximately 100-nm thickness) show excellent linearity over a variety of cyanide concentrations ranging from 1.5 microM to 0.15 mM. This detection method offers the advantage of selectively detecting cyanides causing a health hazard while avoiding detection of other common interfering anions such as Cl-, Br-, PO4(3-), SO4(2-), NO2-, S2- and SCN-. Coupled with portable Raman systems that are commercially available, our detection approach will provide on-site monitoring capability with little sample preparation or instrument supervision, which will greatly expedite the assessment of potential environmental cyanide risks. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. CAPSULE REPORT - MANAGING CYANIDE IN METAL FINISHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to surface finishing manufacturers, metal finishing decision maker and regulators on management practices and control technologies for managing cyanide in the workplace. This information can benefit key industry stakeholder gro...

  14. Micro Total Analysis Systems: Microfluidic aspects, integration concept and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Albert; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this contribution three aspects of miniaturized total analysis systems (µTAS) are described and discussed in detail. First, an overview of microfabricated components for fluid handling is given. A description of the importance of sampling- and fluid-handling techniques is followed by details of

  15. Economic analysis model for total energy and economic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Katsuhiko; Yasukawa, Shigeru; Sato, Osamu

    1980-09-01

    This report describes framing an economic analysis model developed as a tool of total energy systems. To prospect and analyze future energy systems, it is important to analyze the relation between energy system and economic structure. We prepared an economic analysis model which was suited for this purpose. Our model marks that we can analyze in more detail energy related matters than other economic ones, and can forecast long-term economic progress rather than short-term economic fluctuation. From view point of economics, our model is longterm multi-sectoral economic analysis model of open Leontief type. Our model gave us appropriate results for fitting test and forecasting estimation. (author)

  16. Predictive models for monitoring and analysis of the total zooplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, modeling and prediction of total zooplankton abundance have been performed by various tools and techniques, among which data mining tools have been less frequent. The purpose of this paper is to automatically determine the dependency degree and the influence of physical, chemical and biological parameters on the total zooplankton abundance, through design of the specific data mining models. For this purpose, the analysis of key influencers was used. The analysis is based on the data obtained from the SeLaR information system - specifically, the data from the two reservoirs (Gruža and Grošnica with different morphometric characteristics and trophic state. The data is transformed into optimal structure for data analysis, upon which, data mining model based on the Naïve Bayes algorithm is constructed. The results of the analysis imply that in both reservoirs, parameters of groups and species of zooplankton have the greatest influence on the total zooplankton abundance. If these inputs (group and zooplankton species are left out, differences in the impact of physical, chemical and other biological parameters in dependences of reservoirs can be noted. In the Grošnica reservoir, analysis showed that the temporal dimension (months, nitrates, water temperature, chemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll and chlorides, had the key influence with strong relative impact. In the Gruža reservoir, key influence parameters for total zooplankton are: spatial dimension (location, water temperature and physiological groups of bacteria. The results show that the presented data mining model is usable on any kind of aquatic ecosystem and can also serve for the detection of inputs which could be the basis for the future analysis and modeling.

  17. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.

  18. Heap leach cyanide irrigation and risk to wildlife: Ramifications for the international cyanide management code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, D B; Madden-Hallett, D M; Smith, G B; Gursansky, W

    2017-06-01

    Exposed cyanide-bearing solutions associated with gold and silver recovery processes in the mining industry pose a risk to wildlife that interact with these solutions. This has been documented with cyanide-bearing tailings storage facilities, however risks associated with heap leach facilities are poorly documented, monitored and audited. Gold and silver leaching heap leach facilities use cyanide, pH-stabilised, at concentrations deemed toxic to wildlife. Their design and management are known to result in exposed cyanide-bearing solutions that are accessible to and present a risk to wildlife. Monitoring of the presence of exposed solutions, wildlife interaction, interpretation of risks and associated wildlife deaths are poorly documented. This paper provides a list of critical monitoring criteria and attempts to predict wildlife guilds most at risk. Understanding the significance of risks to wildlife from exposed cyanide solutions is complex, involving seasonality, relative position of ponding, temporal nature of ponding, solution palatability, environmental conditions, in situ wildlife species inventory and provision of alternative drinking sources for wildlife. Although a number of heap leach operations are certified as complaint with the International Cyanide Management Code (Cyanide Code), these criteria are not considered by auditors nor has systematic monitoring regime data been published. Without systematic monitoring and further knowledge, wildlife deaths on heap leach facilities are likely to remain largely unrecorded. This has ramifications for those operations certified as compliance with the Cyanide Code. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiation purification of water from cyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskarev, I.M.; Rylova, A.E.; Sevast'yanov, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts at performing the process of radiation purification of water from cyanides have been described in the literature and were briefly reviewed earlier. Sodium cyanide solutions were examined in a concentration range from 26 mg/l to 80 g/l. The data given in various publications often disagree. Radiation yields of cyanide decay vary from 0.48 to 28 molecule/100 eV for equal dose rates, according to the data presented by various authors, and the maximum yield of 1200 was attained at a low dose rate (0.18 kGy/h) in a neutral solution. Chain decomposition of cyanides was observed in some studies, but not in others; the acidity of the solution examined was not necessarily reported. It was specified that complete decomposition of cyanides occurs; however, no detection limits for the analytical procedures of cyanide determination were reported. The authors performed experiments on the purification of actual industrial waste waters (solution and slurry), which were preliminarily preserved with sodium hydroxide (pH 9; the cyanide content was 90 mg/1). Solutions in dishes 40 mm in diameter and 20 or 40 mm in height were exposed to X-rays with a maximum energy of bremsstrahlung spectrum of 70 keV. Volumes of the solutions were 20 and 40 ml. With consideration for angular divergence and beam attenuation by solution, the average absorbed-dose rates were 1.5 and 3.1 kGy/h for dishes of V equal to 40 and 20 ml, respectively. Measurements of the absorbed dose were made with a ferrosulfate dosimeter

  20. Hydrogen Cyanide In Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ashley L.; Oberg, Karin; Cleeves, L. Ilsedore

    2018-01-01

    The chemistry behind star and planet formation is extremely complex and important in the formation of habitable planets. Life requires molecules containing carbon, oxygen, and importantly, nitrogen. Hydrogen cyanide, or HCN, one of the main interstellar nitrogen carriers, is extremely dangerous here on Earth. However, it could be used as a vital tool for tracking the chemistry of potentially habitable planets. As we get closer to identifying other habitable planets, we must understand the beginnings of how those planets are formed in the early protoplanetary disk. This project investigates HCN chemistry in different locations in the disk, and what this might mean for forming planets at different distances from the star. HCN is a chemically diverse molecule. It is connected to the formation for other more complex molecules and is commonly used as a nitrogen tracer. Using computational chemical models we look at how the HCN abundance changes at different locations. We use realistic and physically motivated conditions for the gas in the protoplanetary disk: temperature, density, and radiation (UV flux). We analyze the reaction network, formation, and destruction of HCN molecules in the disk environment. The disk environment informs us about stability of habitable planets that are created based on HCN molecules. We reviewed and compared the difference in the molecules with a variety of locations in the disk and ultimately giving us a better understanding on how we view protoplanetary disks.

  1. C-11 cyanide production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyun; Alexoff, David; Kim, Sung Won; Hooker, Jacob M.; Ferrieri, Richard A.

    2017-11-21

    A method for providing .sup.11C-labeled cyanides from .sup.11C labeled oxides in a target gas stream retrieved from an irradiated high pressure gaseous target containing O.sub.2, wherein .sup.11C labeled oxides are reduced with H.sub.2 in the presence of a nickel catalyst under a pressure and a temperature sufficient to form a product stream comprising at least about 95% .sup.11CH.sub.4, the .sup.11CH.sub.4 is then combined with an excess of NH.sub.3 in a carrier/reaction stream flowing at an accelerated velocity and the combined .sup.11CH4 carrier/reaction stream is then contacted with a platinum (Pt) catalyst particulate supported on a substantially-chemically-nonreactive heat-stable support at a temperature of at least about 900.degree. C., whereby a product stream comprising at least about 60% H.sup.11CN is provided in less than 10 minutes from retrieval of the .sup.11C labeled oxide.

  2. Estimation of total body water by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushner, R.F.; Schoeller, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was directly compared with deuterium-isotope dilution in a total of 58 subjects. First, sex-specific and group equations were developed by multiple regression analysis in (10 each) obese and nonobese men and women. Height/resistive impedance was the most significant variable used to predict deuterium-dilution space (D2O-TBW) and, combined with weight, yielded R = 0.99 and SE of estimate = 1.75 L. Equations predicted D2O-TBW equally well for obese and nonobese subjects. Second, the equations were prospectively tested in a heterogeneous group of 6 males and 12 females. Sex-specific equations predicted D2O-TBW with good correlation coefficients (0.96 and 0.93), total error (2.34 and 2.89 L), and a small difference between mean predicted and measured D2O-TBW (-1.4 +/- 2.05 and -0.48 +/- 2.83 L). BIA predicts D2O-TBW more accurately than weight, height, and/or age. A larger population is required to validate the applicability of our equations

  3. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  4. Beyond toxicity: a regulatory role for mitochondrial cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Irene; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C

    2014-01-01

    In non-cyanogenic plants, cyanide is a co-product of ethylene and camalexin biosynthesis. To maintain cyanide at non-toxic levels, Arabidopsis plants express the mitochondrial β-cyanoalanine synthase CYS-C1. CYS-C1 knockout leads to an increased level of cyanide in the roots and leaves and a severe defect in root hair morphogenesis, suggesting that cyanide acts as a signaling factor in root development. During compatible and incompatible plant-bacteria interactions, cyanide accumulation and CYS-C1 gene expression are negatively correlated. Moreover, CYS-C1 mutation increases both plant tolerance to biotrophic pathogens and their susceptibility to necrotrophic fungi, indicating that cyanide could stimulate the salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway of the plant immune system. We hypothesize that CYS-C1 is essential for maintaining non-toxic concentrations of cyanide in the mitochondria to facilitate cyanide's role in signaling.

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Hydrogen Cyanide (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of hydrogen cyanide and cyanide salts that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  6. Influence of cyanide on diauxic oscillations in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Bjørn Olav; Smrcinova, Miroslava; Sørensen, Preben Graae

    2012-01-01

    Coherent glycolytic oscillations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are a multicellular property induced by addition of glucose to a starved cell population of sufficient density. However, initiation of oscillations requires an additional perturbation, usually addition of cyanide. The fate of cyanide...... during glycolytic oscillations has not previously been studied, and is the subject of the present paper. Using a cyanide electrode, a substantial decrease in cyanide concentration was observed. In the pH range 6-7, we found experimentally that the electrode behaves reasonably well, provided changes in p......H are taken into account. To our knowledge, use of a cyanide electrode to study cyanide dynamics in living biological systems is new. Cyanide was found to enter starving yeast cells in only negligible amounts, and did not react significantly with glucose. Thus, cyanide consumption must be explained...

  7. Recent developments in cyanide detection: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2010-01-01

    The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years, there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors.

  8. Recent developments in cyanide detection: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jian [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, 700 Planetarium Place, Arlington, TX 76019-0065 (United States); Dasgupta, Purnendu K., E-mail: Dasgupta@uta.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, 700 Planetarium Place, Arlington, TX 76019-0065 (United States)

    2010-07-19

    The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years, there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors.

  9. Recent developments in cyanide detection: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2010-01-01

    The extreme toxicity of cyanide and environmental concerns from its continued industrial use continue to generate interest in facile and sensitive methods for cyanide detection. In recent years there is also additional recognition of HCN toxicity from smoke inhalation and potential use of cyanide as a weapon of terrorism. This review summarizes the literature since 2005 on cyanide measurement in different matrices ranging from drinking water and wastewater, to cigarette smoke and exhaled breath to biological fluids like blood, urine and saliva. The dramatic increase in the number of publications on cyanide measurement is indicative of the great interest in this field not only from analytical chemists, but also researchers from diverse environmental, medical, forensic and clinical arena. The recent methods cover both established and emerging analytical disciplines and include naked eye visual detection, spectrophotometry/colorimetry, capillary electrophoresis with optical absorbance detection, fluorometry, chemiluminescence, near-infrared cavity ring down spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry, electrochemical methods (potentiometry/amperometry/ion chromatography-pulsed amperometry), mass spectrometry (selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), gas chromatography (nitrogen phosphorus detector, electron capture detector) and quartz crystal mass monitors. PMID:20599024

  10. Removal of copper and nickel contaminants from Si surface by use of cyanide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, N.; Liu, Y.-L.; Nakamura, T.; Maida, O.; Takahashi, M.; Kobayashi, H.

    2004-01-01

    The cleaning method using cyanide solutions has been developed to remove heavy metals such as copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) from Si surfaces. Immersion of Si wafers with both Cu and Ni contaminants in potassium cyanide (KCN) solutions of methanol at room temperature decreases these surface concentrations below the detection limit of total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of ∼3x10 9 atoms/cm 2 . UV spectra of the KCN solutions after cleaning of the Cu-contaminated Si surface show that stable copper-cyanide complexes are formed in the solution, leading to the prevention of the re-adsorption of copper in the solutions. From the complex stability constants, it is concluded that the Cu(CN) 4 3- is the most dominant species in the KCN solutions

  11. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) Method Study 12, cyanide in water. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, J.; Britton, P.; Kroner, R.

    1984-05-01

    EPA Method Study 12, Cyanide in Water reports the results of a study by EMSL-Cincinnati for the parameters, Total Cyanide and Cyanides Amendable to Chlorination, present in water at microgram per liter levels. Four methods: pyridine-pyrazolone, pyridine-barbituric acid, electrode and Roberts-Jackson were used by 112 laboratories in Federal and State agencies, municipalities, universities, and the private/industrial sector. Sample concentrates were prepared in pairs with similar concentrations at each of three levels. Analysts diluted samples to volume with distilled and natural waters and analyzed them. Precision, accuracy, bias and the natural water interference were evaluated for each analytical method and comparisons were made between the four methods.

  12. Determination of cyanide by a highly sensitive indirect spectrophotometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, M; Maspoch, S

    1984-01-01

    Complexation of Pd(2+) with cyanide inhibits the extraction of the palladium complex of 5-phenylazo-8-aminoquinoline. This effect is used for the indirect spectrophotometric determination of cyanide at the mug level. Cyanide in industrial waste water and in sea-water is determined after distillation as HCN from the sample and collection in sodium hydroxide solution.

  13. Rhodanese is a Possible Enzyme Marker for Cyanide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhodanese is a cyanide detoxifying enzyme. The role of man through his anthropogenic activities in and around water bodies have increased in recent times. These have led to constant exposure of water body to cyanide and cyanide compounds with increase to loss of many aquatic lives. There are limited methods ...

  14. Induction by ethylene of cyanide-resistant respiration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomos, T.; Laties, G.G.

    1976-05-17

    Ethylene and cyanide induce an increase in respiration in a variety of plant tissues, whereas ethylene has no effect on tissues whose respiration is strongly inhibited by cyanide. It is suggested that the existence of a cyanide-insensitive electron transport path is a prerequisite for stimulation of respiration by ethylene.

  15. Internal Logistics System Selection with Total Cost of Ownership Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Inês; Pimentel, Carina; Godina, Radu; Matias, João C. O.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper a methodology was followed in order to support the decision-making of one industrial unit regarding its internal logistics system. The addressed factory was facing issues with their internal logistics approach. Some alternatives were pointed out and a proper total cost of ownership (TCO) analysis was developed. This analysis was taken in order to demonstrate the more cost-effective solution for the internal logistics system. This tool is more and more valued by the companies, due to their willing to reduce the costs that are associated with the way of doing business. Despite the proposal of the best choice for the internal logistics system of the enterprise, this study also intends to present some conclusions about the match between the nature of the industrial unit and the logistics systems that best fit the requirements of those.

  16. Cyanide removal from industrial wastewater by cross-flow nanofiltration: transport modeling and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Parimal; Bhakta, Pamela; Kumar, Ramesh

    2014-08-01

    A modeling and simulation study, along with an economic analysis, was carried out for the separation of cyanide from industrial wastewater using a flat sheet cross-flow nanofiltration membrane module. With the addition of a pre-microfiltration step, nanofiltration was carried out using real coke wastewater under different operating conditions. Under the optimum operating pressure of 13 bars and a pH of 10.0, a rate of more than 95% separation of cyanide was achieved. That model predictions agreed very well with the experimental findings, as is evident in the Willmott d-index value (> 0.95) and relative error (economic analysis was also done, considering the capacity of a running coking plant. The findings are likely to be very useful in the scale-up and design of industrial plants for the treatment of cyanide-bearing wastewater.

  17. Millimeter wave spectra of carbonyl cyanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bteich, S.B.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Motiyenko, R.A.; Margulès, L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Context More than 30 cyanide derivatives of simple organic molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium, but only one dicarbonitrile has been found and that very recently. There is still a lack of high-resolution spectroscopic data particularly for dinitriles derivatives. The carbonyl cyanide molecule is a new and interesting candidate for astrophysical detection. It could be formed by the reaction of CO and CN radicals, or by substitution of the hydrogen atom by a cyano group in cyanoformaldehyde, HC(=O)CN, that has already been detected in the interstellar medium. Aims The available data on the rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide is limited in terms of quantum number values and frequency range, and does not allow accurate extrapolation of the spectrum into the millimeter-wave range. To provide a firm basis for astrophysical detection of carbonyl cyanide we studied its millimeter-wave spectrum. Methods The rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide was measured in the frequency range 152 - 308 GHz and analyzed using Watson’s A- and S-reduction Hamiltonians. Results The ground and first excited state of v5 vibrational mode were assigned and analyzed. More than 1100 distinct frequency lines of the ground state were fitted to produce an accurate set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants up to the eighth order. The frequency predictions based on these constants should be accurate enough for astrophysical searches in the frequency range up to 500 GHz and for transition involving energy levels with J ≤ 100 and Ka ≤ 42. Based on the results we searched for interstellar carbonyl cyanide in available observational data without success. Thus, we derived upper limits to its column density in different sources. PMID:27738349

  18. Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual's ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released the final report, Analysis of Total Food Intake and Composition of Individual’s Diet Based on USDA’s 1994-1996, 98 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). The consumption of food by the general population is a significant route of potential exposure to hazardous substances that are present in the environment. For this reason, a thorough analysis of the dietary habits of the American public would aid in the identification of potential exposure pathways. To that end, the EPA developed per capita food intake rates for various food items and food categories using databases developed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). These intake rates were incorporated into EPA's 1997 Exposure Factors Handbook. Since that time, EPA has recommended that the food intake study be updated and expanded to include a more comprehensive analysis of food intake. That analysis is presented in this document. The purpose of this study is to characterize the consumption of food by the people of the United States.

  19. Primary vs Conversion Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Garwin; Wright, David J.; Snir, Nimrod; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Increasing hip fracture incidence in the United States is leading to higher occurrences of conversion total hip arthroplasty (THA) for failed surgical treatment of the hip. In spite of studies showing higher complication rates in conversion THA, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services currently bundles conversion and primary THA under the same diagnosis-related group. We examined the cost of treatment of conversion THA compared with primary THA. Our hypothesis is that conversion THA will have higher cost and resource use than primary THA. Methods Fifty-one consecutive conversion THA patients (Current Procedure Terminology code 27132) and 105 matched primary THA patients (Current Procedure Terminology code 27130) were included in this study. The natural log-transformed costs for conversion and primary THA were compared using regression analysis. Age, gender, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologist, Charlson comorbidity score, and smoker status were controlled in the analysis. Conversion THA subgroups formed based on etiology were compared using analysis of variance analysis. Results Conversion and primary THAs were determined to be significantly different (P conversion THA has significantly greater cost and resource use than primary THA. In order to prevent disincentives for treating these complex surgical patients, reclassification of conversion THA is needed, as they do not fit together with primary THA. PMID:26387923

  20. Treatment of cyanide-contained Waste Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheglov, M.Y.

    1999-01-01

    This work contains results of theoretical and experimental investigations of possibility to apply industrial ionites of different kinds for recovering complex cyanide of some d-elements (Cu, Zn, an dso on) and free CN-ions with purpose to develop technology and unit for plating plant waste water treatment. Finally, on basis of experimental data about equilibrium kinetic and dynamic characteristic of the sorption in model solutions, strong base anionite in CN- and OH-forms was chosen. This anionite has the best values of operational sorption uptake. Recommendations of using the anionite have been developed for real cyanide-contained wastewater treatment

  1. Copper(II) catalysis in cyanide conversion into ethyl carbamate in spirits and relevant reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresta, M; Boscolo, M; Franco, D W

    2001-06-01

    The role of copper(II) species in the oxidation of inorganic cyanide to cyanate and in the conversion of cyanate or urea into ethyl carbamate was investigated. The oxidation process has been shown to be independent from the dissolved oxygen. Elemental analysis and infrared spectroscopy have shown the formation of a mixed copper carbonate/hydroxide in the process of oxidation of cyanide to cyanate in water/ethanol. The complexation to Cu(II) of cyanate formed upon cyanide oxidation makes the former more susceptible to nucleophilic attack from ethanol, with conversion into ethyl carbamate. Comparatively, urea has a minor role with respect to cyanide in the formation of ethyl carbamate. Therefore, the urea present in some samples of Brazilian sugar cane spirit (cachaça) has been shown to have almost no influence on the ethyl carbamate content of cachaças, which comes essentially from cyanide. Fe(II,III) affords results similar to those found with Cu(II). Some suggestions are presented to avoid ethyl carbamate formation in spirits during distillation.

  2. Kinetics of Natural Detoxification of Hydrogen Cyanide Contained In Retted Cassava Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the kinetics of natural detoxification of hydrogen cyanide contained in retted cassava roots. Retting is traditional fermentation of cassava, performed to soften the roots. During retting, cyanide diffuses into water used for the retting. The fresh cassava roots (bitter and sweet varieties used for this experiment were separately retted at ambient 0 temperature of 30 C. The cyanide content and pH were monitored daily. From the analysis of the experimental results, a first order consecutive rate equation is an adequate tool for explaining the mechanism of HCN reduction (or decay in retted cassava roots. The detoxification constants for the bound cyanide in the bitter and sweet cassava roots were 0.378/day and 0.438/day respectively, while that of the free hydrogen cyanide were 0.63/day and 0.74/day for the bitter and sweet varieties respectively. Cassava tubers from different species cannot be fermented with the same retting condition unless they have same or close functional properties.

  3. Comparative metabolism of methacrylonitrile and acrylonitrile to cyanide using cytochrome P4502E1 and microsomal epoxide hydrolase-null mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hadri, L.; Chanas, B.; Ghanayem, B.I.

    2005-01-01

    Methacrylonitrile (MAN) and acrylonitrile (AN) are metabolized via glutathione (GSH) conjugation or epoxide formation. We have recently shown that CYP2E1 is essential for AN epoxidation and subsequent cyanide liberation. Current studies were designed to compare the enzymatic basis of MAN vs. AN metabolism to cyanide using wild-type (WT), CYP2E1-, and mEH-null mice. Mice received a single gavage dose of 0.047, 0.095, 0.19, or 0.38 mmol/kg of MAN or AN, and blood cyanide was measured at 1 or 3 h later. Blood cyanide levels in WT mice treated with AN or MAN were dose and time dependent. At equimolar doses, significantly higher levels of cyanide were detected in the blood of MAN- vs. AN-treated mice. Further, while significant reduction in blood cyanide levels occurred in MAN-treated CYP2E1-null vs. WT mice, AN metabolism to cyanide was largely abolished in CYP2E1-null mice. Pretreatment of mice with 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT, CYP inhibitor) demonstrated that CYPs other than CYP2E1 also contribute to MAN metabolism to cyanide. Blood cyanide levels in mEH-null mice treated with aliphatic nitriles are generally lower than levels in similarly treated WT mice. Western blot analysis showed that expression of sEH was greater in male vs. female mice. The role of various epoxide hydrolases (EHs) in the production of cyanide from aliphatic nitriles is apparently structure and dose dependent. Regardless of genotype, significantly higher levels of cyanide were measured in the blood of male vs. female mice treated with MAN or AN. In conclusion, these data showed that (1) at equimolar doses, higher blood cyanide levels were detected in mice treated with MAN vs. AN; (2) while CYP2E1 is the only enzyme responsible for AN metabolism to cyanide, other CYPs also contribute to MAN metabolism; and (3) significantly higher levels of cyanide were measured in the blood of male vs. female treated with either nitrile. Higher blood cyanide levels in male vs. female mice and in MAN- vs. AN

  4. The Total Risk Analysis of Large Dams under Flood Hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dams and reservoirs are useful systems in water conservancy projects; however, they also pose a high-risk potential for large downstream areas. Flood, as the driving force of dam overtopping, is the main cause of dam failure. Dam floods and their risks are of interest to researchers and managers. In hydraulic engineering, there is a growing tendency to evaluate dam flood risk based on statistical and probabilistic methods that are unsuitable for the situations with rare historical data or low flood probability, so a more reasonable dam flood risk analysis method with fewer application restrictions is needed. Therefore, different from previous studies, this study develops a flood risk analysis method for large dams based on the concept of total risk factor (TRF used initially in dam seismic risk analysis. The proposed method is not affected by the adequacy of historical data or the low probability of flood and is capable of analyzing the dam structure influence, the flood vulnerability of the dam site, and downstream risk as well as estimating the TRF of each dam and assigning corresponding risk classes to each dam. Application to large dams in the Dadu River Basin, Southwestern China, demonstrates that the proposed method provides quick risk estimation and comparison, which can help local management officials perform more detailed dam safety evaluations for useful risk management information.

  5. Toxicity of potassium cyanide to trout. [Salmo gairdneri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, D W.M.; Merkens, J C

    1952-01-01

    The toxicity of KCN was tested on 50 rainbow trout using a flow through bioassay system. The system was designed to allow water conditions to remain constant throughout the test rather than change through metabolic activities of the fish. Results show: cyanide causes fish to loose equilibrium; cyanide resistance increases if the trout are allowed to acclimate to test temperatures before cyanides is added; young trout are more resistant to cyanide; and the distribution of trout survival times to cyanide concentration approximates a normal distribution. (14 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  6. Total analysis systems with Thermochromic Etching Discs technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avella-Oliver, Miquel; Morais, Sergi; Carrascosa, Javier; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Ángel

    2014-12-16

    A new analytical system based on Thermochromic Etching Discs (TED) technology is presented. TED comprises a number of attractive features such as track independency, selective irradiation, a high power laser, and the capability to create useful assay platforms. The analytical versatility of this tool opens up a wide range of possibilities to design new compact disc-based total analysis systems applicable in chemistry and life sciences. In this paper, TED analytical implementation is described and discussed, and their analytical potential is supported by several applications. Microarray immunoassay, immunofiltration assay, solution measurement, and cell culture approaches are herein addressed in order to demonstrate the practical capacity of this system. The analytical usefulness of TED technology is herein demonstrated, describing how to exploit this tool for developing truly integrated analytical systems that provide solutions within the point of care framework.

  7. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for Total Carbon Analysis of Hawaiian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. L.; Bruland, G. L.; Deenik, J. L.; Grunwald, S.; Uchida, R.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate assessment of total carbon (Ct) content is important for fertility and nutrient management of soils, as well as for carbon sequestration studies. The non-destructive analysis of soils by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a potential supplement or alternative to the traditional time-consuming and costly combustion method of Ct analysis, especially in spatial or temporal studies where sample numbers are large. We investigate the use of the visible to near-infrared (VNIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectra of soils coupled with chemometric analysis to determine their Ct content. Our specific focus is on Hawaiian soils of agricultural importance. Though this technique has been introduced to the soil community, it has yet to be fully tested and used in practical applications for all soil types, and this is especially true for Hawaii. In short, DRS characterizes and differentiates materials based on the variation of the light reflected by a material at certain wavelengths. This spectrum is dependent on the material’s composition, structure, and physical state. Multivariate chemometric analysis unravels the information in a set of spectra that can help predict a property such as Ct. This study benefits from the remarkably diverse soils of Hawaii. Our sample set includes 216 soil samples from 145 pedons from the main Hawaiian Islands archived at the National Soil Survey Center in Lincoln, NE, along with more than 50 newly-collected samples from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Maui. In total, over 90 series from 10 of the 12 soil orders are represented. The Ct values of these samples range from < 1% - 55%. We anticipate that the diverse nature of our sample set will ensure a model with applicability to a wide variety of soils, both in Hawaii and globally. We have measured the VNIR and MIR spectra of these samples and obtained their Ct values by dry combustion. Our initial analyses are conducted using only samples obtained from the Lincoln archive. In this

  8. Alkaline cyanide degradation by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 in a batch reactor. Influence of pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huertas, M.J.; Saez, L.P.; Roldan, M.D.; Luque-Almagro, V.M.; Martinez-Luque, M.; Blasco, R.; Castillo, F.; Moreno-Vivian, C.; Garcia-Garcia, I.

    2010-01-01

    Water containing cyanide was biologically detoxified with the bacterial strain Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 in a batch reactor. Volatilization of toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was avoided by using an alkaline medium for the treatment. The operational procedure was optimized to assess cyanide biodegradation at variable pH values and dissolved oxygen concentrations. Using an initial pH of 10 without subsequent adjustment allowed total cyanide to be consumed at a mean rate of approximately 2.81 mg CN - L -1 O.D. -1 h -1 ; however, these conditions posed a high risk of HCN formation. Cyanide consumption was found to be pH-dependent. Thus, no bacterial growth was observed with a controlled pH of 10; on the other hand, pH 9.5 allowed up to 2.31 mg CN - L -1 O.D. -1 h -1 to be converted. The combination of a high pH and a low dissolved oxygen saturation (10%) minimized the release of HCN. This study contributes new basic knowledge about this biological treatment, which constitutes an effective alternative to available physico-chemical methods for the purification of wastewater containing cyanide or cyano-metal complexes.

  9. Alkaline cyanide degradation by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 in a batch reactor. Influence of pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huertas, M.J., E-mail: mjhuertas@us.es [Instituto de Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis, CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla Avda Americo Vespucio, 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Saez, L.P.; Roldan, M.D.; Luque-Almagro, V.M.; Martinez-Luque, M. [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Edificio Severo Ochoa, 1a Planta, Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Blasco, R. [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular y Genetica, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, 11071 Caceres (Spain); Castillo, F.; Moreno-Vivian, C. [Departamento de Bioquimica y Biologia Molecular, Edificio Severo Ochoa, 1a Planta, Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba (Spain); Garcia-Garcia, I. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Edificio Marie Curie, Campus de Rabanales, Universidad de Cordoba, 14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Water containing cyanide was biologically detoxified with the bacterial strain Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 in a batch reactor. Volatilization of toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) was avoided by using an alkaline medium for the treatment. The operational procedure was optimized to assess cyanide biodegradation at variable pH values and dissolved oxygen concentrations. Using an initial pH of 10 without subsequent adjustment allowed total cyanide to be consumed at a mean rate of approximately 2.81 mg CN{sup -} L{sup -1} O.D.{sup -1} h{sup -1}; however, these conditions posed a high risk of HCN formation. Cyanide consumption was found to be pH-dependent. Thus, no bacterial growth was observed with a controlled pH of 10; on the other hand, pH 9.5 allowed up to 2.31 mg CN{sup -} L{sup -1} O.D.{sup -1} h{sup -1} to be converted. The combination of a high pH and a low dissolved oxygen saturation (10%) minimized the release of HCN. This study contributes new basic knowledge about this biological treatment, which constitutes an effective alternative to available physico-chemical methods for the purification of wastewater containing cyanide or cyano-metal complexes.

  10. Detection of cyanide anion by zinc porphyrin-spiropyran dyad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kho, Young Min; Hur, Dae Young; Shin, Eun Ju

    2016-01-01

    Versatile methods of the sensitive and selective detection for cyanide anion to monitor toxic cyanide have been developed. These include colorimetric, colorimetric, chromatographic, and electrochemical analyses. Among those methods for cyanide detection, optical methods based on absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy are relatively simple, inexpensive, and sensitive. A number of organic sensors for cyanide anion have been designed and synthesized. Absorption and/or fluorescence spectra of these sensors are changed by forming coordination complex or bonding covalently with cyanide. Compared with other anions, cyanide anion has some characteristic properties, such as its strong nucleophilicity and high binding affinity toward metal ions, and is superior and useful for the development of the sensors. Both covalent bond-based sensors and coordination complex-based sensors have been developed for cyanide detection. The results indicate that ZnP-SP plays a role as a CN"- selective, colorimetric sensor either without or with UV irradiation

  11. Detection of cyanide anion by zinc porphyrin-spiropyran dyad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kho, Young Min; Hur, Dae Young; Shin, Eun Ju [Dept. of Chemistry, Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Versatile methods of the sensitive and selective detection for cyanide anion to monitor toxic cyanide have been developed. These include colorimetric, colorimetric, chromatographic, and electrochemical analyses. Among those methods for cyanide detection, optical methods based on absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy are relatively simple, inexpensive, and sensitive. A number of organic sensors for cyanide anion have been designed and synthesized. Absorption and/or fluorescence spectra of these sensors are changed by forming coordination complex or bonding covalently with cyanide. Compared with other anions, cyanide anion has some characteristic properties, such as its strong nucleophilicity and high binding affinity toward metal ions, and is superior and useful for the development of the sensors. Both covalent bond-based sensors and coordination complex-based sensors have been developed for cyanide detection. The results indicate that ZnP-SP plays a role as a CN{sup -} selective, colorimetric sensor either without or with UV irradiation.

  12. Ferrate(VI) and ferrate(V) oxidation of cyanide, thiocyanate, and copper(I) cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Virender K.; Yngard, Ria A.; Cabelli, Diane E.; Clayton Baum, J.

    2008-01-01

    Cyanide (CN - ), thiocyanate (SCN - ), and copper(I) cyanide (Cu(CN) 4 3- ) are common constituents in the wastes of many industrial processes such as metal finishing and gold mining, and their treatment is required before the safe discharge of effluent. The oxidation of CN - , SCN - , and Cu(CN) 4 3- by ferrate(VI) (Fe VI O 4 2- ; Fe(VI)) and ferrate(V) (Fe V O 4 3- ; Fe(V)) has been studied using stopped-flow and premix pulse radiolysis techniques. The rate laws for the oxidation of cyanides were found to be first-order with respect to each reactant. The second-order rate constants decreased with increasing pH because the deprotonated species, FeO 4 2- , is less reactive than the protonated Fe(VI) species, HFeO 4 - . Cyanides react 10 3 -10 5 times faster with Fe(V) than with Fe(VI). The Fe(V) reaction with CN - proceeds by sequential one-electron reductions from Fe(V) to Fe(IV) to Fe(III). However, a two-electron transfer process from Fe(V) to Fe(III) occurs in the reaction of Fe(V) with SCN - and Cu(CN) 4 3- . The toxic CN - species of cyanide wastes is converted into relatively non-toxic cyanate (NCO - ). Results indicate that Fe(VI) is highly efficient in removing cyanides from electroplating rinse water and gold mill effluent

  13. Cyanide ion complexation by a cationic borane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ching-Wen; Gabbaï, François P

    2008-02-14

    While we have previously reported that [1-(Mes2B)-8-(Me3NCH2)-C10H6]+ ([2]+) complexes fluoride ions to form [1-(Mes2FB)-8-(Me3NCH2)-C10H6] (2-F), we now show that this cationic borane also complexes cyanide to form [1-(Mes2(NC)B)-8-(Me3NCH2)-C10H6] (2-CN). This reaction also occurs under biphasic conditions (H2O-CHCl3) and may serve to transport cyanide in organic phases. The zwitterionic cyanoborate 2-CN has been fully characterized and its crystal structure determined. UV-vis titration experiments carried out in THF indicate that [2]+ has a higher affinity for fluoride (K > 10(8) M(-1)) than cyanide (K = 8.0 (+/-0.5) x 10(5) M(-1)). Steric effects which impede cyanide binding to the sterically congested boron center of [2]+ are most likely at the origin of this selectivity. Finally, electrochemical studies indicate that [2]+ is significantly more electrophilic than its neutral precursor 1-(Mes2B)-8-(Me2NCH2)-(C10H6) (1). These studies also show that reduction of [2]+ is irreversible, possibly because of elimination of the NMe3 moiety under reductive conditions. In fact, [2]OTf reacts with NaBH4 to afford 1-(Mes2B)-8-(CH3)-(C10H6) (4) which has also been fully characterized.

  14. Improved processing methods to reduce the total cyanide content of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PierGuido

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... was produced according to FAO/WHO amendments (10 mg HCN equivalent per kilogram flour), if the ... a good energy source (Osakwe et al., 2008). Due to its ... nents will decompose above pH 6 into volatile hydrogen.

  15. Balance model of masses for mercury and cyanide in the Surata River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaya S, Cesar Jovane

    2004-01-01

    The pattern of masses balance consists of a comparison through the time of pollutants quantity (mercury and cyanide) poured in the mining region of Vetas and California, with the values of these same pollutants detected in the Bosconia plant of the metropolitan aqueduct of Bucaramanga. The mercury and the cyanide are used in the mining region for the gold benefit and they already arrive as residuals to the air sources and to the water that arrives to Surata River, one of the sources of supply of drinkable water of the aqueduct. In the gold benefit in the region, two different groups work:; the mining companies and the barrileros. The barrileros is particular people that work mainly the amalgamation of the mineral in barrels, and they discard their residuals to the environment, the same as the mining companies. The mining companies of California pour their residuals in the gulch La Baja, above of the monitoring point LB-01 (Round Hill) of the CDMB; as long as the mining companies of Vetas, pour them above of the monitoring point RV-05 (Borrero) also of the CDMB, to the River Vetas. Few data exist on the used of mercury and cyanide quantities through the time for the mining companies and the barrileros. In the monitored points of the CDMB, RV-02 and LB-01 (Round Hill), it is had temporary registrations of so much of concentrations of mercury and total cyanide in the water, as well as of flows. In the plant Bosconia registers concentrations of mercury and cyanide in the water of the Surata River every two hours daily, as long as the data of flows are measured in the point MA-01 (Majadas) By means of the flow multiplication and concentration they can register the masses of mercury and cyanide that happen at one time determined by the sampling points. A very simple balance of masses is obtained measuring in the different sampling points the masses of mercury and cyanide poured in the mining region. In the ideal case all the data required should exist in with a high

  16. Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736

  17. Dithizone as novel and efficient chromogenic probe for cyanide detection in aqueous media through nucleophilic addition into diazenylthione moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Hossein; Deilamy-Rad, Gohar; Parhami, Abolfath; Kiyani, Sajede

    2014-01-01

    A new selective chemodosimeter probe was developed by the introduction of dithizone (DTZ) as a simple and available dye for detection of cyanide in aqueous media which enables recognition of cyanide over other competing anions such as acetate, dihydrogen phosphate, fluoride and benzoate through covalent bonding. The sensing properties of DTZ were investigated in DMSO/H2O (1:9) and have demonstrated a very high selectivity toward the cyanide anions. A reasonable recognition mechanism was suggested using UV-Vis, (1)H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy techniques. Time dependent density function theory (TDDFT) computations of UV-Vis excitation for DTZ2-CN adduct agreed well with our experimental findings. The detection limit of the new chromogenic probe was measured to be 0.48 μmol L(-1) which is much lower than most recently reported chromogenic probes for cyanide determination. The analytical utility of the method for the analysis of cyanide ions in electroplating wastewater (EPWW), human serum, tap and mineral water samples was demonstrated and the results were compared successfully with the conventional reference method. The short time response and the detection by the naked eye make the method available for the detection and quantitative determination of cyanide in a variety of real samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cyanide adsorption on gold electrodes : a combined surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beltramo, G.L.; Shubina, T.E.; Mitchell, S.J.; Koper, M.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    A combined SERS and DFT study of cyanide adsorption on a gold electrode is presented. From our analysis, the high-frequency mode at 2100 cm-1 is ascribed to the C–N stretching frequency at (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) sites. The lower frequency modes at 370 and 300 cm-1 are ascribed to the Au–CN stretching

  19. Aerobic cyanide degradation by bacterial isolates from cassava factory wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Sujatha; Dananjeyan, Balachandar; Krishnamurthy, Kumar; Benckiser, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains that utilize cyanide (CN) as a nitrogen source were isolated from cassava factory wastewater after enrichment in a liquid media containing sodium cyanide (1 mM) and glucose (0.2% w/v). The strains could tolerate and grow in cyanide concentrations of up to 5 mM. Increased cyanide levels in the media caused an extension of lag phase in the bacterial growth indicating that they need some period of acclimatisation. The rate of cyanide removal by the strains depends on the initial cyanide and glucose concentrations. When initial cyanide and glucose concentrations were increased up to 5 mM, cyanide removal rate increased up to 63 and 61 per cent by Bacillus pumilus and Pseudomonas putida. Metabolic products such as ammonia and formate were detected in culture supernatants, suggesting a direct hydrolytic pathway without an intermediate formamide. The study clearly demonstrates the potential of aerobic treatment with cyanide degrading bacteria for cyanide removal in cassava factory wastewaters.

  20. A Study of the Effect of Djurliete, Bornite and Chalcopyrite during the Dissolution of Gold with a Solution of Ammonia-Cyanide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Fulton

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The high solubility of copper sulphide minerals is an issue in the cyanidation of gold ores. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of individual copper sulphide minerals on the Hunt process, which showed advantages over cyanidation. High purity djurleite, bornite and chalcopyrite, with a P70 of 70–74 microns, were mixed with fine quartz and gold powder (3–8 micron to obtain a copper concentration of 0.3%. The ammonia-cyanide leaching of slurry with djurleite proved to be more effective than cyanidation; producing comparable extraction of gold (99%, while reducing the cyanide consumption from 5.8 to 1.2 kg/t NaCN. Lead nitrate improved the Hunt leaching. The lower cyanide consumption is associated to a significant reduction of copper dissolved. XPS surface analysis of djurleite showed that lead nitrate favored the formation of Cu(OH2 species. Lead was also detected on the surface (oxide or hydroxide. Sulphide and copper compounds (cyanide and sulphide were reaction products responsible for inhibiting the dissolution of gold. Lead nitrate added in the Hunt leaching of bornite produced 99% gold extraction. Surface reaction products were similar to djurleite. The cyanide consumption (~4.4 kg/t NaCN was not reduced by the addition of ammonia. Cyanidation of chalcopyrite showed a lower consumption of cyanide 0.33 kg/t NaCN compared to 0.21 kg/t NaCN for Hunt. No significant interferences were observed in gold leaching with a slurry containing chalcopyrite.

  1. Millimeter wave spectra of carbonyl cyanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bteich, S. B.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2016-07-01

    Context. More than 30 cyanide derivatives of simple organic molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium, but only one dicarbonitrile has been found and that very recently. There is still a lack of high-resolution spectroscopic data particularly for dinitriles derivatives. The carbonyl cyanide molecule is a new and interesting candidate for astrophysical detection. It could be formed by the reaction of CO and CN radicals, or by substitution of the hydrogen atom by a cyano group in cyanoformaldehyde, HC(=O)CN, that has already been detected in the interstellar medium. Aims: The available data on the rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide is limited in terms of quantum number values and frequency range, and does not allow accurate extrapolation of the spectrum into the millimeter-wave range. To provide a firm basis for astrophysical detection of carbonyl cyanide we studied its millimeter-wave spectrum. Methods: The rotational spectrum of carbonyl cyanide was measured in the frequency range 152-308 GHz and analyzed using Watson's A- and S-reduction Hamiltonians. Results: The ground and first excited state of v5 vibrational mode were assigned and analyzed. More than 1100 distinct frequency lines of the ground state were fitted to produce an accurate set of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants up to the eighth order. The frequency predictions based on these constants should be accurate enough for astrophysical searches in the frequency range up to 500 GHz and for transition involving energy levels with J ≤ 100 and Ka ≤ 42. Based on the results we searched for interstellar carbonyl cyanide in available observational data without success. Thus, we derived upper limits to its column density in different sources. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00009.SV. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan) with NRC (Canada), NSC, and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of

  2. Gait analysis after successful mobile bearing total ankle replacement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, H.C.; van Middelkoop, M.; Houdijk, J.H.P.; Nelissen, R.G.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The effect of total ankle replacement on gait is not fully known in terms of joint kinematics, ground reaction force, and activity of the muscles of the lower leg. Methods: A comparative gait study was done in 10 patients after uneventful unilateral mobile-bearing total ankle replacement

  3. Recovery of copper and cyanide from waste cyanide solutions using emulsion liquid membrane with LIX 7950 as the carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng; Wang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    The feasibility of using emulsion liquid membranes (ELMs) with the guanidine extractant LIX 7950 as the mobile carrier for detoxifying copper-containing waste cyanide solutions has been determined. Relatively stable ELMs can be maintained under suitable stirring speed during mixing ELMs and the external solution. Effective extraction of copper cyanides by ELMs only occurs at pH below 11. High copper concentration in the external phase and high volume ratio of the external phase to ELMs result in high transport rates of copper and cyanide. High molar ratio of cyanide to copper tends to suppress copper extraction. The presence of thiocyanate ion significantly depresses the transport of copper and cyanide through the membrane while the thiosulfate ion produces less impact on copper removal by ELMs. Zinc and nickel cyanides can also be effectively extracted by ELMs. More than 90% copper and cyanide can be effectively removed from alkaline cyanide solutions by ELMs under suitable experimental conditions, indicating the effectiveness of using the designed ELM for recovering copper and cyanide from waste cyanide solutions.

  4. Technetium cyanide chemistry: synthesis and characterization of technetium(III) and -(V) cyanide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trop, H.S.; Jones, A.G.; Davison, A.

    1980-01-01

    Several new technetium cyanide complexes have been prepared and characterized. The reaction of ammonium hexaiodotechnetate(IV) with potassium cyanide in refluxing aqueous methanol under nitrogen yields potassium heptacyanotechnetate(III) dihydrate, K 4 Tc(CN) 7 .2H 2 O (1). Infrared and Raman measurements indicate that 1 has a pentagonal bipyramidal structure (D/sub 5h/) in both solid and solution. Aqueous solutions of 1 are air sensitive, decomposing to potassium oxopentacyanotechnetate(V) tetrahydrate, K 2 TcO(CN) 5 .4H 2 O (2). This species can also be prepared from the reaction of TcO 2 .xH 2 O with hot aqueous potassium cyanide solutions. Hydrolysis of 2 in water yields potassium trans-dioxo-tetracyanotechnetate(V), K 3 TcO 2 (CN) 4 (3). Preparation of 3 can also be achieved from the treatment of [TcO 2 (Py) 4 ]ClO 4 .2H 2 O with aqueous potassium cyanide. Infrared and Raman measurements on 3 are consistent with the proposed trans-dioxo (D/sub 4h/) structure. Reaction of the oxotetrachlorotechnetate(V) anion, TcOCl 4 , with potassium cyanide in methanol produces trans-oxomethoxytetracyanotechnetate(V). [TcO(OMe)(CN) 4 ] (4). The full details of the synthesis and characterization of these interesting technetium(III) and -(V) complexes, as well as observations on the infrared and Raman spectra of trans-dioxo metal complexes and the hydrolysis of species 2, are presented

  5. Determination of the Cyanide Metabolite 2-Aminothiazoline-4-Carboxylic Acid in Urine and Plasma by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Logue, Brian A; Kirschten, Nicholas P; Petrikovics, Ilona; Moser, Matthew A; Rockwood, Gary A; Baskin, Steven I

    2005-01-01

    The cyanide metabolite 2-aminothiazoline.4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) is a promising biomarker for cyanide exposure because of its stability and the limitations of direct determination of cyanide and more abundant cyanide metabolites...

  6. Survival of fish upon removal of cyanide from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacsi, Mariann; Czegeny, Ildiko; Nagy, Gabor; Banfalvi, Gaspar

    2005-01-01

    The effects of potassium cyanide and the removal of cyanide from water in vivo on the survival of fish were investigated. This research was initiated because of the catastrophe that took place at the end of January 2000 in the Carpathian basin, when an enormous amount of cyanide pollution swept through the Samos and Tisza rivers, and then to the Danube. Since nothing was done against the disaster, we have suggested a chemical solution to remove cyanide from waterways (Chem. Innovat. 30 (2000b) 53). Based on experiments, we describe that the most effective and harmless way to remove cyanide and to save the lives of fish from 40 to 160x the lethal doses of cyanide is to use carbogen gas containing 5% carbon dioxide and 95% oxygen followed by aeration with air

  7. Alpha-ketoglutarate and N-acetyl cysteine protect PC12 cells from cyanide-induced cytotoxicity and altered energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, R M; Hariharakrishnan, J; Bhattacharya, R

    2008-01-01

    Cyanide is a rapidly acting neurotoxin that inhibits cellular respiration and energy metabolism leading to histotoxic hypoxia. This results in the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) accompanied by decreased cellular ATP content which in turn is responsible for increased levels of intracellular calcium ions ([Ca(2+)](i)) and total lactic acid content of the cells. Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells possess much of the biochemical machinery associated with synaptic neurons. In the present study, we evaluated the cytoprotective effects of alpha-ketoglutarate (A-KG) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against cyanide-induced cytotoxicity and altered energy metabolism in PC12 cells. Cyanide-antagonism by A-KG is attributed to cyanohydrin formation whereas NAC is known for its antioxidant properties. Data on leakage of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase and mitochondrial function (MTT assay) revealed that simultaneous treatment of A-KG (0.5 mM) and NAC (0.25 mM) significantly prevented the cytotoxicity of cyanide. Also, cellular ATP content was found to improve, followed by restoration of MMP, intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)](i) and lactic acid levels. Treatment with A-KG and NAC also attenuated the levels of peroxides generated by cyanide. The study indicates that combined administration of A-KG and NAC protected the cyanide-challenged PC12 cells by resolving the altered energy metabolism. The results have implications in the development of new treatment regimen for cyanide poisoning.

  8. Characterization of a supported ionic liquid membrane used for the removal of cyanide from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Juan Qin; Liu, Ni Na; Li, Guo Ping; Dang, Long Tao

    2017-12-01

    This work evaluated the performance of ionic liquids (ILs) in supported liquid membranes in the removal of total cyanide from wastewater. Membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements to study the membrane morphology and wetting ability. In particular, the effects of operational parameters such as membrane immersion time, feed-phase concentration, and pH on cyanide removal were investigated. ILs are organic salts that are entirely composed of organic cations and either organic or inorganic anions. Since their vapor pressure is negligible, they can be handled easily; this characteristic gives rise to their 'green' nature. In this study, a hydrophobic IL, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Bmim]PF 6 ), was immobilized in the pores of a solid polymeric support made of polyvinylidene fluoride. The optimal conditions were as follows: 1 hour membrane immersion time, 312.24 mg/L feed-phase concentration, a feed-phase pH of 4, 3% NaOH solution, and 1 hour stirring time. The cyanide removal was 95.31%. The treatment of cyanide using supported ionic liquid membrane (SILM) technology is a method with potential applications in industry.

  9. Quantitative trait loci analysis of individual and total isoflavone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... 2Seed Management Station of Jilin Province, Changchun 130062, Jilin, ... daidzein (DC), genistein (GeC), glycitein (GlC) and total isoflavone contents (TIC) in ..... ing and height) and quality (oil and protein content) traits.

  10. SYNTHESES AND CHARACTERIZATIONS OF THE CYANIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-28

    (Received October 28, 2015; revised June 25, 2016) ... suggest that the Ni(II) ion is four coordinate with four cyanide-carbon atoms in ... However, there have been many studies on octahedral [M(CN)6]n- but little ... were synthesized and investigated by vibrational spectral (FT-IR and ..... Karaağaç, D.; Kürkçüoğlu, G.S. Bull.

  11. Hypocalcaemia following total thyroidectomy: An analysis of 806 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, C. Gopalakrishnan; Babu, Misha J. C.; Menon, Riju; Jacob, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Background: Permanent hypocalcaemia following thyroidectomy causes considerable morbidity. This prospective observational study aims to define the factors likely to predict hypocalcaemia following total thyroidectomy. Materials and Methods: Patients who were subjected to total thyroidectomy during January 2005 to December 2009 were followed up for a minimum period of 1 year. Efficacy of an intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay to predict hypocalcaemia was validated. Results: Overall incide...

  12. Feasibility of field portable near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to determine cyanide concentrations in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Magdalena; Fischer, Thomas; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In Germany, at more than 1000 sites, soil is polluted with an anthropogenic contaminant in form of iron-cyanide complexes. These contaminations are caused by former Manufactured Gas Plants (MGPs), where electricity for lighting was produced in the process of coal gasification. The production of manufactured gas was restrained in 1950, which caused cessation of MGPs. Our study describes the application of Polychromix Handheld Field Portable Near-Infrared (NIR) Analyzer to predict the cyanide concentrations in soil. In recent times, when the soil remediation is of major importance, there is a need to develop rapid and non-destructive methods for contaminant determination in the field. In situ analysis enables determination of 'hot spots', is cheap and time saving in comparison to laboratory methods. This paper presents a novel usage of NIR spectroscopy, where a calibration model was developed, using multivariate calibration algorithms, in order to determine NIR spectral response to the cyanide concentration in soil samples. As a control, the contaminant concentration was determined using conventional Flow Injection Analysis (FIA). The experiments revealed that portable near-infrared spectrometers could be a reliable device for identification of contamination 'hot spots', where cyanide concentration are higher than 2400 mg kg-1 in the field and >1750 mg kg-1 after sample preparation in the laboratory, but cannot replace traditional laboratory analyses due to high limits of detection.

  13. Supramolecular Ferric Porphyrins as Cyanide Receptors in Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    All fundamental data about binding of the cyanide to a supramolecular complex composed of a per-O-methylated β-cyclodextrin dimer having an imidazole linker (Im3CD) and an anionic ferric porphyrin (Fe(III)TPPS) indicate that the Fe(III)TPPS/Im3CD complex is much better as an cyanide receptor in vivo than hydroxocobalamin, whose cyanide binding ability is lowered by its strong binding to serum proteins in the blood. PMID:24900285

  14. Inhibitory effect of cyanide on wastewater nitrification ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of CN- (CN-) on nitrification was examined with samples from nitrifying wastewater enrichments using two different approaches: by measuring substrate (ammonia) specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR), and by using RT-qPCR to quantify the transcripts of functional genes involved in nitrification. The nitrifying bioreactor was operated as a continuous reactor with a 24 h hydraulic retention time. The samples were exposed in batch vessels to cyanide for a period of 12 h. The concentrations of CN- used in the batch assays were 0.03, 0.06, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L. There was considerable decrease in SOUR with increasing dosages of CN-. A decrease of more than 50% in nitrification activity was observed at 0.1 mg/L CN-. Based on the RT-qPCR data, there was notable reduction in the transcript levels of amoA and hao for increasing CN- dosage, which corresponded well with the ammonia oxidation activity measured via SOUR. The inhibitory effect of cyanide may be attributed to the affinity of cyanide to bind ferric heme proteins, which disrupt protein structure and function. The correspondence between the relative expression of functional genes and SOUR shown in this study demonstrates the efficacy of RNA based function-specific assays for better understanding of the effect of toxic compounds on nitrification activity in wastewater. Nitrification is the first step of nitrogen removal is wastewater, and it is susceptible to inhibition by many industrial chemical. We looked at

  15. Ethical Analysis of Withdrawing Total Artificial Heart Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartino, Erin S; Wordingham, Sara E; Stulak, John M; Boilson, Barry A; Fuechtmann, Kayla R; Singh, Nausheen; Sulmasy, Daniel P; Pajaro, Octavio E; Mueller, Paul S

    2017-05-01

    To describe the characteristics of patients who undergo withdrawal of total artificial heart support and to explore the ethical aspects of withdrawing this life-sustaining treatment. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all adult recipients of a total artificial heart at Mayo Clinic from the program's inception in 2007 through June 30, 2015. Management of other life-sustaining therapies, approach to end-of-life decision making, engagement of ethics and palliative care consultation, and causes of death were analyzed. Of 47 total artificial heart recipients, 14 patients or their surrogates (30%) requested withdrawal of total artificial heart support. No request was denied by treatment teams. All 14 patients were supported with at least 1 other life-sustaining therapy. Only 1 patient was able to participate in decision making. It is widely held to be ethically permissible to withdraw a life-sustaining treatment when the treatment no longer meets the patient's health care-related goals (ie, the burdens outweigh the benefits). These data suggest that some patients, surrogates, physicians, and other care providers believe that this principle extends to the withdrawal of total artificial heart support. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Accounting for cyanide and its degradation products at three Nevada gold mines; constraints from stable C- and N-isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.A.; Grimes, D.J.; Rye, R.O.

    1998-01-01

    An understanding of the fate of cyanide (CN-) in mine process waters is important for addressing environmental concerns and for taking steps to minimize reagent costs. The utility of stable isotope methods in identifying cyanide loss pathways has been investigated in case studies at three Nevada gold mines. Freshly prepared barren solutions at the mines have cyanide d15N and d13C values averaging -4 ? and -36 ?, respectively, reflecting the nitrogen and carbon sources used by commercial manufacturers, air and natural gas methane. Pregnant solutions returning from ore heaps display small isotopic shifts to lower d15N and d13C values. The shifts are similar to those observed in laboratory experiments where cyanide was progressively precipitated as a cyanometallic compound, and are opposite in sign and much smaller in magnitude than the shifts observed in experiments where HCN was offgassed. Offgassing is inferred to be a minor cyanide loss mechanism in the heap leach operations at the three mines, and precipitation as cyanometallic compounds, and possibly coprecipitation with ferric oxides, is inferred to be an important loss mechanism. Isotopic analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) shows that uptake of high d13C air CO2 has been important in many barren and pregnant solutions. However, DIC in reclaim pond waters at all three mines has low d13C values of -28 to -34 ? indicating cyanide breakdown either by hydrolysis or by other chemical pathways that break the C-N bond. Isotope mass balance calculations indicate that about 40 % of the DIC load in the ponds, at a minimum, was derived from cyanide breakdown. This level of cyanide hydrolysis accounts for 14-100 % of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen species present in the ponds. Overall, isotope data provide quantitative evidence that only minor amounts of cyanide are lost via offgassing and that significant amounts are destroyed via hydrolysis and related pathways. The data also highlight the possibility that

  17. Cyanide metallocenes of trivalent f-elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynadie, J.; Berthet, J.C.; Thuery, P.; Ephritikhine, M.

    2007-01-01

    Addition of N n Bu 4 CN to (C 5 Me 5 ) 2 UI(py), (C 5 Me 5 ) 2 CeI, or (C 5 Me 5 ) 2 M(OTf) (M = U, Ce) in acetonitrile led to the precipitation of the neutral mono-cyanide species [(C 5 Me 5 ) 2 M(μ-CN)] n [M = U (1), Ce (2)], which likely have an oligomeric structure, as shown by the tri-meric cyanide-bridged complex [(C 5 Me 5 ) 2 Ce(μ-CN)(CN t Bu)] 3 (3) obtained by addition of excess t BuNC into a suspension of 2 in acetonitrile. The structure of the U(III,IV) mixed valence compound [{(C 5 Me 5 ) 2 U} 2 (μ-CN){(μ-CN) 2 Na(thf)} 2 ] ∞ (4), which crystallized from a thf solution of (C 5 Me 5 ) 2 UI(py) in the presence of excess NaCN, reveals a unique example of an f-element-(μ-CN)-M interaction (M = main group or d transition metal). The anionic poly-cyanides [(C 5 Me 5 ) 2 M(CN) 3 ][N n Bu 4 ] 2 [M = U (5), Ce (6)] were synthesized by treatment of 1 and 2 with 2 equiv or an excess of N n Bu 4 CN in acetonitrile; they were also prepared in a one-pot procedure by stepwise addition of 1 equiv of KCN and 2 equiv of N n Bu 4 CN to the parent iodides in acetonitrile. The bent metallocenes 5 and 6 are unique low-valent molecular poly-cyanide compounds of an f-element that have been structurally identified, while 5 is the first fully characterized actinide(III) cyanide. Comparison of the crystal structures of 5 and 6 shows that the M-C(C 5 Me 5 ) and M-C(CN) distances are 0.02-0.03 Angstroms shorter for M = U than for M Ce, while the ionic radius of uranium(III) is 0.02 Angstroms larger than that of cerium(III). (authors)

  18. Risk management in radiotherapy: analysis for total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banguero, Y., E-mail: ybanguero@cin.edu.uy [Universidad de la República, Montevideo (Uruguay); Píriz, G.; Guerrero, L.; Cardozo, L.; Quarneti, A. [Centro Hospital Pereira Rossell, Montevideo (Uruguay); Nader, A. [Autoridad Reguladora Nacional de Radioprotección, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2017-07-01

    Introduction: Management of risk in any technique that is using radiation energy is very important to prevent incidents and accidents. Pretending evaluate the risk in the all process of Total Body Irradiation (TBI), this work present a risk matrix with different possible events than could occur. Methods: SEVRRA-R platform that run in windows is using to build a risk matrix separating the process of TBI in commissioning, prescription, planning and delivering dose. Any stage has a procedure with different errors associated. We build a matrix using all this information to evaluate the kind of risk we have in the technique. Results: It was obtained a template that describes in general the process of TBI with principles events, barriers and consequences. Conclusion: Analyzing the risk in any stage of the process in Total Body irradiation is a useful tool to understand the key points to work in safety for this technique. (author)

  19. Radiographic analysis of partial or total vertebral body resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitten, C.G.; Hammer, G.H.; El-Khoury, G.Y.; Hugus, J.; Weinstein, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    Partial and total vertebrectomies are used in the treatment of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the spine. Serial radiographic studies are crucial in the follow-up of patients with vertebrectomies. This paper presents 33 cases and illustrates radiographic examples of both successful and complicated vertebrectomies, including radiographic signs of local tumor recurrence, loosening, migration or fracture of the hardware or methylmethacrylate, bone graft failure, and progressive spinal instability

  20. A Multifactorial Analysis of Reconstruction Methods Applied After Total Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Büyükaşık

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reconstruction methods applied after total gastrectomy in terms of postoperative symptomology and nutrition. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on 31 patients who underwent total gastrectomy due to gastric cancer in 2. Clinic of General Surgery, SSK Ankara Training Hospital. 6 different reconstruction methods were used and analyzed in terms of age, sex and postoperative complications. One from esophagus and two biopsy specimens from jejunum were taken through upper gastrointestinal endoscopy from all cases, and late period morphological and microbiological changes were examined. Postoperative weight change, dumping symptoms, reflux esophagitis, solid/liquid dysphagia, early satiety, postprandial pain, diarrhea and anorexia were assessed. Results: Of 31 patients,18 were males and 13 females; the youngest one was 33 years old, while the oldest- 69 years old. It was found that reconstruction without pouch was performed in 22 cases and with pouch in 9 cases. Early satiety, postprandial pain, dumping symptoms, diarrhea and anemia were found most commonly in cases with reconstruction without pouch. The rate of bacterial colonization of the jejunal mucosa was identical in both groups. Reflux esophagitis was most commonly seen in omega esophagojejunostomy (EJ, while the least-in Roux-en-Y, Tooley and Tanner 19 EJ. Conclusion: Reconstruction with pouch performed after total gastrectomy is still a preferable method. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2010; 48:126-31

  1. Cy5 total protein normalization in Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner-McWhirter, Åsa; Laurin, Ylva; Larsson, Anita; Bjerneld, Erik J; Rönn, Ola

    2015-10-01

    Western blotting is a widely used method for analyzing specific target proteins in complex protein samples. Housekeeping proteins are often used for normalization to correct for uneven sample loads, but these require careful validation since expression levels may vary with cell type and treatment. We present a new, more reliable method for normalization using Cy5-prelabeled total protein as a loading control. We used a prelabeling protocol based on Cy5 N-hydroxysuccinimide ester labeling that produces a linear signal response. We obtained a low coefficient of variation (CV) of 7% between the ratio of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) target to Cy5 total protein control signals over the whole loading range from 2.5 to 20.0μg of Chinese hamster ovary cell lysate protein. Corresponding experiments using actin or tubulin as controls for normalization resulted in CVs of 13 and 18%, respectively. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase did not produce a proportional signal and was not suitable for normalization in these cells. A comparison of ERK1/2 signals from labeled and unlabeled samples showed that Cy5 prelabeling did not affect antibody binding. By using total protein normalization we analyzed PP2A and Smad2/3 levels with high confidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An Analysis of Total Lightning Flash Rates Over Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Thomas O.; Fuelberg, Henry E.

    2017-12-01

    Although Florida is known as the "Sunshine State", it also contains the greatest lightning flash densities in the United States. Flash density has received considerable attention in the literature, but lightning flash rate has received much less attention. We use data from the Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN) to produce a 5 year (2010-2014) set of statistics regarding total flash rates over Florida and adjacent regions. Instead of tracking individual storms, we superimpose a 0.2° × 0.2° grid over the study region and count both cloud-to-ground (CG) and in-cloud (IC) flashes over 5 min intervals. Results show that the distribution of total flash rates is highly skewed toward small values, whereas the greatest rate is 185 flashes min-1. Greatest average annual flash rates ( 3 flashes min-1) are located near Orlando. The southernmost peninsula, North Florida, and the Florida Panhandle exhibit smaller average annual flash rates ( 1.5 flashes min-1). Large flash rates > 100 flashes min-1 can occur during any season, at any time during the 24 h period, and at any location within the domain. However, they are most likely during the afternoon and early evening in East Central Florida during the spring and summer months.

  3. Analysis of partial and total inelasticities obtained from inclusive reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellandi, J.; Covolan, R.; Costa, C.G.; Montanha, J.; Mundim, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    An independent analysis of model for energetic dependence on inelasticity is presented, from experimental data of pp → c X (c = π +- , Κ +- , p +- ) type inclusive reactions. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Long-term stability study of Prussian blue-A quality assessment of water content and cyanide release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, A; Yang, Y; Khan, M A; Faustino, P J

    2015-02-01

    Prussian blue, ferric hexacyanoferrate is approved for (oral) treatment of internal contamination with radioisotopes of cesium or thallium. Cyanide makes up 35-40% of Prussian blue's molecular composition; thus, cyanide may be released during transit through the digestive tract under physiological pH conditions. The purpose of this study is to assess the long-term stability of Prussian blue drug products and active pharmaceutical ingredients and its impact on cyanide release. The study involves the determination and comparison of the loss in water content and cyanide released from Prussian blue under pH conditions that bracket human physiological exposure. Test samples of active pharmaceutical ingredient and drug product were stored for 10 years at ambient temperatures that mimic warehouse storage conditions. Water loss from Prussian blue was measured using thermogravimetric analysis. An in vitro physiological pH model that brackets gastric exposure and gastrointestinal transit was utilized for cyanide release. Prussian blue was incubated in situ at pH: 1.0, 5.0, and 7.0 @ 37°C for 1-24 h. Cyanide was measured using a validated colorimetric method by UV-Vis spectroscopy. Although the water content (quality attribute) of Prussian blue active pharmaceutical ingredient and drug product decreased by about 10.5% and 13.8%, respectively, since 2003, the cyanide release remained comparable. At pH of 7.0 for 24 h cyanide released from active pharmaceutical ingredient-1 was 21.33 ± 1.76 μg/g in 2004, and 28.45 ± 3.15 μg/g in 2013; cyanide released from drug product-1 was 21.89 ± 0.56 μg/g in 2004, and 27.31 ± 5.78 μg/g in 2013. At gastric pH of 1.0 and upper gastrointestinal pH of 5.0, the data for active pharmaceutical ingredients and drug products were also comparable in 2013. The cyanide release is still pH-dependent and follows the same trend as observed in 2003 with minimum release at pH of 5.0 and maximal release at pH of 1.0. In summary, this is the long

  5. Bioavailability of cyanide after consumption of a single meal of foods containing high levels of cyanogenic glycosides: a crossover study in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Klaus; Buhrke, Thorsten; Lampen, Alfonso

    2016-03-01

    The acute toxicity of cyanide is determined by its peak levels reached in the body. Compared to the ingestion of free cyanide, lower peak levels may be expected after consumption of foods containing cyanogenic glycosides with the same equivalent dose of cyanide. This is due to possible delayed and/or incomplete release of cyanide from the cyanogenic glycosides depending on many factors. Data on bioavailability of cyanide after consumption of foods containing high levels of cyanogenic glycosides as presented herein were necessary to allow a meaningful risk assessment for these foods. A crossover study was carried out in 12 healthy adults who consumed persipan paste (equivalent total cyanide: 68 mg/kg), linseed (220 mg/kg), bitter apricot kernels (about 3250 mg/kg), and fresh cassava roots (76-150 mg/kg), with each "meal" containing equivalents of 6.8 mg cyanide. Cyanide levels were determined in whole blood using a GC-MS method with K(13)C(15)N as internal standard. Mean levels of cyanide at the different time points were highest after consumption of cassava (15.4 µM, after 37.5 min) and bitter apricot kernels (14.3 µM, after 20 min), followed by linseed (5.7 µM, after 40 min) and 100 g persipan (1.3 µM, after 105 min). The double dose of 13.6 mg cyanide eaten with 200 g persipan paste resulted in a mean peak level of 2.9 µM (after 150 min). An acute reference dose of 0.075 mg/kg body weight was derived being valid for a single application/meal of cyanides or hydrocyanic acid as well as of unprocessed foods with cyanogenic glycosides also containing the accompanying intact β-glucosidase. For some of these foods, this approach may be overly conservative due to delayed release of cyanide, as demonstrated for linseed. In case of missing or inactivated β-glucosidase, the hazard potential is much lower.

  6. Analysis of a retrieved delta III total shoulder prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyffeler, R W; Werner, C M L; Simmen, B R; Gerber, C

    2004-11-01

    A reversed Delta III total shoulder prosthesis was retrieved post-mortem, eight months after implantation. A significant notch was evident at the inferior pole of the scapular neck which extended beyond the inferior fixation screw. This bone loss was associated with a corresponding, erosive defect of the polyethylene cup. Histological examination revealed a chronic foreign-body reaction in the joint capsule. There were, however, no histological signs of loosening of the glenoid base plate and the stability of the prosthetic articulation was only slightly reduced by the eroded rim of the cup.

  7. Biofilms as bio-indicator for polluted waters? Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of biofilms of the Tisza river (Hungary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mages, Margarete; Ovari, Mihaly; Tuempling, Wolf v. [Department of Inland Water Research Magdeburg, UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Brueckstrasse 3a, 39114, Magdeburg (Germany); Kroepfl, Krisztina [Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Chemistry, Eoetvoes University, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A, 1117, Budapest (Hungary)

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the heavy metal accumulation by natural biofilms living in the catchment area of the Tisza river in Hungary, as well as in biofilms cultivated in vitro. Laboratory tests have demonstrated that metals can be adsorbed on biofilms, depending on their concentration and on the availability of free sorptive places. Biofilms were cultivated in vitro in natural freshwater from the Saale river, Germany. After reaching the plateau phase, Cu was added to reach a concentration of 100 {mu}g/L. An increase of its mass fraction in the biofilm was observed, which caused the decrease of the concentration in the water phase. Unfortunately, the reactor wall was also found to act as adsorbent for Cu. More detailed results of our in vitro experiments will be published in a forthcoming paper. Naturally grown biofilm samples from exposed as well as background places at the Hungarian rivers Szamos and Tisza were collected in 2000 and 2002 after the cyanide spill, and analysed using total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF). Metal mass fraction differences as high as two orders of magnitude were found between polluted and unpolluted (background) sampling points. Extremely high concentration values, e.g. 5600 {mu}g/g Zn in biofilm, were found at highly polluted sampling points. This means an enrichment factor of ca. 10,000 compared to the water phase. (orig.)

  8. Hypocalcaemia following total thyroidectomy: An analysis of 806 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gopalakrishnan Nair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Permanent hypocalcaemia following thyroidectomy causes considerable morbidity. This prospective observational study aims to define the factors likely to predict hypocalcaemia following total thyroidectomy. Materials and Methods: Patients who were subjected to total thyroidectomy during January 2005 to December 2009 were followed up for a minimum period of 1 year. Efficacy of an intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay to predict hypocalcaemia was validated. Results: Overall incidence of hypocalcaemia was 23.6% ( n = 190 and that of permanent hypocalcaemia was 1.61% ( n = 13. Onset was delayed up to 3 rd postoperative day in 13 patients. Hypocalcaemia was significantly associated with thyroidectomy for Grave′s Disease ( P = 0.001, Hashimoto′s thyroiditis ( P = 0.003, and with incidental parathyroidectomy ( P = 0.006. The intraoperative assay of parathyroid hormone showed low sensitivity (0.5 and satisfactory specificity (0.9 in predicting hypocalcemia. Conclusion: Hypocalcemia could manifest late in the immediate postoperative period and this may explain latent hypocalcemia. High incidence of hypocalcaemia noted in Grave′s Disease could be due to the autoimmunity since same feature was noted associated with Hashimoto′s thyroiditis and the incidence of hypocalcaemia was not high in the subgroup with toxic nodular goiter. The incidence of hypocalcemia was not affected by age or sex.

  9. Hypocalcaemia following total thyroidectomy: An analysis of 806 patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, C. Gopalakrishnan; Babu, Misha J. C.; Menon, Riju; Jacob, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Background: Permanent hypocalcaemia following thyroidectomy causes considerable morbidity. This prospective observational study aims to define the factors likely to predict hypocalcaemia following total thyroidectomy. Materials and Methods: Patients who were subjected to total thyroidectomy during January 2005 to December 2009 were followed up for a minimum period of 1 year. Efficacy of an intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay to predict hypocalcaemia was validated. Results: Overall incidence of hypocalcaemia was 23.6% (n = 190) and that of permanent hypocalcaemia was 1.61% (n = 13). Onset was delayed up to 3rd postoperative day in 13 patients. Hypocalcaemia was significantly associated with thyroidectomy for Grave's Disease (P = 0.001), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (P = 0.003), and with incidental parathyroidectomy (P = 0.006). The intraoperative assay of parathyroid hormone showed low sensitivity (0.5) and satisfactory specificity (0.9) in predicting hypocalcemia. Conclusion: Hypocalcemia could manifest late in the immediate postoperative period and this may explain latent hypocalcemia. High incidence of hypocalcaemia noted in Grave's Disease could be due to the autoimmunity since same feature was noted associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and the incidence of hypocalcaemia was not high in the subgroup with toxic nodular goiter. The incidence of hypocalcemia was not affected by age or sex. PMID:23776907

  10. Hypocalcaemia following total thyroidectomy: An analysis of 806 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, C Gopalakrishnan; Babu, Misha J C; Menon, Riju; Jacob, Pradeep

    2013-03-01

    Permanent hypocalcaemia following thyroidectomy causes considerable morbidity. This prospective observational study aims to define the factors likely to predict hypocalcaemia following total thyroidectomy. Patients who were subjected to total thyroidectomy during January 2005 to December 2009 were followed up for a minimum period of 1 year. Efficacy of an intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay to predict hypocalcaemia was validated. Overall incidence of hypocalcaemia was 23.6% (n = 190) and that of permanent hypocalcaemia was 1.61% (n = 13). Onset was delayed up to 3(rd) postoperative day in 13 patients. Hypocalcaemia was significantly associated with thyroidectomy for Grave's Disease (P = 0.001), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (P = 0.003), and with incidental parathyroidectomy (P = 0.006). The intraoperative assay of parathyroid hormone showed low sensitivity (0.5) and satisfactory specificity (0.9) in predicting hypocalcemia. Hypocalcemia could manifest late in the immediate postoperative period and this may explain latent hypocalcemia. High incidence of hypocalcaemia noted in Grave's Disease could be due to the autoimmunity since same feature was noted associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and the incidence of hypocalcaemia was not high in the subgroup with toxic nodular goiter. The incidence of hypocalcemia was not affected by age or sex.

  11. Histomorphometric studies on the effect of cyanide consumption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The density and size of the Purkinje cells were the same in both the control and experimental groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Maternal consumption of 500 ppm cyanide in rats does not significantly affect light microscopic prenatal cerebellar development, but causes mild changes in the post-natal life. Maternal cyanide ...

  12. Simple picrate method for the determination of cyanide in cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The red coloured complex on the strips was extracted with 50% ethanol solution and the absorbance of the extract was measured at 510nm using a spectrophotometer. The method was reproducible and cyanide as low as 1 microgram could be determined. Cyanide levels of all the cassava varieties tested were higher than ...

  13. Mechanism of the adsorption of gold cyanide on activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry); Hancock, R.D. (Klipfontein Organic Products, Kempton Park (South Africa)); Wellington, O.L.; Nicol, M.J. (National Inst. for Metallurgy, Johannesburg (South Africa)); Copperthwaite, R.G. (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). National Chemical Research Lab.)

    1981-12-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the adsorption of gold cyanide on carbon in the presence or absence of electrolytes and acids proceeds by the same mechanism. The first detailed investigation of the fundamentals of the adsorption and elution of gold and silver cyanide on carbon, theories to state the results and the experimental method are discussed.

  14. Chemical speciation and behaviour of cyanide in contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeussen, J.C.L.

    1992-01-01

    Cyanide is present as a contaminant of the soil on several hundred (former) industrial sites in the Netherlands. The risk for the occurrence of adverse effects on human health and the environment strongly depends on the chemical form in which cyanide is present and on the behaviour of this

  15. Hydroxocobalamin: improved public health readiness for cyanide disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, S W; Keim, M E

    2001-06-01

    The United States is under the constant threat of a mass casualty cyanide disaster from industrial accidents, hazardous material transportation incidents, and deliberate terrorist attacks. The current readiness for cyanide disaster by the emergency medical system in the United States is abysmal. We, as a nation, are simply not prepared for a significant cyanide-related event. The standard of care for cyanide intoxication is the cyanide antidote kit, which is based on the use of nitrites to induce methemoglobinemia. This kit is both expensive and ill suited for out-of-hospital use. It also has its own inherent toxicity that prevents rapid administration. Furthermore, our hospitals frequently fail to stock this life-saving antidote or decline to stock more than one. Hydroxocobalamin is well recognized as an efficacious, safe, and easily administered cyanide antidote. Because of its extremely low adverse effect profile, it is ideal for out-of-hospital use in suspected cyanide intoxication. To effectively prepare for a cyanide disaster, the United States must investigate, adopt, manufacture, and stockpile hydroxocobalamin to prevent needless morbidity and mortality.

  16. Recovery of iron from cyanide tailings with reduction roasting–water leaching followed by magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yali; Li, Huaimei; Yu, Xianjin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Using reduction roasting–water leaching–magnetic separation method, the recovery of iron from cyanide tailings was optimized. ► The recovery of iron was highly depended on the water-leaching process after reduction roasting. ► The results suggest that the method can be effectively used for iron recovery, and the grade of magnetic concentrate and recovery rate can reach 59.11% and 75.12%, respectively. - Abstract: Cyanide tailing is a kind of solid waste produced in the process of gold extraction from gold ore. In this paper, recovery of iron from cyanide tailings was studied with reduction roasting–water leaching process followed by magnetic separation. After analysis of chemical composition and crystalline phase, the effects of different parameters on recovery of iron were chiefly introduced. Systematic studies indicate that the high recovery rate and grade of magnetic concentrate of iron can be achieved under the following conditions: weight ratios of cyanide tailings/activated carbon/sodium carbonate/sodium sulfate, 100:10:3:10; temperature, 50 °C; time, 60 min at the reduction roasting stage; the liquid to solid ratio is 15:1 (ml/g), leaching at 60 °C for 5 min and stirring speed at 20 r/min at water-leaching; exciting current is 2 A at magnetic separation. The iron grade of magnetic concentrate was 59.11% and the recovery ratio was 75.12%. The mineralography of cyanide tailings, roasted product, water-leached sample, magnetic concentrate and magnetic tailings were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) technique. The microstructures of above products except magnetic tailings were also analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) to help understand the mechanism.

  17. Total body neutron activation analysis of calcium: calibration and normalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, N S.J.; Eastell, R; Ferrington, C M; Simpson, J D; Strong, J A [Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (UK); Smith, M A; Tothill, P [Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (UK)

    1982-05-01

    An irradiation system has been designed, using a neutron beam from a cyclotron, which optimises the uniformity of activation of calcium. Induced activity is measured in a scanning, shadow-shield whole-body counter. Calibration has been effected and reproducibility assessed with three different types of phantom. Corrections were derived for variations in body height, depth and fat thickness. The coefficient of variation for repeated measurements of an anthropomorphic phantom was 1.8% for an absorbed dose equivalent of 13 mSv (1.3 rem). Measurements of total body calcium in 40 normal adults were used to derive normalisation factors which predict the normal calcium in a subject of given size and age. The coefficient of variation of normalised calcium was 6.2% in men and 6.6% in women, with the demonstration of an annual loss of 1.5% after the menopause. The narrow range should make single measurements useful for diagnostic purposes.

  18. Essentials of total quality management: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify critical successful factors for Total Quality Management (TQM) implementation. A literature review was conducted to explore the critical successful factors for TQM implementation between 1980 and 2010. A successful TQM implementation need sufficient education and training, supportive leadership, consistent support of top management, customer focus, employee involvement, process management and continuous improvement of processes. The review was limited to articles written in English language during the past 30 years. From a practical point of view, the findings of this paper provide managers with a practical understanding of the factors that are likely to facilitate TQM implementation in organisations. Understanding the factors that are likely to promote TQM implementation would enable managers to develop more effective strategies that will enhance the chances of achieving business excellence.

  19. Laboratory characterization and astrophysical detection of vibrationally excited states of vinyl cyanide in Orion-KL

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A.; Tercero, B.; Kisiel, Z.; Daly, A. M.; Bermúdez, C.; Calcutt, H.; Marcelino, N.; Viti, S.; Drouin, B. J.; Medvedev, I. R.; Neese, C. F.; Pszczółkowski, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Cernicharo, J.

    2014-12-01

    Context. We perform a laboratory characterization in the 18-1893 GHz range and astronomical detection between 80-280 GHz in Orion-KL with IRAM-30 m of CH2CHCN (vinyl cyanide) in its ground and vibrationally excited states. Aims: Our aim is to improve the understanding of rotational spectra of vibrationally excited vinyl cyanide with new laboratory data and analysis. The laboratory results allow searching for these excited state transitions in the Orion-KL line survey. Furthermore, rotational lines of CH2CHCN contribute to the understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the cloud. Methods: Laboratory measurements of CH2CHCN made on several different frequency-modulated spectrometers were combined into a single broadband 50-1900 GHz spectrum and its assignment was confirmed by Stark modulation spectra recorded in the 18-40 GHz region and by ab-initio anharmonic force field calculations. For analyzing the emission lines of vinyl cyanide detected in Orion-KL we used the excitation and radiative transfer code (MADEX) at LTE conditions. Results: Detailed characterization of laboratory spectra of CH2CHCN in nine different excited vibrational states: ν11 = 1, ν15 = 1, ν11 = 2, ν10 = 1 ⇔ (ν11 = 1,ν15 = 1), ν11 = 3/ν15 = 2/ν14 = 1, (ν11 = 1,ν10 = 1) ⇔ (ν11 = 2,ν15 = 1), ν9 = 1, (ν11 = 1,ν15 = 2) ⇔ (ν10 = 1,ν15 = 1) ⇔ (ν11 = 1,ν14 = 1), and ν11 = 4 are determined, as well as the detection of transitions in the ν11 = 2 and ν11 = 3 states for the first time in Orion-KL and of those in the ν10 = 1 ⇔ (ν11 = 1,ν15 = 1) dyad of states for the first time in space. The rotational transitions of the ground state of this molecule emerge from four cloud components of hot core nature, which trace the physical and chemical conditions of high mass star forming regions in the Orion-KL Nebula. The lowest energy vibrationally excited states of vinyl cyanide, such as ν11 = 1 (at 328.5 K), ν15 = 1 (at 478.6 K), ν11 = 2 (at 657.8 K), the ν10

  20. Coumarin amide derivatives as fluorescence chemosensors for cyanide anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qianqian [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Liu, Zhiqiang [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100, Shandong (China); Cao, Duxia, E-mail: duxiacao@ujn.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Guan, Ruifang, E-mail: mse_guanrf@ujn.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Wang, Kangnan; Shan, Yanyan; Xu, Yongxiao; Ma, Lin [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Preparation and Measurement of Building Materials, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China)

    2015-07-01

    Four coumarin amide derivatives with 4-methyl coumarin or pyrene as terminal group have been synthesized. Their photophysical properties and recognition properties for cyanide anions have been examined. The results indicate that the compounds can recognize cyanide anions with obvious absorption and fluorescence spectra change, at the same time, obvious color and fluorescence change can be observed by naked eye. The in situ hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and photophysical properties change confirm that Michael additions between the chemosensors and cyanide anions take place at the 4-position of coumarin. - Highlights: • Four coumarin amide derivatives with 4-methyl coumarin or pyrene as terminal group were synthesized. • The compounds can recognize cyanide anions with obvious absorption and fluorescence spectra change. • Michael additions between the chemosensors and cyanide anions take place at the 4-position of coumarin.

  1. Blood carboxyhaemoglobin and cyanide levels in fire survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.J.; Campbell, D.; Reid, W.H.

    1981-06-20

    Blood carboxyhaemoglobin and cyanide concentrations were measured in 53 fire survivors, 36 of whom had clinical evidence of smoke inhalation. Carboxyhaemoglobin and cyanide levels were raised only in patients with smoke inhalation. Blood carboxyhaemoglobin measurement can be used to confirm the diagnosis of severe smoke inhalation in cases in which the clinical data are inconclusive, provided that the time of sampling after exposure is taken into account. A nomogram has been constructed for this purpose. There is no quick method of measuring blood cyanide levels, but the close relation between cyanide and carboxyhaemoglobin levels suggests that carboxyhaemoglobin concentrations, which can be rapidly and easily measured, could be used to identify those who might benefit from treatment with cyanide antidotes.

  2. HYDROGEN CYANIDE IN THE MURCHISON METEORITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzarello, Sandra, E-mail: pizzar@asu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85018-1604 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are meteorites that may contain abundant organic materials, including soluble compounds as diverse as amino acids and hydrocarbons. We report here the finding of hydrogen cyanide in the Murchison meteorite in amounts {<=} 10 ppm. HCN was never searched for in meteorites and its detection in sizeable amount is surprising in view of the extensive water phase that is recorded by the petrology of this type of meteorites and could have exhausted their HCN content through multiple reactions. The finding adds to the inventory of simple volatile molecules found in both comets and meteorites.

  3. Competing hydrostatic compression mechanisms in nickel cyanide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Lucas, T.C. [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Cairns, A.B.; Funnell, N.P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Tucker, M.G. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Kleppe, A.K. [Diamond Light Source, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Hriljac, J.A. [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Goodwin, A.L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QR (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    We use variable-pressure neutron and X-ray diffraction measurements to determine the uniaxial and bulk compressibilities of nickel(II) cyanide, Ni(CN){sub 2}. Whereas other layered molecular framework materials are known to exhibit negative area compressibility, we find that Ni(CN){sub 2} does not. We attribute this difference to the existence of low-energy in-plane tilt modes that provide a pressure-activated mechanism for layer contraction. The experimental bulk modulus we measure is about four times lower than that reported elsewhere on the basis of density functional theory methods [Phys. Rev. B 83 (2011) 024301].

  4. Systematic Analysis of Painful Total Knee Prosthesis, a Diagnostic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Djahani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Remaining pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a common observation in about 20% of postoperative patients; where in about 60% of these knees require early revision surgery within five years. Obvious causes of this pain could be identified simply with clinical examinations and standard radiographs. However, unexplained painful TKA still remains a challenge for the surgeon. The management should include a multidisciplinary approach to the patient`s pain as well as addressing the underlying etiology. There are a number of extrinsic (tendinopathy, hip, ankle, spine, CRPS and so on and intrinsic (infection, instability, malalignment, wear and so on causes of painful knee replacement. On average, diagnosis takes more than 12 months and patients become very dissatisfied and some of them even acquire psychological problems. Hence, a systematic diagnostic algorithm might be helpful. This review article aims to act as a guide to the evaluation of patients with painful TKA described in 10 different steps. Furthermore, the preliminary results of a series of 100 consecutive cases will be discussed. Revision surgery was performed only in those cases with clear failure mechanism.

  5. Rhodium in car exhaust tips by total automatic activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.; Westphal, G.P.; Lemmel, H.; Sterba, J.

    2007-01-01

    Exhaust systems of modern cars contain catalysts for the reduction of CO, NO x and hydrocarbons. These catalysts are made of ceramic materials with a large surface on which platinum metals catalyse the oxidation. The catalysts contain approximately 2 g of platinum and 0.4 g of rhodium. Recently platinum is being replaced by palladium. During driving the platinum-group elements (PGEs) are expelled from the tip in fine particles and are deposited in the environment. For a projected study of emissions from cars driven on streets and highways it is important to know which elements can be measured by short time activation analysis without any chemical procedure. (author)

  6. THE COMPLETE, TEMPERATURE-RESOLVED EXPERIMENTAL SPECTRUM OF VINYL CYANIDE (H2CCHCN) BETWEEN 210 AND 270 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortman, Sarah M.; Neese, Christopher F.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Medvedev, Ivan R.

    2011-01-01

    The results of an experimental approach to the identification and characterization of the astrophysical weed vinyl cyanide in the 210-270 GHz region are reported. This approach is based on spectrally complete, intensity-calibrated spectra taken at more than 400 different temperatures in the 210-270 GHz region and is used to produce catalogs in the usual astrophysical format: line frequency, line strength, and lower state energy. As in our earlier study of ethyl cyanide, we also include the results of a frequency point-by-point analysis, which is especially well suited for characterizing weak lines and blended lines in crowded spectra. This study shows substantial incompleteness in the quantum-mechanical (QM) models used to calculate astrophysical catalogs, primarily due to their omission of many low-lying vibrational states of vinyl cyanide, but also due to the exclusion of perturbed rotational transitions. Unlike ethyl cyanide, the QM catalogs for vinyl cyanide include analyses of perturbed excited vibrational states, whose modeling is more challenging. Accordingly, we include an empirical study of the frequency accuracy of these QM models. We observe modest frequency differences for some vibrationally excited lines.

  7. Effect of acute and delayed hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cyanide whole blood levels during acute cyanide intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, P; Jansen, E C; Hilsted, Linda Maria

    2011-01-01

    and the subsequent formation of cyanocobalamin measured by a spectrophotometer. Results showed that whole-blood-cyanide concentration in Group 1 controls and acute HBO2 initially rose and then fell towards zero. In rats treated with delayed HBO2, the reduction in whole-blood-cyanide concentration was significantly...

  8. The integration of cyanide hydratase and tyrosinase catalysts enables effective degradation of cyanide and phenol in coking wastewaters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martínková, Ludmila; Chmátal, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 102, October (2016), s. 90-95 ISSN 0043-1354 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01021368; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA04021212; GA MŠk(CZ) LD12049 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Cyanide hydratase * Tyrosinase * Cyanide Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 6.942, year: 2016

  9. THE ANALYSIS OF TOTAL EXPENSES AT 1000 LEI TOTAL REVENUES AND OF THE RESULT OF THE GROWTH OF THEIR EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LĂPĂDUŞI MIHAELA LOREDANA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available act The analysis of the company’s expenses is mainly important in the management and control activity, because it highlights the way in which are used the resources (material, human, financial and the impact of their allocation on the company’s performances. The optimization of the level of costs or the their reduction, where it is possible, without affecting the quality of the products and working conditions of the activity, represent the primary objectives of the management of companies.[9] Expenses have been and will remain one of the key indicators of a company requiring continuous application of a control and monitoring mechanism because when it comes to expenses we never speak of their growth, but their reduction. This reduction is the main objective of any economic agent that will result in increasing the efficiency of the entire activity. The costs of a company reflect in cash the total consumption of material, human and financial resources used in manufacturing and selling of the products. The level, dynamics and structure of these expenses reflect synthetically the activity of industrial enterprises when using effectively the available resources. The purpose of this article is to analyze synthetically a company's expenses efficiency based on the efficiency ratio of total expenses at 1000 lei total revenues and the purpose of the article results in a set of conclusions that will highlight a number of important issues concerning the role and the importance of the efficiency of total expenses related to total revenue, as well as the result of the growth of the efficiency of total expenses.

  10. A Cyanide-Induced 3-Cyanoalanine Nitrilase in the Cyanide-Assimilating Bacterium Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes Strain CECT 5344.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acera, Felipe; Carmona, María Isabel; Castillo, Francisco; Quesada, Alberto; Blasco, Rafael

    2017-05-01

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344 is a bacterium able to assimilate cyanide as a sole nitrogen source. Under this growth condition, a 3-cyanoalanine nitrilase enzymatic activity was induced. This activity was encoded by nit4 , one of the four nitrilase genes detected in the genome of this bacterium, and its expression in Escherichia coli enabled the recombinant strain to fully assimilate 3-cyanoalanine. P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344 showed a weak growth level with 3-cyanoalanine as the N source, unless KCN was also added. Moreover, a nit4 knockout mutant of P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344 became severely impaired in its ability to grow with 3-cyanoalanine and cyanide as nitrogen sources. The native enzyme expressed in E. coli was purified up to electrophoretic homogeneity and biochemically characterized. Nit4 seems to be specific for 3-cyanoalanine, and the amount of ammonium derived from the enzymatic activity doubled in the presence of exogenously added asparaginase activity, which demonstrated that the Nit4 enzyme had both 3-cyanoalanine nitrilase and hydratase activities. The nit4 gene is located downstream of the cyanide resistance transcriptional unit containing cio1 genes, whose expression levels are under the positive control of cyanide. Real-time PCR experiments revealed that nit4 expression was also positively regulated by cyanide in both minimal and LB media. These results suggest that this gene cluster including cio1 and nit4 could be involved both in cyanide resistance and in its assimilation by P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344. IMPORTANCE Cyanide is a highly toxic molecule present in some industrial wastes due to its application in several manufacturing processes, such as gold mining and the electroplating industry. The biodegradation of cyanide from contaminated wastes could be an attractive alternative to physicochemical treatment. P. pseudoalcaligenes CECT 5344 is a bacterial strain able to assimilate cyanide under alkaline conditions, thus

  11. W. Edwards Deming, quality analysis, and total behavior management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, R R; Saunders, J L

    1994-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the inclusion of the word "quality" in descriptions of production methods, management approaches, educational systems, service system changes, and so forth, has grown exponentially. It appears that no new approach to any problem is likely to be given much consideration today without overt acknowledgment that some improvement in quality must be the outcome. The origins of the importance of quality are primarily rooted in the awakening recognition of the influence of W. Edwards Deming in the post-World War II restoration of Japanese industry. We provide a brief overview of Deming's approach to modernizing management methods and discuss recent criticisms from the field of organizational behavior management that his approach lacks emphasis on the role of reinforcement. We offer a different analysis of Deming's approach and relate its evolution to the contingencies of reinforcement for the behavior of consulting. We also provide an example of problem solving with Deming's approach in a social service setting familiar to many behavior analysts.

  12. Determination of cyanide by an indirect spectrophotometric method using 5-Br-PADAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu-Sheng, W; Yu-Qin, L; Fang, Y; Nai-Kui, S

    1981-09-01

    Complexation of Ni(2+) with cyanide inhibits its colour reaction with 5-Br-PADAP and this reaction is used in the spectrophotometric determination of cyanide at the ug level. Cyanide in industrial waste waters is determined after an initial transfer as hydrogen cyanide from the sample into sodium hydroxide solution with a stream of air.

  13. Phosphogypsum analysis: total content and extractable element concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gennari, Roseli F.; Medina, Nilberto H.; Garcia, Isabella; Silveira, Marcilei A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphogypsum stand for the chemical origin gypsum generated in fertilizers production, in which phosphate rock is attacked by sulfuric acid resulting in phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) and phosphate fertilizers. Phosphogypsum is not a commercial product and it is stocked in large open areas or accumulated in lakes inducing to a major environmental problem due to the presence of toxic and radioactive elements. The increasing world agricultural demand is the real responsible for the severity of this environmental problem. Nevertheless, there are some possibilities for the application of this reject material, such as civil construction, waste water treatment, and in cultivated lands, etc. In the agriculture the phosphogypsum is commonly used as a nutrient source due to its large amounts of phosphorus, calcium and sulfur. However, there are still some environmental questions related to the use of this by-product since phosphogypsum is classified as TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material), which is a solid waste containing heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive elements from the rock matrix. In this work, Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to study phosphogypsum samples. Several acid solutions for samples digestion were evaluated in order to be feasible the chemical analysis. BCR sequential extractions were also performed. The results showed analyte concentrations are highly dependent on the acid solution used. The BCR guidelines could not be applied as used for soil, since the phosphogypsum solubility is different. So, it would be necessary to use different mass aliquots in the extractions, to be feasible an environmental evaluation. (author)

  14. Ferrocyanide safety project: Task 3.5 cyanide species analytical methods development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Burger, L.L.; Carlson, C.D.; Hess, N.J.; Matheson, J.D.; Ryan, J.L.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted in FY 1992 to develop methods for the identification and quantification of cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. Currently there are 24 high-level waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site that have been placed on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1,000 g-moles or greater amount of precipitated ferrocyanide. This amount of ferrocyanide is of concern because the consequences of a potential explosion may exceed those reported previously in safety analyses. The threshold concentration of total cyanide within the tank waste matrix that is expected to be a safety concern is estimated at approximately 1 to 3 wt%. Methods for detection and speciation of ferrocyanide complexes in actual waste are needed to definitively measure and quantitate the amount of ferrocyanides present within actual waste tanks to a lower limit of at least 0.1 wt% in order to bound the safety concern

  15. Efficient treatment of an electroplating wastewater containing heavy metal ions, cyanide, and organics by H2O2 oxidation followed by the anodic Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Wang, Haidong; Chen, Fayuan; Mao, Ran; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2013-01-01

    A real electroplating wastewater, containing heavy metals, cyanide, and organic contaminants, was treated by electrocoagulation (EC), H2O2 oxidation, H2O2 pre-oxidation followed by EC, and the anodic Fenton process and the efficacy of the processes was compared. Concentration of cyanide, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Cr was largely decreased by EC within 5 min. When the reaction time was extended, removal of residual cyanide, Cu, and Ni was limited. In H2O2 oxidation, the concentration of cyanide decreased from initial 75 to 12 mg L(-1) in 30 min. The effluents from the H2O2 oxidation were further treated by EC or anodic Fenton. In EC, the concentration of total cyanide, Ni, and Cu decreased to below 0.3, 0.5, and 1.5 mg L(-1), respectively. Removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand by EC was less than 20.0%. By contrast, there was 73.5% reduction by the anodic Fenton process with 5 mM H2O2 at 30 min; this can be attributed to the oxidation induced by hydroxyl radicals generated by the reaction of H2O2 with the electrogenerated Fe(2+). Meanwhile, residual cyanide, Cu, and Ni can also be efficiently removed. Transformation of organic components in various processes was analyzed using UV-visible and fluorescence excitation-emission spectra.

  16. Microbial degradation of cyanide from gold metallurgical plants utilizing P. fluorecens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Oscar Jaime; Montoya, Carlos Arturo; Munoz, Nury Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    Sodium cyanide is traditionally used in chemical metallurgy to obtain precious metals (gold and silver). Cyanide produces damages because of its toxicity and breath cell inhibition. Here we try a biotechnological process to degrade cyanide with P. fluorescens obtained by cyanide heap leaching process in gold metallurgy in Segovia, Colombia. In Colombia cyanide heap-leaching process in gold metallurgy is not controlled and cyanide is used excessively. It means that great quantities of sodium cyanide are lost in sands and in wastewater. Toxicity tests made by D. pulex show less than 54 ppm of cyanide is enough to kill them. Traditional treatments to cyanide degradation are useful and normal but they are expensive. Microbiological process eliminates cyanide successfully and cheap

  17. Batch growth kinetic studies of locally isolated cyanide-degrading Serratia marcescens strain AQ07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamba, Kabiru Ibrahim; Ahmad, Siti Aqlima; Zulkharnain, Azham; Yasid, Nur Adeela; Ibrahim, Salihu; Shukor, Mohd Yunus

    2018-01-01

    The evaluation of degradation and growth kinetics of Serratia marcescens strain AQ07 was carried out using three half-order models at all the initial concentrations of cyanide with the values of regression exceeding 0.97. The presence of varying cyanide concentrations reveals that the growth and degradation of bacteria were affected by the increase in cyanide concentration with a total halt at 700 ppm KCN after 72 h incubation. In this study, specific growth and degradation rates were found to trail the substrate inhibition kinetics. These two rates fitted well to the kinetic models of Teissier, Luong, Aiba and Heldane, while the performance of Monod model was found to be unsatisfactory. These models were used to clarify the substrate inhibition on the bacteria growth. The analyses of these models have shown that Luong model has fitted the experimental data with the highest coefficient of determination ( R 2 ) value of 0.9794 and 0.9582 with the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) value of 0.000204 and 0.001, respectively, for the specific rate of degradation and growth. It is the only model that illustrates the maximum substrate concentration ( S m ) of 713.4 and empirical constant ( n ) of 1.516. Tessier and Aiba fitted the experimental data with a R 2 value of 0.8002 and 0.7661 with low RMSE of 0.0006, respectively, for specific biodegradation rate, while having a R 2 value of 0.9 and RMSE of 0.001, respectively, for specific growth rate. Haldane has the lowest R 2 value of 0.67 and 0.78 for specific biodegradation and growth rate with RMSE of 0.0006 and 0.002, respectively. This indicates the level of the bacteria stability in varying concentrations of cyanide and the maximum cyanide concentration it can tolerate within a specific time period. The biokinetic constant predicted from this model demonstrates a good ability of the locally isolated bacteria in cyanide remediation in industrial effluents.

  18. Protection against cyanide-induced convulsions with alpha-ketoglutarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H

    1990-04-30

    Protection against convulsions induced by cyanide was observed after treatment with alpha-ketoglutarate, either alone or in combination with sodium thiosulfate, a classical antagonist for cyanide intoxication. However, sodium thiosulfate alone did not protect against cyanide (30 mg/kg)-induced convulsions. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in brain were decreased by 31% in KCN-treated mice exhibiting convulsions. The combined administration of alpha-ketoglutarate and sodium thiosulfate completely abolished the decrease of GABA levels induced by cyanide. Furthermore, sodium thiosulfate alone also completely abolished the decrease of GABA levels. These results suggest that the depletion of brain GABA levels may not directly contribute to the development of convulsions induced by cyanide. On the other hand, cyanide increased calcium levels by 32% in brain crude mitochondrial fractions in mice with convulsions. The increased calcium levels were completely abolished by the combined administration of alpha-ketoglutarate and sodium thiosulfate, but not affected by sodium thiosulfate alone. These findings support the hypothesis proposed by Johnson et al. (Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 84 (1986) 464) and Robinson et al. (Toxicology, 35 (1985) 59) that calcium may play an important role in mediating cyanide neurotoxicity.

  19. Biogenic production of cyanide and its application to gold recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S C; Olson, G J; Clark, T R; McFeters, G

    2001-03-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a cyanogenic (cyanide-producing) microorganism. Cyanide is used on an industrial scale to complex and recover gold from ores or concentrates of ores bearing the precious metal. A potentially useful approach in gold mining operations could be to produce cyanide biologically in relatively small quantities at the ore surface. In this study, C. violaceum grown in nutrient broth formed a biofilm and could complex and solubilize 100% of the gold on glass test slides within 4-7 days. Approximately 50% of the cyanide- recoverable gold could be mobilized from a biooxidized sulfidic-ore concentrate. Complexation of cyanide in solution by gold appeared to have a beneficial effect on cell growth--viable cell counts were nearly two orders of magnitude greater in the presence of gold-coated slides or biooxidized ore substrates than in their absence. C. violaceum was cyanogenic when grown in alternative feedstocks. When grown in a mineral salt solution supplemented with 13.3% v/v swine fecal material (SFM), cells exhibited pigmentation and suspended cell concentrations comparable to cultures grown in nutrient broth. Glycine supplements stimulated production of cyanide in 13.3% v/v SFM. In contrast, glycine was inhibitory when added at the time of inoculation in the more concentrated SFM, decreasing cell numbers and reducing ultimate bulk-solution cyanide concentrations. However, aeration and addition of glycine to stationary phase cells grown on 13.3% v/v SFM anaerobically resulted in rapid production and high concentrations (up to 38 mg l(-1)) of cyanide. This indicates that biogenesis of cyanide may be supported in remote areas using locally produced and inexpensive agricultural feedstocks in place of commercial media.

  20. Enrichment of copper and recycling of cyanide from copper-cyanide waste by solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Teng-yue; Liu, Kui-ren; Han, Qing; Xu, Bin-shi

    2016-11-01

    The enrichment of copper from copper-cyanide wastewater by solvent extraction was investigated using a quaternary ammonium salt as an extractant. The influences of important parameters, e.g., organic-phase components, aqueous pH values, temperature, inorganic anion impurities, CN/Cu molar ratio, and stripping reagents, were examined systematically, and the optimal conditions were determined. The results indicated that copper was effectively concentrated from low-concentration solutions using Aliquat 336 and that the extraction efficiency increased linearly with increasing temperature. The aqueous pH value and concentrations of inorganic anion impurities only weakly affected the extraction process when varied in appropriate ranges. The CN/Cu molar ratio affected the extraction efficiency by changing the distribution of copper-cyanide complexes. The difference in gold leaching efficiency between using raffinate and fresh water was negligible.

  1. Removal of cadmium and cyanide from aqueous solutions through electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marder Luciano

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of galvanic industry wastewaters containing heavy metals and cyanide is one of the largest sources of water pollution. The use of the electrodialysis technique for the treatment of a synthetic wastewater containing approximately 0.0089 mol L-1 cadmium and 0.081 mol L-1 cyanide was studied using a five-compartment electrodialysis cell. The results demonstrate that the removal of cadmium and cyanide depends on the applied current density and it is limited by the precipitation of cadmium on the cation-exchange membrane in the diluate central cell compartment.

  2. Chemical evolution. XXIX - Pyrimidines from hydrogen cyanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, J. P.; Joshi, P. C.; Lawless, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    Compounds obtained by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers formed by allowing pH 9.2, 0.1 M cyanide to stand at room temperature for 4 to 12 months were analyzed. Hydrolysis of HCN oligomers yielded 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidine and 5-hydroxyuracil; orotic acid was detected after hydrolysis at pH 8.5. A unified pathway from diaminofumaronitrile to the pyrimidines observed is suggested. As purines, pyrimidines and amino acids are released by hydrolysis of HCN oligomers in either acidic or mildly basic aqueous solutions, they could have been formed on the primitive earth in spite of fluctuations in pH. 4,5-dihydroxypyrimidines appear to be likely candidates for incorporation into primitive nucleic acids, as they should undergo Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding with adenine.

  3. Heavy metal pollution in soil associated with a large-scale cyanidation gold mining region in southeast of Jilin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Lu, Wenxi; Hou, Zeyu; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Xue; Wu, Jichun

    2017-01-01

    Different gold mining and smelting processes can lead to distinctive heavy metal contamination patterns and results. This work examined heavy metal pollution from a large-scale cyanidation gold mining operation, which is distinguished from artisanal and small-scale amalgamation gold mining, in Jilin Province, China. A total of 20 samples including one background sample were collected from the surface of the mining area and the tailings pond in June 2013. These samples were analyzed for heavy metal concentrations and degree of pollution as well as sources of Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cd, As, and Hg. The mean concentrations of Pb, Hg, and Cu (819.67, 0.12, and 46.92 mg kg -1 , respectively) in soil samples from the gold mine area exceeded local background values. The mean Hg content was less than the first-class standard of the Environmental Quality for Soils, which suggested that the cyanidation method is helpful for reducing Hg pollution. The geochemical accumulation index and enrichment factor results indicated clear signs that enrichment was present for Pb, Cu, and Hg, with the presence of serious Pb pollution and moderate presence to none of Hg and Cu pollution. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that there were three metal sources: (1) Pb, Cd, Cu, and As came from anthropogenic sources; (2) Cr and Zn were naturally occurring; whereas (3) Hg and Ni had a mix of anthropogenic and natural sources. Moreover, the tailings dam plays an important role in intercepting the tailings. Furthermore, the potential ecological risk assessment results showed that the study area poses a potentially strong risk to the ecological health. Furthermore, Pb and Hg (due to high concentration and high toxicity, respectively) are major pollutants on the risk index, and both Pb and Hg pollution should be of great concern at the Haigou gold mines in Jilin, China.

  4. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE INDUSTRIAL TEST SYSTEM, INC. CYANIDE REAGENTSTRIP™ TEST KIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanide can be present in various forms in water. The cyanide test kit evaluated in this verification study (Industrial Test System, Inc. Cyanide Regent Strip ™ Test Kit) was designed to detect free cyanide in water. This is done by converting cyanide in water to cyanogen...

  5. Mechanism of redox reactions induced by light and electron pulse in solutions of mixed ligand iron(II) complex cyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, A.; Szoeke, J.; Wojnarovits, L.

    1991-01-01

    Redox reactions induced by light and electron pulse have been studied in aqueous solutions of mixed ligand iron(II) complex cyanides. The short lived intermediates have been identified by time resolved specroscopy, the results of detailed kinetic analysis have been discussed. (author) 6 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. Mechanisms Regulating the Cardiac Output Response to Cyanide Infusion, a Model of Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chang-seng; Huckabee, William E.

    1973-01-01

    When tissue metabolic changes like those of hypoxia were induced by intra-aortic infusion of cyanide in dogs, cardiac output began to increase after 3 to 5 min, reached a peak (220% of the control value) at 15 min, and returned to control in 40 min. This pattern of cardiac output rise was not altered by vagotomy with or without atropine pretreatment. However, this cardiac output response could be differentiated into three phases by pretreating the animals with agents that block specific activities of the sympatho-adrenal system. First, ganglionic blockade produced by mecamylamine or sympathetic nerve blockade by bretylium abolished the middle phase of the cardiac output seen in the untreated animal, but early and late phases still could be discerned. Second, beta-adrenergic receptor blockade produced by propranolol shortened the total duration of the cardiac output rise by abolishing the late phase. Third, when given together, propranolol and mecamylamine (or bretylium) prevented most of the cardiac output rise that follows the early phase. When cyanide was given to splenectomized dogs, the duration of the cardiac output response was not shortened, but the response became biphasic, resembling that seen after chemical sympathectomy. A similar biphasic response of the cardiac output also resulted from splenic denervation; sham operation or nephrectomy had no effect on the monophasic pattern of the normal response. Splenic venous blood obtained from cyanide-treated dogs, when infused intraportally, caused an increase in cardiac output in recipient dogs; similar infusion of arterial blood had no effects. These results suggest that the cardiac output response to cyanide infusion consists of three components: an early phase, related neither to the autonomic nervous system nor to circulating catecholamines; a middle phase, caused by a nonadrenergic humoral substance released from the spleen by sympathetic stimulation; and a late phase, dependent upon adrenergic receptors

  7. In Vivo Metabolism in Rats of Cyanide -Containing Compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iayer chromatography indicated the presence of novel cyanide-containing compounds, which were shown chemically to be cyanohydrin (Rf, 0.25) ands nitrile (Rf, 0.645). Administration of the eluates of those chromatographically identified CN- ...

  8. cyanide cassava genotypes in acid ultisols of south eastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENGR C.J

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... Thirty-eight high and low cyanide cassava genotypes were evaluated for growth and .... sium (K) and sodium (Na) were determined by Flamephoto-metory .... outlined for randomized complete block design (Steel et al., 1997).

  9. Uptake, metabolism, accumulation and toxicity of cyanide in willow trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten; Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Trapp, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Chemicals taken up into plants may be accumulated so leading to toxic effects. Uptake and phytotoxicity of free cyanide was determined with the willow-tree transpiration test. Willow sets were grown in sand and irrigated with varying levels of cyanide (CN). Toxicity was determined by measuring...... transpiration. At CN concentrations below 10 mg/L, no toxic effects were observed. At 20 mg/L, transpiration was reduced to approximately 50% after 96 h. With 30, 40 and 50 mg/L, the transpiration decreased with a similar rate to cyanide in plant...... tissue was observed at 40 and 50 mg/L. The kinetics of metabolism of cyanide by roots, stems and leaves of willows was determined by the closed-bottle metabolism test. The Michaelis−Menten parameters vmax and KM (maximal metabolic velocity and half-saturation constant, respectively) were determined...

  10. Cyanide Suicide After Deep Web Shopping: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Garff, Erwan; Delannoy, Yann; Mesli, Vadim; Allorge, Delphine; Hédouin, Valéry; Tournel, Gilles

    2016-09-01

    Cyanide is a product that is known for its use in industrial or laboratory processes, as well as for intentional intoxication. The toxicity of cyanide is well described in humans with rapid inhibition of cellular aerobic metabolism after ingestion or inhalation, leading to severe clinical effects that are frequently lethal. We report the case of a young white man found dead in a hotel room after self-poisoning with cyanide ordered in the deep Web. This case shows a probable complex suicide kit use including cyanide, as a lethal tool, and dextromethorphan, as a sedative and anxiolytic substance. This case is an original example of the emerging deep Web shopping in illegal drug procurement.

  11. Is Hydrogen Cyanide a Marker of Burkholderia cepacia Complex?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gilchrist, F. J.; Sims, H.; Alcock, A.; Jones, A.M.; Bright-Thomas, R. J.; Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik; Webb, A. K.; Lenney, W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 11 (2013), s. 3849-3851 ISSN 0095-1137 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : acetone * alcohol * hydrogen cyanide Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.232, year: 2013

  12. Effect of chemical pretreatment on the biodegradation of cyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronstein, B.N.; Paterek, J.R.; Rice, L.E.; Srivastava, V.J.

    1995-01-01

    The application of Fenton's reagent (H 2 O 2 ; Fe 2+ ) as a chemical pretreatment for acceleration of biological degradation of cyanides in soil-containing systems has been studied. In slurries of topsoil freshly amended with radiolabeled free cyanide (K 14 CN) at pH 7.2, about 100% of the compound was removed from the system by the combination of chemical oxidation and biodegradation. In slurry of manufactured gas plant (MGP) soil, the extent of combined chemical-biological treatment was 50%. At the same time, approximately 15% of the cyanide was lost from the system by protonation and evolution of formed HCN. In slurries of both topsoil and MGP soil amended with radiolabeled K 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ], less than 20% was degraded. In soils previously equilibrated with free and complex cyanide, the highest extent of degradation resulted from chemical-biological treatment did not exceed 15%. To avoid massive evolution of HCN, the cyanide-amended topsoil was maintained at a pH of 10.0. At this pH, nearly 35% of the cyanides were removed from the system by combined chemical-biological treatment

  13. Biological Treatment of Cyanide by Using Klebsiella pneumoniae Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isil Seyis Bilkay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, optimization conditions for cyanide biodegradation by Klebsiella pneumoniae strain were determined to be 25 °C, pH=7 and 150 rpm at the concentration of 0.5 mM potassium cyanide in the medium. Additionally, it was found that K. pneumoniae strain is not only able to degrade potassium cyanide, but also to degrade potassium hexacyanoferrate(II trihydrate and sodium ferrocyanide decahydrate with the efficiencies of 85 and 87.5 %, respectively. Furthermore, this strain degraded potassium cyanide in the presence of different ions such as magnesium, nickel, cobalt, iron, chromium, arsenic and zinc, in variable concentrations (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mM and as a result the amount of the bacteria in the biodegradation media decreased with the increase of ion concentration. Lastly, it was also observed that sterile crude extract of K. pneumoniae strain degraded potassium cyanide on the fifth day of incubation. Based on these results, it is concluded that both culture and sterile crude extract of K. pnemoniae will be used in cyanide removal from different wastes.

  14. Toxicity of carbon monoxide hydrogen cyanide gas mixtures : exposure concentration, time to incapacitation, carboxyhemoglobin and blood cyanide parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    During aircraft interior fires, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) are produced in sufficient amounts to cause incapacitation and death. Time-to-incapacitation (ti) is a practical parameter for estimating escape time in fire environments...

  15. Enhanced photoelectrocatalytic decomposition of copper cyanide complexes and simultaneous recovery of copper with a Bi2MoO6 electrode under visible light by EDTA/K4P2O7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Juanjuan; Qiao, Meng; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-04-07

    Simultaneous photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) oxidation of cyanides and recovery of copper in a PEC reactor with a Bi(2)MoO(6) photoanode was investigated at alkaline conditions under visible light irradiation. The surface variation of the Bi(2)MoO(6) photoanode and titanium cathode was characterized. The Cu mass distribution onto the anode, in the solution, and onto the cathode was fully investigated. In the individual PEC oxidation of copper cyanides, the formation of a black copper oxide on the anode occurred. By keeping the initial cyanide concentration at 0.01 mM, the effect of EDTA/K(4)P(2)O(7) was examined at different molar ratios of EDTA/K(4)P(2)O(7) to cyanide. It was indicated that the oxidation of cyanides increased and simultaneous copper electrodeposition with zero value onto the cathode was feasible at pH 11. Under the optimal conditions, the total cyanide concentration was lowered from 250 to 5.0 mg/L, and the Cu recovery efficiency deposited onto the cathode was higher than 90%. Cyanate was the only product. The role of the photogenerated hole in the oxidation of cyanide ions was confirmed.

  16. 1D cyanide complexes with 2-pyridinemethanol: Synthesis, crystal structures and spectroscopic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayın, Elvan; Kürkçüoğlu, Güneş Süheyla; Yeşilel, Okan Zafer; Hökelek, Tuncer

    2015-12-01

    Two new one-dimensional coordination polymers, [Cu(hmpH)2Pd(μ-CN)2(CN)2]n (1) and [Cu(hmpH)2Pt(μ-CN)2(CN)2]n (2), (hmpH = 2-pyridinemethanol), have been synthesized and characterized by vibrational (FT-IR and Raman) spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, thermal and elemental analyses techniques. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that complexes 1 and 2 are isomorphous and isostructural, and crystallize in the triclinic system and P-1 space group. The Pd(II) or Pt(II) ions are four coordinated with four cyanide-carbon atoms in a square planar geometry. Cu(II) ion displays a distorted octahedral coordination by two N-atoms and two O-atoms of hmpH ligands, two bridging cyanide groups. In one dimensional structure of the complexes, [M(CN)4]2- (M = Pd(II) or Pt(II)) anions and [Cu(hmpH)2]2+ cations are linked via bridging cyanide ligands. In the complexes, the presence of intramolecular C-H⋯M (M = Pd(II) or Pt(II)) interactions with distance values of 3.00-2.95 Å are established, respectively.

  17. Bearing Procurement Analysis Method by Total Cost of Ownership Analysis and Reliability Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusaji, Wildan; Akbar, Muhammad; Sukoyo; Irianto, Dradjad

    2018-03-01

    In making bearing procurement analysis, price and its reliability must be considered as decision criteria, since price determines the direct cost as acquisition cost and reliability of bearing determine the indirect cost such as maintenance cost. Despite the indirect cost is hard to identify and measured, it has high contribution to overall cost that will be incurred. So, the indirect cost of reliability must be considered when making bearing procurement analysis. This paper tries to explain bearing evaluation method with the total cost of ownership analysis to consider price and maintenance cost as decision criteria. Furthermore, since there is a lack of failure data when bearing evaluation phase is conducted, reliability prediction method is used to predict bearing reliability from its dynamic load rating parameter. With this method, bearing with a higher price but has higher reliability is preferable for long-term planning. But for short-term planning the cheaper one but has lower reliability is preferable. This contextuality can give rise to conflict between stakeholders. Thus, the planning horizon needs to be agreed by all stakeholder before making a procurement decision.

  18. Lower sulfurtransferase detoxification rates of cyanide in konzo—A tropical spastic paralysis linked to cassava cyanogenic poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambale, K.J.; Ali, E.R.; Sadiki, N.H.; Kayembe, K.P.; Mvumbi, L.G.; Yandju, D.L.; Boivin, M.J.; Boss, G.R.; Stadler, D.D.; Lambert, W.E.; Lasarev, M.R.; Okitundu, L.A.; Ngoyi, D. Mumba; Banea, J.P.; Tshala-Katumbay, D.D.

    2016-01-01

    Using a matched case-control design, we sought to determine whether the odds of konzo, a distinct spastic paraparesis associated with food (cassava) cyanogenic exposure in the tropics, were associated with lower cyanide detoxification rates (CDR) and malnutrition. Children with konzo (N= 122, 5–17 years of age) were age- and sex-matched with presumably healthy controls (N = 87) and assessed for motor and cognition performances, cyanogenic exposure, nutritional status, and cyanide detoxification rates (CDR). Cyanogenic exposure was ascertained by thiocyanate (SCN) concentrations in plasma (P-SCN) and urine (U-SCN). Children with a height-for-age z-score (HAZNCHS) cyanide to SCN, and expressed as ms/μmol SCN/mg protein or as mmolSCN/ml plasma/min. Mean (SD) U-SCN in children with konzo was 521.9 (353.6) μmol/l and was, significantly higher than 384.6 (223.7) μmol/l in those without konzo. Conditional regression analysis of data for age- and sex- matched case-control pairs showed that konzo was associated with stunting (OR: 5.8; 95% CI: 2.7–12.8; p cyanide in those relying on the cassava as the main source of food. PMID:27246648

  19. Hypersalinity reduces the risk of cyanide toxicosis to insectivorous bats interacting with wastewater impoundments at gold mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Stephen R; Donato, David B; Lumsden, Linda F; Coulson, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife and livestock that ingest bioavailable cyanide compounds in gold mining tailings dams are known to experience cyanide toxicosis. Elevated levels of salinity in open impoundments have been shown to prevent wildlife cyanide toxicosis by reducing drinking and foraging. This finding appears to be consistent for diurnal wildlife interacting with open impoundments, however the risks to nocturnal wildlife of cyanide exposure are unknown. We investigated the activity of insectivorous bats in the airspace above both fresh (potable to wildlife) and saline water bodies at two gold mines in the goldfields of Western Australian. During this study, cyanide-bearing solutions stored in open impoundments at both mine sites were hypersaline (range=57,000-295,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS)), well above known physiological tolerance of any terrestrial vertebrate. Bats used the airspace above each water body monitored, but were more active at fresh than saline water bodies. In addition, considerably more terminal echolocation buzz calls were recorded in the airspace above fresh than saline water bodies at both mine sites. However, it was not possible to determine whether these buzz calls corresponded to foraging or drinking bouts. No drinking bouts were observed in 33 h of thermal video footage recorded at one hypersaline tailings dam, suggesting that this water is not used for drinking. There is no information on salinity tolerances of bats, but it could be assumed that bats would not tolerate salinity in drinking water at concentrations greater than those documented as toxic for saline-adapted terrestrial wildlife. Therefore, when managing wastewater impoundments at gold mines to avoid wildlife mortalities, adopting a precautionary principle, bats are unlikely to drink solutions at salinity levels ≥50,000 mg/L TDS. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Precious metal recovery from waste printed circuit boards using cyanide and non-cyanide lixiviants--A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcil, Ata; Erust, Ceren; Gahan, Chandra Sekhar; Ozgun, Mehmet; Sahin, Merve; Tuncuk, Aysenur

    2015-11-01

    Waste generated by the electrical and electronic devices is huge concern worldwide. With decreasing life cycle of most electronic devices and unavailability of the suitable recycling technologies it is expected to have huge electronic and electrical wastes to be generated in the coming years. The environmental threats caused by the disposal and incineration of electronic waste starting from the atmosphere to the aquatic and terrestrial living system have raised high alerts and concerns on the gases produced (dioxins, furans, polybrominated organic pollutants, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) by thermal treatments and can cause serious health problems if the flue gas cleaning systems are not developed and implemented. Apart from that there can be also dissolution of heavy metals released to the ground water from the landfill sites. As all these electronic and electrical waste do posses richness in the metal values it would be worth recovering the metal content and protect the environmental from the pollution. Cyanide leaching has been a successful technology worldwide for the recovery of precious metals (especially Au and Ag) from ores/concentrates/waste materials. Nevertheless, cyanide is always preferred over others because of its potential to deliver high recovery with a cheaper cost. Cyanidation process also increases the additional work of effluent treatment prior to disposal. Several non-cyanide leaching processes have been developed considering toxic nature and handling problems of cyanide with non-toxic lixiviants such as thiourea, thiosulphate, aqua regia and iodine. Therefore, several recycling technologies have been developed using cyanide or non-cyanide leaching methods to recover precious and valuable metals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biodegradation of free cyanide by bacterial species isolated from cyanide-contaminated artisanal gold mining catchment area in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razanamahandry, Lovasoa Christine; Andrianisa, Harinaivo Anderson; Karoui, Hela; Kouakou, Koffi Marcelin; Yacouba, Hamma

    2016-08-01

    Soil and water samples were collected from a watershed in Burkina Faso where illegal artisanal gold extraction using cyanidation occurs. The samples were used to evaluate cyanide contamination and the presence of cyanide degrading bacteria (CDB). Free cyanide (F-CN) was detected in all samples, with concentrations varying from 0.023 to 0.9 mg kg(-1), and 0.7-23 μg L(-1) in the soil and water samples, respectively. Potential CDB also were present in the samples. To test the effective F-CN degradation capacity of the isolated CDB species, the species were cultivated in growth media containing 40, 60 or 80 mg F-CN L(-1), with or without nutrients, at pH 9.5 and at room temperature. More than 95% of F-CN was degraded within 25 h, and F-CN degradation was associated with bacterial growth and ammonium production. However, initial concentrations of F-CN higher than 100 mg L(-1) inhibited bacterial growth and cyanide degradation. Abiotic tests showed that less than 3% of F-CN was removed by volatilization. Thus, the degradation of F-CN occurred predominately by biological mechanisms, and such mechanisms are recommended for remediation of contaminated soil and water. The bacteria consortium used in the experiment described above exist in a Sahelian climate, which is characterized by a long hot and dry season. Because the bacteria are already adapted to the local climate conditions and show the potential for cyanide biodegradation, further applicability to other contaminated areas in West Africa, where illegal gold cyanidation is widespread, should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cyanide binding to ferrous and ferric microperoxidase-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Sbardella, Diego; Santucci, Roberto; Coletta, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Microperoxidase-11 (MP11) is an undecapeptide derived from horse heart cytochrome c (cytc). MP11 is characterized by a covalently linked solvent-exposed heme group, the heme-Fe atom being axially coordinated by a histidyl residue. Here, the reactions of ferrous and ferric MP11 (MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III), respectively) with cyanide have been investigated from the kinetic and thermodynamic viewpoints, at pH 7.0 and 20.0 °C. Values of the second-order rate constant for cyanide binding to MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III) are 4.5 M(-1) s(-1) and 8.9 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. Values of the first-order rate constant for cyanide dissociation from ligated MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III) are 1.8 × 10(-1) s(-1) and 1.5 × 10(-3) s(-1), respectively. Values of the dissociation equilibrium constant for cyanide binding to MP11-Fe(II) and MP11-Fe(III) are 3.7 × 10(-2) and 1.7 × 10(-7) M, respectively, matching very well with those calculated from kinetic parameters so that no intermediate species seem to be involved in the ligand-binding process. The pH-dependence of cyanide binding to MP11-Fe(III) indicates that CN(-) is the only binding species. Present results have been analyzed in parallel with those of several heme-proteins, suggesting that (1) the ligand accessibility to the metal center and cyanide ionization may modulate the formation of heme-Fe-cyanide complexes, and (2) the general polarity of the heme pocket and/or hydrogen bonding of the heme-bound ligand may affect cyanide exit from the protein matrix. Microperoxidase-11 (MP11) is an undecapeptide derived from horse heart cytochrome c. Penta-coordinated MP11 displays a very high reactivity towards cyanide, whereas the reactivity of hexa-coordinated horse heart cytochrome c is very low.

  3. Differential metabolism of acrylonitrile to cyanide is responsible for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice: role of CYP2E1 and epoxide hydrolases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanas, Brian; Wang, Hongbing; Ghanayem, Burhan I.

    2003-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN) is a potent toxicant and a known rodent carcinogen. AN epoxidation to cyanoethylene oxide (CEO) via CYP2E1 and its subsequent metabolism via epoxide hydrolases (EH) to yield cyanide is thought to be responsible for the acute toxicity and mortality of AN. Recent reports showed that male mice are more sensitive than females to the acute toxicity/mortality of AN. The present work was undertaken to assess the metabolic and enzymatic basis for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice to AN toxicity. Male and female wild-type and CYP2E1-null mice received AN at 0, 2.5, 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg by gavage. Cyanide concentrations were measured at 1 or 3 h after dosing. Current data demonstrated that cyanide levels in blood and tissues of AN-treated wild-type mice of both sexes were significantly greater than in vehicle-treated controls and increased in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, cyanide levels in AN-treated CYP2E1-null mice were not statistically different from those measured in vehicle-treated controls. Furthermore, higher levels of cyanide were detected in male wild-type mice vs females in association with greater sensitivity of males to the acute toxicity/mortality of this chemical. Using Western blot analysis, negligible difference in CYP2E1 expression with higher levels of soluble and microsomal EH (sEH and mEH) was detected in the liver of male vs female mice. In kidneys, male mice exhibited higher expression of both renal CYP2E1 and sEH than did female mice. In conclusion, higher blood and tissue cyanide levels are responsible for the greater sensitivity of male vs female mice to AN. Further, higher expression of CYP2E1 and EH in male mice may contribute to greater formation of CEO and its subsequent metabolism to yield cyanide, respectively

  4. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of trace cyanide with cationic porphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, H; Kohata, K

    1991-05-01

    Three highly sensitive methods for the determination of cyanide have been developed, based on the fact that the complexation of silver ions with three cationic porphyrins, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(1-methyl-2-pyridinio)porphine [T(2-MPy)P], 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methyl-3-pyridinio)porphine [T(3-MPy)P] and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridinio)porphine [T(4-MPy)P], in alkaline media is inhibited by cyanide and the decrease in absorbance of the silver(II) complex is proportional to the cyanide concentration. Sensitivities of the procedures developed are 0.133, 0.126 and 0.234 ng/cm(2), respectively for an absorbance of 0.001. Cadmium(II), copper(II), mercury(II), zinc(II), iodide and sulfide interfere with the cyanide determination. One of the proposed methods was applied to the determination of cyanide in waste-water samples, with satisfactory results.

  5. Total RNA Sequencing Analysis of DCIS Progressing to Invasive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0080 TITLE: Total RNA Sequencing Analysis of DCIS Progressing to Invasive Breast Cancer . PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Total RNA Sequencing Analysis of DCIS Progressing to Invasive Breast Cancer . 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER GRANT11489...institutional, NIH-funded study of genetic and epigenetic alterations of pre-invasive DCIS that did or did not progress to invasive breast cancer , with an

  6. Intramuscular Cobinamide Sulfite in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Mahon, Sari B.; Lee, Jangwoen; Kreuter, Kelly A.; Blackledge, William; Mukai, David; Patterson, Steve; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of an intramuscular cobinamide sulfite injection to rapidly reverse the physiologic effects of cyanide toxicity. Background Exposure to cyanide in fires and industrial exposures and intentional cyanide poisoning by terrorists leading to mass casualties is an ongoing threat. Current treatments for cyanide poisoning must be administered intravenously, and no rapid treatment methods are available for mass casualty cyanide exposures. Cobinamide is a cobalamin (vitamin B12) analog with an extraordinarily high affinity for cyanide that is more water-soluble than cobalamin. We investigated the use of intramuscular cobinamide sulfite to reverse cyanide toxicity induced physiologic changes in a sublethal cyanide exposure animal model. Methods New Zealand white rabbits were given 10 mg sodium cyanide intravenously over 60 minutes. Quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy monitoring of tissue oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were performed concurrently with blood cyanide level measurements and cobinamide levels. Immediately after completion of the cyanide infusion, the rabbits were injected intramuscularly with cobinamide sulfite (n=6) or inactive vehicle (controls, n=5). Results Intramuscular administration led to rapid mobilization of cobinamide and was extremely effective at reversing the physiologic effects of cyanide on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin extraction. Recovery time to 63% of their baseline values in the central nervous system was in a mean of 1032 minutes in the control group and 9 minutes in the cobinamide group with a difference of 1023 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 116, 1874 minutes). In muscle tissue, recovery times were 76 and 24 minutes with a difference of 52 minutes (95% CI 7, 98min). Red blood cell cyanide levels returned towards normal significantly faster in cobinamide sulfite-treated animals than in control animals. Conclusions Intramuscular

  7. Acute Cyanide Poisoning: Hydroxocobalamin and Sodium Thiosulfate Treatments with Two Outcomes following One Exposure Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillier, Andrew; Heller, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide is rapidly reacting and causes arrest of aerobic metabolism. The symptoms are diffuse and lethal and require high clinical suspicion. Remediation of symptoms and mortality is highly dependent on quick treatment with a cyanide antidote. Presently, there are two widely accepted antidotes: sodium thiosulfate and hydroxocobalamin. These treatments act on different components of cyanide's metabolism. Here, we present two cases resulting from the same source of cyanide poisoning and the use of both antidotes separately used with differing outcomes.

  8. Transport and Fate of Cyanide in Soil : Case Study of Mooteh Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Taebi; Ali Reza Zade Bafqi; Majid Sartaj

    2006-01-01

    Cyanide, a generic term referring to all compounds containing the cyanide group –CN, is a highly potent and fast-acting poison to humans and other living organisms when exposed to high levels. Cyanide is a widely and essential chemical used in mining and minerals processing industries and many other industries such as metal processing and production of organic chemicals. While some industrial cyanide-containing wastes are treated or recovered, there are cases such as certain gold extraction p...

  9. Comparison of three persulfate digestion methods for total phosphorus analysis and estimation of suspended sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayton, Elizabeth Ann; Whitacre, Shane; Holloman, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    As a result of impairments to fresh surface water quality due to phosphorus enrichment, substantial research effort has been put forth to quantify agricultural runoff phosphorus as related to on-field practices. While the analysis of runoff dissolved phosphorus is well prescribed and leaves little room for variability in methodology, there are several methods and variations of sample preparation reagents as well as analysis procedures for determining runoff total phosphorus. Due to the variation in methodology for determination of total phosphorus and an additional laboratory procedure required to measure suspended solids, the objectives of the current study are to i. compare the performance of three persulfate digestion methods (Acid Persulfate, USGS, and Alkaline Persulfate) for total phosphorus percent recovery across a wide range of suspended sediments (SS), and ii. evaluate the ability of using Al and/or Fe in digestion solution to predict SS as a surrogate to the traditional gravimetric method. Percent recovery of total phosphorus was determined using suspensions prepared from soils collected from 21 agricultural fields in Ohio. The Acid Persulfate method was most effective, with an average total phosphorus percent recovery of 96.6%. The second most effective method was the USGS with an average total phosphorus recovery of 76.1%. However, the Alkaline Persulfate method performed poorly with an average 24.5% total phosphorus recovery. As a result application of Alkaline Persulfate digestion to edge of field monitoring may drastically underestimated runoff total phosphorus. In addition to excellent recovery of total phosphorus, the Acid Persulfate method combined with analysis of Al and Fe by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry provides a robust estimate of total SS. Due to the large quantity of samples that can result from water quality monitoring, an indirect measure of total SS could be very valuable when time and budget constraints limit

  10. Effect of GarriI processing effluents [waste water] on the cyanide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerous studies have described environmental exposure of humans to cyanide in African populations. Little is known about exposure to cyanide toxins from processed or unprocessed root tubers commonly consumed in Africa; and data on the food concentration of cyanide which is a potential poison and systemic toxicant ...

  11. Effect of temperature on the uptake and metabolism of cyanide by weeping willows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, X.-Z.; Trapp, Stefan; Zhou, P.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Plants’ uptake and metabolism of cyanide in response to changes in temperature was investigated. Pre-rooted weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) were exposed to hydroponic solution spiked with potassium cyanide for 2–3 d. Ten different temperatures were used, ranging from 11◦C to 32◦C. Cyanide...

  12. INTEGRATED BIOREACTOR SYSTEM FOR THE TREATMENT OF CYANIDE, METALS AND NITRATES IN MINE PROCESS WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    An innovative biological process is described for the tratment of cyanide-, metals- and nitrate-contaminated mine process water. The technology was tested for its ability to detoxify cyanide and nitrate and to immobilize metals in wastewater from agitation cyanide leaching. A pil...

  13. 49 CFR 173.195 - Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized... Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.195 Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized (hydrocyanic acid, aqueous solution). (a) Hydrogen cyanide, anhydrous, stabilized, must be packed in...

  14. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States...

  15. The integration of cyanide hydratase and tyrosinase catalysts enables effective degradation of cyanide and phenol in coking wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínková, Ludmila; Chmátal, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to design an effective method for the bioremediation of coking wastewaters, specifically for the concurrent elimination of their highly toxic components - cyanide and phenols. Almost full degradation of free cyanide (0.32-20 mM; 8.3-520 mg L(-1)) in the model and the real coking wastewaters was achieved by using a recombinant cyanide hydratase in the first step. The removal of cyanide, a strong inhibitor of tyrosinase, enabled an effective degradation of phenols by this enzyme in the second step. Phenol (16.5 mM, 1,552 mg L(-1)) was completely removed from a real coking wastewater within 20 h and cresols (5.0 mM, 540 mg L(-1)) were removed by 66% under the same conditions. The integration of cyanide hydratase and tyrosinase open up new possibilities for the bioremediation of wastewaters with complex pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The fate of cyanide in leach wastes at gold mines: An environmental perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper reviews the fate of cyanide in mineral processing wastes at gold mines. • Ore leaching produces numerous cyanide-containing species besides the gold complex. • Many cyanide species are eliminated or sequestered naturally over time. • Sequestered cyanide can be remobilized if conditions change. • Toxicity of released solutions can be reduced by photolytic reactions or offgassing. - Abstract: This paper reviews the basic chemistry of cyanide, methods by which cyanide can be analyzed, and aspects of cyanide behavior that are most relevant to environmental considerations at mineral processing operations associated with gold mines. The emphasis is on research results reported since 1999 and on data gathered for a series of U.S. Geological Survey studies that began in the late 1990s. Cyanide is added to process solutions as the CN − anion, but ore leaching produces numerous other cyanide-containing and cyanide-related species in addition to the desired cyanocomplex of gold. These can include hydrogen cyanide (HCN); cyanometallic complexes of iron, copper, zinc, nickel, and many other metals; cyanate (CNO − ); and thiocyanate (SCN − ). The fate of these species in solid wastes and residual process solutions that remain once gold recovery activities are terminated and in any water that moves beyond the ore processing facility dictates the degree to which cyanide poses a risk to aquatic organisms and aquatic-dependent organisms in the local environment. Cyanide-containing and cyanide-related species are subject to attenuation mechanisms that lead to dispersal to the atmosphere, chemical transformation to other carbon and nitrogen species, or sequestration as cyanometallic precipitates or adsorbed species on mineral surfaces. Dispersal to the atmosphere and chemical transformation amount to permanent elimination of cyanide, whereas sequestration amounts to storage of cyanide in locations from which it can potentially be remobilized by

  17. Análise dos teores de ácidos cianídrico e fítico em suplemento alimentar: multimistura Analysis of hydrogen cyanide and phytic acid contents in feeding supplements: multimixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Helbig

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo objetivou quantificar o teor de ácido cianídrico em folhas de mandioca, que receberam tratamento prévio antes da secagem, e a concentração de ácido fítico na multimistura submetida à cocção úmida. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se a multimistura produzida pela Pastoral da Criança da cidade de Pelotas (RS, constituída por: farelos de trigo (30% e arroz (30%: farinhas de milho (15% e trigo (10%; pós de casca de ovo (5%, de folha de mandioca (5% e de sementes (5%, abóbora ou girassol. Foi realizada orientação ao fornecedor da folha de mandioca sobre a forma recomendada de preparo antes da secagem. RESULTADOS: O conteúdo de ácidos cianídrico e fitatos no suplemento alimentar foram respectivamente de 85mg.kg-1 e 35.90mg.100-1. CONCLUSÃO: Verificou-se que a mudança na forma de secagem das folhas de mandioca foi eficiente para a redução de glicosídeos cianogênicos, e que o processo de torrefação dos ingredientes foi suficiente para produzir a redução de ácido fítico da multimistura aos níveis preconizados pela legislação, não sendo observadas diferenças estatisticamente significantes quando comparadas as amostras que também foram tratadas com calor úmido.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to quantify the amount of hydrogen cyanide in cassava leaves that were treated before drying and the concentration of phytic acid in a multimixture submitted to wet cooking. METHODS: The multimixture produced by the Pastoral da Criança of the city of Pelotas (RS consisting of wheat flour (30%, rice flour (30%, corn flour (15%, wheat (10%, egg shell powder (5%, cassava leaves (5% and pumpkin or sunflower seeds (5% was used. The supplier was advised on how to process the cassava leaves before drying them. RESULTS: The hydrogen cyanide and phytic acid contents of the feeding supplement are 85mg.kg-1 and 35.90mg.100-1 respectively. CONCLUSION: Changing the way the cassava leaves were dried was efficient to reduce

  18. Quantitative measurement of cyanide species in simulated ferrocyanide Hanford waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Matheson, J.D.

    1993-02-01

    Analytical methods for the quantification of cyanide species in Hanford simulated high-level radioactive waste were pursued in this work. Methods studied include infrared spectroscopy (solid state and solution), Raman spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and ion chromatography. Of these, infrared, Raman, X-ray diffraction, and ion chromatography techniques show promise in the concentration range of interest. Quantitation limits for these latter four techniques were demonstrated to be approximately 0.1 wt% (as cyanide) using simulated Hanford wastes

  19. Equilibrium isotherm and kinetic studies for the simultaneous removal of phenol and cyanide by use of S. odorifera (MTCC 5700) immobilized on coconut shell activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neetu; Balomajumder, Chandrajit

    2017-10-01

    In this study, simultaneous removal of phenol and cyanide by a microorganism S. odorifera (MTCC 5700) immobilized onto coconut shell activated carbon surface (CSAC) was studied in batch reactor from mono and binary component aqueous solution. Activated carbon was derived from coconut shell by chemical activation method. Ferric chloride (Fecl3), used as surface modification agents was applied to biomass. Optimum biosorption conditions were obtained as a function of biosorbent dosage, pH, temperature, contact time and initial phenol and cyanide concentration. To define the equilibrium isotherms, experimental data were analyzed by five mono component isotherm and six binary component isotherm models. The higher uptake capacity of phenol and cyanide onto CSAC biosorbent surface was 450.02 and 2.58 mg/g, respectively. Nonlinear regression analysis was used for determining the best fit model on the basis of error functions and also for calculating the parameters involved in kinetic and isotherm models. The kinetic study results revealed that Fractal-like mixed first second order model and Brouser-Weron-Sototlongo models for phenol and cyanide were capable to offer accurate explanation of biosorption kinetic. According to the experimental data results, CSAC with immobilization of bacterium S. odorifera (MTCC 5700) seems to be an alternative and effective biosorbent for the elimination of phenol and cyanide from binary component aqueous solution.

  20. Total sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for LWR pin-cells with improved UNICORN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Chenghui; Cao, Liangzhi; Wu, Hongchun; Shen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new model is established for the total sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. • The NR approximation applied in S&U analysis can be avoided by the new model. • Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is performed to PWR pin-cells by the new model. • The effects of the NR approximation for the PWR pin-cells are quantified. - Abstract: In this paper, improvements to the multigroup cross-section perturbation model have been proposed and applied in the self-developed UNICORN code, which is capable of performing the total sensitivity and total uncertainty analysis for the neutron-physics calculations by applying the direct numerical perturbation method and the statistical sampling method respectively. The narrow resonance (NR) approximation was applied in the multigroup cross-section perturbation model, implemented in UNICORN. As improvements to the NR approximation to refine the multigroup cross-section perturbation model, an ultrafine-group cross-section perturbation model has been established, in which the actual perturbations are applied to the ultrafine-group cross-section library and the reconstructions of the resonance cross sections are performed by solving the neutron slowing-down equation. The total sensitivity and total uncertainty analysis were then applied to the LWR pin-cells, using both the multigroup and the ultrafine-group cross-section perturbation models. The numerical results show that the NR approximation overestimates the relative sensitivity coefficients and the corresponding uncertainty results for the LWR pin-cells, and the effects of the NR approximation are significant for σ_(_n_,_γ_) and σ_(_n_,_e_l_a_s_) of "2"3"8U. Therefore, the effects of the NR approximation applied in the total sensitivity and total uncertainty analysis for the neutron-physics calculations of LWR should be taken into account.

  1. Chemical and metabolomic screens identify novel biomarkers and antidotes for cyanide exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Anjali K.; Roberts, Lee D.; Liu, Yan; Mahon, Sari B.; Kim, Sonia; Ryu, Justine H.; Werdich, Andreas; Januzzi, James L.; Boss, Gerry R.; Rockwood, Gary A.; MacRae, Calum A.; Brenner, Matthew; Gerszten, Robert E.; Peterson, Randall T.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to cyanide causes a spectrum of cardiac, neurological, and metabolic dysfunctions that can be fatal. Improved cyanide antidotes are needed, but the ideal biological pathways to target are not known. To understand better the metabolic effects of cyanide and to discover novel cyanide antidotes, we developed a zebrafish model of cyanide exposure and scaled it for high-throughput chemical screening. In a screen of 3120 small molecules, we discovered 4 novel antidotes that block cyanide toxicity. The most potent antidote was riboflavin. Metabolomic profiling of cyanide-treated zebrafish revealed changes in bile acid and purine metabolism, most notably by an increase in inosine levels. Riboflavin normalizes many of the cyanide-induced neurological and metabolic perturbations in zebrafish. The metabolic effects of cyanide observed in zebrafish were conserved in a rabbit model of cyanide toxicity. Further, humans treated with nitroprusside, a drug that releases nitric oxide and cyanide ions, display increased circulating bile acids and inosine. In summary, riboflavin may be a novel treatment for cyanide toxicity and prophylactic measure during nitroprusside treatment, inosine may serve as a biomarker of cyanide exposure, and metabolites in the bile acid and purine metabolism pathways may shed light on the pathways critical to reversing cyanide toxicity.—Nath, A. K., Roberts, L. D., Liu, Y., Mahon, S. B., Kim, S., Ryu, J. H., Werdich, A., Januzzi, J. L., Boss, G. R., Rockwood, G. A., MacRae, C. A., Brenner, M., Gerszten, R. E., Peterson, R. T. Chemical and metabolomic screens identify novel biomarkers and antidotes for cyanide exposure. PMID:23345455

  2. Analysis of Leucaena mimosine, Acacia tannins and total phenols by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M N.V. [Hyderabad Univ. (India). Dept. of Plant Sciences

    1995-11-01

    The mimosine contents of Leucaena foliage, Acacia tannins and total phenols from leaf, bark and pod were analyzed by a near infrared relectance spectrophotometer (Compscan 3000). A calibration equation (linear summation regression) was developed with near infrared spectral analysis software, using 30 spectra from old and young leaves of Leucaena and 23 spectra from different samples of Acacia. The near infrared analyzer calculated that the percentages of mimosine, total phenols and tannins are closely comparable to laboratory results. (author)

  3. Normal levels of total body sodium and chlorine by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, N.S.J.; Eastell, R.; Smith, M.A.; Tothill, P.

    1983-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis was used to measure total body sodium and chlorine in 18 male and 18 female normal adults. Corrections for body size were developed. Normalisation factors were derived which enable the prediction of the normal levels of sodium and chlorine in a subject. The coefficient of variation of normalised sodium was 5.9% in men and 6.9% in women, and of normalised chlorine 9.3% in men and 5.5% in women. In the range examined (40-70 years) no significant age dependence was observed for either element. Total body sodium was correlated with total body chlorine and total body calcium. Sodium excess, defined as the amount of body sodium in excess of that associated with chlorine, also correlated well with total body calcium. In females there was a mean annual loss of sodium excess of 1.2% after the menopause, similar to the loss of calcium. (author)

  4. CLUSTER ANALYSIS OF TOTAL ASSETS PROVIDED BY BANKS FROM FOUR CONTINENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA CĂTĂLINA TÜRKEȘ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analysed the total assets in 2016 achieved by the strongest 96 banks from 4 continents: Europe, America, Asia and Africa. It aims to evaluate the level of total assets provided by banks in 2016 and continental banking markets degree of differentiation to determine the overall conditions of the banks. Methodologies used in this study are based on cluster and descriptives analysis. Data set was built based on informations reported by banks on total assets. The results indicate that most of total banking assets are found in Asia and the fewest in Africa. At the end of 2016, the top 16 global banks owned total assets of $ 30.19 trillion according to the data set contains cluster 1 and the centroid was (2.25, 2.11, 3.06, 0.01.

  5. CIRCULATORY FAILURE DURING NON-INHALED FORMS OF CYANIDE INTOXICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haouzi, Philippe; Tubbs, Nicole; Rannals, Matthew D.; Judenherc-Haouzi, Annick; Cabell, Larry A.; McDonough, Joe A.; Sonobe, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine how circulatory failure develops following systemic administration of potassium cyanide (KCN). We used a non-inhaled modality of intoxication, wherein the change in breathing pattern would not influence the diffusion of CN into the blood, akin to the effects of ingesting toxic levels of CN. In a group of 300–400 g rats, CN-induced coma (CN IP, 7 mg/kg) produced a central apnea within 2–3 minutes along with a potent and prolonged gasping pattern leading to auto-resuscitation in 38% of the animals. Motor deficits and neuronal necrosis were nevertheless observed in the surviving animals. To clarify the mechanisms leading to potential auto-resuscitation versus asystole, 12 urethane-anesthetized rats were then exposed to the lowest possible levels of CN exposure that would lead to breathing depression within 7–8 minutes; this dose averaged 0.375 mg/kg/min iv. At this level of intoxication, a cardiac depression developed several minutes only after the onset of the apnea, leading to cardiac asystole as PaO2 reached value around 15 Torr, unless breathing was maintained by mechanical ventilation or through spontaneous gasping. Higher levels of KCN exposure in 10 animals provoked a primary cardiac depression, which led to a rapid cardiac arrest by pulseless electrical activity despite the maintenance of PaO2 by mechanical ventilation. These effects were totally unrelated to the potassium contained in KCN. It is concluded that circulatory failure can develop as a direct consequence of CN induced apnea but in a narrow range of exposure. In this “low” range, maintaining pulmonary gas exchange after exposure, through mechanical ventilation (or spontaneous gasping) can reverse cardiac depression and restore spontaneous breathing. At higher level of intoxication, cardiac depression is to be treated as a specific and spontaneously irreversible consequence of CN exposure, leading to a pulseless electrical activity. PMID:27513083

  6. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of Austrian wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, X. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Kregsamer, P. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Wobrauschek, P. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria); Streli, C. [Atominstitut der Osterreichischen Universitaeten, 1020 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: streli@ati.ac.at

    2006-11-15

    The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in Austrian wine was determined by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using gallium as internal standard. A multi-elemental analysis was possible by pipetting 6 {mu}l of wine directly on the reflector and drying. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed with Atomika EXTRA II A (Cameca) X-rays from a Mo tube with a high-energy cut-off at 20 keV in total-reflection geometry. The results showed that it was possible to identify only by the elemental analysis as fingerprint the vineyards and year of vintage among 11 different wines.

  7. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of Austrian wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, X.; Kregsamer, P.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of major, minor and trace elements in Austrian wine was determined by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using gallium as internal standard. A multi-elemental analysis was possible by pipetting 6 μl of wine directly on the reflector and drying. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed with Atomika EXTRA II A (Cameca) X-rays from a Mo tube with a high-energy cut-off at 20 keV in total-reflection geometry. The results showed that it was possible to identify only by the elemental analysis as fingerprint the vineyards and year of vintage among 11 different wines

  8. An improved method for direct estimation of free cyanide in drinking water by Ion Chromatography-Pulsed Amperometry Detection (IC-PAD) on gold working electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Meher, Alok; Labhsetwar, Nitin; Bansiwal, Amit

    2018-02-01

    In the present work a fast, reliable and safe Ion Exchange Chromatography-Pulsed Amperometry Detection (IC-PAD) method for direct determination of free cyanide in drinking water has been reported. To the best of our knowledge for the first time we are reporting the application of Gold working electrode for detection of free cyanide in a chromatography system. The system shows a wide linear range up to 8000µg/L. The electrode was found to have improved sensitivity and selectivity in the presence of interfering ions. The detection limit of the system was calculated to be 2µg/L. Long term evaluation of the electrode was found to be stable. Reproducible results were obtained from analysis of drinking water samples with recoveries of 98.3-101.2% and Relative Standard Deviations (RSD) of cyanide in drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Grain-A Java data analysis system for Total Data Readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahkila, P.

    2008-01-01

    Grain is a data analysis system developed to be used with the novel Total Data Readout data acquisition system. In Total Data Readout all the electronics channels are read out asynchronously in singles mode and each data item is timestamped. Event building and analysis has to be done entirely in the software post-processing the data stream. A flexible and efficient event parser and the accompanying software system have been written entirely in Java. The design and implementation of the software are discussed along with experiences gained in running real-life experiments

  10. Mitigation method of thermal transient stress by thermalhydraulic-structure total analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Naoto; Jinbo, Masakazu; Hosogai, Hiromi

    2003-01-01

    This study proposes a rational evaluation and mitigation method of thermal transient loads in fast reactor components by utilizing relationships among plant system parameters and stresses induced by thermal transients of plants. A thermalhydraulic-structure total analysis procedure helps us to grasp relationship among system parameters and thermal stresses. Furthermore, it enables mitigation of thermal transient loads by adjusting system parameters. In order to overcome huge computations, a thermalhydraulic-structure total analysis code and the Design of Experiments methodology are utilized. The efficiency of the proposed mitigation method is validated through thermal stress evaluation of an intermediate heat exchanger in Japanese demonstration fast reactor. (author)

  11. A direct and rapid method to determine cyanide in urine by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiyang; Maddukuri, Naveen; Gong, Maojun

    2015-10-02

    Cyanides are poisonous chemicals that widely exist in nature and industrial processes as well as accidental fires. Rapid and accurate determination of cyanide exposure would facilitate forensic investigation, medical diagnosis, and chronic cyanide monitoring. Here, a rapid and direct method was developed for the determination of cyanide ions in urinary samples. This technique was based on an integrated capillary electrophoresis system coupled with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Cyanide ions were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) and a primary amine (glycine) for LIF detection. Three separate reagents, NDA, glycine, and cyanide sample, were mixed online, which secured uniform conditions between samples for cyanide derivatization and reduced the risk of precipitation formation of mixtures. Conditions were optimized; the derivatization was completed in 2-4min, and the separation was observed in 25s. The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.0nM at 3-fold signal-to-noise ratio for standard cyanide in buffer. The cyanide levels in urine samples from smokers and non-smokers were determined by using the method of standard addition, which demonstrated significant difference of cyanide levels in urinary samples from the two groups of people. The developed method was rapid and accurate, and is anticipated to be applicable to cyanide detection in waste water with appropriate modification. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Cyanide and Copper Recovery from Barren Solution of the Merrill Crowe Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parga, José R.; Valenzuela, Jesús L.; Díaz, J. A.

    This paper is a brief overview of the role of inducing the nucleated precipitation of copper and cyanide in a flashtube serpentine reactor, using sodium sulfide as the precipitate and sulfuric acid as pH control. The results showed that pH had a great effect on copper cyanide removal efficiency and the optimum pH was about 3 to 3.5. At this pH value copper cyanide removal efficiency could be achieved above 97 and 99 %, when influent copper concentration ions were 650 and 900 ppm respectively. In this process the cyanide associated with the copper, zinc, iron cyanide complexes are released as HCN gas under strong acidic conditions, allowing it to be recycled back to the cyanidation process as free cyanide.

  13. Comparison of cyanide exposure markers in the biofluids of smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnakota, Chakravarthy V; Peetha, Naga S; Perrizo, Mitch G; Ferris, David G; Oda, Robert P; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2012-11-01

    Cyanide is highly toxic and is present in many foods, combustion products (e.g. cigarette smoke), industrial processes, and has been used as a terrorist weapon. In this study, cyanide and its major metabolites, thiocyanate and 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA), were analyzed from various human biofluids of smokers (low-level chronic cyanide exposure group) and non-smokers to gain insight into the relationship of these biomarkers to cyanide exposure. The concentrations of each biomarker tested were elevated for smokers in each biofluid. Significant differences (p cyanide exposure, and other statistical methods were performed to better understand the relationship between cyanide and its metabolites. Of the markers studied, the results indicate plasma ATCA, in particular, showed excellent promise as a biomarker for chronic low-level cyanide exposure.

  14. Code development of total sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for reactor physics calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, C.; Cao, L.; Wu, H.; Zu, T.; Shen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis are essential parts for reactor system to perform risk and policy analysis. In this study, total sensitivity and corresponding uncertainty analysis for responses of neutronics calculations have been accomplished and developed the S&U analysis code named UNICORN. The UNICORN code can consider the implicit effects of multigroup cross sections on the responses. The UNICORN code has been applied to typical pin-cell case in this paper, and can be proved correct by comparison the results with those of the TSUNAMI-1D code. (author)

  15. Code development of total sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for reactor physics calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, C.; Cao, L.; Wu, H.; Zu, T., E-mail: chenghuiwan@stu.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: caolz@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: hongchun@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: tiejun@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an (China); Shen, W., E-mail: Wei.Shen@cnsc-ccsn.gc.ca [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi' an (China); Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis are essential parts for reactor system to perform risk and policy analysis. In this study, total sensitivity and corresponding uncertainty analysis for responses of neutronics calculations have been accomplished and developed the S&U analysis code named UNICORN. The UNICORN code can consider the implicit effects of multigroup cross sections on the responses. The UNICORN code has been applied to typical pin-cell case in this paper, and can be proved correct by comparison the results with those of the TSUNAMI-1D code. (author)

  16. Quick detection and quantification of iron-cyanide complexes using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sut-Lohmann, Magdalena; Raab, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The continuous release of persistent iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes from various industrial sources poses a high hazard to the environment and indicates the necessity to analyze a considerable amount of samples. Conventional flow injection analysis (FIA) is a time and cost consuming method for cyanide (CN) determination. Thus, a rapid and economic alternative needs to be developed to quantify the Fe-CN complexes. 52 soil samples were collected at a former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site in order to determine the feasibility of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Soil analysis revealed CN concentrations in a range from 8 to 14.809 mg kg −1 , where 97% was in the solid form (Fe 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3 ), which is characterized by a single symmetrical CN band in the range 2092–2084 cm −1 . The partial least squares (PLS) calibration-validation model revealed IR response to CN tot which exceeds 2306 mg kg −1 (limit of detection, LOD). Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO-CV) was performed on soil samples, which contained low CN tot (<900 mg kg −1 ). This improved the sensitivity of the model by reducing the LOD to 154 mg kg −1 . Finally, the LOO-CV conducted on the samples with CN tot  > 900 mg kg −1 resulted in LOD equal to 3751 mg kg −1 . It was found that FTIR spectroscopy provides the information concerning different CN species in the soil samples. Additionally, it is suitable for quantifying Fe-CN species in matrixes with CN tot  > 154 mg kg −1 . Thus, FTIR spectroscopy, in combination with the statistical approach applied here seems to be a feasible and quick method for screening of contaminated sites. - Highlights: • A protocol for a quick and cheap quantitative cyanide analysis in soil using FTIR is proposed. • Splitting of the data, resulting in low and high CN set, reduced the LOD and increased the sensitivity of the model. • Regression coefficients indicate positive response of IR frequencies to

  17. Ferrocyanide Safety Program cyanide speciation studies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Bryan, S.L.

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes Pacific Northwest Laboratory's fiscal year (FY) 1995 progress toward developing and implementing methods to identify and quantify cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. This work was conducted for Westinghouse Hanfbrd Company's (WHC's) Ferrocyanide Safety Program. Currently, there are 18 high-level waste storage tanks at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site that are on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1000 g-moles or more of precipitated ferrocyanide. In the presence of oxidizing material such as sodium nitrate or nitrite, ferrocyanide can be made to react exothermally by heating it to high temperatures or by applying an electrical spark of sufficient energy (Cady 1993). However, fuel, oxidizers, and temperature are all important parameters. If fuel, oxidizers, or high temperatures (initiators) are not present in sufficient amounts, then a runaway or propagating reaction cannot occur. To bound the safety concern, methods are needed to definitively measure and quantitate ferrocyanide concentration present within the actual waste. The target analyte concentration for cyanide in waste is approximately 0.1 to 15 wt % (as cyanide) in the original undiluted sample. After dissolution of the original sample and appropriate dilutions, the concentration range of interest in the analytical solutions can vary between 0.001 to 0.1 wt % (as cyanide). In FY 1992, 1993, and 1994, two solution (wet) methods were developed based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and ion chromatography (IC); these methods were chosen for further development activities. The results of these activities are described

  18. Metallization of cyanide-modified Pt(111) electrodes with copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escribano, Maria Escudero; Wildi, Christopher; Mwanda, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    -cyanide-copper sandwich configuration. STM also shows that the Cu deposit consists of isolated bidimensional nanoislands, which slowly grow through an Ostwald ripening mechanism if the potential is kept negative of the reduction peak. Metallization is not possible in perchloric acid solutions, which implies...

  19. Integrated self-powered microchip biosensor for endogenous biological cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liu; Chen, Chaogui; Zhou, Ming; Guo, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang; Dong, Shaojun

    2010-05-15

    In this work we developed a fully integrated biofuel cell on a microchip, which consisted of glucose dehydrogenase supported (carbon nanotubes/thionine/gold nanoparticles)(8) multilayer as the anode, and the (carbon nanotubes/polylysine/laccase)(15) multilayer as the cathode. The as-obtained biofuel cell produced open circuit potential 620 mV and power density 302 microW cm(-2), showing great potential as a small power resource of portable electronics. Most importantly, for the first time we demonstrated the feasibility of developing a self-powered biosensor based on the inhibitive effect on microchip enzyme biofuel cell. With cyanide employed as the model analyte, this method showed a linear range of 3.0 x 10(-7) to 5.0 x 10(-4) M and a detection limit with 1.0 x 10(-7) M under the optimal conditions. The detection limit was lower than the acceptable cyanide concentration in drinking water (1.9 x 10(-6) M) according to the World Health Organization (WHO). This self-powered sensor was successfully used to detect the cyanide concentration in a real sample, cassava, which is the main carbohydrate resource in South America and Africa. This presented biosensor combined with a resistor and a multimeter demonstrated the general applicability as a fast and simple detection method in the determination of endogenous biological cyanide.

  20. Electrochemical Oxidation of Cyanide Using Platinized Ti Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušra VALIŪNIENĖ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The cyanide-containing effluents are dangerous ecological hazards and must be treated before discharging into the environment. Anodic oxidation is one of the best ways to degrade cyanides. Pt anodes as the most efficient material for the cyanide electrochemical degradation are widely used. However, these electrodes are too expensive for industrial purposes. In this work Ti electrodes covered with nano-sized Pt particle layer were prepared and used for the anodic oxidation of cyanide ions. Surface images of Ti electrodes and Ti electrodes covered with different thickness layer of Pt were compared and characterized by the atomic force microscopy (AFM. The products formed in the solution during the CN- ions electrooxidation were examined by the Raman spectroscopy. An electrochemical Fast Fourier transformation (FFT impedance spectroscopy was used to estimate the parameters that reflect real surface roughness of Pt-modified Ti electrodes.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.2514

  1. The oxidative disposition of potassium cyanide in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.D.; Isom, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The role of oxidative metabolism in the disposition of potassium cyanide (KCN), was investigated in mice administered KCN (4.6 mg/kg, s.c.) containing 4.5 uCi ( 14 C)KCN. The expired pulmonary metabolites, ( 14 C) hydrocyanic acid (HCN) and 14 CO 2 , were collected and analyzed. Approximately 1% and 2% of the KCN dose was expired as ( 14 C)HCN and 14 CO 2 , respectively. Expiration of the pulmonary metabolites was decreased following pretreatment with sodium nitrite, sodium thiosulfate, oxygen, or a combination of cyanide antidotes. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide lowered the amount of ( 14 C)HCN expired and did not alter the expiration of 14 CO 2 . Treatment with 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (catalase inhibitor), superoxide dismutase, or diethyldithiocarbamic acid (superoxide dismutase inhibitor) did not change the amount of ( 14 C)HCN expired. However, superoxide dismutase significantly increased the amount of 14 CO 2 expired, whereas diethyldithiocarbamic acid decreased 14 CO 2 expiration. The results from these studies suggest that in vivo cyanide can be oxidized to CO 2 and treatment with agents that alter the availability of endogenous superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide can alter the rate of cyanide oxidation. (author)

  2. Solid, double-metal cyanide catalysts for synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sci. Vol. 126, No. 2, March 2014, pp. 499–509. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Solid, double-metal cyanide catalysts for ... drimers, HPs have a highly branched structural design ... geneous catalysts and corrosion of the reactor lin- ... Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas. .... polymer product was reprecipitated from the liquid.

  3. Detoxification of cyanides in cassava flour by linamarase of Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. Detoxification of ... utilizing indigenous bacteria from cyanide rich cassava peel waste and exploited their potential for ... Figure 1. Enzyme catalyzed degradation of cyanogenic glycosides. pains ..... Linamarin - the toxic compound of cassava. J. Venom. Anim. Toxins. 2(1): 6-12.

  4. The oxidation of hydrogen cyanide and related chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dagaut, Philippe; Glarborg, Peter; Alzueta, Maria U.

    2008-01-01

    For modeling the formation of nitrogen oxides in combustion via both the prompt-NO and the fuel-NO mechanisms, as well as for modeling the reduction of nitrogen oxides via reburning, a good knowledge of the kinetics of oxidation of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is required. The formation routes to HCN a...

  5. Structure analysis of liquids and disordered materials using pulsed neutron diffraction and total scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuya, Kentaro

    2011-01-01

    Neutron diffraction·total scattering at pulsed neutron source is a powerful method to analyze the complex structure of disordered materials: liquids, glasses, amorphous materials and disordered crystals. The basic idea of the structure of disordered materials, the fundamental diffraction theory for disordered materials, and structure analysis of disordered materials using pulsed neutron diffraction·total scattering technique (TOF method) are described in detail. In addition, the precise information of the world highest class J-PARC MLF spallation neutron source and typical J-PARC neutron total scattering instrument NOVA are also given. Recent structural modelling methods of disordered materials such like reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulation method is briefly described using an example of the analysis of a typical disordered material silica glass. (author)

  6. Security Analysis of the Electronic Management System for a Total Site Utility System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manso Cortes, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Security Analysis of the Electronic Management System (EMS) of a Total Site Utility System as proposed under the scope of the Efenis project. The Efenis project has been funded by the European Commission via the seventh framework programme (EC FP7) with the aim to improve ...

  7. Using the Concept of the "Total Situation" in the Analysis of a Borderline Adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem-Wille, Gertraud

    2004-01-01

    The author discusses two concepts of transference: the broader use of transference as the "total situation", as it was called by Melanie Klein and further elaborated by post-Kleinians, and the narrow use of transference in the traditional sense. Using clinical material from the four-times-a-week analysis of a severely disturbed…

  8. The adoption of total cost of ownership for sourcing decisions - a structural equations analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Marc; Anderson, James C.; Wynstra, Finn

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the adoption of total cost of ownership (TCO) analysis to improve sourcing decisions. TCO can be seen as an application of activity based costing (ABC) that quantifies the costs that are involved in acquiring and using purchased goods or services. TCO supports purchasing

  9. Regioselective Acylation of Diols and Triols: The Cyanide Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Linseis, Michael; Winter, Rainer F; Schmidt, Richard R

    2016-05-11

    Central topics of carbohydrate chemistry embrace structural modifications of carbohydrates and oligosaccharide synthesis. Both require regioselectively protected building blocks that are mainly available via indirect multistep procedures. Hence, direct protection methods targeting a specific hydroxy group are demanded. Dual hydrogen bonding will eventually differentiate between differently positioned hydroxy groups. As cyanide is capable of various kinds of hydrogen bonding and as it is a quite strong sterically nondemanding base, regioselective O-acylations should be possible at low temperatures even at sterically congested positions, thus permitting formation and also isolation of the kinetic product. Indeed, 1,2-cis-diols, having an equatorial and an axial hydroxy group, benzoyl cyanide or acetyl cyanide as an acylating agent, and DMAP as a catalyst yield at -78 °C the thermodynamically unfavorable axial O-acylation product; acyl migration is not observed under these conditions. This phenomenon was substantiated with 3,4-O-unproteced galacto- and fucopyranosides and 2,3-O-unprotected mannopyranosides. Even for 3,4,6-O-unprotected galactopyranosides as triols, axial 4-O-acylation is appreciably faster than O-acylation of the primary 6-hydroxy group. The importance of hydrogen bonding for this unusual regioselectivity could be confirmed by NMR studies and DFT calculations, which indicate favorable hydrogen bonding of cyanide to the most acidic axial hydroxy group supported by hydrogen bonding of the equatorial hydroxy group to the axial oxygen. Thus, the "cyanide effect" is due to dual hydrogen bonding of the axial hydroxy group which enhances the nucleophilicity of the respective oxygen atom, permitting an even faster reaction for diols than for mono-ols. In contrast, fluoride as a counterion favors dual hydrogen bonding to both hydroxy groups leading to equatorial O-acylation.

  10. Lithium cyanide supported by O- and N-donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budanow, Alexandra; Franz, Klaus-Dieter; Vitze, Hannes; Fink, Lothar; Alig, Edith; Bolte, Michael; Wagner, Matthias; Lerner, Hans-Wolfram [Institut fuer Anorganische Chemie, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 7, 60438, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    A series of adducts of LiCN, namely [Li(Me{sub 2}CO{sub 3})CN], [Li(Et{sub 2}CO{sub 3})CN], and [Li(NMP)CN] (NMP = N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) were prepared by treatment of solvent-free LiCN with the appropriate donor. The starting material for these approaches, donor-free LiCN, was quantitatively prepared from Me{sub 3}SiCN and Li[Me] in diethyl ether at 0 C. Alternatively, [Li(NMP)CN] was synthesized by metathesis reaction of LiCl with NaCN in the presence of stoichiometric amounts of NMP. Although [Li(Me{sub 2}CO{sub 3})CN] and [Li(Et{sub 2}CO{sub 3})CN] are water-sensitive compounds and decompose at the exposure to air, [Li(NMP)CN] is stable in air, even at elevated temperatures. The thermal stability of [Li(NMP)CN] was proven by differential thermal analysis (DTA). [Li(NMP)CN] shows thermal stability up to temperatures of about 132 C. To evaluate the cyanation ability the reactions of 1-bromooctane and 3-bromocyclohexene with unsupported LiCN, [Li(NMP)CN], and a mixture of NaCN/LiCl/NMP were investigated. We found that [Li(NMP)CN] as well as LiCl/NaCN/NMP are efficient cyanation reagents comparable to the expensive and air-sensitive, donor-free LiCN. A product of the chloride-cyanide-bromide exchange could be isolated and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Direct analysis of biological samples by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue M, Marco P.; Hernandez-Caraballo, Edwin A.

    2004-01-01

    The technique of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is well suited for the direct analysis of biological samples due to the low matrix interferences and simultaneous multi-element nature. Nevertheless, biological organic samples are frequently analysed after digestion procedures. The direct determination of analytes requires shorter analysis time, low reactive consumption and simplifies the whole analysis process. On the other hand, the biological/clinical samples are often available in minimal amounts and routine studies require the analysis of large number of samples. To overcome the difficulties associated with the analysis of organic samples, particularly of solid ones, different procedures of sample preparation and calibration to approach the direct analysis have been evaluated: (1) slurry sampling, (2) Compton peak standardization, (3) in situ microwave digestion, (4) in situ chemical modification and (5) direct analysis with internal standardization. Examples of analytical methods developed by our research group are discussed. Some of them have not been previously published, illustrating alternative strategies for coping with various problems that may be encountered in the direct analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

  12. Tolerance to silver of an Aspergillus fumigatus strain able to grow on cyanide containing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatini, L.; Battistelli, M.; Giorgi, L.; Iacobucci, M.; Gobbi, L.; Andreozzi, E.; Pianetti, A.; Franchi, R.; Bruscolini, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Aspergillus fumigatus strain able to grow on metal cyanide complexes. • Tolerance test revealed that Ag(I) Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was 6 mM. • The fungus reduced and sequestrated intracellularly silver forming nanoparticles. • Best culture conditions for Ag(I) absorption were pH 8.5 at temperatures of 20–30 °C. - Abstract: We studied the strategy of an Aspergillus fumigatus strain able to grow on metal cyanide wastes to cope with silver. The tolerance test revealed that the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Ag(I) was 6 mM. In 1 mM AgNO 3 aqueous solution the fungus was able to reduce and sequestrate silver into the cell in the form of nanoparticles as evidenced by the change in color of the biomass and Electron Microscopy observations. Extracellular silver nanoparticle production also occurred in the filtrate solution after previous incubation of the fungus in sterile, double-distilled water for 72 h, therefore evidencing that culture conditions may influence nanoparticle formation. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and Energy Dispersion X-ray analysis. Atomic absorption spectrometry revealed that the optimum culture conditions for silver absorption were at pH 8.5.The research is part of a polyphasic study concerning the behavior of the fungal strain in presence of metal cyanides; the results provide better understanding for further research targeted at a rationale use of the microorganism in bioremediation plans, also in view of possible metal recovery. Studies will be performed to verify if the fungus maintains its ability to produce nanoparticles using KAg(CN) 2 .

  13. Synthesis, characterization, DFT calculations and antibacterial activity of palladium(II) cyanide complexes with thioamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saeed; Nadeem, Shafqat; Anwar, Aneela; Hameed, Abdul; Tirmizi, Syed Ahmed; Zierkiewicz, Wiktor; Abbas, Azhar; Isab, Anvarhusein A.; Alotaibi, Mshari A.

    2017-08-01

    Palladium(II) cyanide complexes of thioamides (or thiones) having the general formula PdL2(CN)2, where L = Thiourea (Tu), Methylthiourea (Metu), N,N‧-Dimethylthiourea (Dmtu), Tetramethylthiourea (Tmtu), 2-Mercaptopyridine (Mpy) and 2-Mercaptopyrimidine (Mpm) were prepared by reacting K2[PdCl4] with potassium cyanide and thioamides in the molar ratio of 1:2:2. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, thermal and spectroscopic methods (IR, 1H and 13C NMR). The structures of three of the complexes were predicted by DFT calculations. The appearance of a band around 2100 cm-1 in IR and resonances around 120-130 ppm in the 13C NMR spectra indicated the coordination of cyanide to palladium(II). More than one resonances were observed for CN- carbon atoms in 13C NMR indicating the existence of equilibrium between different species in solution. DFT calculations revealed that in the case of the palladium(II) complex of Tmtu, the ionic dinuclear [Pd(Tmtu)4][Pd(CN)4] form was more stable than the dimer of mononuclear complex [Pd(Tmtu)2(CN)2] by 0.91 kcal mol-1, while for the complexes of Tu or Mpy ligands, the nonionic [Pd(L)2(CN)2] forms were more stable than the corresponding [Pd(L)4][Pd(CN)4] complexes by 1.26 and 6.49 kcal mol-1 for L = Tu and Mpy, respectively. The complexes were screened for antibacterial effects and some of them showed significant activities against both gram positive as well as gram negative bacteria.

  14. Tolerance to silver of an Aspergillus fumigatus strain able to grow on cyanide containing wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabatini, L. [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Urbino Carlo Bo (Italy); Battistelli, M. [Department of Earth, Life Sciences & Environment, University of Urbino Carlo Bo (Italy); Giorgi, L. [Department of Base Sciences and Foundations, Chemistry Section, University of Urbino Carlo Bo (Italy); Iacobucci, M. [Department of Earth, Life Sciences & Environment, University of Urbino Carlo Bo (Italy); Gobbi, L. [Department of Science and Engineering of Matter, of Environment and Urban Planning, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy); Andreozzi, E.; Pianetti, A. [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Urbino Carlo Bo (Italy); Franchi, R. [Department of Base Sciences and Foundations, Chemistry Section, University of Urbino Carlo Bo (Italy); Bruscolini, F., E-mail: francesca.bruscolini@uniurb.it [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Urbino Carlo Bo (Italy)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Aspergillus fumigatus strain able to grow on metal cyanide complexes. • Tolerance test revealed that Ag(I) Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was 6 mM. • The fungus reduced and sequestrated intracellularly silver forming nanoparticles. • Best culture conditions for Ag(I) absorption were pH 8.5 at temperatures of 20–30 °C. - Abstract: We studied the strategy of an Aspergillus fumigatus strain able to grow on metal cyanide wastes to cope with silver. The tolerance test revealed that the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Ag(I) was 6 mM. In 1 mM AgNO{sub 3} aqueous solution the fungus was able to reduce and sequestrate silver into the cell in the form of nanoparticles as evidenced by the change in color of the biomass and Electron Microscopy observations. Extracellular silver nanoparticle production also occurred in the filtrate solution after previous incubation of the fungus in sterile, double-distilled water for 72 h, therefore evidencing that culture conditions may influence nanoparticle formation. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV–vis spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and Energy Dispersion X-ray analysis. Atomic absorption spectrometry revealed that the optimum culture conditions for silver absorption were at pH 8.5.The research is part of a polyphasic study concerning the behavior of the fungal strain in presence of metal cyanides; the results provide better understanding for further research targeted at a rationale use of the microorganism in bioremediation plans, also in view of possible metal recovery. Studies will be performed to verify if the fungus maintains its ability to produce nanoparticles using KAg(CN){sub 2}.

  15. Cyanide hydratase from Aspergillus niger K10: Overproduction in Escherichia coli, purification, characterization and use in continuous cyanide degradation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rinágelová, Anna; Kaplan, Ondřej; Veselá, Alicja Barbara; Chmátal, Martin; Křenková, Alena; Plíhal, Ondřej; Pasquarelli, Fabrizia; Cantarella, M.; Martínková, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2014), s. 445-450 ISSN 1359-5113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0394; GA TA ČR TA01021368 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Cyanide hydratase * Nitrilase * Aspergillus niger Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.516, year: 2014

  16. Effect of long-term cyanide exposure on cyanide-sensitive respiration and phosphate metabolism in the fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanić Marina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of long-term exposure (5 h of Phycomyces blakesleeanus mycelium to 5 mM KCN on respiration and phosphate metabolites were tested. Exposure to cyanide, antimycin A and azide lead to a decrease in the activity of cyanide-sensitive respiration (CSR, and the ratio of core polyphosphates (PPc and inorganic phosphates (Pi, which is a good indicator of the metabolic state of a cell. After 5 h of incubation, the activity of CSR returned to control values. For this, the recovery of cytochrome c oxidase (COX was required. In addition, the PPc/Pi ratio started to recover shortly after initiation of COX recovery, but never reached control values. This led us to conclude that the regulation of polyphosphate (PPn levels in the cell is tightly coupled to respiratory chain functioning. In addition, acutely applied cyanide caused two different responses, observed by 31P NMR spectroscopy, that were probably mediated through the mechanism of glycolytic oscillations, triggered by the effect of cyanide on mitochondria. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173040

  17. Bibliometric Analysis of Orthopedic Literature on Total Knee Arthroplasty in Asian Countries: A 10-year Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Sang Hwa; Bamne, Ankur B; Chowdhry, Madhav; Chae, Ihn Seok; Kim, Tae Kyun

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to determine the quantity and quality of research output of selected Asian countries in the field of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the last 10 years. Top 15 Asian countries were selected according to their gross domestic product. The Science Citation Index Expanded database was used to search for the literature published between 2004 and 2013 using "Total Knee Arthroplasty". The numbers of articles, journals and citations and the contribution of each country were analyzed. The articles were classified according to the type of study and the relative proportion of each type was analyzed. Asian surgeons have increasingly contributed to orthopedic literature on TKA for the past 10 years, but the dominant contribution came from only a few countries. The total number of articles published by Asian countries increased by 261%, with Japan producing most of the studies and China showing the maximum growth rate. The majority of studies were published in low impact factor journals. Korea published the highest proportion of articles in high impact factor journals. Clinical papers were most frequent. Our identification of research productivity pertaining to TKA among Asian countries gives a unique insight into the level of academic research in the field of TKA in these countries. There is a need to improve the quality of research to enhance the publishing power in high impact journals as well as the need for more basic research and epidemiological studies considering the unique differences among Asian patients undergoing TKA.

  18. How Acute Total Sleep Loss Affects the Attending Brain: A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F.; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Design: Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. Methods: The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. Results: The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Conclusion: Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. Citation: Ma N, Dinges DF, Basner M, Rao H. How acute total

  19. Measurement of total-body oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon in vivo by photon activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulin, K.

    1984-01-01

    With the aim of assessing nutritional status, the feasibility of measuring the total body quantities of the major body elements, i.e. oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon, using the photon beam of a 45 MV betatron and a whole-body counter, has been evaluated in detail. Following photon activation a single energy γ-radiation (.511 MeV) is observed from all three elements to be measured. The half-lives of 15 O, 13 N, and 11 C, however, are sufficiently different (20.5 min, 10.0 min, and 20.4 min. respectively) to permit their measurement from an analysis of the measured decay curve. Following corrections for interfering reactions, a computer curve-fitting algorithm is used to resolve the data into 15 O, 13 N, and 11 C components. Measurements of O, N, and C have been made both in phantoms and in live and dead rats. A comparison of the body composition results from this technique with results from chemical analysis indicates that measured carbon can quite accurately predict total body fat. The comparison of the total body nitrogen measurement by photon activation with total body protein by chemical analysis was inconclusive and suggests that further work be done to verify the estimated accuracy of the nitrogen measurement

  20. In vivo Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis Facility for Total Body Nitrogen and Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munive, Marco; Revilla, Angel; Solis, Jose L.

    2007-01-01

    A Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) system has been designed and constructed to measure the total body nitrogen and Cd for in vivo studies. An aqueous solution of KNO 3 was used as phantom for system calibration. The facility has been used to monitor total body nitrogen (TBN) of mice and found that is related to their diet. Some mice swallowed diluted water with Cl 2 Cd, and the presence of Cd was detected in the animals. The minimum Cd concentration that the system can detect was 20 ppm

  1. The post-depositional accumulation of metal-rich cyanide phases in submerged tailings deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambor, J.L.; Martin, A.J.; Gerits, J.

    2009-01-01

    The characterization and accumulation pathway of metal-rich cyanide phases in mine-contaminated Balmer Lake (Ontario, Canada) were assessed through detailed examination of sediment mineralogy and porewater composition. The near-surface deposits in the lake consist of fine-grained calcareous tailings intermixed with natural organic-rich lake sediments. The tailings contain blue to greenish Fe-dominant cyanide that has formed in situ within the tailings. X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of a mixed ferri/ferrocyanide [Fe 4 III (Fe II (CN) 6 ) 3 ], commonly referred to as 'Prussian Blue' but it is likely other metal-cyanide complexes are present as evidenced by the distinct colour variations. The cyanide phases occur in up to 1 wt.% as discrete particles and as bedded layers, where the cyanide phases act to cement other siliceous tailings components into a heterogeneous blend. Energy Dispersion X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analyses indicate that the authigenic cyanide precipitates contain variable amounts of Ni, Cu and Zn. Quantitatively, the cyanide compounds represent the dominant repository for Cu in Balmer Lake sediments. For Ni and Zn, cyanide associations are secondary in importance to Fe oxyhydroxides. High-resolution porewater profiles and solubility considerations suggest that the formation of the cyanide complexes is a feature of historical (pre-1990) conditions when aqueous cyanide concentrations were higher in the lake.

  2. The post-depositional accumulation of metal-rich cyanide phases in submerged tailings deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambor, J.L. [Leslie Research and Consulting, 316 Rosehill Wynd, Tsawwassen, BC, V4M 3L9 (Canada); Martin, A.J., E-mail: ajm@lorax.ca [Lorax Environmental Services, 2289 Burrard St., Vancouver, BC, V6J 3H9 (Canada); Gerits, J. [Lorax Environmental Services, 2289 Burrard St., Vancouver, BC, V6J 3H9 (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    The characterization and accumulation pathway of metal-rich cyanide phases in mine-contaminated Balmer Lake (Ontario, Canada) were assessed through detailed examination of sediment mineralogy and porewater composition. The near-surface deposits in the lake consist of fine-grained calcareous tailings intermixed with natural organic-rich lake sediments. The tailings contain blue to greenish Fe-dominant cyanide that has formed in situ within the tailings. X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of a mixed ferri/ferrocyanide [Fe{sub 4}{sup III}(Fe{sup II}(CN){sub 6}){sub 3}], commonly referred to as 'Prussian Blue' but it is likely other metal-cyanide complexes are present as evidenced by the distinct colour variations. The cyanide phases occur in up to 1 wt.% as discrete particles and as bedded layers, where the cyanide phases act to cement other siliceous tailings components into a heterogeneous blend. Energy Dispersion X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) analyses indicate that the authigenic cyanide precipitates contain variable amounts of Ni, Cu and Zn. Quantitatively, the cyanide compounds represent the dominant repository for Cu in Balmer Lake sediments. For Ni and Zn, cyanide associations are secondary in importance to Fe oxyhydroxides. High-resolution porewater profiles and solubility considerations suggest that the formation of the cyanide complexes is a feature of historical (pre-1990) conditions when aqueous cyanide concentrations were higher in the lake.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Iso-propyl cyanide rotational study (Kolesnikova+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, L.; Alonso, E. R.; Mata, S.; Cernicharo, J.; Alonso, J. L.

    2018-02-01

    A detailed analysis of the rotational spectra of the interstellar iso-propyl cyanide has been carried out up to 480GHz using three different high-resolution spectroscopic techniques. Jet-cooled broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy from 6 to 18GHz allowed us to measure and analyze the ground-state rotational transitions of all singly substituted 13C and 15N isotopic species in their natural abundances. The monohydrate of iso-propyl cyanide, in which the water molecule bounds through a stronger O-H...N and weaker bifurcated (C-H)2...O hydrogen bonds in a Cs configuration, has also been detected in the supersonic expansion. Stark-modulation spectroscopy in the microwave and millimeter wave range from 18 to 75GHz allowed us to analyze the vibrational satellite pattern arising from pure rotational transitions in the low-lying vibrational excited states. Finally, assignments and measurements were extended through the millimeter and submillimeter wave region. The room temperature rotational spectra made possible the assignment and analysis of pure rotational transitions in 19 vibrationally excited states. Significant perturbations were found above 100GHz in most of the observed excited states. Due to the complexity of the interactions and importance of this astrophysical region for future radioastronomical detection, both a graphical plot approach and a coupled fit have been used to assign and measure almost 10000 new lines. (1 data file).

  4. A Comprehensive Rotational Study of Interstellar Iso-propyl Cyanide up to 480 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesniková, L.; Alonso, E. R.; Mata, S.; Cernicharo, J.; Alonso, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    A detailed analysis of the rotational spectra of the interstellar iso-propyl cyanide has been carried out up to 480 GHz using three different high-resolution spectroscopic techniques. Jet-cooled broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy from 6 to 18 GHz allowed us to measure and analyze the ground-state rotational transitions of all singly substituted 13C and 15N isotopic species in their natural abundances. The monohydrate of iso-propyl cyanide, in which the water molecule bounds through a stronger O-H⋯N and weaker bifurcated (C-H)2⋯O hydrogen bonds in a C s configuration, has also been detected in the supersonic expansion. Stark-modulation spectroscopy in the microwave and millimeter wave range from 18 to 75 GHz allowed us to analyze the vibrational satellite pattern arising from pure rotational transitions in the low-lying vibrational excited states. Finally, assignments and measurements were extended through the millimeter and submillimeter wave region. The room temperature rotational spectra made possible the assignment and analysis of pure rotational transitions in 19 vibrationally excited states. Significant perturbations were found above 100 GHz in most of the observed excited states. Due to the complexity of the interactions and importance of this astrophysical region for future radioastronomical detection, both a graphical plot approach and a coupled fit have been used to assign and measure almost 10,000 new lines.

  5. The Combination of Cobinamide and Sulfanegen Is Highly Effective in Mouse Models of Cyanide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Adriano; Crankshaw, Daune L.; Monteil, Alexandre; Patterson, Steven E.; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Briggs, Jackie E.; Kozocas, Joseph A.; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B.; Bigby, Timothy D.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Context Cyanide poisoning is a major contributor to death in smoke inhalation victims and accidental exposure to cyanide occurs in a variety of industries. Moreover, cyanide has the potential to be used by terrorists, particularly in a closed space such as an airport or train station. Current therapies for cyanide poisoning must be given by intravenous administration, limiting their use in treating mass casualties. Objective We are developing two new cyanide antidotes—cobinamide, a vitamin B12 analog, and sulfanegen, a 3-mercaptopyruvate prodrug. Both drugs can be given by intramuscular administration, and therefore could be used to treat a large number of people quickly. We now asked if the two drugs would have an augmented effect when combined. Materials and Methods We used a non-lethal and two different lethal models of cyanide poisoning in mice. The non-lethal model assesses neurologic recovery by quantitatively evaluating the innate righting reflex time of a mouse. The two lethal models are a cyanide injection and a cyanide inhalation model. Results We found that the two drugs are at least additive when used together in both the non-lethal and lethal models: at doses where all animals died with either drug alone, the combination yielded 80 and 40% survival in the injection and inhalation models, respectively. Similarly, drug doses that yielded 40% survival with either drug alone yielded 80 and 100% survival in the injection and inhalatiion models, respectively. As part of the inhalation model, we developed a new paradigm in which animals are exposed to cyanide gas, injected intramuscularly with antidote, and then re-exposed to cyanide gas. This simulates cyanide exposure of a large number of people in a closed space, because people would remain exposed to cyanide, even after receiving an antidote. Conclusion The combination of cobinamide and sulfanegen shows great promise as a new approach to treating cyanide poisoning. PMID:21740135

  6. Liposomal bupivacaine versus traditional bupivacaine for pain control after total hip arthroplasty: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ting-Ting; Wang, Yu-Hui; Jiang, Yun-Feng; Peng, Cong-Bin; Yan, Chao; Liu, Zi-Gui; Xu, Wei-Xing

    2017-06-01

    In the past, the efficacy of local infiltration of liposomal bupivacaine for total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients was in debate. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to determine whether local infiltration of liposomal bupivacaine provides better pain relief after THA. We searched Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases to the April 2017. Any studies comparing liposomal bupivacaine and traditional bupivacaine were included in our meta-analysis. The outcomes included visual analog scale (VAS) at 24, 48, and 72 hours, total morphine consumption at 24 hours, and the length of hospital stay. We assessed the pooled data using a random-effect model. Six studies were finally included in this meta-analysis. Our pooled data analysis demonstrated that liposomal bupivacaine was more effective than the traditional bupivacaine in terms of VAS at 24 hours (P  =  .018) and the length of hospital stay (P  =  .000). There was no significant difference in terms of the VAS at 48 and 72 hours and total morphine consumption at 24 hours (P >.05). Compared with the traditional bupivacaine, liposomal bupivacaine shows better pain control at 24 hours and reduces the length of hospital stay after THA. Its economic costs must be assessed in multimodal center randomized controlled trials when being recommended as a long-acting alternative analgesic agent for a THA patient.

  7. A simple method for plasma total vitamin C analysis suitable for routine clinical laboratory use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Line; Hoffer, L John

    2016-04-21

    In-hospital hypovitaminosis C is highly prevalent but almost completely unrecognized. Medical awareness of this potentially important disorder is hindered by the inability of most hospital laboratories to determine plasma vitamin C concentrations. The availability of a simple, reliable method for analyzing plasma vitamin C could increase opportunities for routine plasma vitamin C analysis in clinical medicine. Plasma vitamin C can be analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical (EC) or ultraviolet (UV) light detection. We modified existing UV-HPLC methods for plasma total vitamin C analysis (the sum of ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acid) to develop a simple, constant-low-pH sample reduction procedure followed by isocratic reverse-phase HPLC separation using a purely aqueous low-pH non-buffered mobile phase. Although EC-HPLC is widely recommended over UV-HPLC for plasma total vitamin C analysis, the two methods have never been directly compared. We formally compared the simplified UV-HPLC method with EC-HPLC in 80 consecutive clinical samples. The simplified UV-HPLC method was less expensive, easier to set up, required fewer reagents and no pH adjustments, and demonstrated greater sample stability than many existing methods for plasma vitamin C analysis. When compared with the gold-standard EC-HPLC method in 80 consecutive clinical samples exhibiting a wide range of plasma vitamin C concentrations, it performed equivalently. The easy set up, simplicity and sensitivity of the plasma vitamin C analysis method described here could make it practical in a normally equipped hospital laboratory. Unlike any prior UV-HPLC method for plasma total vitamin C analysis, it was rigorously compared with the gold-standard EC-HPLC method and performed equivalently. Adoption of this method could increase the availability of plasma vitamin C analysis in clinical medicine.

  8. Monitoring of river water for free cyanide pollution from mining activity in Papua New Guinea and attenuation of cyanide by biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaraba, Ian; Rao, B K Rajashekhar

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide (CN) pollution was reported in the downstream areas of Watut and Markham Rivers due to effluent discharges from gold mining and processing activities of Hidden Valley mines in Morobe province of Papua New Guinea. We monitored free cyanide levels in Watut and Markham River waters randomly three times in years for 2 years (2012 and 2013). Besides, a short-term static laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the potential of river sediment to attenuate externally added cyanide, with and without the presence of biochar material. Results indicated that the free cyanide content ranged between 0.17 and 1.32 μg L(-1) in the river waters. The free cyanide content were found to be significantly (p cyanide levels in all four monitoring sites across three sampling intervals were lower than 0.20 mg L(-1) which is the maximum contaminant level (MCL) permitted according to US Environmental Protection Agency. Under laboratory conditions, the biochar-impregnated sediment showed ∼3 times more attenuation capacity for cyanide than non-amended sediment, thus indicating possibility of using biochar to cleanse cyanide from spills or other sources of pollution.

  9. An efficient probe for rapid detection of cyanide in water at parts per billion levels and naked-eye detection of endogenous cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Namita; Jha, Satadru; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2014-03-01

    A new molecular probe based on an oxidized bis-indolyl skeleton has been developed for rapid and sensitive visual detection of cyanide ions in water and also for the detection of endogenously bound cyanide. The probe allows the "naked-eye" detection of cyanide ions in water with a visual color change from red to yellow (Δλmax =80 nm) with the immediate addition of the probe. It shows high selectivity towards the cyanide ion without any interference from other anions. The detection of cyanide by the probe is ratiometric, thus making the detection quantitative. A Michael-type addition reaction of the probe with the cyanide ion takes place during this chemodosimetric process. In water, the detection limit was found to be at the parts per million level, which improved drastically when a neutral micellar medium was employed, and it showed a parts-per-billion-level detection, which is even 25-fold lower than the permitted limits of cyanide in water. The probe could also efficiently detect the endogenously bound cyanide in cassava (a staple food) with a clear visual color change without requiring any sample pretreatment and/or any special reaction conditions such as pH or temperature. Thus the probe could serve as a practical naked-eye probe for "in-field" experiments without requiring any sophisticated instruments. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Analysis of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence: Quantitative approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Ruiz, R.; Garcia-Heras, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the quantitative methodologies developed for the compositional characterization of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence at two levels. A first quantitative level which comprises an acid leaching procedure, and a second selective level, which seeks to increase the number of detectable elements by eliminating the iron present in the acid leaching procedure. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been compared, at a quantitative level, with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in order to test its applicability to the study of this kind of materials. The combination of a solid chemical homogenization procedure previously reported with the quantitative methodologies here presented allows the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence to analyze 29 elements with acceptable analytical recoveries and accuracies

  11. Total CMB analysis of streaker aerosol samples by PIXE, PIGE, beta- and optical-absorption analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annegarn, H.J.; Przybylowicz, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    Multielemental analyses of aerosol samples are widely used in air pollution receptor modelling. Specifically, the chemical mass balance (CMB) model has become a powerful tool in urban air quality studies. Input data required for the CMB includes not only the traditional X-ray fluorescence (and hence PIXE) detected elements, but also total mass, organic and inorganic carbon, and other light elements including Mg, Na and F. The circular streaker sampler, in combination with PIXE analysis, has developed into a powerful tool for obtaining time-resolved, multielemental aerosol data. However, application in CMB modelling has been limited by the absence of total mass and complementary light element data. This study reports on progress in using techniques complementary to PIXE to obtain additional data from circular streaker samples, maintaining the nondestructive, instrumental approach inherent in PIXE: Beta-gauging using a 147 Pm source for total mass; optical absorption for inorganic carbon; and PIGE to measure the lighter elements. (orig.)

  12. Analysis of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence: Quantitative approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ruiz, R. [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Modulo C-9, Laboratorio de TXRF, Crta. Colmenar, Km 15, Cantoblanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: ramon.fernandez@uam.es; Garcia-Heras, M. [Grupo de Arqueometria de Vidrios y Materiales Ceramicos, Instituto de Historia, Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C/ Albasanz, 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    This paper reports the quantitative methodologies developed for the compositional characterization of archaeological ceramics by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence at two levels. A first quantitative level which comprises an acid leaching procedure, and a second selective level, which seeks to increase the number of detectable elements by eliminating the iron present in the acid leaching procedure. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been compared, at a quantitative level, with Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in order to test its applicability to the study of this kind of materials. The combination of a solid chemical homogenization procedure previously reported with the quantitative methodologies here presented allows the total-reflection X-ray fluorescence to analyze 29 elements with acceptable analytical recoveries and accuracies.

  13. Relative Propensities of Cytochrome c Oxidase and Cobalt Corrins for Reaction with Cyanide and Oxygen: Implications for Amelioration of Cyanide Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Quan; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim

    2017-12-18

    In aqueous media at neutral pH, the binding of two cyanide molecules per cobinamide can be described by two formation constants, K f1 = 1.1 (±0.6) × 10 5 M -1 and K f2 = 8.5 (±0.1) × 10 4 M -1 , or an overall cyanide binding constant of ∼1 × 10 10 M -2 . In comparison, the cyanide binding constants for cobalamin and a fully oxidized form of cytochrome c oxidase, each binding a single cyanide anion, were found to be 7.9 (±0.5) × 10 4 M -1 and 1.6 (±0.2) × 10 7 M -1 , respectively. An examination of the cyanide-binding properties of cobinamide at neutral pH by stopped-flow spectrophotometry revealed two kinetic phases, rapid and slow, with apparent second-order rate constants of 3.2 (±0.5) × 10 3 M -1 s -1 and 45 (±1) M -1 s -1 , respectively. Under the same conditions, cobalamin exhibited a single slow cyanide-binding kinetic phase with a second-order rate constant of 35 (±1) M -1 s -1 . All three of these processes are significantly slower than the rate at which cyanide is bound by complex IV during enzyme turnover (>10 6 M -1 s -1 ). Overall, it can be understood from these findings why cobinamide is a measurably better cyanide scavenger than cobalamin, but it is unclear how either cobalt corrin can be antidotal toward cyanide intoxication as neither compound, by itself, appears able to out-compete cytochrome c oxidase for available cyanide. Furthermore, it has also been possible to unequivocally show in head-to-head comparison assays that the enzyme does indeed have greater affinity for cyanide than both cobalamin and cobinamide. A plausible resolution of the paradox that both cobalamin and cobinamide clearly are antidotal toward cyanide intoxication, involving the endogenous auxiliary agent nitric oxide, is suggested. Additionally, the catalytic consumption of oxygen by the cobalt corrins is demonstrated and, in the case of cobinamide, the involvement of cytochrome c when present. Particularly in the case of cobinamide, these oxygen

  14. Uranium leaching analysis (IAEA method) and total uranium determination in caldasite by the fluorometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardela, I.A.; Fujimori, K.

    1980-10-01

    Caldasite is a radioactive mineral known mostly for its high radioactive content (U and Th). It is found only at the Pocos de Caldas Alkaline Complex, States of Minas Gerais. Samples colected at Campos do Serrote, Taquari and Brigrada located in the alkaline complex were submitted to the fluorometric method of uranium analysis. The results show a good precision and close agreement with those obtained with gamma ray spectroscopy. IAEA uranium leaching analysis has also been applied to this mineral, but only 0,4% of the total content was dissolved. The uranium leaching was more intense on the samples that have smaller equivalent uranium than total uranium and it may be attributed to a higher range Rn gas escape from this mineral. (Author) [pt

  15. Applications of total reflection X-ray fluorescence in multi-element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, W.; Prange, A.; Knoth, J.

    1985-01-01

    Although Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (TXRF) became available for practical applications and routine measurements only few years ago, the number of programmes that make use of this method is increasing rapidly. The scope of work is widespread over environmental research and monitoring, mineralogy, mineral exploration, oceanography, biology, medicine and biochemistry. The present paper gives a brief survey of these applications and summarizes some of them which are typical for quite different matrices. (orig.)

  16. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis with synchrotron radiation monochromatized by multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieder, R.; Wobrauschek, P.; Ladisich, W.; Streli, C.; Aiginger, H.; Garbe, S.; Gaul, G.; Knoechel, A.; Lechtenberg, F.

    1995-01-01

    To achieve lowest detection limits in total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) synchrotron radiation has been monochromatized by a multilayer structure to obtain a relative broad energy band compared to Bragg single crystals for an efficient excitation. The energy has been set to 14 keV, 17.5 keV, 31 keV and about 55 keV. Detection limits of 20 fg and 150 fg have been achieved for Sr and Cd, respectively. ((orig.))

  17. Analysis of Geomagnetic Field Variations during Total Solar Eclipses Using INTERMAGNET Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, J. H.; Chang, H. Y.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate variations of the geomagnetic field observed by INTERMAGNET geomagnetic observatories over which the totality path passed during a solar eclipse. We compare results acquired by 6 geomagnetic observatories during the 4 total solar eclipses (11 August 1999, 1 August 2008, 11 July 2010, and 20 March 2015) in terms of geomagnetic and solar ecliptic parameters. These total solar eclipses are the only total solar eclipse during which the umbra of the moon swept an INTERMAGNET geomagnetic observatory and simultaneously variations of the geomagnetic field are recorded. We have confirmed previous studies that increase BY and decreases of BX, BZ and F are conspicuous. Interestingly, we have noted that variations of geomagnetic field components observed during the total solar eclipse at Isla de Pascua Mataveri (Easter Island) in Chile (IPM) in the southern hemisphere show distinct decrease of BY and increases of BX and BZ on the contrary. We have found, however, that variations of BX, BY, BZ and F observed at Hornsund in Norway (HRN) seem to be dominated by other geomagnetic occurrence. In addition, we have attempted to obtain any signatures of influence on the temporal behavior of the variation in the geomagnetic field signal during the solar eclipse by employing the wavelet analysis technique. Finally, we conclude by pointing out that despite apparent success a more sophisticate and reliable algorithm is required before implementing to make quantitative comparisons.

  18. Modification of hydrogen determinator for total hydrogen analysis in irradiated zircaloy cladding tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soon Dal; Choi, Kwnag Soon; Kim, Jong Goo; Joe, Kih Soo; Kim, Won Ho

    1999-01-01

    A hydrogen determinator was modified and installed in the glove box to analyse total hydrogen content in irradiated zircaloy tube. The analysis method of hydrogen is Inert Gas Fusion(IGF)-Thermal Conductivity Detection(TCD). The hydrogen recoveries of no tin method using Ti and Zr matrix standards, respectively, were available within 3 μg of hydrogen. Also the smaller size of sample showed the better hydrogen recovery. It was found that the hydrogen standard of Ti matrix is available to hydrogen analysis in zircaloy sample. The mean radioactivity of irradiated zircaloy sample was 10 mR/hr and hydrogen concentration was 130 ppm

  19. Single particle transfer for quantitative analysis with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Esaka, Konomi T.; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The technique of single particle transfer was applied to quantitative analysis with total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry. The technique was evaluated by performing quantitative analysis of individual Cu particles with diameters between 3.9 and 13.2 μm. The direct quantitative analysis of the Cu particle transferred onto a Si carrier gave a discrepancy between measured and calculated Cu amounts due to the absorption effects of incident and fluorescent X-rays within the particle. By the correction for the absorption effects, the Cu amounts in individual particles could be determined with the deviation within 10.5%. When the Cu particles were dissolved with HNO 3 solution prior to the TXRF analysis, the deviation was improved to be within 3.8%. In this case, no correction for the absorption effects was needed for quantification

  20. Surgical treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease: total or partial fundoplication? Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F Ramos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Although the high incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in the population, there is much controversy in this topic, especially in the surgical treatment. The decision to use of a total or partial fundoplication in the treatment of GERD is still a challenge to many surgeons because the few evidence found in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To bring more clear evidence in the comparison between total and partial fundoplication. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of the literature and metaanalysis with randomized controlled trials accessed from MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Controlled Trials Database was done. The outcomes remarked were: dysphagia, inability to belch, bloating, recurrence of acid reflux, heartburn and esophagitis. For data analysis the odds ratio was used with corresponding 95% confidence interval. Statistical heterogeneity in the results of the metaanalysis was assessed by calculating a test of heterogeneity. The software Review Manager 5 (Cochrane Collaboration was utilized for the data gathered and the statistical analysis. Sensitive analysis was applied using only trials that included follow-up over 2 years. RESULTS: Ten trials were included with 1003 patients: 502 to total fundoplication group and 501 to partial fundoplication group. The outcomes dysphagia and inability to belch had statistical significant difference (P = 0.00001 in favor of partial fundoplication. There was not statistical difference in outcomes related with treatment failure. There were no heterogeneity in the outcomes dysphagia and recurrence of the acid reflux. CONCLUSION: The partial fundoplication has lower incidence of obstructive side effects.

  1. Hemihepatic versus total hepatic inflow occlusion during hepatectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Qing; Yang, Jia-Yin; Yan, Lu-Nan

    2011-07-14

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing hepatectomy with hemihepatic vascular occlusion (HHO) compared with total hepatic inflow occlusion (THO). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing hemihepatic vascular occlusion and total hepatic inflow occlusion were included by a systematic literature search. Two authors independently assessed the trials for inclusion and extracted the data. A meta-analysis was conducted to estimate blood loss, transfusion requirement, and liver injury based on the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Either the fixed effects model or random effects model was used. Four RCTs including 338 patients met the predefined inclusion criteria. A total of 167 patients were treated with THO and 171 with HHO. Meta-analysis of AST levels on postoperative day 1 indicated higher levels in the THO group with weighted mean difference (WMD) 342.27; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 217.28-467.26; P = 0.00 001; I(2) = 16%. Meta-analysis showed no significant difference between THO group and HHO group on blood loss, transfusion requirement, mortality, morbidity, operating time, ischemic duration, hospital stay, ALT levels on postoperative day 1, 3 and 7 and AST levels on postoperative day 3 and 7. Hemihepatic vascular occlusion does not offer satisfying benefit to the patients undergoing hepatic resection. However, they have less liver injury after liver resections.

  2. Cost-effectivness analysis of total thyroidectomy vs radioiodine for Graves disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokić Anđelka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the patients suffering from hyperthyroidism 60-80% have Graves' disease. The initial therapy of Graves's disease are antithyroid drugs. If the remission is not achieved after 12-18 months, the patients should be directed to surgical treatment or to the therapy with radioactive iodine. The aim of this study was to compare cost/effectiveness ratios for radioactive iodine and total thyroidectomy. The analysis was made using Markov model, from the perspective of Republic Fund for Health Insurance in Serbia. Duration of one cycle in the model is six months, and the time horizon is 30 years. Monte Carlo simulation was performed for 1000 virtual patients as well as the analysis of sensitivity with the variation of parameters ± 50%. For total thyroidectomy the insurance should provide 138.389,72 RSD / 57, 83 QALY i.e. 2.393,04 dinars for one quality-adjusted life year, and for radioactive iodine the insurance should provide 110.043,64 RSD / 57,82 QALY i.e. 1.903,37 dinars for one quality-adjusted life year. This economic analysis showed that radioactive iodine has better ratio of costs to clinical effectiveness as opposed to total thyroidectomy.

  3. Multielement analysis of aerosol samples by X-ray fluorescence analysis with totally reflecting sample holders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelsen, P.; Knoechel, A.

    1984-01-01

    Aerosole samples on filter support were analyzed using the X-ray flourescence analytical method (Mo excitation) with totally reflecting sample carrier (TXFA). Wet decomposition of the sample material with HNO 3 in an enclosed system and subsequent sample preparation by evaporating an aliquot of the solution on the sample carrier yields detection limits up to 0.3 ng/cm 2 . The reproducibilities of the measurements of the elements K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb lie between 5 and 25%. Similar detection limits and reproducibilities are obtained, when low-temperature oxygen plasma is employed for the direct ashing of the homogenously covered filter on the sample carrier. For the systematic loss of elements both methods were investigated with radiotracers as well as with inactive techniques. A comparison of the results with those obtained by NAA, AAS and PIXE shows good agreement in most cases. For the bromine determination and the fast coverage of the main elements a possibility for measuring the filter membrane has been indicated, which neglects the ashing step. The corresponding detection limits are up to 3 ng/cm 2 . (orig.) [de

  4. How acute total sleep loss affects the attending brain: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Dinges, David F; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi

    2015-02-01

    Attention is a cognitive domain that can be severely affected by sleep deprivation. Previous neuroimaging studies have used different attention paradigms and reported both increased and reduced brain activation after sleep deprivation. However, due to large variability in sleep deprivation protocols, task paradigms, experimental designs, characteristics of subject populations, and imaging techniques, there is no consensus regarding the effects of sleep loss on the attending brain. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify brain activations that are commonly altered by acute total sleep deprivation across different attention tasks. Coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of performance on attention tasks during experimental sleep deprivation. The current version of the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach was used for meta-analysis. The authors searched published articles and identified 11 sleep deprivation neuroimaging studies using different attention tasks with a total of 185 participants, equaling 81 foci for ALE analysis. The meta-analysis revealed significantly reduced brain activation in multiple regions following sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness, including bilateral intraparietal sulcus, bilateral insula, right prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex, and right parahippocampal gyrus. Increased activation was found only in bilateral thalamus after sleep deprivation compared to rested wakefulness. Acute total sleep deprivation decreases brain activation in the fronto-parietal attention network (prefrontal cortex and intraparietal sulcus) and in the salience network (insula and medial frontal cortex). Increased thalamic activation after sleep deprivation may reflect a complex interaction between the de-arousing effects of sleep loss and the arousing effects of task performance on thalamic activity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. Eliminating Cyanide, Reducing Heavy Metals, and Harvesting Gold from Mining Waste with Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    : All plants (as far as known) have an enzyme to detoxify cyanide by binding it to an amino acid. Cyanide in the appropriate dose can be used by plants as nitrogen source. Compared to other organisms, plants can tolerate high doses of free and complexed cyanidess. Using plants for detoxifying mining......Large amounts of cyanides are used in gold mining. The application is open and generates environmental problems. Regulators therefore insist on detoxifying cyanide-contaminated wastewater. There are existing technologies to remove cyanides, but none uses plants. Here, a new technology is introduced...... wastewater combines several benefits: cyanide is removed, plants are irrigated and fertilised. Heavy metals (including gold) are extracted by plants. Plants can be harvested and used, e.g., for energy production by burning. The ash of the plants is probaly rich in gold and a resource for further gold...

  6. [Biooxidation of gold-bearing sulfide ore and subsequent biological treatment of cyanidation residues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaev, A T; Bulaev, A G; Semenchenko, G V; Kanaeva, Z K; Shilmanova, A A

    2016-01-01

    The percolation biooxidation parameters of ore from the Bakyrchik deposit were studied. An investigation of the technological parameters (such as the concentration of leaching agents, irrigation intensity, and pauses at various stages of the leaching) revealed the optimal mode for precious metal extraction. The stages of the ore processing were biooxidation, gold extraction by cyanidation or thiosulfate leaching, and biological destruction of cyanide. The gold and silver recovery rates by cyanidation were 64.0 and 57.3%, respectively. The gold and silver recovery rates by thiosulfate leaching were 64.0 and 57.3%, respectively. Gold and silver recovery rates from unoxidized ore (control experiment) by cyanidation were 20.9 and 26.8%, respectively. Thiosulfate leaching of unoxidized ore allowed the extraction of 38.8 and 24.2% of the gold and silver, respectively. Cyanidation residues were treated with bacteria of the genus Alcaligenes in order to destruct cyanide.

  7. Cyanide Containing Wastewater Treatment by Ozone Enhanced Catalytic Oxidation over Diatomite Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Mingguo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanide containing wastewater that discharged from gold mining process creates environmental problems due to the toxicity of cyanide. As one of the promising advanced oxidation process, catalytic oxidation with ozone is considered to be effective on the purification of cyanide. Diatomite, a natural mineral, was used as catalyst in this study. The effect of O3 dosage, salinity, initial cyanide concentration and initial pH condition were investigated. It was observed that the removal rate of cyanide was much higher in the catalytic oxidation with ozone process than the one in zone alone process. Alkaline condition was especially favorable for cyanide in catalytic oxidation with ozone. The ozone and catalytic oxidation with ozone were simulated by pseudo-first-order kinetics model. The apparent first-order rate constant contribution of the diatomite catalyst was 0.0757 min-1, and the contribution percentage was 65.77%.

  8. Acute cyanide poisoning in prehospital care: new challenges, new tools for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Tee

    2006-01-01

    Effective management of cyanide poisoning from chemical terrorism, inhalation of fire smoke, and other causes constitutes a critical challenge for the prehospital care provider. The ability to meet the challenge of managing cyanide poisoning in the prehospital setting may be enhanced by the availability of the cyanide antidote hydroxocobalamin, currently under development for potential introduction in the United States. This paper discusses the causes, recognition, and management of acute cyanide poisoning in the prehospital setting with emphasis on the emerging profile of hydroxocobalamin, an antidote that may have a risk:benefit ratio suitable for empiric, out-of-hospital treatment of the range of causes of cyanide poisoning. If introduced in the U.S., hydroxocobalamin may enhance the role of the U.S. prehospital responder in providing emergency care in a cyanide incident.

  9. Cross-species and tissue variations in cyanide detoxification rates in rodents and non-human primates on protein-restricted diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani, S; Moterroso, V; Morales, P; Wagner, J; Kipruto, S; Bukachi, F; Maitai, C; Tshala-Katumbay, D

    2014-04-01

    We sought to elucidate the impact of diet, cyanide or cyanate exposure on mammalian cyanide detoxification capabilities (CDC). Male rats (~8 weeks old) (N=52) on 75% sulfur amino acid (SAA)-deficient diet were treated with NaCN (2.5mg/kg bw) or NaOCN (50mg/kg bw) for 6 weeks. Macaca fascicularis monkeys (~12 years old) (N=12) were exclusively fed cassava for 5 weeks. CDC was assessed in plasma, or spinal cord, or brain. In rats, NaCN induced seizures under SAA-restricted diet whereas NaOCN induced motor deficits. No deficits were observed in non-human primates. Under normal diet, the CDC were up to ~80× faster in the nervous system (14 ms to produce one μmol of thiocyanate from the detoxification of cyanide) relative to plasma. Spinal cord CDC was impaired by NaCN, NaOCN, or SAA deficiency. In M. fascicularis, plasma CDC changed proportionally to total proteins (r=0.43; pcyanide may result from a "multiple hit" by the toxicity of cyanide or its cyanate metabolite, the influences of dietary deficiencies, and the tissue variations in CDC. Chronic dietary reliance on cassava may cause metabolic derangement including poor CDC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dual-wavelength β-correction spectrophotometric determination of trace concentrations of cyanide ions based on the nucleophilic addition of cyanide to imine group of the new reagent 4-hydroxy-3-(2-oxoindolin-3-ylideneamino)-2-thioxo-2H-1,3-thiazin-6(3H)-one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, A.; Bashammakh, A.S.; Al-Sibaai, A.A.; Al-Saidi, H.M.; El-Shahawi, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    A simple, fast, low cost and sensitive direct β-correction spectrophotometric assay of cyanide ions based on its reaction with the reagent 4-hydroxy-3-(2-oxoindolin-3-ylideneamino)-2-thioxo-2H-1, 3-thiazin-6(3H)-one, abbreviated as HOTT in aqueous media of pH 7-10 is described. The electronic spectrum of the produced brown-red colored species showed well defined and sharp peak at λ max = 466 nm. The effective molar absorptivity for the produced cyano compound was 2.5 x 10 4 L mol -1 cm -1 . Beer's law and Ringbom's plots were obeyed in the concentration range 0.05-2.0 and 0.30-1.5 μg mL -1 cyanide ions, respectively. The proposed method offers 16.0 and 50.3 μg L -1 lower limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of the cyanide ion, respectively. The analytical utility of the method for the analysis of cyanide ions in tap and drinking water samples was demonstrated and the results were compared successfully with the conventional cyanide ion selective electrode. The short time response and the detection by the naked eye make the method available for the detection and quantitative determination of cyanide in a variety of samples e.g. fresh and drinking water. Moreover, the structure of the produced colored species was determined with the aid of spectroscopic measurements (UV-Vis, IR, 1 H and 13 C NMR) and elemental analysis.

  11. Recovery of Copper from Cyanidation Tailing by Flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tingsheng; Huang, Xiong; Yang, Xiuli

    2016-02-01

    In this work, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, sodium metabisulfite and copper sulfate as activators were investigated to lessen the depression effect of cyanide for deep-depressing chalcopyrite. The experimental results indicate that the copper recovery exceeded 94%, 84% and 97% at the dosage: sodium hypochlorite 3 mL/L, hydrogen peroxide 2 mL/L, sodium metabisulfite 2 × 10-3 mol/L and copper sulfate 1.67 × 10-4 mol/L, respectively. According to the results of zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectrum, it is suggested that chalcopyrite was depressed because of the chemical adsorption of cyanide on the chalcopyrite surfaces. Sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide and sodium metabisulfite can destroy Cu-C bond on the deep-depressing chalcopyrite surface by chemical reaction. Copper sulfate can activate deep-depressing chalcopyrite by copper ion adsorption.

  12. Glycine metabolism by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: hydrogen cyanide biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castric, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a synthetic medium is stimulated by the presence of glycine. Methionine enhances this stimulation but will not substitute for glycine as a stimulator of cyanogenesis. Threonine and phenylalanine are effective substitutes for glycine in the stimulation of HCN production. Glycine, threonine, and serine are good radioisotope precursors of HCN, but methionine and phenylalanine are not. Cell extracts of P. aeruginosa convert [ 14 C]threonine to [ 14 C]glycine. H14CN is produced with low dilution of label from either [1- 14 C]glycine or [2- 14 C]glycine, indicating a randomization of label either in the primary or secondary metabolism of glycine. When whole cells were fed [1,2- 14 C]glycine, cyanide and bicarbonate were the only radioactive extracellular products observed

  13. The use of tristimulus colorimetry for the determination of hydrogen cyanide in air by a modified König method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMÍR PITSCHMANN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple visual and tristimulus colorimetric method (three-dimensional system CIE-L*a*b* for the determination of trace amounts of hydrogen cyanide in air has been developed. The method is based on the suction of hydrogen cyanide through a chlorinating cartridge where cyanogen chloride is formed, which is further driven to an indicator disc made of a modified cotton fabric. This indicator disc is placed into an adapter. Prior to analysis, the disc is saturated with a chromogenic reagent, a solution of 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione (dimedone and 4-benzylpyridine in ethanol. In the presence of hydrogen cyanide (cyanogen chloride, a pink coloration emerges on the indicator disc, the intensity of which is evaluated either visually or by use of a tristimulus colorimeter. The detection limit is 0.1 mg m-3. The method is mainly suitable for mobile field analyses. It was applied for the CHP-5 chemical agent detector introduced into the equipment of the Czech Army corps.

  14. The efficacy of topical tranexamic acid in total hip arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shubiao; Wu, Kezhou; Kong, Gengbin; Feng, Weili; Deng, Zhihua; Wang, Hu

    2016-02-16

    Topical tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to be effective in reducing blood loss and the need for transfusion after total knee arthroplasty. However, the effectiveness of topical TXA use in total hip arthroplasty (THA) still remains unclear. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to examine the safety and efficacy of topical use of TXA following THA. Topical TXA reduces blood loss and transfusion rates without increasing risk of deep vein thrombosis in patients with THA. An electronic literature search of PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Chinese Biomedical Database was performed, to identify studies published before February 2015. All randomized controlled trials and cohort studies evaluating the efficacy of topical TXA during THA were included. Two independent authors identified the eligible studies, assessed their methodological quality, and extracted data. The data were using fixed-effects or random-effects models with (standard) mean differences and risk ratios for continuous and dichotomous variables, respectively. Data were analysed using RevMan 5.3 software. Fourteen studies encompassing 2594 patients met the inclusion criteria for our meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis indicated that when compared with the placebo group, topical use of TXA significantly reduced total blood loss (MD = -297.65 ml, 95 % CI -371.68 ml, 116.08 ml; P level (SMD = -0.66, 95 % CI -0.91, -0.41; P Topical TXA could significantly reduce total blood loss, drainage loss, transfusion rates and decrease haemoglobin level following THA, without increasing risk of venous thromboembolisms.

  15. A rectangular Ni-Fe cluster with unusual cyanide bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Christoph; Sato, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Takuto; Shiga, Takuya; Newton, Graham N; Renz, Franz; Oshio, Hiroki

    2012-10-07

    An asymmetric polycyanide iron complex, K(2)[Fe(III)(L1)(CN)(4)](MeOH) (HL1 = 2,2'-(1H-pyrazole-3,5-diyl)bis-pyridine), was synthesized and its complexation compatibility with nickel ions was examined. Two kinds of enantiomeric nickel-iron squares were obtained in the presence of a chiral bidentate capping ligand. The compounds display unusual cyanide bridge geometry and have ferromagnetic interactions between nickel and iron ions.

  16. Syntheses and characterizations of the cyanide-bridged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spectral features of the complexes suggest that the Ni(II) ion is four coordinate with four cyanide-carbon atoms in a square planar geometry, whereas the Cu(II) and the Zn(II) ions of the Cu–Ni–etim and the Zn–Ni–etim complexes are completed by nitrogen atoms of two cyano groups of [Ni(CN)4]2- coordinated to the ...

  17. Determination of nitrate, nitrite, N- nitrosamines, cyanide and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nitrate, nitrite, N- nitrosamines and ascorbic acid content as well as the levels of cyanide in eight brands of fruit juices and twelve brands of sachet water commonly marketed and consumed in Nigeria were estimated. The mean values of nitrate ranged from 2.29±0.05 to 16.50±1.21 mg/L for the juices and 0.64±0.21 to ...

  18. Using mineralogy to optimize gold recovery by direct cyanidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, D.; Chryssoulis, S. L.; Mulpeter, T.

    2004-08-01

    The complete and accurate gold deportments of direct cyanide leach residues provide a clear picture of the occurrence of unrecovered gold and identify causes for poor extraction. Based on the independent measurement of each form and carrier of unleached gold, opportunities for recovery optimization can be assessed more accurately by providing meaningful targets and can help identify the means to achieve such targets. In ten of 14 leach plants surveyed, 23% of the unrecovered gold could be extracted without finer grinding.

  19. Acute Cyanide Poisoning: Hydroxocobalamin and Sodium Thiosulfate Treatments with Two Outcomes following One Exposure Event

    OpenAIRE

    Meillier, Andrew; Heller, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide is rapidly reacting and causes arrest of aerobic metabolism. The symptoms are diffuse and lethal and require high clinical suspicion. Remediation of symptoms and mortality is highly dependent on quick treatment with a cyanide antidote. Presently, there are two widely accepted antidotes: sodium thiosulfate and hydroxocobalamin. These treatments act on different components of cyanide’s metabolism. Here, we present two cases resulting from the same source of cyanide poisoning and the use...

  20. Isotopic studies on ligand exchange between complex and simple cyanides in aqueous medium and in liquid hydrogen cyanide. Part 1. Rate law and temperature dependence study of the radiocyanide exchange between hydrogen cyanide and octacyanotungstate(4) in aque us medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, M.

    1978-01-01

    Dark radiocyanide ligand exchange in the closed system consisting of K 4 W(CN) 8 , hydrogen cyanide and water have been investigated. It has been found that the reaction is first order in respect to the complex cyanide and zero order in respect to the free hydrogen cyanide. Arrhenius activation energy within the temperature interval of 20-100 0 C equals to 32.373 kcal/mole. Enthalpy and entropy of activation are correspondingly ΔH not equal to Λ31.716kcal/mole and ΔS not equal to =5.45 e.u. A preliminary discussion of the above findings is presented. (author)

  1. Isotopic studies on ligand exchange between complex and simple cyanides in water medium and in liquid hydrogen cyanide. Part 2. Radiocyanide ligand exchange study between hydrogen cyanide and octacyanotungstate(4) in water solutions of mineral acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, M.

    1979-01-01

    Radiocyanide ligand exchange between potassium octacyanotungstate(4) and hydrogen cyanide in aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid and between octacyanotungstic(4) acid and hydrogen cyanide in aqueous solutions have been investigated experimentally. The observed enhancement of the rate of ligand exchange in acidic medium has been rationalized in terms of the proposed new general reaction scheme taking into account the reversible decomposition of complex cyanide at low pH, and irreversible one at high pH. The discussion on the results obtained has been carried out within the framework of derived formal kinetic equations. (author)

  2. Coumarin benzothiazole derivatives as chemosensors for cyanide anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangnan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Guan, Ruifang; Cao, Duxia; Chen, Hongyu; Shan, Yanyan; Wu, Qianqian; Xu, Yongxiao

    2015-06-01

    Four coumarin benzothiazole derivatives, N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (1), (Z)-N-(3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (2), 7-(diethylamino)-N-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide (3) and (Z)-7-(diethylamino)-N-(3-methylbenzo[d]thiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carboxamide) (4), have been synthesized. Their crystal structures, photophysical properties in acetonitrile and recognition properties for cyanide anions have been investigated. All the compounds are generally planar, especially compound 1 exhibits perfect planarity with dihedral angle between benzothiazolyl group and coumarin group being only 3.63°. Coumarin benzothiazole compounds 1 and 3 can recognize cyanide anions by Michael addition reaction and compound 3 exhibits color change from yellow to colorless and green fluorescence was quenched completely, which can be observed by naked eye. Coumarin benzothiazolyliden compound 4 can recognize cyanide anions with fluorescence turn-on response based on the copper complex ensemble displacement mechanism.

  3. Kinetics and equilibria of cyanide binding to prostaglandin H synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, I D; Dunford, H B

    1989-09-01

    Cyanide binding to prostaglandin H (PGH) synthase results in a spectral shift in the Soret region. This shift was exploited to determine equilibrium and kinetic parameters of the cyanide binding process. At pH 8.0, ionic strength 0.22 M, 4 degrees C, the cyanide dissociation constant, determined from equilibrium experiments, is (65 +/- 10) microM. The binding rate constant is (2.8 +/- 0.2) x 10(3) M-1 s-1, and the dissociation rate constant is zero within experimental error. Through a kinetic study of the binding process as a function of pH, from pH 3.96 to 8.00, it was possible to determine the pKa of a heme-linked acid group on the enzyme of 4.15 +/- 0.10 with citrate buffer. An apparent pKa of 4.75 +/- 0.03 was determined with acetate buffer; this different value is attributed to complexation of the enzyme with one of the components of the acetate buffer.

  4. Smoke Inhalation and Cyanide Poisoning: 20 Years of Paris Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baud, F. J.

    2007-01-01

    Hydroxocobalamin has been used as a cyanide poisoning antidote for many years in France. It has recently been approved by the US FDA. In Paris, hydroxocobalamin is carried by the Brigade de Sapeurs Pompiers (Paris Fire Brigade) in mobile intensive care vehicles and has been administered empirically to victims of enclosed-space fire smoke inhalation who meet the criteria of having soot in the nose, mouth, or throat, any alteration in mental status or disturbance in consciousness, and especially if any degree of hypotension is present (BP less than or equal to 100 mmHg systolic). The administration of hydroxocobalamin at the scene was shown to be safe. Hydroxocobalamin has also been efficacious and safe in 'pure' cyanide poisoning, as long as brain death has not already occurred. A 'toxidrome' of cyanide poisoning has been developed in our institution in Paris, and its application can assist in making the diagnosis of this life-threatening poisoning which cannot be emergent diagnosed by currently-available laboratory methods.(author)

  5. Hydriding of steel in cyanide electrolytes of cadmium plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokol'skaya, N.B.; Maksimchuk, V.P.

    1977-01-01

    Hydrogenation of steel in cyanide electrolytes for cadmium deposition has been studied in a wide range of compositions. Also investigated have been the scattering capacity and polarization parameters of these electrolytes. The basic components are Cd 2+ and CH - ; besides that, Na 2 SO 4 x10H 2 O, NaOH and NiSO 4 x7H 2 O have been added to the electrolytes. Hydrogenation upon cadmium electrolytic deposition has been determined by the rate of hydrogen penetration through a steel membrane 0.5 mm thick. At the NaCN/Cd(CN) 2 ratio more than 2 the increase in sodium cyanide concentration in the electrolyte appreciably increases neither its hydrogenating and scattering capacity, nor cathodic polarization. The greatest scattering capacity and the highest hydrogenation is exhibited by diluted cadmium deposition elecctrolytes (CdO concentration 9-12 g/1), which prove particularly effective for deposition of regular coatings on complex shape articles. Cadmium deposition on high strength steels, however, should rather involve cyanide electrolytes with high cadmium concentration (50-60 g/1) in order to reduce hydrogenation

  6. Mechanistic study on exchange between labeled cyanide and nitriles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Munir; Chaney, J.E.; Digenis, G.A.; Layton, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of a clean, rapid exchange between the nitrile function of mandelonitrile and cyanide was examined for the preparation of labeled mandelonitrile which could be subsequently rapidly reduced with borane to labeled phenylethanolamine (PEOH). The mandelonitrile exchange (CN-CN) was studied using [ 13 C]-NaCN with crown ethers in THF, monitoring the results with 13 C-NMR. A large increase in the intensity of the signal due to [ 13 C]-nitrile was observed. The exchange was also carried out using [ 14 C]-NaCN, and the exchanged nitrile was reduced to [ 14 C]-PEOH. The chemical yield for the reduction of [ 14 C]-mandelonitrile to [ 14 C]-PEOH was 60% and the overall radio-chemical yield of the cyanide-exchange and borane reduction (based on [ 14 C]-NaCN used) was 20%. Mechanisms are proposed which were found to be consistent with results of cyanide exchange of appropriately selected nitriles. (author)

  7. Determination of Total Arsenic in Seaweed Products by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, N.; Santoso, M.; Yanuar, A.; Damayanti; Kartawinata, T.G.

    2013-01-01

    Seaweed products are widely consumed as food nowadays. Seaweeds are known to contain arsenic due to their capability to accumulate arsenic from the environment. Arsenic is a known toxic element which naturally occurs in the environment. Ingestion of high levels of arsenic will cause several adverse health effects. Arsenic in food occurs at trace concentrations which require sensitive and selective analysis methods to perform elemental analysis on. Validated neutron activation analysis was used to determine the arsenic contents in seaweed products namely catoni from domestic product and nori from foreign products. The total arsenic concentration in the samples analyzed ranges from 0.79 mg/kg to 30.14 mg/kg with mean concentration 14.39 mg/kg. The estimated exposure to arsenic contributed by the analyzed products is from 0.07% up to 8.54% of the established provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) which is still far below the maximum tolerable level. (author)

  8. Determination of Total Arsenic in Seaweed Products by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed products are widely consumed as food nowadays. Seaweeds are known to contain arsenic due to their capability to accumulate arsenic from the environment. Arsenic is a known toxic element which naturally occurs in the environment. Ingestion of high levels of arsenic will cause several adverse health effects. Arsenic in food occurs at trace concentrations which require sensitive and selective analysis methods to perform elemental analysis on. Validated neutron activation analysis was used to determine the arsenic contents in seaweed products namely catoni from domestic product and nori from foreign products. The total arsenic concentration in the samples analyzed ranges from 0.79 mg/kg to 30.14 mg/kg with mean concentration 14.39 mg/kg. The estimated exposure to arsenic contributed by the analyzed products is from 0.07% up to 8.54% of the established provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI which is still far below the maximum tolerable level

  9. Social Media and Total Joint Arthroplasty: An Analysis of Patient Utilization on Instagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Prem N; Navarro, Sergio M; Haeberle, Heather S; Chughtai, Morad; Flynn, Megan E; Mont, Michael A

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the nature of shared content of total joint arthroplasty patients on Instagram. Specifically, we evaluated social media posts for: (1) perspective and timing; (2) tone; (3) focus (activities of daily living [ADLs], rehabilitation, return-to-work); and (4) the comparison between hip and knee arthroplasties. A search of the public Instagram domain was performed over a 6-month period. Total hip and knee arthroplasties (THA and TKA) were selected for the analysis using the following terms: "#totalhipreplacement," "#totalkneereplacement," and associated terms. 1287 individual public posts of human subjects were shared during the period. A categorical scoring system was utilized for media format (photo or video), time (preoperative, perioperative, or postoperative) period, tone (positive or negative), return-to-work, ADLs, rehabilitation, surgical site, radiograph image, satisfaction, and dissatisfaction. Ninety-one percent of the posts were shared during the postoperative period. Ninety-three percent of posts had a positive tone. Thirty-four percent of posts focused on both ADLs and 33.8% on rehabilitation. TKA patients shared more about their surgical site (14.5% vs 3.3%, P Instagram, arthroplasty patients did so with a positive tone, starting a week after surgery. TKA posts focused more on rehabilitation and wound healing than THA patients, whereas THA patients shared more posts on ADLs. The analysis of social media posts provides insight into what matters to patients after total joint arthroplasty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement of total body chlorine by prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    A method of measuring total body chlorine (TBCl) by prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis is described depending on the same NaI(Tl) spectra used for determinations of total body nitrogen. Ratios of chlorine to hydrogen are derived and TBCl determined using a model of body composition depending on measured body weight, total body water (by tritium dilution) and protein (6.25 x nitrogen) as well as estimated body minerals and glycogen. The precision of the method based on scanning an anthropomorphic phantom is approximately 9% (SD), for a patient dose equivalent of less than 0.30 mSv. Spectra collected from 67 normal volunteers (32 male, 35 female) yielded mean values of TBCl of 72 +- 19 (SD) g in males and 53.6 +- 15 g in females, in broad agreement with values reported by workers using delayed gamma methods. Results are presented for two human cadavers analysed by neutron activation and conventional chemical analysis; the ratios of TBCl (neutron activation) to TBCl (chemical) were 0.980 +- 0.028 (SEM) and 0.91 +- 0.09. It is suggested that an improvement in precision will be achieved by increasing the scanning time (thereby increasing the radiation dose equivalent) and by adding two more detectors. (author)

  11. The analysis of Th in the Korean total diet sample by RNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kang, Sang Hoon; Park, Kwang Won

    1999-01-01

    In order to estimate the degree of intake of 232 Th through daily diet, a korean total diet sample was collected and made after the investigation of the amount of consumption of daily diet which is dependent on the ages of 20's to 50's. For Th analysis, the RNAA method was applied and NIST SRM 1575, Pine Needle was used as quality control materials. The result of the SRM analysis was compared with a certified value. The relative error was 5%. The determination of the Th in the korean total diet sample was carried out under the same analytical condition and procedure with SRM. As a result of the korean total diet sample, the concentration of Th was in 3.4 ± 0.2 ppb and the amount of daily intake of Th by the diet is found to be 0.67 g per day. Radioactivity by Th intake was estimated to be about 2.7 mBq per person per day and annual dose equivalent was revealed as 0.73 μSv per person

  12. Determination of total mercury and methylmercury in human head hair by radiochemical methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Saiki, M.; Paletti, G.; Baruzzi, R.G.; Rodrigues, D.A.; Cuten, J.

    1995-01-01

    Total mercury has been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in the hair of several Indian tribes living in the Xingu Park, located in the Amazonic region of Brazil. Methylmercury and total mercury have been determined in selected samples using cold vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy, at the Nuclear Chemistry Department, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubliana, Slovenia. Mercury levels were found to be much higher in the Indian hair samples as compared to the samples from the control population. The arithmetic and geometric means for total mercury in the Indian hair samples ranged from 10 to 20 ppm, compared to values of about 1 ppm for the means of the control group. The results obtained for methylmercury have shown that the majority of the mercury is present in the hair of the Indians as the organic form. The Indian study populations living in the Xingu Park can thus be considered as being at risk with regards to contamination by mercury. With the aim of applying neutron activation analysis for the determination of methylmercury in hair, experiments were done at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor irradiating cysteine- and also thioacetamide- impregnated filter papers, on which a methylmercury solution was pipetted. The results obtained have shown that all the mercury was lost from the cysteine-impregnated paper and about 90 % of the mercury remained on the paper impregnated with thioacetamide. (author)

  13. Total knee arthroplasty with an oxidised zirconium femoral component: ten-year survivorship analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, I; Salmon, L J; Waller, A; Watanabe, H; Roe, J P; Pinczewski, L A

    2016-01-01

    Oxidised zirconium was introduced as a material for femoral components in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) as an attempt to reduce polyethylene wear. However, the long-term survival of this component is not known. We performed a retrospective review of a prospectively collected database to assess the ten year survival and clinical and radiological outcomes of an oxidised zirconium total knee arthroplasty with the Genesis II prosthesis. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and a patient satisfaction scale were used to assess outcome. A total of 303 consecutive TKAs were performed in 278 patients with a mean age of 68 years (45 to 89). The rate of survival ten years post-operatively as assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis was 97% (95% confidence interval 94 to 99) with revision for any reason as the endpoint. There were no revisions for loosening, osteolysis or failure of the implant. There was a significant improvement in all components of the WOMAC score at final follow-up (p zirconium TKA gives comparable rates of survival with other implants and excellent functional outcomes ten years post-operatively. Total knee arthroplasty with an oxidised zirconium femoral component gives comparable long-term rates of survival and functional outcomes with conventional implants. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  14. [Analysis of total proteins in the seed of almond (Prunus dulcis) by two-dimensional electrophoresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-dong; He, Shao-heng

    2004-07-01

    To analyse the total proteins in the seeds of almond (Prunus dulcis), one of the popular ingestent allergens in China, by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The total proteins of the seeds were extracted by trichloracetic acid (TCA) method, and then separated by isoelectric focusing as first dimension and SDS-PAGE as the second dimension. The spots of proteins were visualized by staining with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250. After analysis with software (ImageMaster 2D), 188 different proteins were detected. The isoelectric points (pI) for approximately 28% of total proteins were between 4.5-5.5, and the relative molecular mass (M(r)) of approximately 62% total proteins were between (20-25)x10(3). This was the first high-resolution, two-dimensional protein map of the seed of almond (Prunus dulcis) in China. Our finding has laid a solid foundation for further identification, characterization, gene cloning and standardization of allergenic proteins in the seed of almond (Prunus dulcis).

  15. Validation of gait analysis with dynamic radiostereometric analysis (RSA) in patients operated with total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zügner, Roland; Tranberg, Roy; Lisovskaja, Vera; Shareghi, Bita; Kärrholm, Johan

    2017-07-01

    We simultaneously examined 14 patients with OTS and dynamic radiostereometric analysis (RSA) to evaluate the accuracy of both skin- and a cluster-marker models. The mean differences between the OTS and RSA system in hip flexion, abduction, and rotation varied up to 9.5° for the skin-marker and up to 11.3° for the cluster-marker models, respectively. Both models tended to underestimate the amount of flexion and abduction, but a significant systematic difference between the marker and RSA evaluations could only be established for recordings of hip abduction using cluster markers (p = 0.04). The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.7 or higher during flexion for both models and during abduction using skin markers, but decreased to 0.5-0.6 when abduction motion was studied with cluster markers. During active hip rotation, the two marker models tended to deviate from the RSA recordings in different ways with poor correlations at the end of the motion (ICC ≤0.4). During active hip motions soft tissue displacements occasionally induced considerable differences when compared to skeletal motions. The best correlation between RSA recordings and the skin- and cluster-marker model was found for studies of hip flexion and abduction with the skin-marker model. Studies of hip abduction with use of cluster markers were associated with a constant underestimation of the motion. Recordings of skeletal motions with use of skin or cluster markers during hip rotation were associated with high mean errors amounting up to about 10° at certain positions. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1515-1522, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Complexation of intracellular cyanide by hydroxocobalamin using a human cellular model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astier, A; Baud, F J

    1996-01-01

    1. The rational for administering hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl) as an antidote to cyanide poisoning is based on the high affinity of CN ion for cobalt compounds. However, only few data are available on the influence of OHCbl on the intracellular cyanide pool. 2. In human fibroblasts incubated for 10 min with 500 microM of [14C] cyanide, the accumulation ratio was 25 at 37 degrees C (10.45 +/- 1.51 mM) and 11.9 at 4 degrees C. 3. Using the monoblastic U-937 cell line, a rapid uptake of radioactive cyanide was observed with a maximum accumulation ratio of 1.97 at 5 min. 4. A linear relationship between cyanide uptake by U-937 cells and cyanide concentration in incubation medium (10-500 microM; 5 min) was found suggesting a first order process (k = 0.25 min-1). 5. After incubation of fibroblasts with 500 microM of OHCbl, a 75% decrease of intracellular cyanide was observed, with concomittant formation of intracellular cyanocobalamin CNCbl (intracellular/extracellular ratio: 158). 6. These findings suggest that OHCbl is able to penetrate into heavily cyanide loaded cells and to complex cyanide to the non-toxic CNCbl form.

  17. A radiochemical study of gold electrodeposition kinetics in alkaline cyanide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poshkus, D.; Agafonovas, G.; Zhebrauskas, A.

    1995-01-01

    Kinetics of gold electrodeposition from alkaline cyanide solutions was investigated by the use of labelled gold 195 atoms. The absorption of cyanide containing species from alkaline cyanide and dicyanoaurate solutions on a gold electrode by the use of labelled carbon atoms was investigated. Polarization curves of anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition of gold in alkaline cyanide solutions were obtained. The values of standard potential, exchange current density, transfer coefficient and standard polarization rate were determined from polarization curves. The errors in current density caused by the nuclear disintegration statistics were evaluated. 28 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  18. Packed bed reactor for degradation of simulated cyanide-containing wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Virender; Kumar, Vijay; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2014-01-01

    The discharge of cyanide-containing effluents into the environment contaminates water bodies and soil. Effective methods of treatment which can detoxify cyanide are the need of the hour. The aim of the present study is to develop a bioreactor for complete degradation of cyanide using immobilized cells of Serratia marcescens RL2b. Alginate-entrapped cells of S. marcescens RL2b were used for complete degradation of cyanide in a packed bed reactor (PBR). Cells grown in minimal salt medium (pH 6....

  19. Study of solid phase kinetics during cyanidation using the 198 Au radioactive tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbus, A.; Pop, I.I.; Gaspar, E.

    1995-01-01

    During cyanidation, the various gold bearing pyrite sorts exhibit different behaviour, that sometimes cause increased cyanidation times influencing the reagent and power consumption, in the same time generating fluctuations in the recovery efficiencies. The introduction of the 198 Au radioactive tracer into the cyanidation circuit enabled us to follow several parameters of the cyanidation kinetics: the average residence time of the gold bearing pyrite in the technological equipment, information about the homogenization process, dispersion of solids and gold dissolution efficiency on each technological stage. (author)

  20. ''In sutu'' radiation cleaning of underground water contaminated with cyanides - six years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastuszek, F.; Vacek, K.; Vondruska, V.

    1993-01-01

    Underground water, contaminated with cyanides, has been successfully cleaned using the hydraulic barrier method (assembly of pumped wells) since 1986. The average cyanide concentrations in the outflow exceeded 35 mg per litre. Contamination had to be eliminated before the discharge into the sewer system. The radiation approach ''in situ'' i.e. decomposition of cyanides by barrier, was applied and is still being used today. The cyanide concentration was lowered more than one order of magnitude. This process was approved by the Czechoslovak radiation security authorities and further applications of ''in situ'' regeneration of underground water contamination is anticipated. (author)

  1. Tranexamic acid versus aminocaproic acid for blood management after total knee and total hip arthroplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiuliang; Geng, Peishuo; Shi, Longyan; Wang, Qi; Wang, Pengliang

    2018-06-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid for reducing blood loss and transfusion requirements after total knee and total hip arthroplasty. We conduct electronic searches of Medline (1966-2017.11), PubMed (1966-2017.11), Embase (1980-2017.11), ScienceDirect (1985-2017.11) and the Cochrane Library (1900-2017.11). The primary outcomes, including total blood loss, hemoglobin decline and transfusion requirements. Secondary outcomes include length of hospital stay and postoperative complications such as the incidence of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Each outcome is combined and calculated using the statistical software STATA 12.0. Fixed/random effect model is adopted based on the heterogeneity tested by I 2 statistic. A total of 1714 patients are analyzed across three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and one non-RCT. The present meta-analysis reveals that TXA is associated with a significantly reduction of total blood loss and postoperative hemoglobin drop compared with EACA. No significant differences are identified in terms of transfusion rates, length of hospital stay, and the incidence of postoperative complications. Although total blood loss and postoperative hemoglobin drop are significant greater in EACA groups, there is no significant difference between TXA and EACA groups in terms of transfusion rates. Based on the current evidence available, higher quality RCTs are still required for further research. Copyright © 2018 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of automated analysis of 15N and total N in plant material and soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    Simultaneous determination of N-15 and total N using an automated nitrogen analyser interfaced to a continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (ANA-MS method) was evaluated. The coefficient of variation (CV) of repeated analyses of homogeneous standards and samples at natural abundance...... was lower than 0.1%. The CV of repeated analyses of N-15-labelled plant material and soil samples varied between 0.3% and 1.1%. The reproducibility of repeated total N analyses using the automated method was comparable to results obtained with a semi-micro Kjeldahl procedure. However, the automated method...... analysis showed that the recovery of inorganic N in the NH3 trap was lower when the N was diffused from water than from 2 M KCl. The results also indicated that different proportions of the NO3- and the NH4+ in aqueous solution were recovered in the trap after combined diffusion. The method is most suited...

  3. A multilayered integrated sensor for three-dimensional, micro total analysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Jing; Song, Fuchuan; Seo, Sang-Woo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a layer-by-layer integration approach of different functional devices and demonstrates a heterogeneously integrated optical sensor featuring a micro-ring resonator and a high-speed thin-film InGaAs-based photodetector co-integrated with a microfluidic droplet generation device. A thin optical device structure allows a seamless integration with other polymer-based devices on a silicon platform. The integrated sensor successfully demonstrates its transient measurement capability of two-phase liquid flow in a microfluidic droplet generation device. The proposed approach represents an important step toward fully integrated micro total analysis systems. (paper)

  4. Energy-analysis of the total nuclear energy cycle based on light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistemaker, J.

    1975-01-01

    The energy economy of the total nuclear energy cycle is investigated. Attention is paid to the importance of fossil fuel saving by using nuclear energy. The energy analysis is based on the construction and operation of power plants with an electric output of 1000MWe. Light water moderated reactors with a 2.7 - 3.2% enriched uranium core are considered. Additionally, the whole fuel cycle including ore winning and refining, enrichment and fuel element manufacturing and reprocessing has been taken into account. Neither radioactive waste storage problems nor safety problems related to the nuclear energy cycle and safeguarding have been dealt with, as exhaustive treatments can be found elswhere

  5. Total body calcium by neutron activation analysis. Reference data for children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.; Shypailo, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    There is a paucity of data on the chemical composition of the human body during growth. Total body calcium (TBCa) has been reported for only one male child, aged 41/2 yr. TBCa values for 25 children and 27 young women using in vivo neutron activation analysis have been obtained. TBCa results were lower than those reported for the one male cadaver, as well as the estimates derived for the 'Reference Man' model. It was concluded that the reference values for TBCa may need to be adjusted to appropriately describe skeletal mineralization of contemporary children. (author)

  6. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with multiple total reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitag, K.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a total reflection XRF analyzer and the performance data of this instrument are described. The drastic reduction of the scattered radiation is the outstanding property of the method. Detection limits of elements and matrix effects are discussed. The competition with other methods of analysis has proven its advantages in a wide range. In addition to its multi-element features down to the picogram level, particularly its universal calibration function has turned out to be a great help in the analytical practice. (orig./RB)

  7. The use of Total Body In Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis (TBIVNAA) in balance studies in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.A.; Lindsay, R.L.; Anderson, J.

    1976-01-01

    In the investigation of animals subject to alteration in diet or other metabolic experiments, the measurements of change in body calcium, phosphorus, sodium and nitrogen are of considerable interest. However, conventional balance studies are tedious and subject to both random and cumulative error, necessitating as they do accurate estimates of dietary intake and faecal and urinary output. The object of the present study was to determine the usefulness of total body in vivo neutron activation analysis, used at the beginning and end of the experimental period, as an alternative to conventional balance techniques. (orig.) [de

  8. Synchrotron radiation total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis; of polymer coated silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, L.; Kregsamer, P.; Pianetta, P.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) provides an efficient method for analyzing trace metal contamination on silicon wafer surfaces. New polymeric materials used as interlayer dielectrics in microprocessors are applied to the surface of silicon wafers by a spin-coating process. Analysis of these polymer coated wafers present a new challenge for TXRF analysis. Polymer solutions are typically analyzed for bulk metal contamination prior to application on the wafer using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Questions have arisen about how to relate results of surface contamination analysis (TXRF) of a polymer coated wafer to bulk trace analysis (ICP-MS) of the polymer solutions. Experiments were done to explore this issue using synchrotron radiation (SR) TXRF. Polymer solutions were spiked with several different concentrations of metals. These solutions were applied to silicon wafers using the normal spin-coating process. The polymer coated wafers were then measured using the SR-TXRF instrument set-up at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). Several methods of quantitation were evaluated. The best results were obtained by developing calibration curves (intensity versus ppb) using the spiked polymer coated wafers as standards. Conversion of SR-TXRF surface analysis results (atoms/cm 2 ) to a volume related concentration was also investigated. (author)

  9. Extreme events in total ozone: Spatio-temporal analysis from local to global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Harald E.; Staehelin, Johannes; Maeder, Jörg A.; Ribatet, Mathieu; di Rocco, Stefania; Jancso, Leonhardt M.; Peter, Thomas; Davison, Anthony C.

    2010-05-01

    Recently tools from extreme value theory (e.g. Coles, 2001; Ribatet, 2007) have been applied for the first time in the field of stratospheric ozone research, as statistical analysis showed that previously used concepts assuming a Gaussian distribution (e.g. fixed deviations from mean values) of total ozone data do not address the internal data structure concerning extremes adequately (Rieder et al., 2010a,b). A case study the world's longest total ozone record (Arosa, Switzerland - for details see Staehelin et al., 1998a,b) illustrates that tools based on extreme value theory are appropriate to identify ozone extremes and to describe the tails of the total ozone record. Excursions in the frequency of extreme events reveal "fingerprints" of dynamical factors such as ENSO or NAO, and chemical factors, such as cold Arctic vortex ozone losses, as well as major volcanic eruptions of the 20th century (e.g. Gunung Agung, El Chichón, Mt. Pinatubo). Furthermore, atmospheric loading in ozone depleting substances led to a continuous modification of column ozone in the northern hemisphere also with respect to extreme values (partly again in connection with polar vortex contributions). It is shown that application of extreme value theory allows the identification of many more such fingerprints than conventional time series analysis of annual and seasonal mean values. Especially, the extremal analysis shows the strong influence of dynamics, revealing that even moderate ENSO and NAO events have a discernible effect on total ozone (Rieder et al., 2010b). Overall the extremes concept provides new information on time series properties, variability, trends and the influence of dynamics and chemistry, complementing earlier analyses focusing only on monthly (or annual) mean values. Findings described above could be proven also for the total ozone records of 5 other long-term series (Belsk, Hohenpeissenberg, Hradec Kralove, Potsdam, Uccle) showing that strong influence of atmospheric

  10. Determination of the Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the genes expression involved in phyto-degradation of cyanide and ferri-cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Zhang, Xue-Hong

    2016-07-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted with different species of plants (rice, maize, soybean and willow) exposed to ferri-cyanide to investigate the half-saturation constant (K M ) and the maximal metabolic capacity (v max ) involved in phyto-assimilation. Three varieties for each testing species were collected from different origins. Measured concentrations show that the uptake rates responded biphasically to ferri-cyanide treatments by showing increases linearly at low and almost constant at high concentrations from all treatments, indicating that phyto-assimilation of ferri-cyanide followed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Using non-linear regression, the highest v max was by rice, followed by willows. The lowest v max was found for soybean. All plants, except maize (DY26) and rice (XJ12), had a similar K M value, suggesting the same enzyme was active in phyto-assimilation of ferri-cyanide. Transcript level, by real-time quantitative PCR, of enzymes involved in degradation of cyanides showed that the analyzed genes were differently expressed during different cyanides exposure. The expression of CAS and ST genes responded positively to KCN exposure, suggesting that β-CAS and ST pathways were two possible pathways for cyanide detoxification in rice. The transcript level of NIT and ASPNASE genes also showed a remarkable up-regulation to KCN, implying the contribution to the pool of amino acid aspartate, which is an end product of CN metabolism. Up-regulation of GS genes suggests that acquisition of ammonium released from cyanide degradation may be an additional nitrogen source for plant nutrition. Results also revealed that the expressions of these genes, except for GS, were relatively constant during iron cyanide exposure, suggesting that they are likely metabolized by plants through a non-defined pathway rather than the β-CAS pathway.

  11. [Application of Fourier transform attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy in analysis of pulp and paper industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Cao, Chun-yu; Feng, Wen-ying; Xu, Ming; Su, Zhen-hua; Liu, Xiao-meng; Lü, Wei-jun

    2011-03-01

    As one of the most powerful tools to investigate the compositions of raw materials and the property of pulp and paper, infrared spectroscopy has played an important role in pulp and paper industry. However, the traditional transmission infrared spectroscopy has not met the requirements of the producing processes because of its disadvantages of time consuming and sample destruction. New technique would be needed to be found. Fourier transform attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) is an advanced spectroscopic tool for nondestructive evaluation and could rapidly, accurately estimate the production properties of each process in pulp and paper industry. The present review describes the application of ATR-FTIR in analysis of pulp and paper industry. The analysis processes will include: pulping, papermaking, environmental protecting, special processing and paper identifying.

  12. Recent Developments in Solid-Phase Extraction for Near and Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian W. Huck

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A review with more than 100 references on the principles and recent developments in the solid-phase extraction (SPE prior and for in situ near and attenuated total reflection (ATR infrared spectroscopic analysis is presented. New materials, chromatographic modalities, experimental setups and configurations are described. Their advantages for fast sample preparation for distinct classes of compounds containing different functional groups in order to enhance selectivity and sensitivity are discussed and compared. This is the first review highlighting both the fundamentals of SPE, near and ATR spectroscopy with a view to real sample applicability and routine analysis. Most of real sample analyses examples are found in environmental research, followed by food- and bioanalysis. In this contribution a comprehensive overview of the most potent SPE-NIR and SPE-ATR approaches is summarized and provided.

  13. Colouration of medieval glass bracelets studied by total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detcheva, Albena; Velinova, Ralitsa; Ivanova, Elisaveta; Jordanov, Juri; Karadjov, Metody

    2014-01-01

    The contents of 3d-transition metals (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) in fragments of medieval glass bracelets, found in the necropolis of Stambolovo and the castle of Mezek, Bulgaria, were determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis using gallium as internal standard. The samples were analysed as slurries in Triton X 114. The experimental parameters: grain size of the glass sample, concentrations of glass sample, Triton X114 and internal standard in the slurry, volume of the slurry aliquot taken for analysis, as well as the excitation time, were optimised. For method validation the certified reference material BAM-S005 Type A soda-lime glass was used. It was proven that the elements Co, Mn and Fe are responsible for colour generation in the investigated glass samples. The precision of the determinations is characterised by an RSD in the range 3–11%

  14. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 -- a fee levied on electricity generated in commercial nuclear power plants -- is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans contained in the DOE's Draft 1988 Mission Plan Amendment. The total-system cost for the system with a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $24 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $31 to $33 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel to be disposed of. The $7 billion cost savings for the single-repository system in comparison with the two-repository system is due to the elimination of $3 billion for second-repository development and $7 billion for the second-repository facility. These savings are offset by $2 billion in additional costs at the first repository and $1 billion in combined higher costs for the MRS facility and transportation. 55 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs

  15. Histopathology Image Analysis in Two Long-Term Animal Experiments with Helical Flow Total Artificial Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotke, Jiri; Homolka, Pavel; Vasku, Jaromír; Dobsak, Petr; Palanova, Petra; Mrkvicova, Veronika; Konecny, Petr; Soska, Vladimir; Pohanka, Michal; Novakova, Marie; Yurimoto, Terumi; Saito, Itsuro; Inoue, Yusuke; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke

    2016-12-01

    Histopathological analysis can provide important information in long-term experiments with total artificial heart (TAH). Recently, a new type of blood pump, the helical flow total artificial heart (HF-TAH) was developed. This study aimed to investigate the changes in selected vital organs in animal experiments with implanted HF-TAH. Samples from lung, liver, and kidneys from two female goats (No. 1301 and No. 1304) with implanted HF-TAH were analyzed. Tissue samples were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and 4 µm thick transverse sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE). Additional staining was done for detection of connective tissue (Masson-Goldner stain) and for detection of iron (hemosiderin) deposits (Perls stain). Sections were scanned at 100× and 500× magnification with a light microscope. Experiment no. 1301 survived 100 days (cause of termination was heavy damage of the right pump); experimental goat no.1304 survived 68 days and was sacrificed due to severe right hydrodynamic bearing malfunction. Histopathological analysis of liver samples proved signs of chronic venostasis with limited focal necrotic zones. Dilated tubules, proteinaceous material in tubular lumen, and hemosiderin deposits were detected in kidney samples. Contamination of the organs by embolized micro-particles was suspected at the autopsy after discovery of visible damage (scratches) of the pump impeller surface (made from titanium alloy) in both experiments. Sporadic deposits of foreign micro-particles (presumably titanium) were observed in most of the analyzed parenchymal organs. However, the described deposits were not in direct connection with inflammatory reactions in the analyzed tissues. Histopathological analysis showed the presence of minimal contamination of the lung, kidney, and liver tissue samples by foreign material (titanium very likely). The analysis showed only limited pathological changes, especially in liver and kidneys, which might be attributed to the influence of

  16. Chromium Fractions Changes Compared With Total-Cr As Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Sabour, M.F.; Abdou, F.M.; Elwan, I.M.; Al-Salama, Y.J.

    2003-01-01

    Fifteen soil samples were chosen from different locations (five different locations at north greater Cairo, Egypt to represent different soils (alluvial and sandy) as well as different source of contaminated wastewater (sewage and industrial effluent). Using sequential extraction technique (extracting the soil with different solutions, which is designed to separate metal fractions), Cr was separated into six operationally defined fractions water soluble, exchangeable, carbonate bound, Fe-Mn oxides bound, organic bound and residual fractions. Result of soil total-Cr indicated the serious accumulation of Cr in soils subjected to prolonged irrigation with contaminated wastewater. As it could seen, total-Cr in the tested contaminated soils exceeds the permissible levels (75-100)ppm Cr by several order of magnitude particularly at the surface and subsurface layers. The highest accumulation of total Cr down to depth 60 cm was observed in case of soil E. Data showed that values of total Cr determined by NAA method were always higher than the relevant values determined either by AAS or those calculated after the sequential extraction method. T-test analysis showed the significant difference between NAA and either AAS or sequential extraction methods. Although T-test analysis showed that were significant differences between total content in soils as determined by destructive (AAS or SUM) and non-destructive (NAA) analytical techniques however, strong liner relation between NAA and other tested methods was obtained. Chromium distribution between different extractants shows that the greatest amounts are found in the residual and Occluded in Fe and Mn-Oxides fractions followed by carbonate or organic fractions. In most cases the proportion of all tested Cr-forms has increased in contaminated soil layers with higher enrichment in organically bound Cr, occluded in Fe and Mn oxides, carbonate exchangeable and soluble fractions. Results indicate that soil properties have a

  17. Patellar denervation with electrocautery in total knee arthroplasty without patellar resurfacing: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tao; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Yongyuan; Shi, Sifeng; Chen, Desheng; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-11-01

    The impact of patellar denervation with electrocautery in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) on post-operative outcomes has been under debate. This study aims to conduct a meta-analysis and systematic review to compare the benefits and risks of circumpatellar electrocautery with those of non-electrocautery in primary TKAs. Comparative and randomized clinical studies were identified by conducting an electronic search of articles dated up to September 2012 in PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, and the Cochrane databases. Six studies that focus on a total of 849 knees were analysed. A random-effects model was conducted using the inverse-variance method for continuous variables and the Mantel-Haenszel method for dichotomous variables. There was no significant difference in the incidence of anterior knee pain between the electrocautery and non-electrocautery groups. In term of patellar score and Knee Society Score, circumpatellar electrocautery improved clinical outcomes compared with non-electrocautery in TKAs. The statistical differences were in favour of the electrocautery group but have minimal clinical significance. In addition, the overall complications indicate no statistical significance between the two groups. This study shows no strong evidence either for or against electrocautery compared with non-electrocautery in TKAs. Therapeutic study (systematic review and meta-analysis), Level III.

  18. Assessment of carboxyhemoglobin, hydrogen cyanide and methemoglobin in fire victims: a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Luis A; Giannuzzi, Leda

    2015-11-01

    To establish the cause of death, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), total hemoglobin (tHb), methemoglobin (MetHb), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were quantified in the blood of fire victims. We analyzed 32 out of 33 blood samples from forensic autopsy cases in a disastrous polyurethane mattress fire, which caused the deaths of 33 inmates at a prison in Argentina in 2006. The cadaveric blood samples were collected by femoral vein puncture. These samples were analyzed using the IL80 CO-oximeter system for tHb, MetHb, and COHb levels and by microdiffusion for HCN and COHb levels. Blood alcohol (ethanol) and drugs were examined by headspace gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (HS-GC-FID) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS), respectively. Polyurethane mattress samples were analyzed according to the California 117 protocol. The saturation of COHb ranged from 10% to 43%, tHb from 2% to 19.7%, MetHb from 0.10% to 35.7%, and HCN from 0.24 to 15mg/L. These HCN values are higher than the lethal levels reported in the literature. Other toxic components routinely measured (ethanol, methanol, aldehydes, and other volatile compounds) gave negative results in the 32 cases. Neither drugs of abuse nor psychotropic drugs were detected. The results indicate that death in the 32 fire victims was probably caused in part by HCN, generated during the extensive polyurethane decomposition stimulated by a rapid increase in temperature. We also considered the influence of oxygen depletion and the formation of other volatile compounds such as NOx in this disaster, as well as pathological evidence demonstrating that heat was not the cause of death in all victims. Furthermore, statistical analysis showed that the percentage values of COHb and MetHb in the blood were not independent variables, with χ(2)=11.12 (theoretical χ(2)=4.09, degrees of freedom=12, and α=0.05). However, no correlation was found between HCN and MetHb in the blood of the victims. This is the first report to assess the

  19. Room temperature phosphorimetric determination of cyanide based on triplet state energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Argueelles, Maria Teresa; Costa-Fernandez, Jose M.; Pereiro, Rosario; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    The determination of cyanide ions in water samples by room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) detection is described. The method is based on the measurement of the RTP emission of α-bromonaphthalene (BrN). The principle of the RTP cyanide determination involves the energy transfer (ET) from the BrN phosphor molecule insensitive to the presence of cyanide (acting as a donor) to a cyanide-sensitive dye (acceptor). The RTP emission spectrum of BrN overlaps significantly with the absorption spectrum of the complex formed between copper and Cadion 2B, giving rise to a non-radiative ET from the phosphor molecules to the metal complex. The sensing of cyanide ions is based on the displacement by cyanide of the copper ions from its complex with Cadion 2B (the free chelating molecule presents a low absorbance in the region of maximum emission of the BrN phosphor). An increase in the concentration of cyanide causes a decrease on the concentration of the Cadion 2B-copper complex (acceptor) with the subsequent decrease of the absorbance in the overlapping region with the RTP spectra, resulting in higher RTP emission signals measured. Both, RTP intensities and triplet lifetimes of the BrN increased with the increase of the cyanide concentration. The calibration graphs were linear up to a concentration of 500 mg l -1 cyanide and a precision of ±2 and ±0.5% for five replicates of 50 μg l -1 of cyanide has been obtained when measuring intensities and triplet lifetimes values, respectively. A detection limit of 3 μg l -1 of cyanide was achieved under optimal reaction conditions and pH 11. The use of phosphorescence measurements (low background noise signals) resulted in an important improvement on the sensitivity of the cyanide detection higher than eight times as compared to the molecular absorption spectrophotometric method for cyanide detection based on the use of Cadion 2B-copper as cyanide-indicator. Interference studies were performed with cations and anions present in

  20. Degradation of soil cyanide by single and mixed cultures of Pseudomonas stutzeri and Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokoro, Ogbonnaya; Dibua, Marie Esther Uju

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study whether certain bacteria could be used for cyanide degradation in soil. The bacteria Pseudomonas stutzeri and Bacillus subtilis were selected based on their good growth in a minimal medium containing 0.8 mg mL-1 potassium cyanide (KCN). In this study we tested their ability to reduce cyanide levels in a medium containing 1.5 mg mL-1 of KCN. Although both microorganisms reduced cyanide levels, Pseudomonas stutzeri was the more effective test organism. Later on, the selected cultures were grown, diluted and their various cell concentrations were used individually and in combination to test their ability of cyanide degradation in soil samples collected around a cassava processing mill. Bacillus subtilis caused degradation of soil cyanide from 0.218 mg g-1 soil immediately with an inoculum concentration of 0.1 (OD600nm) to 0.072 mg g-1 soil after 10 days with an inoculum concentration of 0.6 (OD600nm) implying a 66.9 % reduction. Pseudomonas stutzeri cell concentration of 0.1 (OD600nm) decreased soil cyanide from 0.218 mg g-1 soil initially to 0.061 mg g-1 soil after 10 days with an inoculum concentration of 0.6 (OD600nm) (72 % reduction). The mixed culture of the two bacteria produced the best degradation of soil cyanide from 0.218 mg g-1 soil sample with a combined inoculum concentration of 0.1 (OD600nm) initially to 0.025 mg g-1 soil with a combined inoculum concentration of 0.6 (OD600nm) after 10 days incubation resulting in an 88.5 % degradation of soil cyanide. The analysed bacteria displayed high cyanide degradation potential and may be useful for efficient decontamination of cyanide contaminated sites.

  1. Application of sodium carbonate prevents sulphur poisoning of catalysts in automated total mercury analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLagan, David S.; Huang, Haiyong; Lei, Ying D.; Wania, Frank; Mitchell, Carl P. J.

    2017-07-01

    Analysis of high sulphur-containing samples for total mercury content using automated thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectroscopy instruments (USEPA Method 7473) leads to rapid and costly SO2 poisoning of catalysts. In an effort to overcome this issue, we tested whether the addition of powdered sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) to the catalyst and/or directly on top of sample material increases throughput of sulphur-impregnated (8-15 wt%) activated carbon samples per catalyst tube. Adding 5 g of Na2CO3 to the catalyst alone only marginally increases the functional lifetime of the catalyst (31 ± 4 g of activated carbon analyzed per catalyst tube) in relation to unaltered catalyst of the AMA254 total mercury analyzer (17 ± 4 g of activated carbon). Adding ≈ 0.2 g of Na2CO3 to samples substantially increases (81 ± 17 g of activated carbon) catalyst life over the unaltered catalyst. The greatest improvement is achieved by adding Na2CO3 to both catalyst and samples (200 ± 70 g of activated carbon), which significantly increases catalyst performance over all other treatments and enables an order of magnitude greater sample throughput than the unaltered samples and catalyst. It is likely that Na2CO3 efficiently sequesters SO2, even at high furnace temperatures to produce Na2SO4 and CO2, largely negating the poisonous impact of SO2 on the catalyst material. Increased corrosion of nickel sampling boats resulting from this methodological variation is easily resolved by substituting quartz boats. Overall, this variation enables an efficient and significantly more affordable means of employing automated atomic absorption spectrometry instruments for total mercury analysis of high-sulphur matrices.

  2. Cost-identification analysis of total laryngectomy: an itemized approach to hospital costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedhia, Raj C; Smith, Kenneth J; Weissfeld, Joel L; Saul, Melissa I; Lee, Steve C; Myers, Eugene N; Johnson, Jonas T

    2011-02-01

    To understand the contribution of intraoperative and postoperative hospital costs to total hospital costs, examine the costs associated with specific hospital services in the postoperative period, and recognize the impact of patient factors on hospital costs. Case series with chart review. Large tertiary care teaching hospital system. Using the Pittsburgh Head and Neck Organ-Specific Database, 119 patients were identified as having total laryngectomy with bilateral selective neck dissection and primary closure from 1999 to 2009. Cost data were obtained for 112 patients. Costs include fixed and variable costs, adjusted to 2010 US dollars using the Consumer Price Index. Mean total hospital costs were $29,563 (range, $10,915 to $120,345). Operating room costs averaged 24% of total hospital costs, whereas room charges, respiratory therapy, laboratory, pharmacy, and radiology accounted for 38%, 14%, 8%, 7%, and 3%, respectively. Median length of stay was 9 days (range, 6-43), and median Charlson comorbidity index score was 8 (2-16). Patients with ≥1 day in the intensive care unit had significantly higher hospital costs ($46,831 vs $24,601, P cost differences with stratification based on previous radiation therapy ($27,598 vs $29,915 with no prior radiation, P = .62) or hospital readmission within 30 days ($29,483 vs $29,609 without readmission, P = .97). This is one of few studies in surgery and the first in otolaryngology to analyze hospital costs for a relatively standardized procedure. Further work will include cost analysis from multiple centers with investigation of global cost drivers.

  3. Attenuated total reflectance-FT-IR spectroscopy for gunshot residue analysis: potential for ammunition determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Justin; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Lednev, Igor K

    2013-08-06

    The ability to link a suspect to a particular shooting incident is a principal task for many forensic investigators. Here, we attempt to achieve this goal by analysis of gunshot residue (GSR) through the use of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) combined with statistical analysis. The firearm discharge process is analogous to a complex chemical process. Therefore, the products of this process (GSR) will vary based upon numerous factors, including the specific combination of the firearm and ammunition which was discharged. Differentiation of FT-IR data, collected from GSR particles originating from three different firearm-ammunition combinations (0.38 in., 0.40 in., and 9 mm calibers), was achieved using projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The technique was cross (leave-one-out), both internally and externally, validated. External validation was achieved via assignment (caliber identification) of unknown FT-IR spectra from unknown GSR particles. The results demonstrate great potential for ATR-FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of GSR for forensic purposes.

  4. Effect of Harvesting Frequency, Variety and Leaf Maturity on Nutrient Composition, Hydrogen Cyanide Content and Cassava Foliage Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuc Thi Hue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment studied the effect of harvesting frequencies and varieties on yield, chemical composition and hydrogen cyanide content in cassava foliage. Foliage from three cassava varieties, K94 (very bitter, K98-7 (medium bitter and a local (sweet, were harvested in three different cutting cycles, at 3, 6 and 9 months; 6 and 9 months and 9 months after planting, in a 2-yr experiment carried out in Hanoi, Vietnam. Increasing the harvesting frequency increased dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP production in cassava foliage. The K94 variety produced higher foliage yields than the other two varieties. Dry matter, neutral detergent fibre (NDF, acid detergent fibre (ADF and total tannin content increased with months to the first harvest, whereas CP content decreased. Hydrogen cyanide (HCN content was lower at the first harvest than at later harvests for all cutting cycles. At subsequent harvests the content of total tannins tended to decline, while HCN content increased (p<0.05. Chemical composition differed somewhat across varieties except for total tannins and ash. Dry matter, NDF, ADF and total tannins were higher in fully matured leaves, while CP and HCN were lower in developing leaves.

  5. Analysis of total oil and fatty acids composition by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy in edible nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Chari V.; Sundaram, Jaya

    2014-10-01

    Near Infrared (NIR) Reflectance spectroscopy has established itself as an important tool in quantifying water and oil present in various food materials. It is rapid and nondestructive, easier to use, and does not require processing the samples with corrosive chemicals that would render them non-edible. Earlier, the samples had to be ground into powder form before making any measurements. With the development of new soft ware packages, NIR techniques could now be used in the analysis of intact grain and nuts. While most of the commercial instruments presently available work well with small grain size materials such as wheat and corn, the method present here is suitable for large kernel size products such as shelled or in-shell peanuts. Absorbance spectra were collected from 400 nm to 2500 nm using a NIR instrument. Average values of total oil contents (TOC) of peanut samples were determined by standard extraction methods, and fatty acids were determined using gas chromatography. Partial least square (PLS) analysis was performed on the calibration set of absorption spectra, and models were developed for prediction of total oil and fatty acids. The best model was selected based on the coefficient of determination (R2), Standard error of prediction (SEP) and residual percent deviation (RPD) values. Peanut samples analyzed showed RPD values greater than 5.0 for both absorbance and reflectance models and thus could be used for quality control and analysis. Ability to rapidly and nondestructively measure the TOC, and analyze the fatty acid composition, will be immensely useful in peanut varietal improvement as well as in the grading process of grain and nuts.

  6. Lab-on-a-chip based total-phosphorus analysis device utilizing a photocatalytic reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dong Geon; Jung, Daewoong; Kong, Seong Ho

    2018-02-01

    A lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device for total phosphorus (TP) analysis was fabricated for water quality monitoring. Many commercially available TP analysis systems used to estimate water quality have good sensitivity and accuracy. However, these systems also have many disadvantages such as bulky size, complex pretreatment processes, and high cost, which limit their application. In particular, conventional TP analysis systems require an indispensable pretreatment step, in which the fluidic analyte is heated to 120 °C for 30 min to release the dissolved phosphate, because many phosphates are soluble in water at a standard temperature and pressure. In addition, this pretreatment process requires elevated pressures of up to 1.1 kg cm-2 in order to prevent the evaporation of the heated analyte. Because of these limiting conditions required by the pretreatment processes used in conventional systems, it is difficult to miniaturize TP analysis systems. In this study, we employed a photocatalytic reaction in the pretreatment process. The reaction was carried out by illuminating a photocatalytic titanium dioxide (TiO2) surface formed in a microfluidic channel with ultraviolet (UV) light. This pretreatment process does not require elevated temperatures and pressures. By applying this simplified, photocatalytic-reaction-based pretreatment process to a TP analysis system, greater degrees of freedom are conferred to the design and fabrication of LOC devices for TP monitoring. The fabricated LOC device presented in this paper was characterized by measuring the TP concentration of an unknown sample, and comparing the results with those measured by a conventional TP analysis system. The TP concentrations of the unknown sample measured by the proposed LOC device and the conventional TP analysis system were 0.018 mgP/25 mL and 0.019 mgP/25 mL, respectively. The experimental results revealed that the proposed LOC device had a performance comparable to the conventional bulky TP analysis

  7. An Analysis of Operational Total Lightning Data During Long-Track Tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcione, Brian C.; Stano, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    The 27 April 2011 tornado outbreak brought three distinct waves of tornadic thunderstorms to portions of Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, and Georgia, striking the Tennessee Valley of north Alabama and southern Tennessee particularly hard. A total of 42 tornado paths were surveyed across the fourteen county area covered by the National Weather Service (NWS) forecast office in Huntsville, Alabama. Ten of these tornadoes were on the ground for at least 20 miles, two had total path lengths over 130 miles, and six tornadoes were classified as violent (EF-4 or EF-5 on the Enhanced Fujita Scale). Many of these tornadoes occurred within the domain of the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA), a ground-based total lightning detection network owned and operated by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Since 2003, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center has supplied data from NALMA in real time to NWS forecast offices in Huntsville, Knoxville/Tri-Cities, Birmingham, and Nashville. Previous research has documented the utility of total lightning information in predicting tornadogenesis, particularly when combined with other remote sensing tools. Basic warning decision-making during events such as 27 April is not the most difficult part of the process; instead, the focus of warning meteorologists shifts to looking for changes in intensity or possible particularly dangerous situations, since doppler radar velocity data often cannot distinguish between weak and strong tornadoes. To that end, this research attempts to determine if any correlation exists between flash densities of the longest-tracked tornadoes over time, and the surveyed wind speeds of the tornadoes. The long-track EF-5 tornado which struck the Hackleburg, Phil Campbell, and Tanner communities in north Alabama was the primary focus of this research due to its intensity and extended life cycle. However, not all tornadoes were available for total lightning analysis due to widespread

  8. Total reflection x-ray analysis of metals in blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takuya; Matsui, Hiroshi; Kawamata, Masaya

    2009-01-01

    The sample preparation for TXRF (total reflection X-ray fluorescence) quantitative analysis of trace elements in human blood samples was investigated. In the TXRF analysis, a solution sample is dropped and dried on a flat substrate, and then the dried residue is measured. In this case, the dried residue should be flat not to disturb X-ray total reflection on the substrate. In addition, it is required to simply measure the whole blood sample by TXRF method, although a serum is analyzed in many cases. Thus, we studied the optimum conditions of the sample preparation of the whole blood by adding the pure water to apply Hemolysis phenomenon, where blood cells are destroyed due to different of the osmotic pressure, leading to flat residue. It was found that the best S/B ratio was obtained when the whole blood was diluted 8 times with pure water. Moreover, it was investigated the influence of the surface chemical condition of the glass substrate on the shape of the dried reside of the blood sample. When the surface of the glass substrate was hydrophilic, the shape of the dried residues was not uniform, as a result, the quantitative data of TXRF analysis gave a large deviation. On the other hand, when the surface of the glass was hydrophobic, the shape of the residue was almost uniform, as a result, a good reproducibility was obtained. Another problem was an outer ring of the dried residue of the blood. This uneven ring absorbs the primary X-rays, caused to low determined quantitative data. Thus, we tried the heating way of the dropped blood sample at a high temperature of 200 degrees. In this case, the blood sample was dried immediately, and a flat homogeneous dried residue was obtained without the outer ring. Using the optimized conditions for sample preparation, human blood sample was quantitatively measured by TXRF and ICP-AES. A good agreement was obtained in TXRF and ICP-AES determinations; however, the measurement of Cl and Br will be an advantage of TXRF, because

  9. Serial Changes of Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Strength Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyeong-Sik; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis was performed to analyze serial changes in thigh muscles, including quadriceps and hamstring muscles, from before to one year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). All studies sequentially comparing isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths between the TKA side and the contralateral uninjured limb were included in this meta-analysis. Five studies with 7 cohorts were included in this meta-analysis. The mean differences in the strengths of quadriceps and hamstring muscles between the TKA and uninjured sides were greatest three months after surgery (26.8 N∙m, 12.8 N∙m, Phamstring strengths relative to preoperative levels were 9.2 N∙m and 4.9 N∙m, respectively, three months postoperatively (P = 0.041), but were no longer significant after six months and one year. During the year after TKA, quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths were lowest after 3 months, recovering to preoperative level after six months, but not reaching the muscle strength on the contralateral side. Relative to preoperative levels, the difference in muscle strength between the TKA and contralateral knees was only significant at three months. Because decrease of strength of the quadriceps was significantly greater than decrease in hamstring muscle strength at postoperative three months, early rehabilitation after TKA should focus on recovery of quadriceps muscle strength. PMID:26849808

  10. Analysis of Total Loss of Feedwater for APR1400 using SPACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Min; Park, Seok Jeong; Park, Chan Eok; Choi, Jong Ho; Lee, Gyu Cheon [KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Total Loss of FeedWater (TLOFW) event is an accident that main feedwater and auxiliary feedwater of secondary side are not supplied to steam generators. APR1400 uses the Safety Depressurization and Vent System (SDVS) for the F and B operation and SDVS is designed to perform the rapid depressurization function of Reactor Coolant System (RCS) through the remote manual operation when TLOFW is occurred. If RCS pressure falls below a Safety Injection Pump (SIP) working pressure, it can be possible to start the F and B operation which injects SIP flow to RCS and releases the RCS vapor and two-phase flow through Pilot Operated Safety Relief Valves (POSRVs) by opening the POSRVs, and then it can be possible to remove the decay heat. The design requirement of SDVS is that the core water level should be maintained at higher than 2 feet from the top of active core during the F and B operation. The TLOFW analysis was carried out to evaluate the capability of decay heat removal for APR1400 using newly developed SPACE code. The analysis results show that the F and B operation with 2 POSRVs and 2 SIPs and the F and B operation with 4 POSRVs and 4 SIPs meet the SDVS design requirement for the fuel cladding temperature. The comparison with RELAP5 shows good agreement and it validates the applicability of SPACE code for this type of accident analysis.

  11. The effects of probiotics on total cholesterol: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lang; Guo, Mao-Juan; Gao, Qing; Yang, Jin-Feng; Yang, Lin; Pang, Xiao-Li; Jiang, Xi-Juan

    2018-02-01

    Probiotics supplements provide a new nonpharmacological alternative to reduce cardiovascular risk factors. The impact of probiotics on the reduction of total cholesterol (TC) remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to showcase the most updated and comprehensive evaluation of the studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched from electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang database dating from January 2007 to January 2017. The curative effects of probiotics on the reduction of TC were assessed using mean difference (MD), as well as their 95% confidence interval (CI). RevMan software (version 5.3) was used to carry out this meta-analysis. Thirty-two RCTs including 1971 patients met the inclusion criteria. Results of this analysis showed that compared with the control group serum TC was significantly reduced in probiotics group [MD = -13.27, 95% CI (-16.74 to 9.80), P  6 weeks: [MD = -22.18, 95% CI (-28.73, -15.63), P probiotics forms and intervention duration might have a significant impact on the results. However, strains and doses of probiotics had no significant influence on curative effects. Available evidence indicates that probiotics supplements can significantly reduce serum TC. Furthermore, higher baseline TC, longer intervention time, and probiotics in capsules form might contribute to a better curative effect.

  12. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of total loss of steam generator feed water in WWER-440

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabotinov, L.; Cadet-Mercier, S.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis is carried out for a WWER-440/V270 with upgraded primary safety valves (replacement of the existing PRZ safety valves with Pilot Operated Relief Valves (PORV) of the type SEBIM (France)) The current analysis is focused on the scenario 'Total Loss of SGs Feed Water' with application of the operator action of primary system 'Feed and Bleed' in order to check the effectiveness of the installed pressurizer SEBIM valves and to verify that the operator can cool down the reactor system and cope with this accident. The calculations have been performed at the Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) in Fontenay-aux-Roses with the computer code CATHARE 2 Version 1.3L1. CATHARE is a French best estimate thermal-hydraulic program for accident analysis in the light water nuclear reactors, developed with the participation of the IPSN (Institut de Protection et Surete Nucleaire), CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), Framatome and EdF (Electricite de France). (author)

  13. Integration of electrochemistry in micro-total analysis systems for biochemical assays: recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Song; Chen, Hui; Kong, Jilie

    2009-11-15

    Micro-total analysis systems (microTAS) integrate different analytical operations like sample preparation, separation and detection into a single microfabricated device. With the outstanding advantages of low cost, satisfactory analytical efficiency and flexibility in design, highly integrated and miniaturized devices from the concept of microTAS have gained widespread applications, especially in biochemical assays. Electrochemistry is shown to be quite compatible with microanalytical systems for biochemical assays, because of its attractive merits such as simplicity, rapidity, high sensitivity, reduced power consumption, and sample/reagent economy. This review presents recent developments in the integration of electrochemistry in microdevices for biochemical assays. Ingenious microelectrode design and fabrication methods, and versatility of electrochemical techniques are involved. Practical applications of such integrated microsystem in biochemical assays are focused on in situ analysis, point-of-care testing and portable devices. Electrochemical techniques are apparently suited to microsystems, since easy microfabrication of electrochemical elements and a high degree of integration with multi-analytical functions can be achieved at low cost. Such integrated microsystems will play an increasingly important role for analysis of small volume biochemical samples. Work is in progress toward new microdevice design and applications.

  14. Attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: a quantitative approach for kidney stone analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley-Stahl, Heather J; Haas, Jennifer A; Schmidt, Katherine A; Evan, Andrew P; Sommer, André J

    2009-07-01

    The impact of kidney stone disease is significant worldwide, yet methods for quantifying stone components remain limited. A new approach requiring minimal sample preparation for the quantitative analysis of kidney stone components has been investigated utilizing attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR). Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and hydroxylapatite (HAP), two of the most common constituents of urinary stones, were used for quantitative analysis. Calibration curves were constructed using integrated band intensities of four infrared absorptions versus concentration (weight %). The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves range from 0.997 to 0.93. The limits of detection range from 0.07 +/- 0.02% COM/HAP where COM is the analyte and HAP is the matrix, to 0.26 +/- 0.07% HAP/COM where HAP is the analyte and COM is the matrix. This study shows that linear calibration curves can be generated for the quantitative analysis of stone mixtures provided the system is well understood especially with respect to particle size.

  15. Effect of cyanide on the distribution of 60Co in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenberg, L.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of cyanide on the distribution of cobalt was studied by injecting mice i.p. with potassium cyanide 61.4 μmoles/kg, followed 1 min later by 60 CoCl 2 38.5 μmoles/kg i.v. Blood and tissue concentrations of 60 Co were then determined up to 48 h after injection and the results were compared with those obtained from control animals receiving 60 CoCl 2 only. In animals treated with cobalt plus cyanide, considerably higher concentrations of 60 Co were found in the spleen in comparison with controls during the whole observation period, whereas the 60 Co concentration in the pancreas was lower than that of controls during the first 4 h. In other tissues no significant differences between cyanide-treated animals and controls were noticed. Determination of complex-bound cyanide demonstrated that the increased uptake of cobalt in the spleen observed in cyanide-treated animals was due to cobalt-cyanide complex(es). Cyanide did not affect the plasma protein binding of cobalt. (orig.)

  16. Hydrocyanation of sulfonylimines using potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) as an eco-friendly cyanide source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zheng; Li, Rongzhi; Zheng, Huanhuan; Wen, Fei; Li, Hongbo; Yin, Junjun; Yang, Jingya

    2013-01-01

    An efficient and eco-friendly method for hydrocyanation of sulfonylimines via one-pot two-step procedure using potassium hexacyanoferrate)II) as cyanide source, benzoyl chloride as a promoter, and potassium carbonate as a base is described. This protocol has the features of using nontoxic, nonvolatile and inexpensive cyanide source, high yield, and simple work-up procedure. (author)

  17. Hydrocyanation of sulfonylimines using potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) as an eco-friendly cyanide source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zheng; Li, Rongzhi; Zheng, Huanhuan; Wen, Fei; Li, Hongbo; Yin, Junjun; Yang, Jingya, E-mail: lizheng@nwnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Eco-Environment-Related Polymer Materials for Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Gansu (China)

    2013-11-15

    An efficient and eco-friendly method for hydrocyanation of sulfonylimines via one-pot two-step procedure using potassium hexacyanoferrate)II) as cyanide source, benzoyl chloride as a promoter, and potassium carbonate as a base is described. This protocol has the features of using nontoxic, nonvolatile and inexpensive cyanide source, high yield, and simple work-up procedure. (author)

  18. High proton conductivity in cyanide-bridged metal-organic frameworks: understanding the role of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Y.; Broersen, R.; Hageman, W.; Yan, N.; Mittelmeijer-Hazeleger, M.; Rothenberg, G.; Tanase, S.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate and discuss the proton conductivity properties of the cyanide-bridged metal–organic framework (MOF) [Nd(mpca)2Nd(H2O)6Mo(CN)8]·nH2O (where mpca is 5-methyl-2-pyrazinecarboxylate). This MOF is one of an exciting class of cyanide-bridged materials that can combine porosity with

  19. The fate of cyanide in leach wastes at gold mines: an environmental perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the basic chemistry of cyanide, methods by which cyanide can be analyzed, and aspects of cyanide behavior that are most relevant to environmental considerations at mineral processing operations associated with gold mines. The emphasis is on research results reported since 1999 and on data gathered for a series of U.S. Geological Survey studies that began in the late 1990s. Cyanide is added to process solutions as the CN− anion, but ore leaching produces numerous other cyanide-containing and cyanide-related species in addition to the desired cyanocomplex of gold. These can include hydrogen cyanide (HCN); cyanometallic complexes of iron, copper, zinc, nickel, and many other metals; cyanate (CNO−); and thiocyanate (SCN−). The fate of these species in solid wastes and residual process solutions that remain once gold recovery activities are terminated and in any water that moves beyond the ore processing facility dictates the degree to which cyanide poses a risk to aquatic organisms and aquatic-dependent organisms in the local environment.

  20. Fluorescence intensity and lifetime-based cyanide sensitive probes for physiological safeguard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badugu, Ramachandram; Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Geddes, Chris D.

    2004-01-01

    We characterize six new fluorescent probes that show both intensity and lifetime changes in the presence of free uncomplexed aqueous cyanide, allowing for fluorescence based cyanide sensing up to physiological safeguard levels, i.e. 2 to the anionic R-B - (CN) 3 form, a new cyanide binding mechanism which we have recently reported. The presence of an electron deficient quaternary heterocyclic nitrogen nucleus, and the electron rich cyanide bound form, provides for the intensity changes observed. We have determined the disassociation constants of the probes to be in the range ∼15-84 μM 3 . In addition we have synthesized control compounds which do not contain the boronic acid moiety, allowing for a rationale of the cyanide responses between the probe isomers to be made. The lifetime of the cyanide bound probes are significantly shorter than the free R-B(OH) 2 probe forms, providing for the opportunity of lifetime based cyanide sensing up to physiologically lethal levels. Finally, while fluorescent probes containing the boronic acid moiety have earned a well-deserved reputation for monosaccharide sensing, we show that strong bases such as CN - and OH - preferentially bind as compared to glucose, enabling the potential use of these probes for cyanide safeguard and determination in physiological fluids, especially given that physiologies do not experience any notable changes in pH

  1. In Vitro Absorption of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide and Hydrogen Cyanide in Undisturbed Pooled Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    are analyzed for carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and cyanide ion (CN¯) in blood. Such victims quite often suffer large open wounds near the autopsy blood...could.lead.investigators.to.erroneously.conclude.that.the. presence.of. carboxyhemoglobin . (COHb).and.cyanide. ion.(CN

  2. Solution NMR characterization of magnetic/electronic properties of azide and cyanide-inhibited substrate complexes of human heme oxygenase: implications for steric ligand tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dungeng; Ogura, Hiroshi; Ma, Li-Hua; Evans, John P; de Montellano, Paul R Ortiz; La Mar, Gerd N

    2013-04-01

    Solution 2D (1)H NMR was carried out on the azide-ligated substrate complex of human heme oxygenase, hHO, to provide information on the active site molecular structure, chromophore electronic/magnetic properties, and the distal H-bond network linked to the exogenous ligand by catalytically relevant oriented water molecules. While 2D NMR exhibited very similar patterns of two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser spectroscopy cross peaks of residues with substrate and among residues as the previously characterized cyanide complex, significant, broadly distributed chemical shift differences were observed for both labile and non-labile protons. The anisotropy and orientation of the paramagnetic susceptibility tensor, χ, were determined for both the azide and cyanide complexes. The most significant difference observed is the tilt of the major magnetic axes from the heme normal, which is only half as large for the azide than cyanide ligand, with each ligand tilted toward the catalytically cleaved α-meso position. The difference in chemical shifts is quantitatively correlated with differences in dipolar shifts in the respective complexes for all but the distal helix. The necessity of considering dipolar shifts, and hence determination of the orientation/anisotropy of χ, in comparing chemical shifts involving paramagnetic complexes, is emphasized. The analysis shows that the H-bond network cannot detect significant differences in H-bond acceptor properties of cyanide versus azide ligands. Lastly, significant retardation of distal helix labile proton exchange upon replacing cyanide with azide indicates that the dynamic stability of the distal helix is increased upon decreasing the steric interaction of the ligand with the distal helix. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Cyanide intoxication as part of smoke inhalation--a review on diagnosis and treatment from the emergency perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, Pia; Jansen, Erik C; Hyldegaard, Ole

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on smoke inhalation injuries with special attention to the effects of hydrogen cyanide. It is assumed that cyanide poisoning is still an overlooked diagnosis in fire victims. Treatment against cyanide poisoning in the emergency setting should be given based...

  4. Organizational Culture Influence On Total Productive Maintenance (TPM and Operational Performance Using RASCH Model Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Norhasni Mohd Asaad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Market globalization, competitive product and services, high economic crises are the most critical factors that influence the success of the manufacturing companies in global market. Therefore it is critical to the manufacturing companies to be efficient in production and lean tool may used to achieve that.  The most frequently used is the Total Preventive Maintenance (TPM, even though there are many studies have been conducted in relation to the TPM but there is limited research in investigating the effects of the TPM on operational performance. However, the result of the studies was not consistent, where TPM practice may have positive and negative impact on operational performance. Among the reason is the culture of the organization that influenced the implementation of TPM and operational performance. Due to that this study attempts to investigate the influence of organizational culture on the TPM implementation and operational performance.  Rasch model is used in this study due to its ability in interpreting and analyzing the ability of respondents in performing the difficult items. The online questionnaires were distributed to 63 randomly selected automotive companies located at Northern Region of Malaysia.  Results of the study revealed that the organizational culture has influenced on the successful implementation of TPM and operational performance. Therefore by the implementation of TPM in outstanding organizational culture can improve operational performance.   Keyword: Total Preventive Maintenance (TPM, Lean manufacturing, Operational performance, Organizational culture, Rasch modeldoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.2How to cite this article:Mohd Asaad, M.N and Yusoff, R.Z. (2013. Organizational Culture Influence On Total Productive Maintenance (TPM and Operational Performance Using RASCH Model Analysis . The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 72-81. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X.  doi:10.12695/ajtm

  5. In vivo prompt gamma activation analysis facility for total body nitrogen and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munive, Marco; Solis, Jose; Revilla, Angel

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Prompt Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) is a technique that could have medical applications, like determination of body's contents of protein and heavy metals in vivo. The in vivo PGNAA facility, contains a neutron source (Cf-252) with safety device, a compartment for animal irradiation, and a gamma rays detecting system based on the NaI(Tl) detector with an analytical software. The prompt gamma rays were emitted after 10 -15 s of the interaction, so they don't produce radioactive waste, and have a characteristics energy for each element, i.e. a strong peak at 2.24 MeV is observed for H. The facility has been used with laboratory mice. Water-filled phantom placed in the neutron beam was used to system calibration. Three study groups of 5 mice each one were selected and were feed with a different diet and the total body nitrogen (TBN) of the mice was monitored with the facility. The diet produced a different TBN for each group. Some mice drunk diluted water with Cl 2 Cd, so the presence of Cd was detected in the mouse. The minimum Cd concentration that the system can detect was 20 ppm. The total dose (neutron and gamma dose was measured from TLDs and simulated by MNCP-4B in the sample compartment during the irradiation time (5 minutes) is less than 2.5 mSv. This total dose is low than the dose from other analytical radiological techniques (25 a 50 mSv). (author)

  6. Intravenous versus topical tranexamic acid administration in primary total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young-Soo; Yoon, Jung-Ro; Lee, Hoon-Nyun; Park, Se-Hwan; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2017-11-01

    This meta-analysis was designed to compare the effectiveness and safety of intravenous (IV) versus topical administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) by evaluating the need for allogenic blood transfusion, incidence of postoperative complications, volume of postoperative blood loss, and change in haemoglobin levels. Studies were included in this meta-analysis to check whether they assessed the allogenic blood transfusion rate, postoperative complications including pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) or deep vein thrombosis (DVT), volume of postoperative blood loss via drainage, estimated blood loss, total blood loss, and change in haemoglobin levels before and after surgery in primary TKA with TXA administered through both the IV and topical routes. Ten studies were included in this meta-analysis. The proportion of patients requiring allogenic blood transfusion (OR 1.34, 95 % CI 0.63-2.81; n.s.) and the proportion of patients who developed postoperative complications including PTE or DVT (OR 0.85, 95 % CI 0.41 to 1.77; n.s.) did not significantly differ between the two groups. There was 52.3 mL less blood loss via drainage (95 % CI -50.74 to 185.66 mL; n.s.), 52.1 mL greater estimated blood loss (95 % CI -155.27 to 51.03 mL; n.s.), and 51.4 mL greater total blood loss (95 % CI -208.16 to 105.31 mL; n.s.) in the topical TXA group as compared to the IV TXA group. The two groups were also similar in terms of the change in haemoglobin levels (0.02 g/dL, 95 % CI -0.36 to 0.39 g/dL; n.s.). In primary TKA, there are no significant differences in the transfusion requirement, postoperative complications, blood loss, and change in haemoglobin levels between the IV and topical administration of TXA. In addition, results from subgroup analysis evaluating the effect of the times of TXA administration through the IV route suggested that double IV dose of TXA is more effective than single dose in terms of the

  7. Industry-level total-factor energy efficiency in developed countries: A Japan-centered analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Satoshi; Hu, Jin-Li

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This study compares Japan with other developed countries for energy efficiency at the industry level. • We compute the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) for industries in 14 developed countries in 1995–2005. • Energy conservation can be further optimized in Japan’s industry sector. • Japan experienced a slight decrease in the weighted TFEE from 0.986 in 1995 to 0.927 in 2005. • Japan should adapt energy conservation technologies from the primary benchmark countries: Germany, UK, and USA. - Abstract: Japan’s energy security is more vulnerable today than it was before the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. To alleviate its energy vulnerability, Japan has no choice but to improve energy efficiency. To aid in this improvement, this study compares Japan’s energy efficiency at the industry level with that of other developed countries. We compute the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) of industries in 14 developed countries for 1995–2005 using data envelopment analysis. We use four inputs: labor, capital stock, energy, and non-energy intermediate inputs. Value added is the only relevant output. Results indicate that Japan can further optimize energy conservation because it experienced only a marginal decrease in the weighted TFEE, from 0.986 in 1995 to 0.927 in 2005. To improve inefficient industries, Japan should adapt energy conservation technologies from benchmark countries such as Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States

  8. Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence attachment module modified for analysis in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.; Kregsamer, P.; Meirer, F.; Jokubonis, C.; Markowicz, A.; Wegrzynek, D.; Chinea-Cano, E.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the design of the low cost Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence attachment module available since 1986 from Atominstitut (WOBRAUSCHEK-module) which can be attached to existing X-ray equipment, a new version was developed which allows the analysis of samples in vacuum. This design was in particular possible as the Peltier cooled light weight Silicon Drift Detector is following all adjustment procedures for total reflection as angle rotation and linear motion. The detector is mounted through a vacuum feed and O-ring tightening to the small vacuum chamber. The standard 30 mm round quartz, Si-wafer or Plexiglas reflectors are used to carry the samples. The reflectors are placed on the reference plane with the dried sample down looking facing in about 0.5 mm distance the up looking detector window. The reflectors are resting on 3 steel balls defining precisely the reference plane for the adjustment procedure. As the rotation axis of the module is in the plane of the reflector surface, angle dependent experiments can be made to distinguish between film and particulate type contamination of samples. Operating with a Mo anode at 50 kV and 40 mA with a closely attached multilayer monochromator and using a 10 mm 2 KETEK silicon drift detector with 8 μm Be window, a sensitivity of 70 cps/ng for Rb was measured and detection limits of 2 pg were obtained

  9. Relativistic analysis of the dielectric Einstein box: Abraham, Minkowski and total energy-momentum tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Tomas; Rubilar, Guillermo F.; Obukhov, Yuri N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The definition of the momentum of light inside matter is studied. → Fully relativistic analysis of the dielectric 'Einstein box' thought experiment. → Minkowski, Abraham and the total energy-momentum tensors are derived in detail. → Some assumptions hidden in the usual Einstein box argument are identified. → The Abraham momentum is not uniquely selected as the momentum of light in this case. - Abstract: We analyse the 'Einstein box' thought experiment and the definition of the momentum of light inside matter. We stress the importance of the total energy-momentum tensor of the closed system (electromagnetic field plus material medium) and derive in detail the relativistic expressions for the Abraham and Minkowski momenta, together with the corresponding balance equations for an isotropic and homogeneous medium. We identify some assumptions hidden in the Einstein box argument, which make it weaker than it is usually recognized. In particular, we show that the Abraham momentum is not uniquely selected as the momentum of light in this case.

  10. Collection of airborne particulate matter for a subsequent analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klockenkaemper, R.; Bayer, H.; Bohlen, A. von; Schmeling, M.; Klockow, D.

    1995-01-01

    The collection of airborne particulate matter by filtration and impaction was adapted to total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF). Cellulose nitrate filters were used for collecting in a Berner impactor. Single filter spots were punched out, placed on quartz-glass carriers, dissolved by tetrahydrofuran and re-precipitated prior to element determinations by TXRF. In a Battelle-type impactor, airborne dust was collected on Plexiglass carriers coated with medical Vaseline. The loaded carriers were directly analyzed by TXRF. In both cases, quantification was simply performed by the addition of an internal standard after sampling. Impactors were made of a suitable material in order to investigate high blank values, collection losses and memory effects. It could be shown that stainless steel, even coated with TiN, is less suitable and should be avoided as an impactor material. Although aluminum is partly recommendable, titanium and the polymer Makrolon are quite appropriate. By using an impactor made of these materials, a reliable multielement determination in airborne dust is made possible with low detection limits as low as 1 ng/m 3 and a satisfactory repeatability of a few %. Short sampling times of only 1 h or less can be realized. The total procedure is simple and time-saving, and can be recommended for routine investigations of airborne particulate matter. (author)

  11. Bipolar sealer not superior to standard electrocautery in primary total hip arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Li-Chao; Xu, Fei; Li, Jia; Lv, Yong-Ming

    2014-10-10

    To assess whether bipolar sealer has advantages over standard electrocautery in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). All studies published through November 2013 were systematically searched in PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, The Cochrane Library, and other databases. Relevant journals or conference proceedings were searched manually. Only randomized controlled trials were included. Two independent reviewers identified and assessed the literature. Mean difference in blood loss and risk ratios of transfusion rates and of complication rates in the bipolar sealer group versus the standard electrocautery group were calculated. The meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan 5.1 software. Five studies were included, with a total sample size of 559 patients. The use of bipolar sealer did not significantly reduce intraoperative blood loss, hemoglobin drop, hospital stay, and operative time. There were no significant differences in need for transfusion and the incidence of infection between the study groups. The available evidence suggests that the use of bipolar sealer was not superior to standard electrocautery in patients undergoing primary THA. The use of bipolar sealer is not recommended in primary THA.

  12. Total life-cycle cost analysis of conventional and alternative fueled vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardullo, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    Total Life-Cycle Cost (TLCC) Analysis can indicate whether paying higher capital costs for advanced technology with low operating and/or environmental costs is advantageous over paying lower capital costs for conventional technology with higher operating and/or environmental costs. While minimizing total life-cycle cost is an important consideration, the consumer often identifies non-cost-related benefits or drawbacks that make more expensive options appear more attractive. The consumer is also likely to heavily weigh initial capital costs while giving limited consideration to operating and/or societal costs, whereas policy-makers considering external costs, such as those resulting from environmental impacts, may reach significantly different conclusions about which technologies are most advantageous to society. This paper summarizes a TLCC model which was developed to facilitate consideration of the various factors involved in both individual and societal policy decision making. The model was developed as part of a US Department of Energy Contract and has been revised to reflect changes necessary to make the model more realistic. The model considers capital, operating, salvage, and environmental costs for cars, vans, and buses using conventional and alternative fuels. The model has been developed to operate on an IBM or compatible personal computer platform using the commercial spreadsheet program MicroSoft Excell reg-sign Version 4 for Windows reg-sign and can be easily kept current because its modular structure allows straightforward access to embedded data sets for review and update

  13. Metals determination in coffee sample by total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the inorganic concentration in five brands of coffee, three of them nationally marketed and the others of an exportation kind. The samples were prepared by infusion with deionized water. To carry out the calibration, standard solutions were prepared with different concentrations of Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn and Se. The measurements were carried out using a white beam of synchrotron radiation for excitation and a Si (Li) semiconductor detector for detection. By employing Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SR-TXRF) it was possible to evaluate the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Ba. The detection limits for 300 s counting time were in the range of 0.03 (Ca) to 30 ng.g -1 (Rb), respectively. (author)

  14. Multielemental analysis in Brazilian cigarettes using total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Moreira, Silvana

    2005-01-01

    In order to identify major and trace elements in conventional and light Brazilian cigarettes, Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SR-TXRF) was used. The fluorescence measurements were carried out at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Campinas - Sao Paulo. This technique enables detection limit is in the ngg -1 range, which is very useful in elemental tobacco smoke analysis, since it presents most of its elements at a trace level. The major elements identified in tobacco samples were: S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe and Cd, and the trace elements were: Ti, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Ba. However in tobacco smoke samples, there were only two major elements: K and Ca, the others were present a trace level. The rate transfer of tobacco to tobacco smoke was about 2.5 % for all elements studied. (author)

  15. A cross-country analysis of total factor productivity using micro-level data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Şeker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Total factor productivity (TFP is a crucial measure of efficiency and thus an important tool for policymakers. However, research on comparison of TFP performances using micro-level data across developing countries has been limited due to the unavailability of homogenous data sources. This study aims to fill this crucial gap by using a data set which has been collected through a large body of surveys conducted across 69 developing countries following the same methodology. The homogenous nature of the data and the diverse set of questions included in the surveys provide unique opportunity to compare average productivity performances of firms across a large set of characteristics and business environment factors. The analysis performed here provides the groundwork for testing various stylized facts about TFP and its related factors such as exporting, innovation, access to finance, foreign ownership, and regulations across developing countries.

  16. Beer analysis by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.; Zucchi, Orgheda L.D.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn and Br in twenty-nine brands of national and international beers were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF). The results were compared with the limits established by the Brazilian Legislation and the nutritive values established by National Agricultural Library (NAL). The measurements were performed at the X-ray Fluorescence Beamline at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, in Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using a polychromatic beam for excitation. A small volume of 5 μL of sample beers containing just an internal standard, used to correct geometry effects, were analyzed without any pre-treatment. The measuring time was 100 s and the detection limits obtained varied from 1μg.L -1 for Mn and Fe to 15μg.L -1 for P. (author)

  17. Fundamental quantification procedure for total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectra analysis and elements determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzynek, D.; Holynska, B.

    1997-01-01

    A method for the determination of the concentrations of elements in particulate-like samples measured in total reflection geometry is proposed. In the proposed method the fundamental parameters are utilized for calculating the sensitivities of elements and an internal standard is used to account for the unknown mass per unit area of a sample and geometrical constant of the spectrometer. The modification of the primary excitation spectrum on its way to a sample has been taken into consideration. The concentrations of the elements to be determined are calculated simultaneously with the spectra deconvolution procedure. In the process of quantitative analysis the intensities of all X-ray peaks corresponding to K and L-series lines present in the analyzed spectrum are taken into account. (Author)

  18. Amino acids analysis by total neutron cross-sections determinations: part V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, Dante L.; Ferreira, Francisco de O.; Rocha, Helio F. da

    2013-01-01

    Total neutron cross-sections of twenty essential and non-essential amino acids to human were determined using crystal spectrometer installed on the Argonauta reactor of IEN (Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ) and compared with data generated by parceling and grouping methodologies developed at this institution. For each amino acid was calculated the respective neutron cross-section by molecular structure, conformation and chemistry analysis. The results obtained for eighteen of twenty amino acids confirm the specifications and product formulations indicated by manufactures. These initial results allow to build a neutron cross-sections database as part of quality control of the amino supplied to hospitals for production of nutriments for parenteral or enteral formulations used in critical patients dependent on artificial feed, and for application in future studies of structure and dynamics for more complex molecules, including proteins, enzymes, fatty acids, membranes, organelles and other cell components. (author)

  19. μTAS (micro total analysis systems) for the high-throughput measurement of nanomaterial solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantra, R; Jarman, J

    2013-01-01

    There is a consensus in the nanoecotoxicology community that better analytical tools i.e. faster and more accurate ones, are needed for the physicochemical characterisation of nanomaterials in environmentally/biologically relevant media. In this study, we introduce the concept of μTAS (Micro Total Analysis Systems), which was a term coined to encapsulate the integration of laboratory processes on a single microchip. Our focus here is on the use of a capillary electrophoresis (CE) with conductivity detection microchip and how this may be used for the measurement of dissolution of metal oxide nanomaterials. Our preliminary results clearly show promise in that the device is able to: a) measure ionic zinc in various ecotox media with high selectivity b) track the dynamic dissolution events of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterial when dispersed in fish medium.

  20. Metals determination in coffee sample by total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria Boscolo [ Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the inorganic concentration in five brands of coffee, three of them nationally marketed and the others of an exportation kind. The samples were prepared by infusion with deionized water. To carry out the calibration, standard solutions were prepared with different concentrations of Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn and Se. The measurements were carried out using a white beam of synchrotron radiation for excitation and a Si (Li) semiconductor detector for detection. By employing Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis (SR-TXRF) it was possible to evaluate the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb and Ba. The detection limits for 300 s counting time were in the range of 0.03 (Ca) to 30 ng.g{sup -1} (Rb), respectively. (author)

  1. Beer analysis by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.D.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work the concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn and Br in twenty-nine brands of national and international beers were determined by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF). The results were compared with the limits established by the Brazilian Legislation and the nutritive values established by National Agricultural Library (NAL). The measurements were performed at the X-ray Fluorescence Beamline at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, in Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using a polychromatic beam for excitation. A small volume of 5 {mu}L of sample beers containing just an internal standard, used to correct geometry effects, were analyzed without any pre-treatment. The measuring time was 100 s and the detection limits obtained varied from 1{mu}g.L{sup -1} for Mn and Fe to 15{mu}g.L{sup -1} for P. (author)

  2. Data Analysis of Occupational Health and Safety Management and Total Quality Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yakut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study, Total Quality Management, Occupational Health and Safety on the effects of the construction industry, building sites of Istanbul evaluated with the results of the survey of 25 firms. For Occupational Health and Safety program, walked healthy, active employees in her role increased and will increase the importance of education. Due to non-implementation of the OHS system in our country enough, work-related accidents and deaths and injuries resulting from these accidents is very high. Firms as a result of the analysis, an effective health and safety management system needs to be able to fulfill their responsibilities. This system is designated as OHSAS 18001 Occupational Health and Safety Management System and the construction industry can be regarded as the imperatives.

  3. Evaluating the Total Factor Productivity Growth in Manufacturing Industries of Iran (Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Ahmadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the total factor productivity changes for 23 main manufacturing industries (2-digit ISIC group and country's provinces using data envelopment analysis during 2005 to 2007. The results show 2.3% increase in the productivity of the whole sector (average over the studied period, while the productivity of the country's provinces decreases by 7.3%, in the same period. We find Food and Beverage products and Khuzestan province having the highest productivity growth. Non-optimal allocation of resources and using of old equipments are the most important drawbacks of productivity growth for 23 main ISIC groups and provinces. Finally estimation of the regression models by panel data method reveals the privatization and increasing of labor’s available capital having a significant effect on productivity growth.

  4. Standard test method for analysis of total and isotopic uranium and total thorium in soils by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of total uranium (U) and thorium (Th) concentrations in soils, as well as the determination of the isotopic weight percentages of 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U, thereby allowing for the calculation of individual isotopic uranium activity or total uranium activity. This inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) method is intended as an alternative analysis to methods such as alpha spectroscopy or thermal ionization mass spectroscopy (TIMS). Also, while this test method covers only those isotopes listed above, the instrumental technique may be expanded to cover other long-lived radioisotopes since the preparation technique includes the preconcentration of the actinide series of elements. The resultant sample volume can be further reduced for introduction into the ICP-MS via an electrothermal vaporization (ETV) unit or other sample introduction device, even though the standard peristaltic pump introduction is applied for this test method. The sample preparatio...

  5. Spectroscopic detection and mapping of vinyl cyanide on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, Martin; Yukiko Palmer, Maureen; Lai, James; Nixon, Conor A.; Teanby, Nicholas; Charnley, Steven B.; Vuitton, Veronique; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Irwin, Patrick; Molter, Ned; Mumma, Michael J.

    2017-10-01

    The first spectroscopic detection of vinyl cyanide (otherwise known as acrylonitrile; C2H3CN) on Titan was obtained by Palmer et al. (2017), based on three rotational emission lines observed with ALMA at millimeter wavelengths (in receiver band 6). The astrobiological significance of this detection was highlighted due to the theorized ability of C2H3CN molecules to combine into cell membrane-like structures under the cold conditions found in Titan's hydrocarbon lakes. Here we report the detection of three additional C2H3CN transitions at higher frequencies (from ALMA band 7 flux calibration data). We present the first emission maps for this gas on Titan, and compare the molecular distribution with that of other nitriles observed with ALMA including HC3N, CH3CN, C2H5CN and HNC. The molecular abundance patterns are interpreted based on our understanding of Titan's high-altitude photochemistry and time-variable global circulation. Similar to the short-lived HC3N molecule, vinyl cyanide is found to be most abundant in the vicinity of the southern (winter) pole, whereas the longer-lived CH3CN is more concentrated in the north. The vertical abundance profile of C2H3CN (from radiative transfer modeling), as well as its latitudinal distribution, are consistent with a short photochemical lifetime for this species. Complementary results from our more recent (2017) nitrile mapping studies at higher spatial resolution will also be discussed.REFERENCES:Palmer, M. Y., Cordiner, M. A., Nixon, C. A. et al. "ALMA detection and astrobiological potential of vinyl cyanide on Titan", Sci. Adv. 2017, 3, e1700022

  6. TiO2 Photocatalyzed Oxidation of Free and Complex Metallic Cyanides.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valladares, J. E.; Esteghamatdarsthad, B.; Renteria, J.

    2006-07-01

    The TiO2 photo catalyzed oxidation of free cyanide and transition metal cyanide complexes often found in industrial mining wastes were studied. The photoreactor system used was a UV illuminated and stirred tank with suspended particles of TiO2. After to determine the optimization parameters such as light intensity, concentration of complex and free cyanides, in ideal conditions, the effect of the presence of different type of anions was also studied. The model substances chosen were potassium cyanide and cyanides complexes of Iron, Cobalt and Copper in a strong alkaline solution (pH = 11.0 - 12.0). The experimental results indicate that in the case of the hexaferricyanide complex Fe(CN)6 3, the reaction occur in two steps. The first step is the breakdown of the metal-cyanide bond (photo-dissociation) forming free cyanide (CN-) and Fe3+ ions. The second step is the photo-oxidation of the free cyanides formed before. The ions Fe3+ and OH- present in the alkaline solution, precipitate as iron hydroxide Fe(OH)3. During the photo-dissociation step of the iron complex, free CN- ions produced reaches a maximum concentration before it is eliminated by photo-oxidation. The free cyanide produced from the hexaferricyanide complex disappears rapidly at a velocity of 64.6 + - 5.0 ?M/min. This rate of photo-oxidation is comparable with the experiments using just alkaline solutions of potassium cyanide ('free cyanides'). In contrast, in alkaline solutions of cyanide complexes of Cu and Co the rate of photo-oxidation was substantially reduced (6.17+ - 0.80 ?M/min and 0.04 + - 0.010 ?M/min, respectively) and do not show any initial increase of free cyanides in the suspension. The slower rate of photo-oxidation suggests the formation of very stable hydroxyl-cyanide polymeric metallic complexes in the reaction mix. The photo-oxidation pathway of the nitrogen oxide products was also investigated and found that the final product consists mainly of nitrate ions. (Author)

  7. Total abdominal hysterectomy versus minimal-invasive hysterectomy: a systemic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragon Palmero, Felipe Jorge; Exposito Exposito, Moises

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. At the present time three types of hysterectomies are used: the vaginal hysterectomy and the minimal-invasive hysterectomy (MIH). The objective of present research was to compare the MIH and the total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) in women presenting with benign uterine diseases. METHODS. A systemic review was made and a meta-analysis from the following databases: MEDLINE, EBSCO HOST AND The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Only the controlled and randomized studies were selected. The data of all studies were combined and also the relative risk (RR) with a 95% CI was used with the Mantel-Haenszel method as an effect measure for dichotomy variables. For the analysis of continuing variables the mean difference was used. In all the comparisons performed the results were obtained with the fix effect and randomized forms. RESULTS. A total of 53 transoperative complications were registered in the MIH hysterectomy versus 17 in the TAH group (RR: 1,78; 95% CI: 1,04-3.05). Postoperative complications evolved in a similar way in both groups without significant differences from the statistical point of view. The blood losses, the hospital stay and the patient's reincorporation to usual and work activities were lesser in the laparoscopy group; however, the operative time is higher when it is compared with TAH (mean difference: 37,36; 95% CI: 34,36-39,93). CONCLUSIONS. Both techniques have advantages and disadvantages. The indication of MIH must to be individualized according to the clinical situation of each patient and these not to be performed in those centers without a properly trained surgical staff and with experience in advanced minimal invasive surgery. (author)

  8. Use of solvent mixtures for total lipid extraction of Chlorella vulgaris and gas chromatography FAME analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Kheibari, Narges; Ahmadzadeh, Hossein; Hosseini, Majid

    2017-09-01

    Lipid extraction is the bottleneck step for algae-based biodiesel production. Herein, 12 solvent mixture systems (mixtures of three non-polar and two polar organic solvents) were examined to evaluate their effects on the total lipid yield from Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris). Moreover, the extraction yields of three solvent systems with maximum extraction efficiency of esterifiable lipids were determined by acidic transesterification and GC-FID analysis. Three solvent systems, which resulted in a higher extraction yield, were further subjected to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. The total lipid extraction yields (based on dry biomass) were (38.57 ± 1.51), (25.33 ± 0.58), and (25.17 ± 1.14) %, for chloroform-methanol (1:2) (C1M2), hexane-methanol (1:2) (H1M2), and chloroform-methanol (2:1) (C2M1), respectively. The extraction efficiency of C1M2 was approximately 1.5 times higher than H1M2 and C2M1, whereas the FAME profile of extracted lipids by H1M2 and C1M2 were almost identical. Moreover, the esterifiable lipid extraction yields of (18.14 ± 2.60), (16.66 ± 0.35), and (13.22 ± 0.31) % (based on dry biomass) were obtained for C1M2, H1M2, and C2M1 solvent mixture systems, respectively. The biodiesel fuel properties produced from C. vulgaris were empirically predicted and compared to that of the EN 14214 and ASTM 6751 standard specifications.

  9. Radiographic evaluation of INBONE total ankle arthroplasty: a retrospective analysis of 30 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datir, Abhijit; Xing, Minzhi; Kakarala, Aparna; Terk, Michael R.; Labib, Sameh A.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to retrospectively describe the radiographic assessment of INBONE total ankle arthroplasty in 30 patients using validated linear and angular measurements and to correlate these findings with the final surgical outcome over a 2-year follow-up period. Thirty consecutive patients (21 females, nine males; mean age, 64.8 years) underwent INBONE total ankle arthroplasty during 2007-2011. After IRB approval, a retrospective pre- and post-operative radiographic analysis was performed using validated linear and angular measurements. The pre- and post-operative assessment included the tibial angle, talar angle, tibial slope, and coronal deformity. Post-operative measurements also included the talocalcaneal angle, joint space height, talar height, lateral tibial component angle, lateral talar component angle, and anteroposterior tibial component angle. The post-operative bone loss, subluxation, positioning, and subsidence were also assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using two-sample t test and Fisher's exact test. Out of 30 patients, 23 had a successful clinical outcome with intact prosthesis at a 2-year follow-up. The only variables with significant correlation (p < 0.05) to the post-surgical outcome were the lateral talar component angle (p = 0.002) and the mean difference between pre- and post-operative tibial slope (p = 0.001). The coronal deformity had significant mean difference between pre- and post-operative values (p < 0.001); however, it lacked a significant correlation to the final surgical outcome. None of the categorical variables had a significant correlation with post-surgical outcome. In our retrospective study, only the lateral talar component angle and the mean difference between the pre- and post-operative tibial slope had significant correlation with post-surgical outcome in INBONE ankle arthroplasty. These measurements may be helpful in radiographic assessment of the INBONE ankle arthroplasty. (orig.)

  10. Product analysis and initial reliability testing of the total mesorectal excision-quality assessment instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, Marko R; DeNardi, Franco G; Coates, Angela J; Szalay, David A; Eva, Kevin W

    2014-07-01

    Product analysis of rectal cancer resection specimens before specimen fixation may provide an immediate and relevant evaluation of surgical performance. We tested the interrater reliability (IRR) of a product analysis tool called the Total Mesorectal Excision-Quality Assessment Instrument (TME-QA). Participants included two gold standard raters, five pathology assistants, and eight pathologists. Domains of the TME-QA reflect total mesorectal excision principles including: (1) completeness of mesorectal margin; (2) completeness of mesorectum; (3) coning of distal mesorectum; (4) physical defects; and (5) overall specimen quality. Specimens were scored independently. We used the generalizability theory to assess the tool's internal consistency and IRR. There were 39 specimens and 120 ratings. Mean overall specimen quality scores for the gold standard raters, pathologists, and assistants were 4.43, 4.43, and 4.50, respectively (p > 0.85). IRR for the first nine items was 0.68 for the full sample, 0.62 for assistants alone, 0.63 for pathologists alone, and 0.74 for gold standard raters alone. IRR for the item overall specimen quality was 0.67 for the full sample, 0.45 for assistants, 0.80 for pathologists, and 0.86 for gold standard raters. IRR increased for all groups when scores were averaged across two raters. Assessment of surgical specimens using the TME-QA may provide rapid and relevant feedback to surgeons about their technical performance. Our results show good internal consistency and IRR when the TME-QA is used by pathologists. However, for pathology assistants, multiple ratings with the averaging of scores may be needed.

  11. Behaviour of Au(I,III) cyanides on anion exchangers in the presence of Pd compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knothe, M.

    1985-01-01

    The behaviour of low concentrations of [Au(I)(CN) 2 ] - and [Au(III)(CN) 4 ] - in the presence of [Pd(NH 3 ) 4 ](NO 3 ) 2 when adsorbed by anionites has been studied with the aid of labelled Au compounds. The adsorption rate of Au decreased with increasing ageing of the feed solution, which was due to the conversion of gold cyanides into species not capable of being adsorbed. This conversion proceeded at a considerably lower rate when the cyanides of gold had been fixed on the ionite. Au(I) cyanides were always converted at a higher rate than Au(III) cyanides. Thus, an effective separation of Au cyanides by anionites is possible only in the Au(III) system. (author)

  12. Silica nanoparticles doped with an iridium(III) complex for rapid and fluorometric detection of cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Juanjuan; Feng, Qingyue; Chen, Xiudan; Li, Jing; Wang, Huili; Li, Mei-Jin

    2015-01-01

    We describe a nanosensor for sensitive and selective detection of cyanide anions. The Ir(III) chlorine bridge complex [Ir(C N ) 2 -m-Cl] 2 (Irpq, where pq is C N = 2-phenyl quinoline) was doped into silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) with a typical size of about 30 nm. The intensity of the yellow emission of the doped SiNPs (under 410 nm exCitation) was strongly enhanced on addition of cyanide ions due to the replacement of chloride by cyanide. The method can detect cyanide ions in the 12.5 to 113 μM concentration range, and the limit of detection is 1.66 μM (at an S/N ratio of 3). The method is simple, sensitive and fast, and this makes it a candidate probe for the fast optical determination of cyanide. (author)

  13. Role of algae and higher aquatic plants in decontamination of cyanide-containing waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeeva, S.S.; Kraeva, V.Z.; Men'shikova, O.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cyanide compounds and especially free cyanides stand out among components of wastewaters of hydrometallurgy, electroforming, and other such enterprises with respect to toxicity and danger for man and fauna of water bodies. In this article data on a study of the regularities of decontamination of cyanide-containing wastewaters by hydrophytes are given, the mechanisms of this process are examined, and the results of testing the hydrobotanical method of treating wastewaters of a goldrecovery plant are examined. The experiments were carried out with hydrophytes from the Angara River, Lake Baikal, and small lakes and ponds in the vicinity of Irkutsk and Tashkent. The series of experiments established that algae and higher aquatic plants are resistant to cyanides. A table shows the kinetic parameters of the removal of cyanide by algae and higher aquatic plants collected in Baikal. Of the multitude of species investigated for detoxifying ability, the most resistant were detected in the experimental basins and the most suitable were charophytes

  14. Cyanide levels found in infected cystic fibrosis sputum inhibit airway ciliary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Chandrika; Shoemark, Amelia; Chan, Mario; Ollosson, Sarah; Dixon, Mellissa; Hogg, Claire; Alton, Eric W F W; Davies, Jane C; Williams, Huw D

    2014-11-01

    We have previously reported cyanide at concentrations of up to 150 μM in the sputum of cystic fibrosis patients infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a negative correlation with lung function. Our aim was to investigate possible mechanisms for this association, focusing on the effect of pathophysiologically relevant cyanide levels on human respiratory cell function. Ciliary beat frequency measurements were performed on nasal brushings and nasal air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures obtained from healthy volunteers and cystic fibrosis patients. Potassium cyanide decreased ciliary beat frequency in healthy nasal brushings (n = 6) after 60 min (150 μM: 47% fall, pcyanide as a key component inhibiting the ciliary beat frequency. If cyanide production similarly impairs mucocilliary clearance in vivo, it could explain the link with increased disease severity observed in cystic fibrosis patients with detectable cyanide in their airway. ©ERS 2014.

  15. Research on the compressive strength of basic magnesium salts and cyanide slag solidified body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yubo; Han, Peiwei; Ye, Shufeng; Wei, Lianqi; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Fu, Guoyan; Yu, Bo

    2018-02-01

    The solidification of cyanide slag by using basic magnesium salts could reduce pollution and protect the environment. Experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of age, mixing amount of cyanide slag, water cement ratio and molar ratio of MgO to MgSO4 on the compressive strength of basic magnesium salts and cyanide slag solidified body in the present paper. It was found that compressive strength of solidified body increased with the increase of age, and decreased with the increase of mixing amount of cyanide slag and water cement ratio. The molar ratio of MgO to MgSO4 should be controlled in the range from 9 to 11 when the mixing amount of cyanide slag was larger than 80 mass%.

  16. Ferrycyanide Safety Program cyanide speciation studies FY 1994 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Bryan, S.L.; Sell, R.L.; Thomas, L.M.P.; Lerner, B.D.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes Pacific Northwest Laboratories FY 1994 progress toward developing and implementing methods to identify and quantify cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. Currently, there are 24 high-level waste storage tanks at the the US DOE's Hanford Site that have been placed on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watch list because they contain an estimated 1000 g-moles or more of precipitated ferrocyanide. This amount of ferrocyanide is of concern because the consequences of a potential explosion may exceed those reported previously

  17. A rectangular Ni-Fe cluster with unusual cyanide bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger, Christoph; Sato, Hiroki; Matsumoto, Takuto; Shiga, Takuya; Newton, Graham N.; Renz, Franz; Oshio, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    An asymmetric polycyanide iron complex, K2[Fe III(L1)(CN)4](MeOH) (HL1 = 2,2′-(1H-pyrazole-3,5- diyl)bis-pyridine), was synthesized and its complexation compatibility with nickel ions was examined. Two kinds of enantiomeric nickel-iron squares were obtained in the presence of a chiral bidentate capping ligand. The compounds display unusual cyanide bridge geometry and have ferromagnetic interactions between nickel and iron ions. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Double Metal Cyanide Complex Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Guo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of double metal cyanide (DMC complex catalysts were prepared in two different methods by using ß-cyclodextrin, PEG-1000 and Tween-60 as an additional complex ligands respectively. It was showed that a mixture of crystalline and amorphous DMC was synthesized by using traditional method in which the additional complex ligand was added after the precipitation of DMC. Amorphous and dispersed DMC with higher activity could be obtained when the additional complex ligand was added in the reactant solution before reaction. The effect of additional complex ligand and preparation method on the crystalline state and catalytic property of DMC were also investigated.

  19. Cyanide removal by combined adsorption and biodegradation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Roshan Dash, Ch. Balomajumder, A. Kumar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the effectiveness of simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation (SAB process over individual processes by using microbes Rhizopus oryzae and Stemphylium loti with granular activated carbon (GAC as adsorbent was carried out. The maximum removal efficiency of cyanide had been achieved by biodegradation alone was 83% by R. oryzae, while it was 90% by S. loti at initial pH of 5.6 and 7.2 respectively and at initial CN- concentration of 150 mg/L. In the combined process efficiency of R. oryzae closer to S. loti (95.3% and 98.6% respectively

  20. Cyanide poisoning of a Cooper’s hawk (Accipiter cooperii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian

    2017-01-01

    A Cooper’s hawk (Accipiter cooperii) was found dead in a ditch leading from a heap leach pad at a gold mine in Nevada. Observations at autopsy included an absence of external lesions, traces of subcutaneous and coronary fat, no food in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and no lesions in the viscera. Cyanide concentrations (µg/g ww) were 5.04 in blood, 3.88 in liver, and 1.79 in brain. No bacteria or viruses were isolated from tissues, and brain cholinesterase activity was within the normal range for a Cooper’s hawk.

  1. Syntheses with isotopically labelled carbon. Methyl iodide, formaldehyde and cyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, R.D.; Boothe, T.E.; Vora, M.M.; Hildner, J.C.; Emran, A.M.; Kothari, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    Many of the uniquely labelled synthetic precursors currently employed in the design of sophisticated radiolabelled compounds have their origins in the field of hot atom chemistry. Particularly, the development during the past few years of automated, on-line synthetic procedures which combine the nuclear reaction, hot atom and classical chemistry, and rapid purification methods has allowed the incorporation of useful radionuclides into suitable compounds of chemical and biochemical interest. The application of isotopically labelled methyl iodide, formaldehyde, and cyanide anion as synthetic intermediates in research involving human physiology and nuclear medicine, as well as their contributions to other scientific methodology, is reviewed. (author)

  2. Cyanide and Amygdalin as Indicators of the Presence of Bitter Almonds in Imported Raw Almonds: CYANIDE AND AMYGDALIN AS INDICATORS OF BITTER ALMONDS

    OpenAIRE

    Toomey, Valerie M.; Nickum, Elisa A.; Flurer, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    Consumer complaints received by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in August 2010 about raw organic almonds tasting "bitter" opened an investigation into the presence of bitter almonds in the imported product. Bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus) contain the cyanogenic glucoside amygdalin, which hydrolyzes to produce cyanide. Ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry was used to detect and quantitate cyanide, and liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry was utilized to detect amygdalin in the subm...

  3. Postoperative Complications of Laparoscopic Total Gastrectomy versus Open Total Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer in a Meta-Analysis of High-Quality Case-Controlled Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikito Inokuchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Some meta-analyses of case-controlled studies (CCSs have shown that laparoscopic or laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy (LTG had some short-term advantages over open total gastrectomy (OTG. However, postoperative complications differed somewhat among the meta-analyses, and some CCSs included in the meta-analyses had mismatched factors between LTG and OTG. Methods. CCSs comparing postoperative complications between LTG and OTG were identified in PubMed and Embase. Studies matched for patients’ status, tumor stage, and the extents of lymph-node dissection were included. Outcomes of interest, such as anastomotic, other intra-abdominal, wound, and pulmonary complications, were evaluated in a meta-analysis performed using Review Manager version 5.3 software. Result. This meta-analysis included a total of 2,560 patients (LTG, 1,073 patients; OTG, 1,487 patients from 15 CCSs. Wound complications were significantly less frequent in LTG than in OTG (n = 2,430; odds ratio [OR] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29–0.85, P=0.01, I2 = 0%, and OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.17–0.52, P<0.0001, I2 = 0%. However, the incidence of anastomotic complications was slightly but not significantly higher in LTG than in OTG (n = 2,560; OR 1.44, 95% CI 0.96–2.16, P=0.08, I2 = 0%. Conclusion. LTG was associated with a lower incidence of wound-related postoperative complications than was OTG in this meta-analysis of CCSs; however, some concern remains about anastomotic problems associated with LTG.

  4. Total hip arthroplasty after a previous pelvic osteotomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, T; Yamamoto, Y; Murata, Y; Sato, T; Tsuchiya, R; Wada, Y

    2018-06-01

    There are several reports regarding total hip arthroplasty (THA) after a previous pelvic osteotomy (PO). However, to our knowledge, until now there has been no formal systematic review and meta-analysis published to summarize the clinical results of THA after a previous PO. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of results of THA after a previous PO. We focus on these questions as follows: does a previous PO affect the results of subsequent THA, such as clinical outcomes, operative time, operative blood loss, and radiological parameters. Using PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library, we searched for relevant original papers. The pooling of data was performed using RevMan software (version 5.3, Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK). A p-value50%, significant heterogeneity was assumed and a random-effects model was applied for the meta-analysis. A fixed-effects model was applied in the absence of significant heterogeneity. Eleven studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled results indicated that there was no significant difference in postoperative Merle D'Aubigne-Postel score (I 2 =0%, SMD=-0.15, 95% CI: -0.36 to 0.06, p=0.17), postoperative Harris hip score (I 2 =60%, SMD=-0.23, 95% CI: -0.50 to 0.05, p=0.10), operative time (I 2 =86%, SMD=0.37, 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.82, p=0.11), operative blood loss (I 2 =82%, SMD=0.23, 95% CI: -0.17 to 0.63, p=0.25), and cup abduction angle (I 2 =43%, SMD=-0.08, 95% CI: -0.25 to 0.09, p=0.38) between THA with and without a previous PO. However, cup anteversion angle of THA with a previous PO was significantly smaller than that of without a previous PO (I 2 =77%, SMD=-0.63, 95% CI: -1.13 to -0.13, p=0.01). Systematic review and meta-analysis of results of THA after a previous PO was performed. A previous PO did not affect the results of subsequent THA, except for cup anteversion. Because of the low quality evidence currently available, high-quality randomized controlled trials are required

  5. Packed bed reactor for degradation of simulated cyanide-containing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Virender; Kumar, Vijay; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2015-10-01

    The discharge of cyanide-containing effluents into the environment contaminates water bodies and soil. Effective methods of treatment which can detoxify cyanide are the need of the hour. The aim of the present study is to develop a bioreactor for complete degradation of cyanide using immobilized cells of Serratia marcescens RL2b. Alginate-entrapped cells of S. marcescens RL2b were used for complete degradation of cyanide in a packed bed reactor (PBR). Cells grown in minimal salt medium (pH 6.0) were harvested after 20 h and exhibited 0.4 U mg -1  dcw activity and 99 % cyanide degradation in 10 h. These resting cells were entrapped using 3 % alginate beads and packed in a column reactor (20 × 1.7 cm). Simulated cyanide (12 mmol l -1 )-containing wastewater was loaded and fractions were collected after different time intervals at various flow rates. Complete degradation of 12 m mmol l -1 (780 mg l -1 ) cyanide in 10 h was observed at a flow rate of 1.5 ml h -1 . The degradation of cyanide in PBR showed direct dependence on retention time. The retention time of cyanide in the reactor was 9.27 h. The PBR can degrade 1.2 g of cyanide completely in 1 day.

  6. Biodegradation of cyanide by acetonitrile-induced cells of Rhodococcus sp. UKMP-5M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallapan Maniyam, Maegala; Sjahrir, Fridelina; Ibrahim, Abdul Latif; Cass, Anthony E G

    2013-01-01

    A Rhodococcus sp. UKMP-5M isolate was shown to detoxify cyanide successfully, suggesting the presence of an intrinsic property in the bacterium which required no prior cyanide exposure for induction of this property. However, in order to promote growth, Rhodococcus sp. UKMP-5M was fully acclimatized to cyanide after 7 successive subcultures in 0.1 mM KCN for 30 days. To further shorten the lag phase and simultaneously increase the tolerance towards higher cyanide concentrations, the bacterium was induced with various nitrile compounds sharing a similar degradatory pathway to cyanide. Acetonitrile emerged as the most favored inducer and the induced cells were able to degrade 0.1 mM KCN almost completely within 18 h. With the addition of subsequent aliquots of 0.1 mM KCN a shorter period for complete removal of cyanide was required, which proved to be advantageous economically. Both resting cells and crude enzyme of Rhodococcus sp. UKMP-5M were able to biodegrade cyanide to ammonia and formate without the formation of formamide, implying the identification of a simple hydrolytic cyanide degradation pathway involving the enzyme cyanidase. Further verification with SDS-PAGE revealed that the molecular weight of the active enzyme was estimated to be 38 kDa, which is consistent with previously reported cyanidases. Since the recent advancement in the application of biological methods in treating cyanide-bearing wastewater has been promising, the discovery of this new bacterium will add value by diversifying the existing microbial populations capable of cyanide detoxification.

  7. Protection from cyanide-induced brain injury by the Nrf2 transcriptional activator carnosic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongxian; Lee, Brian; Nutter, Anthony; Song, Paul; Dolatabadi, Nima; Parker, James; Sanz-Blasco, Sara; Newmeyer, Traci; Ambasudhan, Rajesh; McKercher, Scott R; Masliah, Eliezer; Lipton, Stuart A

    2015-06-01

    Cyanide is a life-threatening, bioterrorist agent, preventing cellular respiration by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cardiopulmonary failure, hypoxic brain injury, and death within minutes. However, even after treatment with various antidotes to protect cytochrome oxidase, cyanide intoxication in humans can induce a delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Additional mechanisms are thought to underlie cyanide-induced neuronal damage, including generation of reactive oxygen species. This may account for the fact that antioxidants prevent some aspects of cyanide-induced neuronal damage. Here, as a potential preemptive countermeasure against a bioterrorist attack with cyanide, we tested the CNS protective effect of carnosic acid (CA), a pro-electrophilic compound found in the herb rosemary. CA crosses the blood-brain barrier to up-regulate endogenous antioxidant enzymes via activation of the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway. We demonstrate that CA exerts neuroprotective effects on cyanide-induced brain damage in cultured rodent and human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons in vitro, and in vivo in various brain areas of a non-Swiss albino mouse model of cyanide poisoning that simulates damage observed in the human brain. Cyanide, a potential bioterrorist agent, can produce a chronic delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Here, cyanide poisoning treated with the proelectrophillic compound carnosic acid, results in reduced neuronal cell death in both in vitro and in vivo models through activation of the Nrf2/ARE transcriptional pathway. Carnosic acid is therefore a potential treatment for the toxic central nervous system (CNS) effects of cyanide poisoning. ARE, antioxidant responsive element; Nrf2 (NFE2L2, Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2). © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  8. Comparative analysis of pain in patients who underwent total knee replacement regarding the tourniquet pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos George de Souza Leão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVES: To evaluate through the visual analog scale (VAS the pain in patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR with different pressures of the pneumatic tourniquet. METHODS: An observational, randomized, descriptive study on an analytical basis, with 60 patients who underwent TKR, divided into two groups, which were matched: a group where TKR was performed with tourniquet pressures of 350 mmHg (standard and the other with systolic blood pressure plus 100 mmHg (P + 100. These patients had their pain assessed by VAS at 48 h, and at the 5th and 15th days after procedure. Secondarily, the following were also measured: range of motion (ROM, complications, and blood drainage volume in each group; the data were subjected to statistical analysis. RESULTS: After data analysis, there was no statistical difference regarding the incidence of complications (p = 0.612, ROM (p = 0.202, bleeding after 24 and 48 h (p = 0.432 and p = 0.254 or in relation to VAS. No correlation was observed between time of ischemia compared to VAS and bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the pneumatic tourniquet pressure at 350 mmHg or systolic blood pressure plus 100 mmHg did not influence the pain, blood loss, ROM, and complications. Therefore the pressures at these levels are safe and do not change the surgery outcomes; the time of ischemia must be closely observed to avoid major complications.

  9. Analysis of thin-film polymers using attenuated total internal reflection-Raman microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Willie; Tisinger, Louis G; Lavalle, Luis E; Sommer, André J

    2015-01-01

    Two methods commonly employed for molecular surface analysis and thin-film analysis of microscopic areas are attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) microspectroscopy and confocal Raman microspectroscopy. In the former method, the depth of the evanescent probe beam can be controlled by the wavelength of light, the angle of incidence, or the refractive index of the internal reflection element. Because the penetration depth is proportional to the wavelength of light, one could interrogate a smaller film thickness by moving from the mid-infrared region to the visible region employing Raman spectroscopy. The investigation of ATR Raman microspectroscopy, a largely unexplored technique available to Raman microspectroscopy, was carried out. A Renishaw inVia Raman microscope was externally modified and used in conjunction with a solid immersion lens (SIL) to perform ATR Raman experiments. Thin-film polymer samples were analyzed to explore the theoretical sampling depth for experiments conducted without the SIL, with the SIL, and with the SIL using evanescent excitation. The feasibility of micro-ATR Raman was examined by collecting ATR spectra from films whose thickness measured from 200 to 60 nm. Films of these thicknesses were present on a much thicker substrate, and features from the underlying substrate did not become visible until the thin film reached a thickness of 68 nm.

  10. Gait analysis, bone and muscle density assessment for patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Magnússon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Total hip arthroplasty (THA is performed with or without the use of bone cement. Facing the lack of reliable clinical guidelines on decision making whether a patient should receive THA with or without bone cement, a joint clinical and engineering approach is proposed here with the objective to assess patient recovery developing monitoring techniques based on gait analysis, measurements of bone mineral density and structural and functional changes of quadriceps muscles. A clinical trial was conducted with 36 volunteer patients that were undergoing THA surgery for the first time: 18 receiving cemented implant and 18 receiving non-cemented implant. The patients are scanned with Computer Tomographic (CT modality prior-, immediately- and 12 months post-surgery. The CT data are further processed to segment muscles and bones for calculating bone mineral density (BMD. Quadriceps muscle density Hounsfield (HU based value is calculated from the segmented file on healthy and operated leg before and after THA surgery. Furthermore clinical assessment is performed using gait analysis technologies such as a sensing carpet, wireless electrodes and video. Patients undergo these measurements prior-, 6 weeks post - and 52 weeks post-surgery. The preliminary results indicate computational tools and methods that are able to quantitatively analyze patient’s condition pre and post-surgery: The spatial parameters such as step length and stride length increase 6 weeks post op in the patient group receiving cemented implant while the angle in the toe in/out parameter decrease in both patient groups.

  11. Quick detection and quantification of iron-cyanide complexes using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut-Lohmann, Magdalena; Raab, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    The continuous release of persistent iron-cyanide (Fe-CN) complexes from various industrial sources poses a high hazard to the environment and indicates the necessity to analyze a considerable amount of samples. Conventional flow injection analysis (FIA) is a time and cost consuming method for cyanide (CN) determination. Thus, a rapid and economic alternative needs to be developed to quantify the Fe-CN complexes. 52 soil samples were collected at a former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site in order to determine the feasibility of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Soil analysis revealed CN concentrations in a range from 8 to 14.809 mg kg -1 , where 97% was in the solid form (Fe 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3 ), which is characterized by a single symmetrical CN band in the range 2092-2084 cm -1 . The partial least squares (PLS) calibration-validation model revealed IR response to CN tot which exceeds 2306 mg kg -1 (limit of detection, LOD). Leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO-CV) was performed on soil samples, which contained low CN tot ( 900 mg kg -1 resulted in LOD equal to 3751 mg kg -1 . It was found that FTIR spectroscopy provides the information concerning different CN species in the soil samples. Additionally, it is suitable for quantifying Fe-CN species in matrixes with CN tot  > 154 mg kg -1 . Thus, FTIR spectroscopy, in combination with the statistical approach applied here seems to be a feasible and quick method for screening of contaminated sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Orientational diffusion of n-alkyl cyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xiang; Farrer, Richard A; Zhong Qin; Fourkas, John T

    2005-01-01

    Ultrafast optical Kerr effect spectroscopy has been used to study the temperature-dependent orientational dynamics of a series of nitriles with n-alkyl chains ranging from one to 11 carbons in length. In all cases the orientational diffusion is found to be described by a single-exponential decay. Analysis of the orientational correlation times using the Debye-Stokes-Einstein equation suggests that the molecules adopt extended configurations and reorient as rigid rods. The liquids with shorter alkyl chains undergo an apparent ordering transition as they are cooled

  13. Targeting for energy efficiency and improved energy collaboration between different companies using total site analysis (TSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackl, Roman; Andersson, Eva; Harvey, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Rising fuel prices, increasing costs associated with emissions of green house gases and the threat of global warming make efficient use of energy more and more important. Industrial clusters have the potential to significantly increase energy efficiency by energy collaboration. In this paper Sweden's largest chemical cluster is analysed using the total site analysis (TSA) method. TSA delivers targets for the amount of utility consumed and generated through excess energy recovery by the different processes. The method enables investigation of opportunities to deliver waste heat from one process to another using a common utility system. The cluster consists of 5 chemical companies producing a variety of products, including polyethylene (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), amines, ethylene, oxygen/nitrogen and plasticisers. The companies already work together by exchanging material streams. In this study the potential for energy collaboration is analysed in order to reach an industrial symbiosis. The overall heating and cooling demands of the site are around 442 MW and 953 MW, respectively. 122 MW of heat is produced in boilers and delivered to the processes. TSA is used to stepwise design a site-wide utility system which improves energy efficiency. It is shown that heat recovery in the cluster can be increased by 129 MW, i.e. the current utility demand could be completely eliminated and further 7 MW excess steam can be made available. The proposed retrofitted utility system involves the introduction of a site-wide hot water circuit, increased recovery of low pressure steam and shifting of heating steam pressure to lower levels in a number heat exchangers when possible. Qualitative evaluation of the suggested measures shows that 60 MW of the savings potential could to be achieved with moderate changes to the process utility system corresponding to 50% of the heat produced from purchased fuel in the boilers of the cluster. Further analysis showed that after implementation

  14. Abstracts of the 8th Conference on total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis and related methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wobrauschek, P.

    2000-01-01

    The 8. conference on total reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis and related methods held from 25.9 to 29.9.2000 contains 79 abstracts about x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRFA) as a powerful tool used for industrial production, geological prospecting and for environmental control. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is also a tool used for chemical analysis in medicine, industry and research. (E.B.)

  15. Total protein analysis as a reliable loading control for quantitative fluorescent Western blotting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L Eaton

    that normalisation using total protein analysis on samples run in parallel with stains such as Coomassie blue provides a more robust approach.

  16. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometers for multielemental analysis: status of commercial equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala Jimenez, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Multi-elemental analysis by total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectrometry has evolved during two decades. At the present there are commercial equipment available for the chemical analysis in all kind of biological and mineral samples. The electronic industry has also been benefited from the scientific and technological developments in the field of TXRF. The basic components of the spectrometers can be summarized as follow: a) excitation source; b) geometric arrangement (optics) for collimation and monochromatization of the primary radiation; c) x-ray detector; d) hardware and software for operation of the instrument, data acquisition and spectral deconvolution to determine the concentrations of the element present in the sample (quantitative analysis). As optional there are manufacturers offering the conventional 45 degrees geometry for direct excitation of bulky liquid or solid samples. Personal communications of the author and the commercial brochures available at the moment of writing this presentation have allowed to list the following type of components used in the TXRF spectrometers for multi-elemental analysis (the devices used in the electronic industry to analyze silicon wafers are excluded). Excitation: high power x-ray tube, output from 1300 to 2000 watts; metal ceramic low power-ray tube, output up to 50 watts. Different anodes are used but molybdenum, tungsten and copper are frequent. The excitation systems can be customized according to the requirements of the laboratory. Detector: Si-Li semi-conductor liquid nitrogen cooled; silicon solid state thermoelectrically cooled (silicon drift detector SDD and Si-PIN diode). Optics: multilayer monochromator of Si-W or Ni-C; double multilayer monochromator. Electronics: spectroscopy amplifier, analog to digital converter adapted to a PC compatible computer with software in Windows environment for the whole operation of the spectrometer and for qualy/quantitative analysis of samples are standards in the

  17. Efficiency and cost analysis of cell saver auto transfusion system in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Mustafa Gökhan; Erçin, Ersin; Peker, Gökhan; Kural, Cemal; Başaran, Serdar Hakan; Duramaz, Altuğ; Avkan, Cevdet

    2014-06-01

    Blood loss and replacement is still a controversial issue in major orthopaedic surgery. Allogenic blood transfusion may cause legal problems and concerns regarding the transmission of transfusion-related diseases. Cellsaver Systems (CSS) were developed as an alternative to allogenic transfusion but CSS transfusion may cause coagulation, infection and haemodynamic instability. Our aim was to analyse the efficiency and cost analysis of a cell saver auto-transfusion system in the total knee arthroplasty procedure. Retrospective comparative study. Those patients who were operated on by unilateral, cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were retrospectively evaluated. Group 1 included 37 patients who were treated using the cell saver system, and Group 2 involved 39 patients who were treated by allogenic blood transfusion. The groups were compared in terms of preoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels, blood loss and transfusion amount, whether allogenic transfusion was made, degree of deformity, body mass index and cost. No significant results could be obtained in the statistical comparisons made in terms of the demographic properties, deformity properties, preoperative laboratory values, transfusion amount and length of hospital stay of the groups. Average blood loss was calculated to be less in Group 1 (pblood transfusion and costs more. Therefore, the routine usage of the auto-transfusion systems is a controversial issue. Cell saver system usage does not affect allogenic blood transfusion incidence or allogenic blood transfusion volume. It was found that preoperative haemoglobin and body mass index rates may affect allogenic blood transfusion. Therefore, it is foreseen that auto-transfusion systems could be useful in patients with low haemoglobin level and body mass index.

  18. Efficiency and Cost Analysis of Cell Saver Auto Transfusion System in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Gökhan Bilgili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood loss and replacement is still a controversial issue in major orthopaedic surgery. Allogenic blood transfusion may cause legal problems and concerns regarding the transmission of transfusion-related diseases. Cellsaver Systems (CSS were developed as an alternative to allogenic transfusion but CSS transfusion may cause coagulation, infection and haemodynamic instability. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the efficiency and cost analysis of a cell saver auto-transfusion system in the total knee arthroplasty procedure. Study Design: Retrospective comparative study. Methods: Those patients who were operated on by unilateral, cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA were retrospectively evaluated. Group 1 included 37 patients who were treated using the cell saver system, and Group 2 involved 39 patients who were treated by allogenic blood transfusion. The groups were compared in terms of preoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels, blood loss and transfusion amount, whether allogenic transfusion was made, degree of deformity, body mass index and cost. Results: No significant results could be obtained in the statistical comparisons made in terms of the demographic properties, deformity properties, preoperative laboratory values, transfusion amount and length of hospital stay of the groups. Average blood loss was calculated to be less in Group 1 (p<0.05 and cost was higher in Group 1 (p<0.05. Conclusion: Cell saver systems do not decrease the amount of allogenic blood transfusion and costs more. Therefore, the routine usage of the auto-transfusion systems is a controversial issue. Cell saver system usage does not affect allogenic blood transfusion incidence or allogenic blood transfusion volume. It was found that preoperative haemoglobin and body mass index rates may affect allogenic blood transfusion. Therefore, it is foreseen that auto-transfusion systems could be useful in patients with low haemoglobin level and body mass index.

  19. Analysis of factors influencing return to work after total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszczyńska, Aleksandra; Rąpała, Kazimierz; Tarnowski, Adam; Kucharczyk, Wojciech

    2013-10-31

    BACKGROUND. Patients who undergo total hip arthroplasty (THA) find it difficult to return to work. OBJECTIVES. Analysis of factors influencing return to work after THA. Assessment of patients' quality of life and its impact on their attitude to work. MATERIAL AND METHODS. We studied patients operated on for degenerative hip disease at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery of Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education in Otwock between 2007 and 2012. The total number of the patients was 400; however, we chose only those patients who were younger than 65 and still in employment. The study population consisted of 54 of these patients. The mean patient age was 55.89 (±7.424). There were 29 men (57.3%) and 25 women (46.3%). RESULTS. 32 patients (59.3%) returned to work. There was a statistically significant difference regarding the attitude to work and return to work. An overwhelming majority of the patients who returned to work--31 out of 32 (96.6%)--liked their jobs. The 12 patients (22.22%) who did not return to work declared their intention to apply for a disability pension. The patients who returned to work assessed their physical health as better than the patients who did not return to work. CONCLUSIONS. 1. 40.7% of patients after THA did not return to preoperative employment. The reasons for not returning were not medical, because elimination of pain and an increased range of motion made return to work possible. 2. The perception of the quality of physical and psychological health among patients with THA who returned to work was significantly better than among those who did not return.

  20. When is it safe to resume driving after total hip and total knee arthroplasty? a meta-analysis of literature on post-operative brake reaction times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, C A; Tolk, J J; Janssen, R P A; Reijman, M

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the current available evidence about when patients might resume driving after elective, primary total hip (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) undertaken for osteoarthritis (OA). In February 2016, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, PubMed Publisher, CINAHL, EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for clinical studies reporting on 'THA', 'TKA', 'car driving', 'reaction time' and 'brake response time'. Two researchers (CAV and JJT) independently screened the titles and abstracts for eligibility and assessed the risk of bias. Both fixed and random effects were used to pool data and calculate mean differences (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between pre- and post-operative total brake response time (TBRT). A total of 19 studies were included. The assessment of the risk of bias showed that one study was at high risk, six studies at moderate risk and 12 studies at low risk. Meta-analysis of TBRT showed a MD decrease of 25.54 ms (95% CI -32.02 to 83.09) two weeks after right-sided THA, and of 18.19 ms (95% CI -6.13 to 42.50) four weeks after a right-sided TKA, when compared with the pre-operative value. The TBRT returned to baseline two weeks after a right-sided THA and four weeks after a right-sided TKA. These results may serve as guidelines for orthopaedic surgeons when advising patients when to resume driving. However, the advice should be individualised. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:566-76. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  1. Cross section data for ionization of important cyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi centre spherical complex optical potential formalism used to find the CS. • Effective method (CSP-ic) to derive ionization contribution from inelastic CS. • Result shows excellent accord with previous results and consistent behaviour. • Maiden attempt to find CS for many cyanide molecules. • Strong correlation observed between peak of ionization with target properties. - Abstract: This article presents cross section calculations for interactions of important cyanides with electrons possessing energies beginning from ionization threshold of the target molecule to 5 keV. These data are pursued to meet the ever increasing demand for cross sections by the relevant atomic and molecular community for modelling astrophysical, atmospheric and technological domains. The calculations have been executed using an amalgam of multi centre spherical complex optical potential (MSCOP) formalism and complex scattering potential-ionization contribution (CSP-ic) method. Cross sections are compared with experimental and theoretical data wherever available. Strong correlations are observed for the cross sections which affirms consistent and reliable cross sections. Isomeric effect has been interpreted using variation of cross section with structure and target properties. Our cross sections will be tabulated in atomic collision database for use in modelling various statistical and dynamical quantities.

  2. Ferrocyanide safety program cyanide speciation studies FY 1993 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Bryan, S.L.; Sell, R.L.; Thomas, L.M.P.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) FY 1993 progress toward developing and implementing methods to identify and quantify cyanide species in ferrocyanide tank waste. Currently, there are 24 high-level waste storage tanks at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site that have been placed on a Ferrocyanide Tank Watchlist because they contain an estimated 1000 g-moles or more of precipitated ferrocyanide. This amount of ferrocyanide is of concern because the consequences of a potential explosion may exceed those reported previously in safety analyses. To bound the safety concern, methods are needed to definitively measure and quantitate the amount of ferrocyanides present within actual waste tanks to a lower limit of at least 0.1 wt % up to approximately 15 wt %. The target analyte concentration for cyanide in waste is approximately 0.1 to 15 wt % (as CN) in the original undiluted sample. After dissolution of the original sample and appropriate dilutions, the concentration range of interest in the analytical solutions can vary between 0.001 to 0.1 wt % (as CN)

  3. Treatment of cyanide containing wastewater using cavitation based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawale, Rajashree H; Gogate, Parag R; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2014-07-01

    Industrial wastewater streams containing high concentrations of biorefractory materials like cyanides should ideally be treated at source. In the present work, degradation of potassium ferrocyanide (K4Fe(CN)6) as a model pollutant has been investigated using cavitational reactors with possible intensification studies using different approaches. Effect of different operating parameters such as initial concentration, temperature and pH on the extent of degradation using acoustic cavitation has been investigated. For the case of hydrodynamic cavitation, flow characteristics of cavitating device (venturi) have been established initially followed by the effect of inlet pressure and pH on the extent of degradation. Under the optimized set of operating parameters, the addition of hydrogen peroxide (ratio of K4Fe(CN)6:H2O2 varied from 1:1 to 1:30 mol basis) as process intensifying approach has been investigated. The present work has conclusively established that under the set of optimized operating parameters, cavitation can be effectively used for degradation of potassium ferrocyanide. The comparative study of hydrodynamic cavitation and acoustic cavitation suggested that hydrodynamic cavitation is more energy efficient and gives higher degradation as compared to acoustic cavitation for equivalent power/energy dissipation. The present work is the first one to report comparison of cavitation based treatment schemes for degradation of cyanide containing wastewaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cross section data for ionization of important cyanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Multi centre spherical complex optical potential formalism used to find the CS. • Effective method (CSP-ic) to derive ionization contribution from inelastic CS. • Result shows excellent accord with previous results and consistent behaviour. • Maiden attempt to find CS for many cyanide molecules. • Strong correlation observed between peak of ionization with target properties. - Abstract: This article presents cross section calculations for interactions of important cyanides with electrons possessing energies beginning from ionization threshold of the target molecule to 5 keV. These data are pursued to meet the ever increasing demand for cross sections by the relevant atomic and molecular community for modelling astrophysical, atmospheric and technological domains. The calculations have been executed using an amalgam of multi centre spherical complex optical potential (MSCOP) formalism and complex scattering potential-ionization contribution (CSP-ic) method. Cross sections are compared with experimental and theoretical data wherever available. Strong correlations are observed for the cross sections which affirms consistent and reliable cross sections. Isomeric effect has been interpreted using variation of cross section with structure and target properties. Our cross sections will be tabulated in atomic collision database for use in modelling various statistical and dynamical quantities.

  5. Application of AOPs for Removal of Stable Cyanide Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsybikova, B.

    2017-11-01

    The main kinetic regularities of the photochemical oxidation of stable cyanide compounds (exemplified by hexacyanoferrates) by combined treatments involving direct photolysis and persulfate (oxidative system UV/S2O8 2-) and direct photolysis and hydrogen peroxide (oxidative system UV/H2O2) were studied. The possibility to perform oxidation processes within a wide pH range was shown. Based on to the energy efficiency, the rate of reaction and duration of the treatment, the considered oxidative systems can be arranged in the following order: {UV/S2O8 2-}>{UV/H2O2}>{UV}. The enhanced efficiency of hexacyanoferrates’ degradation by the combined system {UV/S2O8 2-} is due to the high oxidative capacity of sulfate anion radicals SO4 -· formed as a result of persulfate photolysis and its further disproportionation by Fe3+ and Fe2+ released through the decomposition of [Fe(CN)6]3-. Furthermore, the formation of ·OH radicals as a result of SO4 -· reacting with water also contributes to the enhanced oxidation efficiency. The combined method of {UV/S2O8 2-} treatment could be applied for the treatment of cyanide-containing wastewater and recycled water of different industries.

  6. Characterization and treatment of cyanide in MGP purifier wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theis, T.L. [Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Purifier wastes were generated from the clean-up gaseous impurities, principally hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide, contained in raw gas from MGP operations through retention by iron oxide solids. These materials were generated at a rate of about 10-20 kg/1000 m{sup 3} of gas produced, and although regeneration was sometimes practised, eventual disposal as fill material, usually on site, was eventually necessary. The remediation of MGP sites generally requires that the disposition of these waste solids be addressed. The effective treatment of purifier wastes presents special problems due to the acid-base properties of the material, its elevated sulfur content, and the significant quantities of carbon both added as wood shavings and present as compounds generated as a result of gas manufacture. In broad terms, treatment approaches can be divided into two classes, those aimed at destroying the cyanide and objectionable carbon compounds and otherwise disposing of the residual, and those which attempt to isolate the waste from its surroundings. The latter approach attempts to take advantage of the natural insolubility of most of the constituents of concern found in purifier wastes, while destructive technologies limit potential liability. 9 refs.

  7. The mode of occurrence of gold and silver in the Dominian Reef and their response to cyanidation after pressure leading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatthaar, C.W.; Feather, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Gold and silver in the Upper Reef of the Dominion Group in the Afrikander Lease area occur in several minerals. Native gold, electrum, and amalgam are the main gold bearers, whereas silver, in addition to being present in the above alloys, is also represented by native silver, in mercurian silver (arquerite), acanthite, stromeyerite, and a bismuth-silver sulphide (schaba-chite or pavionite), and in solid solution in galena. Only minute quantities of these silver-bearing minerals were found, and attempts to evaluate their relative abundances in the ore proved to be difficult. It was possible, however, by use of an electron microprobe, to quantify the silver contents in electrum, amalgam, mercurian silver, and galena. Mass-balance studies based on the calculated galena content suggest that about half of the total silver is associated with galena in solid solution. In practice, the uranium present in the conglomerates of the Dominion Group is extracted first. Because of the refractory nature of the uranium-bearing minerals, a leach at high temperature and high pressure is recommended. While this pressure leach is beneficial to the subsequent cyanidation of gold, a large proportion of the silver present is rendered refractory. The poor recoveries of silver are believed to be due close association of silver and galena. It is believed that silver is released during the dissolution of galena, acanthite, other silver sulphides, and native silver, and subsequently precipitated either as an insoluble complex silver-iron sulphate (argentojarosite) or in solid solution in jarosite (potassium-iron sulphate). Neither compound is amenable to cyanidation. A mixture of plumbojarosite (lead-iron sulphate) and jarosite were seen to form protective coatings on galena particles, and may occlude other silver-bearing minerals in the same manner. In contrast, finely divided gold particles are liberated from pyrite and other minerals during pressure leaching and become readily available to

  8. Choice of implant combinations in total hip replacement: systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, José A; Humphriss, Rachel L; Beswick, Andrew D; Thom, Howard H Z; Hunt, Linda P; Burston, Amanda; Fawsitt, Christopher G; Hollingworth, William; Higgins, Julian P T; Welton, Nicky J; Blom, Ashley W; Marques, Elsa M R

    2017-11-02

    Objective  To compare the survival of different implant combinations for primary total hip replacement (THR). Design  Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Data sources  Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and the EU Clinical Trials Register. Review methods  Published randomised controlled trials comparing different implant combinations. Implant combinations were defined by bearing surface materials (metal-on-polyethylene, ceramic-on-polyethylene, ceramic-on-ceramic, or metal-on-metal), head size (large ≥36 mm or small meta-analysis for revision. There was no evidence that the risk of revision surgery was reduced by other implant combinations compared with the reference implant combination. Although estimates are imprecise, metal-on-metal, small head, cemented implants (hazard ratio 4.4, 95% credible interval 1.6 to 16.6) and resurfacing (12.1, 2.1 to 120.3) increase the risk of revision at 0-2 years after primary THR compared with the reference implant combination. Similar results were observed for the 2-10 years period. 31 studies (2888 patients) were included in the analysis of Harris hip score. No implant combination had a better score than the reference implant combination. Conclusions  Newer implant combinations were not found to be better than the reference implant combination (metal-on-polyethylene (not highly cross linked), small head, cemented) in terms of risk of revision surgery or Harris hip score. Metal-on-metal, small head, cemented implants and resurfacing increased the risk of revision surgery compared with the reference implant combination. The results were consistent with observational evidence and were replicated in sensitivity analysis but were limited by poor reporting across studies. Systematic review registration  PROSPERO CRD42015019435. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  9. METHYL CYANIDE OBSERVATIONS TOWARD MASSIVE PROTOSTARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosero, V.; Hofner, P. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia 58090 (Mexico); Bieging, J. [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Araya, E. D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    We report the results of a survey in the CH{sub 3}CN J = 12 {yields} 11 transition toward a sample of massive proto-stellar candidates. The observations were carried out with the 10 m Submillimeter Telescope on Mount Graham, AZ. We detected this molecular line in 9 out of 21 observed sources. In six cases this is the first detection of this transition. We also obtained full beam sampled cross-scans for five sources which show that the lower K-components can be extended on the arcminute angular scale. The higher K-components, however, are always found to be compact with respect to our 36'' beam. A Boltzmann population diagram analysis of the central spectra indicates CH{sub 3}CN column densities of about 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}, and rotational temperatures above 50 K, which confirms these sources as hot molecular cores. Independent fits to line velocity and width for the individual K-components resulted in the detection of an increasing blueshift with increasing line excitation for four sources. Comparison with mid-infrared (mid-IR) images from the SPITZER GLIMPSE/IRAC archive for six sources show that the CH{sub 3}CN emission is generally coincident with a bright mid-IR source. Our data clearly show that the CH{sub 3}CN J = 12 {yields} 11 transition is a good probe of the hot molecular gas near massive protostars, and provide the basis for future interferometric studies.

  10. Physiotherapy rehabilitation after total knee or hip replacement: an evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this health technology policy analysis was to determine, where, how, and when physiotherapy services are best delivered to optimize functional outcomes for patients after they undergo primary (first-time) total hip replacement or total knee replacement, and to determine the Ontario-specific economic impact of the best delivery strategy. The objectives of the systematic review were as follows: To determine the effectiveness of inpatient physiotherapy after discharge from an acute care hospital compared with outpatient physiotherapy delivered in either a clinic-based or home-based setting for primary total joint replacement patientsTo determine the effectiveness of outpatient physiotherapy delivered by a physiotherapist in either a clinic-based or home-based setting in addition to a home exercise program compared with a home exercise program alone for primary total joint replacement patientsTo determine the effectiveness of preoperative exercise for people who are scheduled to receive primary total knee or hip replacement surgery Total hip replacements and total knee replacements are among the most commonly performed surgical procedures in Ontario. Physiotherapy rehabilitation after first-time total hip or knee replacement surgery is accepted as the standard and essential treatment. The aim is to maximize a person's functionality and independence and minimize complications such as hip dislocation (for hip replacements), wound infection, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism. THE THERAPY: The physiotherapy rehabilitation routine has 4 components: therapeutic exercise, transfer training, gait training, and instruction in the activities of daily living. Physiotherapy rehabilitation for people who have had total joint replacement surgery varies in where, how, and when it is delivered. In Ontario, after discharge from an acute care hospital, people who have had a primary total knee or hip replacement may receive inpatient or outpatient

  11. A meta-analysis of clinical outcome in patients with total intestinal aganglionosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ruttenstock, Elke

    2012-02-01

    Total intestinal aganglionosis (TIA) is the most extreme and rare form of Hirschsprung disease (HD). Until few years ago TIA was considered to be a uniformly fatal condition. Survival has improved in the recent years with the advent of parenteral nutrition, innovative surgical techniques and small bowel transplantation. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the clinical outcome of TIA following various surgical procedures. A meta-analysis of cases of TIA reported in the literature between 1985 and 2009 was performed. Detailed information was recorded regarding the extent of aganglionosis, surgical procedures performed and clinical outcome. In case of survivors, authors of reports were contacted to obtain the up-to-date clinical status of the patient. There were 68 cases of TIA reported worldwide, 40 (58.8%) males and 28 (41.2%) females. 6 (8.8%) patients had extension of aganglionosis up to the stomach, 19 (27.9%) up to the duodenum and 43 (63.2%) patients had aganglionosis up to 20 cm below the duodeno-jejunal flexure. Family history of HD was documented in 10 (14.7%) patients. RET-gene mutation were identified in 10 (71.4%) of the 14 patients investigated of RET germline mutations. Eleven patients (16.2%) died prior to surgical treatment, 25 patients (36.8%) only had jejunostomy, while 20 (29.4%) had Ziegler\\'s myectomy-myotomy. 12 (17.6%) patients received intestinal transplantation (ITx) or combined liver-intestinal transplantation (LITx). Forty-five (66.2%) patients died at ages ranging from 1 day to 8 years. Twenty-three (33.8%) patients were alive; the longest survivor was 10 years old after LITx. Innovative surgical procedures and parenteral nutrition have improved clinical outcome of patients with TIA in recent years. Intestinal transplantation appears promising in the management of TIA.

  12. Long-term trend analysis on total and extreme precipitation over Shasta Dam watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toride, Kinya; Cawthorne, Dylan L; Ishida, Kei; Kavvas, M Levent; Anderson, Michael L

    2018-06-01

    California's interconnected water system is one of the most advanced water management systems in the world, and understanding of long-term trends in atmospheric and hydrologic behavior has increasingly being seen as vital to its future well-being. Knowledge of such trends is hampered by the lack of long-period observation data and the uncertainty surrounding future projections of atmospheric models. This study examines historical precipitation trends over the Shasta Dam watershed (SDW), which lies upstream of one of the most important components of California's water system, Shasta Dam, using a dynamical downscaling methodology that can produce atmospheric data at fine time-space scales. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is employed to reconstruct 159years of long-term hourly precipitation data at 3km spatial resolution over SDW using the 20th Century Reanalysis Version 2c dataset. Trend analysis on this data indicates a significant increase in total precipitation as well as a growing intensity of extreme events such as 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72-hour storms over the period of 1851 to 2010. The turning point of the increasing trend and no significant trend periods is found to be 1940 for annual precipitation and the period of 1950 to 1960 for extreme precipitation using the sequential Mann-Kendall test. Based on these analysis, we find the trends at the regional scale do not necessarily apply to the watershed-scale. The sharp increase in the variability of annual precipitation since 1970s is also detected, which implies an increase in the occurrence of extreme wet and dry conditions. These results inform long-term planning decisions regarding the future of Shasta Dam and California's water system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gross total resection of pituitary adenomas after endoscopic vs. microscopic transsphenoidal surgery: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Reem D; Muskens, Ivo S; Cote, David J; Dijkman, Mark D; Kavouridis, Vasileios K; Crocker, Erin; Ghazawi, Kholoud; Broekman, Marike L D; Smith, Timothy R; Mekary, Rania A; Zaidi, Hasan A

    2018-05-01

    Microscopic transsphenoidal surgery (mTSS) is a well-established method to address adenomas of the pituitary gland. Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (eTSS) has become a viable alternative, however. Advocates suggest that the greater illumination, panoramic visualization, and angled endoscopic views afforded by eTSS may allow for higher rates of gross total tumor resection (GTR). The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the rate of GTR using mTSS and eTSS. A meta-analysis of the literature was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through July 2017 in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Seventy case series that reported GTR rate in 8257 pituitary adenoma patients were identified. For all pituitary adenomas, eTSS (GTR=74.0%; I 2  = 92.1%) was associated with higher GTR as compared to mTSS (GTR=66.4%; I 2  = 84.0%) in a fixed-effect model (P-interaction  0.05). No significant publication bias was identified for any of the outcomes. Among patients who were not randomly allocated to either approach, eTSS resulted in a higher rate of GTR as compared to mTSS for all patients and for NFPA patients alone, but only in a fixed-effect model. For FPA, however, eTSS did not seem to offer a significantly higher rate of GTR. These conclusions should be interpreted with caution because of the nature of the included non-comparative studies.

  14. Risk factors for deep infection after total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Cui, Yunying; Li, Xin; Miao, Xiangwan; Wen, Zhanpeng; Xue, Yan; Tian, Jing

    2013-05-01

    Estimated the risk factors for postoperative infection after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to prevent its occurrence. The meta-analysis collected twelve cohorts or case-control studies which included 548 infected persons in 57,223 general cases. Review Manager 5.0 was operated to assess the heterogeneity and to give an overall estimate of the association of factors with postoperative infection after TKA. The main factors distinctly associated with infection after TKA were BMI (BMI >30: OR = 2.53, 95 % CI 1.25, 5.13; BMI >40: OR = 4.00, 95 % CI 1.23, 12.98), diabetes mellitus (OR = 3.72, 95 % CI 2.30, 6.01), hypertension (OR = 2.53, 95 % CI 1.07, 5.99), steroid therapy (OR = 2.04, 95 % CI 1.11, 3.74), and rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 1.83; 95 % CI 1.42, 2.36). It had no sufficient evidences to reveal that gender could lead to infection after TKA. Osteoarthritis appeared to have a moderately protective effect. Statistical analysis revealed no correlation between urinary tract infection, fixation method, ASA, bilateral operation, age, transfusion, antibiotics, bone graft, and infection. There were positive evidences for some certain factors which could be targeted for prevention of the onset of infection, but more studies are needed to define the association of some other controversial factors in infection, like osteoarthritis, gender and so on. The quality of studies also needs to be improved.

  15. Predictors of persistent pain after total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G N; Rice, D A; McNair, P J; Kluger, M

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have identified clinical, psychosocial, patient characteristic, and perioperative variables that are associated with persistent postsurgical pain; however, the relative effect of these variables has yet to be quantified. The aim of the study was to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of predictor variables associated with persistent pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Included studies were required to measure predictor variables prior to or at the time of surgery, include a pain outcome measure at least 3 months post-TKA, and include a statistical analysis of the effect of the predictor variable(s) on the outcome measure. Counts were undertaken of the number of times each predictor was analysed and the number of times it was found to have a significant relationship with persistent pain. Separate meta-analyses were performed to determine the effect size of each predictor on persistent pain. Outcomes from studies implementing uni- and multivariable statistical models were analysed separately. Thirty-two studies involving almost 30 000 patients were included in the review. Preoperative pain was the predictor that most commonly demonstrated a significant relationship with persistent pain across uni- and multivariable analyses. In the meta-analyses of data from univariate models, the largest effect sizes were found for: other pain sites, catastrophizing, and depression. For data from multivariate models, significant effects were evident for: catastrophizing, preoperative pain, mental health, and comorbidities. Catastrophizing, mental health, preoperative knee pain, and pain at other sites are the strongest independent predictors of persistent pain after TKA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Advantages and Challenges of Dried Blood Spot Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Across the Total Testing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Rosita; Allen, Katrina J.; Koplin, Jennifer J.; Roche, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Through the introduction of advanced analytical techniques and improved throughput, the scope of dried blood spot testing utilising mass spectrometric methods, has broadly expanded. Clinicians and researchers have become very enthusiastic about the potential applications of dried blood spot based mass spectrometric applications. Analysts on the other hand face challenges of sensitivity, reproducibility and overall accuracy of dried blood spot quantification. In this review, we aim to bring together these two facets to discuss the advantages and current challenges of non-newborn screening applications of dried blood spot quantification by mass spectrometry. Methods To address these aims we performed a key word search of the PubMed and MEDLINE online databases in conjunction with individual manual searches to gather information. Keywords for the initial search included; “blood spot” and “mass spectrometry”; while excluding “newborn”; and “neonate”. In addition, databases were restricted to English language and human specific. There was no time period limit applied. Results As a result of these selection criteria, 194 references were identified for review. For presentation, this information is divided into: 1) clinical applications; and 2) analytical considerations across the total testing process; being pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical considerations. Conclusions DBS analysis using MS applications is now broadly applied, with drug monitoring for both therapeutic and toxicological analysis being the most extensively reported. Several parameters can affect the accuracy of DBS measurement and further bridge experiments are required to develop adjustment rules for comparability between dried blood spot measures and the equivalent serum/plasma values. Likewise, the establishment of independent reference intervals for dried blood spot sample matrix is required. PMID:28149263

  17. Inhibitory effect of cyanide on nitrification process and its eliminating method in a suspended activated sludge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuanyuan; Jin, Xibiao; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Yongdi; Chen, Xiurong

    2014-02-01

    Inhibition of nitrification by four typical pollutants (acrylonitrile, acrylic acid, acetonitrile and cyanide) in acrylonitrile wastewater was investigated. The inhibitory effect of cyanide on nitrification was strongest, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.218 mg·gVSS-1 being observed in a municipal activated sludge system. However, the performance of nitrification was recovered when cyanide was completely degraded. The nitrification, which had been inhibited by 4.17 mg·gVSS-1 of free cyanide for 24 h, was recovered to greater than 95% of that without cyanide after 10 days of recovery. To overcome cyanide inhibition, cyanide-degrading bacteria were cultivated in a batch reactor by increasing the influent cyanide concentration in a stepwise manner, which resulted in an increase in the average cyanide degradation rate from 0.14 to 1.01 mg CN-·gVSS-1·h-1 over 20 days. The cultured cyanide-degrading bacteria were shaped like short rods, and the dominant cyanide-degrading bacteria strain was identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens NCIMB by PCR.

  18. Blood management in total hip replacement: an analysis of factors associated with allogenic blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Samuel; Tang, Howard; de Steiger, Richard

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to audit the blood transfusion practice throughout the Epworth Healthcare Hospitals for patients undergoing primary total hip replacement (THR). We determined if blood-saving techniques were having an impact on the risk of allogenic blood transfusion and which patients were at risk of receiving allogenic blood transfusion. This study uses a retrospective audit of 787 patients who had undergone primary THR surgery at three Melbourne hospitals: Epworth Richmond, Epworth Eastern and Epworth Freemasons in 2010. Patient demographics, transfusion requirements and blood-conserving techniques were recorded. One hundred and eighty (23%) patients received allogenic blood transfusion and 18 (2.3%) patients received autologous blood transfusion. On multivariate analysis, preoperative anaemia (odds ratio (OR) 4.7, P blood transfusion. Use of spinal anaesthetic was found to be associated with lower risk of transfusion (OR 0.6, P = 0.0180) compared with general anaesthetic alone. Cell saver, acute normovolaemic haemodilution and re-infusion drain tube usage did not have a significant impact on reducing the risk of allogenic blood transfusion. Identification of patients at risk of blood transfusion, correction of preoperative anaemia and a restrictive transfusion policy are important factors to consider in effective perioperative blood management. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  19. An Analysis of Total Phosphorus Dispersion in Lake Used As a Municipal Water Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rômulo C; Mesquita, André L A; Blanco, Claudio J C; Santos, Maria de Lourdes S; Secretan, Yves

    2015-09-01

    In Belém city is located the potable water supply system of its metropolitan area, which includes, in addition to this city, four more municipalities. In this water supply complex is the Água Preta lake, which serves as a reservoir for the water pumped from the Guamá river. Due to the great importance of this lake for this system, several works have been devoted to its study, from the monitoring of the quality of its waters to its hydrodynamic modeling. This paper presents the results obtained by computer simulation of the phosphorus dispersion within this reservoir by the numerical solution of two-dimensional equation of advection-diffusion-reaction by the method θ/SUPG. Comparing these results with data concentration of total phosphorus collected from November 2008 to October 2009 and from satellite photos show that the biggest polluters of the water of this lake are the domestic sewage dumps from the population living in its vicinity. The results obtained indicate the need for more information for more precise quantitative analysis. However, they show that the phosphorus brought by the Guamá river water is consumed in an area adjacent to the canal that carries this water into the lake. Phosphorus deposits in the lake bottom should be monitored to verify their behavior, thus preventing the quality of water maintained therein.

  20. Mapping the total electron content over Malaysia using Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahari, S.; Abdullah, M.; Bouya, Z.; Musa, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    The ionosphere over Malaysia is unique because of her location which is in close proximity to the geomagnetic equator and is in the equatorial regions. In this region, the magnetic field is horizontally oriented from south to north and field aligned direction is in the meridional plane (ExB) which becomes the source of equatorial ionospheric anomaly occurrence such as plasma bubble, fountain effects and others. Until today, there is no model that has been developed over Malaysia to study the ionosphere. Due to that, the main objective of this paper is to develop a new technique for mapping the total electron content (TEC) from GPS measurements. Data by myRTKnet network of GPS receiver over Malaysia were used in this study. A new methodology, based on modified spherical cap harmonic analysis (SCHA), was developed to estimate diurnal vertical TEC over the region using GPS observations. The SCHA model is based on longitudinal expansion in Fourier series and fractional Legendre co-latitudinal functions over a spherical cap-like region. The TEC map with spatial resolution of 0.15 ° x 0.15 ° in latitude and longitude with the time resolution of 30 seconds are derived. TEC maps from the SCHA model were compared with the global ionospheric map and other regional models. Result shows that during low solar activity, SCHA model had a better mapping with the accuracy of less than 1 TECU compared to other regional models.